WorldWideScience

Sample records for ah1n1 influenza virus

  1. Outcomes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were...

  2. Antibody response of healthy children to pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito Susanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the proportion of pediatric pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza cases who showed seroconversion, the magnitude of this seroconversion, or the factors that can affect the antibody level evoked by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Aims of this study were to analyse antibody responses and the factors associated with high antibody titres in a cohort of children with naturally acquired A/H1N1/2009 influenza infection confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Demographic, clinical and virologic data were collected from 69 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza (27 females, mean age ± SD: 5.01 ± 4.55 years. Their antibody levels against pandemic A/H1N1/2009 and seasonal A/H1N1 influenza viruses were evaluated by measuring hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies using standard assays. Sixty-four patients (92.8% with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza had A/H1N1/2009 antibody levels of ≥40, whereas only 28/69 (40.6% were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus. Those who were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 virus were significantly older, significantly more often hospitalised, had a diagnosis of pneumonia significantly more frequently, and were significantly more often treated with oseltamivir than those who were not seroprotected (p Conclusions Otherwise healthy children seem to show seroprotective antibody titres after natural infection with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus. The strength of the immune response seems to be related to the severity of the disease, but not to previous seasonal A/H1N1 influenza immunity.

  3. Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëlle, Pierre‐Yves; Ansart, Séverine; Cori, Anne; Valleron, Alain‐Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Boëlle P‐Y et al. (2011) Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 306–316. Background  The new influenza virus A/H1N1 (2009), identified in mid‐2009, rapidly spread over the world. Estimating the transmissibility of this new virus was a public health priority. Methods  We reviewed all studies presenting estimates of the serial interval or generation time and the reproduction number of the A/H1N1 (2009) virus infection. Results  Thirteen studies documented the serial interval from household or close‐contact studies, with overall mean 3 days (95% CI: 2·4, 3·6); taking into account tertiary transmission reduced this estimate to 2·6 days. Model‐based estimates were more variable, from 1·9 to 6 days. Twenty‐four studies reported reproduction numbers for community‐based epidemics at the town or country level. The range was 1·2–3·1, with larger estimates reported at the beginning of the pandemic. Accounting for under‐reporting in the early period of the pandemic and limiting variation because of the choice of the generation time interval, the reproduction number was between 1·2 and 2·3 with median 1·5. Discussion  The serial interval of A/H1N1 (2009) flu was typically short, with mean value similar to the seasonal flu. The estimates of the reproduction number were more variable. Compared with past influenza pandemics, the median reproduction number was similar (1968) or slightly smaller (1889, 1918, 1957). PMID:21668690

  4. Generation and Characterization of Recombinant Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses Resistant to Neuraminidase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzorno, Andrés; Bouhy, Xavier; Abed, Yacine; Boivin, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Background. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) play a key role in the management of influenza epidemics and pandemics. Given the novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) virus and the restricted number of approved anti-influenza drugs, evaluation of potential drug-resistant variants is of high priority.

  5. [Advances in the structure and function of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus HA protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Qiang; Song, Shao-Xia; Wang, Tong-Zhan

    2012-06-01

    Since March 2009, pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus has been spreading throughout many countries including China. The emerged virus caused great harm to human health and social economy. Hemagglutinin (HA) is the most important viral surface glycoprotein, mainly possessing three kinds of functions: (1) binding to host cell receptor, (2) triggering the fusion between viral envelop and target cell membrane, (3) stimulating the body to generate the neutralizing antibody. Advances in the structure, primary function, evolution and antigenicity of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus HA protein are reviewed in this paper. PMID:22978172

  6. Influenza A(H1N1) oseltamivir resistant viruses in the Netherlands during the winter 2007/2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.; Jonges, M.; Beek, R. van; Donker, G.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Koopmans, M.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Boucher, C.A.B.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F.; Meijer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antiviral susceptibility surveillance in the Netherlands was intensified after the first reports about the emergence of influenza A(H1N1) oseltamivir resistant viruses in Norway in January, 2008. Methods: Within the existing influenza surveillance an additional questionnaire study was pe

  7. Seroprevalence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Antibody, England, 2010 and 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Hoschler, K; C. Thompson; Andrews, N.; Galiano, M; Pebody, R; Ellis, J.; Stanford, E; Baguelin, M.; Miller, E.; Zambon, M

    2012-01-01

    The intense influenza activity in England during the 2010-11 winter resulted from a combination of factors. Population-based seroepidemiology confirms that the third wave of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulation was associated with a shift in age groups affected, with the highest rate of infection in young adults.

  8. Seroprevalence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus antibody, England, 2010 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoschler, Katja; Thompson, Catherine; Andrews, Nick; Galiano, Monica; Pebody, Richard; Ellis, Joanna; Stanford, Elaine; Baguelin, Marc; Miller, Elizabeth; Zambon, Maria

    2012-11-01

    The intense influenza activity in England during the 2010-11 winter resulted from a combination of factors. Population-based seroepidemiology confirms that the third wave of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulation was associated with a shift in age groups affected, with the highest rate of infection in young adults. PMID:23092684

  9. Natural A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus infection case in a pet ferret in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Wang, Ching-Ho; Wu, Wen-Ling; Chi, Chau-Hwa; Wang, Lih Chiann

    2014-11-01

    Ferrets have demonstrated high susceptibility to the influenza virus. This study discusses a natural 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (A(H1N1)pdm09) virus infection in a pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo) identified in Taiwan in 2013. The ferret was in close contact with family members who had recently experienced an influenza-like illness (ILI). The ferret nasal swab showed positive results for influenza A virus using one-step RT-PCR. The virus was isolated and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that all of the eight segmented genes were closely related to the human A(H1N1)pdm09 virus linage isolated in Taiwan. This study may provide a perspective view on natural influenza A virus transmission from the local human population into pet ferrets. PMID:25597188

  10. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa de; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié da; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses' epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará.

  11. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa de; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié da; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses' epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará. PMID:27598244

  12. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan in 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Bashir Aamir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early 2009, a novel influenza A(H1N1 virus that emerged in Mexico and United States rapidly disseminated worldwide. The spread of this virus caused considerable morbidity with over 18000 recorded deaths. The new virus was found to be a reassortant containing gene segments from human, avian and swine influenza viruses. METHODS/RESULTS: The first case of human infection with A(H1N1pdm09 in Pakistan was detected on 18(th June 2009. Since then, 262 laboratory-confirmed cases have been detected during various outbreaks with 29 deaths (as of 31(st August 2010. The peak of the epidemic was observed in December with over 51% of total respiratory cases positive for influenza. Representative isolates from Pakistan viruses were sequenced and analyzed antigenically. Sequence analysis of genes coding for surface glycoproteins HA and NA showed high degree of high levels of sequence identity with corresponding genes of regional viruses circulating South East Asia. All tested viruses were sensitive to Oseltamivir in the Neuraminidase Inhibition assays. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan form a homogenous group of viruses. Their HA genes belong to clade 7 and show antigenic profile similar to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. These isolates do not show any amino acid changes indicative of high pathogenicity and virulence. It is imperative to continue monitoring of these viruses for identification of potential variants of high virulence or drug resistance.

  13. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; de Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; da Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses’ epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará. PMID:27598244

  14. Oseltamivir-resistant pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses detected through enhanced surveillance in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Adam; Jonges, Marcel; Abbink, Floor; Ang, Wim; van Beek, Janko; Beersma, Matthias; Bloembergen, Peter; Boucher, Charles; Claas, Eric; Donker, Ge; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Rianne; Isken, Leslie; Kroes, Aloys; Leenders, Sander; van der Lubben, Mariken; Mascini, Ellen; Niesters, Bert; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Osterhaus, Albert; Riesmeijer, Rob; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Schutten, Martin; Sebens, Fre; Stelma, Foekje; Swaan, Corien; Timen, Aura; van 't Veen, Annemarie; van der Vries, Erhard; Wierik, Margreet Te; Koopmans, Marion; de Jong, A

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced surveillance of infections due to the pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus, which included monitoring for antiviral resistance, was carried out in the Netherlands from late April 2009 through late May 2010. More than 1100 instances of infection with the pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus from 200

  15. Genetic makeup of amantadine-resistant and oseltamivir-resistant human influenza A/H1N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraket, Hassan; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Yasushi; Baranovich, Tatiana; Dapat, Clyde; Caperig-Dapat, Isolde; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    The emergence and widespread occurrence of antiviral drug-resistant seasonal human influenza A viruses, especially oseltamivir-resistant A/H1N1 virus, are major concerns. To understand the genetic background of antiviral drug-resistant A/H1N1 viruses, we performed full genome sequencing of prepandemic A/H1N1 strains. Seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses, including antiviral-susceptible viruses, amantadine-resistant viruses, and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, obtained from several areas in Japan during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons were analyzed. Sequencing of the full genomes of these viruses was performed, and the phylogenetic relationships among the sequences of each individual genome segment were inferred. Reference genome sequences from the Influenza Virus Resource database were included to determine the closest ancestor for each segment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the oseltamivir-resistant strain evolved from a reassortant oseltamivir-susceptible strain (clade 2B) which circulated in the 2007-2008 season by acquiring the H275Y resistance-conferring mutation in the NA gene. The oseltamivir-resistant lineage (corresponding to the Northern European resistant lineage) represented 100% of the H1N1 isolates from the 2008-2009 season and further acquired at least one mutation in each of the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes. Therefore, a reassortment event involving two distinct oseltamivir-susceptible lineages, followed by the H275Y substitution in the NA gene and other mutations elsewhere in the genome, contributed to the emergence of the oseltamivir-resistant lineage. In contrast, amantadine-resistant viruses from the 2007-2008 season distinctly clustered in clade 2C and were characterized by extensive amino acid substitutions across their genomes, suggesting that a fitness gap among its genetic components might have driven these mutations to maintain it in the

  16. Viral shedding in children infected by pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossali Emilio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate viral shedding in otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in order to define how long children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza shed the virus, and also plan adequate measures to control the spread of the disease within households. Findings In 74 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza, nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for virus detection upon hospital admission and every two days until negative. The nasopharyngeal swabs of all of the children were positive for pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus in the first three days after the onset of infection, and only 21.6% and 13.5% remained positive after respectively 11 and 15 days. No child was positive after more than 15 days. Viral load also decreased over time, and was not associated with patient age or the risk of pneumonia. Those who shed the virus for ≥ 9 days were not at any increased risk of suffering from more severe disease in comparison with those who shed the virus for a shorter time, but their households experienced a significantly higher number of influenza-like illness during the two weeks after the onset of the initial disease (72.3% vs 41.4%; p Conclusions Regardless of their age, healthy children can shed pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus for up to two weeks after illness onset, and the households of the children who shed the virus for ≥ 9 days suffered a higher number of influenza-like illness in the two weeks following the onset of the first disease. This could suggest that when a completely unknown influenza virus is circulating, isolation period of infected children has to be longer than the 7 days recommended for the infections due to seasonal influenza viruses.

  17. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza. PMID:2066386

  18. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza.

  19. Top leads for swine influenza A/H1N1 virus revealed by steered molecular dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Binh Khanh; Viet, Man Hoang; Li, Mai Suan

    2010-12-27

    Since March 2009, the rapid spread of infection during the recent A/H1N1 swine flu pandemic has raised concerns of a far more dangerous outcome should this virus become resistant to current drug therapies. Currently oseltamivir (tamiflu) is intensively used for the treatment of influenza and is reported effective for 2009 A/H1N1 virus. However, as this virus is evolving fast, some drug-resistant strains are emerging. Therefore, it is critical to seek alternative treatments and identify roots of the drug resistance. In this paper, we use the steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach to estimate the binding affinity of ligands to the glycoprotein neuraminidase. Our idea is based on the hypothesis that the larger is the force needed to unbind a ligand from a receptor the higher its binding affinity. Using all-atom models with Gromos force field 43a1 and explicit water, we have studied the binding ability of 32 ligands to glycoprotein neuraminidase from swine flu virus A/H1N1. The electrostatic interaction is shown to play a more important role in binding affinity than the van der Waals one. We have found that four ligands 141562, 5069, 46080, and 117079 from the NSC set are the most promising candidates to cope with this virus, while peramivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir are ranked 8, 11, and 20. The observation that these four ligands are better than existing commercial drugs has been also confirmed by our results on the binding free energies obtained by the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. Our prediction may be useful for the therapeutic application. PMID:21090736

  20. Enhanced Pneumonia With Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in the major swine producing regions of North America consist of multiple subtypes of endemic H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (1). Genetic drift and r...

  1. Effect of human rhinovirus infection in pediatric patients with influenza-like illness on the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu; Zhu Ru'nan; Zhao Linqing; Deng Jie; Wang Fang; Ding Yaxin; Yuan Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background Some research groups have hypothesized that human rhinoviruses (HRVs) delayed the circulation of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) at the beginning of Autumn 2009 in France.This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between HRV and A(H1N1)pdm09 in pediatric patients with influenza-like illness in Beijing,China.Methods A systematic analysis to detect A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza A virus (FLU A) was performed on 4 349 clinical samples from pediatric patients with influenza-like illness during the period June 1,2009 to February 28,2010,while a one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was used to detect HRV in 1 146 clinical specimens selected from those 4 349 specimens.Results During the survey period,only one wave of A(H1N1)pdm09 was observed.The percentage of positive cases for A(H1N1)pdm09 increased sharply in September with a peak in November 2009 and then declined in February 2010.Data on the monthly distribution of HRVs indicated that more HRV-positive samples were detected in September (2.2%) and October (3.3%),revealing that the peak of HRV infection in 2009 was similar to that of other years.Among the 1 146 specimens examined for HRVs,21 (1.8%) were HRV-positive,which was significantly lower than that reported previously in Beijing (15.4% to 19.2%) (P <0.01).Overall,6 samples were positive for both A(H1N1)pdm09 and HRV,which represented a positive relative frequency of 1.60% and 2.08% HRV,considering the A(H1N1)pdm09-positive and-negative specimens,respectively.The odds ratio was 0.87 (95% CI 0.32; 2.44,P=0.80).Conclusions HRVs and A (H1N1)pdm09 co-circulated in this Chinese population during September and October 2009,and the HRV epidemic in 2009 did not affect A(H1N1)pdm09 infection rates in Beijing,China as suggested by other studies.However,the presence of A(H1N1)pdm09 might explain the unexpected reduction in the percentage of HRV positive cases during the period studied.

  2. Los virus Influenza y la nueva pandemia A/H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Talledo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los virus Influenza pertenecen a la familia Orthomyxoviridae, virus con genoma RNA de sentido negativo segmentado. Los virus influenza tipo A infectan a humanos y otros organismos, y son los agentes causantes de influenza en humanos. Resaltan entre sus principales proteínas la Hemaglutinina y la Neuraminidasa, que son utilizadas en la clasificación de los miembros de este grupo. Estos virus mutan continuamente, exhibiendo patrones muy estudiados, como el cambio y la deriva antigénica, siendo uno de los principales eventos de recombinación el reordenamiento. Todos los subtipos se encuentran en aves acuáticas silvestres, aunque se han encontrado otros hospederos, como equinos, visones, ballenas, focas, cerdos, gallinas y pavos, entre otros. Tanto las aves salvajes, las aves domésticas y el cerdo juegan un rol fundamental en la adaptación progresiva del virus al hospedero humano. Aunque los subtipos H2N2 y H3N2 han sido muy comunes, el subtipo H1N1 ha reemergido con mutaciones que le han permitido alcanzar el estado de pandemia en 2009. Este nuevo virus surge de un virus generado por triple reordenamiento con el virus humano, porcino norteamericano y aviar, conteniendo a su vez segmentos génicos de virus influenza porcina euroasiática. Esto ha hecho que el virus presente una enfermedad humana moderada y solamente severa y hasta letal en casos de individuos con condiciones médicas previas. A nivel mundial ha causado más de 134,510 casos y en el Perú alcanza cerca de 3,700 casos. El estado actual indica que la pandemia está por llegar a su pico máximo en el Perú, debido a la alta morbilidad del virus coincidente con la estación más fría del año. Es importante contener al máximo la dispersión del virus, ya que cuanto mayor sea el número de personas que infecte, el mismo estará sometido a un mayor número de eventos de recombinación genética por reordenamiento con virus influenza humanos previos y esto puede condicionar a la

  3. A preliminary analysis of the epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1)v virus infection in Thailand from early outbreak data, June-July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, U C; Warachit, J; Waicharoen, S; Chittaganpitch, M

    2009-08-01

    As the influenza A(H1N1)v pandemic unfolds globally, it is vital to monitor closely for signals of change in the current patterns of transmission. We estimate the basic reproduction ratio for A(H1N1)v virus in Thailand and propose a method to keep track of the actual case count notwithstanding the exponential growth rate. PMID:19660247

  4. The association between serum biomarkers and disease outcome in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davey, Richard T; Lynfield, Ruth; Dwyer, Dominic E;

    2013-01-01

    Prospective studies establishing the temporal relationship between the degree of inflammation and human influenza disease progression are scarce. To assess predictors of disease progression among patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, 25 inflammatory biomarkers measured at enrollment were...

  5. Preparing the outbreak assistance laboratory network in the Netherlands for the detection of the influenza virus A(H1N1) variant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Beerens, A.; Claas, E.; Hermans, M.; Jong, A. de; Molenkamp, R.; Niesters, H.; Overduin, P.; Rossen, J.; Schuurman, R.; Wolffs, P.; Fouchier, R.; Osterhaus, A.; Schutten, M.; Koopmans, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Late April 2009, human infection with variant influenza virus A(H1N1)v emerged in the Northern Americas posing a threat that this virus may become the next pandemic influenza virus. OBJECTIVES: To prepare laboratories for surge capacity for molecular diagnosis of patients suspected for A

  6. Preparing the outbreak assistance laboratory network in the Netherlands for the detection of the influenza virus A(H1N1) variant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Adam; Beerens, Antoine; Claas, Eric; Hermans, Mirjam; de Jong, Arjan; Molenkamp, Richard; Niesters, Hubert; Overduin, Pieter; Rossen, John; Schuurman, Rob; Wolffs, Petra; Fouchier, Ron; Osterhaus, Albert; Schutten, Martin; Koopmans, Marion

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Late April 2009, human infection with variant influenza virus A(H1N1)v emerged in the Northern Americas posing a threat that this virus may become the next pandemic influenza virus. OBJECTIVES: To prepare laboratories for surge capacity for molecular diagnosis of patients suspected for A

  7. Preparing the outbreak assistance laboratory network in the Netherlands for the detection of the influenza virus A(H1N1) variant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Meijer; A. Beerens; E. Claas; M. Hermans; A. de Jong; R. Molenkamp; H. Niesters; P. Overduin; J. Rossen; R. Schuurman; P. Wolffs; R. Fouchier; A. Osterhaus; M. Schutten; M. Koopmans

    2009-01-01

    Background: Late April 2009, human infection with variant influenza virus A(H1N1)v emerged in the Northern Americas posing a threat that this virus may become the next pandemic influenza virus. Objectives: To prepare laboratories for surge capacity for molecular diagnosis of patients suspected for A

  8. Influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus - experience of the clinical microbiology laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lucia Chenal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009, a new variant of influenza A/H1N1 virus that had never been isolated before, was identified. From April 27 to December 31, 2009 the respiratory samples of 974 patients, obtained from suspected cases of pandemic influenza A virus infection, were analyzed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan. The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 infection was performed initially through the use of different molecular biological methods: Seeplex® RV12 ACE Detection (Seegene, NUCLISENS® EASYQ® INFLUENZA A/B (bioMérieux, Influenza A/B Q-PCR Alert (Nanogen running in parallel with rRT-PCR (CDC to confirm the positivity to the new influenza virus, then was used a single specific test, Fast set H1N1v (Arrow Diagnostics. Retrospective study of data showed that 293 (30.1% patients were positive for the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus and 8 (0.8% for influenza A other than H1N1 virus.The distribution of influenza A/H1N1 cases showed two peaks, one on July (62.9% and the other one on October (36%, moreover we observed that 155 patients (53% out of 293 positive for influenza A/H1N1 virus aged under 20 years old. The first positivity peak was found in travelers and the second one, occurred 2-3 months prior to the classic seasonal epidemic influenza, was attributed to autochthonous cases , by which the virus had spread worldwide. The highest proportion of cases were among subjects aged from 0 to 20 years and, over this age the positivity rate decreased proportionally with increasing age, in agreement with data reported in other countries.

  9. Point of care strategy for rapid diagnosis of novel A/H1N1 influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nougairede

    Full Text Available Within months of the emergence of the novel A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nA/H1N1v, systematic screening for the surveillance of the pandemic was abandoned in France and in some other countries. At the end of June 2009, we implemented, for the public hospitals of Marseille, a Point Of Care (POC strategy for rapid diagnosis of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus, in order to maintain local surveillance and to evaluate locally the kinetics of the pandemic.Two POC laboratories, located in strategic places, were organized to receive and test samples 24 h/24. POC strategy consisted of receiving and processing naso-pharyngeal specimens in preparation for the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and real-time RT-PCR assay (rtRT-PCR. This strategy had the theoretical capacity of processing up to 36 samples per 24 h. When the flow of samples was too high, the rtRT-PCR test was abandoned in the POC laboratories and transferred to the core virology laboratory. Confirmatory diagnosis was performed in the core virology laboratory twice a day using two distinct rtRT-PCR techniques that detect either influenza A virus or nA/N1N1v. Over a period of three months, 1974 samples were received in the POC laboratories, of which 111 were positive for nA/H1N1v. Specificity and sensitivity of RIDT were 100%, and 57.7% respectively. Positive results obtained using RIDT were transmitted to clinical practitioners in less than 2 hours. POC processed rtRT-PCR results were available within 7 hours, and rtRT-PCR confirmation within 24 hours.The POC strategy is of benefit, in all cases (with or without rtRT-PCR assay, because it provides continuous reception/processing of samples and reduction of the time to provide consolidated results to the clinical practitioners. We believe that implementation of the POC strategy for the largest number of suspect cases may improve the quality of patient care and our knowledge of the epidemiology of the pandemic.

  10. Continued emergence and changing epidemiology of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus, United Kingdom, winter 2010/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackenby, A; Moran Gilad, J; Pebody, R; Miah, S; Calatayud, L; Bolotin, S; Vipond, I; Muir, P; Guiver, M; McMenamin, J; Reynolds, A; Moore, C; Gunson, R; Thompson, C; Galiano, M; Bermingham, A; Ellis, J; Zambon, M

    2011-01-01

    During the winter period 2010/11 27 epidemiologically unlinked, confirmed cases of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus infection have been detected in multiple, geographically dispersed settings. Three of these cases were in community settings, with no known exposure to oseltamivir. This suggests possible onward transmission of resistant strains and could be an indication of a possibility of changing epidemiology of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus. PMID:21315056

  11. Clinical importance and impact on the households of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus in healthy children in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito Susanna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A resistance of A/H1N1 influenza viruses to oseltamivir has recently emerged in a number of countries. However, the clinical and socioeconomic importance of this resistance has not been precisely defined. As children have the highest incidence of influenza infection and are at high risk of severe disease, the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical importance and the impact on the households of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus in an otherwise healthy pediatric population. A total of 4,726 healthy children younger than 15 years with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza viruses by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 in Italy. The influenza A virus-positive samples underwent neuraminidase gene analysis using pyrosequencing to identify mutations H275Y and N294 S in A/H1N1, and E119V, R292K, and N294 S in A/H3N2. Among the A/H1N1 subtypes, the H275Y mutation was found in 2/126 samples taken in 2007-2008 (1.6% and in all 17 samples (100%; p

  12. PD-L1 Expression Induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1 Virus Impairs the Human T Cell Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriban Valero-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1pdm09, and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1pdm09 by promoting CD8+ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8+ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1pdm09 virus.

  13. PD-L1 expression induced by the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus impairs the human T cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Pacheco, Nuriban; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Mora-Velandia, Luz María; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Isibasi, Armando; Bonifaz, Laura; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1)pdm09 by promoting CD8⁺ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8⁺ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.

  14. PD-L1 Expression Induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Impairs the Human T Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Mora-Velandia, Luz María; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Isibasi, Armando; Bonifaz, Laura; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1)pdm09 by promoting CD8+ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8+ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. PMID:24187568

  15. One-step detection of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus by the RT-SmartAmp assay and its clinical validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, a pandemic (pdm influenza A(H1N1 virus infection quickly circulated globally resulting in about 18,000 deaths around the world. In Japan, infected patients accounted for 16% of the total population. The possibility of human-to-human transmission of highly pathogenic novel influenza viruses is becoming a fear for human health and society. METHODOLOGY: To address the clinical need for rapid diagnosis, we have developed a new method, the "RT-SmartAmp assay", to rapidly detect the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus from patient swab samples. The RT-SmartAmp assay comprises both reverse transcriptase (RT and isothermal DNA amplification reactions in one step, where RNA extraction and PCR reaction are not required. We used an exciton-controlled hybridization-sensitive fluorescent primer to specifically detect the HA segment of the 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1 virus within 40 minutes without cross-reacting with the seasonal A(H1N1, A(H3N2, or B-type (Victoria viruses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated the RT-SmartAmp method in clinical research carried out in Japan during a pandemic period of October 2009 to January 2010. A total of 255 swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness at three hospitals and eleven clinics located in the Tokyo and Chiba areas in Japan. The 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1 virus was detected by the RT-SmartAmp assay, and the detection results were subsequently compared with data of current influenza diagnostic tests (lateral flow immuno-chromatographic tests and viral genome sequence analysis. In conclusion, by the RT-SmartAmp assay we could detect the 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1 virus in patients' swab samples even in early stages after the initial onset of influenza symptoms. Thus, the RT-SmartAmp assay is considered to provide a simple and practical tool to rapidly detect the 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1 virus.

  16. Influenza virus A(H1N1)2009 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in young children prior to the H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Annelies W; Westerhuis, Brenda M; Ten Hulscher, Hinke I; Jacobi, Ronald H; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Josine; Buisman, Annemarie M; Koopmans, Marion P; van Binnendijk, Robert S

    2016-09-01

    Pre-existing immunity played a significant role in protection during the latest influenza A virus H1N1 pandemic, especially in older age groups. Structural similarities were found between A(H1N1)2009 and older H1N1 virus strains to which humans had already been exposed. Broadly cross-reactive antibodies capable of neutralizing the A(H1N1)2009 virus have been implicated in this immune protection in adults. We investigated the serological profile of a group of young children aged 9 years (n=55), from whom paired blood samples were available, just prior to the pandemic wave (March 2009) and shortly thereafter (March 2010). On the basis of A(H1N1)2009 seroconversion, 27 of the 55 children (49 %) were confirmed to be infected between these two time points. Within the non-infected group of 28 children (51 %), high levels of seasonal antibodies to H1 and H3 HA1 antigens were detected prior to pandemic exposure, reflecting past infection with H1N1 and H3N2, both of which had circulated in The Netherlands prior to the pandemic. In some children, this reactivity coincided with specific antibody reactivity against A(H1N1)2009. While these antibodies were not able to neutralize the A(H1N1)2009 virus, they were able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro upon interaction with the A(H1N1)2009 virus. This finding suggests that cross-reactive antibodies could contribute to immune protection in children via ADCC.

  17. Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachara, George; Symekher, Samuel; Otieno, Michael; Magana, Japheth; Opot, Benjamin; Bulimo, Wallace

    2016-06-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9×10(-3) substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the UK and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability.

  18. Antigenic and genomic characterization of human influenza A and B viruses circulating in Argentina after the introduction of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mara L; Pontoriero, Andrea V; Benedetti, Estefania; Czech, Andrea; Avaro, Martin; Periolo, Natalia; Campos, Ana M; Savy, Vilma L; Baumeister, Elsa G

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Argentinean Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses Surveillance Network, in the context of the Global Influenza Surveillance carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective was to study the activity and the antigenic and genomic characteristics of circulating viruses for three consecutive seasons (2010, 2011 and 2012) in order to investigate the emergence of influenza viral variants. During the study period, influenza virus circulation was detected from January to December. Influenza A and B, and all current subtypes of human influenza viruses, were present each year. Throughout the 2010 post-pandemic season, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, unexpectedly, almost disappeared. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses studied were segregated in a different genetic group to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses were the predominant strains circulating during the 2011 season, accounting for nearly 76 % of influenza viruses identified. That year, all HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses tested fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade, but remained antigenically related to A/Perth/16/2009 (reference vaccine recommended for this three-year period). A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2012 were antigenically closely related to A/Victoria/361/2011, recommended by the WHO as the H3 component for the 2013 Southern Hemisphere formulation. B viruses belonging to the B/Victoria lineage circulated in 2010. A mixed circulation of viral variants of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected in 2012, with the former being predominant. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses remained antigenically closely related to the vaccine virus A/California/7/2009; A(H3N2) viruses continually evolved into new antigenic clusters and both B lineages, B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses, were observed

  19. Molecular epidemiology of A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 influenza virus during a single epidemic season in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha I Nelson

    Full Text Available To determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of influenza A virus during a single epidemic, we examined whole-genome sequences of 284 A/H1N1 and 69 A/H3N2 viruses collected across the continental United States during the 2006-2007 influenza season, representing the largest study of its kind undertaken to date. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that multiple clades of both A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 entered and co-circulated in the United States during this season, even in localities that are distant from major metropolitan areas, and with no clear pattern of spatial spread. In addition, co-circulating clades of the same subtype exchanged genome segments through reassortment, producing both a minor clade of A/H3N2 viruses that appears to have re-acquired sensitivity to the adamantane class of antiviral drugs, as well as a likely antigenically distinct A/H1N1 clade that became globally dominant following this season. Overall, the co-circulation of multiple viral clades during the 2006-2007 epidemic season revealed patterns of spatial spread that are far more complex than observed previously, and suggests a major role for both migration and reassortment in shaping the epidemiological dynamics of human influenza A virus.

  20. Virulence-associated substitution D222G in the hemagglutinin of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus affects receptor binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Chutinimitkul (Salin); S. Herfst (Sander); J. Steel (John); A.C. Lowen (Anice); J. Ye (Jian); D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); B.F. Koel (Björn); D.F. Burke (David); K.H. Sutherland-Cash (Kyle); C.S. Whittleson (Chris); C.A. Russell (Colin); D.J. Wales (David); D.J. Smith (Derek); M. Jonges (Marcel); A. Meijer (Adam); M. Koopmans (Matty); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. García-Sastre (Adolfo); D.R. Perez (Daniel); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical impact of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (pdmH1N1) has been relatively low. However, amino acid substitution D222G in the hemagglutinin of pdmH1N1 has been associated with cases of severe disease and fatalities. D222G was introduced in a prototype pdmH1N1 by rever

  1. Sales of oseltamivir in Norway prior to the emergence of oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1 viruses in 2007–08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungnes Olav

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An unprecedented high proportion of oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1 viruses emerged in the 2007–08 influenza season. In Norway, two thirds of all tested A(H1N1 viruses were resistant to the antiviral drug. In order to see if this emergence could be explained by a drug induced selection pressure, we analysed data on the sales of oseltamivir in Norway for the years 2002–07. Methods We used data from two sources; the Norwegian Drug Wholesales Statistics Database and the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD, for the years 2002–2007. We calculated courses sold of oseltamivir (Tamiflu® per 1000 inhabitants per year. Results Our data showed that, except for the years 2005 and 2006, sales of oseltamivir were low in Norway; courses sold per 1000 inhabitants varied between 0.17–1.64. The higher sales in 2005 and 2006 we believe were caused by private stockpiling in fear of a pandemic, and do not represent actual usage. Conclusion A drug induced selection pressure was probably not the cause of the emergence of oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1 viruses in 2007–08 in Norway.

  2. Assessing Antigenic Drift of Seasonal Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewawong, Nipaporn; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Vichiwattana, Preeyaporn; Korkong, Sumeth; Klinfueng, Sirapa; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Under selective pressure from the host immune system, antigenic epitopes of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) have continually evolved to escape antibody recognition, termed antigenic drift. We analyzed the genomes of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strains circulating in Thailand between 2010 and 2014 and assessed how well the yearly vaccine strains recommended for the southern hemisphere matched them. We amplified and sequenced the HA gene of 120 A(H3N2) and 81 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus samples obtained from respiratory specimens and calculated the perfect-match vaccine efficacy using the pepitope model, which quantitated the antigenic drift in the dominant epitope of HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the A(H3N2) HA1 genes classified most strains into genetic clades 1, 3A, 3B, and 3C. The A(H3N2) strains from the 2013 and 2014 seasons showed very low to moderate vaccine efficacy and demonstrated antigenic drift from epitopes C and A to epitope B. Meanwhile, most A(H1N1)pdm09 strains from the 2012-2014 seasons belonged to genetic clades 6A, 6B, and 6C and displayed the dominant epitope mutations at epitopes B and E. Finally, the vaccine efficacy for A(H1N1)pdm09 (79.6-93.4%) was generally higher than that of A(H3N2). These findings further confirmed the accelerating antigenic drift of the circulating influenza A(H3N2) in recent years.

  3. Sequence-based identification and characterization of nosocomial influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, M.; Rahamat-Langendoen, J.; Meijer, A.; Niesters, H. G.; Koopmans, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Highly transmissible viruses such as influenza are a potential source of nosocomial infections and thereby cause increased patient morbidity and mortality. Aim: To assess whether influenza virus sequence data can be used to link nosocomial influenza transmission between individuals. Meth

  4. Evidence of person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus in a hematology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine; Galiano, Monica; Lackenby, Angie; Abdelrahman, Tamer; Barnes, Rosemary; Evans, Meirion R; Fegan, Christopher; Froude, Susannah; Hastings, Mark; Knapper, Steven; Litt, Emma; Price, Nicola; Salmon, Roland; Temple, Mark; Davies, Eleri

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first confirmed person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus that occurred in a hematology unit in the United Kingdom. Eleven cases of (H1N1) 2009 virus infection were identified, of which, ten were related as shown by sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. H275Y analysis demonstrated that 8 of 10 case patients had oseltamivir-resistant virus, with 4 of 8 case patients infected by direct transmission of resistant virus. Zanamivir should be considered as first-line therapy for influenza in patients with lymphopenic hematological conditions and uptake of influenza vaccination encouraged to further reduce the number of susceptible individuals. PMID:21148492

  5. Reassortment and mutations associated with emergence and spread of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses in 2005-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Rong Yang

    Full Text Available A dramatic increase in the frequency of the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA, conferring resistance to oseltamivir, has been detected in human seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses since the influenza season of 2007-2008. The resistant viruses emerged in the ratio of 14.3% and quickly reached 100% in Taiwan from September to December 2008. To explore the mechanisms responsible for emergence and spread of the resistant viruses, we analyzed the complete genome sequences of 25 viruses collected during 2005-2009 in Taiwan, which were chosen from various clade viruses, 1, 2A, 2B-1, 2B-2, 2C-1 and 2C-2 by the classification of hemagglutinin (HA sequences. Our data revealed that the dominant variant, clade 2B-1, in the 2007-2008 influenza emerged through an intra-subtype 4+4 reassortment between clade 1 and 2 viruses. The dominant variant acquired additional substitutions, including A206T in HA, H275Y and D354G in NA, L30R and H41P in PB1-F2, and V411I and P453S in basic polymerase 2 (PB2 proteins and subsequently caused the 2008-2009 influenza epidemic in Taiwan, accompanying the widespread oseltamivir-resistant viruses. We also characterized another 3+5 reassortant virus which became double resistant to oseltamivir and amantadine. Comparison of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A/H1N1 viruses belonging to various clades in our study highlighted that both reassortment and mutations were associated with emergence and spread of these viruses and the specific mutation, H275Y, conferring to antiviral resistance, was acquired in a hitch-hiking mechanism during the viral evolutionary processes.

  6. Serologic evidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in northern sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu-Nan; Ip, Hon S.; Frost, Jessica F.; White, C. LeAnn; Murray, Michael J.; Carney, Paul J.; Sun, Xiang-Jie; Stevens, James; Levine, Min Z.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Sporadic epizootics of pneumonia among marine mammals have been associated with multiple animal-origin influenza A virus subtypes (1–6); seals are the only known nonhuman host for influenza B viruses (7). Recently, we reported serologic evidence of influenza A virus infection in free-ranging northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) captured off the coast of Washington, USA, in August 2011 (8). To investigate further which influenza A virus subtype infected these otters, we tested serum samples from these otters by ELISA for antibody-binding activity against 12 recombinant hemagglutinins (rHAs) from 7 influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and 2 lineages of influenza B virus (Technical Appendix Table 1). Estimated ages for the otters were 2–19 years (Technical Appendix Table 2); we also tested archived serum samples from sea otters of similar ages collected from a study conducted during 2001–2002 along the Washington coast (9).

  7. Comparison of shedding characteristics of seasonal influenza virus (subtypes and influenza A(H1N1pdm09; Germany, 2007-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Suess

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza viral shedding studies provide fundamental information for preventive strategies and modelling exercises. We conducted a prospective household study to investigate viral shedding in seasonal and pandemic influenza between 2007 and 2011 in Berlin and Munich, Germany. METHODS: Study physicians recruited index patients and their household members. Serial nasal specimens were obtained from all household members over at least eight days and tested quantitatively by qRT-PCR for the influenza virus (subtype of the index patient. A subset of samples was also tested by viral culture. Symptoms were recorded daily. RESULTS: We recruited 122 index patients and 320 household contacts, of which 67 became secondary household cases. Among all 189 influenza cases, 12 were infected with seasonal/prepandemic influenza A(H1N1, 19 with A(H3N2, 60 with influenza B, and 98 with A(H1N1pdm09. Nine (14% of 65 non-vaccinated secondary cases were asymptomatic/subclinical (0 (0% of 21 children, 9 (21% of 44 adults; p = 0.03. Viral load among patients with influenza-like illness (ILI peaked on illness days 1, 2 or 3 for all (subtypes and declined steadily until days 7-9. Clinical symptom scores roughly paralleled viral shedding dynamics. On the first day prior to symptom onset 30% (12/40 of specimens were positive. Viral load in 6 asymptomatic/subclinical patients was similar to that in ILI-patients. Duration of infectiousness as measured by viral culture lasted approximately until illness days 4-6. Viral load did not seem to be influenced by antiviral therapy, age or vaccination status. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic/subclinical infections occur infrequently, but may be associated with substantial amounts of viral shedding. Presymptomatic shedding may arise in one third of cases, and shedding characteristics appear to be independent of (seasonal or pandemic (subtype, age, antiviral therapy or vaccination; however the power to find moderate differences

  8. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus suppresses RIG-I initiated innate antiviral responses in the human lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Wu

    Full Text Available Influenza infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I is believed to play an important role in the recognition of, and response to, influenza virus and other RNA viruses. Our study focuses on the hypothesis that pandemic H1N1/09 influenza virus alters the influenza-induced proinflammatory response and suppresses host antiviral activity. We first compared the innate response to a clinical isolate of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus, OK/09, a clinical isolate of seasonal H3N2 virus, OK/06, and to a laboratory adapted seasonal H1N1 virus, PR8, using a unique human lung organ culture model. Exposure of human lung tissue to either pandemic or seasonal influenza virus resulted in infection and replication in alveolar epithelial cells. Pandemic virus induces a diminished RIG-I mRNA and antiviral cytokine response than seasonal virus in human lung. The suppression of antiviral response and RIG-I mRNA expression was confirmed at the protein level by ELISA and western blot. We performed a time course of RIG-I and interferon-β (IFN-β mRNA induction by the two viruses. RIG-I and IFN-β induction by OK/09 was of lower amplitude and shorter duration than that caused by PR8. In contrast, the pandemic virus OK/09 caused similar induction of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and IL-6, at both the transcriptional and translational level as PR8 in human lung. Differential antiviral responses did not appear to be due to a difference in cellular infectivity as immunohistochemistry showed that both viruses infected alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. These findings show that influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus suppresses anti-viral immune responses in infected human lung through inhibition of viral-mediated induction of the pattern recognition receptor, RIG-I, though proinflammatory cytokine induction was unaltered. This immunosuppression of the host antiviral response by pandemic virus may have contributed to the more

  9. The survival of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on 4 household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, John; Berezin, Eitan N; Courvalin, Patrice; Dwyer, Dominic E; Exner, Martin; Jana, Laura A; Kaku, Mitsuo; Lee, Christopher; Letlape, Kgosi; Low, Donald E; Madani, Tariq Ahmed; Rubino, Joseph R; Saini, Narendra; Schoub, Barry D; Signorelli, Carlo; Tierno, Philip M; Zhong, Xuhui

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the survival of a pandemic strain of influenza A H1N1 on a variety of common household surfaces where multiple samples were taken from 4 types of common household fomite at 7 time points. Results showed that influenza A H1N1sw virus particles remained infectious for 48 hours on a wooden surface, for 24 hours on stainless steel and plastic surfaces, and for 8 hours on a cloth surface, although virus recovery from the cloth may have been suboptimal. Our results suggest that pandemic influenza A H1N1 can survive on common household fomites for extended periods of time, and that good hand hygiene and regular disinfection of commonly touched surfaces should be practiced during the influenza season to help reduce transmission.

  10. The response of the Liguria Region (Italy) to the pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1sv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicizia, D; Cremonesi, I; Carloni, R; Schiaffino, S

    2011-09-01

    Influenza is a cause of acute respiratory disease. It has a typical epidemic nature during the winter season, but may also assume a pandemic pattern when a completely new virus spreads among humans. Influenza places a heavy economic and healthcare burden on both the National Health Service and society. During the 2009/2010 influenza pandemic season, the Liguria Region drew upon the specific skills of the various sectors of the Department of Health and Social Services. In collaboration with the Department of Health Sciences of the University of Genova, the Regional Health Agency (RHA) and other public organizations, steps were taken to address the issues of technical and scientific updating and the coordination of all the departments of Local Healthcare Units in Liguria. The main activities conducted at the regional level provided an adequate response to the influenza pandemic. These activities focused on Local and National Influenza Surveillance Systems, the regional Pandemic Plan, vaccination strategies for seasonal and pandemic influenza, and the communication of data from monitoring programs (sentinel physicians--syndromic surveillance). The prevention of influenza transmission and containment of epidemics and pandemics require effective communication strategies that should target the whole population.

  11. Punctuated Evolution of Influenza Virus Neuraminidase (A/H1N1 under Opposing Migration and Vaccination Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus contains two highly variable envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA. The structure and properties of HA, which is responsible for binding the virus to the cell that is being infected, change significantly when the virus is transmitted from avian or swine species to humans. Here we focus first on the simpler problem of the much smaller human individual evolutionary amino acid mutational changes in NA, which cleaves sialic acid groups and is required for influenza virus replication. Our thermodynamic panorama shows that very small amino acid changes can be monitored very accurately across many historic (1945–2011 Uniprot and NCBI strains using hydropathicity scales to quantify the roughness of water film packages. Quantitative sequential analysis is most effective with the fractal differential hydropathicity scale based on protein self-organized criticality (SOC. Our analysis shows that large-scale vaccination programs have been responsible for a very large convergent reduction in common influenza severity in the last century. Hydropathic analysis is capable of interpreting and even predicting trends of functional changes in mutation prolific viruses directly from amino acid sequences alone. An engineered strain of NA1 is described which could well be significantly less virulent than current circulating strains.

  12. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1 Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Harvey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1 virus isolates (1997-2009 and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens.

  13. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, William T; Benton, Donald J; Gregory, Victoria; Hall, James P J; Daniels, Rodney S; Bedford, Trevor; Haydon, Daniel T; Hay, Alan J; McCauley, John W; Reeve, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates (1997-2009) and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens.

  14. IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenggang Li; Chen Wang; Zhongwei Chen; Li Xing; Chong Tang; Xiangwu Ju; Feng Guo; Jiejie Deng; Yan Zhao; Peng Yang; Jun Tang; Penghui Yang; Huanling Wang; Zhongpeng Zhao; Zhinan Yin; Bin Cao; Xiliang Wang; Chengyu Jiang; Yang Sun; Taisheng Li; Chen Wang; Zhong Wang; Zhen Zou; Yiwu Yan; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus(S-OIV H1N1)that infected almost every country in the world.Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury.In this report,we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease.The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir(Tamiflu)administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model.Moreover,elevated levels of IL-17,Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing.IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice.These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics.

  15. Predominance of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus genetic subclade 6B.1 and influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses at the start of the 2015/16 influenza season in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, E.; Melidou, A; Prosenc, Katarina; BRAGSTAD, K.; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Wedde, Marianne; Biere, Barbara; Buda, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated in the European influenza 2015/16 season. Most analysed viruses clustered in a new genetic subclade 6B.1, antigenically similar to the northern hemisphere vaccine component A/California/7/2009. The predominant influenza B lineage was Victoria compared with Yamagata in the previous season. It remains to be evaluated at the end of the season if these changes affected the effectiveness of the vaccine for the 2015/16 season.

  16. Protein profiling of nasopharyngeal aspirates of hospitalized and outpatients revealed cytokines associated with severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Gaelings, Lana; Jalovaara, Petri; Kakkola, Laura; Kinnunen, Mervi T; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Valkonen, Miia; Kantele, Anu; Kainov, Denis E

    2016-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) mutate rapidly and cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics, which result in substantial number of patient visits to the doctors and even hospitalizations. We aimed here to identify inflammatory proteins, which levels correlated to clinical severity of the disease. For this we analysed 102 cytokines and growth factors in human nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples of 27 hospitalized and 27 outpatients diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. We found that the relative levels of monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), C-C-motif chemokine 20 (CCL20), CD147, urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (uPAR), pro-epidermal growth factor (EGF), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were significantly lower (padiponectin, and chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) were significantly higher (padiponectin and CHI3L1 levels have already been correlated with severity of IAV infection in mice and humans, our study is the first to describe association of CD147, RBP4, TFF3, and CFD with hospitalization of IAV-infected patients. Thus, we identified local innate immune profiles, which were associated with the clinical severity of influenza infections. PMID:27442005

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of Evolutionary Markers of Human Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) Viruses May Guide Selection of Vaccine Strain Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanov, Sergei S; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Benner, Christian; Ripatti, Samuli; Ojala, Teija; Kankainen, Matti; Kai Lee, Hong; Wei-Tze Tang, Julian; Kainov, Denis E

    2015-11-27

    Here we analyzed whole-genome sequences of 3,969 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 4,774 A(H3N2) strains that circulated during 2009-2015 in the world. The analysis revealed changes at 481 and 533 amino acid sites in proteins of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively. Many of these changes were introduced as a result of random drift. However, there were 61 and 68 changes that were present in relatively large number of A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively, that circulated during relatively long time. We named these amino acid substitutions evolutionary markers, as they seemed to contain valuable information regarding the viral evolution. Interestingly, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses acquired non-overlapping sets of evolutionary markers. We next analyzed these characteristic markers in vaccine strains recommended by the World Health Organization for the past five years. Our analysis revealed that vaccine strains carried only few evolutionary markers at antigenic sites of viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The absence of these markers at antigenic sites could affect the recognition of HA and NA by human antibodies generated in response to vaccinations. This could, in part, explain moderate efficacy of influenza vaccines during 2009-2014. Finally, we identified influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, which contain all the evolutionary markers of influenza A strains circulated in 2015, and which could be used as vaccine candidates for the 2015/2016 season. Thus, genome-wide analysis of evolutionary markers of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses may guide selection of vaccine strain candidates.

  18. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  19. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  20. Recrudescent Wave of A/H1N1pdm09 Influenza Viruses in Winter 2012-2013 in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Parvaiz; Khan, Umar; Bhat, Khursheed; Saha, Siddhartha; Broor, Shobha; Lal, Renu; Chadha, Mandeep

    2013-01-01

    Some parts of world, including India observed a recrudescent wave of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 in 2012. We undertook a study to examine the circulating influenza strains, their clinical association and antigenic characteristics to understand the recrudescent wave of A/H1N1pdm09 from November 26, 2012 to Feb 28, 2013 in Kashmir, India. Of the 751 patients (545 outpatient and 206 hospitalized) presenting with acute respiratory infection at a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar; 184 (24.5%) tested positive for influenza. Further type and subtype analysis revealed that 106 (58%) were influenza A (H1N1pdm09 =105, H3N2=1) and 78 (42%) were influenza B. The influenza positive cases had a higher frequency of chills, nasal discharge, sore throat, body aches and headache, compared to influenza negative cases. Of the 206 patients hospitalized for pneumonia/acute respiratory distress syndrome or an exacerbation of an underlying lung disease, 34 (16.5%) tested positive for influenza (22 for H1N1pdm09, 11 for influenza B). All influenza-positive patients received oseltamivir and while most patients responded well to antiviral therapy and supportive care, 6 patients (4 with H1N1pdm09 and 2 with influenza B) patients died of progressive respiratory failure and multi-organ dysfunction. Following a period of minimal circulation, H1N1pdm09 re-emerged in Kashmir in 2012-2013, causing serious illness and fatalities. As such the healthcare administrators and policy planners need to be wary and monitor the situation closely.

  1. A study of analysis PB1-F2 protein of Influenza Viruses A/H1N1pdm09, A/ H3N2, and A/H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Apsari Pawestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan. Protein PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 adalah protein terbaru yang ditemukan pada virus Influenza dan telah terbukti berperan dalam induksi kematian sel dan patogenitas. Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk menganalisis protein PB1-F2 pada virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Metode. Kami melakukan pencarian data yang relevan yaitu sekuens gen virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09 dari Gen Bank National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI selama tahun 1997-2015. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekuens nukleotida gen PB1 (polymerase basic1 virus influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Kemudian dilakukan analisis alignment untuk mengetahui variasi protein dan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan patogenitas dan virulensi. Hasil. Kami melakukan penelitian terhadap sekuens PB1-F2 sebanyak 3262 influenza A/H5N1 dan 2472 Influenza A/H1N1pdm09. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa semua sekuens A/H5N1 memiliki panjang yang penuh sebanyak 90 asam amino, kecuali influenza pandemi 2009 hanya memiliki panjang 87 asam amino. Kemudian, ditemukan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan virulensi yang ditunjukan dengan perubahan asam amino Asparagin (N menjadi Serin (S. Mutasi tersebut terjadi pada Influenza A/H5N1 sebanyak 8.5% dan Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 sebanyak 0.5%. Kesimpulan. Ditemukan beberapa variasi panjang asam amino dan mutasi penting pada sekuens PB1-F2 dari subtipe yang berbeda yaitu influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09  yang mengindikasikan seleksi spesifik karena introduksi dan adaptasi terhadap inang yang berbeda. Diperlukan penelitian lanjutan untuk lebih memahami variasi dan kontribusi protein PB1-F2 tersebut terhadap virulensi dan patogenitas virus Influenza. Kata kunci : Patogenesis, Virus Influenza, Protein  PB1-F2 Abstract Aim. Influenza virus PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 protein is a novel protein previously shown to be involved in cell death induction and pathogenesis. Here we analysis the PB1-F2 protein of Influenza virus A

  2. Enhanced influenza surveillance on Réunion Island (southern hemisphere) in the context of the emergence of influenza A(H1N1)v.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ortenzio, E; Do, C; Renault, P; Weber, F; Filleul, L

    2009-06-11

    With the winter season on the southern hemisphere that starts in Reunion Island in June seasonal influenza activity usually increases shortly afterwards. The new influenza A(H1N1)v virus is rapidly spreading worldwide and may reach the island during the coming winter season. We have therefore enhanced influenza surveillance to detect the introduction of influenza A(H1N1)v, monitor its spread and impact on public health and characterise potential viral changes, particularly if seasonal influenza A(H1N1), resistant to oseltamivir, co-circulates with A(H1N1)v. PMID:19531342

  3. Diverse antigenic site targeting of influenza hemagglutinin in the murine antibody recall response to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jason R; Guo, Zhu; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Garten, Rebecca J; Xiyan, Xu; Blanchard, Elisabeth G; Blanchfield, Kristy; Stevens, James; Katz, Jacqueline M; York, Ian A

    2015-11-01

    Here we define the epitopes on HA that are targeted by a group of 9 recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) isolated from memory B cells of mice, immunized by infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus followed by a seasonal TIV boost. These rmAbs were all reactive against the HA1 region of HA, but display 7 distinct binding footprints, targeting each of the 4 known antigenic sites. Although the rmAbs were not broadly cross-reactive, a group showed subtype-specific cross-reactivity with the HA of A/South Carolina/1/18. Screening these rmAbs with a panel of human A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolates indicated that naturally-occurring changes in HA could reduce rmAb binding, HI activity, and/or virus neutralization activity by rmAb, without showing changes in recognition by polyclonal antiserum. In some instances, virus neutralization was lost while both ELISA binding and HI activity were retained, demonstrating a discordance between the two serological assays traditionally used to detect antigenic drift.

  4. Surveillance on the levels of antibody to pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus before and after vaccination with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccines in Shanghai middle school students%上海地区在校中学生接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗前后抗体水平监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高颖阳; 申惠国; 陈蓓; 杨忠东; 陈浩; 吕锡宏; 居丽雯

    2010-01-01

    Objective To understand the levels of antibody to pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus before and after vaccination with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccines in Shanghai middle school students, and to observe the protection of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccines for this group.Methods The levels of antibody to pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus in Shanghai middle school students were determined using the routine micro-hemagglutination inhibition test in three periods, and the positive rates of the antibodies in three periods were compared by Pearson's x2 test. Results Before the epidemic of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009, the positive rate of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1)2009 virus among Shanghai middle school students was only 1.3%, and then it increased to 8.5% after a period of epidemic. After vaccination with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccines, the positive rate of antibody to pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus among middle school students increased to 87.3%. The result of Pearson' sx2 test showed that differences of the positive rate of antibody in three periods had statistical significance(x2 = 243.7, P < 0. 05). Conclusions Before the epidemic of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009, Shanghai middle school students almost have no immunity against this new type of virus, and vaccination with pandemic irfluenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccines can provide stronger protection for this group.%目的 了解上海地区在校中学生接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗前后的抗体水平,观察甲型H1N1流感疫苗对该人群的免疫保护作用.方法 应用常规微量血凝抑制试验(micro-hemagglutination inhibition test,HIT)对上海地区在校中学生分3个时间段进行甲型H1N1流感病毒抗体的血清学监测,3个时间段的抗体阳性率比较采用Pearson x2检验进行分析.结果 2009年甲型H1N1流感流行前上海地区在校中学生的血清抗体阳性率仅为1.3%.经过一段时间流行后,血清抗体阳性率升至8

  5. Polymeric LabChip real-time PCR as a point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for rapid detection of influenza A/H1N1 virus in human clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ok Song

    Full Text Available It is clinically important to be able to detect influenza A/H1N1 virus using a fast, portable, and accurate system that has high specificity and sensitivity. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop a highly specific primer set that recognizes only influenza A viral genes and a rapid real-time PCR system that can detect even a single copy of the viral gene. In this study, we developed and validated a novel fluidic chip-type real-time PCR (LabChip real-time PCR system that is sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza A/H1N1, including the pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1 of 2009. This LabChip real-time PCR system has several remarkable features: (1 It allows rapid quantitative analysis, requiring only 15 min to perform 30 cycles of real-time PCR. (2 It is portable, with a weight of only 5.5 kg. (3 The reaction cost is low, since it uses disposable plastic chips. (4 Its high efficiency is equivalent to that of commercially available tube-type real-time PCR systems. The developed disposable LabChip is an economic, heat-transferable, light-transparent, and easy-to-fabricate polymeric chip compared to conventional silicon- or glass-based labchip. In addition, our LabChip has large surface-to-volume ratios in micro channels that are required for overcoming time consumed for temperature control during real-time PCR. The efficiency of the LabChip real-time PCR system was confirmed using novel primer sets specifically targeted to the hemagglutinin (HA gene of influenza A/H1N1 and clinical specimens. Eighty-five human clinical swab samples were tested using the LabChip real-time PCR. The results demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity, showing 72 positive and 13 negative cases. These results were identical to those from a tube-type real-time PCR system. This indicates that the novel LabChip real-time PCR may be an ultra-fast, quantitative, point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for influenza A/H1N1 with a high sensitivity and

  6. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus exhibiting enhanced cross-resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir due to a dual H275Y/G147R substitution, Japan, March 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashita, Emi; Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Shirakura, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kazuya; Kishida, Noriko; Kuwahara, Tomoko; Shimazu, Yukie; Shimomura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shinji; Odagiri, Takato

    2016-06-16

    An influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus carrying a G147R substitution in combination with an H275Y substitution in the neuraminidase protein, which confers cross-resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir, was detected from an immunocompromised inpatient in Japan, March 2016. This dual H275Y/G147R mutant virus exhibited enhanced cross-resistance to both drugs compared with the single H275Y mutant virus and reduced susceptibility to zanamivir, although it showed normal inhibition by laninamivir. PMID:27336226

  7. Comparison of Influenza Outbreaks in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Russia Induced by 2009 Yearly New Variant of A(H1N1)Influenza Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karpova L S; Ospanov K S; Baiserkin B S; Boibosinov E U; Popovtseva N M; Stolyarova T P; Stolyarov K A; Mamadaliyev S M; Khairullin B M; Sandybayev N T; Kydyrbayev Zh K; Orynbayev M B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work is the comparison of the epidemiology of influenza and acute respiratory virus infections(ARVI)in the Republic of Kazakhstan with the corresponding influenza epidemic in Russia induced by influenza pandemic virus A/California/07/2009 in 2009. Data on influenza and ARVI from the Republic of Kazakhstan and Federal Center of influenza was collected and investigated over the course of several weeks from hospitalized patients with the same diagnosis among all population and in age groups on 16 territories of Kazakhstan and in 49 major cities of Russia. The epidemic in Kazakhstan resembled the Russian epidemic in terms of its abnormally early beginning,expression of monoaetiology,the spread of the epidemic into all territories and start of the epidemics among adult population. High percentage of hospitalized people and lethal outcome were registered in this epidemic. Similarity of epidemic process character in corresponding border-line territories of both countries was found out.

  8. Newly emerging mutations in the matrix genes of the human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses reduce the detection sensitivity of real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Rong; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Huang, Hsiang-Yi; Wu, Fu-Ting; Huang, Yi-Lung; Cheng, Chieh-Yu; Su, Yu-Ting; Chang, Feng-Yee; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan

    2014-01-01

    New variants of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses were detected in Taiwan between 2012 and 2013. Some of these variants were not detected in clinical specimens using a common real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay that targeted the conserved regions of the viral matrix (M) genes. An analysis of the M gene sequences of the new variants revealed that several newly emerging mutations were located in the regions where the primers or probes of the real-time RT-PCR assay bind; these included three mutations (G225A, T228C, and G238A) in the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, as well as one mutation (C163T) in the A(H3N2) virus. These accumulated mismatch mutations, together with the previously identified C154T mutation of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and the C153T and G189T mutations of the A(H3N2) virus, result in a reduced detection sensitivity for the real-time RT-PCR assay. To overcome the loss of assay sensitivity due to mismatch mutations, we established a real-time RT-PCR assay using degenerate nucleotide bases in both the primers and probe and successfully increased the sensitivity of the assay to detect circulating variants of the human influenza A viruses. Our observations highlight the importance of the simultaneous use of different gene-targeting real-time RT-PCR assays for the clinical diagnosis of influenza.

  9. Evolution of the hemagglutinin expressed by human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses circulating between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedde, Marianne; Biere, Barbara; Wolff, Thorsten; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the evolution of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses circulating in Germany between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014. The phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of both subtypes revealed similar evolution of the HA variants that were also seen worldwide with minor exceptions. The analysis showed seven distinct HA clades for A(H1N1)pdm09 and six HA clades for A(H3N2) viruses. Herald strains of both subtypes appeared sporadically since 2008-2009. Regarding A(H1N1)pdm09, herald strains of HA clade 3 and 4 were detected late in the 2009-2010 season. With respect to A(H3N2), we found herald strains of HA clade 3, 4 and 7 between 2009 and 2012. Those herald strains were predominantly seen for minor and not for major HA clades. Generally, amino acid substitutions were most frequently found in the globular domain, including substitutions near the antigenic sites or the receptor binding site. Differences between both influenza A subtypes were seen with respect to the position of the indicated substitutions in the HA. For A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, we found more substitutions in the stem region than in the antigenic sites. In contrast, in A(H3N2) viruses most changes were identified in the major antigenic sites and five changes of potential glycosylation sites were identified in the head of the HA monomer. Interestingly, we found in seasons with less influenza activity a relatively high increase of substitutions in the head of the HA in both subtypes. This might be explained by the fact that mutations under negative selection are subsequently compensated by secondary mutations to restore important functions e.g. receptor binding properties. A better knowledge of basic evolution strategies of influenza viruses will contribute to the refinement of predictive mathematical models for identifying novel antigenic drift variants.

  10. Safety of Vaccine for A/H1N1 Influenza Split Virus%甲型H1N1流行性感冒病毒裂解疫苗的安全性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建坡; 李瑞芳; 李琦; 张连山; 张富斌; 尹增慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety of vaccine for A/H1N1 influenza split virus.Methods At surveillance spots,AEFI cases of A/H1N1 vaccine and seasonal influenza vaccine were collected through National Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) Surveillance System.The data were analyzed with descriptive methodology.Results The incidence of reported AEFI cases of influenza A/H1N1 vaccination was 14.64/105,mainly general reactions with fever below 38.5℃.No serious adverse reactions and implementation of error accidents occurred.The incidence of AEFI cases of influenza A/H1N1 vaccination was 752.63/105,which were all general reactions and mostly fever.The incidence of AEFI cases of seasonal influenza vaccination was 203.14/105,which were also all general reactions of fever.Conclusion The incidence of influenza A/H1N1 vaccination was higher than that of seasonal influenza vaccination,mild fever as the dominating reaction.The influenza A/H1N1 vaccine was safe.%目的 评价甲型H1N1流行性感冒裂解疫苗(甲流疫苗)的安全性.方法 设立主动监测点,通过全国疑似预防接种异常反应(Adverse Events Following Immunization,AEFI)信息管理系统,收集邯郸市2009-10/2010-05接种甲流疫苗和主动监测点接种季节性流感疫苗后的AEFI个案信息,采用描述性方法对相关指标进行流行病学分析.结果 邯郸市常规报告接种甲流疫苗717 288人,发生AEFI 105例,AEFI发生率14.64/10万,以一般反应为主,占88.57%,症状主要为38.5℃以下的低热,无严重不良反应和接种事故发生.主动监测点接种甲流疫苗1 993人,发生AEFI 15例,AEFI发生率752.63/10万,全部为一般反应,以发热为主.主动监测点接种季节性流感疫苗1 969人,发生AEFI 4例,AEFI发生率203.14/10万,全部为一般反应,均为发热.结论 邯郸市监测点甲流疫苗接种后AEFI发生率高于季节性流感疫苗,反应类型以一般反应为主,且多为低热.甲流疫苗是安全的.

  11. 甲型H1N1流感病毒临床实验室诊断策略%Clinical Laboratory Diagnostic Strategies of Influenza A/H1N1 Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明权; 杨柳; 马越云; 郝晓柯

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study a clinical labaratory diagnostic strategy for influenza A/H1N1 patients. Methods To detect the influenza A virus antigen by Dot-ELISA method in influenza patients , initially diagnosed as influenza A or non-influenza; for the influenza A virus antigen-positive patients ,further testing influenza A/H1N1 virus-specific nucleic acid using real-time RT-PCR method. Results For 44.448 cases of influenza patients in xi'an to screened influenza A virus antigen,the positive rate as 28. 25%;further detected influenza A/H1N1 virus nucleic acid for 17 714 cases of antigen-positive patients,the positive rate of 41. 92%.Conclusion First screening the influenza A virus antigen,to exclude non-influenza A virus;and then within the framewark of influenza A virus to detect influenza A/H1N1 virus,that increased the detection efficiency of influenza A viruses,but also reduced the pressure on influenza A/H1N1 virus nucleic acid testing and the economic burden of patients. This detection strategy provided reference for laboratory diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1,and more effective control,diagnose influenza A/H1N1 virus infection.%目的 探讨用于甲型H1N1流感患者临床实验室诊断的策略.方法 采用Dot-ELISA法检测流感患者中的甲型流感病毒的抗原,初步明确为甲型流感或排除非甲型流感;采用real-time RT-PCR法检测甲型流感病毒抗原阳性患者中的甲型H1N1流感病毒特异性核酸,进一步确定甲型H1N1流感病毒.结果 对44 448例在西安地区就诊的发热伴有流感样症状者的鼻咽腔取分泌物进行甲型流感病毒抗原筛查,其阳性筛检率为28.25%;对甲型流感病毒抗原筛查阳性的17 714例患者进行甲型H1N1流感病毒核酸检测,其阳性检出率为41.92%.结论 首先用甲型流感病毒抗原筛查,排除非甲型流感病毒;进而在甲型流感病毒的范围内进行甲型H1N1流感病毒的检测,即加快了甲型流感病毒的排

  12. Rapid spread of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses with a new set of specific mutations in the internal genes in the beginning of 2015/2016 epidemic season in Moscow and Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarov, Andrey; Fadeev, Artem; Sergeeva, Maria; Petrov, Sergey; Sintsova, Kseniya; Egorova, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Buzitskaya, Zhanna; Musaeva, Tamila; Danilenko, Daria; Konovalova, Nadezhda; Petrova, Polina; Stolyarov, Kirill; Smorodintseva, Elizaveta; Burtseva, Elena; Krasnoslobodtsev, Kirill; Kirillova, Elena; Karpova, Lyudmila; Eropkin, Mikhail; Sominina, Anna; Grudinin, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    A dramatic increase of influenza activity in Russia since week 3 of 2016 significantly differs from previous seasons in terms of the incidence of influenza and acute respiratory infection (ARI) and in number of lethal cases. We performed antigenic analysis of 108 and whole-genome sequencing of 77 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses from Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Most of the viruses were antigenically related to the vaccine strain. Whole-genome analysis revealed a composition of specific mutations in the internal genes (D2E and M83I in NEP, E125D in NS1, M105T in NP, Q208K in M1, and N204S in PA-X) that probably emerged before the beginning of 2015/2016 epidemic season. PMID:26992820

  13. Reproductive number and serial interval of the first wave of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett N Archer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Describing transmissibility parameters of past pandemics from diverse geographic sites remains critical to planning responses to future outbreaks. We characterize the transmissibility of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (hereafter pH1N1 in South Africa during 2009 by estimating the serial interval (SI, the initial effective reproductive number (initial R(t and the temporal variation of R(t. METHODS: We make use of data from a central registry of all pH1N1 laboratory-confirmed cases detected throughout South Africa. Whenever date of symptom onset is missing, we estimate it from the date of specimen collection using a multiple imputation approach repeated 100 times for each missing value. We apply a likelihood-based method (method 1 for simultaneous estimation of initial R(t and the SI; estimate initial R(t from SI distributions established from prior field studies (method 2; and the Wallinga and Teunis method (method 3 to model the temporal variation of R(t. RESULTS: 12,360 confirmed pH1N1 cases were reported in the central registry. During the period of exponential growth of the epidemic (June 21 to August 3, 2009, we simultaneously estimate a mean R(t of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.30-1.72 and mean SI of 2.78 days (95% CI: 1.80-3.75 (method 1. Field studies found a mean SI of 2.3 days between primary cases and laboratory-confirmed secondary cases, and 2.7 days when considering both suspected and confirmed secondary cases. Incorporating the SI estimate from field studies using laboratory-confirmed cases, we found an initial R(t of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.38-1.49 (method 2. The mean R(t peaked at 2.91 (95% CI: 0.85-2.91 on June 21, as the epidemic commenced, and R(t>1 was sustained until August 22 (method 3. CONCLUSIONS: Transmissibility characteristics of pH1N1 in South Africa are similar to estimates reported by countries outside of Africa. Estimations using the likelihood-based method are in agreement with field findings.

  14. A(H1N1)流感病毒及抗病毒新药的筛选%A(H1N1) Influenza Virus and Screening of New Anti-influenza Virus Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈执中

    2009-01-01

    A(H1N1) influenza virus is a novel strain of influenza virus mutant,which was found in March to April 2009 in USA and Mexico. The spread of epidemic influenza brings about a serious attention by every country in the world and World Health Organization. In this paper, the A (H1N1) influenza virus and its symptom, virulence and spread are introduced. Meanwhile, the mutant' s resistance to anti-influenza drugs, the characterization of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus polymerase, the crystal structure of human and avian influenza virus polymerase and its action in influenza are also discussed. Accordingly, we put forward the screening ideas and research orientation for anti-influenza virus drugs, which will be a beneficial reference for the further design and development of new anti-influenza virus drugs.%A(H1N1)流感病毒是2009年3~4月在美国和墨西哥发现的一种流感病毒变异的新病毒株.这类流感疫情的蔓延引起了世界各国和世界卫生组织的严重关注.本文介绍了A(H1N1)流感新病毒株及感染这种病毒患者的症状,A(H1N1)流感病毒的致命力和传播,流感病毒变异对抗病毒药的抗药性,以及1918年流感大流行病毒聚合酶特性,人流感病毒和禽流感病毒聚合酶的结晶结构及其在感染中的作用.据此,提出了抗流感病毒药的筛选思路和研究方向,为抗流感病毒新药的设计和开发提供有益的参考.

  15. Contact Tracing for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus–infected Passenger on International Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Ananda G.; Janmohamed, Kulsum; Olowokure, Babatunde; Smith, Gillian E.; Hogan, Angela H.; De Souza, Valerie; Wallensten, Anders; Oliver, Isabel; Blatchford, Oliver; Cleary, Paul; Ibbotson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    In April 2009, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection was confirmed in a person who had been symptomatic while traveling on a commercial flight from Mexico to the United Kingdom. Retrospective public health investigation and contact tracing led to the identification of 8 additional confirmed cases among passengers and community contacts of passengers.

  16. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was ass

  17. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was ass

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF RECOMBINANT VACCINE AGAINST A(H1N1) 2009 INFLUENZA BASED ON VIRUS-LIKE NANOPARTICLES CARRYING THE EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN OF M2 PROTEIN

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlyarov, R.; Kuprianov, V.; Migunov, A.; Stepanova, L.; Tsybalova, L.; Kiselev, O.; Ravin, N.; Skryabin, K.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional vaccines currently being used to deal with influenza are based on a virus obtained in chicken embryos or its components. The high variability of the major immunogenic surface proteins – hemagglutinin and neuraminidase–require the development of strain–specific vaccines that match the antigenic specificity of a newly emerging virus. Recombinant vaccines based on single viral proteins that could be easily produced in standard expression systems are attractive alternatives to tr...

  19. Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many schools were temporarily closed in response to outbreaks of the recently emerged pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus. The effectiveness of closing schools to reduce transmission depends largely on student/family behavior during the closure. We sought to improve our understanding of these behaviors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To characterize this behavior, we surveyed students in grades 9-12 and parents of students in grades 5-8 about student activities during a week long closure of a school during the first months after the disease emerged. We found significant interaction with the community and other students-though less interaction with other students than during school-with the level of interaction increasing with grade. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are useful for the future design of social distancing policies and to improving the ability of modeling studies to accurately predict their impact.

  20. Response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, C; Rota, M C; Bella, A; Giannitelli, S; De Santis, S; Nacca, G; Pompa, M G; Vellucci, L; Salmaso, S; Declich, S

    2010-12-01

    In Italy, the arrival of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus triggered an integrated response that was mainly based on the 2006 National Pandemic Preparedness and Response Plan. In this article we analyse the main activities implemented for epidemiological surveillance, containment and mitigation of the pandemic influenza and the lesson learned from this experience. Overall, from week 31 (27 July – 2 August) of 2009 to week 17 (26 April – 2 May) of 2010, we estimate that there were approximately 5,600,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) who received medical attention (with almost 2,000 laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic influenza from May to October 2009). A total of 1,106 confirmed cases were admitted to hospital for serious conditions, of whom 532 were admitted to intensive care units. There were 260 reported deaths due to pandemic influenza. Approximately 870,000 first doses of the pandemic vaccine were administered, representing a vaccine coverage of 4% of the target population. One of the possible reasons for the low uptake of the pandemic vaccine in the target population could be the communication strategy adopted, for both the general population and healthcare workers, which turned out to be a major challenge. Active involvement of all health professionals (at local, regional and national level) in influenza pandemic preparedness and response should be encouraged in the future.

  1. Production of polyclonal antibody against Tehran strain influenza virus (A/H1N1/2009 hemagglutinin conserved domain (HA2: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Zamani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influenza virus is one of the most important factors for higher morbidity and mortality in the world. Recently, researchers have been focused on influenza conserved antigenic proteins such as hemagglutinin stalk domain (HA2 for vaccine production and serological studies. The HA2 plays a major role in the fusion of the virus with host cells membrane. The immunity system enables to produce antibody against HA2. The aim of this study is polyclonal antibody production against influenza HA2. Methods: This study was done in the Influenza Research Lab, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran for one year from September 2013 to October 2014. In the present study, recombinant HA2 protein was produced in prokaryotic system and purified using Nickel affinity chromatography. The purified HA2 was mixed with Freund’s adjuvant (complete and incomplete and injected into two New Zealand white rabbits by intramuscularly and subcutaneously routes. Immunization was continued for several months with two weeks interval. Before each immunization, blood was drawn by venous puncture from the rabbit ear. Function of rabbit's sera was evaluated using radial immunodiffusion (RID in both forms, Single RID (SRID and Double RID (DRID. Finally, antiserum activity against HA2 was evaluated using western blotting as serological assay. Results: Sedimentary line and zone was observed in RID assays (SRID and DRID represent interaction between HA2 protein and anti- HA2 antibody. As well as, western blotting results was positive for HA2 protein. Therefore, these results showed that polyclonal antibody produced against HA2 protein can identify HA2 protein antigenic sites. Conclusion: These findings show that humoral immune responses have properly been stimulated in rabbits and these antibodies can identify HA2 protein and may be suitable for other serological methods.

  2. Characterizing the epidemiology of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Chowell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mexico's local and national authorities initiated an intense public health response during the early stages of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. In this study we analyzed the epidemiological patterns of the pandemic during April-December 2009 in Mexico and evaluated the impact of nonmedical interventions, school cycles, and demographic factors on influenza transmission. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used influenza surveillance data compiled by the Mexican Institute for Social Security, representing 40% of the population, to study patterns in influenza-like illness (ILIs hospitalizations, deaths, and case-fatality rate by pandemic wave and geographical region. We also estimated the reproduction number (R on the basis of the growth rate of daily cases, and used a transmission model to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies initiated during the spring pandemic wave. A total of 117,626 ILI cases were identified during April-December 2009, of which 30.6% were tested for influenza, and 23.3% were positive for the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus. A three-wave pandemic profile was identified, with an initial wave in April-May (Mexico City area, a second wave in June-July (southeastern states, and a geographically widespread third wave in August-December. The median age of laboratory confirmed ILI cases was ∼ 18 years overall and increased to ∼ 31 years during autumn (p<0.0001. The case-fatality ratio among ILI cases was 1.2% overall, and highest (5.5% among people over 60 years. The regional R estimates were 1.8-2.1, 1.6-1.9, and 1.2-1.3 for the spring, summer, and fall waves, respectively. We estimate that the 18-day period of mandatory school closures and other social distancing measures implemented in the greater Mexico City area was associated with a 29%-37% reduction in influenza transmission in spring 2009. In addition, an increase in R was observed in late May and early June in the southeast states, after mandatory school

  3. Drift van het influenza A(H1N1)-virus; wijziging van het influenzavaccin voor het seizoen 1986/'87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Masurel (Nic); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractBeslissingen over de meest juiste samenstelling van vaccins tegen influenza zijn altijd moeilijk. Dit is te wijten aan de gedragingen van de epidemische influenza A- en B-virussen. In het influenzavaccin zijn virussen opgenomen die in voorgaande epidemieën influenza hebben veroorzaakt, m

  4. Importation and spread of pandemic influenza virus a(H1N1 in Autonomous Province of vojvodina in preepidemic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Mioljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Influenza is the most frequently reported communicable disease, having epidemic and pandemic potential. The first influenza pandemic in this century started in Mexico and spread quickly throughout the world. This paper analyses importation of pandemic influenza cases and local transmission among population in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Material and methods. According to the WHO guidelines and national recommendations, the influenza surveillance activities were conducted in Vojvodina in order to detect, isolate and treat affected international travelers and their close contacts. Patients whose pandemic influenza infection was laboratory confirmed were classified as confirmed cases, while those with symptoms who were epidemiologically linked with confirmed cases were classified as probable cases. Results. During the period from the 24th of June to 17th of August 2009, 123 pandemic influenza cases were recorded in Vojvodina. Infection was imported through international travelers and our citizens coming from countries affected by influenza outbreaks. Majority of cases had mild clinical picture. Most frequently reported symptoms were high fever (above 38oC (85.6%, and cough (61.6%. Difficulty in breathing was recorded in 20 (16.0% cases, while pneumonia developed in 4 (3.2% cases but none of the cases required mechanical ventilation. Conclusion. The imported cases of pandemic influenza in the pre-epidemic period led to limited local transmission in general population and caused a small outbreak among visitors of International music festival called EXIT.

  5. Nosocomial Co-Transmission of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) and A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses between 2 Patients with Hematologic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huazhong; Liu, Shelan; Liu, Jun; Chai, Chengliang; Mao, Haiyan; Yu, Zhao; Tang, Yuming; Zhu, Geqin; Chen, Haixiao X; Zhu, Chengchu; Shao, Hui; Tan, Shuguang; Wang, Qianli; Bi, Yuhai; Zou, Zhen; Liu, Guang; Jin, Tao; Jiang, Chengyu; Gao, George F; Peiris, Malik; Yu, Hongjie; Chen, Enfu

    2016-04-01

    A nosocomial cluster induced by co-infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) and A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) viruses occurred in 2 patients at a hospital in Zhejiang Province, China, in January 2014. The index case-patient was a 57-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had been occupationally exposed to poultry. He had co-infection with H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses. A 71-year-old man with polycythemia vera who was in the same ward as the index case-patient for 6 days acquired infection with H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses. The incubation period for the second case-patient was estimated to be <4 days. Both case-patients died of multiple organ failure. Virus genetic sequences from the 2 case-patients were identical. Of 103 close contacts, none had acute respiratory symptoms; all were negative for H7N9 virus. Serum samples from both case-patients demonstrated strong proinflammatory cytokine secretion but incompetent protective immune responses. These findings strongly suggest limited nosocomial co-transmission of H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses from 1 immunocompromised patient to another. PMID:26982379

  6. Nosocomial Co-Transmission of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) and A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses between 2 Patients with Hematologic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huazhong; Liu, Shelan; Liu, Jun; Chai, Chengliang; Mao, Haiyan; Yu, Zhao; Tang, Yuming; Zhu, Geqin; Chen, Haixiao X.; Zhu, Chengchu; Shao, Hui; Tan, Shuguang; Wang, Qianli; Bi, Yuhai; Zou, Zhen; Liu, Guang; Jin, Tao; Jiang, Chengyu; Gao, George F.; Peiris, Malik

    2016-01-01

    A nosocomial cluster induced by co-infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) and A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) viruses occurred in 2 patients at a hospital in Zhejiang Province, China, in January 2014. The index case-patient was a 57-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had been occupationally exposed to poultry. He had co-infection with H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses. A 71-year-old man with polycythemia vera who was in the same ward as the index case-patient for 6 days acquired infection with H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses. The incubation period for the second case-patient was estimated to be <4 days. Both case-patients died of multiple organ failure. Virus genetic sequences from the 2 case-patients were identical. Of 103 close contacts, none had acute respiratory symptoms; all were negative for H7N9 virus. Serum samples from both case-patients demonstrated strong proinflammatory cytokine secretion but incompetent protective immune responses. These findings strongly suggest limited nosocomial co-transmission of H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses from 1 immunocompromised patient to another. PMID:26982379

  7. Continued dominance of pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza in Victoria, Australia in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Fielding

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Victorian influenza season was characterized by normal seasonal influenza activity and the dominance of the pandemic A(H1N1 2009 strain. General Practice Sentinel Surveillance rates peaked at 9.4 ILI cases per 1000 consultations in week 36 for metropolitan practices, and at 10.5 ILI cases per 1000 in the following week for rural practices. Of the 678 ILI cases, 23% were vaccinated, a significantly higher percentage than in previous years. A significantly higher percentage of ILI patients were swabbed in 2010 compared to 2003–2008, but similar to 2009, with a similar percentage being positive for influenza as in previous years. Vaccination rates increased with patient age. Melbourne Medical Deputising Service rates peaked in week 35 at 19.1 ILI cases per 1000 consultations. Of the 1914 cases of influenza notified to the Department of Health, Victoria, 1812 (95% were influenza A infections - 1001 (55% pandemic A(H1N1 2009, 4 (<1% A(H3N2 and 807 (45% not subtyped; 88 (5% were influenza B; and 14 (< 1% were influenza A and B co-infections. The World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza tested 403 isolates of which 261 were positive for influenza, 250 of which were influenza A and 11 were influenza B. Ninety-two per cent of the influenza A viruses were pandemic A(H1N1 2009, and following antigenic analysis all of these were found to be similar to the current vaccine strain. Three viruses (0.9% were found to be oseltamivir resistant due to an H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene.

  8. Hospitalization in two waves of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C N J; Mytton, O T; McLean, E M; Rutter, P D; Pebody, R G; Sachedina, N; White, P J; Hawkins, C; Evans, B; Waight, P A; Ellis, J; Bermingham, A; Donaldson, L J; Catchpole, M

    2011-10-01

    Uncertainties exist regarding the population risks of hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A(H1N1). Understanding these risks is important for patients, clinicians and policy makers. This study aimed to clarify these uncertainties. A national surveillance system was established for patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England. Information was captured on demographics, pre-existing conditions, treatment and outcomes. The relative risks of hospitalization associated with pre-existing conditions were estimated by combining the captured data with population prevalence estimates. A total of 2416 hospitalizations were reported up to 6 January 2010. Within the population, 4·7 people/100,000 were hospitalized with pandemic influenza A(H1N1). The estimated hospitalization rate of cases showed a U-shaped distribution with age. Chronic kidney disease, chronic neurological disease, chronic respiratory disease and immunosuppression were each associated with a 10- to 20-fold increased risk of hospitalization. Patients who received antiviral medication within 48 h of symptom onset were less likely to be admitted to critical care than those who received them after this time (adjusted odds ratio 0·64, 95% confidence interval 0·44-0·94, P=0·024). In England the risk of hospitalization with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) has been concentrated in the young and those with pre-existing conditions. By quantifying these risks, this study will prove useful in planning for the next winter in the northern and southern hemispheres, and for future pandemics. PMID:21108872

  9. A polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine induces heterologous immunity and protects pigs against pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Mette Sif;

    2013-01-01

    vaccine components.We found that pigs challenged with a virus homologous to the HA and NA DNA vaccine components were well protected from infection. In addition, heterologous challenge virus was cleared rapidly compared to the unvaccinated control pigs. Immunisation by electroporation induced HI...

  10. Multidrug resistant 2009 a/h1n1 influenza clinical isolate with a neuraminidase i223r mutation retains its virulence and transmissibility in ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Erhard; Kroeze, E.J.B.V.; Stittelaar, Koert; Linster, Martin; Linden, A; Schrauwen, Eefje; Leijten, Lonneke; Amerongen, Geert; Schutten, Martin; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert; Fouchier, Ron; Boucher, Charles; Herfst, Sander

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOnly two classes of antiviral drugs, neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, are approved for prophylaxis and therapy against influenza virus infections. A major concern is that influenza virus becomes resistant to these antiviral drugs and spreads in the human population. The 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus is naturally resistant to adamantanes. Recently a novel neuraminidase I223R mutation was identified in an A/H1N1 virus showing cross-resistance to the neuraminidase inh...

  11. Interim estimates of 2015/16 vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Canada, February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Catharine; Skowronski, Danuta M; Sabaiduc, Suzana; Winter, Anne Luise; Dickinson, James A; De Serres, Gaston; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Drews, Steven J; Martineau, Christine; Eshaghi, Alireza; Krajden, Mel; Bastien, Nathalie; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Using a test-negative design, the Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) assessed interim 2015/16 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Adjusted VE showed significant protection of 64% (95% confidence interval (CI): 44-77%) overall and 56% (95%CI: 26-73%) for adults between 20 and 64 years-old against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 illness. Among the 67 A(H1N1)pdm09-positive specimens that were successfully sequenced, 62 (> 90%) belonged to the emerging genetic 6B.1 subclade, defined by S162N (potential gain of glycosylation) and I216T mutations in the haemagglutinin protein. Findings from the Canadian SPSN indicate that the 2015/16 northern hemisphere vaccine provided significant protection against A(H1N1)pdm09 illness despite genetic evolution in circulating viruses.

  12. Seroprevalence study in Vojvodina (Serbia following 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The seroprevalence study was performed in Vojvodina during May and June 2010 in order to asses the effects of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v epidemic on herd immunity. It was a part of the Serbian Ministry of Health funded nationwide study. Objective. Prevalence of antibodies against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v was determined in a 1% sample of the population monitored for influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infections in Vojvodina through sentinel surveillance system. Methods. The study sample involved a total of 1004 inhabitants of Vojvodina. The control group consisted of randomly selected and age-adjusted 1054 sera collected in the pre-pandemic period. Sera were tested by the reaction of hemagglutination inhibition using influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1 antigen in dilution from 1:8 to 1:256. Antibody titers ≥1:32 and ≥1:8 were considered protective and diagnostic, respectively. Results. The differences between control and study sera in all age groups were significant for both diagnostic ≥1/8 and protective titres ≥1/32 of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies (chi square test, p<0.001. The highest percentage of seropositive subjects was registered in the age group 15-19 years followed by children aged 5-14 years. Both diagnostic and protective titres were about twice higher in the vaccinated as compared to the non-vaccinated group. There were no statistically significant differences in seroprevalence between seven districts of Vojvodina. Conclusion. The 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v epidemic significantly influenced the herd immunity in our population regardless of low immunization coverage with highest immunity levels in adolescents aged 15-19 years and with similar herd immunity levels in all the regions in the province six months after the outbreak.

  13. Theoretical studies on the susceptibility of oseltamivir against variants of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Youyong; Zhang, Liling; Hou, Tingjun

    2012-10-22

    The outbreak and high speed global spread of the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus in 2009 posed a serious threat to global health. It is more likely that drug-resistant influenza strains will arise after the extensive use of anti-influenza drugs. Consequently, the identification of the potential resistant sites for drugs in advance and the understanding of the corresponding molecular mechanisms that cause drug resistance are quite important in the design of new drug candidates with better potency to combat drug resistance. Here, we performed molecular simulations to evaluate the potency of oseltamivir to combat drug resistance caused by the mutations in 2009 A/H1N1 neuraminidase (NA). We examined three representative drug-resistant mutations in NA, consisting of H274Y, N294S, and Y252H. First, a theoretical structure of A/H1N1 NA in complex with oseltamivir was constructed using homology modeling. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) calculations, and MM/GBSA free energy decomposition were used to characterize the binding of oseltamivir with the wild type (WT) and three mutated NAs. Our predictions show that N294S and H274Y, two popular drug-resistant mutations in different variants of NA, still cause significant resistance to oseltamivir. However, the Y252H mutation does not impair the interactions between oseltamivir and A/H1N1 NA. An examination of individual energy components shows that the loss of polar interactions is the key source for the resistance of the studied mutations to oseltamivir. Moreover, free energy decomposition analysis and structural analysis reveal that the N294S or H274Y mutation triggers the large-scale conformational changes of the binding pocket and then impairs the affinity of oseltamivir. We expect that our results will be useful for the rational design of NA inhibitors with high potency against drug-resistant A/H1N1 mutants. PMID:22998323

  14. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Favipiravir (T-705) against Drug-Resistant Influenza and 2009 A(H1N1) Viruses▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sleeman, Katrina; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Deyde, Varough M.; Furuta, Yousuke; Klimov, Alexander I; Larisa V Gubareva

    2010-01-01

    Favipiravir (T-705) has previously been shown to have a potent antiviral effect against influenza virus and some other RNA viruses in both cell culture and in animal models. Currently, favipiravir is undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. In this study, favipiravir was evaluated in vitro for its ability to inhibit the replication of a representative panel of seasonal influenza viruses, the 2009 A(H1N1) strains, and animal viruses with pandemic ...

  15. Recombinant equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) vaccine protects pigs against challenge with influenza A(H1N1)pmd09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Abdelrahman; Lange, Elke; Beer, Martin; Damiani, Armando; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a threat to human health. The pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus likely originated in swine through reassortment between a North American triple reassortant and Eurasian avian-like SIV. The North American triple reassortant virus harbors genes from avian, human and swine influenza viruses. An effective vaccine may protect the pork industry from economic losses and curb the development of new virus variants that may threaten public health. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine (rH_H1) expressing the hemagglutinin H1 of A(H1N1)pdm09 in the natural host. Our data shows that the engineered rH_H1 vaccine induces influenza virus-specific antibody responses in pigs and is able to protect at least partially against challenge infection: no clinical signs of disease were detected and virus replication was reduced as evidenced by decreased nasal virus shedding and faster virus clearance. Taken together, our results indicate that recombinant EHV-1 encoding H1 of A(H1N1)pdm09 may be a promising alternative for protection of pigs against infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 or other influenza viruses.

  16. The progress of research on influenza A(H1N1)%甲型H1N1流感的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷晓燕; 孙永红

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A(H1N1)virus is a re-mixed strains of human influenza virus genes,avian influenza virus gene and swine influenza virus gene.Influenza A(H1N1)pandemic influenza has spread around the world,which has drawn worldwide attention.In order to early discovery,early diagnosis,early treatment and effective prevention of Influenza A(H1N1),we describe the characteristics of linfluenza A(H1N1)virus,epidemiology,pathogenesis,clinical manifestations,laboratory examination and effective treatment and preventive measures.%甲型H1N1流感病毒是人流感病毒基因、禽流感病毒基因和猪流感病毒基因混合的重配株,其造成的疫情来势凶猛,引起世界各国的广泛关注.为了早发现、早诊断、早治疗及有效地预防甲型H1N1流感,本文综述了甲型H1N1流感病毒的特点、流行病学、致人发病的机制、甲型H1N1流感患者的临床表现、实验室检查及有效的治疗和预防措施.

  17. Effectiveness of the influenza a(H1N1)PDM09 vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in a matched case-control study. Objectives: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59- adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 infl

  18. Socioeconomic factors influencing hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshie Manabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to clinical aspects and pathogen characteristics, people's health-related behavior and socioeconomic conditions can affect the occurrence and severity of diseases including influenza A(H1N1pdm09. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A face-to-face interview survey was conducted in a hospital in Mexico City at the time of follow-up consultation for hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza virus infection. In all, 302 subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the period of hospitalization. Among them, 211 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction during the pandemic period (Group-pdm and 91 tested positive for influenza A virus in the post-pandemic period (Group-post. All subjects were treated with oseltamivir. Data on the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, living environment, and information relating to A(H1N1pdm09, and related clinical data were compared between subjects in Group-pdm and those in Group-post. The ability of household income to pay for utilities, food, and health care services as well as housing quality in terms of construction materials and number of rooms revealed a significant difference: Group-post had lower socioeconomic status than Group-pdm. Group-post had lower availability of information regarding H1N1 influenza than Group-pdm. These results indicate that subjects in Group-post had difficulty receiving necessary information relating to influenza and were more likely to be impoverished than those in Group-pdm. Possible factors influencing time to seeking health care were number of household rooms, having received information on the necessity of quick access to health care, and house construction materials. CONCLUSIONS: Health-care-seeking behavior, poverty level, and the distribution of information affect the occurrence and severity of pneumonia due to H1N1 virus from a socioeconomic

  19. A/H6N1亚型禽流感病毒致病性评估及与2009A/H1N1亚型流感病毒在哺乳动物体内的遗传兼容性%Evaluation of the pathogenicity of A/H6N1 avian influenza virus and its genetic compatibility with 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus in mammalian models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程凯慧; 王铁成; 杨松涛; 黄耕; 赵永坤; 高玉伟; 华育平; 夏咸柱; 于志君; 忻悦; 张坤; 丁洁; 黄靖; 岳秀芳; 杨霞; 乔军

    2013-01-01

    Objective A/H6N1 avian influenza virus has become an epidemic virus in poultry in China, posing a significant threat to public health. In order to evaluate the capacity of pathogenesis and reassortment of H6N1 virus in mammalians, we first evaluated the pathogenicity of H6N1 virus to mice, and then evaluated the compatibility between H6N1 virus and 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic viruse. Methods For the mouse infection experiment, the mice were inoculated intrana-sally with l01 EID50 - 106EID50 A/H6N1 AIV (A/Mallard/SanJiang/275/2007 , which was isolated from wild ducks) , and virological and histological data were collected by clinical sign observation, virus titration, and histopathology with HE staining. For the reassorment experiment in guinea pigs, the animals were inoculated with mixed A/H6N1 and A/H1N1 influenza viruses ( A/Changchun/01/2009 ) . The nasal washes of guinea pigs were collected every day, and reassortment viruses were obtained by plaque purification and identified by sequence analysis. Results In the mouse infection experiment, the mice were directly infected with H6N1 AIV virus, but were not lethal. The group of mice inoculated with 10 EID50 showed body weight loss, decreased activity, dorsal hair disordered, and tachypnea at day 15 after infection (DPI15). However, the clinical symptoms disappeared at DPI10. The virus titration results showed that the A/H6N1 virus mainly replicated in the lung, trachea and turbinate of mice, and the virus titers were up to 10 4,5/mL. Using HE staining, the pathological examination found that the lungs of the 10 EID50 group showed pathological changes, including alveolar wall thickening, infiltration of inflammatory cells, fibrin exudation and slight bleeding. In the reassorment experiment of guinea pigs, six reassortant virus strains were recovered with different gene segments derived from H6N1 and H1N1 viruses after three-time plaque purification. The results indicated that A/H6N1 and A/H1N1 influenza virus have high

  20. Estimating time to onset of swine influenza symptoms after initial novel A(H1N1v) viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, B D M; Van Hoek, A J; Pebody, R; McMenamin, J; Robertson, C; Catchpole, M; De Angelis, D

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of the incubation time from infection to onset is important for understanding the natural history of infectious diseases. Attempts to estimate the incubation time distribution for novel A(H1N1v) have been, up to now, based on limited data or peculiar samples. We characterized this distribution for a generic group of symptomatic cases using laboratory-confirmed swine influenza case-information. Estimates of the incubation distribution for the pandemic influenza were derived through parametric time-to-event analyses of data on onset of symptoms and exposure dates, accounting for interval censoring. We estimated a mean of about 1·6-1·7 days with a standard deviation of 2 days for the incubation time distribution in those who became symptomatic after infection with the A(H1N1v) virus strain. Separate analyses for the <15 years and ≥ 15 years age groups showed a significant (P<0·02) difference with a longer mean incubation time in the older age group. PMID:21087539

  1. Infant Respiratory Outcomes Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Maternal 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Deshayne B.; Wilson, Kumanan; Ducharme, Robin; Hawken, Steven; Sprague, Ann E.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Graeme; Wen, Shi Wu; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infants are at high risk for influenza illness, but are ineligible for vaccination before 6 months. Transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus has been demonstrated for 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccines; however, clinical effectiveness is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination during pregnancy and rates of infant influenza and pneumonia. Methods We linked a population-based birth cohort to administrative databases to measure rates of influenza and pneumonia diagnosed during ambulatory physician visits, hospitalizations and emergency department visits during one year of follow-up. We estimated incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Poisson regression, comparing infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women (vaccine-exposed infants) with unexposed infants, adjusted for confounding using high-dimensional propensity scores. Results Among 117,335 infants in the study, 36,033 (31%) were born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women. Crude rates of influenza during the pandemic (per 100,000 infant-days) for vaccine-exposed and unexposed infants were similar (2.19, 95% CI: 1.27–3.76 and 3.60, 95% CI: 2.51–5.14, respectively), as were crude rates of influenza and pneumonia combined. We did not observe any significant differences in rates of study outcomes between study groups during the second wave of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, nor during any post-pandemic time period. Conclusion We observed no difference in rates of study outcomes among infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated mothers relative to unexposed infants born during the second A/H1N1 pandemic wave; however, due to late availability of the pandemic vaccine, the available follow-up time during the pandemic time period was very limited. PMID:27486858

  2. Clinical characteristics and outcomes among pediatric patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and epidemiologic features and outcomes among children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the charts of hospitalized pediatric patients (&lt;18 years diagnosed with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea, between September 2009 and February 2010. Results : A total of 72 children were hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection (median age, 6.0 years; range, 2 months to 18 years. A total of 40% had at least 1 underlying medical condition, including asthma (17%, malignancies (19%, and heart diseases (17%. Of the 72 patients, 54 (76% children admitted with H1N1 infection showed radiographic alterations compatible with pneumonia. There was no significant difference in pre-existing conditions between pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infected patients with or without pneumonia. Children with pandemic influenza A/ H1N1 pneumonia were more likely to have a lower lymphocyte ratio (P=0.02, higher platelet count (P=0.02, and higher level of serum glucose (P=0.003, and more commonly presented with dyspnea than did those without pneumonia (P=0.04. Conclusion : No significant differences in age, sex, or presence of preexisting conditions were found between children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 H1N1 influenza infection with pneumonia and those without pneumonia. Higher leukocyte count, higher glucose level, and a lower lymphocyte ratio were associated with the development of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza pneumonia.

  3. Risk factors affecting seroconversion after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Sung Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Hemodialysis (HD patients have multiple causes of immune dysfunction and poor immune response to influenza vaccination. We investigated the antibody response rate to a pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza vaccination and clinical parameters influencing the induction of antibody responses in HD patients. Methods A total of 114 HD patients were vaccinated with a monovalent adjuvanted H1N1 inactivated influenza vaccine. Titers of neutralizing antibodies were evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay at pre- and 4 weeks after vaccination. Seroconversion was defined as either a pre-vaccination HI titer  1:40 or a pre-vaccination HI titer ≥ 1:10 and a minimum four-fold rise in post-vaccination HI antibody titer. Seventeen out of 114 HD patients (14.9% tested positive for antibodies against influenza A/H1N1/2009 before vaccination. The remaining 97 baseline sero-negative patients were included in the analysis. Results Only 30 (30.9% HD patients had seroconversion 4 weeks after vaccination. The elderly patients, those over 65 years of age, showed significantly lower seroconversion rate compared to younger HD patients (20.5% vs. 39.6%, p = 0.042. Furthermore, patients with hemoglobin values less than 10 g/dL had a significantly lower seroconversion rate compared to those with higher hemoglobin values (20.0 vs. 38.6%, p = 0.049. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, only age ≥65 years (OR = 0.336, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.116-0.971, p = 0.044 and hemoglobin levels Conclusions Our data show that HD patients, especially who are elderly with low hemoglobin levels, are at increased risk for lower seroconversion rate after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Further studies are needed to improve the efficacy of vaccination in these high risk patients.

  4. Outbreak of Influenza A(H1N1) in a Kidney Transplant Unit-Protective Effect of Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helanterä, I; Anttila, V-J; Lappalainen, M; Lempinen, M; Isoniemi, H

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), despite suggested inferior efficacy among these patients. We characterize an outbreak of influenza A(H1N1) in a kidney transplant unit. Altogether 23 patients were treated on the ward for postoperative care after kidney transplantation during the outbreak. After the first positive case, all patients were tested with nasopharyngeal swab tests and 7 patients were diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1). Altogether 17/23 patients had received adequate seasonal influenza vaccination, of whom 2/17 tested positive for influenza (one asymptomatic, one with mild cough). Five of six unvaccinated patients were diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1); 3/5 suffered from severe respiratory failure and were treated with ventilator support in the ICU, but all died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, whereas 2/5 suffered from mild viral pneumonitis and recovered fully. The risk of influenza infection and mortality was significantly increased in unvaccinated patients (odds ratio 37.5 [95% CI 2.7-507.5, p = 0.01] and 6.7 [95% CI 2.3-18.9, p = 0.003], respectively). Influenza A(H1N1) had a high mortality in our cohort of nonvaccinated immunosuppressed patients early after kidney transplantation. None of the vaccinated patients developed serious disease, supporting the role of vaccination also for ESRD patients.

  5. Changes in severity of 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza in England: a Bayesian evidence synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Presanis, A. M.; Pebody, R. G.; Paterson, B J; Tom, B D M; Birrell, P. J.; Charlett, A.; Lipsitch, Marc; Angelis, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in England during the two waves of activity up to end of February 2010 by estimating the probabilities of cases leading to severe events and the proportion of the population infected. Design: A Bayesian evidence synthesis of all available relevant surveillance data in England to estimate severity of the pandemic. Data sources: All available surveillance systems relevant to the pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak in Engl...

  6. Timeliness of contact tracing among flight passengers for influenza A/H1N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaan Corien M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early diagnosis and treatment. Passengers seated on the same row, two rows in front or behind a patient infectious for influenza, during a flight of ≥ 4 h were considered close contacts. This study evaluates the timeliness of flight-contact tracing (CT as performed following national and international CT requests addressed to the Center of Infectious Disease Control (CIb/RIVM, and implemented by the Municipal Health Services of Schiphol Airport. Methods Elapsed days between date of flight arrival and the date passenger lists became available (contact details identified - CI was used as proxy for timeliness of CT. In a retrospective study, dates of flight arrival, onset of illness, laboratory diagnosis, CT request and identification of contacts details through passenger lists, following CT requests to the RIVM for flights landed at Schiphol Airport were collected and analyzed. Results 24 requests for CT were identified. Three of these were declined as over 4 days had elapsed since flight arrival. In 17 out of 21 requests, contact details were obtained within 7 days after arrival (81%. The average delay between arrival and CI was 3,9 days (range 2-7, mainly caused by delay in diagnosis of the index patient after arrival (2,6 days. In four flights (19%, contacts were not identified or only after > 7 days. CI involving Dutch airlines was faster than non-Dutch airlines (P Conclusion CT for influenza A/H1N1 2009 among flight passengers was not successful for timely provision of prophylaxis. CT had little additional value for alerting passengers for disease symptoms, as this information already was provided during and after the flight. Public health authorities should take into account patient delays in seeking medical advise and

  7. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and coverage in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2012-06-01

    In August 2010 the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project conducted a survey to collect information on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and vaccination coverage in the European Union (EU), Norway and Iceland. Of 29 responding countries, 26 organised national pandemic influenza vaccination and one country had recommendations for vaccination but did not have a specific programme. Of the 27 countries with vaccine recommendations, all recommended it for healthcare workers and pregnant women. Twelve countries recommended vaccine for all ages. Six and three countries had recommendations for specific age groups in children and in adults, countries for specific adult age groups. Most countries recommended vaccine for those in new risk groups identified early in the pandemic such as morbid obese and people with neurologic diseases. Two thirds of countries started their vaccination campaigns within a four week period after week 40\\/2009. The reported vaccination coverage varied between countries from 0.4% to 59% for the entire population (22 countries); 3% to 68% for healthcare workers (13 countries); 0% to 58% for pregnant women (12 countries); 0.2% to 74% for children (12 countries). Most countries identified similar target groups for pandemic vaccine, but substantial variability in vaccination coverage was seen. The recommendations were in accordance with policy advice from the EU Health Security Committee and the World Health Organization.

  8. Effectiveness of the influenza A(H1N1)PDM09 vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination: A matched case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in a matched case-control study. Patients/methods This study was conducted during the pandemic influenza

  9. Analysis of oseltamivir-resistant H275Y mutation in a novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strain%一株新型甲型H1N1流感病毒H275Y的奥司他韦耐药变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彤; 李淑华; 鹿文英; 韩磊; 韩一芳; 曹广文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the genetic characteristics and variations of glycosylation sites of neuraminidase (NA) gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. Methods The sequences of NA gene of 110 A/H1N1 influenza virus strains isolated at different time and locations were downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA4.0 software and NJ method were used for nucleotide sequence alignment, coding protein sequence alignment and the phylogenetic tree construction. Results The NA gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strains isolated from different areas in 2009 shared an extremely high homology of 99. 5%-100%, but it was different from that of A/human/H1N1 influenza virus. The novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strains and Europe A/swine/HlNl influenza virus strains shared a high homology of 89. 6% - 92. 9%, with similar glycosylation sites at 50, 58, 63, 68, 88, 146, 235 and 386. Moreover, the homology of NA gene between the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus and A/chicken/H5N1 influenza virus amounted to 83. 6% -85. 3%. Amino acid residues at the enzyme active sites of the NA were strictly conservative in most novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strains, still manifesting as R118, D151, R152, R225, E277, R293, R368, Y402, E119, R156, W179, S180, D199, 1223, E228, H275, E278, N295 and E425. Four strains isolated from Denmark, Japan, and HongKong and Hunan province showed a H275Y mutatioa The NA gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus might originate from Europe A/swine/HlNl influenza virus, and had genetic relationship with A/ chicken/H5N1 influenza virus. Conclusions The novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 might be a reassorted virus rather than the result of gradual evolution of A/human/HlNl influenza virus. A novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strain isolated from Hunan has a H275Y mutation which might be oseltamivir resistant.%目的 探讨2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒神经氨酸酶(NA)基因的进化规律,分析NA蛋白酶活性位点以及糖基

  10. 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒的进化趋势及未来防控中应考虑的问题%Evolutionary trend of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 and the major problems concerning prevention and control of this pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广文

    2009-01-01

    2009年流行的新型甲型H1N1流感病毒的8个功能基因各自有一定的进化特点,其主要免疫原性基因--血凝素(HA)基因源于北美猪流感病毒.2005年在美国衣阿华(Iowa)州分离的感染人的猪H1N1的HA基因、病毒聚合酶(PB2、PBl和PA)基因、核蛋白基因(NP)和非结构基因(NS)与此次新型甲型HlNl病毒高度同源(同源性超过90%),可能是此次新型甲型H1N1病毒进化过程中的中间步骤.神经氨酸酶(NA)基因源于欧洲H1N1猪流感病毒,基质蛋白(M1和M2)基因来自欧洲H3N2亚型猪流感病毒,两段基因可能在猪体内与Iowa株发生重排而进化成此次新型甲型H1N1病毒.本文分析了新型甲型H1N1流感病毒可能的进化过程,并提出了未来防控工作中需要注意的几个科学问题.%Objective Eight functional fragments of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 had their own evolutionary characteristics. Among them, the hemagglutinin (HA), the major antigenic gene, was originated from swine influenza virus epidemics in North America. The HA gene, polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA), nucleoprotein gene (NP) and nonstructural protein gene (NS) of the virus strain isolated in Iowa of US in 2005 shared close homology (identities more than 90%) with the corresponding sequences of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. The Iowa strain might be an intermediate step of the evolutionary process of this novel A/H1N1 influenza virus. The evolutionary process of the novel A/H1N1 influenza might be realized in pigs re-assorted with the neuraminidase (NA) gene from European swine H1N1 influenza virus and matrix proteins (M1 and M2) genes from European H3N2 swine influenza virus. The present paper presented possible evolutionary processes of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009, and pointed out several relevant scientific points which should be emphasized in the prevention and control of the epidemics of the novel A/H1N1 influenza in

  11. Pandemic A/H1N1v influenza 2009 in hospitalized children: a multicenter Belgian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumental Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized children in Brussels, Belgium. Methods From July 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010, we collected epidemiological and clinical data of all proven (positive H1N1v PCR and probable (positive influenza A antigen or culture pediatric cases of influenza A/H1N1v infections, hospitalized in four tertiary centers. Results During the epidemic period, an excess of 18% of pediatric outpatients and emergency department visits was registered. 215 children were hospitalized with proven/probable influenza A/H1N1v infection. Median age was 31 months. 47% had ≥ 1 comorbid conditions. Febrile respiratory illness was the most common presentation. 36% presented with initial gastrointestinal symptoms and 10% with neurological manifestations. 34% had pneumonia. Only 24% of the patients received oseltamivir but 57% received antibiotics. 10% of children were admitted to PICU, seven of whom with ARDS. Case fatality-rate was 5/215 (2%, concerning only children suffering from chronic neurological disorders. Children over 2 years of age showed a higher propensity to be admitted to PICU (16% vs 1%, p = 0.002 and a higher mortality rate (4% vs 0%, p = 0.06. Infants less than 3 months old showed a milder course of infection, with few respiratory and neurological complications. Conclusion Although influenza A/H1N1v infections were generally self-limited, pediatric burden of disease was significant. Compared to other countries experiencing different health care systems, our Belgian cohort was younger and received less frequently antiviral therapy; disease course and mortality were however similar.

  12. Identification of TMPRSS2 as a Susceptibility Gene for Severe 2009 Pandemic A(H1N1) Influenza and A(H7N9) Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Zhongshan; Zhou, Jie; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chu, Hin; Li, Cun; Wang, Dong; Yang, Dong; Zheng, Shufa; Hao, Ke; Bosse, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Song, You-Qiang; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Li, Lanjuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The genetic predisposition to severe A(H1N1) 2009 (A[H1N1]pdm09) influenza was evaluated in 409 patients, including 162 cases with severe infection and 247 controls with mild infection. We prioritized candidate variants based on the result of a pilot genome-wide association study and a lung expressi

  13. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms and severity of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in otherwise healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito Susanna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs form an essential part of the innate immune system, which plays a fundamental role in rapidly and effectively controlling infections and initiating adaptive immunity. There are no published data concerning the importance of polymorphisms of TLRs in conditioning susceptibility to influenza or the severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether selected polymorphisms of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 influence the incidence and clinical picture of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Results The study involved 272 healthy children attending our Emergency Room for influenza-like illness (ILI, including 51 (18.8% with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza as revealed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 164 healthy controls examined after minor surgery. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples and five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were studied: TLR2 rs5743708, TLR3 rs5743313, TLR3 rs5743315, TLR4 rs4986790 and TLR4 rs4986791. The TLR3 rs5743313/CT polymorphism was found in all of the children with pneumonia and influenza infection, but in a significantly smaller number of those with A/H1N1/2009 influenza without pneumonia ( Conclusions There is a close relationship between the presence of TLR3 rs5743313/CT and an increased risk of pneumonia in children infected by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus.

  14. Bayesian modeling to unmask and predict influenza A/H1N1pdm dynamics in London

    OpenAIRE

    Birrell, Paul J.; Ketsetzis, Georgios; Gay, Nigel J.; Cooper, Ben S.; Presanis, Anne M.; Harris, Ross J.; Charlett, André; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Peter J White; Pebody, Richard G.; De Angelis, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The tracking and projection of emerging epidemics is hindered by the disconnect between apparent epidemic dynamics, discernible from noisy and incomplete surveillance data, and the underlying, imperfectly observed, system. Behavior changes compound this, altering both true dynamics and reporting patterns, particularly for diseases with nonspecific symptoms, such as influenza. We disentangle these effects to unravel the hidden dynamics of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1pdm pandemic in London, where ...

  15. Infection of the upper respiratory tract with seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus induces protective immunity in ferrets against infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus after intranasal, but not intratracheal, inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.H.C.M. Kreijtz (Joost); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.L.B. Hillaire (Marine); S.E. Vogelzang-van Trierum (Stella ); N. Nieuwkoop; P. van Run (Peter); T. Kuiken (Thijs); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical symptoms caused by infection with influenza A virusvary widely and depend on the strain causing the infection, the dose and route of inoculation, and the presence of preexisting immunity. In most cases, seasonal influenza A viruses cause relatively mild upper respiratory tra

  16. The Influenza A(H1N1)v Pandemic: An Exploratory System Dynamics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Hamarat, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a small exploratory System Dynamics model related to the dynamics of the 2009 flu pandemic, also known as the Mexican flu, swine flu, or A(H1N1)v. The model was developed in May 2009 in order to quickly foster understanding about the possible dynamics of this new flu variant and

  17. Modelling the spatial-temporal progression of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Raimund; Chowell, Gerardo; Mulet, Pep; Villada, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    A spatial-temporal transmission model of 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza across Chile, a country that spans a large latitudinal range, is developed to characterize the spatial variation in peak timing of that pandemic as a function of local transmission rates, spatial connectivity assumptions for Chilean regions, and the putative location of introduction of the novel virus into the country. Specifically, a metapopulation SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-removed) compartmental model that tracks the transmission dynamics of influenza in 15 Chilean regions is calibrated. The model incorporates population mobility among neighboring regions and indirect mobility to and from other regions via the metropolitan central region ('hub region'). The stability of the disease-free equilibrium of this model is analyzed and compared with the corresponding stability in each region, concluding that stability may occur even with some regions having basic reproduction numbers above 1. The transmission model is used along with epidemiological data to explore potential factors that could have driven the spatial-temporal progression of the pandemic. Simulations and sensitivity analyses indicate that this relatively simple model is sufficient to characterize the south-north gradient in peak timing observed during the pandemic, and suggest that south Chile observed the initial spread of the pandemic virus, which is in line with a retrospective epidemiological study. The 'hub region' in our model significantly enhanced population mixing in a short time scale.

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa McCallum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 in the Western Pacific Region were reported on 28 April 2009. By 11 June 2009, the day the pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization, nine Western Pacific Region countries and areas had reported laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 cases. From April 2009 to July 2010, more than 250 000 cases and 1800 deaths from laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 were reported from 34 countries and areas in the Region. By age group region-wide, 8.6%, 41.9%, 48.3%, and 1.2% of cases were in the < 5 years, 5–14 years, 15–64 years, and 65+ years age groups, respectively; the overall crude case fatality ratio in the Western Pacific Region was 0.5%. The pandemic demonstrated that region-wide disease reporting was possible. Countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region should take this opportunity to strengthen the systems established during the pandemic to develop routine disease reporting.

  19. Study on the genomic sequences and molecular characteristics of influenza A(H1N1) virus%甲型H1N1流感病毒基因组序列分析及其特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沃恩康; 吴海波; 王怡婷; 汪一帆; 王闻哲; 李颖; 郭潮潭

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析甲型H1N1流感病毒的基因组序列特征,阐明该毒株的遗传变异及分子特性.方法 GenBank中获取流感病毒全序列,对各段基因与已知序列进行分析比较,绘制进化树,并分析和预测甲型毒株的致病性、药物敏感性和现有疫苗的预防保护作用.结果 甲型H1N1病毒的HA、PB2、PB1、PA、NP、NS基因与美国本土的猪流感病毒序列具有高度同源性,NA和M基因具有典型的欧亚株系猪流感病毒特征.该病毒具有人传人的分子基础,HA上HA1和HA2裂解位点序列为PSIQSR↓+GLFGAI,尚不具备高致病性流感病毒的特征.病毒对金刚烷胺类药物耐药,而对达菲和扎那米韦敏感.HA片段5个抗原决定区氨基酸序列与人用流感疫苗具有较大差异,推测现有疫苗对预防本次疫情基本无效.结论 甲型H1N1是一种北美和欧亚两种猪流感病毒的混合体,开发针对本病毒的流感疫苗有助于进一步控制疫情蔓延.%Objective To analyse the genome of influenza A (H1N1) vires so as to elucidate its molecular characteristics and evolution status. Methods DNA sequences of the influenza viruses were collected from NCBI, and compared with the genomes of referenced intluenza viruses. The phylogenetic trees were constructed by the neighbor-joining method, and the pathogenicity, drug susceptibility and vaccine protection were analyzed. Results Phyiogenetic analysis showed that the genes encoding HA, PB2, PBI, PA, NP, and NS protein were most closely related to those influenza A viruses circulating in swine populations in North America. NA and M gene belonged to Eurasia lineages swine influenza vires. The amino acid sequence of the cleavage site between HA1 and HA2 was PARSSR ↓ GLFGAI with the typical characteristics of the low pathogenic influenza virus. Influenza A(H1N1) virus can spread from person-to-person. It is sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir but resistant to amantadine and remantadine. The current

  20. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Holland Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1, generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249 about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1 outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009. We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

  1. Highly Predictive Model for a Protective Immune Response to the A(H1N1pdm2009 Influenza Strain after Seasonal Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jürchott

    Full Text Available Understanding the immune response after vaccination against new influenza strains is highly important in case of an imminent influenza pandemic and for optimization of seasonal vaccination strategies in high risk population groups, especially the elderly. Models predicting the best sero-conversion response among the three strains in the seasonal vaccine were recently suggested. However, these models use a large number of variables and/or information post- vaccination. Here in an exploratory pilot study, we analyzed the baseline immune status in young (<31 years, N = 17 versus elderly (≥50 years, N = 20 donors sero-negative to the newly emerged A(H1N1pdm09 influenza virus strain and correlated it with the serological response to that specific strain after seasonal influenza vaccination. Extensive multi-chromatic FACS analysis (36 lymphocyte sub-populations measured was used to quantitatively assess the cellular immune status before vaccination. We identified CD4+ T cells, and amongst them particularly naive CD4+ T cells, as the best correlates for a successful A(H1N1pdm09 immune response. Moreover, the number of influenza strains a donor was sero-negative to at baseline (NSSN in addition to age, as expected, were important predictive factors. Age, NSSN and CD4+ T cell count at baseline together predicted sero-protection (HAI≥40 to A(H1N1pdm09 with a high accuracy of 89% (p-value = 0.00002. An additional validation study (N = 43 vaccinees sero-negative to A(H1N1pdm09 has confirmed the predictive value of age, NSSN and baseline CD4+ counts (accuracy = 85%, p-value = 0.0000004. Furthermore, the inclusion of donors at ages 31-50 had shown that the age predictive function is not linear with age but rather a sigmoid with a midpoint at about 50 years. Using these results we suggest a clinically relevant prediction model that gives the probability for non-protection to A(H1N1pdm09 influenza strain after seasonal multi-valent vaccination as a

  2. Highly Predictive Model for a Protective Immune Response to the A(H1N1)pdm2009 Influenza Strain after Seasonal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürchott, Karsten; Schulz, Axel Ronald; Bozzetti, Cecilia; Pohlmann, Dominika; Stervbo, Ulrik; Warth, Sarah; Mälzer, Julia Nora; Waldner, Julian; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Olek, Sven; Grützkau, Andreas; Babel, Nina; Thiel, Andreas; Neumann, Avidan Uriel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the immune response after vaccination against new influenza strains is highly important in case of an imminent influenza pandemic and for optimization of seasonal vaccination strategies in high risk population groups, especially the elderly. Models predicting the best sero-conversion response among the three strains in the seasonal vaccine were recently suggested. However, these models use a large number of variables and/or information post- vaccination. Here in an exploratory pilot study, we analyzed the baseline immune status in young (<31 years, N = 17) versus elderly (≥50 years, N = 20) donors sero-negative to the newly emerged A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus strain and correlated it with the serological response to that specific strain after seasonal influenza vaccination. Extensive multi-chromatic FACS analysis (36 lymphocyte sub-populations measured) was used to quantitatively assess the cellular immune status before vaccination. We identified CD4+ T cells, and amongst them particularly naive CD4+ T cells, as the best correlates for a successful A(H1N1)pdm09 immune response. Moreover, the number of influenza strains a donor was sero-negative to at baseline (NSSN) in addition to age, as expected, were important predictive factors. Age, NSSN and CD4+ T cell count at baseline together predicted sero-protection (HAI≥40) to A(H1N1)pdm09 with a high accuracy of 89% (p-value = 0.00002). An additional validation study (N = 43 vaccinees sero-negative to A(H1N1)pdm09) has confirmed the predictive value of age, NSSN and baseline CD4+ counts (accuracy = 85%, p-value = 0.0000004). Furthermore, the inclusion of donors at ages 31-50 had shown that the age predictive function is not linear with age but rather a sigmoid with a midpoint at about 50 years. Using these results we suggest a clinically relevant prediction model that gives the probability for non-protection to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza strain after seasonal multi-valent vaccination as a continuous

  3. 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒血凝素基因进化及变异特征分析%Genetic evolution and variation of hemagglutinin gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑华; 韩一芳; 谢佳新; 韩磊; 苏彤; 鹿文英; 曹广文

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解自2009年3月新型甲型H1N1流感流行以来,其主要免疫原件基因-HA基因的进化及氨基酸变异特性.方法 从NCBI下载2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒以及北美地区、欧洲地区、亚洲地区以往流行的甲型H1N1流感病毒HA基因序列,利用MEGA 4.0软件对所选序列进行基因进化系统发育树分析;对2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒HA基因的核苷酸同源性及氨基酸特异性进行分析,并与北美地区、欧洲地区、亚洲地区分离株进行比较.结果 2009年新型甲型HlNl流感病毒HA基因与2006-2007年美国A/swine/H1N1流感病毒同源性最高,核苷酸序列差异为0%~0.8%;与美国各州1930-2007年分离的A/swine/H1N1流感病毒具有明显的时间上的进化关系;与欧洲及亚洲地区A/swine/H1N1流感病毒进化无关.其重要的抗原性位点与A/human/H1N1流感病毒及流感疫苗株存在较大差异.全球流行半年多以来该病毒株没有发生明显变异.结论 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒HA基因是北美A/swine/H1N1流感病毒长期进化的结果,目前尚未发现明显抗原位点的变异.%Objective To elucidate the characteristics of genetic evolution and variation trend of hemagglutinin ( HA). a major antigenic gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. Methods HA gene sequences of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009, as well as that of the A/H1N1 influenza virus spread in North America, Europe and Asia, were downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA4.0 software was used to analyze the constructed phylogenetic tree of the selected sequences of HA gene. The nucleotide homology and amino acid specificity of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 were analyzed and compared with those in North America, Europe and Asia regions. Results HA gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 showed a highest homology (93. 2%-93. 4%) with the corresponding sequences of A/swine/H1N1 influenza

  4. Emerging influenza A/H1N1: challenges and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human population suffered to four major influenza pandemics in the past by influenza virus in the form of either bird flu or swine flu. The virus has immense capability to diverse as it is capable in antigenic shift, antigenic drift and reassortment due to its fragmented RNA genome. The severity of previous pandemics suggests that severity in human population is directly proportional to the degree of divergence in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes and so the virus is named as HnNn (H1N1, H5N1, etc. Till date no treatment (vaccines and drugs is available against influenza virus infection. Therefore, evolution of new strains, lack of herd immunity, high divergence rate, resistance against antiviral, co-infection with different influenza strains and replication in multiple hosts might help the present virus to develop in super-virus with a potential health threat to man-kind. To tackle the issue, there is a need for a joint venture among government health department, researchers, clinicians, ecologists and general public for future preparedness to combat future influenza pandemics.

  5. Two waves of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 in Wales--the possible impact of media coverage on consultation rates, April-December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramarou, M; Cottrell, S; Evans, M R; Moore, C; Stiff, R E; Elliott, C; Thomas, D R; Lyons, M; Salmon, R L

    2011-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic had a distinct two-wave pattern of general practice consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI). We describe the epidemiology of the influenza pandemic in Wales between April and December 2009 using integrated data from a number of independent sources: GP surveillance, community virology surveillance, hospital admissions and deaths, and media enquiries monitoring. The first wave peaked in late July at 100 consultations per 100,000 general practice population and attracted intensive media coverage. The positivity rate for the A(H1N1)2009 influenza did not exceed 25% and only 44 hospitalisations and one death were recorded. By contrast, the second wave peaked in late October and although characterised by lower ILI consultation rates (65 consultations per 100,000 general practice population) and low profile media activity, was associated with much higher positivity rates for pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 (60%) and substantially more hospital admissions (n=379) and deaths (n=26). The large number of ILI-related consultations during the first wave in Wales probably reflected the intensive media activity rather than influenza virus circulating in the community. Data from community surveillance schemes may therefore have considerably overestimated the true incidence of influenza. This has implications for the future interpretation of ILI surveillance data and their use in policy making, and underlines the importance of using integrated epidemiological, virological and hospital surveillance data to monitor influenza activity. PMID:21262184

  6. Recombination analysis and homology alignment of full-length genome sequences of die novel A/H1N1 influenza virus in 2009%2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒全基因组序列重组分析及同源性比对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿文英; 殷建华; 李淑华; 韩磊; 韩一芳; 苏彤; 曹广文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the genetic variation and recombination of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. Methods Full-length sequence of typical novel A/H1N1 influenza virus was downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA4.0 software was used to connect and align the eight fragments of the virus. Then the fragments of different subtypes such as H1N1, H5N1 and H3N2 of the historical strains from different hosts, including human, poultry and pigs, were connected and aligned in the same way. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by NJ method. The recombination analysis of 2009 pandemic virus was made with Simplot 3. 5.1 software. Results There was no clear variation (identity was 99.69% - 99. 93%) in the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus from April to September, 2009. Simplot and MEGA analysis indicated that the PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP and NS of the novel A/H1N1 virus might originally evolve from the swine and human H1N1 virus isolated in North America (identity was 95. 25%, 95.08%, 95.21%, 93.52%, 95.23% and 94.78%, respectively). NA and MP showed high homology with the European swine H1N1 virus, the identity was 90.21% and 94.43%, respectively. Full-length sequence of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus had a highest similarity with swine H1N1 virus isolated from North America (identity was 92.22%). Conclusions The novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 was originated from the reassortment and evolution of swine H1N1 2005 pandemic virus in North America, and the NA and MP fragments of European swine H1N1. There is no clear variation in novel influenza virus up to now. The novel A/H1N1 influenza vaccine possesses protective effect.%目的 分析2009年新型甲型H1N1流感爆发以来流感病毒的全基因组进化变异及重组情况.方法 从NCBI基因数据库下载2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒(A/H1N1)代表性全基因组序列,先用MEGA4.0软件对8个基因序列片段进行比对和拼接;然后将历史上流行的H1N1、H5N1、H3N2等不同宿

  7. A(H1N1)Influenza Pneumonia with Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN YANG; YU-GUANG WANG; YUN-LIANG XU; XIAN-LING REN; YU MAO; XING-WANG LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION A 56-year-old Chinese female patient with A (H1N1) influenza pneumonia accompanied by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) of the Central Nervous System (CNS) is described in this article. The patient had typical clinical manifestation,and the diagnosis was reached after MRI and other examinations. From this case, we can conclude that the virus ofA (H1N1) influenza can infect CNS, and we should pay more attention to patients of A (H1N1)influenza pneumonia with neurological complications.

  8. Influenza vaccination in the Americas: Progress and challenges after the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero-Álvarez, Alba María; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Kurtis, Hannah Jane; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There has been considerable uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Americas compared to other regions. We describe the current influenza vaccination target groups, recent progress in vaccine uptake and in generating evidence on influenza seasonality and vaccine effectiveness for immunization programs. We also discuss persistent challenges, 5 years after the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic. Methods: We compiled and summarized data annually reported by countries to the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) through the WHO/UNICEF joint report form on immunization, information obtained through PAHO's Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement and communications with managers of national Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI). Results: Since 2008, 25 countries/territories in the Americas have introduced new target groups for vaccination or expanded the age ranges of existing target groups. As of 2014, 40 (89%) out of 45 countries/territories have policies established for seasonal influenza vaccination. Currently, 29 (64%) countries/territories target pregnant women for vaccination, the highest priority group according to WHO´s Stategic Advisory Group of Experts and PAHO/WHO's Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine-preventable Diseases, compared to only 7 (16%) in 2008. Among 23 countries reporting coverage data, on average, 75% of adults ≥60 years, 45% of children aged 6–23 months, 32% of children aged 5–2 years, 59% of pregnant women, 78% of healthcare workers, and 90% of individuals with chronic conditions were vaccinated during the 2013–14 Northern Hemisphere or 2014 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccination activities. Difficulties however persist in the estimation of vaccination coverage, especially for pregnant women and persons with chronic conditions. Since 2007, 6 tropical countries have changed their vaccine formulation from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere formulation and the timing of

  9. Epidemia de influenza A(H1N1 en la Argentina: Experiencia del Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas Influenza A(H1N1 epidemic in Argentina: Experience in a National General Hospital (Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la preparación y la atención médica durante la epidemia de influenza A(H1N1 (junio 2009 en un hospital general de agudos, público, de alta complejidad; con diagnóstico de laboratorio, internación general y cuidados intensivos (UCI. Se elaboró un plan para aumentar la capacidad asistencial, reasignar recursos y garantizar la bioseguridad. La consulta fue 7.1 ± 3.8 veces mayor que en 2006-2008. La detección de casos de A(H1N1 fue confirmada por PCR-RT en 186/486 (38.3% pacientes internados y en 56/176 (31.8% ambulatorios. Internados: mediana de edad 20 años; 75% menores de 45 y 32.3% menores de 15. Mortalidad global: 6.8%; 9.1% en los positivos. Adultos: recepción en un área de atención ambulatoria, internación (aislamiento y ventilación mecánica. Sala general: ingresaron 110 pacientes (5 veces más que 1999-2006 con saturación de oxígeno The preparation and medical care during the influenza A(H1N1 outbreak (June 2009 in a high complexity level, public, general hospital with laboratory diagnosis, general and intensive care (ICU hospitalization is described. A plan was designed to increase the hospital's surge capacity, reallocate resources and guarantee bio-safety. The number of consultations was 7.1 ± 3.8 times higher than during June 2006-2008. Detection of A(H1N1 cases were confirmed by PCR-RT in 186/486 (38.3% in-patients and 56/176 (31.8% out-patients. Median age among in-patients was 20 years; 75% < 45 and 32.3% < 15. Global mortality: 6.8%; 9.1% among confirmed cases. Adults were directed to a reception area of out-patient care, hospitalization (isolation and mechanical ventilation. General ward: 110 patients with oxygen saturation < 96% and/or risk factors (65.5% had asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, pregnancy or other were admitted (5 times more than in 1999-2006. Chest X-ray showed lung infiltrates and/or lung consolidation in 97.3%. Severe hypoxemia: 43.5%. There were no significant

  10. Healthcare workers as parents: attitudes toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torun Fuat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the health care workers (HCWs and children are target groups for pandemic influenza vaccination. The coverage of the target populations is an important determinant for impact of mass vaccination. The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of HCWs as parents, toward vaccinating their children with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with health care workers (HCWs in a public hospital during December 2009 in Istanbul. All persons employed in the hospital with or without a health-care occupation are accepted as HCW. The HCWs who are parents of children 6 months to 18 years of age were included in the study. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was applied for the statistical analyses. Results A total of 389 HCWs who were parents of children aged 6 months-18 years participated study. Among all participants 27.0% (n = 105 reported that themselves had been vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Two third (66.1% of the parents answered that they will not vaccinate their children, 21.1% already vaccinated and 12.9% were still undecided. Concern about side effect was most reported reason among who had been not vaccinated their children and among undecided parents. The second reason for refusing the pandemic vaccine was concerns efficacy of the vaccine. Media was the only source of information about pandemic influenza in nearly one third of HCWs. Agreement with vaccine safety, self receipt of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, and trust in Ministry of Health were found to be associated with the positive attitude toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Conclusions Persuading parents to accept a new vaccine seems not be easy even if they are HCWs. In order to overcome the barriers among HCWs related to pandemic vaccines, determination of their misinformation, attitudes and behaviors regarding the

  11. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 resistance and cross-decreased susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir antiviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vanessa; Santos, Luis A; Gíria, Marta; Almeida-Santos, Maria M; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir and zanamivir are currently the only effective antiviral drugs available worldwide for the management of influenza. The potential development of resistance is continually threatening their use, rationalizing and highlighting the need for a close and sustained evaluation of virus susceptibility. This study aimed to analyze and characterize the phenotypic and genotypic NAIs susceptibility profiles of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in Portugal from 2009 to 2010/2011. A total of 144 cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection from community and hospitalized patients were studied, including three suspected cases of clinical resistance to oseltamivir. Oseltamivir resistance was confirmed for two of the suspected cases. Neuraminidase (NA) H275Y resistant marker was found in viruses from both cases but for one it was only present in 26.2% of virus population, raising questions about the minimal percentage of resistant virus that should be considered relevant. Cross-decreased susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir (2-4 IC50 fold-change) was detected on viruses from two potentially linked community patients from 2009. Both viruses harbored the NA I223V mutation. NA Y155H mutation was found in 18 statistical non-outlier viruses from 2009, having no impact on virus susceptibility. The mutations at NA N369K and V241I may have contributed to the significantly higher baseline IC50 value obtained to oseltamivir for 2010/2011 viruses, compared to viruses from the pandemic period. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between phenotype and genotype, which is currently challenging, and to the global assessment of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus susceptibility profile and baseline level to NAIs.

  12. Influenza risk management: lessons learned from an A(H1N1 pdm09 outbreak investigation in an operational military setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Farrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the onset of an influenza pandemic, when the severity of a novel strain is still undetermined and there is a threat of introduction into a new environment, e.g., via the deployment of military troops, sensitive screening criteria and conservative isolation practices are generally recommended. OBJECTIVES: In response to elevated rates of influenza-like illness among U.S. military base camps in Kuwait, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 partnered with local U.S. Army medical units to conduct an A(H1N1 pdm09 outbreak investigation. PATIENTS/METHODS: Initial clinical data and nasal specimens were collected via the existent passive surveillance system and active surveillance was conducted using a modified version of the World Health Organization/U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention influenza-like illness case definition [fever (T > 100.5˚F/38˚C in addition to cough and/or sore throat in the previous 72 hours] as the screening criteria. Samples were tested via real-time reverse-transcription PCR and sequenced for comparison to global A(H1N1 pdm09 viruses from the same time period. RESULTS: The screening criteria used in Kuwait proved insensitive, capturing only 16% of A(H1N1 pdm09-positive individuals. While still not ideal, using cough as the sole screening criteria would have increased sensitivity to 73%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of and lessons learned from this outbreak investigation suggest that pandemic influenza risk management should be a dynamic process (as information becomes available regarding true attack rates and associated mortality, screening and isolation criteria should be re-evaluated and revised as appropriate, and that military operational environments present unique challenges to influenza surveillance.

  13. Multidrug resistant 2009 A/H1N1 influenza clinical isolate with a neuraminidase I223R mutation retains its virulence and transmissibility in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard van der Vries

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Only two classes of antiviral drugs, neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, are approved for prophylaxis and therapy against influenza virus infections. A major concern is that influenza virus becomes resistant to these antiviral drugs and spreads in the human population. The 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus is naturally resistant to adamantanes. Recently a novel neuraminidase I223R mutation was identified in an A/H1N1 virus showing cross-resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir. However, the ability of this virus to cause disease and spread in the human population is unknown. Therefore, this clinical isolate (NL/2631-R223 was compared with a well-characterized reference virus (NL/602. In vitro experiments showed that NL/2631-I223R replicated as well as NL/602 in MDCK cells. In a ferret pathogenesis model, body weight loss was similar in animals inoculated with NL/2631-R223 or NL/602. In addition, pulmonary lesions were similar at day 4 post inoculation. However, at day 7 post inoculation, NL/2631-R223 caused milder pulmonary lesions and degree of alveolitis than NL/602. This indicated that the mutant virus was less pathogenic. Both NL/2631-R223 and a recombinant virus with a single I223R change (recNL/602-I223R, transmitted among ferrets by aerosols, despite observed attenuation of recNL/602-I223R in vitro. In conclusion, the I223R mutated virus isolate has comparable replicative ability and transmissibility, but lower pathogenicity than the reference virus based on these in vivo studies. This implies that the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus subtype with an isoleucine to arginine change at position 223 in the neuraminidase has the potential to spread in the human population. It is important to be vigilant for this mutation in influenza surveillance and to continue efforts to increase the arsenal of antiviral drugs to combat influenza.

  14. Highly Predictive Model for a Protective Immune Response to the A(H1N1)pdm2009 Influenza Strain after Seasonal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürchott, Karsten; Schulz, Axel Ronald; Bozzetti, Cecilia; Pohlmann, Dominika; Stervbo, Ulrik; Warth, Sarah; Mälzer, Julia Nora; Waldner, Julian; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Olek, Sven; Grützkau, Andreas; Babel, Nina; Thiel, Andreas; Neumann, Avidan Uriel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the immune response after vaccination against new influenza strains is highly important in case of an imminent influenza pandemic and for optimization of seasonal vaccination strategies in high risk population groups, especially the elderly. Models predicting the best sero-conversion response among the three strains in the seasonal vaccine were recently suggested. However, these models use a large number of variables and/or information post- vaccination. Here in an exploratory pilot study, we analyzed the baseline immune status in young (H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus strain and correlated it with the serological response to that specific strain after seasonal influenza vaccination. Extensive multi-chromatic FACS analysis (36 lymphocyte sub-populations measured) was used to quantitatively assess the cellular immune status before vaccination. We identified CD4+ T cells, and amongst them particularly naive CD4+ T cells, as the best correlates for a successful A(H1N1)pdm09 immune response. Moreover, the number of influenza strains a donor was sero-negative to at baseline (NSSN) in addition to age, as expected, were important predictive factors. Age, NSSN and CD4+ T cell count at baseline together predicted sero-protection (HAI≥40) to A(H1N1)pdm09 with a high accuracy of 89% (p-value = 0.00002). An additional validation study (N = 43 vaccinees sero-negative to A(H1N1)pdm09) has confirmed the predictive value of age, NSSN and baseline CD4+ counts (accuracy = 85%, p-value = 0.0000004). Furthermore, the inclusion of donors at ages 31-50 had shown that the age predictive function is not linear with age but rather a sigmoid with a midpoint at about 50 years. Using these results we suggest a clinically relevant prediction model that gives the probability for non-protection to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza strain after seasonal multi-valent vaccination as a continuous function of age, NSSN and baseline CD4 count.

  15. Surveillance of hospitalizations with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza infection in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Birrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection in Queensland, Australia between 25 May and 3 October 2009 and to examine the relationship between timing of antiviral treatment and severity of illness.Method: Using data from the Queensland Health EpiLog information system, descriptive analysis and logistic regression modelling were used to describe and model factors which influence patient outcomes (death, admission to intensive care unit and/or special care unit. Data on patients admitted to hospital in Queensland with confirmed pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were included in this analysis.Results: 1236 patients with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were admitted to hospitals in Queensland during the study period. Of the total group: 15% were admitted to an intensive care unit or special care unit; 3% died; 34% were under the age of 18 years and 8% were 65 years of age or older; and 55% had at least one underlying medical condition. Among the 842 patients for whom data were available regarding the use of antiviral drugs, antiviral treatment was initiated in 737 (87.5% patients with treatment commencing at a median of one day (range 1–33 days after onset of illness. Admission to an intensive care unit or special care unit (ICU/SCU or death was significantly associated with increased age, lack of timeliness of antiviral treatment, chronic renal disease and morbid obesity.Discussion: Early antiviral treatment was significantly associated with lower likelihood of ICU/SCU admission or death. Early antiviral treatment for influenza cases may therefore have important public health implications.

  16. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who died from Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thanh Tinh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who died from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in hospitals in Viet Nam between August 2009 and March 2010.Of 58 fatal cases, 32 (55% were below 30 years of age and 14 (24% were pregnant females. Forty-five (78% patients had at least one underlying medical condition including chronic heart, kidney or lung diseases or pregnancy. Twelve (21% cases sought medical attention on the day of symptom onset. Only 13 (36% of 36 cases for whom treatment data were available had been given antiviral drugs within the recommended two days of symptom onset.The clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the patients who died from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 are similar to those reported from other countries. To improve preparedness and response to future pandemics, Viet Nam needs to strengthen the surveillance of influenza; increase laboratory capacity to test for influenza viruses; and develop strategies for promoting the timely attendance of at-risk individuals at health facilities and the early administration of antiviral drugs, particularly for persons with underlying medical conditions and pregnant females.

  17. Performance of the Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanton, Bobby L; Almradi, Amro; Mehta, Tejal; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test, as compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, demonstrated suboptimal performance to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Age- and viral load-stratified test sensitivity ranged from 33.3 to 84.6% and 0 to 100%, respectively. PMID:24582319

  18. Predictors of influenza in the adult population during seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza periods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Kolthof, J.; Mulder, B.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Bos, J.; Stolk, R.P.; Hak, E.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether the characteristics of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in the general population were similar during the seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza periods. We conducted a study using a general population database, which included demographic (sex, age) and clinical (u

  19. Predictors of influenza in the adult population during seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Kolthof, J.; Mulder, B.; Korevaar, J. C.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Bos, J.; Stolk, R. P.; Hak, E.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether the characteristics of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in the general population were similar during the seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza periods. We conducted a study using a general population database, which included demographic (sex, age) and clinical (u

  20. Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, K; Nicoll, A; Ciancio, B C; Kramarz, P

    2009-01-01

    Pandemic vaccines from four manufacturers are now available for use within the European Union (EU). Use of these vaccines will protect individuals and reduce the impact on health services to more manageable levels. The majority of the severely ill will be from known risk groups and the best strategy will be to start vaccinating in line with the recommendation from the European Union Health Security Committee prioritizing adults and children with chronic conditions, pregnant women and healthcare workers. The composition of authorized vaccines is reviewed in this article. The vaccine strain in all authorized pandemic vaccines worldwide is based on the same initial isolate of influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)v but the vaccines differ in conditions for virus propagation, antigen preparation, antigen content and whether they are adjuvanted or not. The vaccines are likely to be effective since no significant genetic or antigenic drift has occurred and there are already mechanisms for estimating clinical effectiveness. Influenza vaccines have good safety records and no safety concerns have so far been encountered with any of the vaccines developed. However, special mechanisms have been devised for the early detection and rigorous investigation of possible significant side effects in Europe through post-marketing surveillance and analysis. Delivery of the vaccines to the risk groups will pose difficulties where those with chronic illnesses are not readily identifiable to the healthcare services. There is considerable scope for European added value through Member States with excess vaccines making them available to other states. PMID:19883538

  1. Randomized controlled ferret study to assess the direct impact of 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine on A(H1N1pdm09 disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta M Skowronski

    Full Text Available During spring-summer 2009, several observational studies from Canada showed increased risk of medically-attended, laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1pdm09 illness among prior recipients of 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV. Explanatory hypotheses included direct and indirect vaccine effects. In a randomized placebo-controlled ferret study, we tested whether prior receipt of 2008-09 TIV may have directly influenced A(H1N1pdm09 illness. Thirty-two ferrets (16/group received 0.5 mL intra-muscular injections of the Canadian-manufactured, commercially-available, non-adjuvanted, split 2008-09 Fluviral or PBS placebo on days 0 and 28. On day 49 all animals were challenged (Ch0 with A(H1N1pdm09. Four ferrets per group were randomly selected for sacrifice at day 5 post-challenge (Ch+5 and the rest followed until Ch+14. Sera were tested for antibody to vaccine antigens and A(H1N1pdm09 by hemagglutination inhibition (HI, microneutralization (MN, nucleoprotein-based ELISA and HA1-based microarray assays. Clinical characteristics and nasal virus titers were recorded pre-challenge then post-challenge until sacrifice when lung virus titers, cytokines and inflammatory scores were determined. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups of influenza-naïve animals. Antibody rise to vaccine antigens was evident by ELISA and HA1-based microarray but not by HI or MN assays; virus challenge raised antibody to A(H1N1pdm09 by all assays in both groups. Beginning at Ch+2, vaccinated animals experienced greater loss of appetite and weight than placebo animals, reaching the greatest between-group difference in weight loss relative to baseline at Ch+5 (7.4% vs. 5.2%; p = 0.01. At Ch+5 vaccinated animals had higher lung virus titers (log-mean 4.96 vs. 4.23pfu/mL, respectively; p = 0.01, lung inflammatory scores (5.8 vs. 2.1, respectively; p = 0.051 and cytokine levels (p>0.05. At Ch+14, both groups had recovered. Findings in influenza

  2. Excess mortality monitoring in England and Wales during the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardelid, P; Andrews, N; Pebody, R

    2011-09-01

    We present the results from a novel surveillance system for detecting excess all-cause mortality by age group in England and Wales developed during the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 period from April 2009 to March 2010. A Poisson regression model was fitted to age-specific mortality data from 1999 to 2008 and used to predict the expected number of weekly deaths in the absence of extreme health events. The system included adjustment for reporting delays. During the pandemic, excess all-cause mortality was seen in the 5-14 years age group, where mortality was flagged as being in excess for 1 week after the second peak in pandemic influenza activity; and in age groups >45 years during a period of very cold weather. This new system has utility for rapidly estimating excess mortality for other acute public health events such as extreme heat or cold weather. PMID:21439100

  3. 热毒宁注射液体外抑制甲型H1N1流感病毒的研究%In vitro inhibition of Reduning Injection on influenza A/H1N1 influenza virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兰; 段书敏; 周军; 王振中; 毕宇安; 萧伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究热毒宁注射液体外抑制甲型H1N1流感病毒的作用。方法以奥司他韦为阳性对照,采用CPE和MTT法观察热毒宁注射液对甲型H1N1流感病毒的抑制作用。结果 CPE法结果表明热毒宁注射液最大无毒浓度(TC0)为16.2 mg/mL,半数中毒浓度为(TC50)为(24.5±8.1)mg/mL;MTT法测定结果表明热毒宁注射液TC0为16.2 mg/mL,TC50为(21.7±9.4)mg/mL。热毒宁注射液体外抑制甲型H1N1流感病毒结果显示,CPE法和MTT法热毒宁注射液作用感染细胞1次组半数有效浓度(IC50)为(900.0±173.2)、(933.3±57.7)μg/mL,治疗指数(TI)为27.2、23.2;热毒宁注射液作用感染细胞3次组IC50为(666.7±115.5)、(866.7±208.1)μg/mL,TI为36.7、25.0。结论热毒宁注射液具有明显体外抗甲型H1N1流感病毒的作用。%Objective To study the inhibitory effects of Reduning Injection on influenza A/H1N1 influenza virusin vitro.Methods With Oseltamivir as positive control, CPE and MTT methods were used to observe inhibitory effects of Reduning Injection on influenza A/H1N1 influenza virusin vitro.Results The CPE method results showed that maximum of no toxicity concentration (TC0) of Reduning Injection was 16.2 mg/mL, and median toxic concentration (TC50) was (24.5 ± 8.1) mg/mL. The MTT method results showed that maximum of no toxicity concentration (TC0) was (16.2 ± 0) mg/mL, and median toxic concentration (TC50) was (21.7 ± 9.4) mg/mL. Thein vitro inhibition of influenza A/H1N1 influenza virus of Reduning Injection showed the administration of Reduning Injection to infected cells once, median toxic concentration (TC50) of the CPE method and the MTT method were (900.0 ± 173.2)μg/mL, (933.3 ± 57.7)μg/mL, therapeutic indexes (TI) were 27.2 and 23.2, and administration of Reduning Injection to infected cells for three times, median toxic concentration (TC50) of the CPE method and the MTT method were (666.7 ± 115.5)

  4. Risk factors and immunity in a nationally representative population following the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Bandaranayake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding immunity, incidence and risk factors of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic (2009 H1N1 through a national seroprevalence study is necessary for informing public health interventions and disease modelling. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected 1687 serum samples and individual risk factor data between November-2009 to March-2010, three months after the end of the 2009 H1N1 wave in New Zealand. Participants were randomly sampled from selected general practices countrywide and hospitals in the Auckland region. Baseline immunity was measured from 521 sera collected during 2004 to April-2009. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titres of ≥1:40 against 2009 H1N1 were considered seroprotective as well as seropositive. The overall community seroprevalence was 26.7% (CI:22.6-29.4. The seroprevalence varied across age and ethnicity. Children aged 5-19 years had the highest seroprevalence (46.7%;CI:38.3-55.0, a significant increase from the baseline (14%;CI:7.2-20.8. Older adults aged ≥60 had no significant difference in seroprevalence between the serosurvey (24.8%;CI:18.7-30.9 and baseline (22.6%;CI:15.3-30.0. Pacific peoples had the highest seroprevalence (49.5%;CI:35.1-64.0. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between both primary (29.6%;CI:22.6-36.5 and secondary healthcare workers (25.3%;CI:20.8-29.8 and community participants. No significant regional variation was observed. Multivariate analysis indicated age as the most important risk factor followed by ethnicity. Previous seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with higher HI titres. Approximately 45.2% of seropositive individuals reported no symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Based on age and ethnicity standardisation to the New Zealand Population, about 29.5% of New Zealanders had antibody titers at a level consistent with immunity to 2009 H1N1. Around 18.3% of New Zealanders were infected with the virus during the first wave including about one child

  5. Molecular findings from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 detected in patients from a Brazilian equatorial region during the pandemic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Couto Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After the World Health Organization officially declared the end of the first pandemic of the XXI century in August 2010, the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus has been disseminated in the human population. In spite of its sustained circulation, very little on phylogenetic data or oseltamivir (OST resistance is available for the virus in equatorial regions of South America. In order to shed more light on this topic, we analysed the haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 positive samples collected during the pandemic period in the Pernambuco (PE, a northeastern Brazilian state. Complete HA sequences were compared and amino acid changes were related to clinical outcome. In addition, the H275Y substitution in NA, associated with OST resistance, was investigated by pyrosequencing. Samples from PE were grouped in phylogenetic clades 6 and 7, being clustered together with sequences from South and Southeast Brazil. The D222N/G HA gene mutation, associated with severity, was found in one deceased patient that was pregnant. Additionally, the HA mutation K308E, which appeared in Brazil in 2010 and was only detected worldwide the following year, was identified in samples from hospitalised cases. The resistance marker H275Y was not identified in samples tested. However, broader studies are needed to establish the real frequency of resistance in this Brazilian region.

  6. Permissive changes in the neuraminidase play a dominant role in improving the viral fitness of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A(H1N1) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Yacine; Pizzorno, Andrés; Bouhy, Xavier; Boivin, Guy

    2015-02-01

    Permissive neuraminidase (NA) substitutions such as R222Q, V234M and D344N have facilitated the emergence and worldwide spread of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-H275Y viruses. However, the potential contribution of genetic changes in other viral segments on viral fitness remains poorly investigated. A series of recombinant A(H1N1)pdm09 and A/WSN/33 7:1 reassortants containing the wild-type (WT) A/Brisbane/59/2007 NA gene or its single (H275Y) and double (H275Y/Q222R, H275Y/M234V and H275Y/N344D) variants were generated and their replicative properties were assessed in vitro. The Q222R reversion substitution significantly reduced viral titers when evaluated in both A(H1N1)pdm09 and A/WSN/33 backgrounds. The permissive role of the R222Q was further confirmed using A/WSN/33 7:1 reassortants containing the NA gene of the oseltamivir-susceptible or oseltamivir-resistant influenza A/Mississippi/03/2001 strains. Therefore, NA permissive substitutions play a dominant role for improving viral replication of oseltamivir-resistant A (H1N1)-H275Y viruses in vitro.

  7. Mortality, Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, and Influenza-Like Illness Associated with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Argentina, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Cabrera, Ana María; Chang, Loretta; Calli, Rogelio; Kusznierz, Gabriela; Baez, Clarisa; Yedlin, Pablo; Zamora, Ana María; Cuezzo, Romina; Sarrouf, Elena Beatriz; Uboldi, Andrea; Herrmann, Juan; Zerbini, Elsa; Uez, Osvaldo; Rico Cordeiro, Pedro Osvaldo; Chavez, Pollyanna; Han, George; Antman, Julián; Coronado, Fatima; Bresee, Joseph; Kosacoff, Marina; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Echenique, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction While there is much information about the burden of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in North America, little data exist on its burden in South America. Methods During April to December 2009, we actively searched for persons with severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI) in three sentinel cities. A proportion of case-patients provided swabs for influenza testing. We estimated the number of case-patients that would have tested positive for influenza by multiplying the number of untested case-patients by the proportion who tested positive. We estimated rates by dividing the estimated number of case-patients by the census population after adjusting for the proportion of case-patients with missing illness onset information and ILI case-patients who visited physicians multiple times for one illness event. Results We estimated that the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 mortality rate per 100,000 person-years (py) ranged from 1.5 among persons aged 5–44 years to 5.6 among persons aged ≥65 years. A(H1N1)pdm09 hospitalization rates per 100,000 py ranged between 26.9 among children aged <5 years to 41.8 among persons aged ≥65 years. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 ILI rates per 100 py ranged between 1.6 among children aged <5 to 17.1 among persons aged 45–64 years. While 9 (53%) of 17 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 decedents with available data had obesity and 7 (17%) of 40 had diabetes, less than 4% of surviving influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 case-patients had these pre-existing conditions (p≤0.001). Conclusion Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 caused a similar burden of disease in Argentina as in other countries. Such disease burden suggests the potential value of timely influenza vaccinations. PMID:23118877

  8. Mortality, severe acute respiratory infection, and influenza-like illness associated with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Argentina, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While there is much information about the burden of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in North America, little data exist on its burden in South America. METHODS: During April to December 2009, we actively searched for persons with severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI in three sentinel cities. A proportion of case-patients provided swabs for influenza testing. We estimated the number of case-patients that would have tested positive for influenza by multiplying the number of untested case-patients by the proportion who tested positive. We estimated rates by dividing the estimated number of case-patients by the census population after adjusting for the proportion of case-patients with missing illness onset information and ILI case-patients who visited physicians multiple times for one illness event. RESULTS: We estimated that the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 mortality rate per 100,000 person-years (py ranged from 1.5 among persons aged 5-44 years to 5.6 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. A(H1N1pdm09 hospitalization rates per 100,000 py ranged between 26.9 among children aged <5 years to 41.8 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 ILI rates per 100 py ranged between 1.6 among children aged <5 to 17.1 among persons aged 45-64 years. While 9 (53% of 17 influenza A(H1N1pdm09 decedents with available data had obesity and 7 (17% of 40 had diabetes, less than 4% of surviving influenza A(H1N1pdm09 case-patients had these pre-existing conditions (p ≤ 0.001. CONCLUSION: Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 caused a similar burden of disease in Argentina as in other countries. Such disease burden suggests the potential value of timely influenza vaccinations.

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicating influenza A/H1N1v infection--a clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agnieszka; Prystupa, Andrzej; Kurys-Denis, Ewa; Borys, Michał; Czuczwar, Mirosław; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz; Michalak, Anna; Pietrzak, Aldona; Chodorowska, Grażyna; Krupski, Witold; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Tomasiewicz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    ARDS is defined as an acute inflammatory syndrome characterized with bilateral parenchymal lung infiltrates on chest radiograph and PaO2/FiO2 ratiofat embolism, surface burn, massive blood transfusion. Influenza A/H1N1 infection seems to be responsible for the development of extremely severe type of ARDS with poor response to routine treatment. Despite great progress in the management of ARDS with novel agents and sophisticated techniques, including antimicrobial drugs, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, prostacyclin, exogenous surfactant administration and activated protein C, supportive treatment based mostly on advanced mechanical ventilation in the intensive care units seems to be the most important for the prognosis. PMID:24364461

  10. Origin and fate of A/H1N1 influenza in Scotland during 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lycett, S.; McLeish, N.J.; Robertson, C.; Carman, W; Baillie, G.; McMenamin, J.; Rambaut, A; Simmonds, P.; Woolhouse, M.; Leigh Brown, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of influenza has usually been described by a ‘density’ model, where the largest centres of population drive the epidemic within a country. An alternative model emphasizing the role of air travel has recently been developed. We have examined the relative importance of the two in the context of the 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic in Scotland. We obtained genome sequences of 70 strains representative of the geographical and temporal distribution of H1N1 influenza during the summer and wi...

  11. Research on expulsion law of influenza A(H1N1) virus and antiviral therapy%甲型H1N1流感患者排毒规律及抗病毒治疗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘映霞; 杨桂林; 陈心春; 周伯平; 杨大国; 李慧涓; 高雪; 刘艳; 谢靖婧; 李建民; 刘水腾; 张明霞

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究2009年深圳市收治的甲型H1N1流感确诊病例排毒规律和抗病毒治疗疗效.方法 75例患者均经两次鼻咽拭子甲型H1N1流感病毒核酸检测阳性(RT-PCR),此后每天检测病毒核酸直至连续两天均阴性.第1次病毒检测阳性后立即随机分三组抗病毒治疗,分别为奥司他韦(Oseltamivir)(组Ⅰ)、中药(组Ⅱ)和奥司他韦联合中药(组Ⅲ)抗病毒治疗,5 d为一疗程.应用流式细胞仪检测T细胞亚群和IL-17表达.结果 75例患者中,78.7%(59/75)在起病后甲型H1N1流感病毒核酸阳性持续≤7 d,平均年龄为(22.25±10.38)岁;21.3%(16/75)病毒持续>7 d,年龄为(17.16±13.66)岁.对其中56例患者细胞与体液免疫功能进行分析,发现其IL-17表达明显低于季节性流感和健康人(P<0.01).进一步研究发现,10例病毒持续>7 d的患者IL-17表达值(1.91±0.80)明显低于46例病毒持续≤7 d者IL-17表达(3.05±1.59)(P<0.05),也明显低于季节性流感(P<0.01)和正常对照组(P<0.001).比较三治疗组抗病毒治疗5 d疗程结束时病毒核酸转阴率,分别为组Ⅲ92.86%,组Ⅰ71.43%,组Ⅱ46.15%,组Ⅱ明显低于前两组(分别为P<0.01,P<0.05).组Ⅲ经治疗后体温恢复正常时间较组Ⅰ、组Ⅱ缩短(P<0.05).结论 IL-17和年龄与甲型H1N1流感病毒感染及排毒时间长短可能存在一定关系.奥司他韦联合中药治疗在抗病毒疗效和减轻症状方面均有其独特优势.%Objective To investigate the A (H1N1 ) influenza patients whose viral expulsion law and antiviral effecacy in Shenzhen city in 2009. Methods A (H1N1) flu virus nucleic acid positive by reverse transcription-polymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR) with nose swabs pharynx swabs two times were showed in 75 patients. Thereafter, to detect the virus nucleic acid once per day until negative for two days in a row. Begin the antiviral therapy with Oseltamivir (Ⅰ) or the Chinese medicine (Ⅱ) or Oseltamivir combined the Chinese

  12. Surveillance of influenza viruses attacking children in Beijing during 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)%2009甲型H1N1流感大流行期间北京儿童的流感监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱汝南; 沙莉; 袁艺; 王菲; 胡凤华; 李杰; 胡岚; 张宝元; 曹玲; 金丽敏; 李娟娟; 钱渊; 王晓颖; 孙宇; 王芳; 邓洁; 赵林清; 曲东; 李颖; 任晓旭

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行期间北京地区儿童中流感流行的情况.方法 采用WHO推荐的实时荧光定量RT-PCR和国家流感中心推荐的分型方法,对2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行期间因流感样症状来首都儿科研究所附属儿童医院就诊患儿的咽拭子标本进行流感病毒核酸检测.结果 2009年6月1日至2010年2月28日期间共检测了4363份咽拭子标本,其中623例为甲型H1N1阳性,阳性率为14.3%,657例为其他甲型流感病毒阳性(15.1%),所有甲型流感病毒的总阳性率为29.3%.623例中有23例为危重症病例(占阳性患者的3.7%),其中5例死亡.618例信息完整的甲型H1N1病例中,患儿年龄为14天~16岁,性别比例为男比女为1.3:1.1~3岁儿童占25.2%,3~6岁学龄前儿童和6~12岁学龄儿童所占比例相近,各约占30%.在监测期间,仅呈现了一个甲型H1N1的流行波.2009年11月达到最高峰,随后减弱,2010年2月快速下降至2.7%.对监测期间每周20~30份临床标本同时进行季节性流感的监测显示,季节性H3N2、甲型H1N1和乙型流感交替流行.呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)在甲型H1N1流行趋势减缓后逐渐流行成为流行优势株.结论 2009年6月至2010年2月北京地区儿童中出现甲型H1N1的流行,主要累及学龄前和学龄儿童.季节性流感和RSV与甲型H1N1交替流行.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of influenza virus infections in infants and young children during the pandemic period of 2009 influenza A(H1N1)in Beijing.Methods Throat swabs were collected from children visited the affiliated Children's Hospital to Capital Institute of Pediatrics for influenza-like illness from June 1,2009 to February 28,2010.The specific gene segments of 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 and seasonal influenza viruses were amplified from samples by real-time RT-PCR recommended by WHO and National Influenza Reference Center of China.Results Out of 4363 clinical samples tested by real

  13. Influenza A/H1N1 2009 pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients: characteristics and outcomes following high-dose oseltamivir exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharananan, S P; Suwatanapongched, T; Wacharawanichkul, P; Chantratitaya, W; Mavichak, V; Mossad, S B

    2010-04-01

    We report 2 cases of severe pneumonia due to the novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in kidney transplant recipients. Our patients initially experienced influenza-like illness that rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia within 48 h. The patients became hypoxic and required non-invasive ventilation. The novel influenza A/H1N1 2009 was identified from their nasal swabs. These cases were treated successfully with a relatively high dose of oseltamivir, adjusted for their renal function. Clinical improvement was documented only after a week of antiviral therapy. Despite early antiviral treatment, we showed that morbidity following novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection is high among kidney transplant recipients. PMID:20102550

  14. Outbreak of influenza A(H1N1) in a school in southern England.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddard, N.; Paynter, S.; Paget, J.

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of influenza A (subtype H1N1) has occurred in a primary school in West Sussex, southern England [1]. The first cases of illness occurred during the first week of May 2004. One child was admitted to hospital during that week with symptoms of fever, confusion, headache, and conjunctivitis.

  15. Effectiveness of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in England and Scotland 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardelid, P; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Andrews, N; Robertson, C; SebastianPillai, P; Ellis, J; Carman, W; Wreghitt, T; Watson, J M; Pebody, R G

    2011-01-01

    Following the global spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009, several pandemic vaccines have been rapidly developed. The United Kingdom and many other countries in the northern hemisphere implemented seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine programmes in October 2009. We present the results of a case–control study to estimate effectiveness of such vaccines in preventing confirmed pandemic influenza infection. Some 5,982 individuals with influenza-like illness seen in general practices between November 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled. Those testing positive on PCR for pandemic influenza were assigned as cases and those testing negative as controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as the relative reduction in odds of confirmed infection between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Fourteen or more days after immunisation with the pandemic vaccine, adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 21% to 90%). If protection was assumed to start after seven or more days, the adjusted VE was 71% (95% CI: 37% to 87%). Pandemic influenza vaccine was highly effective in preventing confirmed infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 from one week after vaccination. No evidence of effectiveness against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 was found for the 2009/10 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (adjusted VE of -30% (95% CI: -89% to 11%)). PMID:21251487

  16. Measuring the effect of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: the epidemiological experience in the West Midlands, England during the 'containment' phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, N J; Bagnall, H; Janmohamed, K; Suleman, S; Awofisayo, A; De Souza, V; Smit, E; Pebody, R; Mohamed, H; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; House, T; Olowokure, B

    2014-02-01

    The West Midlands was the first English region to report sustained community transmission during the 'containment' phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in England. To describe the epidemiological experience in the region, West Midlands and national datasets containing laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 virus cases in the region during the 'containment' phase were analysed. The region accounts for about 10·5% of England's population, but reported about 42% of all laboratory-confirmed cases. Altogether 3063 cases were reported, with an incidence rate of 56/100 000 population. School-associated cases accounted for 25% of cases. Those aged <20 years, South Asian ethnic groups, and residents of urban and socioeconomically deprived areas were disproportionately affected. Imported cases accounted for 1% of known exposures. Regional R 0 central estimates between 1·41 and 1·43 were obtained. The West Midlands experience suggests that interpretation of transmission rates may be affected by complex interactions within and between sub-populations in the region. PMID:23731730

  17. Narcolepsy, 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic influenza, and pandemic influenza vaccinations: what is known and unknown about the neurological disorder, the role for autoimmunity, and vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Schur, Peter H; MacDonald, Noni E; Steinman, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The vaccine safety surveillance system effectively detected a very rare adverse event, narcolepsy, in subjects receiving AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the European inactivation/purification protocol. The reports of increased cases of narcolepsy in non-vaccinated subjects infected with wild A(H1N1) pandemic influenza virus suggest a role for the viral antigen(s) in disease development. However, additional investigations are needed to better understand what factor(s) in wild influenza infection trigger(s) narcolepsy in susceptible hosts. An estimated 31 million doses of European AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine were used in more than 47 countries. The Canadian AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine was used with high coverage in Canada where an estimated 12 million doses were administered. As no similar narcolepsy association has been reported to date with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the Canadian inactivation/purification protocol, this suggests that the AS03 adjuvant alone may not be responsible for the narcolepsy association. To date, no narcolepsy association has been reported with the MF59®-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine. This review article provides a brief background on narcolepsy, outlines the different types of vaccine preparations including the ones for influenza, reviews the accumulated evidence for the safety of adjuvants, and explores the association between autoimmune diseases and natural infections. It concludes by assimilating the historical observations and recent clinical studies to formulate a feasible hypothesis on why vaccine-associated narcolepsy may not be solely linked to the AS03 adjuvant but more likely be linked to how the specific influenza antigen component of the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine was prepared. Careful and long-term epidemiological studies of subjects who developed narcolepsy in association with AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine prepared with

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and anxiety towards influenza A/H1N1 vaccination of healthcare workers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanriverdi Derya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes about influenza A (H1N1 and vaccination, and possible relations of these factors with anxiety among healthcare workers (HCW. Methods The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design, and it was carried out between 23 November and 4 December 2009. A total of 300 HCW from two hospitals completed a questionnaire. Data collection tools comprised a questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Vaccination rate for 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 among HCW was low (12.7%. Most of the respondents believed the vaccine was not safe and protective. Vaccination refusal was mostly related to the vaccine's side effects, disbelief to vaccine's protectiveness, negative news about the vaccine and the perceived negative attitude of the Prime Minister to the vaccine. State anxiety was found to be high in respondents who felt the vaccine was unsafe. Conclusions HCW considered the seriousness of the outbreak, their vaccination rate was low. In vaccination campaigns, governments have to aim at providing trust, and media campaigns should be used to reinforce this trust as well. Accurate reporting by the media of the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccines and the importance of vaccines for the public health would likely have a positive influence on vaccine uptake. Uncertain or negative reporting about the vaccine is detrimental to vaccination efforts.

  19. Macrophage activation syndrome induced by A/H1N1 influenza in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Rosaria; Cresta, Federico; Favilli, Federica; Naselli, Aldo; De Alessandri, Alessandra; Minicucci, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial respiratory infections have an important impact on the development and progression of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Viral infections are possible triggers of acute deterioration in the clinical status of CF patients. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening complication of rheumatic disease characterized by pancytopenia, hepatitis, hyperferritinemia, coagulopathy, and neurologic symptoms. This syndrome is thought to be caused by the activation and uncontrolled proliferation of T lymphocytes and well-differentiated macrophages, leading to widespread hemophagocytosis and cytokine overproduction. Here, we report the case of a boy affected by CF who developed MAS triggered by pandemic H1N1 influenza; good clinical response was obtained through high dose prednisone treatment. PMID:23401277

  20. [Fatal pneumonitis due to oseltamivir-resistant new influenza A(H1N1) in the case of an intensive care patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardema, Heleen; Tulleken, Jaap E; van den Biggelaar, Ries J M; Wolters, Bert A; de Jager, Corine M; Boucher, Charles A B; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies

    2010-01-01

    A 58-year-old man was submitted to our intensive care ward with respiratory failure due to pneumonitis. He had previously been treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma by autologous stem cell transplantation, as a result of which bone marrow function was reduced. Further analysis showed infection with new influenza A(H1N1); typing revealed an oseltamivir-resistant subpopulation (H275Y). The patient was treated with oseltamivir and intravenously with zanamivir, but died of respiratory disease progression. This is the first published case of oseltamivir-resistant new influenza A(H1N1) infection in the Netherlands. PMID:20482913

  1. High Vaccination Coverage among Children during Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 as a Potential Factor of Herd Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Toshihiko; Sato, Tomoki; Akita, Tomoyuki; Yanagida, Jiturou; Ohge, Hiroki; Kuwabara, Masao; Tanaka, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the expansion of infection and prevention of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. A retrospective non-randomized cohort study (from June 2009 to May 2010) on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was conducted in a sample of residents from Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The cumulative incidence of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and the pandemic vaccine effectiveness (VE) were estimated. The response rate was 53.5% (178,669/333,892). Overall, the odds ratio of non-vaccinated group to vaccinated group for cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 2.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.13–2.23) and the VE was 43.9% (CI: 42.8–44.9). The expansion of infection, indicating the power of transmission from infected person to susceptible person, was high in the 7–15 years age groups in each area. In conclusion, results from this survey suggested that schoolchildren-based vaccination rate participates in determining the level of herd immunity to influenza and children might be the drivers of influenza transmission. For future pandemic preparedness, vaccination of schoolchildren may help to prevent disease transmission during influenza outbreak. PMID:27763532

  2. High Vaccination Coverage among Children during Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 as a Potential Factor of Herd Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Matsuoka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the expansion of infection and prevention of influenza A(H1N1pdm09. A retrospective non-randomized cohort study (from June 2009 to May 2010 on influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was conducted in a sample of residents from Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The cumulative incidence of the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 and the pandemic vaccine effectiveness (VE were estimated. The response rate was 53.5% (178,669/333,892. Overall, the odds ratio of non-vaccinated group to vaccinated group for cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was 2.18 (95% confidence interval (CI: 2.13–2.23 and the VE was 43.9% (CI: 42.8–44.9. The expansion of infection, indicating the power of transmission from infected person to susceptible person, was high in the 7–15 years age groups in each area. In conclusion, results from this survey suggested that schoolchildren-based vaccination rate participates in determining the level of herd immunity to influenza and children might be the drivers of influenza transmission. For future pandemic preparedness, vaccination of schoolchildren may help to prevent disease transmission during influenza outbreak.

  3. Bayesian modeling to unmask and predict influenza A/H1N1pdm dynamics in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Paul J; Ketsetzis, Georgios; Gay, Nigel J; Cooper, Ben S; Presanis, Anne M; Harris, Ross J; Charlett, André; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; White, Peter J; Pebody, Richard G; De Angelis, Daniela

    2011-11-01

    The tracking and projection of emerging epidemics is hindered by the disconnect between apparent epidemic dynamics, discernible from noisy and incomplete surveillance data, and the underlying, imperfectly observed, system. Behavior changes compound this, altering both true dynamics and reporting patterns, particularly for diseases with nonspecific symptoms, such as influenza. We disentangle these effects to unravel the hidden dynamics of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1pdm pandemic in London, where surveillance suggests an unusual dominant peak in the summer. We embed an age-structured model into a bayesian synthesis of multiple evidence sources to reveal substantial changes in contact patterns and health-seeking behavior throughout the epidemic, uncovering two similar infection waves, despite large differences in the reported levels of disease. We show how this approach, which allows for real-time learning about model parameters as the epidemic progresses, is also able to provide a sequence of nested projections that are capable of accurately reflecting the epidemic evolution. PMID:22042838

  4. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of A/H1N1pdm Vaccine Among Subjects With Severe Motor and Intellectual Disability in the 2010/11 Influenza Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Megumi; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kase, Tetsuo; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Background While the immunogenicity and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines among subjects with severe motor and intellectual disability (SMID) are known to be diminished, the efficacy of the A/H1N1pdm vaccine has not been evaluated. Methods We prospectively evaluated 103 subjects with SMID (mean age, 41.7 years) who received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2010/11 influenza season. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer was measured in serum samples collected pre-vaccination (S0), post-vaccination (S1), and end-of-season (S2) to evaluate subjects’ immunogenicity capacity. Vaccine efficacy was assessed based on antibody efficacy and achievement proportion. Results The proportions of seroprotection and seroconversion, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (GMT at S1/GMT at S0) for A/H1N1pdm were 46.0%, 16.0%, and 1.8, respectively—values which did not meet the European Medicines Evaluation Agency criteria. The achievement proportion was 26%. During follow-up, 11 of 43 subjects with acute respiratory illness were diagnosed with type A influenza according to a rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT), and A/H1N1pdm strains were isolated from the throat swabs of 5 of those 11 subjects. When either or both RIDT-diagnosed influenza or serologically diagnosed influenza (HI titer at S2/HI titer at S1 ≥2) were defined as probable influenza, subjects with A/H1N1pdm seroprotection were found to have a lower incidence of probable influenza (odds ratio, 0.31; antibody efficacy, 69%; vaccine efficacy, 18%). Conclusions In the present seasonal assessment, antibody efficacy was moderate against A/H1N1pdm among SMID subjects, but vaccine efficacy was low due to the reduced immunogenicity of SMID subjects. PMID:26780860

  5. ATTEMPTING TO PREDICT THE FATE OF AN ONGOING EPIDEMIC. LESSONS FROM A(H1N1 INFLUENZA IN USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martín Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to estimate the main parameters of the 2009 Influenza type A(H1N1 outburst in USA based on public information provided by Centers for Disease Control (CDC during the early stage of the epidemic. Given the ill-posed nature of the statistical problem, a nonlinear fuction estimation method (Gauss-Newton and Hooke Jeeves was combined with linearization procedures that allowed to set adequate initial guess values for estimation. Based on data until May 13th, 2009, the following values are predicted for the USA outbreak: Tau (time to the peak of incidence 32 days; R0 (number of secondary infections per infected individual 1.7; K (total number of cases 20000(15000-35000. These results are in good agreement with the values reported by the WHO's Rapid Assessment Team for the outburst in Mexico. The method can be applied in any setting where cumulative number of cases are properly recorded.

  6. The European I-MOVE Multicentre 2013-2014 Case-Control Study. Homogeneous moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against A(H1N1)pdm09 and heterogenous results by country against A(H3N2).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Valenciano, Marta

    2015-06-04

    In the first five I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe) influenza seasons vaccine effectiveness (VE) results were relatively homogenous among participating study sites. In 2013-2014, we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in six European Union (EU) countries to measure 2013-2014 influenza VE against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses co-circulated during the season.

  7. 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒聚合酶编码基因的遗传特性及重要功能位点变异分析%Genetic characteristics and variations at important functional sites of polymerase coding genes of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩磊; 谢佳新; 殷建华; 韩一芳; 鹿文英; 曹广文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the hereditary characteristics and variations of important functional domains of polymerase PA, PB1 and PB2 gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. Methods The sequences of PA, PB1 and PB2 gene of the novel A/H1N1 strains, and the reference sequences according to the years, locations, hosts and subtypes of influenza virus were retrieved from NCBI database. All the sequences were contrasted with MEGA4.0 software. The phylogenetic tree was constructed with the neighbor-joining method. All the deduced PB2 protein sequences were compared among the influenza strains, the avian influenza virus and the human A/H1N1 influenza virus found in different years. Results The sequence homology exceeded 99. 8% of PA, PB1 and PB2 gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus isolated from different locations and different time. The sequences of PA, PB1 and PB2 gene isolated from different locations and time showed a high homology, clustered in a unique new clade, and close to avain influenza virus. Phylogenesis indicated that all the PA, PB1 and PB2 gene originally evolved from avain influenza virus. Alignments of the deduced protein sequences showed that the 627th amino acid of the PB2 gene of novel A/H1N1 strains was glutamic acid (Glu) , which was the same as that of avian influenza virus, rather than human H1N1 virus. Conclusions The novel A/H1N1 influenza virus from the same origin leads to the outbreak in 2009, and it is of atypical high pathogenicity. The polymerase gene of avian influenza virus might partially reassort with the novel A/H1N1 virus.%目的 分析2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒聚合酶PA、PB1和PB2编码基因序列遗传的进化特征及重要功能位点变异.方法 从NCBI流感数据库中获取此次流行株的PA、PB1和PB2聚合酶编码基因序列以及不同年代、不同地区、不同宿主、不同亚型的参考序列,运用MEGA4.0软件比对和修剪此次流行株的代表

  8. Using high-throughput sequencing to leverage surveillance of genetic diversity and oseltamivir resistance: a pilot study during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Téllez-Sosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses display a high mutation rate and complex evolutionary patterns. Next-generation sequencing (NGS has been widely used for qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of genetic diversity in complex biological samples. The "deep sequencing" approach, enabled by the enormous throughput of current NGS platforms, allows the identification of rare genetic viral variants in targeted genetic regions, but is usually limited to a small number of samples. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a proof-of-principle study to test whether redistributing sequencing throughput from a high depth-small sample number towards a low depth-large sample number approach is feasible and contributes to influenza epidemiological surveillance. Using 454-Roche sequencing, we sequenced at a rather low depth, a 307 bp amplicon of the neuraminidase gene of the Influenza A(H1N1 pandemic (A(H1N1pdm virus from cDNA amplicons pooled in 48 barcoded libraries obtained from nasal swab samples of infected patients (n  =  299 taken from May to November, 2009 pandemic period in Mexico. This approach revealed that during the transition from the first (May-July to second wave (September-November of the pandemic, the initial genetic variants were replaced by the N248D mutation in the NA gene, and enabled the establishment of temporal and geographic associations with genetic diversity and the identification of mutations associated with oseltamivir resistance. CONCLUSIONS: NGS sequencing of a short amplicon from the NA gene at low sequencing depth allowed genetic screening of a large number of samples, providing insights to viral genetic diversity dynamics and the identification of genetic variants associated with oseltamivir resistance. Further research is needed to explain the observed replacement of the genetic variants seen during the second wave. As sequencing throughput rises and library multiplexing and automation improves, we foresee that

  9. Analysis of the effectiveness of interventions used during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne George J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the emergence of the A/H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic, public health interventions were activated to lessen its potential impact. Computer modelling and simulation can be used to determine the potential effectiveness of the social distancing and antiviral drug therapy interventions that were used at the early stages of the pandemic, providing guidance to public health policy makers as to intervention strategies in future pandemics involving a highly pathogenic influenza strain. Methods An individual-based model of a real community with a population of approximately 30,000 was used to determine the impact of alternative interventions strategies, including those used in the initial stages of the 2009 pandemic. Different interventions, namely school closure and antiviral strategies, were simulated in isolation and in combination to form different plausible scenarios. We simulated epidemics with reproduction numbers R0of 1.5, which aligns with estimates in the range 1.4-1.6 determined from the initial outbreak in Mexico. Results School closure of 1 week was determined to have minimal effect on reducing overall illness attack rate. Antiviral drug treatment of 50% of symptomatic cases reduced the attack rate by 6.5%, from an unmitigated rate of 32.5% to 26%. Treatment of diagnosed individuals combined with additional household prophylaxis reduced the final attack rate to 19%. Further extension of prophylaxis to close contacts (in schools and workplaces further reduced the overall attack rate to 13% and reduced the peak daily illness rate from 120 to 22 per 10,000 individuals. We determined the size of antiviral stockpile required; the ratio of the required number of antiviral courses to population was 13% for the treatment-only strategy, 25% for treatment and household prophylaxis and 40% for treatment, household and extended prophylaxis. Additional simulations suggest that coupling school closure with the antiviral

  10. Dependence of the results of ecological-epidemic investigation of influenza A(H1N1) on immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathudinova, Mohinav; Alimova, Barno; Rahimova, Halima

    2016-07-01

    This report presents the results of ecology-epidemical and immunological researches influ-enza virus A (H1 N1) and acute respiratory infection in Dushanbe from 2011 till 2015. The received results epidemiological and immunological analysis showed us, that last years has been changed not only characteristics of influenza epidemic, but it can not be notice the low-er of intensively of the collective immunity to actual versions influenza viruses A and B

  11. Functional balance between the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 HA D222 variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Casalegno

    Full Text Available D222G/N substitutions in A(H1N1pdm09 hemagglutinin may be associated with increased binding of viruses causing low respiratory tract infections and human pathogenesis. We assessed the impact of such substitutions on the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage, viral growth and in vivo virulence.Seven viruses with differing polymorphisms at codon 222 (2 with D, 3 G, 1 N and 1 E were isolated from patients and characterized with regards hemagglutinin binding affinity (Kd to α-2,6 sialic acid (SAα-2,6 and SAα-2,3 and neuraminidase enzymatic properties (Km, Ki and Vmax. The hemagglutination assay was used to quantitatively assess the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage. Viral growth properties were compared in vitro in MDCK-SIAT1 cells and in vivo in BALB/c mice. Compared with D222 variants, the binding affinity of G222 variants was greater for SAα-2,3 and lower for SAα-2,6, whereas that of both E222 and N222 variants was greater for both SAα-2,3 and SAα-2,6. Mean neuraminidase activity of D222 variants (16.0 nmol/h/10(6 was higher than that of G222 (1.7 nmol/h/10(6 viruses and E/N222 variants (4.4 nmol/h/10(6 viruses. The hemagglutination assay demonstrated a deviation from functional balance by E222 and N222 variants that displayed strong hemagglutinin binding but weak neuraminidase activity. This deviation impaired viral growth in MDCK-SIAT1 cells but not infectivity in mice. All strains but one exhibited low infectious dose in mice (MID50 and replicated to high titers in the lung; this D222 strain exhibited a ten-fold higher MID50 and replicated to low titers. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase balance status had a greater impact on viral replication than hemagglutinin affinity strength, at least in vitro, thus emphasizing the importance of an optimal balance for influenza virus fitness. The mouse model is effective in assessing binding to SAα-2,3 but cannot differentiate SAα-2,3- from SA

  12. Investigation of Hospitalized Patients with New Influenza A(H1N1) in Hangzhou%杭州新型甲型H1N1流感住院病例调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 王先开; 周逸丹

    2011-01-01

    influenza A (H1N1) between different age levels were inapparent; the visible change of clinical manifestation from variations of new influenza A(H1N1) virus did not appear from June to September.

  13. Assessing the in vitro fitness of an oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A/H1N1 influenza strain using a mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Holder

    Full Text Available In 2007, the A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1 seasonal influenza virus strain acquired the oseltamivir-resistance mutation H275Y in its neuraminidase (NA gene. Although previous studies had demonstrated that this mutation impaired the replication capacity of the influenza virus in vitro and in vivo, the A/Brisbane/59/2007 H275Y oseltamivir-resistant mutant completely out-competed the wild-type (WT strain and was, in the 2008-2009 influenza season, the primary A/H1N1 circulating strain. Using a combination of plaque and viral yield assays, and a simple mathematical model, approximate values were extracted for two basic viral kinetics parameters of the in vitro infection. In the ST6GalI-MDCK cell line, the latent infection period (i.e., the time for a newly infected cell to start releasing virions was found to be 1-3 h for the WT strain and more than 7 h for the H275Y mutant. The infecting time (i.e., the time for a single infectious cell to cause the infection of another one was between 30 and 80 min for the WT, and less than 5 min for the H275Y mutant. Single-cycle viral yield experiments have provided qualitative confirmation of these findings. These results, though preliminary, suggest that the increased fitness success of the A/Brisbane/59/2007 H275Y mutant may be due to increased infectivity compensating for an impaired or delayed viral release, and are consistent with recent evidence for the mechanistic origins of fitness reduction and recovery in NA expression. The method applied here can reconcile seemingly contradictory results from the plaque and yield assays as two complementary views of replication kinetics, with both required to fully capture a strain's fitness.

  14. The impact of immunosenescence on humoral immune response variation after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in older subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana H Haralambieva

    Full Text Available Although influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, the factors underlying the reduced vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in this age group are not completely understood. Age and immunosenescence factors, and their impact on humoral immunity after influenza vaccination, are of growing interest for the development of better vaccines for the elderly.We assessed associations between age and immunosenescence markers (T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles - TREC content, peripheral white blood cell telomerase - TERT expression and CD28 expression on T cells and influenza A/H1N1 vaccine-induced measures of humoral immunity in 106 older subjects at baseline and three timepoints post-vaccination.TERT activity (TERT mRNA expression was significantly positively correlated with the observed increase in the influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at Day 28 compared to baseline (p-value=0.025. TREC levels were positively correlated with the baseline and early (Day 3 influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response (p-value=0.042 and p-value=0.035, respectively. The expression and/or expression change of CD28 on CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells at baseline and Day 3 was positively correlated with the influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at baseline, Day 28 and Day 75 post-vaccination. In a multivariable analysis, the peak antibody response (HAI and/or VNA at Day 28 was negatively associated with age, the percentage of CD8+CD28 low T cells, IgD+CD27- naïve B cells, and percentage overall CD20- B cells and plasmablasts, measured at Day 3 post-vaccination. The early change in influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response was positively correlated with the observed increase in influenza A/H1N1-specific HAI antibodies at Day 28 and Day 75 relative to baseline (p-value=0.007 and p-value=0.005, respectively.Our data suggest that influenza-specific humoral immunity is significantly influenced by

  15. Risk Factors for Mortality among 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Hospitalizations in Maricopa County, Arizona, April 2009 to March 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chowell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed individual-level data on pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm hospitalizations from the enhanced surveillance system of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, AZ, USA from April 1st, 2009 to March 31st, 2010. We also assessed the the risk of death among A/H1N1 hospitalizations using multivariate logistic regression. Hospitalization rates were significantly higher among Native Americans (risk ratio (RR  =  6.2; 95% CI: 6.15, 6.21, non-Hispanic Black (RR = 3.84; 95% CI: 3.8, 3.9, and Hispanics (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.01 compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Throughout the spring, 59.2% of hospitalized patients received antiviral treatment; the proportion of patients treated increased significantly during the fall to 74.4% (Chi-square test, P<0.0001. In our best-fit logistic model, the adjusted risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients was significantly higher during the fall wave (August 16, 2009 to March 31, 2010, OR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.72, 9.03 compared to the spring wave (April 1, 2009 to August 15, 2009. Moreover, chronic lung disease (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 7.4, cancer within the last 12 months (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.3, 14.8, immuno-suppression (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.84, 8.9, and admission delays (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 2.2, 9.5 were significantly associated with an increased the risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients.

  16. Survival of influenza A(H1N1 on materials found in households: implications for infection control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S Greatorex

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of influenza transmission occurs in homes, schools and workplaces, where many frequently touched communal items are situated. However the importance of transmission via fomites is unclear since few data exist on the survival of virus on commonly touched surfaces. We therefore measured the viability over time of two H1N1 influenza strains applied to a variety of materials commonly found in households and workplaces. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Influenza A/PuertoRico/8/34 (PR8 or A/Cambridge/AHO4/2009 (pandemic H1N1 viruses were inoculated onto a wide range of surfaces used in home and work environments, then sampled at set times following incubation at stabilised temperature and humidity. Virus genome was measured by RT-PCR; plaque assay (for PR8 or fluorescent focus formation (for pandemic H1N1 was used to assess the survival of viable virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genome of either virus could be detected on most surfaces 24 h after application with relatively little drop in copy number, with the exception of unsealed wood surfaces. In contrast, virus viability dropped much more rapidly. Live virus was recovered from most surfaces tested four hours after application and from some non-porous materials after nine hours, but had fallen below the level of detection from all surfaces at 24 h. We conclude that influenza A transmission via fomites is possible but unlikely to occur for long periods after surface contamination (unless re-inoculation occurs. In situations involving a high probability of influenza transmission, our data suggest a hierarchy of priorities for surface decontamination in the multi-surface environments of home and hospitals.

  17. 许昌地区新型甲型H1N1流感合并细菌感染分析%Analyze on Novel A/H1N1 influenza infected by bacteria in Xuchang area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽娟; 艾根伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究新型甲型H1N1流感患者合并细菌感染情况.方法 收集咽拭子标本800份,检测其甲型H1N1流感病毒RNA,同时做咽拭子的细菌培养,根据结果 分析甲型H1N1流感患者合并细菌感染及致病菌的药敏情况.结果 800份样本中423例H1N1 RNA阳性;其中73例合并不同的细菌感染,占甲流患者的17%,多数细菌的耐药性较强.结论 许昌地区2009年的甲流疫情中,甲流患者合并细菌感染的情况值得关注,治疗中要注意细菌培养并合理用药.%Objective To research the patients with Novel A/H1N1 who had infected by bacteria.Methods To collect 800 examples of fauces swabs and incubat the swabs and detect the novel A( H1N1 ) influenza virus RNA,on the basis of the results,we could analyze whether the novel A/H1N1 influenza patients infected by bacteria.Results There were 423 patients who had infected by novel A/H1N1 influenza and 73( 17% ) of them had co-infected by bacteria,most of the bacteria were drug fast.Conclusions During the epidemic disease of novel A/H1N1 influenza in Xuchang area in 2009, the co-infected by bacteria and A/H1N1 should be payed more attention, furthermore, we should gave our attention to germicultue and prescribe medicines in reason.

  18. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1)

    OpenAIRE

    James Holland Jones; Marcel Salathé

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1), generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced...

  19. Morbid obesity as a risk factor for hospitalization and death due to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe illness due to 2009 pandemic A(H1N1 infection has been reported among persons who are obese or morbidly obese. We assessed whether obesity is a risk factor for hospitalization and death due to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1, independent of chronic medical conditions considered by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP to increase the risk of influenza-related complications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a case-cohort design to compare cases of hospitalizations and deaths from 2009 pandemic A(H1N1 influenza occurring between April-July, 2009, with a cohort of the U.S. population estimated from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; pregnant women and children or=20 year olds, hospitalization was associated with being morbidly obese (BMI>or=40 for individuals with ACIP-recognized chronic conditions (OR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.4-9.9 and without ACIP-recognized chronic conditions (OR = 4.7, 95%CI 1.3-17.2. Among 2-19 year olds, hospitalization was associated with being underweight (BMIor=20 years without ACIP-recognized chronic medical conditions death was associated with obesity (OR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.5-6.6 and morbid obesity (OR = 7.6, 95%CI 2.1-27.9. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support observations that morbid obesity may be associated with hospitalization and possibly death due to 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection. These complications could be prevented by early antiviral therapy and vaccination.

  20. Effectiveness of seasonal 2010/11 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccines in preventing influenza infection in the United Kingdom: mid-season analysis 2010/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, R; Hardelid, P; Fleming, Dm; McMenamin, J; Andrews, N; Robertson, C; Thomas, Dr; Sebastianpillai, P; Ellis, J; Carman, W; Wreghitt, T; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm

    2011-01-01

    This study provides mid-season estimates of the effectiveness of 2010/11 trivalent influenza vaccine and previous vaccination with monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing confirmed influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in the United Kingdom in the 2010/11 season. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 34% (95% CI: -10 - 60%) if vaccinated only with monovalent vaccine in the 2009/10 season; 46% (95% CI: 7 - 69%) if vaccinated only with trivalent influenza vaccine in the 2010/11 season and 63% (95% CI: 37 - 78%) if vaccinated in both seasons. PMID:21329644

  1. Age-specific vaccine effectiveness of seasonal 2010/2011 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in preventing influenza in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, R G; Andrews, N; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Cottrell, S; Smyth, B; Durnall, H; Robertson, C; Carman, W; Ellis, J; Sebastian-Pillai, P; Zambon, M; Kearns, C; Moore, C; Thomas, D Rh; Watson, J M

    2013-03-01

    An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42-66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45-97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27-97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI -6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15-91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42-68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32-91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group. PMID:22691710

  2. Global patterns in seasonal activity of influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B from 1997 to 2005: viral coexistence and latitudinal gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Finkelman

    Full Text Available Despite a mass of research on the epidemiology of seasonal influenza, overall patterns of infection have not been fully described on broad geographic scales and for specific types and subtypes of the influenza virus. Here we provide a descriptive analysis of laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance data by type and subtype (A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B for 19 temperate countries in the Northern and Southern hemispheres from 1997 to 2005, compiled from a public database maintained by WHO (FluNet. Key findings include patterns of large scale co-occurrence of influenza type A and B, interhemispheric synchrony for subtype A/H3N2, and latitudinal gradients in epidemic timing for type A. These findings highlight the need for more countries to conduct year-round viral surveillance and report reliable incidence data at the type and subtype level, especially in the Tropics.

  3. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre la influenza A(H1N1 2009 y la vacunación contra influenza pandémica: resultados de una encuesta poblacional Knowledge, attitudes and practices about influenza A(H1N1 2009, and influenza vaccine in Mexico: results of a population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Jiménez-Corona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas respecto a la pandemia de influenza, con especial énfasis en la vacuna contra influenza estacional y pandémica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con muestreo polietápico probabilístico, realizado durante diciembre de 2009 en residentes mayores de 18 años de la Ciudad de México (y área metropolitana, Monterrey, Guadalajara y Mérida. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 1 600 sujetos (48.9% masculino; 34% había recibido vacuna contra influenza estacional en años pasados, 90.6% estaba dispuesto a recibir la vacuna contra A(H1N1. La principal causa de rechazo a la vacunación fue no confiar en la vacuna (46.5%. Principales medidas preventivas identificadas por los encuestados: lavado de manos (47.5%, vacuna contra A(H1N1 (28% y etiqueta respiratoria (19.4%. El nivel escolar (1.7, p=0.006 y edad (1.02, pOBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding influenza pandemic, with special emphasis on issues related to influenza vaccine, seasonal and pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study, probabilistic multistage sampling in patients over 18 years, residents of Mexico City (and metropolitan area, Monterrey, Guadalajara and Merida in December 2009. RESULTS: A total of 1.600 subjects (48.9% male were interviewed, 34% had previously received seasonal flu vaccine, 90.6% were willing to be vaccinated against A(H1N1, 46.5% of those who would not receive the vaccine was because they did not trust A (H1N1, 68% considered influenza A (H1N1 as a risk for their family. Hand washing was the preventive measure most commonly reported (47.5%, secondly influenza vaccine (28%. Schooling (1.7, p=0.006 and age (1.02, p<0.001 influence rejection to get vaccine. 82.9% of respondents rate the federal government's management as good or very good. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high acceptance rate for the pandemic influenza vaccine in Mexico when compared to similar studies in other

  4. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1pdm2009 strains found in Brazil are endowed with permissive mutations, which compensate the loss of fitness imposed by antiviral resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Moreno Lopes e Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus outbreak led to the systematic use of the neuraminidase (NA inhibitor oseltamivir (OST. Consequently, OST-resistant strains, carrying the mutation H275Y, emerged in the years after the pandemics, with a prevalence of 1-2%. Currently, OST-resistant strains have been found in community settings, in untreated individuals. To spread in community settings, H275Y mutants must contain additional mutations, collectively called permissive mutations. We display the permissive mutations in NA of OST-resistant A(H1N1pdm09 virus found in Brazilian community settings. The NAs from 2013 are phylogenetically distinct from those of 2012, indicating a tendency of positive selection of NAs with better fitness. Some previously predicted permissive mutations, such as V241I and N369K, found in different countries, were also detected in Brazil. Importantly, the change D344N, also predicted to compensate loss of fitness imposed by H275Y mutation, was found in Brazil, but not in other countries in 2013. Our results reinforce the notion that OST-resistant A(H1N1pdm09 strains with compensatory mutations may arise in an independent fashion, with samples being identified in different states of Brazil and in different countries. Systematic circulation of these viral strains may jeopardise the use of the first line of anti-influenza drugs in the future.

  5. Oseltamivir-resistant pandemic A/H1N1 virus is as virulent as its wild-type counterpart in mice and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Hamelin

    Full Text Available The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir is currently used for treatment of patients infected with the pandemic A/H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza virus, although drug-resistant mutants can emerge rapidly and possibly be transmitted. We describe the characteristics of a pair of oseltamivir-resistant and oseltamivir-susceptible pH1N1 clinical isolates that differed by a single change (H274Y in the neuraminidase protein. Viral fitness of pH1N1 isolates was assessed in vitro by determining replication kinetics in MDCK alpha2,6 cells and in vivo by performing experimental infections of BALB/c mice and ferrets. Despite slightly reduced propagation of the mutant isolate in vitro during the first 24 h, the wild-type (WT and mutant resistant viruses induced similar maximum weight loss in mice and ferrets with an identical pyrexic response in ferrets (AUC of 233.9 and 233.2, P = 0.5156. Similarly, comparable titers were obtained for the WT and the mutant strains on days 1, 3, 6 and 9 post-infection in mouse lungs and on days 1-7 in ferret nasal washes. A more important perivascular (day 6 and pleural (days 6 and 12 inflammation was noted in the lungs of mice infected with the H274Y mutant, which correlated with increased pulmonary levels of IL-6 and KC. Such increased levels of IL-6 were also observed in lymph nodes of ferrets infected with the mutant strain. Furthermore, the H274Y mutant strain was transmitted to ferrets. In conclusion, viral fitness of the H274Y pH1N1 isolate is not substantially altered and has the potential to induce severe disease and to disseminate.

  6. Systemic corticosteroids and early administration of antiviral agents for pneumonia with acute wheezing due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Kudo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia patients with wheezing due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 were frequently treated with systemic corticosteroids in Japan although systemic corticosteroid for critically ill patients with pneumonia caused by influenza A(H1N1pdm09 has been controversial. Applicability of systemic corticosteroid treatment needs to be evaluated. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively reviewed 89 subjects who were diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 and admitted to a national hospital, Tokyo during the pandemic period. The median age of subjects (45 males was 8 years (range, 0-71. All subjects were treated with antiviral agents and the median time from symptom onset to initiation of antiviral agents was 2 days (range, 0-7. Subjects were classified into four groups: upper respiratory tract infection, wheezing illness, pneumonia with wheezing, and pneumonia without wheezing. The characteristics of each group was evaluated. A history of asthma was found more frequently in the wheezing illness (55.6% and pneumonia with wheezing (43.3% groups than in the other two groups (p = 0.017. Corticosteroid treatment was assessed among subjects with pneumonia. Oxygen saturation was lower in subjects receiving corticosteroids (steroid group than in subjects not receiving corticosteroids (no-steroid group (p<0.001. The steroid group required greater oxygen supply than the no-steroid group (p<0.001. No significant difference was found by the Kaplan-Meier method between the steroid and the no-steroid groups in hours to fever alleviation from the initiation of antiviral agents and hospitalization days. In logistic regression analysis, wheezing, pneumonia and oxygen saturation were independent factors associated with using systemic corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: Patients with wheezing and a history of asthma were frequently found in the study subjects. Systemic corticosteroids together with early administration of antiviral agents to pneumonia with wheezing and

  7. Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season: the Nordic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Julita Gil; Aavitsland, Preben; Englund, Hélène; Gudlaugsson, Ólafur; Hauge, Siri Helene; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Tegnell, Anders; Virtanen, Mikko; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2016-04-21

    During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance systems. We calculated the cumulative pandemic vaccination coverage in 2009/10 and cumulative incidence rates of laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in 2009/10 and 2010/11. We estimated incidence risk ratios (IRR) in a Poisson regression model to compare those indicators between Denmark and the other countries. The vaccination coverage was lower in Denmark (6.1%) compared with Finland (48.2%), Iceland (44.1%), Norway (41.3%) and Sweden (60.0%). In 2009/10 Denmark had a similar cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions and deaths compared with the other countries. In 2010/11 Denmark had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions (IRR: 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-3.0) and deaths (IRR: 8.3; 95% CI: 5.1-13.5). Compared with Denmark, the other countries had higher pandemic vaccination coverage and experienced less A(H1N1)pdm09-related severe outcomes in 2010/11. Pandemic vaccination may have had an impact on severe influenza outcomes in the post-pandemic season. Surveillance of severe outcomes may be used to compare the impact of influenza between seasons and support different vaccination strategies. PMID:27123691

  8. Decreased serologic response in vaccinated military recruits during 2011 correspond to genetic drift in concurrent circulating pandemic A/H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Faix

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based febrile respiratory illness surveillance conducted by the Department of Defense contributes to an estimate of vaccine effectiveness. Between January and March 2011, 64 cases of 2009 A/H1N1 (pH1N1, including one fatality, were confirmed in immunized recruits at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, suggesting insufficient efficacy for the pH1N1 component of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test serologic protection, serum samples were collected at least 30 days post-vaccination from recruits at Fort Jackson (LAIV, Parris Island (LAIV and trivalent inactivated vaccine [TIV] at Cape May, New Jersey (TIV and responses measured against pre-vaccination sera. A subset of 78 LAIV and 64 TIV sera pairs from recruits who reported neither influenza vaccination in the prior year nor fever during training were tested by microneutralization (MN and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assays. MN results demonstrated that seroconversion in paired sera was greater in those who received TIV versus LAIV (74% and 37%. Additionally, the fold change associated with TIV vaccination was significantly different between circulating (2011 versus the vaccine strain (2009 of pH1N1 viruses (ANOVA p value = 0.0006. HI analyses revealed similar trends. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis revealed that the quantity, IgG/IgM ratios, and affinity of anti-HA antibodies were significantly greater in TIV vaccinees. Finally, sequence analysis of the HA1 gene in concurrent circulating 2011 pH1N1 isolates from Fort Jackson exhibited modest amino acid divergence from the vaccine strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Among military recruits in 2011, serum antibody response differed by vaccine type (LAIV vs. TIV and pH1N1 virus year (2009 vs. 2011. We hypothesize that antigen drift in circulating pH1N1 viruses contributed to reduce vaccine effectiveness at Fort Jackson. Our findings have wider implications regarding

  9. Use of a large general practice syndromic surveillance system to monitor the progress of the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, S E; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J; Pebody, R; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Regan, M; Hippisley-Cox, J

    2012-01-01

    The Health Protection Agency/QSurveillance national surveillance system utilizes QSurveillance®, a recently developed general practitioner database covering over 23 million people in the UK. We describe the spread of the first wave of the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 using data on consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI), respiratory illness and prescribing for influenza from 3400 contributing general practices. Daily data, provided from 27 April 2009 to 28 January 2010, were used to give a timely overview for those managing the pandemic nationally and locally. The first wave particularly affected London and the West Midlands with a peak in ILI in week 30. Children aged between 1 and 15 years had consistently high consultation rates for ILI. Daily ILI rates were used for modelling national weekly case estimates. The system enabled the 'real-time' monitoring of the pandemic to a small geographical area, linking morbidity and prescribing for influenza and other respiratory illnesses. PMID:21473803

  10. The Lao Experience in Deploying Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 Vaccine: Lessons Made Relevant in Preparing for Present Day Pandemic Threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anonh Xeuatvongsa

    Full Text Available The Lao PDR, as did most countries of the Mekong Region, embarked on a pandemic vaccine initiative to counter the threat posed by influenza A(H1N1pdm09. Overall, estimated vaccine coverage of the Lao population was 14%, with uptake in targeted health care workers and pregnant women 99% and 41%, respectively. Adverse Events Following Immunization accounted for only 6% of survey driven, reported vaccination experiences, with no severe consequences or deaths. Public acceptability of the vaccine campaign was high (98%. Challenges to vaccine deployment included: 1 no previous experience in fielding a seasonal influenza vaccine, 2 safety and efficacy concerns, and 3 late arrival of vaccine 10 months into the pandemic. The Lao success in surmounting these hurdles was in large measure attributed to the oversight assigned the National Immunization Program, and national sensitivities in responding to the avian influenza A(H5N1 crisis in the years leading up to the pandemic. The Lao "lessons learned" from pandemic vaccine deployment are made even more relevant four years on, given the many avian influenza strains circulating in the region, all with pandemic potential.

  11. Synthesising evidence to estimate pandemic (2009) A/H1N1 influenza severity in 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Presanis, Anne M.; Pebody, Richard G.; Birrell, Paul J.; Tom, Brian D. M.; Helen K. Green; Durnall, Hayley; Fleming, Douglas; De Angelis, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the severity of an influenza outbreak is crucial for informing and monitoring appropriate public health responses, both during and after an epidemic. However, case-fatality, case-intensive care admission and case-hospitalisation risks are difficult to measure directly. Bayesian evidence synthesis methods have previously been employed to combine fragmented, under-ascertained and biased surveillance data coherently and consistently, to estimate case-severity risks in the first two ...

  12. Mielitis transversa relacionada con vacunación anti-influenza A(H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Arcondo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La mielitis transversa es una enfermedad inflamatoria que se caracteriza por disfunción de la médula espinal. Las causas reconocidas de mielitis transversa son autoinmunes, enfermedades desmielinizantes, post infecciosas y post vacunales, aunque hasta el 50% de los casos son idiopáticas. Las vacunas contra la rubéola, paperas, rabia y gripe estacional han sido asociadas a diversos trastornos neurológicos, como el Síndrome de Guillain Barré, la encefalomielitis diseminada aguda (ADEM y la mielitis transversa. Como mecanismo preventivo luego de la pandemia de 2009, en febrero del año 2010 se inició en nuestro país la campaña de vacunación contra la Influenza A (H1N1. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con hipoestesias que aparecieron cuatro días después de haber recibido la vacuna monovalente anti-influenza A (H1N1 y progresaron con evidente nivel sensitivo. La paciente cumplía criterios diagnósticos de mielitis transversa, según el Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group. Tuvo remisión de las imágenes de la resonancia magnética y estabilidad clínica sin tratamiento con corticoides. Se discuten aspectos diagnósticos, pronósticos y terapéuticos de esta entidad clínica.

  13. [A survey about determinants of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination among French general practionners patients. Motivac study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partouche, Henri; Benainous, Olivier; Barthe, Juliette; Pierret, Janine; Rigal, Laurent; Michaloux, Maud; Gilberg, Serge

    2011-12-01

    The influenza A/H1N1 2009 immunization campaign did not have the accession of the French population resulting in a very low rate of immunization coverage. We conducted a cross-sectional study in spring 2010 to identify factors that led general practitionners (GPs) and their adult patients to be vaccinated or not; 43 GPs in France, included 668 patients; 29 GPs (67%) and 108 patients (16.5%) have been vaccinated; among 238 patients under vaccine priority indication 17% were vaccinated; 48% of patients thought they could receive effective treatment for influenza, 36% felt that the vaccine protected against influenza but 27% thought it did not meet usual safety criteria. A higher level of education, the belief of an effective protection with vaccination, the positive GP's opinion and behavior (OR 4,21 IC95% [1.4-14]; p=0.012), the receipt of an invitation to immunization (OR 7, 1 IC95% [1.73-58.4] and the active seek of information (OR 8.05, IC95% [2.8-27]) were significantly associated with vaccination. Regarding this immunization campaign few patients n=87 (13.7%) did trust the state heath agency. Our study confirms the distrust of the vaccine and suggests the decisive role of the GPs to achieve adequate levels of immunization coverage.

  14. Initial surveillance of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in the European Union and European Economic Area, April-September 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, I; Kreidl, P; Penttinen, P; Salminen, Mika; Zucs, P; Ammon, A

    2010-12-01

    European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries reported surveillance data on 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) through the Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) during the early phase of the 2009 pandemic. We describe the main epidemiological findings and their implications in respect to the second wave of the 2009 influenza pandemic. Two reporting systems were in place (aggregate and case-based) from June to September 2009 to monitor the evolution of the pandemic. The notification rate was assessed through aggregate reports. Individual data were analysed retrospectively to describe the population affected. The reporting peak of the first wave of the 2009 pandemic influenza was reached in the first week of August. Transmission was travel-related in the early stage and community transmission within EU/EEA countries was reported from June 2009. Seventy eight per cent of affected individuals were less than 30 years old. The proportions of cases with complications and underlying conditions were 3% and 7%, respectively. The most frequent underlying medical conditions were chronic lung (37%) and cardio-vascular diseases (15%). Complication and hospitalisation were both associated with underlying conditions regardless of age. The information from the first wave of the pandemic produced a basis to determine risk groups and vaccination strategies before the start of the winter wave. Public health recommendations should be guided by early capture of profiles of affected populations through monitoring of infectious diseases. PMID:21163182

  15. Risk perception and information-seeking behaviour during the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, D; Bohmer, Mm; Reiter, S; Krause, G; Wichmann, O

    2012-01-01

    During the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in 2009/10, a total of 13 consecutive surveys were carried out of the general population in Germany to monitor knowledge, attitude and behaviour concerning the disease and vaccination against pandemic influenza in real time. In total, 13,010 persons aged 14 years or older were interviewed by computer-assisted telephone techniques between November 2009 and April 2010. During the peak of the pandemic, only 18% of participants stated that they perceived the risk of pandemic influenza as high; this proportion fell to 10% in January 2010. There was a significant difference in information-seeking behaviour among population subgroups concerning the disease and vaccine uptake. However, in all subgroups, conventional media sources such as television, radio and newspapers were more frequently used than the Internet. While the majority of participants (78%) felt sufficiently informed to make a decision for or against vaccination, overall vaccination coverage remained low. Among those who decided against vaccination, fear of adverse events and perception that the available vaccines were not sufficiently evaluated were the most frequently stated reasons. Such mistrust in the vaccines and the perceived low risk of the disease were the main barriers that contributed to the low vaccination coverage in Germany during the pandemic. PMID:22490383

  16. National surveillance of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection-related admissions to intensive care units during the 2009-10 winter peak in Denmark: two complementary approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubbels, S; Perner, A; Valentiner-Branth, Palle;

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in Denmark was enhanced during the 2009–10 winter season with a system monitoring the burden of the pandemic on intensive care units (ICUs), in order to inform policymakers and detect shortages in ICUs in a timely manner. Between week 46 of 2009...... and week 11 of 2010, all 36 relevant Danish ICUs reported in two ways: aggregate data were reported online and case-based data on paper. Cases to be reported were defined as patients admitted to an ICU with laboratory-confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection or clinically suspected illness after...

  17. Construyendo buenos ciudadanos con buenas prácticas en salud: dengue e influenza AH1N1 en Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arango

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute la relación entre la dimensión biológica de las enfermedades y los hábitos de auto-cuidado o “conductas saludables”. Su pregunta central indaga por cómo un fenómeno aparentemente biológico genera ciertas “buenas prácticas” en torno a la salud, defendiendo la idea de la enfermedad como un asunto socio-cultura, más que un mero hecho biológico. El estudio aquí presentado se apoya en una investigación realizada en la ciudad de Cali y enfocada en dos enfermedades, dengue e influenza AH1N1, entre 2009 y 2010. El examen de la relevancia adquirida por estas dos dolencias, mostrará cómo la biología y las prácticas de auto-cuidado tienen una estrecha relación entre sí.

  18. Risk of narcolepsy associated with inactivated adjuvanted (AS03 A/H1N1 (2009 pandemic influenza vaccine in Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Montplaisir

    Full Text Available An association between an adjuvanted (AS03 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccine and narcolepsy has been reported in Europe.To assess narcolepsy risk following administration of a similar vaccine in Quebec.Retrospective population-based study.Neurologists and lung specialists in the province were invited to report narcolepsy cases to a single reference centre.Patients were interviewed by two sleep experts and standard diagnostic tests were performed. Immunization status was verified in the provincial pandemic influenza vaccination registry.Confirmed narcolepsy with or without cataplexy with onset of excessive daytime sleepiness between January 1st, 2009, and December 31st, 2010. Relative risks (RRs were calculated using a Poisson model in a cohort analysis, by a self-controlled case series (SCCS and a case-control method.A total of 24 cases were included and overall incidence rate was 1.5 per million person-years. A cluster of 7 cases was observed among vaccinated persons in the winter 2009-2010. In the primary cohort analysis, 16-week post-vaccination RR was 4.32 (95% CI: 1.50-11.12. RR was 2.07 (0.70-6.17 in the SCCS, and 1.48 (0.37-7.03 using the case-control method. Estimates were lower when observation was restricted to the period of pandemic influenza circulation, and tended to be higher in persons <20 years old and for cataplexy cases.Results are compatible with an excess risk of approximately one case per million vaccine doses, mainly in persons less than 20 years of age. However, a confounding effect of the influenza infection cannot be ruled out.

  19. Personal decision-making criteria related to seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1 influenza-vaccination acceptance among French healthcare workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Bouadma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza-vaccination rates among healthcare workers (HCW remain low worldwide, even during the 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic. In France, this vaccination is free but administered on a voluntary basis. We investigated the factors influencing HCW influenza vaccination. METHODS: In June-July 2010, HCW from wards of five French hospitals completed a cross-sectional survey. A multifaceted campaign aimed at improving vaccination coverage in this hospital group was conducted before and during the 2009 pandemic. Using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, we assessed the relationships between seasonal (SIV and pandemic (PIV influenza vaccinations, and sociodemographic and professional characteristics, previous and current vaccination statuses, and 33 statements investigating 10 sociocognitive domains. The sociocognitive domains describing HCWs' SIV and PIV profiles were analyzed using the classification-and-regression-tree method. RESULTS: Of the HCWs responding to our survey, 1480 were paramedical and 401 were medical with 2009 vaccination rates of 30% and 58% for SIV and 21% and 71% for PIV, respectively (p<0.0001 for both SIV and PIV vaccinations. Older age, prior SIV, working in emergency departments or intensive care units, being a medical HCW and the hospital they worked in were associated with both vaccinations; while work shift was associated only with PIV. Sociocognitive domains associated with both vaccinations were self-perception of benefits and health motivation for all HCW. For medical HCW, being a role model was an additional domain associated with SIV and PIV. CONCLUSIONS: Both vaccination rates remained low. Vaccination mainly depended on self-determined factors and for medical HCW, being a role model.

  20. International flight-related transmission of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: an historical cohort study of the first identified cases in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Nicholas; Pebody, Richard; Smith, Gillian; Olowokure, Babatunde; Shankar, Giri; Hoschler, Katja; Galiano, Monica; Green, Helen; Wallensten, Anders; Hogan, Angela; Oliver, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Background Transporting over two billion passengers per year, global airline travel has the potential to spread emerging infectious diseases, both via transportation of infectious cases and through in-flight transmission. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidance recommends contact tracing of passengers seated within two rows of a case of influenza during air travel. Objectives The objectives of this study were to describe flight-related transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during a ...

  1. Multidrug resistant 2009 a/h1n1 influenza clinical isolate with a neuraminidase i223r mutation retains its virulence and transmissibility in ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Vries (Erhard); E.J.B.V. Kroeze; K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); M. Linster (Martin); A. van der Linden; E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M. Schutten (Martin); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); S. Herfst (Sander)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOnly two classes of antiviral drugs, neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, are approved for prophylaxis and therapy against influenza virus infections. A major concern is that influenza virus becomes resistant to these antiviral drugs and spreads in the human population. The 2009 pan

  2. Epidemiological effects of the A(H1N1)influenza vaccine immunization program on students%中学生接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗保护效果的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何寒青; 李倩; 何奔; 高雯洁; 姚凤燕; 蒋雪峰; 沈月根; 周建红; 陈恩富

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiological effects of vaccine immunization program related to A(H1N1)influenza in the middle school students.Methods Non-randomized clinical trial was designed to assess the A(H1N1)influenza vaccine on its efficacy.14883 students from 8 middle schools in Zhejiang province were recruited and classified into vaccinated or control groups,based on the status of immunization with A(H1N1)influenza vaccine.All subjects were followed up through one epidemic period(6 months)and the incidence rates of influenza-like illnesses,A(H1N1)influenza,and seasonal influenza in these two groups were compared to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccine.Results There were 6334 subjects in the vaccinated group and 8549 in the control group.7441.75 person-years were followed from these two groups.The incidence rate of A (H1N1)influenza in vaccinated group was 1.64‰ per person-year,lower than that of the control group.The rate difference(RD)was-1.64‰ per person-year(95% confidence interval value from-3.04‰ to-0.23‰ per person-year),and the difference was significant(P=0.010).The incidence rate of influenza-like illnesses in vaccinated group was 21.47‰ per person-year,lower than that of the control group(22.69‰ per person-year)and the diffefence was not significant(P>0.05).The incidence rate of B influenza in vaccinated group was 6.63‰ per person-year,higher than that of control group(7.02‰ per person-year)but the difference was not significant(P>0.05).Conclusion This vaccine demonstrated a good epidemiological effect against the A(H1N1)influenza virus infection,observed through a student-immunization program.The cross-protection effect against the influenza-like illnesses and other seasonal influenzas was not noticed in this study.%目的 了解中学生接种甲型H1NI流感疫苗的保护效果.方法 采用非随机对照临床试验方法,选择8所中学14 883名学生,分甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种组6334人,对照组(未接种)8549人,

  3. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) associated to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and revealed after influenza AH1N1 vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remiche, Gauthier; Abramowicz, Marc; Mavroudakis, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Neurological complications of AH1N1 vaccination such as Guillain-Barré syndrome were described in the previous years. Several reports suggest that hereditary neuropathies may be a predisposing factor for immune-mediated neuropathies. We report the case of a 54-year-old female who developed chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) 5 weeks after AH1N1 vaccination. She had no previous neurological history, but neurophysiological features led us to suspect an underlying hereditary neuropathy. PMP22 gene analysis showed a typical deletion, confirming the diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). We observed a significant clinical and neurophysiological improvement of the neuropathy after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of CIDP potentially triggered by AH1N1 vaccination. This and previous observations suggest that genetic-determined neuropathies could predispose to the occurrence of immune-mediated neuropathies. One must recall the possibility of a superimposed hereditary neuropathy like HNPP in patients with a clinical presentation of CIDP, especially when positive family history or unexpected neurophysiological features are present.

  4. Revealing the True Incidence of Pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza in Finland during the First Two Seasons - An Analysis Based on a Dynamic Transmission Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Mikhail; Lebedev, Artem; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Auranen, Kari

    2016-03-01

    The threat of the new pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 imposed a heavy burden on the public health system in Finland in 2009-2010. An extensive vaccination campaign was set up in the middle of the first pandemic season. However, the true number of infected individuals remains uncertain as the surveillance missed a large portion of mild infections. We constructed a transmission model to simulate the spread of influenza in the Finnish population. We used the model to analyse the two first years (2009-2011) of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Finland. Using data from the national surveillance of influenza and data on close person-to-person (social) contacts in the population, we estimated that 6% (90% credible interval 5.1 - 6.7%) of the population was infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 in the first pandemic season (2009/2010) and an additional 3% (2.5 - 3.5%) in the second season (2010/2011). Vaccination had a substantial impact in mitigating the second season. The dynamic approach allowed us to discover how the proportion of detected cases changed over the course of the epidemic. The role of time-varying reproduction number, capturing the effects of weather and changes in behaviour, was important in shaping the epidemic.

  5. Study on the Safety of Influenza A/H1N1 Split- virion Vaccine%甲型H1N1流行性感冒病毒裂解疫苗的安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞芳; 李建坡; 李琦; 张连山; 张富斌; 尹增慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety of influenza A/H1N1 split -virion vaccine. Methods Active surveillance sites were set up. AEFI cases with influenza A/H1N1 split - virion vaccine and seasonal influenza vaccine in Handan City were collected through National Surveillance System for Suspected Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI). The related data were analyzed epidemiologically using descriptive methods. Results The incidence rate of reported AEFI cases with influenza A/H1N1 split- virion vaccine in Handan City was 14. 64/100,000, and the general reactions were dominant, accounting for 88.57%. The predominant symptom was fever below 38.5 degrees C. No serious adverse reactions and preventive inoculation accidents occurred. The incidence rale of AEFI cases with influenza A/H1N1 split - virion vaccine reported by the surveillance sites was 752.63/100,000, all clinical symptoms were general reactions and the major manifestation was fever. The incidence rate of AEFI cases with seasonal influenza vaccine reported by the surveillance sites was 203.14/100,000, all clinical symptoms and the major manifestation were the same as above. Conclusions The incidence rate of AEFI cases with influenza A/H1N1 split -virion vaccine is higher than that of AEFI cases with seasonal influenza vaccine, but the rates are both lower than the EU standards. General reactions dominate over AEFI cases with influenza A/H1N1 split - virion vaccine, and moreover, fever is the main manifestation. Influenza A/H1N1 split - virion vaccine is safe.%目的 评价甲型H1N1流行性感冒裂解疫苗(简称甲流疫苗)的安全性.方法 设立主动监测点,通过全国疑似预防接种异常反应信息管理系统,收集全市接种甲流疫苗和主动监测点接种季节性流感疫苗后的AEFI个案信息,采用描述性方法对相关指标进行流行病学分析.结果 邯郸市常规报告接种甲流疫苗后AEFI发生率14.64/10万,以一般反应为主,占88.57%,症状主要为38

  6. Surveillance of influenza A(H_1N_1)in Hangzhou city in 2009%2009年杭州市甲型H_1N_1流感监测现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘社兰; 谢立; 杨旭辉; 孙昼; 王婧; 程瑾; 黄仁杰; 缪凡; 阮冰; 邓晶

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨2009年杭州市甲型H_1N_1流感的流行规律、临床表现和病原学特征.方法 对2009年杭州市13家流感监测哨点医院的每日门诊流感样病例和甲型H_1N_1流感确诊病例的流行病学进行分析.采用RT-PCR方法对咽拭子中血凝素(HA)基因进行扩增和测序,并用DNASTAR软件进行序列分析.全文数据采用SPSS 12.0软件进行统计分析.率的比较采用x~2检验.结果 流感样病例监测显示,第28周之前,疫情处于平稳状态,之后全市流感样病例逐渐增多.第35周时达到高峰,全市流感样病例就诊比例为7.47%(5442/72859).之后疫情回落,但到第41周时又再次回升,至第46周出现第二次高峰,全市流感样病例就诊比例达到11.32%(11034/97436).第38周以前,杭州市人群中主要流行株是季节性H_3N_2型,其次有少量的乙型和季节性流感H_1N_1型,到第44周,甲型H_1N_1流感成为唯一的优势流行株,主要易感人群是11-25岁的青少年,以学生居多.序列分析显示,2009年杭州市甲型H_1N_1流感病毒株与北美株、中国其他地区的毒株以及疫苗株同源性达到99%,关键位点高度保守,但与季节性流感病毒株同源性只有70%.结论 2009年杭州市流感疫情发展迅速,人群中流行的优势毒株为甲型流感H_1N_1型,易感人群为青少年,目前未发现变异株及高致病株,但仍需进一步监测.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological,clinical and etiological features of influenza/influenza A(H_1N_1)in Hangzhou city in 2009.Methods Epidemiological data of patients with influeliza-1ike illness or influenza A(H_1N_1)from 13 sentinel hospitals in Hangzhou(2009)were analyzed.Hemagglutinin(HA)genes of H_1N_1 subtype influenza virus were amplified by RT-PCR and the sequence analysis were performed by DNAsTAR.SPSS 12.0 software was used for data processing and chi-square test was performed for difference comparison of rates.Results Epidemic cunre for influenza

  7. Concurrent and cross-season protection of inactivated influenza vaccine against A(H1N1)pdm09 illness among young children: 2012-2013 case-control evaluation of influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuanxi; Xu, Jianxiong; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Ming; Li, Kuibiao; Ge, Jing; Thompson, Mark G

    2015-06-01

    In 2012-2013, we examined 1729 laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza cases matched 1:1 with healthy controls and estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) for trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) to be 67% (95% confidence interval=58-74%) for ages 8 months to 6 years old. Among children aged 8-35 months old, VE for fully vaccinated children (73%, 60-81%) was significantly higher than VE for partially vaccinated children (55%, 33-70%). Significant cross-season protection from prior IIV3 was noted, including VE of 31% (8-48%) from IIV3 received in 2010-2011 against influenza illness in 2012--2013 without subsequent boosting doses.

  8. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care patients in a season of co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, B and drifted A(H3N2), I-MOVE Multicentre Case-Control Study, Europe 2014/15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, Marta; Kissling, Esther; Reuss, Annicka; Rizzo, Caterina; Gherasim, Alin; Horváth, Judit Krisztina; Domegan, Lisa; Pitigoi, Daniela; Machado, Ausenda; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona Anna; Bella, Antonino; Larrauri, Amparo; Ferenczi, Annamária; Lazar, Mihaela; Pechirra, Pedro; Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Pozo, Francisco; Moren, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses co-circulated in Europe in 2014/15. We undertook a multicentre case-control study in eight European countries to measure 2014/15 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. General practitioners swabbed all or a systematic sample of ILI patients. We compared the odds of vaccination of ILI influenza positive patients to negative patients. We calculated adjusted VE by influenza type/subtype, and age group. Among 6,579 ILI patients included, 1,828 were A(H3N2), 539 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1,038 B. VE against A(H3N2) was 14.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): -6.3 to 31.0) overall, 20.7% (95%CI: -22.3 to 48.5), 10.9% (95%CI -30.8 to 39.3) and 15.8% (95% CI: -20.2 to 41.0) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and  ≥60  years, respectively. VE against A(H1N1)pdm09 was 54.2% (95%CI: 31.2 to 69.6) overall, 73.1% (95%CI: 39.6 to 88.1), 59.7% (95%CI: 10.9 to 81.8), and 22.4% (95%CI: -44.4 to 58.4) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and  ≥60 years respectively. VE against B was 48.0% (95%CI: 28.9 to 61.9) overall, 62.1% (95%CI: 14.9 to 83.1), 41.4% (95%CI: 6.2 to 63.4) and 50.4% (95%CI: 14.6 to 71.2) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and ≥60 years respectively. VE against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B was moderate. The low VE against A(H3N2) is consistent with the reported mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains.

  9. Rapid detection of the H275Y oseltamivir resistance mutation in influenza A/H1N1 2009 by single base pair RT-PCR and high-resolution melting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Y C Tong

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We aimed to design a real-time reverse-transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR, high-resolution melting (HRM assay to detect the H275Y mutation that confers oseltamivir resistance in influenza A/H1N1 2009 viruses. FINDINGS: A novel strategy of amplifying a single base pair, the relevant SNP at position 823 of the neuraminidase gene, was chosen to maintain specificity of the assay. Wildtype and mutant virus were differentiated when using known reference samples of cell-cultured virus. However, when dilutions of these reference samples were assayed, amplification of non-specific primer-dimer was evident and affected the overall melting temperature (T(m of the amplified products. Due to primer-dimer appearance at >30 cycles we found that if the cycle threshold (C(T for a dilution was >30, the HRM assay did not consistently discriminate mutant from wildtype. Where the C(T was 32.98 would have an H275Y assay C(T>30. Analysis of the TaqMan C(T values for 609 consecutive clinical samples predicted that 207 (34% of the samples would result in an HRM assay C(T>30 and therefore not be amenable to the HRM assay. CONCLUSIONS: The use of single base pair PCR and HRM can be useful for specifically interrogating SNPs. When applied to H1N1 09, the constraints this placed on primer design resulted in amplification of primer-dimer products. The impact primer-dimer had on HRM curves was adjusted for by plotting T(m against C(T. Although less sensitive than TaqMan assays, the HRM assay can rapidly, and at low cost, screen samples with moderate viral concentrations.

  10. National surveillance of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection-related admissions to intensive care units during the 2009-10 winter peak in Denmark: two complementary approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubbels, S; Perner, A; Valentiner-Branth, Palle;

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in Denmark was enhanced during the 2009–10 winter season with a system monitoring the burden of the pandemic on intensive care units (ICUs), in order to inform policymakers and detect shortages in ICUs in a timely manner. Between week 46 of 2009...... and week 11 of 2010, all 36 relevant Danish ICUs reported in two ways: aggregate data were reported online and case-based data on paper. Cases to be reported were defined as patients admitted to an ICU with laboratory-confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection or clinically suspected illness after......, of whom 53 were laboratory confirmed. The proportion of beds used for influenza patients did not exceed 4.5% of the national capacity. Hospitals with cases used a median of 11% of bed capacity (range: 3–40%). Of the patients for whom information was available, 15 of 48 patients developed renal...

  11. 江阴市2009年甲型H1N1流感疫情分析%Epidemic features and influential factors of influenza A(H1N1)in Jiangyin in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马焰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨江阴市甲型H1N1流感流行特征并提出防治措施.方法 对江阴市2009年甲型H1N1流感疫情资料进行分析.结果 2009年累计确诊甲型H1N1流感病人22例,其中重症病例3例、危重2例、死亡1例,发病率为1.25/10万.发生2起暴发疫情,均发生在学校.检测流感样病人咽拭子标本124份,甲型H1N1流感核酸阳性率为11.29%.结论江阴市采取的一系列甲型H1N1流感防控措施整体上显著有效,2009年江阴市甲型H1N1流感疫情处于低流行水平.%Aim To survey the epidemic features of influenza A (H1N1 ) in Jiang yin City. Methods Epidemic data of influenza A(H1N1 ) in Jiangyin of Jiangsu Province in 2009 were analyzed. Results In 2009, a total of 22 influenza A (H1N1) cases were confirmed,among them there were 5 severe cases,1 deaths.The morbidity rate was 1.25/100000 population. There were 2 outbreaks all in schools. 124 nasopharyngeal swab samples of Influenza-like patients were tested.The positive rate of nucleic acid influenza A (H1N1) was 11.29%. Conclusion The control measuers in combot against influenza A(H1N1 ) in Jiangyin is effective and the epidemic of influenza A(H1N1 ) in Jiangyin is at a low level n 2009.

  12. Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in children and adolescents with Williams or Cornelia De Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Selicorni, Angelo; Daleno, Cristina; Valzano, Antonia; Cerutti, Marta; Galeone, Carlotta; Consolo, Silvia; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2011-06-01

    In some subjects with severe neurological diseases, a reduced immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine has been demonstrated. Patients with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome frequently have abnormalities in neurodevelopment. This study has evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of a monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in these subjects. Eighteen patients with Williams syndrome (ten males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 12.74 ± 4.49 years), 11 with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (six males; mean age 12.90 ± 4.85 years) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (16 males; mean age 12.49 ± 4.55 years), never vaccinated against influenza, received a dose of the vaccine between 1 and 30 November 2009. Four weeks later, the seroconversion rates in the three groups were between 72% and 80% and the seroprotection rates were 100%, with a similar increase in antibody levels. Two months later, most of the subjects remained seroconverted with no statistically significant difference between the groups, and about 94% of the patients with Williams syndrome, all of those with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and all of the healthy controls were still seroprotected. Safety and tolerability were very good, with no difference between the groups. None of the patients developed documented influenza during the study period. These results show that the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of the monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in children and adolescents with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome and moderate to severe mental disabilities is very good, and similar to that of healthy subjects.

  13. Influenza virus resistance to oseltamivir: what are the implications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Elliot, A.J.; Meijer, A.; Paget, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza caused by an oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) virus was widespread across Europe during the 2007–08 winter. About 25% of A(H1N1) viruses tested in the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) were resistant with an H274Y mutation in the neuraminidase glycoprotein. Early indicat

  14. Maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 illness in Florida, 2009-2010: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Doyle

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women have been identified as a high risk group for severe illness with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus infection (pH1N1. Obesity has also been identified as a risk factor for severe illness, though this has not been thoroughly assessed among pregnant women. The objectives of this study were to provide risk estimates for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy and to assess the role of obesity in these outcomes. METHODS: We established a retrospective population-based cohort of all live births occurring in Florida during the first 15 months of the pandemic. Illness with pH1N1 during pregnancy was ascertained through record linkage with the Florida state notifiable disease surveillance database. Data from the birth record, including pre-pregnancy body mass index, were analyzed to assess risk of adverse outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness. RESULTS: A total of 194 women were identified through surveillance with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy. Children born to women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for low birth weight [OR (95%CI: 1.78 (1.11-2.860], premature birth [2.21 (1.47-3.330], and infant death [4.46 (1.80-11.00], after adjusting for other factors. Women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for severe outcomes including admission to an intensive care unit. Obesity was an observed risk factor, both for the more severe pH1N1 illness detected through surveillance, and for severe maternal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Case-patients in this analysis likely represent the most severely ill subset of all women infected with pH1N1 during pregnancy, limiting the generalizability of these findings to more severely ill patients rather than influenza infection in general. Nevertheless, these results suggest that more severe pH1N1 illness during pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes and that pregnant women should continue

  15. Population Effects of Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic among Health Plan Members, San Diego, California, USA, October-December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Roger A

    2016-02-01

    Lacking population-specific data, activity of seasonal and pandemic influenza is usually tracked by counting the number of diagnoses and visits to medical facilities above a baseline. This type of data does not address the delivery of services in a specific population. To provide population-specific data, this retrospective study of patients with influenza-like illness, influenza, and pneumonia among members of a Kaiser Permanente health plan in San Diego, California, USA, during October-December 2009 was initiated. Population data included the number of outpatients accessing healthcare; the number of patients diagnosed with pneumonia; antimicrobial therapy administered; number of patients hospitalized with influenza, influenza-like illness, or pneumonia; level of care provided; and number of patients requiring specialized treatments (e.g., oxygen, ventilation, vasopressors). The rate of admissions specific to weeks and predictions of 2 epidemiologic models shows the strengths and weaknesses of those tools. Data collected in this study may improve planning for influenza pandemics.

  16. Clinical analysis of 65 cases of A(H1N1)influenza complicated with pulmonary infection%甲型H1N1流感并发肺部感染65例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云波; 马希涛; 杨志刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand clinical features,chest-image characteristics and treatment of A(H1 N1)influenza complicated with pulmonary infection,improve the clinicians a better understanding of this disease.Methods A total of 65 patients with A(H1N1) referred to Henan,China were studied retrospectively.The reviewed data included clinical manifestations,Routine blood test,chest-image characteristics and treatment.Results The 65 patients were collected:31 men and 34 women.Of the 65 cases,19 cases were maternal.The main clinical manifestations of influenza-like symptoms included fever(65 cases),cough (64 cases),expectoration (53 cases),sore throat (40 cases),diarrhea (6 ca-ses).Routine blood test WBC revealed normal in 51 patients,and WBC count decreased in 16 patients and increased in 8 patients.Neutrophil count normal in 29 patients,decreased in 13 patients and increased in 23 patients.In the initial chest-image of 65 patients the main abnormal appearance was ground-glass opacification 65 cases,with consolidation in 32 cases,11 cases of malignant pleural effusion with.Bilateral lesions in 52 cases,right lung lesion in 8 cases,left lung lesions in 5 cases ; recovery stage lesions,except for 6 patient deaths,cord-like,reticular shadows in 46 cases,8 cases had no obvious changes,5 cases were completely absorbed.A total of 19 patients using ventilator assisted breathing.Application of oseltamivir in 65 cases,combined application of antibiotics in 65 cases,8 cases of immune serum virus.61 cases were cured,6 cases died,3 cases of maternal death cases.Conclusions ①A (H1 N1) influenza is highly infectious,easily complicated with pulmonary infection; ②Influenza a H1N1 influenza maternal is at-risk group,and the critical condition of the patient,severe morbidity and mortality significantly higher than other groups; ③Pulmonary disease spread to more than bilateral pulmonary lesions,radiological patch shadow,consolidation images and other manifestations of mixed,the slow

  17. Comparison of epidemiological characteristics of type AH1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza in Luwan District,Shanghai%上海市卢湾区甲型H1N1流感与季节性流感流行特征比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆璐; 宋黎黎; 郦佳莹; 袁家麟; 贾晓东; 程华; 康来仪; 姜庆五

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the epidemicological characteristics of type AH1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza and to provide scientific basis on interventions. Methods The pathogen surveillance data of flu surveillance sentinel hospital of Luwan District from July 2009 to November 2011 was collected. We calculated 519 surveillance cases by age, year, month and week. In October 2011, we selected a probability sample of 200 residents of Luwan District. For each subject we measured HI antibody of influenza. Results In 2009, type AH1N1 accounted for the highest positive rate of 30%. In 2010, type AH3 accounted for the highest positive rate of 13% , followed by type BV with positive rate as 12%. In 2011, type AH1N1 accounted for the highest positive rate of 12% , followed by type BV with positive rate as 11%. Type AH1N1 became epidemic mainly in winter, type AH3 became epidemic mainly in summer, type BV mainly in spring. The whole population had relatively high antibody levels of type BY and AH1 with their geometric mean titer of antibody accounted for 1:918 and 1:897 respectively, while the antibody levels of type BV, AH3 and AH1N1 were relatively low with their geometric mean titer of antibody accounting for 1:625 , 1:599 and 1:120 respectively. The antibody level of type AH1N1 was significantly lower than that of other subtypes of influenza for the whole population. Conclusions Vaccine components should continue including type AH3, AH1N1 and BV strain components.%目的 比较甲型H1N1流感与季节性流感流行特征,为制定干预措施提供科学依据.方法 对卢湾区2009年7月~2011年11月流感监测病例进行分析,并于2011年10月对卢湾区200名居民进行流感HI抗体检测.结果 2009年,AH1N1阳性率最高,为30%;2010年,AH3、BV阳性率较高,分别为13%和12%;2011年,AH1N1、BV阳性率较高,分别为12%和11%.AH1N1流行季节主要为冬季,AH3主要为夏季,BV主要为春季.全人群BY和AH1抗体滴度较高,分别为1

  18. Severe acute respiratory infections during the influenza A(H1N1)2009 pandemic in Belgium: first experience of hospital-based flu surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In September 2009, as part of the surveillance during the Influenza A(2009) pandemic, Bel-gium introduced a web-based surveillance system aimed at recording hospitalisations and deaths attributable to Influenza in real time. Methods We present the web-based application developed for the pandemic as well as a descriptive analysis of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) cases reported through this system. Results From 1 September to 31 December 2009, 1723 SARI-related hospitalisations potentially due to influenza were reported in Belgium. The median age of the patients was 29 years (range: < 1 year-99 years). Among SARI-hospitalised patients 68% were aged less than 45 years, 10.6% were vaccinated with the seasonal influenza vaccine and 7.5% with the pandemic influenza vaccine. No deaths were recorded. Conclusions This first experience showed the feasibility of getting real-time information from hospitals during a public health crisis. However, the absence of death detected through the system highlighted the importance of better defining the severity of the hospital cases.

  19. Caso Anatomopatológico influenza AH1N1 en una paciente embarazada: características clínicas y patológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Quirós Alpízar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se decriben los hallazgos clínicos y patológicos de la infección por influenza A (H1 N1, basados en un caso de autopsia. La paciente, una mujer de 25 años embarazada de gemelos, con 33 semanas de gestación y síntomas similares a influenza, quien fue admitida en el hospital y murió 13 días después. En la autopsia, el principal hallazgo fue daño alveolar difuso en fase proliferativa.We describe the pathologic and clinical changes over a case of Influenza A (H1N1 infection based in autopsy findings. The patient was a 25 year-old female pregnant of 33 weeks gestation twins, who had flu-like symptoms. She was hospitalized, but died 13 days after admitting. Autopsy findings included a diffuse alveolar damage in a proliferative phase.

  20. Early spread of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in the United Kingdom--use of local syndromic data, May-August 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Smith, G E; Olowokure, B; Ibbotson, S; Foord, D; Maguire, H; Pebody, R; Charlett, A; Hippisley-Cox, J; Elliot, A J

    2011-01-01

    Following the confirmation of the first two cases of pandemic influenza on 27 April 2009 in the United Kingdom (UK), syndromic surveillance data from the Health Protection Agency (HPA)/QSurveillance and HPA/NHS Direct systems were used to monitor the possible spread of pandemic influenza at local level during the first phase of the outbreak. During the early weeks, syndromic indicators sensitive to influenza activity monitored through the two schemes remained low and the majority of cases were travel-related. The first evidence of community spread was seen in the West Midlands region following a school-based outbreak in central Birmingham. During the first phase several Primary Care Trusts had periods of exceptional influenza activity two to three weeks ahead of the rest of the region. Community transmission in London began slightly later than in the West Midlands but the rates of influenza-like illness recorded by general practitioners (GPs) were ultimately higher. Influenza activity in the West Midlands and London regions peaked a week before the remainder of the UK. Data from the HPA/NHS Direct and HPA/QSurveillance systems were mapped at local level and used alongside laboratory data and local intelligence to assist in the identification of hotspots, to direct limited public health resources and to monitor the progression of the outbreak. This work has demonstrated the utility of local syndromic surveillance data in the detection of increased transmission and in the epidemiological investigation of the pandemic and has prompted future spatio-temporal work. PMID:21262185

  1. Progress of Post-marketing Surveillance on Adverse Events Following Immunization of the Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine%甲型H1N1流行性感冒疫苗疑似预防接种异常反应监测进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冰冰; 刘大卫; 李克莉; 武文娣; 许涤沙; 贾磊

    2011-01-01

    甲型H1N1流行性感冒(甲流)疫苗上市后,疑似预防接种异常反应(Adverse Events Following Immunization,AEFI)监测是评价甲流疫苗安全性的重要方法.文章对各国甲流疫苗的监测概况和监测结果 进行了综述.%Post-marketing surveillance on Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI)is crucial for evaluating the safety of vaccines against the pandemic influenza A (H1N1)virus.Progress of postmarketing surveillance of AEFI of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1 )vaccine among countries has been reviewed in this article.

  2. Management of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in patients with hematologic diseases: a prospective experience at an Italian center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmenia, Corrado; Mercanti, Caterina; Federico, Vincenzo; Rea, Massimiliano; De Vellis, Annalisa; Valle, Veronica; Micozzi, Alessandra; Latagliata, Roberto; Breccia, Massimo; Morano, Salvatore Giacomo; Brunetti, Gregorio Antonio; Sali, Michela; Delogu, Giovanni; Foà, Robin; Alimena, Giuliana; Gentile, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Data derived from epidemiologic surveillance adopted at our center in hematologic and stem cell transplant patients during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1)v pandemic are reported. Of the 52 patients with influenza-like disease we observed, 37 underwent a real-time PCR evaluation and 21 had a confirmed diagnosis. Of the RT-PCR-confirmed cases, 23.8% were children (age 65 years; 47.6% presented with a pulmonary infiltrate and 33.3% with respiratory failure. Pulmonary involvement was observed more frequently in patients with comorbidities. All patients received a course of oseltamivir therapy starting an average of 1 day (range <1-2) after the onset of symptoms. No patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. The viral disease had a generally favorable outcome despite the high frequency of pulmonary involvement. A prompt clinical evaluation with an early antiviral and supportive therapy may have played a beneficial role in the outcome. PMID:21411983

  3. 北京市顺义区健康人群甲型H1N1流感抗体水平监测%Serologic survey on influenza A(H1N1) in Shunyi district of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉; 王凤双; 肖雷; 吴殚; 唐莹; 高建华

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解北京市顺义区健康人群甲型H1N1流感抗体水平,为卫生部门制定预防控制措施和策略提供依据.方法:随机选取顺义区12个乡街的5岁以上健康人群采集免疫前静脉血检测抗体,评估健康人群抗体水平.结果:202份血清标本中甲流抗体水平阳性率46.53% (94/202),与北京市人群甲型H1N1流感抗体水平检测结果差异有统计学意义.抗体几何平均滴度倒数(GMRT)为32.78.不同性别人群之间甲型H1N1流感抗体阳性率无差别(P>0.05),不同年龄组之间抗体水平阳性率有差别(P<0.05),25岁~29岁、10岁~14岁组抗体水平阳性率高.结论:顺义区甲型H1N1流感实际感染数高于北京市甲型H1N1流感平均感染水平.甲型H1N1流感感染与性别无关,与年龄有关,感染主要集中在25岁~ 29岁、10岁~14岁组人群.%Objective:To know the antibody levels against influenza A(H1N1 ) in Shunyi district of Beiing, to provide a scientific evidence for related departments to make the prevention and control strategies of influenza A (H1N1). Methods: Venous blood was randomly collected from healthy population above 5 years old in 12 towns and streets of Shunyi district to analyze the antibody levels against A(H1N1 ). Results: Among 202 serum specimens, the positive rate of influenza A(H1N1 ) antibody was 46. 53% (94/202) , which had statistical significance with that of Beijing. The GMRT was 32. 78. The positive rate difference of influenza A( H1N1 ) antibody was not found between males and females(P>0.05) , while which was found among different groups(P <0. 05). Higher positive rate was found in population aged 25 ~29 and 10 ~ 14 years old. Conclusion-. Influenza A( H1N1) infection cases in Shunyi district were more than the average of Beijing, which was not related to sex but age, especially in people of 25 ~ 29 and 10 ~ 14 years old.

  4. Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after exposure to pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination or infection: a Norwegian population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Sara; Gunnes, Nina; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Håberg, Siri Eldevik

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinations and infections are possible triggers of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, studies on GBS after vaccinations during the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic in 2009, show inconsistent results. Only few studies have addressed the role of influenza infection. We used information from national health data-bases with information on the total Norwegian population (N = 4,832,211). Cox regression analyses with time-varying covariates and self-controlled case series was applied. The risk of being hospitalized with GBS during the pandemic period, within 42 days after an influenza diagnosis or pandemic vaccination was estimated. There were 490 GBS cases during 2009-2012 of which 410 cases occurred after October 1, 2009 of which 46 new cases occurred during the peak period of the influenza pandemic. An influenza diagnosis was registered for 2.47% of the population and the vaccination coverage was 39.25%. The incidence rate ratio of GBS during the pandemic peak relative to other periods was 1.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.98]. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of GBS within 42 days after a diagnosis of pandemic influenza was 4.89 (95% CI 1.17-20.36). After pandemic vaccination the adjusted HR was 1.11 (95% CI 0.51-2.43). Our results indicated that there was a significantly increased risk of GBS during the pandemic season and after pandemic influenza infection. However, vaccination did not increase the risk of GBS. The small number of GBS cases in this study warrants caution in the interpretation of the findings.

  5. Compliance to oseltamivir among two populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom affected by influenza A(H1N1pdm09, November 2009--a waste water epidemiology study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Singer

    Full Text Available Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu® compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3-4 and 120-154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45-60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan.

  6. Analysis on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 190 cases with A(H1N1)influenza in Lhasa%拉萨190例甲型H1N1流感的流行病学特点及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚学红; 王毅; 张小林; 索朗卓玛

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨2009年拉萨甲型H1N1流感的流行病学特征及临床特点.方法 对2009年9-12月我院收治的190例甲型H1N1流感确诊病例的流行病学、临床表现及实验室检查等资料进行回顾性分析.结果本次拉萨地区暴发的甲型H1N1流感主要发生在秋冬季,9、10月为高峰.190例病例中,男性106例(55.79%),女性84例(44.21%),患者的平均年龄(16.66±9.78)岁,以7~17岁为主,学生139例(73.16%),藏族144例(75.79%).临床表现以发热、咳嗽、咽痛、咽充血和扁桃体肿大为主,172例有发热(90.53%).所有病例均未接种过甲型H1N1流感疫苗,入院时甲型H1N1流感病毒核酸检测均为阳性,176例(92.63%)病毒快速检测阳性.174例(91.58%)使用利巴韦林等抗病毒治疗取得较好疗效,184例痊愈出院,无死亡病例.结论 本组患者均为易感人群,因此流行期间接种甲型流感疫苗,提高人群免疫力势在必行.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of 190 A(H1N1)influenza cases in 2009 Lhasa.Methods 1he clinical data of 190 hospitalized cases with A(H1N1)influenza in our hospital from September to December 2009 were collected and retrospectively analyzed in epidemiology,clinical features and laboratory test.Results This outbreak of A(H1N1)influenza in Lhasa occurred during autumn and winter with the peak period in September and October.Of the 190 cases,there were 106(55.79%)males,84(44.21%)females.The average age was(16.66±9.78)years old,most of the cases were 7-17 years old.139(73.16%)cases were students.144(75.79%)cases were Tibetan people.The main clinical manifestations were fever,cough,pharyngalgia,pharyngitis,tonsillitis,and172(90.53%)cases had fever.No vaccination was implemented in all the patients before,all of them were positive for the A(H1N1)influenza virus nucleic acid testing on admission,176(92.63%)cases were positive for rapid detection of A influenza virus,174(91.58%)cases accepted ribavirin and

  7. Genetic diversity among pandemic 2009 influenza viruses isolated from a transmission chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah L; Bragstad, Karoline; Pedersen, Svend Stenvang;

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses such as swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) generate genetic diversity due to the high error rate of their RNA polymerase, often resulting in mixed genotype populations (intra-host variants) within a single infection. This variation helps influenza to rapidly...

  8. Ethnicity, deprivation and mortality due to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England during the 2009/2010 pandemic and the first post-pandemic season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Harris, R J; Ellis, J; Pebody, R G

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between risk of death following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and ethnicity and deprivation during the 2009/2010 pandemic period and the first post-pandemic season of 2010/2011 in England was examined. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the mortality risk, adjusted for age, gender, and place of residence. Those of non-White ethnicity experienced an increased mortality risk compared to White populations during the 2009/2010 pandemic [10·5/1000 vs. 6·0/1000 general population; adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1·84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·39-2·54] with the highest risk in those of Pakistani ethnicity. However, no significant difference between ethnicities was observed during the following 2010/2011 season. Persons living in areas with the highest level of deprivation had a significantly higher risk of death (RR 2·08, 95% CI 1·49-2·91) compared to the lowest level for both periods. These results highlight the importance of rapid identification of groups at higher risk of severe disease in the early stages of future pandemics to enable the implementation of optimal prevention and control measures for vulnerable populations.

  9. Ethnicity, deprivation and mortality due to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England during the 2009/2010 pandemic and the first post-pandemic season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Harris, R J; Ellis, J; Pebody, R G

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between risk of death following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and ethnicity and deprivation during the 2009/2010 pandemic period and the first post-pandemic season of 2010/2011 in England was examined. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the mortality risk, adjusted for age, gender, and place of residence. Those of non-White ethnicity experienced an increased mortality risk compared to White populations during the 2009/2010 pandemic [10·5/1000 vs. 6·0/1000 general population; adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1·84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·39-2·54] with the highest risk in those of Pakistani ethnicity. However, no significant difference between ethnicities was observed during the following 2010/2011 season. Persons living in areas with the highest level of deprivation had a significantly higher risk of death (RR 2·08, 95% CI 1·49-2·91) compared to the lowest level for both periods. These results highlight the importance of rapid identification of groups at higher risk of severe disease in the early stages of future pandemics to enable the implementation of optimal prevention and control measures for vulnerable populations. PMID:25850904

  10. Ameaça e controle da gripe A(H1N1: uma análise discursiva de Veja, IstoÉ e Época Threat and control of influenza A (H1N1: a discursive analysis of Brazilian magazines Veja, IstoÉ and Época

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaltina Maria de Azevedo Mello Gomes

    2012-06-01

    differentiated 'new edition' of flu, due to the identification of a new subtype of influenza virus that could be as lethal as the old one. A similar fear to what had been experienced also with avian influenza in 1997, prompting officials to remain on alert. This article aims to evaluate the production of news on influenza A(H1N1 in the three main national magazines in Brazil. We chose to analyze the eigth covers of magazines Veja, IstoÉ and Época published during the first months of the pandemic, in the beginning of 2009. Based on concepts of Discourse Analysis and Journalism Theory, the analysis indicates that the news can be divided into two phases, focusing initially on the alarm over the fear of new virus and deaths recorded and afterwards on the control due to the finding that the disease presented less risk than previously thought and to the actions taken to fight it.

  11. 甲型H1N1流行性感冒疫苗保护效果研究%Investigation on the Epidemiology Effect of Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国民; 殷大鹏; 肖奇友; 刘燕敏; 王华庆; 夏伟; 李慧; 张晋琳; 闫滨; 马玉忠; 祁旺; 姜柯羽

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价甲型H1N1流行性感冒(流感)(甲流)疫苗上市后大规模应用的保护效果.方法 采用队列研究的方法,选择7个省的10个县作为调查地区,通过整群抽样选择部分学校的师生,按照接种疫苗和未接种疫苗分组,对疫苗保护效果进行评价.结果 接种甲流疫苗组和未接种组的流感样病例(Influenza Like Illness,ILI)罹患率分别为0.51%和1.29%,差异有统计学意义(x2=122.1,P<0.001),保护率为60.47%,效果指数为2.5;接种甲流疫苗组的ILI罹患率为0.45%,与未接种组比较差异有统计学意义(x2=95.980,P<0.001),保护率、效果指数分别为65.11%、2.9;接种季节性流感疫苗组的ILI罹患率为0.62%,与未接种组比较差异有统计学意义(x2=42.622,P<0.001),保护率为51.94%,效果指数2.1;未接种甲流疫苗组甲流病例罹患率(0.07%),高于接种组罹患率(0.03%),差异无统计学意义(x2=3.367,P=0.067),接种甲流疫苗的甲流病例保护率为57.14%,效果指数为2.3.结论 甲流疫苗对包括甲流在内的ILI有较好的保护效果.%Objective To assess the epidemiology effect on the mass vaccination of influenzaA(H1N1) vaccine. Method The cohort study design were used. 10 counties from 7 provinces were selected. The school students were divided into vaccinations and un-vaccinations group, and to evaluate the effect of influenzaA (H1N1) vaccine. Result The incidence of influenza like illness (ILI) of vaccinations [include the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine and the seasonal flu vaccine]was 0.50%, the incidence of un-vaccinations was 1.30%, the difference between groups was significant, the protective rate was 61.5%, and the protection index was 2.6; the attack rate of influenza like illness (ILI) of influenza A(H1N1) vaccine vaccinations was 0.45%, compare to the un-vaccinations, the difference was also significant, the protective rate and the protection index was 65.11 % and 2.9 ; the attack rate of

  12. 温州市首次甲型H1N1流感流行的特征分析%Characteristics analysis on the first epidemic of influenza A(H1N1)in Wenzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祖木; 蔡圆圆; 魏晶娇; 陈晟; 潘琼娇; 马洪波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of the first influenza A (H1N1) epidemic in Wenzhou and provide a scientific basis for the measures on control and prevention of influenza. Methods A descriptive epidemiological method was used for analysis of influenza A (H1N1) case data in Wenzhou from May 2009 to July 2010. Results There were 4164 cases (accumulative incidence 53.94/100 000) of influenza A (H1N1) in Wenzhou between May 2009 and July 2010. The peak of incidence was from October 2009 to January 2010, there were 3825 cases, accounted for 91.86%. The patients occurred in eleven counties(districts) of Wenzhou. Most of the cases were found in Lucheng, Ruian and Yueqing counties (districts). Cases for groups aged 5-19 years accounted for 67.39% (2806 The influenza A (H1N1) is gradually transmitted from urbans to rural areas after first imported case is introduced to Wenzhou. The incidence rate is closely related to density of population and mobility of population. Schools are risk sellings for transmissions of influenza A (H1N1). It is very critical to strengthen the epidemiological surveillance for influenza in schools. The influenza A (H1N1) vaccination is specific measures for the prevention of influenza A(H1N1) and gained apparent effectiveness.%目的 分析温州市首次甲型H1N1流感流行特征,为防控措施提出建议.方法 用描述性流行病学方法,对温州市2009年5月至2010年7月甲型H1N1流感病例个案资料进行分析.结果 2009年5月至2010年7月共报告甲型H1N1流感病例4164例,累积发病率53.94/10万.2009年10月至2010年1月为发病高峰,共报告病例数3825例,占总病例数的91.86%.11个县(市、区)均有病例发生,病例数居前三位的是鹿城区、瑞安市和乐清市.5~19岁年龄组共2806例,占总病例数的67.39%,男女之比为1.25∶1;学生占总病例数的66.11%.213例重症与危重症病例中以散居儿童和学生最多,共91例,占42.72%.结论 输入性病

  13. Report of the first ease of influenza A(H1N1) in mainland China%中国内地首例甲型H1N1流感病例的临床特点与预后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 刘亚玲; 何盛华; 曾义岚; 王广发

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过分析我国内地首例甲型H1N1流感病例的临床表现与预后,总结防治措施,积累临床救治经验.方法 对2009年5月10日四川省成都市传染病医院收治的我国内地首例甲型HlNl流感病例进行回颐性分析.结果 患者男,30岁.5月8日自美国返回,返程前4 d与美国"普通感冒"患者有接触史,并出现发热等流感样症状.人院后进行咽拭子实时PCR(RT-PCR)检测,结果 显示甲型H1N1病毒核酸阳性.给予奥司他韦、中药和抗生素治疗.奥司他韦治疗3 d后核酸检测转阴,住院7 d后痊愈出院.结论 本例甲型H1N1流感患者的临床过程与国外有关病例报道相似,但症状较轻.奥司他韦治疗有效.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and management of the first confirmed imported ease of influenza A(H1N1) infection in mainland China. Methods The description of the clinical manifestations, clinical management, infection preventing and controlling strategies were mile.wed. Results The 30-years old male patient came back from USA and with mild influenza-like symptoms developed. He had had a close contact history with a patient with "common cold" 4 ofbefore onset of illness. Influenza A(H1N1) virus newly confirmed in North American was detected in the throat swab samples taken from this patient by real-time PCR and sequencing comparison. His symptoms ameliorated soon after administration of oseltamivir. The temperature was back to normal on the second day with oseltamivir. Nucleic acid of Influenza A (H1N1) virus was undetectable after 3 ofwith osehamivir management. The patient was discharged on the 7 ofafter hospitalization. Conclusions The clinical presentations of this imported case with Influenza A(H1N1) infection suggest that A (HINI) infection manifests as flu-like symptoms in the healthy young people with a mild clinical course and a good prognosis. Early identification, early diagnosis and intervention with oaehamivir might be

  14. 一起甲型H1N1流感暴发疫情的流行病学和病原学分析%The epidemiologic and virological analysis of an outbreak of influenza A/H1N1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海燕; 杨鹏飞; 张敏会; 刘靓; 刘纯成; 时玉军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemiological characters of an influenza A/H1N1 outbreak in a middle school in Huaian city,and to provide scientific measures for prevention and control of influenza A/ H1N1.Method The outbreak of influenza A/H1N1 was investigated through the field epidemiology.The samples were used for virus isolation.Nucleotide sequences of H1N1 HA1 region were determined by RT-nested-PCR and sequencing.H1N1 genotypes were analyzed using bioinformatic programs by MEGA 5.0 software,and phylogenetic tree was constructed.Result 51 cases were reported during 11 days,the attack rate was 2.49% (51/2051).The sequence analysis showed that the sequence homologous rates of H1N1 virus HA gene nucleotide were 99.6%-99.9% with H1N1 genotype in 2014,98.5%-98.8% in 2013,and lower than 98.4% in 2011.Conclusion The popularity of this outbreak was low.Timely isolation of H1 N1 patients and close contacts played an important role in control the epidemics.Implementation of health propaganda and immunization of influenza A/H1N1 should be strengthened.%目的 了解淮安市某中学甲型H1N1流感暴发的分子流行病学特征,为甲型H1N1流感疫情的控制提供依据.方法 采用现场流行病学方法,对甲型H1N1流感疫情进行调查分析;对病例标本进行病毒分离;采用巢式PCR扩增甲型H1N1流感病毒HA1基因的核苷酸序列,利用MEGA5.0分析软件,进行同源性分析和构建系统进化树.结果 疫情持续11天共确诊甲型H1N1流感样病例51例,罹患率为2.49% (51/2051).序列进化分析表明,本次疫情的病毒基因与2014年和2013年甲型H1N1流感病毒HA1基因核苷酸序列的同源性为分别为99.6% ~ 99.9%和98.5%~98.8%,与2011年之前分离的核苷酸同源性为98.4%.结论 此次疫情流行程度较低,及时隔离病人及密切接触者在控制疫情中起到了重要作用;病毒基因变异程度不高,加强健康教育和疫苗接种有助于预防流感.

  15. Swine flu. Mexico's handling of A/H1N1 in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2012-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. Despite the scale of this threat, there are inherent limitations in preventing and controlling EIDs, including the scope of current disease surveillance efforts. All of this leads to the following questions in the context of Mexico's recent swine flu experience: What were the cultural, political, and economic challenges to Influenza A/H1N1 virus response in Mexico? By way of comparison, what can we learn from the U.S. experience in 1976 with A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1), later referred to as H1N1? This article explores the comparative political economy of Mexico's handling of influenza virus A/H1N1 outbreak in 2009. Research provides notable observations-based on the strengths and weaknesses of each country's response--that can be used as a starting point of discussion for the design of effective EIDs surveillance programs in developing and middle-income countries. In the U.S., the speed and efficiency of the 1976 U.S. mobilization against H1N1 was laudable. Although the U.S. response to the outbreak is seldom praised, the unity of the scientific and political communities demonstrated the national ability to respond to the situation. Mexico's strongest characteristics were its transparency, as well as the cooperation the country exhibited with other nations, particularly the U.S. and Canada. While Mexico showed savvy in its effective management of public and media relations, as the article details, political, economic, and cultural problems persisted. PMID:23379315

  16. PANDEMIC FLU A/H1N1V: VIROLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE IN SOUTH TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Manini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available On April 24, 2004, the World Health Organization confirmed a number of cases of con- tagion of the new Influenza virus A/HIN1 in Mexico and the United States. On June 11 2009, the rapid spread of infection compelled the WHO to raise the pandemic phase to 6, which corresponds to the highest state of alert. The virus probably originated from a recent reassortment between a swine virus previously reassorted with three different viral strains (swine, avian, human and a new viral strain similar to the Eu- roasiatic avian virus[1]. This unprecedented circulation of the new influenza virus was facilitated by travel and international exchanges and has reached, in the period of little more than six weeks, the same extent that had been present in previous pandemics in a period of six months, therefore making necessary the implementation of various strategies of Epidemiological and Virological Surveillance. During the pandemic sea- son, 866 pharyngeal swab samples of persons who presented influenza symptoms were gathered. The patients were then divided into different age groups: 0-4, 5-24, 35-54, 55-64 and ≥65 years of age. The virus’ RNA was extracted from each swab by using a specific kit. Afterwards the RNA was reverse transcribed in cDNA and ampli- fied in a single reaction of real-time PCR using the one-step kit recommended by CDC protocol. The analysis of the 866 pharyngeal swabs has shown the presence of 262 positive sample results for the new variant of the A/H1N1virus. Several parameters of this study have been taken in consideration: age groups, geographical distribution of infection in the three cities studied, the weekly trend of positive results which had shown up after a trip abroad, the incidence in local cases and the measure of infection of the virus among patients who came in contact with infected persons. Among the examined age groups, those majorly affected are: ages 0-4, 5-14, 15-24, the least affected age group was ≥65. In

  17. 2012/13 influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalised influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B : estimates from a European network of hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rondy, M.; Launay, O.; Puig-Barbera, J.; Gefenaite, G.; Castilla, J.; Donati, K. de Gaetano; Galtier, F.; Hak, E.; Guevara, M.; Costanzo, S.; Moren, A.

    2015-01-01

    While influenza vaccines aim to decrease the incidence of severe influenza among high-risk groups, evidence of influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) among the influenza vaccine target population is sparse. We conducted a multicentre test-negative case-control study to estimate IVE against hospitalis

  18. Learning to trust flu shots: quasi-experimental evidence on the role of learning in influenza vaccination decisions from the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, J.; Harris, K M

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies consumer learning in influenza vaccination decisions, i.e., potential causal effects of past experiences of being vaccinated on current use of influenza vaccine. Existing structural models of demand usually identify consumer learning parametrically based on functional form assumptions within dynamic forward-looking Bayesian demand models. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to explore the potential role of consumer learning in pharmaceutical demand within a reduc...

  19. A/H1N1研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玲娜

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2009年3以来,包括墨西哥、美国和加拿大在内的许多国家发生了甲型H1N1流感[Swine-origin Influenza A (A/H1N1)]疫情,WHO已于2009年6月20日将此次流感流行的预警级别提升至6级.现已基本明确,引起此次流感疫情的A/H1N1流感病毒是猪流感病毒(Swine Influenza Virus, SIV)的一种新型变异株.此次流感疫情的发生,再次使猪流感成为社会各界关注的焦点之一.本文就甲型H1N1流感的临床表现、病毒特征、相互关系及其对动物卫生监督工作的影响等作一综述.

  20. 一起寄宿制学校甲型H1N1流感暴发危险因素分析%Risk factors of influenza A(H1N1)outbreak in a boarding school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希; 李铁钢; 柳洋; 狄飚; 袁俊; 王鸣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨一起甲型H1N1流感在寄宿制学校暴发的危险因素,为制定甲型H1N1流感疫情的防控措施提供科学依据.方法 采用RT-PCR方法以及血凝抑制试验,进行甲型H1N1流感病毒核酸及血清抗体检测;同时进行面对问卷调查并查阅校医门诊记录,运用病例对照研究,分析甲型H1N1流感病毒感染的危险因素.结果 一次疫情暴发后,学生甲型H1N1流感感染率为32.69%.X2检验表明,同班同学发热(OR=2.257,95%CI=1.664~3.060)、同宿舍室友发热(OR=2.270,95%CI=1.782~2.891)、宿舍每天开排气扇(OR=0.776,95%CI=0.617~0.976)、宿舍朝向与当时季节风向不一致(OR=1.417,95%CI=1.114~1.801)均与甲型H1N1流感感染有关.结论 加强晨检、及时发现传染源并采取单间隔离或居家隔离是控制甲型H1N1流感暴发疫情的重要手段,加强居室通风是切实可行的预防措施.%Objective To investigate the risk factors of influenza A ( H1N1 ) outbreak in a boarding school, and to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control. Methods RT - PCR and hemngglutination inhibition test for pandemic influenza A ( H1 N1 ) virus were used to test the nucleic acid and serum antibody. Case-control study design was adopted to analyze the risk factors of influenza A ( H1N1 ) of infection. Results Afteran outhreak of influenza (H1N1), the prevalence of influenza A (H1N1) infection was32.69%. Having classmates who had afever ( OR = 2. 257, 95 % CI = 1. 664 - 3. 060 ), living with a roommate with fever ( OR = 2. 270, 95 % CI = 1. 782 - 2. 891 ), having ventilating fan in the dormitory ( OR = 0. 776, 95% CI = 0.617 - 0. 976 ), and the direction of the dormitory was inconsistent with current seasonal wind direction ( OR =1. 417, 95% CI = 1.114 - 1. 801 ) were all risk factors of influenza A ( H1N1 ). Conclusion Emphasizing morning check, discovering contngium timely and taking isolation or quarantine measures for the influenza

  1. 中西医结合治疗重症H1N1流感40例临床分析%Combined treatment of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine for 40 cases of severe patients with influenza A(H1N1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    种宝贵; 崔朝勃; 王金荣; 李雅琴; 李炳茂

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyz the traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine's clinical features of patients with severe patients influenza A(H1N1) ,and to discuss the methods for its diagnosis and treatments. METHODS The clinical features, laboratory findings and the image data of 40 cases of influenza A(H1N1) treated with dialectical traditional Chinese drug and oseltamivir, who were admitted to the Harrison International Peace Hospital affiliated to Hebei Medical University during November 13,2009-December 24,2009, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS The patients included 14 males and 26 females, with and age range of 1 - 68 years and a mean of 26. 5 years old. Only one patient had definite contact history and the mean latency was 3. 6 days. The most common initial symptoms and physical signs were fever,cough and rales. CONCLUSION Eerly identification of severe influenza A(H1N1) patients and early treatment with oseltamivir and traditional Chinese drug are the keys for diagnosis and treatment;and comprehensive therapy and supporting therapy can achieve better therapeutic effects.%目的:分析甲型H1N1流感重症病例的中西医临床特征,并对其诊治方法进行探讨.方法:时2009年11月13日-12月24日河北医科大学附属哈励逊国际和平医院收治的40例甲型H1N1流感重症病例的临床特征、实验室检查进行回顾分析,并使用中药辩证治疗和奥司他韦抗病毒治疗.结果:40例患者中男14例,女26例,年龄1~68岁,平均26.5岁.仅1例有明确接触史,平均潜伏期平均3.6 d;所有患者均以发热、咳嗽为主要症状.结论:甲型H1N1流感诊疗的关健是早期识别重症病例,并及时给予奥司他韦、中药等综合治疗可迅速缓解症状,改善预后.

  2. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...

  3. Quantifying homologous and heterologous antibody titre rises after influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, G; Perera, R A P M; Ngan, E; Fang, V J; Cauchemez, S; Ip, D K M; Peiris, J S M; Cowling, B J

    2016-08-01

    Most influenza virus infections are associated with mild disease. One approach to estimate the occurrence of influenza virus infections in individuals is via repeated measurement of humoral antibody titres. We used baseline and convalescent antibody titres measured by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and viral neutralization (VN) assays against influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B viruses to investigate the characteristics of antibody rises following virologically confirmed influenza virus infections in participants in a community-based study. Multivariate models were fitted in a Bayesian framework to characterize the distribution of changes in antibody titres following influenza A virus infections. In 122 participants with PCR-confirmed influenza A virus infection, homologous antibody titres rose by geometric means of 1·2- to 10·2-fold after infection with A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09. Significant cross-reactions were observed between A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal A(H1N1). Antibody titre rises for some subtypes and assays varied by age, receipt of oseltamivir treatment, and recent receipt of influenza vaccination. In conclusion, we provided a quantitative description of the mean and variation in rises in influenza virus antibody titres following influenza virus infection. The multivariate patterns in boosting of antibody titres following influenza virus infection could be taken into account to improve estimates of cumulative incidence of infection in seroepidemiological studies. PMID:27018720

  4. Evaluation of MChip with Historic Subtype H1N1 Influenza A Viruses, Including the 1918 “Spanish Flu” Strain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Chad L.; Smagala, James A.; Smith, Catherine B.; Dawson, Erica D.; Cox, Nancy J.; Kuchta, Robert D.; Rowlen, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    The robustness of a recently developed diagnostic microarray for influenza, the MChip, was evaluated with 16 historic subtype H1N1 influenza A viruses (A/H1N1), including A/Brevig Mission/1/1918. The matrix gene segments from all 16 viruses were successfully detected on the array. An artificial neural network trained with temporally related A/H1N1 viruses identified A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 as influenza virus A/H1N1 with 94% probability. PMID:17855577

  5. Evaluation of MChip with Historic Subtype H1N1 Influenza A Viruses, Including the 1918 “Spanish Flu” Strain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Chad L.; Smagala, James A.; Smith, Catherine B.; Dawson, Erica D.; Cox, Nancy J.; Kuchta, Robert D.; Rowlen, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    The robustness of a recently developed diagnostic microarray for influenza, the MChip, was evaluated with 16 historic subtype H1N1 influenza A viruses (A/H1N1), including A/Brevig Mission/1/1918. The matrix gene segments from all 16 viruses were successfully detected on the array. An artificial neural network trained with temporally related A/H1N1 viruses identified A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 as influenza virus A/H1N1 with 94% probability.

  6. Clinical analysis of 103 case of influenza A(H1N1)%103例甲型H1N1流感临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万瑾; 朱晨曦; 王凯; 刘双; 陈吉祥; 何林林; 夏静鸿; 刘海波; 王珊; 张雪冬; 石秀梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨2009年甲型H1N1流感的临床特点及预后.方法:回顾性分析2009年8月至2010年1月北京安贞医院98例甲型H1N1流感患者及5例外院会诊重症患者的临床资料.结果:本组病例中平均年龄(31.06±13.43)岁.主要临床表现为发热(100%)、咳嗽(88.3%)及畏寒(81.6%)等.重症及危重症患者中病死率为22.2%,并发症居前3位的是细菌感染、急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)、多脏器功能衰竭(MODS),其发生率分别为85.7%、57.1%及28.6%.慢性基础性疾病为重症及危重症病例发生的重要影响因素.结论:甲型H1N1流感以青壮年发病为主,主要临床表现为呼吸道症状,重症病例中多存在二重感染,并有可能存在凝血障碍,呼吸性碱中毒,低氧血症或Ⅰ型呼吸衰竭,且存在慢性基础性疾病更易发生.%Objective; To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of influencza A (H1N1) virus infection in 2009. Methods;The clinical data of 98 patients with influenza A( HIM ) admitted into Beijing Anzhen Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University and 5 critically ill patients with same diseases in other hospitals from August 2009 to January 2010 were retrospectively analyzed, and related literatures were reviewed. Results:In the group of cases, the average age was (31.06 ±13.43) years, and the main clinical manifestations presented fever (100% ) , cough (88. 3% ) and chill (81. 6% ) , etc. The mortality rate of severe and critically ill patients was 22. 2%. The most common complications was bacterial infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as multively. Organ dysfunction syndrome, and the incidences was 85.1% , 57. 1% and 28. 6% , respectively there was significant relation between chronic underlying diseases and presence of severe cases. Conclusion;The influenza A( H1N1) often occur in young adults, main clinical characteristics present respiratory tract symptoms. In severe cases, there may

  7. 不同专业大学生甲型H1N1流感知识及行为调查%Influenza A(H1N1)-related knowledge and behaviors among university students with different majors in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾菁; 陈培奋; 林羽媚; 刘德辉; 葛菲雪; 凌文华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate influenza A( H1N1 )-related knowledge and behaviors among university students and to provide information for influenza A( H1N1 ) epidemic prevention in campus.Methods A total of 873 students from three different majors of two universities in Guangzhou were recruited.Anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression model were used in the analysis.Results University students had some awareness of the transmission route and preventive measure of influenza A ( H1N1 ) (39.2% -96.8% ).But many of them did not have preventive behavior (23.9% -57.7% ).After adjusting for significant background factors, students majoring in public health knew more about influenza A( H1N1 )-related transmission route compared with those majoring in anthropology or social work( odds ratio = 2.5 - 5.2 ,P < 0.01 ).There was no significant difference in influenzaA( H1N1 ) related preventive behavior among students with different majors.Over 70% of the students reported that they had insufficient information to prevent influenza A(H1N1 ).Conclusion The condition of influenza A(H1N1 ) prevention in campus is far from requirment.Improvement in preventive perception and behavior is greatly needed among university students.%目的 了解不同专业大学生甲型H1N1流感相关知识和行为情况,为预防和控制校园内甲型H1N1流感疫情提供参考依据.方法 采用自行设计调查问卷,对广东省广州市2所高校3个不同专业共873名大学生进行问卷调查.结果 与公共卫生专业学生比较,人类学和社会工作专业学生对甲型H1NI流感的传播知识掌握较少(P0.05).结论 公共卫生专业大学生对甲型H1N1流感相关知识了解相对较多,但预防行为尚待提高.

  8. 孕妇对甲型H1N1流感的认知态度调查%Study on the cognitive situation of influenza A(H1N1) among antenatal-checkup pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冬燕; 曹敏; 王丹凤

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解在我院进行产检孕妇对甲型H1N1流感的基本认知和态度,为制定有效的防控措施,开展相关的健康教育提供依据.方法:采用自行设计的调查问卷,采用随机抽样的方法,对我院产检的孕妇进行自填式问卷调查.结果:孕妇对甲型H1N1流感相关知识的知晓率为99.64%;文化程度越高的孕妇越能正确面对甲型H1N1流感(P<0.05);孕妇获取甲型H1N1流感相关知识的主要途径为电视、报纸.结论:我院产检孕妇对甲型H1N1流感的知晓率较高;文化程度越高的孕妇,对甲型H1N1流感的知识越关注,越能正确的面对;孕妇获取甲型H1N1流感相关知识的主要途径是媒体宣传.%Objective:To study the cognitive situation and attitude of influenza A( H1N1 ) among pregnant women that Antenatal checkup in our hospital to help making plan for influenza A( H1N1 ) prevention and providing relative health education.Methods: Self - made questionnaire was used for the random sampling investigation of pregnant women that Antenatal checkup in our hospital.Results:99.64% pregnant women had relative knowledge of influenza A ( H1N1 ); Pregnant women with higher education background had better Cognitive Situation of influenza A( H1N1 )( P < 0.05 ); The main approaches of acknowledgment of relative knowledge of influenza A ( H1N1 ) were by TV ( 90.58% )and newspaper ( 62.68% ).Conclusion:Most of pregnant women that Antenatal checkup in our hospital had relative knowledge of influenza A( H1N1 ).Pregnant women with higher education background paid more attention to influenza A( H1N1 ) and had better cognizance of influenza A( H1N1 ).The main approaches of acknowledgment of influenza A( H1N1 ) relative knowledge was by media.

  9. A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients diagnosed in conjunction with the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Alexander; Ramelius, Anita; Olsson, Tomas; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Lamb, Favelle; Khademi, Mohsen; Ambati, Aditya; Maeurer, Markus; Nilsson, Anna-Lena; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Fink, Katharina; Lernmark, Åke

    2014-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder related to hypocretin deficiency resulting from a specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area. The disease is thought to be autoimmune due to a strong association with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic (A/H1N1PDM09). In response to this, the Swedish vaccination campaign began in October of the same year, using the influenza vaccine Pandemrix(®). A few months later an excess of narcolepsy cases was observed. It is still unclear to what extent the vaccination campaign affected humoral autoimmunity associated with narcolepsy. We studied 47 patients with narcolepsy (6-69 years of age) and 80 healthy controls (3-61 years of age) selected after the Pandemrix vaccination campaign. The first aim was to determine antibodies against A/H1N1 and autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2), a narcolepsy autoantigen candidate as well as to GAD65 and IA-2 as disease specificity controls. The second aim was to test if levels and frequencies of these antibodies and autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In vitro transcribed and translated [(35)S]-methionine and -cysteine-labeled influenza A virus (A/California/04/2009/(H1N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin was used to detect antibodies in a radiobinding assay. Autoantibodies to TRIB2, GAD65 and IA-2 were similarly detected in standard radiobinding assays. The narcolepsy patients had higher median levels of A/H1N1 antibodies than the controls (p = 0.006). A/H1N1 antibody levels were higher among the H1N1 antibody levels in both patients and controls (p = 0.026). Serum autoantibody levels to TRIB2 were low overall and high binders did not differ between patients and controls. We observed an association between levels of A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibody levels particularly among the youngest narcolepsy patients (r = 0.819, p H1N1 antibody levels were associated with young age

  10. Epidemiologic study of influenza A/H1N1 outbreak in a middle school in Haidian District, Beijing%北京市某中学聚集性甲型H1N1流感暴发疫情调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦懿芸; 郭菁; 华伟玉; 孙亚敏; 王江敏; 蔡润; 刘锋

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解北京市海淀区某中学聚集性甲型H1N1流感暴发的流行特征,为学校甲型H1N1流感疫情的控制提供科学依据.方法 收集该校甲型H1N1患者基本资料和疫情发生学校基本情况,采用描述性流行病学方法对该起疫情进行流行病学分析.结果 甲型H1N1流感暴发疫情历时17 d,累计确诊109名病例,学生罹息率为5.08%(104/2 048),教师罹患率为2.23%(5/224),隐性感染者比例为7.34%(8/109);与2008年同期比较,流感样病例比例差异有统计学意义;疫情初期发病学生以初二年级学生为主,中、后期扩散至初三及其他年级;不同性别人群罹患率差异有统计学意义;病例临床特征典型;甲型H1N1流感病例占流感样病例30.95%(104/336).结论 此次疫情为一起输入性甲型H1N1流感暴发疫情.严格执行校园内的晨午检和疫情报告制度,及时隔离病人及密切接触者,积极开展健康教育和对易感人群的免疫接种,可预防和控制甲型H1N1流感疫情的发生与流行.%Objective To study the epidemiological characters of an influerza A/H1N1 outbreak in a middle school in Haidian district, and to provide effective and scientific measures of respiratory diseases prevention and control in schools. Methods The data of every patient and basic information of school were collected, and epidemiological descriptive analysis was conducted in the study. Results The duration of the influenza A/H1N 1 outbreak was seventeen days. One hundred and nine patients were diagnosed and the attack rate of students was 5.08% ( 104/2 048 ), the attack rate of teachers was 2.23% ( 5/224 ) and the proportion of recessive infected patients was 7.34% ( 8/109 ). The incidence rate of influenza likely patient of 2009 was higher than that of 2008. In the early period, most patients were grade two of junior high school, while in the middle period and the later period, most patients were grade three of junior high school. There

  11. Global Variability in Reported Mortality for Critical Illness during the 2009-10 Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression to Guide Reporting of Outcomes during Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruxandra; Rubenfeld, Gordon; Fowler, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine how patient, healthcare system and study-specific factors influence reported mortality associated with critical illness during the 2009–2010 Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Methods Systematic review with meta-regression of studies reporting on mortality associated with critical illness during the 2009–2010 Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Data Sources Medline, Embase, LiLACs and African Index Medicus to June 2009-March 2016. Results 226 studies from 50 countries met our inclusion criteria. Mortality associated with H1N1-related critical illness was 31% (95% CI 28–34). Reported mortality was highest in South Asia (61% [95% CI 50–71]) and Sub-Saharan Africa (53% [95% CI 29–75]), in comparison to Western Europe (25% [95% CI 22–30]), North America (25% [95% CI 22–27]) and Australia (15% [95% CI 13–18]) (Peconomic status of the outbreak location. Outcomes from a relatively small number of patients from specific regions may lead to biased estimates of outcomes on a global scale. PMID:27170999

  12. A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients diagnosed in conjunction with the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Alexander; Ramelius, Anita; Olsson, Tomas; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Lamb, Favelle; Khademi, Mohsen; Ambati, Aditya; Maeurer, Markus; Nilsson, Anna-Lena; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Fink, Katharina; Lernmark, Åke

    2014-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder related to hypocretin deficiency resulting from a specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area. The disease is thought to be autoimmune due to a strong association with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic (A/H1N1PDM09). In response to this, the Swedish vaccination campaign began in October of the same year, using the influenza vaccine Pandemrix(®). A few months later an excess of narcolepsy cases was observed. It is still unclear to what extent the vaccination campaign affected humoral autoimmunity associated with narcolepsy. We studied 47 patients with narcolepsy (6-69 years of age) and 80 healthy controls (3-61 years of age) selected after the Pandemrix vaccination campaign. The first aim was to determine antibodies against A/H1N1 and autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2), a narcolepsy autoantigen candidate as well as to GAD65 and IA-2 as disease specificity controls. The second aim was to test if levels and frequencies of these antibodies and autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In vitro transcribed and translated [(35)S]-methionine and -cysteine-labeled influenza A virus (A/California/04/2009/(H1N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin was used to detect antibodies in a radiobinding assay. Autoantibodies to TRIB2, GAD65 and IA-2 were similarly detected in standard radiobinding assays. The narcolepsy patients had higher median levels of A/H1N1 antibodies than the controls (p = 0.006). A/H1N1 antibody levels were higher among the <13 years old (n = 12) compared to patients who were older than 30 years (n = 12, p = 0.014). Being HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive was associated with higher A/H1N1 antibody levels in both patients and controls (p = 0.026). Serum autoantibody levels to TRIB2 were low overall and high binders did not differ between patients and controls. We observed an association between levels of A/H1N1

  13. 'Rhyme or reason?' Saying no to mass vaccination: subjective re-interpretation in the context of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-12-01

    During the swine flu pandemic of 2009-2010, all Swedish citizens were recommended to be vaccinated with the influenza vaccine Pandemrix. However, a very serious and unexpected side effect emerged during the summer of 2010: more than 200 children and young adults were diagnosed with narcolepsy after vaccination. Besides the tragic outcome for these children and their families, this adverse side effect suggests future difficulties in obtaining trust in vaccination in cases of emerging pandemics, and thus there is a growing need to find ways to understand the complexities of vaccination decision processes. This article explores written responses to a questionnaire from a Swedish folk life archive as an unconventional source for analysing vaccine decisions. The aim is to investigate how laypersons responded to and re-interpreted the message about the recommended vaccination in their answers. The answers show the confusion and complex circumstances and influences in everyday life that people reflect on when making such important decisions. The issue of confusion is traced back to the initial communications about the vaccination intervention in which both autonomy and solidarity were expected from the population. Common narratives and stories about the media or 'big pharma capitalism' are entangled with private memories, accidental coincidences and serendipitous associations. It is obvious that vaccination interventions that require compliance from large groups of people need to take into account the kind of personal experience narratives that are produced by the complex interplay of the factors described by the informants.

  14. 'Rhyme or reason?' Saying no to mass vaccination: subjective re-interpretation in the context of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-12-01

    During the swine flu pandemic of 2009-2010, all Swedish citizens were recommended to be vaccinated with the influenza vaccine Pandemrix. However, a very serious and unexpected side effect emerged during the summer of 2010: more than 200 children and young adults were diagnosed with narcolepsy after vaccination. Besides the tragic outcome for these children and their families, this adverse side effect suggests future difficulties in obtaining trust in vaccination in cases of emerging pandemics, and thus there is a growing need to find ways to understand the complexities of vaccination decision processes. This article explores written responses to a questionnaire from a Swedish folk life archive as an unconventional source for analysing vaccine decisions. The aim is to investigate how laypersons responded to and re-interpreted the message about the recommended vaccination in their answers. The answers show the confusion and complex circumstances and influences in everyday life that people reflect on when making such important decisions. The issue of confusion is traced back to the initial communications about the vaccination intervention in which both autonomy and solidarity were expected from the population. Common narratives and stories about the media or 'big pharma capitalism' are entangled with private memories, accidental coincidences and serendipitous associations. It is obvious that vaccination interventions that require compliance from large groups of people need to take into account the kind of personal experience narratives that are produced by the complex interplay of the factors described by the informants. PMID:26077985

  15. Analysis on application of risk analysis in influenza A(H1N1)prevention and control at Beijing Capital Airport Port%风险分析法在首都机场口岸甲型H1N1流感疫情防控工作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健华; 王康琳; 王保刚; 刘德臣; 朱戈; 刘鲁宁; 赵言群

    2011-01-01

    目的 证明风险分析法对于口岸传染病防控工作的重要作用.方法阐述在首都机场口岸甲型H1N1流感防控工作中风险分析法的应用,主要包括对可能造成疫情扩散和暴发的因素进行风险评估,对其危害程度进行分析,进而选择具有针对性的风险管理策略并加以实施,并在其过程中始终贯穿风险交流手段.结果甲型H1N1流感防控工作中风险分析方法的应用提高了疫情防控效率,有效控制了疫情蔓延.结论在口岸卫生检疫工作中引入风险分析法是口岸卫生检疫核心能力建设和促进卫生检疫事业发展的必要条件,应予以广泛推广.%Objective To prove the important role by risk analysis in infectious diseases prevention and control at frontier port. Methods This article demonstrated the application of risk analysis in influenza A(H1N1) prevention and control at Beijing Capital Airport port.including risk assessment of factors that may cause disease spread and breaking out,analysis of their harm extent.adopting risk management strategy aimed to them,and using risk communication through the whole process. Results The application of risk analysis in influenza A(H1N1) prevention and control promotes the efficiency,and controls disease spread effectively. Conclusion It is proved that application of risk analysis in quarantine at frontier will help to construction of frontier core ability and development of health quarantine.which should be popularize extensively.

  16. Viral Etiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations during the A/H1N1pdm09 Pandemic and Postpandemic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sanz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections are one of the main causes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD. Emergence of A/H1N1pdm influenza virus in the 2009 pandemic changed the viral etiology of exacerbations that were reported before the pandemic. The aim of this study was to describe the etiology of respiratory viruses in 195 Spanish patients affected by AE-COPD from the pandemic until the 2011-12 influenza epidemic. During the study period (2009–2012, respiratory viruses were identified in 48.7% of samples, and the proportion of viral detections in AE-COPD was higher in patients aged 30–64 years than ≥65 years. Influenza A viruses were the pathogens most often detected during the pandemic and the following two influenza epidemics in contradistinction to human rhino/enteroviruses that were the main viruses causing AE-COPD before the pandemic. The probability of influenza virus detection was 2.78-fold higher in patients who are 30–64 years old than those ≥65. Most respiratory samples were obtained during the pandemic, but the influenza detection rate was higher during the 2011-12 epidemic. There is a need for more accurate AE-COPD diagnosis, emphasizing the role of respiratory viruses. Furthermore, diagnosis requires increased attention to patient age and the characteristics of each influenza epidemic.

  17. Swine Influenza in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Harsha K. K.; Wickramasinghe, Geethani; Cheung, Chung L; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Smith, David K.; Poon, Leo L M; Perera, Aluthgama K. C.; Ma, Siu K; Sunil-Chandra, Narapiti P.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. M.

    2013-01-01

    To study influenza viruses in pigs in Sri Lanka,we examined samples from pigs at slaughterhouses. Influenza (H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were prevalent during 2004–2005 and 2009–2012, respectively. Genetic and epidemiologic analyses of human and swine influenza viruses indicated 2 events of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spillover from humans to pigs.

  18. Influenza Virus Resistance to Antiviral Agents: A Plea for Rational Use

    OpenAIRE

    Poland, Gregory A.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.

    2009-01-01

    Although influenza vaccine can prevent influenza virus infection, the only therapeutic options to treat influenza virus infection are antiviral agents. At the current time, nearly all influenza A/H3N2 viruses and a percentage of influenza A/H1N1 viruses are adamantane resistant, which leaves only neuraminidase inhibitors available for treatment of infection with these viruses. In December 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released new data demonstrating that a high percenta...

  19. Molucular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, S.J.; Langat, P.; Reid, S.; Lam, T.; Cotten, M.; Kelly, M.; Reeth, Van K.; Qiu, Y.; Simon, G.; Bonin, E.; Foni, E.; Chiapponi, C.; Larsen, L.; Hjulsager, C.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Urbaniak, K.; Durrwald, R.; Schlegel, M.; Huovilainen, A.; Davidson, I.; Dan, A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Edwards, S.; Bublot, M.; Vila, T.; Maldonado, J.; Valls, L.; Brown, I.H.; Pybus, O.G.; Kellam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data ha

  20. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Watson, Simon; Langat, Pinky; M. Reid, Scott;

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data...

  1. Tracking oseltamivir-resistance in New Zealand influenza viruses during a medicine reclassification in 2007, a resistant-virus importation in 2008 and the 2009 pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Sue Huang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu® is an important pharmaceutical intervention against the influenza virus. The importance of surveillance for resistance to oseltamivir has been highlighted by two global events: the emergence of an oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A(H1N1 virus in 2008, and emergence of the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus in 2009. Oseltamivir is a prescription medicine in New Zealand, but more timely access has been provided since 2007 by allowing pharmacies to directly dispense oseltamivir to patients with influenza-like illness.Objective: To determine the frequency of oseltamivir-resistance in the context of a medicine reclassification in 2007, the importation of an oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza virus in 2008, and the emergence of a pandemic in 2009.Methods: A total of 1795 influenza viruses were tested for oseltamivir-resistance using a fluorometric neuraminidase inhibition assay. Viruses were collected as part of a sentinel influenza surveillance programme between the years 2006 and 2010.Results: All influenza B, influenza A(H3N2 and influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses tested between 2006 and 2010 were shown to be sensitive to oseltamivir. Seasonal influenza A(H1N1 viruses from 2008 and 2009 were resistant to oseltamivir. Sequencing of the neuraminidase gene showed that the resistant viruses contained an H275Y mutation, and S247N was also identified in the neuraminidase gene of one seasonal influenza A(H1N1 virus that exhibited enhanced resistance.Discussion: No evidence was found to suggest that increased access to oseltamivir has promoted resistance. A probable importation event was documented for the global 2008 oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1 virus nine months after it was first reported in Europe in January 2008.

  2. Cross-sectional study on immunization of novel influenza A/H1N1 vaccine in a fever clinic%发热门诊患者甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种情况及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓光; 胥婕; 杨雪松; 张拓红; 姚中强; 邓忠华; 沈励; 吴华

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解发热门诊患者接种甲型H1N1流感(甲流)疫苗的一般情况以及影响因素,为今后流感的预防控制工作提供依据.方法 采取横断面研究,2010年1月1日至2月28日发热门诊就诊的所有患者4556例,按照是否接种甲流疫苗分组,分析其基本情况.另选取2010年2月1-7日愿意接受问卷调查者425例,对其接种/未接种甲流疫苗的原因进行调查.结果 发热门诊患者的甲流疫苗接种率12.6%.与未接种组比较,接种组多为男性(55.3%)、年龄多为16~35岁(89.0%),以学生为主(66.0%),两组差异均有统计学意义(P< 0.05).未接种疫苗的原因主要包括:身体因素(42.2%)、疫苗因素(38.0%)、外在因素(48.6%).按职业比较,学生和退休人员以身体因素为主,干部职员以外在因素为主;受调查者学历越高,考虑疫苗因素的比例越大(P均<0.05).接种疫苗的原因以单位或社区组织接种为主(82.1%).结论 发热门诊患者中甲流疫苗接种率不高,受接种政策、组织管理等因素影响,相关部门尚需要加大流感预防及流感疫苗质量、安全性、接种政策等知识的宣传,采取更加有效便利的接种措施.%Objective To understand novel influenza A/H1N1 vaccination coverage and vaccination influencing factors among patients in a fever clinic in Beijing, and provide scientific basis for prevention and control of influenza in fu-ture. Methods All 4556 patients in a fever clinic in Beijing during January and February in 2010 were selected. They were divided into two groups according to whether vaccination of novel influenza A/H1N1 or not and their basic information were analyzed. Furthermore, 425 patients who agreed to take questionnaire survey about " the reasons of taking vaccina-tion/non-vaccination" were investigated from February 1 to 7 2010. Results The vaccination rate of novel influenza A/ H1N1 was 12.6% among patients in the fever clinic. Comparing with non

  3. Herd immunity against new influenza A(H1N1)in pre-vaccinated residents aged over 5 years in Beijing%北京市5岁及以上常住人口疫苗接种前新型甲型H1N1流感病毒人群抗体水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢莉; 刘东磊; 张铁钢; 陈萌; 张朱佳子; 王小莉; 杨镇; 庞星火; 邓瑛

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the herd immunity against influenza A(H1N1)in pre-vaccinated residents aged over 5 years.and therefore to provide data for vaccination policies in high risk populations. Methods From October to December 2009,Beijing CDC conducted a serum survey of the hovel influenza A (H1N1) in the local residents,stratified in 10 age groups between 5 years to over 60 years,without H1N1 vaccination history and disease history.Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed at Beijing CDC.Statistical significance was determined with geometric mean titer(GMT). Results 3499 serum samples were tested for HI antibody.The average level of HI antibody was 1:8.03.and 11.06%(387/3499)were sero-positive(HI antibody level≥1:40).In the group aged from 5 to 19 years,the level of HI antibody and the sero-positive rate were higber(HI antibody>1:8.9.sero-positive rate>12%). Conclusions The antibody levels in different groups were affected by age specific morbidity,and the higher antibody level of the school-age group was correlated with higher disease intensity in this population.The data showed that the herd immunity in Beijing was under the optimal level,but influenza A(H1N1)would probably become prevalent in the short coming future.%目的 了解北京市5岁及以上常住人口接种新型甲型H1N1流感(简称甲型流感)病毒疫苗前的人群抗体水平,为确定防控重点人群提供依据. 方法 2009年10至12月选择未接种疫苗、未明确诊断为甲型流感的北京市常住人口,按照年龄组进行分层,用血凝抑制试验检测新型甲型H1N1流感病毒抗体(简称抗体),使用抗体几何平均滴度进行不同人群的比较. 结果 共监测3499名调查对象,平均抗体水平为1:8.03,阳性率为11.06%(387/3499);5~19岁人群抗体水平和阳性率较高,其抗体水平均>1:8.9,抗体阳性率均>12%. 结论 不同人群抗体水平受该人群疫情流行强度的影响,学生人群抗体水平和阳性率高与学

  4. Swine-origin influenza-virus-induced acute lung injury:Novel or classical pathogenesis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoyoshi; Maeda; Toshimitsu; Uede

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are common respiratory pathogens in humans and can cause serious infection that leads to the development of pneumonia.Due to their hostrange diversity,genetic and antigenic diversity,and potential to reassort genetically in vivo,influenza A viruses are continual sources of novel influenza strains that lead to the emergence of periodic epidemics and outbreaks in humans.Thus,newly emerging viral diseases are always major threats to public health.In March 2009,a novel influenza virus suddenly emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic.The novel pandemic influenza virus was genetically and antigenically distinct from previous seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 viruses;it was identified to have originated from pigs,and further genetic analysis revealed it as a subtype of A/H1N1,thus later called a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1.Since the novel virus emerged,epidemiological surveys and research on experimental animal models have been conducted,and characteristics of the novel influenza virus have been determined but the exact mechanisms of pulmonary pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.In this editorial,we summa-rize and discuss the recent pandemic caused by the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 with a focus on the mechanism of pathogenesis to obtain an insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

  5. Interaction of nanodiamonds materials with influenza viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perspectives of the application of modern materials contained nanodiamonds (ND) are considered in this study. The interaction between detonation paniculate ND, soot and influenza A and B viruses, fragments of cDNA were analyzed at the normal conditions. It was shown that these sorbents can interact with the following viruses: reference epidemic strains of influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1)v, A(H3N2) and B viruses circulated in the word in 2000-2010. The allantoises, concentrated viruses, cDNA can be absorbed by ND sorbents and getting removed from water solutions within 20 min. ND sorbents can be used for the preparation of antivirus filters for water solution and for future diagnostic systems in virology.

  6. Investigation of the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine coverage and influential factors among high and primary school students%中小学生甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种率调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆碧茹; 李苑; 刘开钳; 吴泰顺; 马智超

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influenza A (H 1N1 ) vaccine coverage among high and primary school students, and the factors influencing the vaccine coverage. Methods A random sampling survey was carried out for 1 405 high and primary school students by questionnaire, and descriptive analysis. Chi square test and Logistic regression analysis were used for the evaluation of influential factors of vaccine coverage. Results The vaccine coverage against influenza A (H1N1 ) in high and primary school students was 30.4%, and rate of knowledge on influenza was 39.5%. The main reason for not having influenza vaccine was the concern of side effects (38.7%). Male students, elder students and students who had vaccinated against influenza in the pass 3 years were tend to take the influenza vaccine. Conclusion The knowledge of influenza A(H1N1 ) was low among high and primary school students. Health education on the knowledge of influenza A and the influenza vaccine should be strengthened, and is also important to deliver correct information of influenza and influenza vaccine at the peak seasons of the disease.%目的 调查深圳市宝安区中小学生甲型H1N1流感疫苗的接种率及影响因素.方法 在全区中小学中随机抽取1405名学生进行问卷调查,对一般情况采用描述性分析,组间构成比比较采用x2检验,探讨多变量影响因素采用多因素Logistic回归分析.结果 宝安区中小学生甲型H1N1流感疫苗的接种率为30.4%,甲流疫苗知识的总体知晓率为39.5%;未接种甲流疫苗最主要的原因是怕出现疫苗不良副反应,占38.7%;男性学生、年龄增加、近3年接种过季节性流感的学生更倾向于接种疫苗.结论 宝安区中小学生甲流疫苗的知晓率偏低,应加强对学生甲流和甲流疫苗的相关知识宣传,同时加强季节性流感知识的健康教育,疾控部门应利用各种渠道及时对公众传达准确的信息.

  7. Prospective hospital-based case–control study to assess the effectiveness of pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination and risk factors for hospitalization in 2009–2010 using matched hospital and test-negative controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellenbrand Wiebke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed a case–control study to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE for prevention of hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (pH1N1 and to identify risk factors for pH1N1 and acute respiratory infection (ARI in 10 hospitals in Berlin from December 2009 to April 2010. Methods Cases were patients aged 18–65 years with onset of ARI ≤10 days before admission testing positive for pH1N1 by PCR performed on nasal and throat swabs or by serological testing. Cases were compared to (1 matched hospital controls with acute surgical, traumatological or other diagnoses matched on age, sex and vaccination probability, and (2 ARI patients testing negative for pH1N1. Additionally, ARI cases were compared to matched hospital controls. A standardized interview and chart review elicited demographic and clinical data as well as potential risk factors for pH1N1/ARI. VE was estimated by 1-(Odds ratio for pH1N1-vaccination ≥10 days before symptom onset using exact logistic regression analysis. Results Of 177 ARI cases recruited, 27 tested pH1N1 positive. A monovalent AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine was the only pandemic vaccine type identified among cases and controls (vaccination coverage in control group 1 and 2: 15% and 5.9%. The only breakthrough infections were observed in 2 of 3 vaccinated HIV positive pH1N1 patients. After exclusion of HIV positive participants, VE was 96% (95%CI: 26-100% in the matched multivariate analysis and 46% (95%CI: -376-100% in the test-negative analysis. Exposure to children in the household was independently associated with hospitalization for pH1N1 and ARI. Conclusions Though limited by low vaccination coverage and number of pH1N1 cases, our results suggest a protective effect of the AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine for the prevention of pH1N1 hospitalization. The use of hospital but not test-negative controls showed a statistically protective effect of pH1N1-vaccination and permitted

  8. 国产甲型H1N1流行性感冒疫苗接种一年后的现场流行病学效果分析%Analysis on the Epidemiological Effects of One Year after Vaccination of Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦浩; 龙虎; 李荣成

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analysis the epidemiological effects of influenza A (H1N1) vaccine one year after Vaccination of Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccination. Methods Choose a closed unit, to find out the difference of incidence between group of vaccinated domestic influenza A (H1N1 ) vaccine control group by cohort study in an outbreak after one year vaccination. The epidemiological effect were evaluated through the vaccine protection rate and the protection index. Results 305 vaccinated person, and 622 person in cotrol group were male, age composition in vaccine group and control group hadn't statistical signficance. There was an influenza A (H1N1) outbreaks after the vaccine was vaccinated one year. 118 inmates fell ill, with 12.73% incidence rate. The incidence of vaccination group is 8.20%, which is lower than control group which is 14.95%, there is significant difference (X2=8.41, P=0.004) .The protective rate of influenza A(H1N1)vaccine was 45.18%, and the protection index was 1.83. Conclusion It still has well effective index of domestic influenza A ( H1N1 ) vaccine one year after vaccination.%目的 分析国产甲型H1N1流行性感冒(甲流)疫苗接种一年后的流行病学效果.方法 用随机抽样方法,应用队列研究,观察封闭单位内接种甲流疫苗者(接种组)和未接种甲流疫苗者(对照组)在一起甲流爆发疫情中罹患率的差异,以疫苗保护率和保护效果指数分析甲流疫苗的流行病学效果.结果 接种组305人,未接种组622人,均为男性,接种组与对照组年龄构成差异无统计学意义,具有可比性.接种一年后发生甲流爆发疫情,报告流感样病例118例,罹患率12.73%.接种组甲流罹患率8.20%,低于对照组的罹患率(14.95%),差异有统计学意义(x2=8.41,P=0.004).疫苗保护率为45.15%,保护效果指数1.83.结论 国产甲流疫苗接种一年后仍有较好的保护效果.

  9. Social class based on occupation is associated with hospitalization for A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. Comparison between hospitalized and ambulatory cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, J; Godoy, P; Soldevila, N; Castilla, J; González-Candelas, F; Mayoral, J M; Astray, J; Garcia, S; Martin, V; Tamames, S; Delgado, M; Domínguez, A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the existence of an association between social class (categorized by type of occupation) and the occurrence of A(H1N1)pmd09 infection and hospitalization for two seasons (2009-2010 and 2010-2011). This multicentre study compared ambulatory A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases with ambulatory controls to measure risk of infection, and with hospitalized A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases to asses hospitalization risk. Study variables were: age, marital status, tobacco and alcohol use, pregnancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic respiratory failure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic liver disease, body mass index >40, systemic corticosteroid treatment and influenza vaccination status. Occupation was registered literally and coded into manual and non-manual worker occupational social class groups. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. There were 720 hospitalized cases, 996 ambulatory cases and 1062 ambulatory controls included in the study. No relationship between occupational social class and A(H1N1)pmd09 infection was found [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·74-1·27], but an association (aOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·01-2·31) between occupational class and hospitalization for A(H1N1)pmd09 was observed. Influenza vaccination was a protective factor for A(H1N1)pmd09 infection (aOR 0·41, 95% CI 0·23-0·73) but not for hospitalization. We conclude that manual workers have the highest risk of hospitalization when infected by influenza than other occupations but they do not have a different probability of being infected by influenza. PMID:26271901

  10. Social class based on occupation is associated with hospitalization for A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. Comparison between hospitalized and ambulatory cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, J; Godoy, P; Soldevila, N; Castilla, J; González-Candelas, F; Mayoral, J M; Astray, J; Garcia, S; Martin, V; Tamames, S; Delgado, M; Domínguez, A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the existence of an association between social class (categorized by type of occupation) and the occurrence of A(H1N1)pmd09 infection and hospitalization for two seasons (2009-2010 and 2010-2011). This multicentre study compared ambulatory A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases with ambulatory controls to measure risk of infection, and with hospitalized A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases to asses hospitalization risk. Study variables were: age, marital status, tobacco and alcohol use, pregnancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic respiratory failure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic liver disease, body mass index >40, systemic corticosteroid treatment and influenza vaccination status. Occupation was registered literally and coded into manual and non-manual worker occupational social class groups. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. There were 720 hospitalized cases, 996 ambulatory cases and 1062 ambulatory controls included in the study. No relationship between occupational social class and A(H1N1)pmd09 infection was found [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·74-1·27], but an association (aOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·01-2·31) between occupational class and hospitalization for A(H1N1)pmd09 was observed. Influenza vaccination was a protective factor for A(H1N1)pmd09 infection (aOR 0·41, 95% CI 0·23-0·73) but not for hospitalization. We conclude that manual workers have the highest risk of hospitalization when infected by influenza than other occupations but they do not have a different probability of being infected by influenza.

  11. 美国伊利诺州斯科基2009年10月16日~12月31日甲型H1N1流行性感冒单价疫苗接种活动%Regional Influenza A(H1N1)2009 Monovalent Vaccination Campaign-Skokie,Illinois,October 16-December 31,2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Counard; A Rigoni; J Lockerby; 尹锡玲

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2009年7月29日,美国免疫实施咨询委员会(Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.ACIP)对确定的甲型H1N1流行性感冒(甲流)高危人群接种第1剂甲流单价疫苗[Influenza A(H1N1)Vaccine,InfV(H1N1)]推荐了一个阶段性的方法.在伊利诺州,首先由州政府安排地方卫生当局和医院负责疫苗的管理工作.

  12. Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Trevor; Riley, Steven; Barr, Ian G.; Broor, Shobha; Chadha, Mandeep; Cox, Nancy J.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Gunasekaran, C. Palani; Hurt, Aeron C.; Kelso, Anne; Klimov, Alexander; Lewis, Nicola S.; Li, Xiyan; McCauley, John W.; Odagiri, Takato; Potdar, Varsha; Rambaut, Andrew; Shu, Yuelong; Skepner, Eugene; Smith, Derek J.; Suchard, Marc A.; Tashiro, Masato; Wang, Dayan; Xu, Xiyan; Lemey, Philippe; Russell, Colin A.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 (up to 2009), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata viruses differ substantially from those of A/H3N2 viruses, on the basis of analyses of 9,604 haemagglutinin sequences of human seasonal influenza viruses from 2000 to 2012. Whereas genetic variants of A/H3N2 viruses did not persist locally between epidemics and were reseeded from East and Southeast Asia, genetic variants of A/H1N1 and B viruses persisted across several seasons and exhibited complex global dynamics with East and Southeast Asia playing a limited role in disseminating new variants. The less frequent global movement of influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses coincided with slower rates of antigenic evolution, lower ages of infection, and smaller, less frequent epidemics compared to A/H3N2 viruses. Detailed epidemic models support differences in age of infection, combined with the less frequent travel of children, as probable drivers of the differences in the patterns of global circulation, suggesting a complex interaction between virus evolution, epidemiology, and human behaviour.

  13. Seasonal flu vaccination in Dutch at-risk populations was not affected by A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, M.A.J.B.; Mulder, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Heijnen, M.L.A.; Campbell, S.M.; Braspenning, J.C.C.

    2011-01-01

    We read with interest the recent paper by Maurer and colleagues describing the attitudes toward seasonal and H1N1 vaccination and vaccination uptake among US adults (Maurer et al., 2010). They found the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake as considerably lower than seasonal vaccine uptake, which i

  14. Pneumonia por Influenza A(H1N1 em paciente imunossuprimido após transplante cardíaco Neumonía por Influenza A (H1N1 en paciente inmunosuprimido tras transplante cardiaco Influenza A (H1N1 pneumonia in an immunossupressed patient after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bacal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O papel da resposta imunológica durante a infecção pelo vírus Influenza H1N1 não está totalmente estabelecido, mas acredita-se que atue de forma decisiva no agravamento do quadro e no aparecimento da síndrome de desconforto respiratório agudo. O papel de terapias imunomoduladoras no controle de infecções virais também não é consensual e faltam dados de literatura para se definir as indicações de seu uso. Neste relato de caso, apresentamos, segundo nosso conhecimento, pela primeira vez, o relato de um paciente transplantado cardíaco que apresentou infecção pelo vírus H1N1 e evoluiu de forma favorável, trazendo um questionamento sobre o real papel da terapia imunossupressora como fator de risco para a forma grave da doença.El rol de la respuesta inmunológica durante la infección por el virus Influenza H1N1 no está totalmente establecido, sino que se cree que él actúe de forma decisiva en el agravamiento del cuadro y en el surgimiento del síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo. El papel de terapias inmunomoduladoras en el control de infecciones virales también no es consensual y nos faltan datos de la literatura para definirse las indicaciones de su utilización. En este caso clínico presentamos, según nuestro conocimiento, por primera vez, el relato de un paciente transplantado cardiaco que presentó infección por el virus H1N1 y evolucionó de forma favorable, y aprovechamos para poner en cuestión el real papel de la terapia inmunosupresora como factor de riesgo para la forma severa de la enfermedad.The role of the immune response during Influenza H1N1 virus infection is not yet fully established, but it is believed that it decisively participates in the severity of the disease as well as in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The role of immunomodulating therapies in the control of viral infections is not a consensus either, and data from the literature defining the indications for their use

  15. Virus susceptibility and clinical effectiveness of anti-influenza drugs during the 2010–2011 influenza season in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Leneva; E.I. Burtseva; S.B. Yatsyshina; I.T. Fedyakina; E.S. Kirillova; E.P. Selkova; Osipova, E.; V. V. Maleev

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antiviral drugs are critical adjuncts to influenza vaccination. This study determined the in vitro susceptibilities of influenza A and B viruses isolated in the 2010–2011 season in Russia to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir and the hemagglutinin fusion inhibitor umifenovir and clinical efficacy of this antiviral drugs in this season. Methods: The antiviral potency of these drugs against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in mice was assessed. Importantly, the clinical effectiveness of o...

  16. 2010 A(H1N1 vaccination in pregnant women in Brazil: identifying coverage and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Andres Mendoza-Sassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied vaccination coverage and its associated factors in the 2010 pandemic influenza vaccination of Brazilian pregnant women. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women who had given birth was performed in a municipality in southern Brazil, in 2010. Data about vaccination against A(H1N1 and sociodemographic characteristics, morbidities and prenatal care were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using a Poisson regression. Coverage was 77.4%. Most were vaccinated in the public sector (97.6% and in the second trimester (47%. Associated factors that increased vaccination were marriage, older age, first income quartile, prenatal care and influenza before pregnancy. Education and skin color were not significantly associated with vaccination. The vaccination campaign was extensive and exhibited no inequality. Prenatal care was the factor that most affected vaccination coverage, reflecting its importance for vaccination campaign success.

  17. Analysis on Influencing Factors of Antibodies Against Influenza A(H1N1)Among the Residents in Doumen District, Zhuhai City%珠海市斗门区人群甲型H1N1流感病毒抗体影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超敏; 陈斌; 周伴群; 吴水滨; 焦亮; 罗志华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infection status and antibody level of influenza ACHlNl), and explore the factors correlated to positive serum antibodies against influenza A (HINI) virus among the residents in Doumen District, Zhuhai City. · Methods Multistage random sampling method was used to select 480 individuals from 2 towns of Doumen District-Blood samples were collected for H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin- inhibition (HI) test; meanwhile, the questionnaire survey was conducted. Results The antibody against Influenza A (H1N1) of 110 in 480 subjects showed positive, the sero-prevalence was 22.92% (110/480). Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that factors such as occupation, influenza A (H1N1) vaccine immunization, history of common cold were all associated with positive serum influenza A (H1N1) antibody. Conclusions Antibody level of influenza A (H1N1) was low. The influenza A (H1N1) vaccine is the most effective way to obtain protective antibodies of influenza A (H1N1).%目的 了解珠海市斗门区人群甲型H1N1流感病毒感染状况及抗体水平,探讨影响普通人群血清甲型H1N1流感病毒抗体阳性的因素.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样方法,从斗门区2个镇选取480人进行问卷调查,并采集血液标本进行甲型H1N1流感病毒血凝抑制(HI)检测.结果 甲型H1N1流感抗体阳性人数为110人,阳性率为22.92%6(110/480).单因素和多因素二项Logistic分析均显示职业、接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗、调查前曾患过感冒与血清甲型H1N1流感病毒抗体阳性有关.结论 珠海市斗门区人群甲型H1N1流感病毒抗体水平不高.接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗是预防甲型H1N1流感的重要手段.

  18. Clinical and socioeconomic impact of different types and subtypes of seasonal influenza viruses in children during influenza seasons 2007/2008 and 2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacchino Raffaella

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few and debated data regarding possible differences in the clinical presentations of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B viruses in children. This study evaluates the clinical presentation and socio-economic impact of laboratory-confirmed influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2 or B infection in children attending an Emergency Room because of influenza-like illness. Methods Among the 4,726 children involved, 662 had influenza A (143 A/H1N1 and 519 A/H3N2 and 239 influenza B infection detected by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Upon enrolment, systematic recordings were made of the patients' demographic characteristics and medical history using standardised written questionnaires. The medical history of the children was re-evaluated 5-7 days after enrolment and until the resolution of their illness by means of interviews and a clinical examination by trained investigators using standardised questionnaires. During this evaluation, information was also obtained regarding illnesses and related morbidity among households. Results Children infected with influenza A/H1N1 were significantly younger (mean age, 2.3 yrs than children infected with influenza A/H3N2 (mean age, 4.7 yrs; p Conclusions Disease due to influenza A/H3N2 viral subtype is significantly more severe than that due to influenza A/H1N1 subtype and influenza B virus, which indicates that the characteristics of the different viral types and subtypes should be adequately considered by health authorities when planning preventive and therapeutic measures.

  19. Bioactive Compounds Screening from Zingiberaceae Family as Influenza A/Swine Flu Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitor through Docking Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Usman S. F.; Fadilah; Parikesit, Arli A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Influenza A/H1N1 is a disease caused by infection of influenza a virus subtype H1N1. It is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. This virus constantly mutates and consequently will be developed into new drug-resistant strains. Approach: In this research, we have conducted docking study to screen bioactive compounds from Zingiberaceae family, which has a role as neuraminidase inhibitor of influenza a virus. Results: The docking res...

  20. Antiviral drug profile of human influenza A & B viruses circulating in India: 2004-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Potdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Recent influenza antiviral resistance studies in South East Asia, Europe and the United States reveal adamantane and neuraminidase inhibitor (NAIs resistance. This study was undertaken to evaluate antiviral resistance in influenza viruses isolated from various parts of India, during 2004 to 2011. Methods: Influenza viruses were analyzed genetically for known resistance markers by M2 and NA gene sequencing. Influenza A/H1N1 (n=206, A/H3N2 (n=371 viruses for amantadine resistance and A/H1N1 (n=206, A/H3N2 (n=272 and type B (n=326 for oseltamivir resistance were sequenced. Pandemic (H1N1 (n= 493 isolates were tested for H274Y mutation by real time reverse transcription (rRT-PCR. Randomly selected resistant and sensitive influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses were confirmed by phenotypic assay. Results: Serine to asparagine (S3IN mutation was detected in six isolates of 2007-2008.One dual-resistant A/H1N1 was detected for the first time in India with leucine to phenylalanine (L26F mutation in M2 gene and H274Y mutation in NA gene. A/H3N2 viruses showed an increase in resistance to amantadine from 22.5 per cent in 2005 to 100 per cent in 2008 onwards with S3IN mutation. Fifty of the 61 (82% A/H1N1 viruses tested in 2008-2009 were oseltamivir resistant with H274Y mutation, while all A/H3N2, pandemic A/H1N1 and type B isolates remained sensitive. Genetic results were also confirmed by phenotypic analysis of randomly selected 50 resistant A/H1N1 and 40 sensitive A/H3N2 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Emergence of influenza viruses resistant to amantadine and oseltamivir in spite of negligible usage of antivirals emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring of antiviral resistance.

  1. Nationwide molecular surveillance of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus genomes: Canada, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag Graham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, a novel triple-reassortant swine influenza A H1N1 virus ("A/H1N1pdm"; also known as SOIV was detected and spread globally as the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st century. Sequencing has since been conducted at an unprecedented rate globally in order to monitor the diversification of this emergent virus and to track mutations that may affect virus behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By Sanger sequencing, we determined consensus whole-genome sequences for A/H1N1pdm viruses sampled nationwide in Canada over 33 weeks during the 2009 first and second pandemic waves. A total of 235 virus genomes sampled from unique subjects were analyzed, providing insight into the temporal and spatial trajectory of A/H1N1pdm lineages within Canada. Three clades (2, 3, and 7 were identifiable within the first two weeks of A/H1N1pdm appearance, with clades 5 and 6 appearing thereafter; further diversification was not apparent. Only two viral sites displayed evidence of adaptive evolution, located in hemagglutinin (HA corresponding to D222 in the HA receptor-binding site, and to E374 at HA2-subunit position 47. Among the Canadian sampled viruses, we observed notable genetic diversity (1.47 x 10⁻³ amino acid substitutions per site in the gene encoding PB1, particularly within the viral genomic RNA (vRNA-binding domain (residues 493-757. This genome data set supports the conclusion that A/H1N1pdm is evolving but not excessively relative to other H1N1 influenza A viruses. Entropy analysis was used to investigate whether any mutated A/H1N1pdm protein residues were associated with infection severity; however no virus genotypes were observed to trend with infection severity. One virus that harboured heterozygote coding mutations, including PB2 D567D/G, was attributed to a severe and potentially mixed infection; yet the functional significance of this PB2 mutation remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings contribute to

  2. Oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses: surveillance in northern Viet Nam, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiviral resistance has been reported in seasonal influenza A viruses and avian influenza A(H5N1 viruses in Viet Nam, raising concerns about the efficacy of treatment. Methods: We analysed specimens from two sources during the period 2009–2012: influenza-positive samples from influenza-like illness patients at sentinel clinics in northern Viet Nam and isolates from patients with confirmed A(H5N1 infections. Pyrosequencing was used to detect mutations: H275Y [for A(H1N1 and A(H5N1], E119V [for A(H3N2] and I117V [for A(H5N1]. A neuraminidase inhibition assay was used to determine the Inhibitory Concentration 50 (IC50 values for all influenza A and B isolates. Results: There were 341 influenza A positive samples identified; influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was identified most frequently (n = 215. In 2009, oseltamivir resistance was observed in 100% (19 of 19 of seasonal A(H1N1 isolates and 1.4% (3/215 of A(H1N1pdm09 isolates. This H275Y mutation was not found in influenza subtypes A(H5N1 or A(H3N2 isolates. Discussion: In Viet Nam, seasonal and A(H5N1 influenza vaccines are not currently available; thus, effective treatment is required. The presence of oseltamivir-resistant viruses is therefore a concern. Active surveillance for oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses circulating in Viet Nam should be continued.

  3. Virological Surveillance of Influenza Viruses during the 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11 Seasons in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatef El Moussi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The data contribute to a better understanding of the circulation of influenza viruses especially in North-Africa. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this surveillance was to detect severe influenza cases, identify their epidemiological and virological characteristics and assess their impact on the healthcare system. METHOD: We describe in this report the findings of laboratory-based surveillance of human cases of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses' infection during three seasons in Tunisia. RESULTS: The 2008-09 winter influenza season is underway in Tunisia, with co-circulation of influenza A/H3N2 (56.25%, influenza A(H1N1 (32.5%, and a few sporadic influenza B viruses (11.25%. In 2010-11 season the circulating strains are predominantly the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (70% and influenza B viruses (22%. And sporadic viruses were sub-typed as A/H3N2 and unsubtyped influenza A, 5% and 3%, respectively. Unlike other countries, highest prevalence of influenza B virus Yamagata-like lineage has been reported in Tunisia (76% localised into the clade B/Bangladesh/3333/2007. In the pandemic year, influenza A(H1N1pdm09 predominated over other influenza viruses (95%. Amino acid changes D222G and D222E were detected in the HA gene of A(H1N1pdm09 virus in two severe cases, one fatal case and one mild case out of 50 influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses studied. The most frequently reported respiratory virus other than influenza in three seasons was RSV (45.29%. CONCLUSION: This article summarises the surveillance and epidemiology of influenza viruses and other respiratory viruses, showing how rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were feasible by connecting the existing structure in the health care system for patient records to electronic surveillance system for reporting ILI cases.

  4. Multiple reassortment events in the evolutionary history of H1N1 influenza A virus since 1918.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha I Nelson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The H1N1 subtype of influenza A virus has caused substantial morbidity and mortality in humans, first documented in the global pandemic of 1918 and continuing to the present day. Despite this disease burden, the evolutionary history of the A/H1N1 virus is not well understood, particularly whether there is a virological basis for several notable epidemics of unusual severity in the 1940s and 1950s. Using a data set of 71 representative complete genome sequences sampled between 1918 and 2006, we show that segmental reassortment has played an important role in the genomic evolution of A/H1N1 since 1918. Specifically, we demonstrate that an A/H1N1 isolate from the 1947 epidemic acquired novel PB2 and HA genes through intra-subtype reassortment, which may explain the abrupt antigenic evolution of this virus. Similarly, the 1951 influenza epidemic may also have been associated with reassortant A/H1N1 viruses. Intra-subtype reassortment therefore appears to be a more important process in the evolution and epidemiology of H1N1 influenza A virus than previously realized.

  5. Virological analysis of fatal influenza cases in the United Kingdom during the early wave of influenza in winter 2010/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J; Galiano, M; Pebody, R; Lackenby, A; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; McLean, E; Zhao, H; Bolotin, S; Dar, O; Watson, J M; Zambon, M

    2011-01-01

    The 2010/11 winter influenza season is underway in the United Kingdom, with co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)2009 (antigenically similar to the current 2010/11 vaccine strain), influenza B (mainly B/Victoria/2/87 lineage, similar to the 2010/11 vaccine strain) and a few sporadic influenza A(H3N2) viruses. Clinical influenza activity has been increasing. Severe illness, resulting in hospitalisation and deaths, has occurred in children and young adults and has predominantly been associated with influenza A(H1N1)2009, but also influenza B viruses. PMID:21223836

  6. 上海地区甲型H1N1流行性感冒流行病学调查和临床特征分析%Epidemiological survey and clinical analysis of patients with influenza A(H1N1)in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧强; 殷科珊; 陆云飞; 黄琴; 张志勇; 卢洪洲

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解上海地区新型甲型H1N1流行性感冒(流感)的流行病学和临床特征,提高临床医师对本病的认识.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法对上海市公共卫生临床中心2009年5月23日至6月30日收治确诊的100例甲型H1N1流感患者资料进行回顾性分析.结果 本组患者男58例,女42例,年龄4~75岁.96例为输入性病例,主要来自澳大利亚、美国、加拿大.临床主要表现为流感样症状,包括发热、咳嗽、咽痛,其他症状有咳痰、流涕、咽痒、鼻塞、头痛和全身酸痛等,体征有咽部充血、扁桃体肿大等.外周血WBC总数正常或偏低.部分患者CD4+T淋巴细胞低于正常下限水平.胸部CT检查主要表现为肺纹理增粗、肺炎、胸膜增厚、胸膜炎.治疗首选奥司他韦,不良反应少见,多数患者可以耐受.本病预后良好,所有患者治愈出院.结论 新型甲型H1N1流感传染性强,并可影响机体细胞免疫功能,但症状轻微,早期采用奥司他韦抗病毒治疗,疗效满意.疾病防控部门应加强监测,积极应对本次甲型H1N1流感大流行.%Objective To understand the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of A virus subtype H1N1 influenza in Shanghai and improve the recognition of the disease in physicians.Methods The epidemiological information and clinical characteristics of 100 patients with A virus subtype H1N1 influenza hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from May 23 to Jan 30 in 2009 were analysised retrospectively by descriptive epidemiology.Results There were 58 males and 42 females in this group.The range of age was from 4 years to 75 years.Ninety-six patients were imported cases and most cases came from Australia,the United States and Canada.The main symptoms were influenza-like symptoms including fever,cough and sore throat.Other symptoms included expectoration,nasal discharge,throat itching,nasal obstruction,headache,muscular pain and so on.Physical signs

  7. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Infection in A Survivor Who Has Recovered from Severe H7N9 Virus Infection, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Hui; Wu, Meng-Na; Qian, Yan-Hua; Ma, Guang-Yuan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Teng; Lu, Bing; Ma, Mai-Juan; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    We firstly report a patient who presented with severe complications after infection with influenza A(H1N1) pdm2009, more than 1 year after recovery from severe H7N9 virus infections. The population of patients who recovered from severe H7N9 infections might be at a higher risk to suffer severe complications after seasonal influenza infections, and they should be included in the high-risk populations recommended to receive seasonal influenza vaccination.

  8. Construction of the influenza A virus transmission tree in a college-based population: co-transmission and interactions between influenza A viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xu-Sheng; De Angelis, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-infection of different influenza A viruses is known to occur but how viruses interact within co-infection remains unknown. An outbreak in a college campus during the 2009 pandemic involved two subtypes of influenza A: persons infected with pandemic A/H1N1; persons infected with seasonal A/H3N2 viruses; and persons infected with both at the same time (co-infection). This provides data to analyse the possible interaction between influenza A viruses within co-infection. Methods We ...

  9. Analysis of diagnostic and handling procedures of the first imported case of A/H1N1 influenza in mainland China%中国内地首例输入性甲型H1N1流感病例诊断处置流程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卫建; 吴佳玉; 王晓梅

    2009-01-01

    .5% ;the chest X-ray shewed that texture increased and the heart shadow augmented on both lungs; the result of throat swab culture was negative. The result of virus nucleic aeid detected by Sichnan Provincial Center for Disease Control showed H1N1 influenza virus, suspected. Sichuan Province Health organization organized experts on the prevention and control of H1N1 influenza for consultation, and the patient was diagnosed as the first suspected H1N1 influenza case in mainland China based on the epidemiological investigation, symptoms and signs of the patient, the results of laboratory ex-amination, and the result of virus test. Confirmed by the experts from Chinese center for disease control and pre-vention and The Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the patient was diagnosed as the first H1N1 influenza case in mainland China.

  10. Low acceptability of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in French adult population: did public health policy fuel public dissonance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Schwarzinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In July 2009, French public health authorities embarked in a mass vaccination campaign against A/H1N1 2009 pandemic-influenza. We explored the attitudes and behaviors of the general population toward pandemic vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 2,253 French representative adults aged 18 to 64 from November 17 to 25, 2009 (completion rate: 93.8%. The main outcome was the acceptability of A/H1N1 vaccination as defined by previous receipt or intention to get vaccinated ("Yes, certainly", "Yes, probably". Overall 17.0% (CI 95%, 15.5% to 18.7% of respondents accepted A/H1N1 vaccination. Independent factors associated with acceptability included: male sex (p = .0001; older age (p = .002; highest or lowest level of education (p = .016; non-clerical occupation (p = .011; having only one child (p = .008; and having received seasonal flu vaccination in prior 3 years (p<.0001. Acceptability was also significantly higher among pregnant women (37.9% and other at risk groups with chronic diseases (34.8% (p = .002. Only 35.5% of respondents perceived A/H1N1 influenza illness as a severe disease and 12.7% had experienced A/H1N1 cases in their close relationships with higher acceptability (p<.0001 and p = .006, respectively. In comparison to 26.0% respondents who did not consult their primary care physician, acceptability was significantly higher among 8.0% respondents who were formally advised to get vaccinated, and lower among 63.7% respondents who were not advised to get vaccinated (respectively: 15.8%, 59.5% and 11.7%- p<.0001. Among respondents who refused vaccination, 71.2% expressed concerns about vaccine safety. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our survey occurred one week before the peak of the pandemic in France. We found that alarming public health messages aiming at increasing the perception of risk severity were counteracted by daily personal experience which did not confirm the threat

  11. 甲型H1N1流感病毒非结构蛋白NS1真核表达载体的构建与表达%Construction and expression of eukaryotic expression vector of NS1 protein of influenza A(H1N1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文帅; 卞倩; 温恬; 迟莹; 李燕; 焦永军

    2011-01-01

    目的:构建甲型H1N1流感病毒非结构蛋白NS1真核表达载体并表达其编码蛋白(转染293T细胞).方法:从江苏首例甲型H1NI流感病毒毒株(A/Nanjing/1/2009(H1N1))提取病毒RNA, 采用RT-PCR技术扩增NS1全长基因, 将其克隆至pMD18-T Vector中构建pMD18-T-NS1质粒, 双酶切pMD18-T-NS1与PXJ40-HA后, 构建真核表达载体PXJ40-HA-NS1,经酶切及测序鉴定后将质粒转染到293T细胞中, 通过Western blot鉴定NS1蛋白的表达.结果:经双酶切、测序鉴定证实NS1基因的真核表达载体构建成功.Western blot法可见NS1基因编码蛋白的成功表达.结论:成功克隆NS1全长基因, 并构建了其真核表达载体, 该表达载体的构建为后期建立稳定表达NS1蛋白的细胞模型和NS1蛋白功能研究提供了材料.%AIM: To insert the full-length NS1 gene of influenza A (H1N1) into an eukaryotic expression vector PXJ40-HA, and to evaluate the expression of NS1 gene in transfected 293T cells. METHODS: The NS1 gene of influenza A ( H1 N1 ) was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into pMD18-T vector to construct a plasmid, named pMD18-TNS1. The pMD18-T-NS1 and the PXJ40-HA were both digested using the same restrict enzymes and ligated, yielding the recombinant eukaryotic expression vector PXJ40-HANS1. The expression of the NS1 gene in transfected 293T ceils wes tested by Western blot. RESULTS: The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector PXJ40-HA-NS1 was successfully constructed. The NS1 protein was observed to be expressed in 293T cells. CONCLUSION: The full-length NSl gene is obtained and its recombinant eukaryotic expression plesmid is successfully constructed. This study is of help to further understanding the biological function of NSl protein and the mechanism of diseases induced by influenza A virus.

  12. Cats as a potential source of emerging influenza virus infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taisuke; Horimoto; Fumihiro; Gen; Shin; Murakami; Kiyoko; Iwatsuki-Horimoto; Kentaro; Kato; Masaharu; Hisasue; Masahiro; Sakaguchi; Chairul; A.; Nidom; Yoshihiro; Kawaoka

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Historically,the influenza virus has not been regarded as a major pathogen of cats.However,since 2003,natural infections of domestic cats with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian virus causing fatal cases have been reported(Songserm et al.,2006;Yingst et al.,2006;Klopfleisch et al.,2007).Furthermore,infections of this animal with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus,causing respiratory illness with some fatal cases,have also been reported in various parts

  13. Analysis on Current Status of Influenza A(H1N1)Knowledge and Related Determinants Among 2,311 Residents in Hunan%湖南省2311名居民甲型H1N1流感知识现状及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹仲辉; 徐小生; 王五红; 凌建军; 张艳; 罗家有

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解湖南省居民甲型H1N1流感知识现状及其影响因素,为开展社区居民甲型H1N1流感知识健康教育提供科学依据.方法 采用问卷调查的方式,对2311名社区居民进行调查,采用Logistic回归分析方法 筛选甲型H1N1流感知识现况的影响因素.结果 被调查对象中,获取甲型H1N1流感知识的主要途径为电视86.6%、报纸53.3%和网络51.9%;公众对于甲型H1N1流感知识的总知晓率为36.4%,其中"是否知道甲型H1N1流感"的知晓率为93.3%;甲型H1N1流感的主要临床表现、潜伏期和传播途径,分别为52.9%、43.5%和38.5%;而甲型H1N1流感的治疗方式、预防主要措施、传染期和抗病毒药物分别为21.9%、20.8%、17.1%和3.6%;多因素Logistic回归分析结果 显示:性别、职业和文化程度与甲型H1N1流感知识得分有关.结论 居民甲型H1N1流感知识水平有待提高,应采取针对性健康教育干预,以提高社区居民应对甲型H1N1流感的能力.%Objective To investigate the current situation of influenza A (H1N1) knowledge end the related determinants among the residents in Hunan Province, and to provide the evidence for developing the health education about influenza A (H1N1). Methods Totally 2,311 randomly selected residents were surveyed by a standard questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to screen the determinants on influenza A (H1N1) knowledge. Results The main channels of acquiring knowledge about influenza A (H1N1) were television (86.6%), newspapers (53.3%) and intemet (51.9%). The total awareness rate of knowledge about influenza A (H1N1) was 36.4%, of which the awareness rate of cognition about influenzaA (H1N1) was 93.3%. The clinical symptoms, latent period and transmission routes of influenza A (H1N1) were 52.9%, 43.5% and 38.5%, respectively. The therapy, preventive measures, infective period and antiviral drug were 21.9%, 20.8%, 17.1% and 3.6%, respectively. Data from

  14. Serological report of pandemic and seasonal human influenza virus infection in dogs in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Zhao, Fu-Rong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wei, Ping; Chang, Hui-Yun

    2014-11-01

    From January to July 2012, we looked for evidence of subclinical A (H1N1) pdm09 and seasonal human influenza viruses infections in healthy dogs in China. Sera from a total of 1920 dogs were collected from Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Jiangxi provinces. We also examined archived sera from 66 dogs and cats that were collected during 2008 from these provinces. Using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays, we found that only the dogs sampled in 2012 had elevated antibodies (≥ 1:32) against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and seasonal human influenza viruses: Of the 1920 dog sera, 20.5 % (n = 393) had elevated antibodies against influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 by the HI assay, 1.1 % (n = 22), and 4.7 % (n = 91) of the 1920 dogs sera had elevated antibodies against human seasonal H1N1 influenza virus and human seasonal H3N2 influenza virus by the HI assay. Compared with dogs that were raised on farms, dogs that were raised as pets were more likely to have elevated antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal human influenza viruses. Seropositivity was highest among pet dogs, which likely had more diverse and frequent exposures to humans than farm dogs. These findings will help us better understand which influenza A viruses are present in dogs and will contribute to the prevention and control of influenza A virus. Moreover, further in-depth study is necessary for us to understand what roles dogs play in the ecology of influenza A.

  15. 深圳市宝安区中小学生甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种率调查及影响因素分析%Investigation on Influenza A(H1 N1)Vaccine Coverage and Influential Factors Among Pupils and Middle School Students in Baoan District of Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆碧茹; 李苑; 刘开钳; 吴泰顺; 马智超

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the coverage of influenza A (H1N1) vaccine among the students at primary and secondary schools, and to seek the determinants of accepting the vaccine. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,405 students who were randomly selected from the primary and secondary schools in Baoan District of Shenzhen.Descriptive analysis, chi square test and Logistic regression analysis were used for univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. And the influential factors of vaccine coverage were evaluated. Results The coverage of influenza A (H1 N1) vaccine in the students of primary and secondary schools was 30.4%. The total awareness rate of knowledge about influenza A (H1N1)vaccine was 39.5 %. The main un- inoculated cause was concerned about the side effects, accounted for 38.7 %. Multivariate analysis showed that male, elder students, and those accepted seasonal influenza vaccines in recent three- year period were more prefer to accept the vaccines. Conclusions The cognition of influenza A (H1N1) vaccine was low among the students at primary and secondary schools in Baoan District. Knowledge about influenza A (H1N1), seasonal influenza, and the related vaccines should be propagandized and popularized widely, and exact information should be communicated to public in time by Department of Disease Control and Prevention.%目的 调查深圳市宝安区中小学生甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种率及影响因素.方法 在全部中小学中随机抽取1 405名学生进行问卷调查,对一般情况采用描述性分析,组间构成比比较采用x2检验,探讨多变量影响因素采用多因素Logistic回归分析.结果 宝安区中小学生的甲型H1N1流感疫苗调查接种率为30.4%;甲流疫苗知识的总体知晓率为39.5%;未接种甲流疫苗最主要原因是怕出现疫苗不良副反应,占38.7%;男性学生、年龄增加、近三年接种过季节性流感疫苗的学生更倾向于接种疫苗.结论 宝安区中小

  16. Airway Mucosal Immune-suppression in Neonates of Mothers Receiving A(H1N1)pnd09 Vaccination During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bischoff, Anne L.; Folsgaard, Nilofar V.;

    2015-01-01

    N1) pnd09 vaccination during pregnancy. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six women from the unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC 2010) received Influenza A(H1N1) pnd09-vaccination during the 2009 pandemic. Fifty-one mothers received the vaccine during pregnancy......Background: It is recommended to vaccinate pregnant women against influenza. A possible impact on the immune expression of the fetus has never been studied. We aim to study the immune signature in the upper airways and the incidence of infections in neonates born to mothers receiving Influenza A(H1......1N1) pnd09 vaccination during pregnancy up-regulates TGF-beta 1 and down-regulates key mediators of the protective immunity....

  17. Predicting the Mutating Distribution at Antigenic Sites of the Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyang Xu; Yiyan Yang; Shuning Wang; Ruixin Zhu; Tianyi Qiu; Jingxuan Qiu; Qingchen Zhang; Li Jin; Yungang He; Kailin Tang; Zhiwei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the influenza virus lead to antigenic changes that cause recurrent epidemics and vaccine resistance. Preventive measures would benefit greatly from the ability to predict the potential distribution of new antigenic sites in future strains. By leveraging the extensive historical records of HA sequences for 90 years, we designed a computational model to simulate the dynamic evolution of antigenic sites in A/H1N1. With templates of antigenic sequences, the model can effectively pred...

  18. 某国际学校学生家长对甲型H1N1流感暴发后关闭学校的认可度调查%INVESTIGATION ON THE ACCEPTANCE OF HOUSEHOLD TO SCHOOL CLOSURE RESULTING FROM INFLUENZA A(H1N1)OUTBREAK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 徐文体; 董晓春; 张颖; 谢娟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解学生家长对甲型 H1N1 流感暴发后关闭学校这一措施的认可度.[方法]采用统一的问卷对发生甲流暴发疫情的某国际学校 460 名家长进行调查.[结果]回收有效问卷368份,问卷有效率为80%.53.80%家长赞成关闭学校,理由主要是认为关闭学校能保护其他健康学生避免感染(52.53%);46.20%家长反对关闭学校,理由主要是认为仅需膈离病例就能阻止疫情(31.76%).非病例学生家长赞成关闭学校的比例明显高于病例组家长(X2=6.88,P=0·009).年级与赞成关闭学校的比例之间呈负相关,随着年级增高,非病例学生家长赞成关闭学校的比例随之降低(rs=-0.595,P=0.032).[结论]家长对关闭学校的措施存在分歧.提示卫生和教育部分应采取措施,加强健康教育并保障防控措施落实,防止疫情向社区的扩散.%[Objective] To explore the household responses to school closure resulting from influenza A (H1N1) out break. [Methods] We surveyed 460 families affected by pandemic (H1N1) related school closures with uniform questionnaire. [Results] Valid questionnaires were returned for 368 (80%). Closure was considered appropriate by 53.8% of the parents, and the main reason was to protect the healthy students (52.53%); 46.20% of the parents who thought the school closures were not appropriate, and the main reason was enough case-quarantined (31.76%). The percentage of parents who indicated the closure was appropriate was higher among the parents of non-case than the parents of cases (x2 = 6.88, P = 0.009). Parental opinion about the appropriateness of the school closure was negatively correlated with grades (rs =-0.622, P= 0.031). [Con Clusion] Parental opinion on the school closure is different. It is indicated that the departments of health and education should take measures to assure the control measures implemented.

  19. Epidemiology of influenza viruses from 2009-2013-A sentinel surveillance report from Union territory of Puducherry, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganesh; Nandhini; Sistla; Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report the i ndings of inl uenza surveillance programme from Union territory of Puducherry and to document the clinical and epidemiological data of inl uenza viruses over a i ve year period from 2009-2013. Methods: Respiratory samples were collected from patients with influenza-like illness from 2009-2013 as part of routine diagnostic and surveillance activity. Detection of pandemic inl uenza A(H1N1) 2009, inl uenza A(H3N2) and inl uenza B was done using Real-time PCR. Results: Of the total 2 247 samples collected from patients with inl uenza-like illness during the study period 287(12.7%) and 92(4.0%) were positive for inl uenza A(H1N1) 2009 and inl uenza A(H3N2) respectively. A subset of 557 of these samples were also tested for inl uenza B and 24(4.3%) were positive. Signii cantly higher positivity rate for both viruses was observed in adults when compared with children. The peak positivity of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 was observed in 2009 followed by 2012, while that of inl uenza A(H3N2) was more uniformly distributed with the exception of 2012. Overall mortality rate due to influenza A(H1N1) 2009 was 7.6% while it was 1% for influenza A(H3N2). Each year influenza-like illness and influenza virus activity coincided with period of high rainfall and low temperature except in the first half of 2012. Conclusions: As the sole referral laboratory in this region, the data provides a comprehensive picture of inl uenza activity. This information will be useful in future planning of the vaccine schedule and inl uenza pandemic preparedness.

  20. Monitoring of influenza in the EISS European network member countries for october 2000 to april 2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuguerra, J.C.; Mosnier, A.; Paget, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    In countries covered by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS), the 2000-2001 winter was marked mainly by the spread of influenza A(H1N1) viruses. Influenza B, which globally represented a minority of cases, was common later in the season and predo-minant in Great Britain, Ireland, and Po

  1. A/H1N1 Vaccine Intentions in College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in college students who have not previously received the A/H1N1 vaccine. Participants: Undergraduate communication students at a metropolitan southern university. Methods: In January-March 2010, students from voluntarily participating communication classes completed a…

  2. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of influenza A H1N1 pandemic viruses in Cuba, May 2009 to August 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexander Piñón; Herrera, Belsy Acosta; Ramírez, Odalys Valdés; García, Amely Arencibia; Jiménez, Mayra Muné; Valdés, Clara Savón; Fernández, Angel Goyenechea; González, Grehete; Fernández, Suset I Oropesa; Báez, Guelsys González; Espinosa, Bárbara Hernández

    2013-07-01

    The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was detected in Cuba in May 2009. The introduction of a new virus with increased transmissibility into a population makes surveillance of the pandemic strain to the molecular level necessary. The aim of the present study was the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strains that circulated in Cuba between May 2009 and August 2010. Seventy clinical samples were included in the study. Nucleotide sequences from the hemagglutinin HA1 region segment were obtained directly from clinical samples. Genetic distances were calculated using MEGA v.5.05. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using MrBayes v.3.1.2 software. Potential N-glycosylation sites were predicted using NetNGlyc server 1.0. The 48 Cuban sequences of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 obtained were similar to the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) vaccine strain. Most of the Cuban strains belonged to clade 7. Cuban viruses showed amino acid changes, some of them located at three antigenic sites: Ca, Sa, and Sb. Two dominant mutations were detected: P83S (100%) and S203T (85.7%). Glycosylation site analysis revealed the gain of one site at position 162 in 13 sequences. The findings in this study contribute to our understanding of the progress of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, since this virus is at the starting point of its evolution in humans.

  3. Preexisting Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity-Activating Antibody Responses Are Stable Longitudinally and Cross-reactive Responses Are Not Boosted by Recent Influenza Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Sophie A; Zhang, Yanyu; Chan, Ka Y; Leung, Kathy; Wu, Joseph T; Poon, Leo L M

    2016-10-15

    Cross-reactive influenza virus-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-activating antibodies are readily detected in healthy adults. However, little is known about the kinetics of these ADCC responses. We used retrospective serial blood samples from healthy donors to investigate this topic. All donors had ADCC responses against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) and avian influenza A(H7N9) virus hemagglutinins (HAs) despite being seronegative for these viruses in standard hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization serological assays. A(H1N1)pdm09 exposure did not boost ADCC responses specific for H7 HA antigens. H7 HA ADCC responses were variable longitudinally within donors, suggesting that these cross-reactive antibodies are unstable. We found no correlation between ADCC responses to the H7 HA and either influenza virus-specific immunoglobulin G1 concentration or age. PMID:27493238

  4. Why are oseltamivir and zanamivir effective against the newly emerged influenza A virus (A/HIN1)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunqian Yu; Cheng Luo; Guangrong Qin; Zhijian Xu; Ning Li; Hong Liu; Xu Shen; Jianpeng Ma; Qinghua Wang; Caiguang Yang; Weiliang Zhu; Hualiang Jiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, The current flu epidemic caused by influenza A H1N1 (A/H1N1) virus, which first appeared in Mexico emerged as a communicable human disease in late March and rapidly spread throughout the world in April 2009. Due to the rapid transport systems in modern times, the epi-demic affected about 121 countries in less than 4 months (http://www.who.int/csr/don/2009_07_16/en/).

  5. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 mid-season results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, Richard; Warburton, Fiona; Ellis, Joanna; Andrews, Nick; Potts, Alison; Cottrell, Simon; Johnston, Jillian; Reynolds, Arlene; Gunson, Rory; Thompson, Catherine; Galiano, Monica; Robertson, Chris; Mullett, David; Gallagher, Naomh; Sinnathamby, Mary; Yonova, Ivelina; Moore, Catherine; McMenamin, Jim; de Lusignan, Simon; Zambon, Maria

    2016-03-31

    In 2015/16, the influenza season in the United Kingdom was dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulation. Virus characterisation indicated the emergence of genetic clusters, with the majority antigenically similar to the current influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine strain. Mid-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates show an adjusted VE of 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-64.7) against influenza-confirmed primary care consultations and of 49.1% (95% CI: 9.3-71.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. These estimates show levels of protection similar to the 2010/11 season, when this strain was first used in the seasonal vaccine. PMID:27074651

  6. The Benefits and Risks of Pandemic Influenza Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Wijnans (Leonoor)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn 2009 and 2010 the world experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. As the new influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spread across the world, vaccines were being produced and licensed at an unprecedented scale and speed. In Europe, adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09

  7. Identification of small molecules acting against H1N1 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamennone, Mariangela; Pietrantoni, Agostina; Superti, Fabiana

    2016-01-15

    Influenza virus represents a serious threat to public health. The lack of effective drugs against flu prompted researchers to identify more promising viral target. In this respect hemagglutinin (HA) can represent an interesting option because of its pivotal role in the infection process. With this aim we collected a small library of commercially available compounds starting from a large database and performing a diversity-based selection to reduce the number of screened compounds avoiding structural redundancy of the library. Selected compounds were tested for their hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) ability against two different A/H1N1 viral strains (one of which is oseltamivir sensitive), and 17 of them showed the ability to interact with HA. Five drug-like molecules, in particular, were able to impair hemagglutination of both A/H1N1 viral strains under study and to inhibit cytopathic effect and hemolysis at sub-micromolar level. PMID:26655243

  8. The sorption of influenza viruses and antibiotics on carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, V T; Ilyna, M V; Kurochkina, Y E [D.I. Ivanovsky Research Institute of Virology RAMS, Gamaleya st, 16, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Katrukha, G S [G.F.Gause Institute of New Antibiotics RAMS, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Timofeeva, A V; Baratova, L A [A.N. Belozersky Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Biology, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Sapurina, I Yu [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds RAS, 199004, St. Petersburgr. Bolshoy Pr.31 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V F, E-mail: valivanova1946@mail.ru [A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, RAS, Leninsky prospect, 31, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The decontamination of the solutions from micropatogens and drug delivery are the important problems of modern life. It was shown that carbon nanotubes, polyaniline and their composites can interact with antibiotics-polypeptides and some viruses (pandemic strain of influenza viruses A(H1N1)v circulated in Russia in 2009-2010. During a short time drug and viruses can be absorbed by polyaniline and removed from aqueous solutions at the normal conditions. Polyaniline composites can be useful for the preparation of drug delivery and virus control filters and also in biotechnology for the improvement the methods of antibiotics purification.

  9. Antibody Response After a Single Dose of an AS03-Adjuvanted Split-Virion Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine in Heart Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Sven; Adam, Matti; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Ilchmann, Corina; Eulenburg, Christine; Sattinger, Edgar; Runte, Hendrik; Schlueter, Michael; Deuse, Tobias; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Costard-Jaeckle, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    Background. Influenza A (H1N1) has emerged as a considerable threat for recipients of organ transplants. Vaccination against the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has generally been advocated. There is limited experience with AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines in immunosuppressed patien

  10. [Comparison of detection sensitivity in rapid-diagnosis influenza virus kits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuno, Osamu; Fujiwara, Miki; Nakajoh, Yoshimi; Yamanouchi, Sumika; Adachi, Masayo; Ikeda, Akiko; Kitayama, Shigeo; Takahashi, Toshio; Kase, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Shouhiro; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2009-09-01

    Rapid-diagnosis kits able to detect influenza A and B virus by immunochromatography developed by different manufacturers, while useful in early diagnosis, may vary widely in detection sensitivity. We compared sensitivity results for eight virus-detection kits in current use--Quick Chaser FluA, B (Mizuho Medy), Espline Influenza A & B-N (Fujirebio), Capilia Flu A + B (Nippon Beckton Dickinson & Alfesa Pharma), Poctem Influenza A/B (Otsuka Pharma & Sysmex), BD Flu Examan (Nippon Beckton Dickinson), Quick Ex-Flu "Seiken" (Denka Seiken), Quick Vue Rapid SP Influ (DP Pharma Biomedical), and Rapid Testa FLU stick (Daiichi Pure Chemicals)--against influenza virus stocks, contained five vaccination strains (one A/H1N1, two A/H3N2, and two B) and six clinical strains (two A/H1N1, two A/H3N2, and two B). Minimum detection concentrations giving immunologically positive signals in serial dilution and RNA copies in positive dilution in real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were assayed for all kits and virus stock combinations. RNA log10 copy numbers/mL in dilutions within detection limits yielded 5.68-7.02, 6.37-7,17, and 6.5-8.13 for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Statistically significant differences in sensitivity were observed between some kit combinations. Detection sensitivity tended to be relatively higher for influenza A than B virus. This is assumed due to different principles in kit methods, such as monoclonal antibodies, specimen-extraction conditions, and other unknown factors.

  11. [Deployment of a mobile RT-PCR laboratory molecular biology to deal with the A(H1N1) challenge in Kaboul].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, J; Ducher, P; Fourel, D; Causse Le Dorze, P

    2010-11-01

    Since October 2009, the fear of swine flu spread in Afghanistan and severe cases were observed among NATO soldiers. Two patients were hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit. To face this new challenge, the French Health Service decided the deployment of a mobile RT-PCR laboratory molecular biology in the Kabul International Military Hospital. We describe the implementation of the mobile RT-PCR laboratory for the diagnosis of A(H1N1). The analysis of the first nasopharyngeal samples confirmed the presence of this virus in Afghanistan. The peak of positive cases was observed in mid-November 2009, and some cluster cases were observed among units deployed on the field.

  12. Single dose vaccination of the ASO3-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 monovalent vaccine in health care workers elicits homologous and cross-reactive cellular and humoral responses to H1N1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Sarah; Pathirana, Rishi D; Zhou, Fan; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Montomoli, Emanuele; Wood, John; Cox, Rebecca Jane

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) were prioritized for vaccination during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. We conducted a clinical trial in October 2009 where 237 HCWs were immunized with a AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 monovalent vaccine. In the current study, we analyzed the homologous and cross-reactive H1N1 humoral responses using prototype vaccine strains dating back to 1977 by the haemagglutinin inhibition (HI), single radial hemolysis SRH), antibody secreting cell (ASC) and memory B cell (MBC) assays. The cellular responses were assessed by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISPOT and by intracellular staining (ICS) for the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). All assays were performed using blood samples obtained prior to (day 0) and 7, 14 and 21 d post-pandemic vaccination, except for ASC (day 7) and ICS (days 0 and 21). Vaccination elicited rapid HI, SRH and ASC responses against A(H1N1)pdm09 which cross reacted with seasonal H1N1 strains. MBC responses were detected against the homologous and seasonal H1N1 strains before vaccination and were boosted 2 weeks post-vaccination. An increase in cellular responses as determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and ICS were observed 1-3 weeks after vaccination. Collectively, our data show that the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine induced rapid cellular and humoral responses against the vaccine strain and the response cross-reacted against prototype H1N1 strains dating back to 1977.

  13. Incidence and epidemiology of hospitalized influenza cases in rural Thailand during the influenza A (H1N1pdm09 pandemic, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C Baggett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on the burden of the 2009 influenza pandemic in Asia are limited. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was first reported in Thailand in May 2009. We assessed incidence and epidemiology of influenza-associated hospitalizations during 2009-2010. METHODS: We conducted active, population-based surveillance for hospitalized cases of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI in all 20 hospitals in two rural provinces. ALRI patients were sampled 1∶2 for participation in an etiology study in which nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for influenza virus testing by PCR. RESULTS: Of 7,207 patients tested, 902 (12.5% were influenza-positive, including 190 (7.8% of 2,436 children aged 75 years (407 per 100,000. The incidence of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was 62 per 100,000 (214 per 100,000 in children <5 years. Eleven influenza-infected patients required mechanical ventilation, and four patients died, all adults with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (1 or H3N2 (3. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza-associated hospitalization rates in Thailand during 2009-10 were substantial and exceeded rates described in western countries. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 predominated, but H3N2 also caused notable morbidity. Expanded influenza vaccination coverage could have considerable public health impact, especially in young children.

  14. The Possible Impact of Vaccination for Seasonal Influenza on Emergence of Pandemic Influenza via Reassortment

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-Sheng Zhang; Richard Pebody; Daniela De Angelis; Peter J White; Andre Charlett; McCauley, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background One pathway through which pandemic influenza strains might emerge is reassortment from coinfection of different influenza A viruses. Seasonal influenza vaccines are designed to target the circulating strains, which intuitively decreases the prevalence of coinfection and the chance of pandemic emergence due to reassortment. However, individual-based analyses on 2009 pandemic influenza show that the previous seasonal vaccination may increase the risk of pandemic A(H1N1) pdm09 infecti...

  15. [Genetic Diversity and Evolution of the M Gene of Human Influenza A Viruses from 2009 to 2013 in Hangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tiejuan; Li, Jun; Pu, Xiaoying; Yu, Xinfen; Kou, Yu; Zhou, Yinyan; Qian, Xin

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the genetic diversity and evolution of the M gene of human influenza A viruses in Hangzhou (Zhejiang province, China) from 2009 to 2013, including subtypes of A(H1N1) pdm09 strains and seasonal A(H3N2) strains. Subtypes of analyzed viruses were identified by cell culture and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the M gene. Assessment of 5675 throat swabs revealed a positive rate for the influenza virus of 20.46%, and 827 cases were diagnosed as. infections due to influenza A viruses. Seventy-six influenza-A strains were selected randomly from nine stages during six phases of a virus epidemic. Sequences of the M gene showed high homology among six epidemics with identities of amino-acid sequences of 98.98-100%. All strains contained the adamantine-resistant mutation S31N in its M2 protein. Two of the A(H1N1)pdm09 strains had double mutants of V27A/S31N or V271/S31N. One of the seasonal A(H3N2) viruses had another form of double-mutant R45H/S31N. Evolutionary rate of the M gene was much lower than that of the HA gene and NA gene. Compared with A(H3N2) strains, higher positive pressure on the M1 and M2 proteins of A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses was observed. Separate analyses of M1 and M2 proteins revealed very different selection pressures. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and evolution of the M gene of human influenza-A viruses will be valuable for the control and prevention of diseases. PMID:26164939

  16. Liver involvement during influenza infection: perspective on the 2009 influenza pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Neven; Pangercic, Ana; Vargovic, Martina; Barsic, Bruno; Vince, Adriana; Kuzman, Ilija

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Papic et al. (2011) Liver involvement during influenza infection: perspective on the 2009 influenza pandemic. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e2–e5. Elevation of liver transaminase levels is a frequent observation during systemic infections. The aim of our study was to investigate liver damage during pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 infection in comparison with seasonal influenza. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma‐glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were significantly higher in patients with pandemic influenza compared to seasonal influenza, which was strongly correlated with hypoxia. Moreover, a positive correlation between C‐reactive protein and serum GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase was noticed. Our findings support the hypothesis that the pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 is an illness with a significant immune response to infection leading to hepatocellular injury. PMID:21951624

  17. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-01

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens. PMID:24480060

  18. Development of a sensitive real-time PCR for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A and B viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Amicizia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A new real-time PCR assay, using melting curve analysis, was developed for the rapid and reliable detection and sub-typing of influenza A and B.

    In order to evaluate it’s specificity, cell culture surnatants positive for Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Parainfluenza Viruses 1, 2 and 3, Measles Virus, Influenza A (to evaluate Influenza B primer and B (to evaluate Influenza A primer were tested and all of the results were negative.

    A series of Influenza A and B cell culture-grown viruses were diluted in virus transport medium, titrated and tested to determine the analytical sensibility which equated to 0.64, 0.026, 0.64, 0.62 PFU for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, Victoria-like and Yamagata-like B viruses, respectively. Twenty-five specimens, collected during the 2001/02 and 2002/03 seasons, which were positive for A/H1N1 (n = 7, A/H3N2 (n = 10, B Victoria-lineage (n = 5 and B Yamagata-lineage (n = 3, were tested in order to evaluate the assay’s clinical sensitivity, all of the results were positive.

    The new real-time PCR appears to be a suitable tool for virological surveillance and the diagnosis of respiratory infections.

  19. Altered response to A(H1N1)pnd09 vaccination in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Carson, Charlotte Giwercman;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were suspected to be at particular risk when H1N1pnd09 influenza became pandemic in 2009. Our primary objective was to compare the immune responses conferred by MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria®) in H1N1pnd09-naïve pregnant and non-pregnant women. The secondary aims...... at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 and 10 months after vaccination, adverse events were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: 58 pregnant women were allocated to Pa7.5 µg and 149 non-pregnant women were recruited to NPa7.5 µg. The sero-conversion rate was significantly increased in non-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) compared......-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) groups (OR = 0.49 [0.13-1.85], p = 0.29). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests the immune response to the 7.5 µg MF59-adjuvanted Focetria® H1N1pnd09 vaccine in pregnant women may be diminished compared with non-pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01012557....

  20. Determinants of refusal of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in a high risk population: a qualitative approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie d'Alessandro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1 it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2 it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3 this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

  1. Genetic analysis of HA gene of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza viruses circulating in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gunasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic took the health care workers by surprise in spite of warning about influenza pandemic. Influenza A virus has the ability to overcome immunity from previous infections through the acquisition of genetic changes by shift or drift. Thus, understanding the evolution of the viruses in human is important for the surveillance and the selection of vaccine strains. A total of 23 pandemic A/H1N1 2009 viral HA gene sequences were downloaded from NCBI submitted during March and May 2010 by NIV and were analysed. Along with that the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 was also downloaded from NCBI. All the sequences were used to analyse the evolution of the haemagglutinin (HA by phylogenetic analysis. The HA gene could be divided into four groups with shift from 1 to lV revealing that the HA genes of the influenza A viruses evolved in a sequential way, in comparison to vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. Amino acid sequence analysis of the HA genes of the A/H1N1 2009 isolates, revealed mutations at positions 100, 220 and additional mutations in different positions 114, 171, 179, 190, 208, 219, 222, 239, 240, 247, 251, 260 and 285 .The mutations identified showed the adaptation of the new virus to the host that could lead to genetic changes inherent to the virus resulting in a reassortant which could be catastrophic, hence continuous monitoring of strains is mandatory.

  2. The fast diagnosis by different methodologies of the influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Hatibi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the causative agent of the epidemic of the influenza in our country during the season 2009-2010. It also shows the effectiveness of the molecular diagnosis for Influenza virus by the means of the real-time PCR method in comparative of classical virological ones. Also in this paper we have presented the antigenic characterization of this virus which caused the pandemic during 2009-2010 years. We have collected and processed with several diagnostic methods like imunoflorescent assay, rapid tests, isolation and molecular method 409 samples. These were collected by the means of a Sentinel Surveillance throughout Albania, (tampon nasal- pharyngeal from people suspected of influenza in different ages. To isolate the virus of influenza we have used two methods: the method of isolation of influenza in the cell line of MDCK and also the isolation of the viral RNA by the means of the molecular method. The identifications of the isolates were carried out through the reactions of the hem agglutination inhibition and we have used also the method of Immunofluorescence and rapid test for the antigen detection of influenza virus. The results of the virus analyses are given in the relevant figures. The positive isolates were sent to the International Center of Influenza in London to be confirmed and also to have a further genetic analysis through molecular methods. From these tests performed during the season 2009-2010, it came out that our country was affected by one strain of influenza type A, AH1N1 variant A/California/2009/11. This strain circulated in the whole world causing the pandemic of 2009 and was a new variant deriving from the fusion of 4 strains of Influenza a process which occurred in pigs. These variants have affected the majority of the countries in Europe and in the world.

  3. School absence data for influenza surveillance: a pilot study in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, WP; Pebody, R; Mangtani, P

    2010-01-01

    School-age children are at a high risk of acute respiratory virus infections including the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1). School absence records have been suggested as a tool for influenza surveillance. We analysed absence records from six primary schools (children aged from around five to 11 years) in London during the years 2005 to 2007 in order to provide baseline epidemiological characteristics of illness-related school absence, and to correlate school absence with seasonal influenza. T...

  4. A Review of the Antiviral Susceptibility of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yuan Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antivirals play an important role in the prevention and treatment of influenza infections, particularly in high-risk or severely ill patients. Two classes of influenza antivirals have been available in many countries over the last decade (2004–2013, the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs. During this period, widespread adamantane resistance has developed in circulating influenza viruses rendering these drugs useless, resulting in the reliance on the most widely available NAI, oseltamivir. However, the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1 viruses in 2008 demonstrated that NAI-resistant viruses could also emerge and spread globally in a similar manner to that seen for adamantane-resistant viruses. Previously, it was believed that NAI-resistant viruses had compromised replication and/or transmission. Fortunately, in 2013, the majority of circulating human influenza viruses remain sensitive to all of the NAIs, but significant work by our laboratory and others is now underway to understand what enables NAI-resistant viruses to retain the capacity to replicate and transmit. In this review, we describe how the susceptibility of circulating human and avian influenza viruses has changed over the last ten years and describe some research studies that aim to understand how NAI-resistant human and avian influenza viruses may emerge in the future.

  5. Adamantane and Neuraminidase resistant influenza A/H3N2 isolated in Iran from 2005 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Yavarian

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: This study showed circulating A/H3N2 viruses was resistant to adaman-tanes but susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors. The national data analyzed in this re-search may help increase knowledge about influenza virus antiviral drug resistance, which is a global public health concern. The authors suggested continuing this study and also the investigation of antiviral drug resistance of influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses.

  6. “Prepandemic” Immunization for Novel Influenza Viruses, “Swine Flu” Vaccine, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and the Detection of Rare Severe Adverse Events

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David; Cauchemez, Simon; Hayden, Frederick G.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of immunogenic, licensed H5N1 vaccines and the anticipated development of vaccines against “swine” influenza A(H1N1) have stimulated debate about the possible use of these vaccines for protection of those exposed to potential pandemic influenza viruses and for immunization or “priming” of populations in the so-called “prepandemic” (interpandemic) era. However, the safety of such vaccines is a critical issue in policy development for wide-scale application of vaccines in the i...

  7. Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm‐Breschkin, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: McKimm‐Breschkin (2012) Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: Antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(Suppl. 1), 25–36. There are two major classes of antivirals available for the treatment and prevention of influenza, the M2 inhibitors and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). The M2 inhibitors are cheap, but they are only effective against influenza A viruses, and resistance arises rapidly. The current influenza A H3N2 and pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are already resistant to the M2 inhibitors as are many H5N1 viruses. There are four NAIs licensed in some parts of the world, zanamivir, oseltamivir, peramivir, and a long‐acting NAI, laninamivir. This review focuses on resistance to the NAIs. Because of differences in their chemistry and subtle differences in NA structures, resistance can be both NAI‐ and subtype specific. This results in different drug resistance profiles, for example, the H274Y mutation confers resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir, but not to zanamivir, and only in N1 NAs. Mutations at E119, D198, I222, R292, and N294 can also reduce NAI sensitivity. In the winter of 2007–2008, an oseltamivir‐resistant seasonal influenza A(H1N1) strain with an H274Y mutation emerged in the northern hemisphere and spread rapidly around the world. In contrast to earlier evidence of such resistant viruses being unfit, this mutant virus remained fully transmissible and pathogenic and became the major seasonal A(H1N1) virus globally within a year. This resistant A(H1N1) virus was displaced by the sensitive A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Approximately 0·5–1·0% of community A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates are currently resistant to oseltamivir. It is now apparent that variation in non‐active site amino acids can affect the fitness of the enzyme and compensate for mutations that confer high‐level oseltamivir resistance resulting in minimal impact on enzyme function. PMID:23279894

  8. Bioactive Compounds Screening from Zingiberaceae Family as Influenza A/Swine Flu Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitor through Docking Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman S.F. Tambunan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Influenza A/H1N1 is a disease caused by infection of influenza a virus subtype H1N1. It is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. This virus constantly mutates and consequently will be developed into new drug-resistant strains. Approach: In this research, we have conducted docking study to screen bioactive compounds from Zingiberaceae family, which has a role as neuraminidase inhibitor of influenza a virus. Results: The docking result identified that 1, 2-di-O- β-D-glucopyranosyl-4-allylbenzene (BGA compound has the affinity and ability to inhibit neuraminidase. There are fourteen residues contact of BGA compound to neuraminidase and eight residues contact of enzyme that formed hydrogen bond with catalytic site. Conclusion/recommendation: The docking result showed that BGA has better binding energy and affinity compared with other bioactive compounds and the standard compounds.

  9. The Influenza Virus Enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Rachelle; Webster, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Both seasonal and pandemic influenza continue to challenge both scientists and clinicians. Drug-resistant H1N1 influenza viruses have dominated the 2009 flu season, and the H5N1 avian influenza virus continues to kill both people and poultry in Eurasia. Here, we discuss the pathogenesis and transmissibility of influenza viruses and we emphasize the need to find better predictors of both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza.

  10. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Grgić

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1pdm09. One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA, polymerase A (PA and non-structural (NS genes closely related to A(H1N1pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA, matrix (M, polymerase B1 (PB1, polymerase B2 (PB2, and nucleoprotein (NP genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2. The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors.

  11. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgić, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada) in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA), polymerase A (PA) and non-structural (NS) genes closely related to A(H1N1)pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), polymerase B1 (PB1), polymerase B2 (PB2), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2). The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1)pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa) changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors.

  12. The East Jakarta Project: surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) and seasonal influenza viruses in patients seeking care for respiratory disease, Jakarta, Indonesia, October 2011-September 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, A D; Kusriastuti, R; Misriyah, S; Praptiningsih, C Y; Amalya, M; Lafond, K E; Samaan, G; Triada, R; Iuliano, A D; Ester, M; Sidjabat, R; Chittenden, K; Vogel, R; Widdowson, M A; Mahoney, F; Uyeki, T M

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has reported the most human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus worldwide. We implemented enhanced surveillance in four outpatient clinics and six hospitals for HPAI H5N1 and seasonal influenza viruses in East Jakarta district to assess the public health impact of influenza in Indonesia. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI); respiratory specimens were obtained for influenza testing by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During October 2011-September 2012, 1131/3278 specimens from ILI cases (34·5%) and 276/1787 specimens from SARI cases (15·4%) tested positive for seasonal influenza viruses. The prevalence of influenza virus infections was highest during December-May and the proportion testing positive was 76% for ILI and 36% for SARI during their respective weeks of peak activity. No HPAI H5N1 virus infections were identified, including hundreds of ILI and SARI patients with recent poultry exposures, whereas seasonal influenza was an important contributor to acute respiratory disease in East Jakarta. Overall, 668 (47%) of influenza viruses were influenza B, 384 (27%) were A(H1N1)pdm09, and 359 (25%) were H3. While additional data over multiple years are needed, our findings suggest that seasonal influenza prevention efforts, including influenza vaccination, should target the months preceding the rainy season.

  13. “Prepandemic” Immunization for Novel Influenza Viruses, “Swine Flu” Vaccine, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and the Detection of Rare Severe Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Cauchemez, Simon; Hayden, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    The availability of immunogenic, licensed H5N1 vaccines and the anticipated development of vaccines against “swine” influenza A(H1N1) have stimulated debate about the possible use of these vaccines for protection of those exposed to potential pandemic influenza viruses and for immunization or “priming” of populations in the so-called “prepandemic” (interpandemic) era. However, the safety of such vaccines is a critical issue in policy development for wide-scale application of vaccines in the interpandemic period. For example, wide-scale interpandemic use of H5N1 vaccines could lead to millions of persons receiving vaccines of uncertain efficacy potentially associated with rare severe adverse events and against a virus that may not cause a pandemic. Here, we first review aspects of the 1976 National Influenza Immunization Programme against “swine flu” and its well-documented association with Guillain-Barré syndrome as a case study illustration of a suspected vaccine-associated severe adverse event in a mass interpandemic immunization setting. This case study is especially timely, given the recent spread of a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus in humans in Mexico and beyond. Following this, we examine available safety data from clinical trials of H5N1 vaccines and briefly discuss how vaccine safety could be monitored in a postmarketing surveillance setting. PMID:19563262

  14. Nationwide surveillance of influenza during the pandemic (2009-10 and post-pandemic (2010-11 periods in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hsiang Chuang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although WHO declared the world moving into the post-pandemic period on August 10, 2010, influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus continued to circulate globally. Its impact was expected to continue during the 2010-11 influenza season. This study describes the nationwide surveillance findings of the pandemic and post-pandemic influenza periods in Taiwan and assesses the impact of influenza A(H1N1 2009 during the post-pandemic period. METHODS: The Influenza Laboratory Surveillance Network consisted of 12 contract laboratories for collecting and testing samples with acute respiratory tract infections. Surveillance of emergency room visits and outpatient department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI were conducted using the Real-Time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance system and the National Health Insurance program data, respectively. Hospitalized cases with severe complications and deaths were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. RESULTS: During the 2009-10 influenza season, pandemic A(H1N1 2009 was the predominant circulating strain and caused 44 deaths. However, the 2010-11 influenza season began with A(H3N2 being the predominant circulating strain, changing to A(H1N1 2009 in December 2010. Emergency room and outpatient department ILI surveillance displayed similar trends. By March 31, 2011, there were 1,751 cases of influenza with severe complications; 50.1% reported underlying diseases. Of the reported cases, 128 deaths were associated with influenza. Among these, 93 (72.6% were influenza A(H1N1 2009 and 30 (23.4% A(H3N2. Compared to the pandemic period, during the immediate post-pandemic period, increased number of hospitalizations and deaths were observed, and the patients were consistently older. CONCLUSIONS: Reemergence of influenza A(H1N1 2009 during the 2010-11 influenza season had an intense activity with age distribution shift. To further mitigate the impact of future influenza epidemics, Taiwan must

  15. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  16. Mycophenolic acid, an immunomodulator, has potent and broad-spectrum in vitro antiviral activity against pandemic, seasonal and avian influenza viruses affecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Mok, Ka-Yi; Chan, Andy S F; Cheung, Nam N; Wang, Pui; Lui, Yin-Ming; Chan, Jasper F W; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Kao, Richard Y T; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-08-01

    Immunomodulators have been shown to improve the outcome of severe pneumonia. We have previously shown that mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunomodulator, has antiviral activity against influenza A/WSN/1933(H1N1) using a high-throughput chemical screening assay. This study further investigated the antiviral activity and mechanism of action of MPA against contemporary clinical isolates of influenza A and B viruses. The 50 % cellular cytotoxicity (CC50) of MPA in Madin Darby canine kidney cell line was over 50 µM. MPA prevented influenza virus-induced cell death in the cell-protection assay, with significantly lower IC50 for influenza B virus B/411 than that of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus H1/415 (0.208 vs 1.510 µM, P=0.0001). For H1/415, MPA interfered with the early stage of viral replication before protein synthesis. For B/411, MPA may also act at a later stage since MPA was active against B/411 even when added 12 h post-infection. Virus-yield reduction assay showed that the replication of B/411 was completely inhibited by MPA at concentrations ≥0.78 µM, while there was a dose-dependent reduction of viral titer for H1/415. The antiviral effect of MPA was completely reverted by guanosine supplementation. Plaque reduction assay showed that MPA had antiviral activity against eight different clinical isolates of A(H1N1), A(H3N2), A(H7N9) and influenza B viruses (IC50 <1 µM). In summary, MPA has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human and avian-origin influenza viruses, in addition to its immunomodulatory activity. Together with a high chemotherapeutic index, the use of MPA as an antiviral agent should be further investigated in vivo. PMID:27259985

  17. Taming influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Plasmid-based reverse genetics systems allow the artificial generation of viruses with cloned cDNA-derived genomes. Since the establishment of such systems for influenza virus, numerous attempts have been made to tame this pathogenic agent. In particular, several types of viruses expressing foreign genes have been generated and used to further our knowledge of influenza virus replication and pathogenicity and to develop novel influenza vaccines. Here, we review these achievements and discuss ...

  18. Impact of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic on Age-Specific Epidemic Curves of Other Respiratory Viruses: A Comparison of Pre-Pandemic, Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Periods in a Subtropical City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    Full Text Available The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic caused offseason peaks in temperate regions but coincided with the summer epidemic of seasonal influenza and other common respiratory viruses in subtropical Hong Kong. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on age-specific epidemic curves of other respiratory viruses.Weekly laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A (subtypes seasonal A(H1N1, A(H3N2, pandemic virus A(H1N1pdm09, influenza B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, adenovirus and parainfluenza were obtained from 2004 to 2013. Age-specific epidemic curves of viruses other than A(H1N1pdm09 were compared between the pre-pandemic (May 2004-April 2009, pandemic (May 2009-April 2010 and post-pandemic periods (May 2010-April 2013.There were two peaks of A(H1N1pdm09 in Hong Kong, the first in September 2009 and the second in February 2011. The infection rate was found highest in young children in both waves, but markedly fewer cases in school children were recorded in the second wave than in the first wave. Positive proportions of viruses other than A(H1N1pdm09 markedly decreased in all age groups during the first pandemic wave. After the first wave of the pandemic, the positive proportion of A(H3N2 increased, but those of B and RSV remained slightly lower than their pre-pandemic proportions. Changes in seasonal pattern and epidemic peak time were also observed, but inconsistent across virus-age groups.Our findings provide some evidence that age distribution, seasonal pattern and peak time of other respiratory viruses have changed since the pandemic. These changes could be the result of immune interference and changing health seeking behavior, but the mechanism behind still needs further investigations.

  19. Rapid detection and subtyping of European swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time RT-PCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke;

    2016-01-01

    -qPCRs to differentiate the porcine subtypes H1, H3, N1 and N2. Within the HA subtype H1, lineages “av” (European avian-derived), “hu” (European human-derived) and “pdm” (human pandemic A/H1N1, 2009) are distinguished by RT-qPCRs, and within the NA subtype N1, lineage “pdm” is differentiated. An RT-PCR amplicon Sanger......Background A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine....... Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood. Objectives Efficient SIV surveillance programmes depend on sensitive and specific...

  20. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Documents (General) Workers Employed at Commercial Swine Farms Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español Recommend ...

  1. No Evidence for Disease History as a Risk Factor for Narcolepsy after A(H1N1pdm09 Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favelle Lamb

    Full Text Available To investigate disease history before A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination as a risk factor for narcolepsy.Case-control study in Sweden. Cases included persons referred for a Multiple Sleep Latency Test between 2009 and 2010, identified through diagnostic sleep centres and confirmed through independent review of medical charts. Controls, selected from the total population register, were matched to cases on age, gender, MSLT-referral date and county of residence. Disease history (prescriptions and diagnoses and vaccination history was collected through telephone interviews and population-based healthcare registers. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate disease history before A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination as a risk-factor for narcolepsy.In total, 72 narcolepsy cases and 251 controls were included (range 3-69 years mean19-years. Risk of narcolepsy was increased in individuals with a disease history of nervous system disorders (OR range = 3.6-8.8 and mental and behavioural disorders (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-8.8 before referral. In a second analysis of vaccinated individuals only, nearly all initial associations were no longer statistically significant and effect sizes were smaller (OR range = 1.3-2.6. A significant effect for antibiotics (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8 and a marginally significant effect for nervous system disorders was observed. In a third case-only analysis, comparing cases referred before vaccination to those referred after; prescriptions for nervous system disorders (OR = 26.0 95% CI 4.0-170.2 and ADHD (OR = 35.3 95% CI 3.4-369.9 were statistically significant during the vaccination period, suggesting initial associations were due to confounding by indication.The findings of this study do not support disease history before A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination as a risk factor for narcolepsy.

  2. A model for the A(H1N1 epidemic in Mexico, including social isolation Un modelo para la epidemia de A(H1N1 en México incorporando aislamiento social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge X Velasco-Hernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We present a model for the 2009 influenza epidemic in Mexico to describe the observed pattern of the epidemic from March through the end of August (before the onset of the expected winter epidemic in terms of the reproduction number and social isolation measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The model uses a system of ordinary differential equations. Computer simulations are performed to optimize trajectories as a function of parameters. RESULTS: We report on the theoretical consequences of social isolation using published estimates of the basic reproduction number. The comparison with actual data provides a reasonable good fit. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of the epidemic outbreak in Mexico is characterized by two peaks resulting from the application of very drastic social isolation measures and other prophylactic measures that lasted for about two weeks. Our model is capable of reproducing the observed pattern.OBJETIVO: Se presenta un modelo de la epidemia de influenza en México en 2009 para describir el patrón observado desde marzo hasta finales de agosto (antes del inicio de la epidemia invernal, en términos del número reproductivo y las medidas de aislamiento social. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El modelo es un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias. Se realizaron simulaciones computacionales para la optimización de trayectorias como función de los parámetros. RESULTADOS: Se exploran las consecuencias de esta última medida combinada con los valores estimados en la literatura médica del número reproductivo básico. CONCLUSIONES: El patrón de la epidemia mexicana de influenza es bimodal debido a la aplicación del aislamiento social y otras medidas profilácticas que duró aproximadamente dos semanas. Este modelo es capaz de reproducir el patrón observado.

  3. Filamentous influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Dadonaite, Bernadeta; Vijyakrishnan, Swetha; Fodor, Ervin; Bhella, David; Hutchinson, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of influenza virus produce pleomorphic virus particles, including extremely long filamentous virions. In contrast, strains of influenza that have adapted to laboratory growth typically produce only spherical virions. As a result, the filamentous phenotype has been overlooked in most influenza virus research. Recent advances in imaging and improved animal models have highlighted the distinct structure and functional relevance of filamentous virions. In this review we summaris...

  4. Detection of Influenza Virus with Specific Subtype by Using Localized Surface Plasmons Excited on a Flat Metal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jun; Nagata, Kotaro; Ainai, Akira; Hasegawa, Hideki; Kano, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    We report on a method to determine subtype of influenza viruses by using surface plasmons localized in microscopic region on a flat metal surface. In this method, refractive index variation arisen from interactions between viruses and their monoclonal antibodies is measured. The developed sensor shows stability of refractive index in the order of 10-4 against sample exchange. In our experiment, A/H1N1 viruses are distinguished from A/H3N2 viruses by using monoclonal antibodies immobilized on the metal surface. Since the measurement probe has the volume of ˜6 al, the method has potential to handle multiple subtypes in the measurement of a sample with ultra small volume.

  5. Prescription of antiviral drugs during the 2009 influenza pandemic: an observational study using electronic medical files of general practitioners in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hooiveld, M; Groep, T. van de; Verheij, Th.J.M.; Sande, M A; Verheij, R.A.; Tacken, M.A.; van Essen, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: After the clinical impact of the A(H1N1) pdm09 virus was considered to be mild, treatment with antiviral drugs was recommended only to patients who were at risk for severe disease or who had a complicated course of influenza. We investigated to what extent antiviral prescriptions in primary care practices were in accordance with the recommendations, what proportion of patients diagnosed with influenza had been prescribed antiviral drugs, and to what extent prescriptions related to...

  6. Factors Associated with Death Due to 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Beijing, 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-qian; Zhang; Li-cheng; Zhang; Na; Ren; Ming; Zhang; Li-min; Guo; Xing-wang; Li; Jun; Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective Patients with H1N1 virus infection were hospitalized and quarantined, and some of them developed into acute respiratory failure, and were transfered to the medical intensive care unit of Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University in Beijing, China. Methods The clinical features and preliminary epidemiologic findings among 30 patients with confirmed H1N1 virus infection who developed into acute respiratory failure for ventilatory support were investigated. Results A total of 30 patients(37.43 ± 18.80 years old) with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) related acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) received treatment with mechanical ventilation, 15 cases of whom were male and 17 cases died of ARDS. Fatal cases were significantly associated with an APACHE Ⅱ score(P = 0.016), but not with PaO 2 /FIO 2(P = 0.912) and chest radiograph(P = 0.333). The most common complication was acute renal failure(n = 9). Five patients received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO), 3 of whom died and the others survived. The major causes of death were multiple organ dysfunction syndrome(MODS)(39%), intractable respiratory failure(27%) and sepsis(20%). Conclusions Most patients with respiratory failure due to influenza A(H1N1) virus infection were young, with a high mortality, particularly associated with APACHE Ⅱ score, secondary infection of lung or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Influenza epidemiology and vaccine effectiveness among patients with influenza-like illness, viral watch sentinel sites, South Africa, 2005-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevie M Ntshoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the epidemiology of influenza and few published estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE from Africa. In April 2009, a new influenza virus strain infecting humans was identified and rapidly spread globally. We compared the characteristics of patients ill with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus to those ill with seasonal influenza and estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness during five influenza seasons (2005-2009 in South Africa. METHODS: Epidemiological data and throat and/or nasal swabs were collected from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI at sentinel sites. Samples were tested for seasonal influenza viruses using culture, haemagglutination inhibition tests and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR and for influenza A(H1N1pdm09 by real-time PCR. For the vaccine effectiveness (VE analysis we considered patients testing positive for influenza A and/or B as cases and those testing negative for influenza as controls. Age-adjusted VE was calculated as 1-odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals. RESULTS: From 2005 through 2009 we identified 3,717 influenza case-patients. The median age was significantly lower among patients infected with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus than those with seasonal influenza, 17 and 27 years respectively (p<0.001. The vaccine coverage during the influenza season ranged from 3.4% in 2009 to 5.1% in 2006 and was higher in the ≥50 years (range 6.9% in 2008 to 13.2% in 2006 than in the <50 years age group (range 2.2% in 2007 to 3.7% in 2006. The age-adjusted VE estimates for seasonal influenza were 48.6% (4.9%, 73.2%; -14.2% (-9.7%, 34.8%; 12.0% (-70.4%, 55.4%; 67.4% (12.4%, 90.3% and 29.6% (-21.5%, 60.1% from 2005 to 2009 respectively. For the A(H1N1pdm09 season, the efficacy of seasonal vaccine was -6.4% (-93.5%, 43.3%. CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccine demonstrated a significant protective effect in two of the five years evaluated. Low vaccine coverage may

  8. Influenza Illness in Pregnant Indian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koul, Parvaiz A.; Bali, Nargis K.; Hyder Mir; Farhat Jabeen; Abida Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Data about burden of influenza in pregnancy in India are scant. In order to assess the contribution of influenza to acute respiratory illness (ARI) in pregnancy, 266 north Indian pregnant females with febrile ARI were studied from December 2014 to May 2015. Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were obtained and tested for influenza viruses by RT-PCR. Fifty (18.8%) patients tested positive for influenza (A/H1N1pdm09 in 41, A/H3N2 in 8, and influenza B Yamagata in 1). Rigors, headache, and a...

  9. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  10. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease does not interfere with the adaptive immune response following challenge with pandemic A/H1N1 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. The implications of sequential prime and challenge with mismatched influenza A viruses is a concern in mammals including humans. We evaluated the ability of pigs affected with vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) to generate a humoral immune response against the hetero...

  11. 4Flu - an individual based simulation tool to study the effects of quadrivalent vaccination on seasonal influenza in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, Martin; Schwehm, Markus; Hain, Johannes; Uphoff, Helmut; Salzberger, Bernd; Knuf, Markus; Schmidt-Ott, Ruprecht

    2014-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccines contain Influenza A and B antigens and are adjusted annually to match the characteristics of circulating viruses. In Germany, Influenza B viruses belonged to the B/Yamagata lineage, but since 2001, the antigenically distinct B/Victoria lineage has been co-circulating. Trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) contain antigens of the two A subtypes A(H3N2) and A(H1N1), yet of only one B lineage, resulting in frequent vaccine mismatches. Since 2012, the WHO has been recom...

  12. Endocytosis of influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lakadamyali, Melike; Rust, Michael J.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is known to play an important role in the entry of many viruses into host cells. However, the exact internalization mechanism has, until recently, remained poorly understood for many medically important viruses, including influenza. Developments in real-time imaging of single viruses as well as the use of dominant negative mutants to selectively block specific endocytic pathways, have improved our understanding of the influenza infection process.

  13. Panorama phylogenetic diversity and distribution of type A influenza viruses based on their six internal gene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Chao-Jian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type A influenza viruses are important pathogens of humans, birds, pigs, horses and some marine mammals. The viruses have evolved into multiple complicated subtypes, lineages and sublineages. Recently, the phylogenetic diversity of type A influenza viruses from a whole view has been described based on the viral external HA and NA gene sequences, but remains unclear in terms of their six internal genes (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, MP and NS. Methods In this report, 2798 representative sequences of the six viral internal genes were selected from GenBank using the web servers in NCBI Influenza Virus Resource. Then, the phylogenetic relationships among the representative sequences were calculated using the software tools MEGA 4.1 and RAxML 7.0.4. Lineages and sublineages were classified mainly according to topology of the phylogenetic trees and distribution of the viruses in hosts, regions and time. Results The panorama phylogenetic trees of the six internal genes of type A influenza viruses were constructed. Lineages and sublineages within the type based on the six internal genes were classified and designated by a tentative universal numerical nomenclature system. The diversity of influenza viruses circulating in different regions, periods, and hosts based on the panorama trees was analyzed. Conclusion This study presents the first whole views to the phylogenetic diversity and distribution of type A influenza viruses based on their six internal genes. It also proposes a tentative universal nomenclature system for the viral lineages and sublineages. These can be a candidate framework to generalize the history and explore the future of the viruses, and will facilitate future scientific communications on the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of the viruses. In addition, it provides a novel phylogenetic view (i.e. the whole view to recognize the viruses including the origin of the pandemic A(H1N1 influenza viruses.

  14. Technical guideline for the implementation of prevention and intervention measures for influenza A(H1N1)virus infection(pilot version)%甲型H1N1流感预防干预措施应用技术指南(试行)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中华人民共和国卫生部

    2009-01-01

    @@ 为指导应用甲型H1N1流感的预防干预措施,控制或减缓甲型H1N1流感的传播速度和范围,特制定本指南.本指南适用于我国出现甲型H1N1流感病毒持续的人与人之间传播和社区水平的暴发流行阶段.

  15. Hemagglutinin 222D/G polymorphism facilitates fast intra-host evolution of pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Seidel

    Full Text Available The amino acid substitution of aspartic acid to glycine in hemagglutinin (HA in position 222 (HA-D222G as well as HA-222D/G polymorphism of pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza viruses (A(H1N1pdm09 were frequently reported in severe influenza in humans and mice. Their impact on viral pathogenicity and the course of influenza has been discussed controversially and the underlying mechanism remained unclarified. In the present study, BALB/c mice, infected with the once mouse lung- and cell-passaged A(H1N1pdm09 isolate A/Jena/5258/09 (mpJena/5258, developed severe pneumonia. From day 2 to 3 or 4 post infection (p.i. symptoms (body weight loss and clinical score continuously worsened. After a short disease stagnation or even recovery phase in most mice, severity of disease further increased on days 6 and 7 p.i. Thereafter, surviving mice recovered. A 45 times higher virus titer maximum in the lung than in the trachea on day 2 p.i. and significantly higher tracheal virus titers compared to lung on day 6 p.i. indicated changes in the organ tropism during infection. Sequence analysis revealed an HA-222D/G polymorphism. HA-D222 and HA-G222 variants co-circulated in lung and trachea. Whereas, HA-D222 variant predominated in the lung, HA-G222 became the major variant in the trachea after day 4 p.i. This was accompanied by lower neutralizing antibody titers and broader receptor recognition including terminal sialic acid α-2,3-linked galactose, which is abundant on mouse trachea epithelial cells. Plaque-purified HA-G222-mpJena/5258 virus induced severe influenza with maximum symptom on day 6 p.i. These results demonstrated for the first time that HA-222D/G quasispecies of A(H1N1pdm09 caused severe biphasic influenza because of fast viral intra-host evolution, which enabled partial antibody escape and minor changes in receptor binding.

  16. [Influenza surveillance in nine consecutive seasons, 2003-2012: results from National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty Of Medicine, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay Ciblak, Meral; Kanturvardar Tütenyurd, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Tulunoğlu, Merve; Fındıkçı, Nurcihan; Badur, Selim

    2012-10-01

    Influenza is a public health problem that affects 5-20% of the world population annually causing high morbidity and mortality especially in risk groups. In addition to determining prevention and treatment strategies with vaccines and antivirals, surveillance data plays an important role in combat against influenza. Surveillance provides valuable data on characteristics of influenza activity, on types, sub-types, antigenic properties and antiviral resistance profile of circulating viruses in a given region. The first influenza surveillance was initiated as a pilot study in 2003 by now named National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Surveillance was launched at national level by Ministry of Health in 2004 and two National Influenza Laboratories, one in Istanbul and the other in Ankara, have been conducting surveillance in Turkey. Surveillance data obtained for nine consecutive years, 2003-2012, by National Influenza Reference Laboratory in Istanbul Faculty of Medicine have been summarized in this report. During 2003-2012 influenza surveillance seasons, a total of 11.077 nasal swabs collected in viral transport medium were sent to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul for analysis. Immun-capture ELISA followed by MDCK cell culture was used for detection of influenza viruses before 2009 and real-time RT-PCR was used thereafter. Antigenic characterizations were done by hemagglutination inhibition assay with the reactives supplied by World Health Organization. Analysis of the results showed that influenza B viruses have entered the circulation in 2005-2006 seasons, and have contributed to the epidemics at increasing rates every year except in the 2009 pandemic season. Influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages were cocirculating for two seasons. For other seasons either lineage was in circulation. Antigenic characterization revealed that circulating B viruses matched the vaccine composition either partially or totally for only

  17. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  18. Development of a candidate influenza vaccine based on virus-like particles displaying influenza M2e peptide into the immunodominant region of hepatitis B core antigen: Broad protective efficacy of particles carrying four copies of M2e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybalova, Liudmila M; Stepanova, Liudmila A; Kuprianov, Victor V; Blokhina, Elena A; Potapchuk, Marina V; Korotkov, Alexander V; Gorshkov, Andrey N; Kasyanenko, Marina A; Ravin, Nikolai V; Kiselev, Oleg I

    2015-06-26

    A long-term objective when designing influenza vaccines is to create one with broad cross-reactivity that will provide effective control over influenza, no matter which strain has caused the disease. Here we summarize the results from an investigation into the immunogenic and protective capacities inherent in variations of a recombinant protein, HBc/4M2e. This protein contains four copies of the ectodomain from the influenza virus protein M2 (M2e) fused within the immunodominant loop of the hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBc). Variations of this basic design include preparations containing M2e from the consensus human influenza virus; the M2e from the highly pathogenic avian A/H5N1 virus and a combination of two copies from human and two copies from avian influenza viruses. Intramuscular delivery in mice with preparations containing four identical copies of M2e induced high IgG titers in blood sera and bronchoalveolar lavages. It also provoked the formation of memory T-cells and antibodies were retained in the blood sera for a significant period of time post immunization. Furthermore, these preparations prevented the death of 75-100% of animals, which were challenged with lethal doses of virus. This resulted in a 1.2-3.5 log10 decrease in viral replication within the lungs. Moreover, HBc particles carrying only "human" or "avian" M2e displayed cross-reactivity in relation to human (A/H1N1, A/H2N2 and A/H3N2) or A/H5N1 and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, respectively; however, with the particles carrying both "human" and "avian" M2e this effect was much weaker, especially in relation to influenza virus A/H5N1. It is apparent from this work that to quickly produce vaccine for a pandemic it would be necessary to have several variations of a recombinant protein, containing four copies of M2e (each one against a group of likely influenza virus strains) with these relevant constructs housed within a comprehensive collection Escherichia coli-producers and maintained ready for use

  19. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  20. Triple combination of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir is highly active and synergistic against drug resistant influenza virus strains in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack T Nguyen

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence and subsequent spread of the novel 2009 Influenza A/H1N1 virus (2009 H1N1 has prompted the World Health Organization to declare the first pandemic of the 21st century, highlighting the threat of influenza to public health and healthcare systems. Widespread resistance to both classes of influenza antivirals (adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors occurs in both pandemic and seasonal viruses, rendering these drugs to be of marginal utility in the treatment modality. Worldwide, virtually all 2009 H1N1 and seasonal H3N2 strains are resistant to the adamantanes (rimantadine and amantadine, and the majority of seasonal H1N1 strains are resistant to oseltamivir, the most widely prescribed neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI. To address the need for more effective therapy, we evaluated the in vitro activity of a triple combination antiviral drug (TCAD regimen composed of drugs with different mechanisms of action against drug-resistant seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses. Amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir, alone and in combination, were tested against amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant influenza A viruses using an in vitro infection model in MDCK cells. Our data show that the triple combination was highly synergistic against drug-resistant viruses, and the synergy of the triple combination was significantly greater than the synergy of any double combination tested (P<0.05, including the combination of two NAIs. Surprisingly, amantadine and oseltamivir contributed to the antiviral activity of the TCAD regimen against amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, respectively, at concentrations where they had no activity as single agents, and at concentrations that were clinically achievable. Our data demonstrate that the TCAD regimen composed of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir is highly synergistic against resistant viruses, including 2009 H1N1. The TCAD regimen overcomes baseline drug resistance to both classes of

  1. Outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) variant virus infection among attendees of an agricultural fair, Pennsylvania, USA, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Karen K; Greenbaum, Adena; Moll, Maria E; Lando, James; Moore, Erin L; Ganatra, Rahul; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Lam, Eugene; Smith, Erica E; Storms, Aaron D; Miller, Jeffrey R; Dato, Virginia; Nalluswami, Kumar; Nambiar, Atmaram; Silvestri, Sharon A; Lute, James R; Ostroff, Stephen; Hancock, Kathy; Branch, Alicia; Trock, Susan C; Klimov, Alexander; Shu, Bo; Brammer, Lynnette; Epperson, Scott; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    During August 2011, influenza A (H3N2) variant [A(H3N2)v] virus infection developed in a child who attended an agricultural fair in Pennsylvania, USA; the virus resulted from reassortment of a swine influenza virus with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. We interviewed fair attendees and conducted a retrospective cohort study among members of an agricultural club who attended the fair. Probable and confirmed cases of A(H3N2)v virus infection were defined by serology and genomic sequencing results, respectively. We identified 82 suspected, 4 probable, and 3 confirmed case-patients who attended the fair. Among 127 cohort study members, the risk for suspected case status increased as swine exposure increased from none (4%; referent) to visiting swine exhibits (8%; relative risk 2.1; 95% CI 0.2-53.4) to touching swine (16%; relative risk 4.4; 95% CI 0.8-116.3). Fairs may be venues for zoonotic transmission of viruses with epidemic potential; thus, health officials should investigate respiratory illness outbreaks associated with agricultural events.

  2. Human influenza A viruses are proteolytically activated and do not induce apoptosis in CACO-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replication of human influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses was studied in human CACO-2 cells, a continuous line of intestinal epithelial differentiated cells. Hemagglutinin (HA) was cleaved in these cells by an endogenous protease. Thus, infectious virus was produced that underwent multiple cycle replication and plaque formation in the absence of trypsin added to the media. Cleavage of de novo-synthesized HA occurred at a late stage of the exocytic pathway as indicated by pulse-chase labeling and by experiments employing endoglycosidase H and brefeldin A treatment. However, surface-labeling experiments employing biotinylation suggested that there is no cleavage at the plasma membrane. Unlike HA of serotypes H5 and H7 cleaved at multibasic cleavage sites by furin, the HAs with monobasic cleavage sites analyzed here were not cleaved in CACO-2 cells in the presence of aprotinin, a natural inhibitor of trypsinlike proteases. Growing CACO-2 cells were able to cleave HA of incoming virus, although influenza virus activating protease was not detected in culture medium. These observations indicate that the activating enzyme of CACO-2 cells is a trypsinlike protease functioning in the trans-Golgi network and presumably endosomes. In support of this concept immune staining with antibodies specific to human and bovine trypsin revealed the presence of a trypsinlike protease in CACO-2 cells. Unlike MDCK and CV-1 cells undergoing rapid apoptosis after influenza virus infection, CACO-2 cells showed no apoptosis but displayed cytopathic effects with necrotic signs significantly later after infection. It follows from these data that, depending on the cell type, influenza virus may kill cells either by apoptosis or by necrosis

  3. Long-Term Shedding of Influenza Virus, Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Nosocomial Epidemiology in Patients with Hematological Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lehners

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses are a cause of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI, but can be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and the duration of viral shedding in hematological patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from hematological patients were screened for influenza, parainfluenza and RSV on admission as well as on development of respiratory symptoms. Consecutive swabs were collected until viral clearance. Out of 672 tested patients, a total of 111 patients (17% were infected with one of the investigated viral agents: 40 with influenza, 13 with parainfluenza and 64 with RSV; six patients had influenza/RSV or parainfluenza/RSV co-infections. The majority of infected patients (n = 75/111 underwent stem cell transplantation (42 autologous, 48 allogeneic, 15 autologous and allogeneic. LRTI was observed in 48 patients, of whom 15 patients developed severe LRTI, and 13 patients with respiratory tract infection died. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a variety of influenza A(H1N1pdm09, A(H3N2, influenza B, parainfluenza 3 and RSV A, B viruses. RSV A was detected in 54 patients, RSV B in ten patients. The newly emerging RSV A genotype ON1 predominated in the study cohort and was found in 48 (75% of 64 RSV-infected patients. Furthermore, two distinct clusters were detected for RSV A genotype ON1, identical RSV G gene sequences in these patients are consistent with nosocomial transmission. Long-term viral shedding for more than 30 days was significantly associated with prior allogeneic transplantation (p = 0.01 and was most pronounced in patients with RSV infection (n = 16 with a median duration of viral shedding for 80 days (range 35-334 days. Long-term shedding of respiratory viruses might be a catalyzer of nosocomial transmission and must be considered for

  4. Single assay for simultaneous detection and differential identification of human and avian influenza virus types, subtypes, and emergent variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metzgar

    Full Text Available For more than four decades the cause of most type A influenza virus infections of humans has been attributed to only two viral subtypes, A/H1N1 or A/H3N2. In contrast, avian and other vertebrate species are a reservoir of type A influenza virus genome diversity, hosting strains representing at least 120 of 144 combinations of 16 viral hemagglutinin and 9 viral neuraminidase subtypes. Viral genome segment reassortments and mutations emerging within this reservoir may spawn new influenza virus strains as imminent epidemic or pandemic threats to human health and poultry production. Traditional methods to detect and differentiate influenza virus subtypes are either time-consuming and labor-intensive (culture-based or remarkably insensitive (antibody-based. Molecular diagnostic assays based upon reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR have short assay cycle time, and high analytical sensitivity and specificity. However, none of these diagnostic tests determine viral gene nucleotide sequences to distinguish strains and variants of a detected pathogen from one specimen to the next. Decision-quality, strain- and variant-specific pathogen gene sequence information may be critical for public health, infection control, surveillance, epidemiology, or medical/veterinary treatment planning. The Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM-Flu is a robust, highly multiplexed and target gene sequencing-based alternative to both traditional culture- or biomarker-based diagnostic tests. RPM-Flu is a single, simultaneous differential diagnostic assay for all subtype combinations of type A influenza viruses and for 30 other viral and bacterial pathogens that may cause influenza-like illness. These other pathogen targets of RPM-Flu may co-infect and compound the morbidity and/or mortality of patients with influenza. The informative specificity of a single RPM-Flu test represents specimen-specific viral gene sequences as determinants of virus type, A

  5. Neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 - A promising drug for treating influenza virus: Steered molecular dynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Binh Khanh [Institute for Computational Science and Technology, 6 Quarter, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Li, Mai Suan, E-mail: masli@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We study binding affinity of R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958 to neuraminidase of pathogenic influenza viruses by molecular dynamics simulations. {yields} It is shown that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. {yields} We predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus. {yields} The high correlation between theoretical and experimental data implies that SMD is a very promising tool for drug design. -- Abstract: Two neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir, are important drug treatments for influenza. Oseltamivir-resistant mutants of the influenza virus A/H1N1 and A/H5N1 have emerged, necessitating the development of new long-acting antiviral agents. One such agent is a new neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958. An atomic level understanding of the nature of this antiviral agents binding is still missing. We address this gap in our knowledge by applying steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to different subtypes of seasonal and highly pathogenic influenza viruses. We show that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. Based on results obtained by SMD and the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method, we predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus as its binding affinity does not vary much across these systems. The high correlation level between theoretically determined rupture forces and experimental data on binding energies for the large number of systems studied here implies that SMD is a promising tool for drug design.

  6. Neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 - A promising drug for treating influenza virus: Steered molecular dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We study binding affinity of R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958 to neuraminidase of pathogenic influenza viruses by molecular dynamics simulations. → It is shown that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. → We predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus. → The high correlation between theoretical and experimental data implies that SMD is a very promising tool for drug design. -- Abstract: Two neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir, are important drug treatments for influenza. Oseltamivir-resistant mutants of the influenza virus A/H1N1 and A/H5N1 have emerged, necessitating the development of new long-acting antiviral agents. One such agent is a new neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958. An atomic level understanding of the nature of this antiviral agents binding is still missing. We address this gap in our knowledge by applying steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to different subtypes of seasonal and highly pathogenic influenza viruses. We show that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. Based on results obtained by SMD and the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method, we predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus as its binding affinity does not vary much across these systems. The high correlation level between theoretically determined rupture forces and experimental data on binding energies for the large number of systems studied here implies that SMD is a promising tool for drug design.

  7. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  8. Emergence of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 genogroup 6B and drug resistant virus, India, January to May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Manmohan; Dash, Paban Kumar; Kumar, Jyoti S; Joshi, Gaurav; Tandel, Kundan; Sharma, Shashi; Srivastava, Ambuj; Agarwal, Ankita; Saha, Amrita; Saraswat, Shweta; Karothia, Divyanshi; Malviya, Vatsala

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aetiology of the 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza outbreak in India, 1,083 nasopharyngeal swabs from suspect patients were screened for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Of 412 positive specimens, six were further characterised by phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin (HA) sequences revealing that they belonged to genogroup 6B. A new mutation (E164G) was observed in HA2 of two sequences. Neuraminidase genes in two of 12 isolates from fatal cases on prior oseltamivir treatment harboured the H275Y mutation.

  9. [Analysis of HA and NA Genes of Influenza A H1N1 Virus in Yunnan Province during 2009-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Xiaonan; Cao, Yihui; Ning, Deming; Fu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Wen

    2015-11-01

    To analyze influenza pathogen spectrum in Yunnan province during 2009-2014 years, and analyze HA and NA genes of influenza A H1N1. Analysis was made on the monitoring date of influenza cases in Yunnan province in recent 6 years, 23 strains of influenza virus of HA and NA gene was sequenced and analyzed by MEGA 5 software to construct phylogenetic tree. 4 times of influenza AH1N1 epidemic peak were monitored from 2009-2014 years in Yunnan Province, as the nucleic acid detection results of influenza A H1N1 accounted for 28.8% of the total. The sequencing result showed that HA and NA gene were divided into 3 groups, one was detected with H275Y mutation strains. Influenza A H1N1 is one of the important subtypes in Yunnan province and their genes have divided into three branches during the period of 2009-2014 years, the vast majority of influenza a H1N1 are still sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors.

  10. [Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from National Influenza Center, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Bayrakdar, Fatma; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-07-01

    Influenza surveillance provides data about the characteristics of influenza activity, types, sub-types and antigenic properties of the influenza viruses in circulation in a region. Surveillance also provides for the preparation against potential influenza pandemics with the identification of the genetic properties of viruses and the mutant strains that could pose a threat. In this study, data in the scope of national influenza surveillance carried out by National Influenza Center, Turkey for five consecutive influenza seasons between 2010-2015, following the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic, have been presented and evaluated. A total of 15.149 respiratory samples, including 8.894 sentinel and 6.255 non-sentinel specimens, during 2010-2015 influenza seasons, within the periods between September and May, were evaluated in our center. All samples were tested using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for the presence of influenza virus types and subtypes. Within the sentinel influenza surveillance, the samples that were detected negative for influenza viruses, have also been tested for the other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses) using the same technique. Further analysis, including virus isolation by cell culture inoculation and antigenic characterization by hemagglutination inhibiton test were performed for the samples found positive for influenza A and B viruses. Selected representative virus isolates have been sent to WHO reference laboratory for the sequence analysis. In the study, influenza virus positivity rates detected for all of the samples (sentinel+non-sentinel) were as follows; 34% (779/2316) in 2010-11 season; 25% (388/1554) in 2011-12; 20% (696/3541) in 2012-13; 23% (615/2678) in 2013-14; and 26% (1332/5060) in 2014-15. When all the samples were considered for influenza A and B viruses, the positivity rates for the seasons of 2010-11; 2011-12; 2012-13; 2013-14; 2014-15 were determined as

  11. Efficacy of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus vaccine in pigs against the pandemic influenza virus is superior to commercially available swine influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, W L A; Stockhofe, N; Weesendorp, E; van Zoelen-Bos, D; Heutink, R; Quak, S; Goovaerts, D; Heldens, J G M; Maas, R; Moormann, R J; Koch, G

    2011-09-28

    In April 2009 a new influenza A/H1N1 strain, currently named "pandemic (H1N1) influenza 2009" (H1N1v), started the first official pandemic in humans since 1968. Several incursions of this virus in pig herds have also been reported from all over the world. Vaccination of pigs may be an option to reduce exposure of human contacts with infected pigs, thereby preventing cross-species transfer, but also to protect pigs themselves, should this virus cause damage in the pig population. Three swine influenza vaccines, two of them commercially available and one experimental, were therefore tested and compared for their efficacy against an H1N1v challenge. One of the commercial vaccines is based on an American classical H1N1 influenza strain, the other is based on a European avian H1N1 influenza strain. The experimental vaccine is based on reassortant virus NYMC X179A (containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1v) and the internal genes of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1)). Excretion of infectious virus was reduced by 0.5-3 log(10) by the commercial vaccines, depending on vaccine and sample type. Both vaccines were able to reduce virus replication especially in the lower respiratory tract, with less pathological lesions in vaccinated and subsequently challenged pigs than in unvaccinated controls. In pigs vaccinated with the experimental vaccine, excretion levels of infectious virus in nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, were at or below 1 log(10)TCID(50) per swab and lasted for only 1 or 2 days. An inactivated vaccine containing the HA and NA of an H1N1v is able to protect pigs from an infection with H1N1v, whereas swine influenza vaccines that are currently available are of limited efficaciousness. Whether vaccination of pigs against H1N1v will become opportune remains to be seen and will depend on future evolution of this strain in the pig population. Close monitoring of the pig population, focussing on presence and evolution of

  12. Is the onset of influenza in the community age-related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D M; Durnall, H; Warburton, F; Ellis, J S; Zambon, M C

    2016-08-01

    We studied the spread of influenza in the community between 1993 and 2009 using primary-care surveillance data to investigate if the onset of influenza was age-related. Virus detections [A(H3N2), B, A(H1N1)] and clinical incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) in 12·3 million person-years in the long-running Royal College of General Practitioners-linked clinical-virological surveillance programme in England & Wales were examined. The number of days between symptom onset and the all-age peak ILI incidence were compared by age group for each influenza type/subtype. We found that virus detection and ILI incidence increase, peak and decrease were in unison. The mean interval between symptom onset to peak ILI incidence in virus detections (all ages) was: A(H3N2) 20·5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 19·7-21·6] days; B, 18·8 (95% CI 15·8·0-21·7) days; and A(H1N1) 17·0 (95% CI 15·6-18·4) days. Differences by age group were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. For A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) viruses the interval was similar in each age group. For influenza B there were highly significant differences by age group (P = 0·0001). Clinical incidence rates of ILI reported in the 8 weeks preceding the period of influenza virus activity were used to estimate a baseline incidence and threshold value (upper 95% CI of estimate) which was used as a marker of epidemic progress. Differences between the age groups in the week in which the threshold was reached were small and not localized to any age group. In conclusion we found no evidence to suggest that influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) occurs in the community in one age group before another. For influenza B, virus detection was earlier in children aged 5-14 years than in persons aged ⩾25 years. PMID:27350234

  13. Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza A viruses in Hong Kong, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peihua; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Wang, Xiling; Chan, King-Pan; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Poon, Leo Lit-Man; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza viruses have not been documented in tropical and subtropical regions. We implemented a systematic surveillance program in two tertiary hospitals in Hong Kong Island, to collect 112 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 254 A(H3N2) positive specimens from 2013 to 2014. Of these, 56 and 72 were identified as genetic variants of the WHO recommended vaccine composition strains, respectively. A subset of these genetic variants was selected for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests, but none appeared to be antigenic variants of the vaccine composition strains. We also found that genetic and antigenicity variations were similar across sex and age groups of ≤18 yrs, 18 to 65 yrs, and ≥65 yrs. Our findings suggest that none of the age groups led other age groups in genetic evolution of influenza virus A strains. Future studies from different regions and longer study periods are needed to further investigate the age and sex heterogeneity of influenza viruses. PMID:27453320

  14. 5'PPP-RNA induced RIG-I activation inhibits drug-resistant avian H5N1 as well as 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sastre Adolfo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza viruses, including avian H5N1 with pandemic potential, 1918 and 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic viruses to currently used antiviral agents, neuraminidase inhibitors and M2 Ion channel blockers, underscores the importance of developing novel antiviral strategies. Activation of innate immune pathogen sensor Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-I has recently been shown to induce antiviral state. Results In the present investigation, using real time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunoblot, and plaque assay we show that 5'PPP-containing single stranded RNA (5'PPP-RNA, a ligand for the intracytoplasmic RNA sensor, RIG-I can be used as a prophylactic agent against known drug-resistant avian H5N1 and pandemic influenza viruses. 5'PPP-RNA treatment of human lung epithelial cells inhibited replication of drug-resistant avian H5N1 as well as 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza viruses in a RIG-I and type 1 interferon dependant manner. Additionally, 5'PPP-RNA treatment also inhibited 2009 H1N1 viral replication in vivo in mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 5'PPP-RNA mediated activation of RIG-I can suppress replication of influenza viruses irrespective of their genetic make-up, pathogenicity, and drug-sensitivity status.

  15. Empirical management of community-acquired pneumonia : impact of concurrent A/H1N1 influenza pandemic on guideline implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortoos, Pieter-Jan; Gilissen, Christa; Mol, Peter G. M.; Van den Bossche, Filip; Simoens, Steven; Willems, Ludo; Leenaers, Hilde; Vandorpe, Ludo; Peetermans, Willy E.; Laekeman, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Guideline-concordant therapies have been proven to be associated with improved health and economic outcomes in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, actual use of CAP guidelines remains poor, but using tailored interventions looks promising. Based on local observa

  16. Fatale pneumonitis door oseltamivir-resistente nieuwe influenza A(H1N1) bij een intensive-carepatiënt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, Heleen; Tulleken, Jaap E; van den Biggelaar, Ries J M; Wolters, Bert A; de Jager, Corine M; Boucher, Charles A B; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies

    2010-01-01

    A 58-year-old man was submitted to our intensive care ward with respiratory failure due to pneumonitis. He had previously been treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma by autologous stem cell transplantation, as a result of which bone marrow function was reduced. Further analysis showed infection with new i

  17. Establishment of oligonucleotide microarray for detection of influenza virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2%H1N1和H3N2亚型流感病毒基因芯片检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧煜; 梅琳; 侯义宏; 李全芬; 林祥梅; 韩雪清

    2011-01-01

    为建立同时能鉴别甲型H1N1和猪流感病毒常见亚型的新型基因芯片检测方法,根据GenBank中已发表的甲型流感病毒MP的基因序列和甲型H1N1(2009)和猪流感病毒H1N1、H3N2亚型的基因序列,设计、筛选并合成7对特异性引物和1对通用引物;根据扩增的靶序列,设计并合成14条特异性探针和3条质控探针,制备了甲型H1N1(2009)流感病毒和猪流感病毒H1N1、H3N2亚型基因芯片;并进行了特异性试验、敏感性试验和田间样品的检测。结果显示,该芯片检测方法与猪细小病毒(PPV)、猪瘟病毒(CSFV)、猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒(PRRSV)等猪常见病毒无交叉反应;对猪H1N1、猪H3N2和甲型H1N1(2009)流感病毒而言,最低可检测到105、104和105稀释的病毒株。结果证实,该方法特异性强、敏感性高,是一种高通量的甲型H1N1和猪流感常见亚型筛查方法。%Seven pairs of primers specific for different subtypes and a pair of universal primers were carefully designed based on the genomic sequences of A/H1N1 and swine influenza virus retrieved from GenBank database.Several multiplex RT-PCR methods were then developed.Further 14 oligonucleotide probes specific for A/H1N1 and swine influenza virus were designed according to the published gene in target cDNA domains.Then a microarray for A/H1N1 and swine influenza virus was developed with its specificity and sensitivity validated by using swine influenza virus strains and samples from different areas.The results showed that all the subtypes of swine influenza virus and A/H1N1 virus could be identified simultaneously on this microarray with high sensitivity,which could reach to 105 dilute viruses.Furthermore,there was no cross reactions with PPV,CSFV and PRRSV.Therefore the microarray is a useful diagnostic method with high specificity and sensitivity,and could be used for A/H1N1 and swine influenza surveillance.

  18. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rosangela de Castro; Siqueira, Marilda Agudo Mendonça; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Bastos, Jacione Silva; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria; Vilas-Boas, Ana Luisa; Bouzas, Maiara Lana; Motta, Fernando do Couto; Brites, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1)pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7%) specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74%) and A(H1N1)pdm09 in 9/34 (26%). Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8%) and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467). No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures. PMID:24714967

  19. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela de Castro Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7% specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74% and A(H1N1pdm09 in 9/34 (26%. Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8% and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467. No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures.

  20. 儿童甲型H1N1流感12例分析%Analysis of l2 children with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新宝; 朱启镕; 葛艳玲; 王中林; 赵国昌; 王晓红

    2009-01-01

    Objective Since late March 2009,a novel influenza H1N1 strain emerged in humans in Mexico and the United States.It has rapidly spread to many countries on different continents,prompting unprecedented activation of pandemic preparedness plans.The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of children with the novel influenza A(H1N1)virus infection.Method Twelve csges with influenza A(H1N1)infection were diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)of China during 1 May to 15 July 2009 in the Pediatric Hospital of Fudan University were analyzed.Influenza A(HINI)RNA was detected by RT-PCR in CDC Shanghai China.Result All the 12 children with the novel influenza A(H1N1)virus infection were imported cases,aged from 11 months to 14 years 7 months,7 of whom were boys,5 were girls.Five cases contacted closely with influenza A (H1N1)patients;12 cases had fever and no vomiting or diarrhea;7 had cough or runny noge or anorexia.One had shortness of breath the Of the 11 cases who could tell about symptoms correctly,6 had sore throat,3 had stomachache,and none had muscle pain. Two of the 12 cases had pneumonia,and the disease in 1 of them was fatal and needed intensive care. One case was isolated and treated at home.The 11 cases hospitalized were treated according to the guidance of influenza A(H1N1)diagnosis and treatment issued by the Ministry of Health of China.Ten hospitalized cases were treated with osehamivir.All the cases recovered completely.The median length of hospital stay was 8.1 days(range,6 to 16),and the time of negative test results of influenza A(H1N1)RNA from illness onset to collection of samples for viral testing was from 5 to 15 days.Conclusion Symptoms among children with the novel influenza A(H1N1)virus infection were classic and the majority of the cases we treated had a mild clinical course if they were isolated and treated promptly.Antivirals appears to have not had any major adverse effects

  1. Rohlin distance and the evolution of influenza A virus: weak attractors and precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Burioni

    Full Text Available The evolution of the hemagglutinin amino acids sequences of Influenza A virus is studied by a method based on an informational metrics, originally introduced by Rohlin for partitions in abstract probability spaces. This metrics does not require any previous functional or syntactic knowledge about the sequences and it is sensitive to the correlated variations in the characters disposition. Its efficiency is improved by algorithmic tools, designed to enhance the detection of the novelty and to reduce the noise of useless mutations. We focus on the USA data from 1993/94 to 2010/2011 for A/H3N2 and on USA data from 2006/07 to 2010/2011 for A/H1N1. We show that the clusterization of the distance matrix gives strong evidence to a structure of domains in the sequence space, acting as weak attractors for the evolution, in very good agreement with the epidemiological history of the virus. The structure proves very robust with respect to the variations of the clusterization parameters, and extremely coherent when restricting the observation window. The results suggest an efficient strategy in the vaccine forecast, based on the presence of "precursors" (or "buds" populating the most recent attractor.

  2. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

  3. Critical care surveillance: insights into the impact of the 2010/11 influenza season relative to the 2009/10 pandemic season in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H K; Ellis, J; Galiano, M; Watson, J M; Pebody, R G

    2013-01-01

    In 2010/11, the influenza season in England was marked by a relative increase in impact on the population compared to that seen during the 2009/10 pandemic, with the same influenza subtype, A(H1N1)pdm09, circulating. The peaks in critical care bed occupancy in both seasons coincided with peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 activity, but onset of influenza in 2010/11 additionally coincided with notably cold weather, a comparatively smaller peak in influenza B activity and increased reports of bacterial co-infection. A bigger impact on critical care services was seen across all regions in England in 2010/11, with, compared to 2009/10, a notable age shift in critical care admissions from children to young adults. The peak of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity did not coincide with critical care admissions, and regression analysis suggested only a small proportion of critical care bed days might be attributed to the virus in either season. Differences in antiviral policy and improved overall vaccine uptake in 2010/11 with an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain containing vaccine between seasons are unlikely to explain the change in impact observed between the two seasons. The reasons behind the relative high level of severe disease in the 2010/11 winter are likely to have resulted from a combination of factors, including an age shift in infection, accumulation of susceptible individuals through waning immunity, new susceptible individuals from new births and cold weather. The importance of further development of severe influenza disease surveillance schemes for future seasons is reinforced. PMID:23787130

  4. Novel hemagglutinin-based influenza virus inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xintian; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Liu, Shuwen

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus has caused seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics, which caused tremendous loss of human lives and socioeconomics. Nowadays, only two classes of anti-influenza drugs, M2 ion channel inhibitors and neuraminidase inhibitors respectively, are used for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus infection. Unfortunately, influenza virus strains resistant to one or all of those drugs emerge frequently. Hemagglutinin (HA), the glycoprotein in influenza virus envelope, plays a c...

  5. Community transmission of influenza A (H1N1)v virus at a rock festival in Belgium, 2-5 July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, I; Litzroth, A; Hammadi, S; Van Oyen, H; Gerard, C; Robesyn, E; Bots, J; Faidherbe, M T; Wuillaume, F

    2009-08-06

    On 6 July 2009 the Belgian enhanced surveillance system for influenza-like illness among travellers returning from influenza A(H1N1)v affected areas detected a case linked to a rock festival which took place on 2-5 July. The health authorities implemented communication and control measures leading to the detection of additional cases. This paper describes the outbreak and its impact on the management of the influenza pandemic in Belgium.

  6. Co-circulation of pandemic 2009 H1N1, classical swine H1N1 and avian-like swine H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Qiao, Chuanling; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Ying; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2013-01-01

    The pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses emerged in both Mexico and the United States in March 2009, and were transmitted efficiently in the human population. They were transmitted occasionally from humans to other mammals including pigs, dogs and cats. In this study, we report the isolation and genetic analysis of novel viruses in pigs in China. These viruses were related phylogenetically to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans and pigs, which indicates that the pandemic virus is currently circulating in swine populations, and this hypothesis was further supported by serological surveillance of pig sera collected within the same period. Furthermore, we isolated another two H1N1 viruses belonging to the lineages of classical swine H1N1 virus and avian-like swine H1N1 virus, respectively. Multiple genetic lineages of H1N1 viruses are co-circulating in the swine population, which highlights the importance of intensive surveillance for swine influenza in China.

  7. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza) in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli; Ni Luh Putu Indi Dharmiayanti

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries ...

  8. H3N2 Virus as Causative Agent of ARDS Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Peris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1 2009 was associated with a higher risk of viral pneumonia in comparison with seasonal influenza viruses. The influenza season 2011-2012 was characterized by the prevalent circulation of influenza A(H3N2 viruses. Whereas most H3N2 patients experienced mild, self-limited influenza-like illness, some patients were at increased risk for influenza complications because of age or underlying medical conditions. Cases presented were patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of ECMO referral center (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, Italy. Despite extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment (ECMO, one patient with H3N2-induced ARDS did not survive. Our experience suggests that viral aetiology is becoming more important and hospitals should be able to perform a fast differential diagnosis between bacterial and viral aetiology.

  9. Influenza Sentinel Surveillance among Patients with Influenza-Like-Illness and Severe Acute Respiratory Illness within the Framework of the National Reference Laboratory, Niger, 2009-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Boubacar Maïnassara

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology of influenza in Africa, including Niger. We documented the epidemiology of seasonal and pandemic influenza among outpatients with influenza-like-illness (ILI and inpatients with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI presenting at selected sentinel sites in Niger from April 2009 through April 2013.Patients meeting the ILI or the SARI case definitions and presenting at the outpatient or inpatient departments of selected sentinel sites were enrolled. Epidemiological data and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected. The respiratory samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.From April 2009 to April 2013, laboratory results were obtained from 1176 ILI and 952 SARI cases, of which 146 (12% and 54 (6% tested positive for influenza virus, respectively. The influenza positivity rate was highest in the 5-14 year age-group (32/130; 24% among ILI patients and 6/61; 10% among SARI patients followed by the 1-4 year age-group (69/438; 16% among ILI patients and 32/333; 9% among SARI patients. Of the 200 influenza positive cases 104 (52% were A(H1N1pdm09, 62 (31% were A(H3N2 and 34 (17% were B. Influenza viruses were detected predominantly from November to April with peak viral activity observed in February.The Niger sentinel surveillance system allowed to monitor the circulation of seasonal influenza as well as the introduction and spread of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the country. Continuous influenza surveillance is needed to better understand the epidemiology of seasonal influenza and monitor the emergence of influenza strains with pandemic potential.

  10. Respiratory virus laboratory pandemic planning an surveillance in central Viet Nam, 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Xuan Mai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laboratory capacity is needed in central Viet Nam to provide early warning to public health authorities of respiratory outbreaks of importance to human health, for example the outbreak of influenza A(H1N1 pandemic in 2009. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR procedures established as part of a capacity-building process were used to conduct prospective respiratory surveillance in a region where few previous studies have been undertaken.Methods: Between October 2008 and September 2010, nose and throat swabs from adults and children (approximately 20 per week presenting with an acute respiratory illness to the Ninh Hoa General Hospital were collected. Same-day PCR testing and result reporting for 13 respiratory viruses were carried out by locally trained scientists.Results: Of 2144 surveillance samples tested, 1235 (57.6% were positive for at least one virus. The most common were influenza A strains (17.9%, with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 and seasonal H3N2 strain accounting for 52% and 43% of these, respectively. Other virus detections included: rhinovirus (12.4%, enterovirus (8.9%, influenza B (8.3%, adenovirus (5.3%, parainfluenza (4.7%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (3.9%, human coronavirus (3.0% and human metapneumovirus (0.3%. The detection rate was greatest in the 0–5 year age group. Viral co-infections were identified in 148 (6.9% cases.Discussion: The outbreak in 2009 of the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic strain provided a practical test of the laboratory’s pandemic plan. This study shows that the availability of appropriate equipment and molecular-based testing can contribute to important individual and public health outcomes in geographical locations susceptible to emerging infections.

  11. Surveillance and clinical characterization of influenza in a university cohort in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Lyanzhiang Tan

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia is a potential locus for the emergence of novel influenza strains. However, information on influenza within the region is limited.This study was to determine the proportion of influenza-like illness (ILI caused by influenza A and B viruses in a university cohort in Singapore, identify important distinctive clinical features of influenza infection and potential factors associated with influenza infection compared with other causes of ILI.A surveillance study was conducted from 2007 to 2009, at the University Health and Wellness Centre, National University of Singapore (NUS. Basic demographic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from consenting students and staff with ILI, with Influenza A and B identified by both culture and molecular methods.Proportions of influenza A and B virus infections in subjects with ILI were 153/500 (30.6% and 11/500 (2.2% respectively. The predominant subtype was A/H1N1, including both the seasonal strain (20/153 and the pandemic strain (72/153. The clinical symptom of fever was more common in subjects with laboratory confirmed influenza than other ILIs. On-campus hostel residence and being a student (compared with staff were associated with increased risk of laboratory confirmed influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection.This study provides a baseline prevalence of influenza infection within young adults in Singapore in a university setting. Potential risk factors, such as hostel residence, were identified, allowing for more targeted infection control measures in the event of a future influenza pandemic.

  12. Búsqueda de información durante tiempos de crisis. Efectos de la comunicación interpersonal y masiva en la percepción de riesgo personal ante la gripe AH1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Muñiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las situaciones de crisis, como la suscitada con el inicio de la gripeAH1N1en México, generan en la población una mayor necesidad de estar informados. La búsqueda de información a través de los medios de comunicación o mediante conversaciones con otras personas, puede hacer aumentar la percepción de verse afectadas por el problema (Morton y Duck, 2001. Se realizó una encuesta con 237 sujetos, a través de internet, para conocer los factores que explicaban la percepción de riesgo personal ante la gripe AH1N1. Los resultados mostraron que la exposición a la televisión y la comunicación interpersonal generaron mayor riesgo, especialmente entre los sujetos con fuerte dependencia del sistema mediático (MSD. Sin embargo, el consumo de internet hacía que el riesgo disminuyera, sobre todo entre los sujetos con baja dependencia mediática.

  13. Surveillance of influenza in Iceland during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, G; Gudnason, T; Ólafsson, Ö; Baldvinsdottir, G E; Atladottir, A; Löve, A; Danon, L; Briem, H

    2010-12-09

    In a pandemic setting, surveillance is essential to monitor the spread of the disease and assess its impact. Appropriate mitigation and healthcare preparedness strategies depend on fast and accurate epidemic surveillance data. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were made in Iceland. Here, we describe the improvements made in influenza surveillance during the pandemic , which could also be of great value in outbreaks caused by other pathogens. Following the raised level of pandemic influenza alert in April 2009, influenza surveillance was intensified. A comprehensive automatic surveillance system for influenza-like illness was developed, surveillance of influenza-related deaths was established and laboratory surveillance for influenza was strengthened. School absenteeism reports were also collected and compared with results from the automatic surveillance system. The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) was diagnosed in Iceland in May 2009, but sustained community transmission was not confirmed until mid-August. The pandemic virus circulated during the summer and early autumn before an abrupt increase in the number of cases was observed in October. There were large outbreaks in elementary schools for children aged 6–15 years throughout the country that peaked in late October. School absenteeism reports from all elementary schools in Iceland gave a similar epidemiological curve as that from data from the healthcare system. Estimates of the proportion of the population infected with the pandemic virus ranged from 10% to 22%. This study shows how the sudden need for improved surveillance in the pandemic led to rapid improvements in data collection in Iceland. This reporting system will be improved upon and expanded to include other notifiable diseases, to ensure accurate and timely collection of epidemiological data.

  14. Surveillance of influenza in Iceland during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, G; Gudnason, T; Ólafsson, Ö; Baldvinsdottir, G E; Atladottir, A; Löve, A; Danon, L; Briem, H

    2010-12-01

    In a pandemic setting, surveillance is essential to monitor the spread of the disease and assess its impact. Appropriate mitigation and healthcare preparedness strategies depend on fast and accurate epidemic surveillance data. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were made in Iceland. Here, we describe the improvements made in influenza surveillance during the pandemic , which could also be of great value in outbreaks caused by other pathogens. Following the raised level of pandemic influenza alert in April 2009, influenza surveillance was intensified. A comprehensive automatic surveillance system for influenza-like illness was developed, surveillance of influenza-related deaths was established and laboratory surveillance for influenza was strengthened. School absenteeism reports were also collected and compared with results from the automatic surveillance system. The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) was diagnosed in Iceland in May 2009, but sustained community transmission was not confirmed until mid-August. The pandemic virus circulated during the summer and early autumn before an abrupt increase in the number of cases was observed in October. There were large outbreaks in elementary schools for children aged 6–15 years throughout the country that peaked in late October. School absenteeism reports from all elementary schools in Iceland gave a similar epidemiological curve as that from data from the healthcare system. Estimates of the proportion of the population infected with the pandemic virus ranged from 10% to 22%. This study shows how the sudden need for improved surveillance in the pandemic led to rapid improvements in data collection in Iceland. This reporting system will be improved upon and expanded to include other notifiable diseases, to ensure accurate and timely collection of epidemiological data. PMID:21163181

  15. Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Influenza Type A Viruses Language: English Español Recommend ...

  16. Influenza in hospitalized children in Ireland in the pandemic period and the 2010/2011 season: risk factors for paediatric intensive-care-unit admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rebolledo, J

    2013-11-11

    SUMMARY Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study\\'s objectives were to describe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during the pandemic, to compare it with circulating influenza in 2010\\/2011, and to identify risk factors for severe influenza defined as requiring admission to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Children hospitalized with influenza during the pandemic were older, and more likely to have received antiviral therapy than children hospitalized during the 2010\\/2011 season. In 2010\\/2011, only one child admitted to a PICU with underlying medical conditions had been vaccinated. The risk of severe illness in the pandemic was higher in females and those with underlying conditions. In 2010\\/2011, infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 compared to other influenza viruses was a significant risk factor for severe disease. An incremental relationship was found between the number of underlying conditions and PICU admission. These findings highlight the importance of improving low vaccination uptake and increasing the use of antivirals in vulnerable children.

  17. AS03 adjuvanted AH1N1 vaccine associated with an abrupt increase in the incidence of childhood narcolepsy in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Nohynek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder with strong genetic predisposition causing excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. A sudden increase in childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland soon after pandemic influenza epidemic and vaccination with ASO3-adjuvanted Pandemrix. No increase was observed in other age groups. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 we retrospectively followed the cohort of all children living in Finland and born from January 1991 through December 2005. Vaccination data of the whole population was obtained from primary health care databases. All new cases with assigned ICD-10 code of narcolepsy were identified and the medical records reviewed by two experts to classify the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to the Brighton collaboration criteria. Onset of narcolepsy was defined as the first documented contact to health care because of excessive daytime sleepiness. The primary follow-up period was restricted to August 15, 2010, the day before media attention on post-vaccination narcolepsy started. FINDINGS: Vaccination coverage in the cohort was 75%. Of the 67 confirmed cases of narcolepsy, 46 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated were included in the primary analysis. The incidence of narcolepsy was 9.0 in the vaccinated as compared to 0.7/100,000 person years in the unvaccinated individuals, the rate ratio being 12.7 (95% confidence interval 6.1-30.8. The vaccine-attributable risk of developing narcolepsy was 1:16,000 vaccinated 4 to 19-year-olds (95% confidence interval 1:13,000-1:21,000. CONCLUSIONS: Pandemrix vaccine contributed to the onset of narcolepsy among those 4 to 19 years old during the pandemic influenza in 2009-2010 in Finland. Further studies are needed to determine whether this observation exists in other populations and to elucidate potential underlying immunological mechanism. The role of the adjuvant in particular warrants further research before drawing

  18. Sociodemographic factors and clinical conditions associated to hospitalization in influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus infected patients in Spain, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando González-Candelas

    Full Text Available The emergence and pandemic spread of a new strain of influenza A (H1N1 virus in 2009 resulted in a serious alarm in clinical and public health services all over the world. One distinguishing feature of this new influenza pandemic was the different profile of hospitalized patients compared to those from traditional seasonal influenza infections. Our goal was to analyze sociodemographic and clinical factors associated to hospitalization following infection by influenza A(H1N1 virus. We report the results of a Spanish nationwide study with laboratory confirmed infection by the new pandemic virus in a case-control design based on hospitalized patients. The main risk factors for hospitalization of influenza A (H1N1 2009 were determined to be obesity (BMI≥40, with an odds-ratio [OR] 14.27, hematological neoplasia (OR 10.71, chronic heart disease, COPD (OR 5.16 and neurological disease, among the clinical conditions, whereas low education level and some ethnic backgrounds (Gypsies and Amerinds were the sociodemographic variables found associated to hospitalization. The presence of any clinical condition of moderate risk almost triples the risk of hospitalization (OR 2.88 and high risk conditions raise this value markedly (OR 6.43. The risk of hospitalization increased proportionally when for two (OR 2.08 or for three or more (OR 4.86 risk factors were simultaneously present in the same patient. These findings should be considered when a new influenza virus appears in the human population.

  19. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  20. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Brown, Ian H; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  1. Reconstructing a spatially heterogeneous epidemic: Characterising the geographic spread of 2009 A/H1N1pdm infection in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Paul J.; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard G.; Gay, Nigel J.; de Angelis, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how the geographic distribution of and movements within a population influence the spatial spread of infections is crucial for the design of interventions to curb transmission. Existing knowledge is typically based on results from simulation studies whereas analyses of real data remain sparse. The main difficulty in quantifying the spatial pattern of disease spread is the paucity of available data together with the challenge of incorporating optimally the limited information into models of disease transmission. To address this challenge the role of routine migration on the spatial pattern of infection during the epidemic of 2009 pandemic influenza in England is investigated here through two modelling approaches: parallel-region models, where epidemics in different regions are assumed to occur in isolation with shared characteristics; and meta-region models where inter-region transmission is expressed as a function of the commuter flux between regions. Results highlight that the significantly less computationally demanding parallel-region approach is sufficiently flexible to capture the underlying dynamics. This suggests that inter-region movement is either inaccurately characterized by the available commuting data or insignificant once its initial impact on transmission has subsided.

  2. Reconstructing a spatially heterogeneous epidemic: Characterising the geographic spread of 2009 A/H1N1pdm infection in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Paul J; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard G; Gay, Nigel J; De Angelis, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the geographic distribution of and movements within a population influence the spatial spread of infections is crucial for the design of interventions to curb transmission. Existing knowledge is typically based on results from simulation studies whereas analyses of real data remain sparse. The main difficulty in quantifying the spatial pattern of disease spread is the paucity of available data together with the challenge of incorporating optimally the limited information into models of disease transmission. To address this challenge the role of routine migration on the spatial pattern of infection during the epidemic of 2009 pandemic influenza in England is investigated here through two modelling approaches: parallel-region models, where epidemics in different regions are assumed to occur in isolation with shared characteristics; and meta-region models where inter-region transmission is expressed as a function of the commuter flux between regions. Results highlight that the significantly less computationally demanding parallel-region approach is sufficiently flexible to capture the underlying dynamics. This suggests that inter-region movement is either inaccurately characterized by the available commuting data or insignificant once its initial impact on transmission has subsided. PMID:27404957

  3. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  4. Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald B.; Gaunt, Eleanor R.; Digard, Paul; Templeton, Kate; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • “Influenza D” virus was not detected in Scottish respiratory samples (n = 3000). • Influenza C virus infection was present in 0.2% of respiratory samples. • Six influenza C virus complete genomes were sequenced. • Influenza C isolates comprised multiple, reassortant lineages.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of in vitro diagnostic device used for influenza rapid test in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Teng Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pandemic influenza A/H1N1 outbreak resulted in 18,449 deaths in over 214 countries. In Taiwan, the influenza rapid test, an in vitro diagnostic device (Flu-IVD, only requires documented reviews for market approval by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the analytical sensitivity and specificity of Flu-IVDs used in Taiwan. Analytical sensitivity and specificity tests were performed for influenza antigens A/California/7/2009 (H1N1 virus, A/Victoria/210/2009 (H3N2 virus, B/Brisbane/60/08 virus, and human coronavirus OC43. A total of seven domestic and 31 imported Flu-IVD samples were collected, of which, 20 samples had inadequate labeling, including those with removed package inserts or incorrect insert information. The analytical sensitivity of Flu-IVDs for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and Flu B was 500–1000 ng/mL, 1000 ng/mL, and 1000 ng/mL, respectively. For the 50% cell culture infective dose (CCID50 label, the average A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 sensitivity for Flu-IVDs was log10 5.8 ± 0.5 and log10 6.6 ± 0.5 CCID50/mL, respectively. As to the specificity test, no product cross-reacted with human coronavirus OC43. This study provides important information on the Flu-IVD regulation status and can thus help the government formulate policies for the regulation of in vitro diagnostic devices in Taiwan.

  6. Altered response to A(H1N1pnd09 vaccination in pregnant women: a single blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Louise Bischoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were suspected to be at particular risk when H1N1pnd09 influenza became pandemic in 2009. Our primary objective was to compare the immune responses conferred by MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria® in H1N1pnd09-naïve pregnant and non-pregnant women. The secondary aims were to compare influences of dose and adjuvant on the immune response. METHODS: The study was nested in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort in 2009-2010 and conducted as a single-blinded block-randomised [1∶1∶1] controlled clinical trial in pregnant women after gestational week 20: (1 7.5 µg H1N1pnd09 antigen with MF59-adjuvant (Pa7.5 µg; (2 3.75 µg antigen half MF59-adjuvanted (Pa3.75 µg; (3 15 µg antigen unadjuvanted (P15 µg; and in non-pregnant women receiving (4 7.5 µg antigen full adjuvanted (NPa7.5 µg. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 and 10 months after vaccination, adverse events were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: 58 pregnant women were allocated to Pa7.5 µg and 149 non-pregnant women were recruited to NPa7.5 µg. The sero-conversion rate was significantly increased in non-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg compared with pregnant (Pa7.5 µg women (OR = 2.48 [1.03-5.95], p = 0.04 and geometric mean titers trended towards being higher, but this difference was not statistically significant (ratio 1.27 [0.85-1.93], p = 0.23. The significant titer increase rate showed no difference between pregnant (Pa7.5 µg and non-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg groups (OR = 0.49 [0.13-1.85], p = 0.29. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests the immune response to the 7.5 µg MF59-adjuvanted Focetria® H1N1pnd09 vaccine in pregnant women may be diminished compared with non-pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01012557.

  7. Perceptions populaires du risque et savoirs experts en contexte de pandémie : le cas du A(H1N1 au Québec. Public perceptions of risk and expert knowledge in times of pandemic disease: the cases of A (H1N1 in Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Désy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La pandémie A(H1N1 de 2009 a mis en évidence les limites des stratégies de communication du risque tout en ravivant l’intérêt pour une analyse des perceptions populaires du risque. Au Québec, la campagne de vaccination de l’automne 2009 fut le théâtre de la circulation d’informations perçues souvent comme contradictoires sur le risque épidémique. Dans le cadre de dix focus groups organisés à Montréal et à Québec dans les mois qui ont suivi la fin de la campagne de vaccination, 100 Québécois francophones ont été invités à débattre de leur perception tant du risque associé au virus et au vaccin que de la gestion qui en fut faite par les autorités de santé publique. L’article analyse ces perceptions, en illustre la diversité et montre que diverses logiques cohabitent dans un savoir populaire marqué d’une certaine réflexivité. L’article conclut sur certaines leçons à tirer pour les stratégies de communication du risque épidémique.The A(H1N1 pandemic of 2009 illustrated the limitations of communication strategies on risk and revived interest in the analysis of public perception of risk. In Quebec, during the vaccination campaign carried out in the fall of 2009, the spread of information on epidemiological risk was often perceived as contradictory. In the months following the vaccination campaign, 10 focus groups were organized in Montréal and Québec City and 100 French-speaking Quebecers were invited to discuss their perception of the risk associated with the virus and vaccination, the management of the situation by public health authorities and the pertinence of holding a public consultation in the context of a pandemic disease. The article presents the different opinions of the general public tempered, however, by a measure of reflexivity. The article concludes with lessons to be learned regarding communication strategies on epidemiological risk.

  8. The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Yeol

    2016-01-01

    In late March of 2009, an outbreak of influenza in Mexico, was eventually identified as H1N1 influenza A. In June 2009, the World Health Organization raised a pandemic alert to the highest level. More than 214 countries have reported confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza A. In Korea, the first case of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection was reported on May 2, 2009. Between May 2009 and August 2010, 750,000 cases of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 were confirmed by laboratory test. The H1N1-rel...

  9. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  10. 郴州市2009年流感病原学监测及A(H1N1)NA基因特征研究%AN ETIOLOGICAL MONITORING ON INFLUENZA AND THE GENETIC EVOLUTION OF NEURAMINIDASE GENE FOR SEASONAL H1N1 INFLUENZA A VIRUSES IN CHENZHOU IN 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭徽; 付敏; 谢群; 罗文英; 刘爱平; 陈柏塘; 陈白鹭

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the epidemic situation and distribution of types of influenza virus in Chenzhou in 2009, and study the genetic evolution of neuraminidase (NA) gene of influenza A/H1N1 virus. [Methods] Throat swab sam-ples were collected from patients with Influenza-like illness (ILI) in trie sentinel hospitals, then inoculated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines. Trie types of influenza were identified by hemagglulination (HA) and hemagglutination inhi-bition (HI) teats. A/H1N1 influenza viruses were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the influenza outbreaks. The NA genes of two strains of influenza viruses (A/HunanBerhu/1237/2009MApr and A/HunanBerhu/ 11291/2009_0ct) were sequenced to analyze their characteristic. [Results] A total of 2 226 throat swab specimens were col-lected, of which 109 strains were seasonal H1N1 influenza A viruses, 91 influenza A-H3N2 viruses, 30 novel influenza A/ H1N1 virus, 18 influenza B viruses. 3 040 samples were detected by PCR, of which 1 016 strains were positive for influenza virus (33.43%). Compare with the WHO recommended vaccine strain of 2009 (A/Brisbane/59/2007) , the nucleotide se-quence homology of the NA gene of A/HunanBerhu/1237/2009^Apr and A/HunanBerhu/11291/2009_Ocl are 99% and 98%. The genetic evolution analysis revealed that the NA gene of A/HunanBerhu/1237/2009_Apr had the closest genetic relationship with the vaccine strain, and some sites of the NA gene of A/HunanBerhu/11291/2009_Oct were mutated, [Conclusion] Sea-sonal H1N1 influenza A viruses was the dominant strain during January to June. July to September was seasonal H3N2. October to November was Novel influenza A/H1N1 virus, which caused the emergence of pandemic influenza H1N1. The variation of NA gene of seasonal A/H1N1 has occurred in a certain degree. So it is very necessary to continuously monitor the variant of influen-za A virus%[目的]了解2009年郴州市流感病毒流行株的病原学特

  11. Burden and characteristics of influenza A and B in Danish intensive care units during the 2009/10 and 2010/11 influenza seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubbels, S; Krause, Tyra Grove; Bragstad, Karoline;

    2013-01-01

    . Additional data on microbiological testing, vaccination and death were obtained from national registers. Ninety-six patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were recorded in 2009/10; 106 with influenza A and 42 with influenza B in 2010/11. The mean age of influenza A patients was higher in 2010/11 than in 2009...

  12. Novel virus influenza A (H1N1sw in South-Eastern France, April-August 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nougairède

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, the first cases of pandemic (H1N1-2009 influenza [H1N1sw] virus were detected in France. Virological surveillance was undertaken in reference laboratories of the seven French Defence Zones. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report results of virological analyses performed in the Public Hospitals of Marseille during the first months of the outbreak. (i Nasal swabs were tested using rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and two RT-PCR assays. Epidemiological characteristics of the 99 first suspected cases were analyzed, including detection of influenza virus and 18 other respiratory viruses. During three months, a total of 1,815 patients were tested (including 236 patients infected H1N1sw virus and distribution in age groups and results of RIDT were analyzed. (ii 600 sera received before April 2009 and randomly selected from in-patients were tested by a standard hemagglutination inhibition assay for antibody to the novel H1N1sw virus. (iii One early (May 2009 and one late (July 2009 viral isolates were characterized by sequencing the complete hemagglutinine and neuraminidase genes. (iiii Epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of cases that occurred in July 2009 in a summer camp were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents new virological and epidemiological data regarding infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in Europe. Distribution in age groups was found to be similar to that previously reported for seasonal H1N1. The first seroprevalence data made available for a European population suggest a previous exposure of individuals over 40 years old to influenza viruses antigenically related to the pandemic (H1N1-2009 virus. Genomic analysis indicates that strains harbouring a new amino-acid pattern in the neuraminidase gene appeared secondarily and tended to supplant the first strains. Finally, in contrast with previous reports, our data support the use of RIDT for the detection of infection in

  13. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    N.L.P.I Dharmayanti; R Damayanti; R Indriani; A Wiyono; R.M.A Adjid

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1). Mo...

  14. Fight Against H1N1 Influenza A Virus: Recent Insights Towards the Development of Druggable Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Michele; Cichero, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In this review we discuss drug design strategies directed to the development of potential anti-influenza A(H1N1) inhibitors of M2 ion channel, neuraminidase (NA), hemagglutinin (HA) and RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase complex (RdRp) major targets, following temporal chronology of their findings. Besides searching for new chemotypes, eventually active against new targets of influenza A (H1N1), the design of optimized analogues of proven drugs is largely pursued, taking into account the emerging insight into the mechanisms of resistance to existing antivirals. Computational studies are also summarized, in order to highlight the structural requirements for further chemical optimizations. PMID:26861005

  15. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mehle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential.

  16. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  17. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  18. Genetic and Phylogenetic Analyses of Influenza A H1N1pdm Virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, P. R.; Viegas, M.; Valinotto, L. E.; Mistchenko, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm) spread worldwide in 2009, with 12,080 confirmed cases and 626 deaths occurring in Argentina. A total of 330 H1N1pdm viruses were detected from May to August 2009, and phylogenetic and genetic analyses of 21 complete genome sequences from both mild and fatal cases were achieved with reference to concatenated whole genomes. In addition, the analysis of another 16 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) gene sequences of Argentinean isolates was performed. The microevolution timeline was assessed and resistance monitoring of an NA fragment from 228 samples throughout the 2009 pandemic peak was performed by sequencing and pyrosequencing. We also assessed the viral growth kinetics for samples with replacements at the genomic level or special clinical features. In this study, we found by Bayesian inference that the Argentinean complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 7 sequences. The HA sequences were related to samples from the northern hemisphere autumn-winter from September to December 2009. The NA of Argentinean sequences belonged to the New York group. The N-4 fragment as well as the hierarchical clustering of samples showed that a consensus sequence prevailed in time but also that different variants, including five H275Y oseltamivir-resistant strains, arose from May to August 2009. Fatal and oseltamivir-resistant isolates had impaired growth and a small plaque phenotype compared to oseltamivir-sensitive and consensus strains. Although these strains might not be fit enough to spread in the entire population, molecular surveillance proved to be essential to monitor resistance and viral dynamics in our country. PMID:21047959

  19. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, H.; Krause, T. G.; Nielsen, L.;

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B co-circulated in the 2015/16 season. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the trivalent influenza vaccine in patients 65 years and older using the test-negative case-control design. The adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09...... was 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1-52.4) and against influenza B 4.1% (95% CI: -22.0 to 24.7). The majority of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulating in 2015/16 belonged to the new genetic subgroup subclade 6B.1....

  20. Characterization and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies developed for typing influenza A and influenza B viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, H H; Harmon, M W; Slagle, J J; Stocksdale, C; Kendal, A P

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that are broadly reactive with influenza A or influenza B viruses were produced as stable reagents for typing influenza viruses. Monoclonal antibodies to influenza A were specific for either matrix protein or nucleoprotein. The antibodies to influenza B were specific for nucleoprotein or hemagglutinin protein. In an enzyme immunoassay procedure, influenza A antibodies detected H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza A virus strains collected between 1934 and 1984. Each of the inf...

  1. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Mehle

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mam...

  2. A synthetic adjuvant to enhance and expand immune responses to influenza vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea N Coler

    Full Text Available Safe, effective adjuvants that enhance vaccine potency, including induction of neutralizing Abs against a broad range of variant strains, is an important strategy for the development of seasonal influenza vaccines which can provide optimal protection, even during seasons when available vaccines are not well matched to circulating viruses. We investigated the safety and ability of Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE, a synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR4 agonist formulation, to adjuvant Fluzone® in mice and non-human primates. The GLA-SE adjuvanted Fluzone vaccine caused no adverse reactions, increased the induction of T helper type 1 (T(H1-biased cytokines such as IFNγ, TNF and IL-2, and broadened serological responses against drifted A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza variants. These results suggest that synthetic TLR4 adjuvants can enhance the magnitude and quality of protective immunity induced by influenza vaccines.

  3. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Khanna; P Kumar; K Choudhary; B Kumar; V K Vijayan

    2008-11-01

    Since 1918, influenza virus has been one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children. Though the commonly circulating strain of the virus is not virulent enough to cause mortality, the ability of the virus genome to mutate at a very high rate may lead to the emergence of a highly virulent strain that may become the cause of the next pandemic. Apart from the influenza virus strain circulating in humans (H1N1 and H3N2), the avian influenza H5N1 H7 and H9 virus strains have also been reported to have caused human infections, H5N1 H7 and H9 have shown their ability to cross the species barrier from birds to humans and further replicate in humans. This review addresses the biological and epidemiological aspects of influenza virus and efforts to have a control on the virus globally.

  4. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16 - a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Hanne Dorthe; Krause, Tyra Grove; Nielsen, Lene; Thomsen, Marianne Kragh; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Weinreich, Lenette Sandborg; Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Rønn, Jesper; Trebbien, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B co-circulated in the 2015/16 season. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the trivalent influenza vaccine in patients 65 years and older using the test-negative case-control design. The adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1-52.4) and against influenza B 4.1% (95% CI: -22.0 to 24.7). The majority of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulating in 2015/16 belonged to the new genetic subgroup subclade 6B.1.

  5. Cellular Proteins in Influenza Virus Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Megan L.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Gulcicek, Erol E.; Peter Palese

    2008-01-01

    Virions are thought to contain all the essential proteins that govern virus egress from the host cell and initiation of replication in the target cell. It has been known for some time that influenza virions contain nine viral proteins; however, analyses of other enveloped viruses have revealed that proteins from the host cell can also be detected in virions. To address whether the same is true for influenza virus, we used two complementary mass spectrometry approaches to perform a comprehensi...

  6. Mielitis transversa relacionada con vacunación anti-influenza A(H1N1) Transverse myelitis associated with anti-influenza A (H1N1) vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    María Florencia Arcondo; Adolfo Wachs; Marcelo Zylberman

    2011-01-01

    La mielitis transversa es una enfermedad inflamatoria que se caracteriza por disfunción de la médula espinal. Las causas reconocidas de mielitis transversa son autoinmunes, enfermedades desmielinizantes, post infecciosas y post vacunales, aunque hasta el 50% de los casos son idiopáticas. Las vacunas contra la rubéola, paperas, rabia y gripe estacional han sido asociadas a diversos trastornos neurológicos, como el Síndrome de Guillain Barré, la encefalomielitis diseminada aguda (ADEM) y la mie...

  7. Improving the representativeness of influenza viruses shared within the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System

    OpenAIRE

    Pereyaslov, Dmitriy; Zemtsova, Galina; Gruessner, Christine; Daniels, Rodney S.; McCauley, John W.; Brown, Caroline S

    2016-01-01

    Background Sharing influenza viruses within the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System is crucial for monitoring evolution of influenza viruses. Objectives Analysis of timeliness and geographic representativeness of viruses shared by National Influenza Centres (NICs) in the WHO European Region with the London WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza for the Northern Hemisphere's 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 influenza seasons. Materials and methods Data from N...

  8. Cellular proteins in influenza virus particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Shaw

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Virions are thought to contain all the essential proteins that govern virus egress from the host cell and initiation of replication in the target cell. It has been known for some time that influenza virions contain nine viral proteins; however, analyses of other enveloped viruses have revealed that proteins from the host cell can also be detected in virions. To address whether the same is true for influenza virus, we used two complementary mass spectrometry approaches to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified influenza virus particles. In addition to the aforementioned nine virus-encoded proteins, we detected the presence of 36 host-encoded proteins. These include both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound proteins that can be grouped into several functional categories, such as cytoskeletal proteins, annexins, glycolytic enzymes, and tetraspanins. Interestingly, a significant number of these have also been reported to be present in virions of other virus families. Protease treatment of virions combined with immunoblot analysis was used to verify the presence of the cellular protein and also to determine whether it is located in the core of the influenza virus particle. Immunogold labeling confirmed the presence of membrane-bound host proteins on the influenza virus envelope. The identification of cellular constituents of influenza virions has important implications for understanding the interactions of influenza virus with its host and brings us a step closer to defining the cellular requirements for influenza virus replication. While not all of the host proteins are necessarily incorporated specifically, those that are and are found to have an essential role represent novel targets for antiviral drugs and for attenuation of viruses for vaccine purposes.

  9. The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6-8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009-10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1 and A(H3N2 particularly in children 9-17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6-8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6-8 y of age regardless of vaccination history. CONCLUSIONS: Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A.

  10. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khiabanian

    Full Text Available Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1, reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  11. Genetic Strategy to Prevent Influenza Virus Infections in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianzhu; Chen, Steve C.-Y.; Stern, Patrick; Scott, Benjamin B; Lois, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The natural reservoirs of influenza viruses are aquatic birds. After adaptation, avian viruses can acquire the ability to infect humans and cause severe disease. Because domestic poultry serves as a key link between the natural reservoir of influenza viruses and epidemics and pandemics in human populations, an effective measure to control influenza would be to eliminate or reduce influenza virus infection in domestic poultry. The development and distribution of influenza-resistant poultry rep...

  12. 甲型H1N1流感大流行的流行病学概述%An outline of epidemiologic features of influenza A( H1 N1 ) pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国平; 李芙蓉; 刘红; 吴家兵

    2011-01-01

    American and Mexico has reported people infected Influenza A(H1 N1 ) virus in March 2009, then this new influenza virus translated persistently and caused plague outbreak in all the world. This article review epidemiologic feature of this plague and provide basis for prevention and control of influenza in future.%2009年3月美国和墨西哥相继报告人感染甲型H1N1流感病毒,随后这种新型流感病毒在人群中持续传播并引起全球疫情的暴发.本文对这次疫情的流行特征进行分析,为今后流感疫情的防控提供依据.

  13. Nephrotic Syndrome Following H1N1 Influenza in a 3-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio Liberatore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pandemic influenza A/H1N1, spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Italy. Complications are generally limited to patients at the extremes of age (65years and those with comorbid medical illness. The most frequent complications of influenza involve the respiratory system.Case Presentation: A 3-year-old boy with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection developed a nephrotic syndrome. Together with prednisone, furosemide and albumin bolus, a therapy with oseltamivir was started since the nasopharyngeal swab resulted positive for influenza A/H1N1. Clinical conditions andlaboratory findings progressively improved during hospitalization, becoming normal during a 2 month follow up.Conclusion: The possibility of a renal involvement after influenza A/H1N1 infection should be considered.

  14. H7N9 Influenza Virus Is More Virulent in Ferrets than 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Jung; Ku, Keun Bon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2015-12-01

    The novel H7N9 influenza virus has been infecting humans in China since February 2013 and with a mortality rate of about 40%. This study compared the pathogenicity of the H7N9 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in a ferret model, which shows similar symptoms to those of humans infected with influenza viruses. The H7N9 influenza virus caused a more severe disease than did the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. All of the ferrets infected with the H7N9 influenza virus had died by 6 days after infection, while none of those infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus died. Ferrets infected with the H7N9 influenza virus had higher viral titers in their lungs than did those infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Histological findings indicated that hemorrhagic pneumonia was caused by infection with the H7N9 influenza virus, but not with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. In addition, the lung tissues of ferrets infected with the H7N9 influenza virus contained higher levels of chemokines than did those of ferrets infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. This study suggests that close monitoring is needed to prevent human infection by the lethal H7N9 influenza virus.

  15. Close Relationship between the 2009 H1N1 Virus and South Dakota AIV Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun Li; Xiao-ping An; Zhi-qiang Mi; Da-bin Liu; Huan-huan Jiang; Bo Pan; Sheng Wang; Bin Chen; Yi-gang Tong

    2011-01-01

    Although previous publications suggest the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)virus was reassorted from swine viruses of North America and Eurasia, the immediate ancestry still remains elusive due to the big evolutionary distance between the 2009 H1N1 virus and the previously isolated strains. Since the unveiling of the2009 H1N1 influenza, great deal of interest has been drawn to influenza, consequently a large number of influenza virus sequences have been deposited into the public sequence databases. Blast analysis demonstrated that the recently submitted 2007 South Dakota avian influenza virus strains and other North American avian strains contained genetic segments very closely related to the 2009 H1N1 virus, which suggests these avian influenza viruses are very close relatives of the 2009 H1N1 virus. Phylogenetic analyses also indicate that the2009 H1N1 viruses are associated with both avian and swine influenza viruses circulating in North America. Since the migrating wild birds are preferable to pigs as the carrier to spread the influenza viruses across vast distances, it is very likely that birds played an important role in the inter-continental evolution of the 2009 H1N1virus. It is essential to understand the evolutionary route of the emerging influenza virus in order to find a way to prevent further emerging cases. This study suggests the close relationship between 2009 pandemic virus and the North America avian viruses and underscores enhanced surveillance of influenza in birds for understanding the evolution of the 2009 pandemic influenza.

  16. Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Cheng Chang; Yi-Ying Cheng; Shin-Ru Shih

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1), there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is co...

  17. Phylogenetic analyses of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin gene during and after the pandemic event in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Paola Cristina; Motta, Fernando Couto; Born, Priscila Silva; Machado, Daniela; Caetano, Braulia Costa; Brown, David; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça

    2015-12-01

    Pandemic influenza A H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm09] was first detected in Brazil in May 2009, and spread extensively throughout the country causing a peak of infection during June to August 2009. Since then, it has continued to circulate with a seasonal pattern, causing high rates of morbidity and mortality. Over this period, the virus has continually evolved with the accumulation of new mutations. In this study we analyze the phylogenetic relationship in a collection of 220 A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences collected during and after the pandemic period (2009 to 2014) in Brazil. In addition, we have looked for evidence of viral polymorphisms associated with severe disease and compared the range of viral variants with the vaccine strain (A/California/7/2009) used throughout this period. The phylogenetic analyses in this study revealed the circulation of at least eight genetic groups in Brazil. Two (G6-pdm and G7-pdm) co-circulated during the pandemic period, showing an early pattern of viral diversification with a low genetic distance from vaccine strain. Other phylogenetic groups, G5, G6 (including 6B, 6C and 6D subgroups), and G7 were found in the subsequent epidemic seasons from 2011 to 2014. These viruses exhibited more amino acid differences from the vaccine strain with several substitutions at the antigenic sites. This is associated with a theoretical decrease in the vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, we observed that the presence of any polymorphism at residue 222 of the HA gene was significantly associated with severe/fatal cases, reinforcing previous reports that described this residue as a potential virulence marker. This study provides new information about the circulation of some viral variants in Brazil, follows up potential genetic markers associated with virulence and allows infer if the efficacy of the current vaccine against more recent A(H1N1)pdm09 strains may be reduced.

  18. Summary of knowledge gaps related to quality and efficacy of current influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleiderer, Michael; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues; Brasseur, Daniel; Gränstrom, Marta; Shivji, Ragini; Mura, Manuela; Cavaleri, Marco

    2014-07-31

    Influenza viruses are a public health threat, as they are pathogenic, highly transmissible and prone to genetic changes. For decades vaccination strategies have been based on trivalent inactivated vaccines, which are regulated by specific guidelines. The progress in scientific knowledge and the lessons learned from the A(H1N1)2009 pandemic have highlighted further the need to improve current guidelines, including the immunogenicity criteria set by the CHMP in 1997, and to promote the discussion on the shortcomings encountered, e.g. the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in the paediatric and elderly populations, the measurement of the naivety of a population, the impact of prior immunity on subsequent vaccinations, and the technical issues with the serological assays for detection of immunity and immunogenicity. The authors attempted to summarise and tackle key gaps in the existing evidence concerning quality and efficacy of influenza vaccines, aiming at favouring a common understanding and a coordinated approach across stakeholders.

  19. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  20. Evaluation of the Xpert Flu test and comparison with in-house real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of influenza virus from 2008 to 2011 in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, N; Ninove, L; Thirion, L; Gazin, C; Zandotti, C; de Lamballerie, X; Charrel, R N

    2012-04-01

    Rapid documentation of respiratory specimens can have an impact on the management of patients and their relatives in terms of preventive and curative measures. We compared the results of the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid) with three real-time RT-PCR assays using 127 nasopharyngeal samples, of which 75 were positive for influenza A (with 52 identified as A/H1N1-2009) and 52 were positive for influenza B. The Xpert(®) Flu assay presented a quasi-absence of non-interpretable tests, and showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 100% for Flu A, 98.4% and 100% for A/H1N1-2009, and 80.7% and 100% for Flu B. PMID:22360446

  1. Age distribution of influenza like illness cases during post-pandemic A(H3N2: comparison with the twelve previous seasons, in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Turbelin

    Full Text Available In France, the 2011-2012 influenza epidemic was characterized by the circulation of antigenically drifted influenza A(H3N2 viruses and by an increased disease severity and mortality among the elderly, with respect to the A(H1N1pdm09 pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks. Whether the epidemiology of influenza in France differed between the 2011-2012 epidemic and the previous outbreaks is unclear. Here, we analyse the age distribution of influenza like illness (ILI cases attended in general practice during the 2011-2012 epidemic, and compare it with that of the twelve previous epidemic seasons. Influenza like illness data were obtained through a nationwide surveillance system based on sentinel general practitioners. Vaccine effectiveness was also estimated. The estimated number of ILI cases attended in general practice during the 2011-2012 was lower than that of the past twelve epidemics. The age distribution was characteristic of previous A(H3N2-dominated outbreaks: school-age children were relatively spared compared to epidemics (co-dominated by A(H1N1 and/or B viruses (including the 2009 pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks, while the proportion of adults over 30 year-old was higher. The estimated vaccine effectiveness (54%, 95% CI (48, 60 was in the lower range for A(H3N2 epidemics. In conclusion, the age distribution of ILI cases attended in general practice seems to be not different between the A(H3N2 pre-pandemic and post-pandemic epidemics. Future researches including a more important number of ILI epidemics and confirmed virological data of influenza and other respiratory pathogens are necessary to confirm these results.

  2. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Language: English Español Recommend on ... Compartir Influenza A viruses have infected many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, and seals. ...

  3. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Language: English Español Recommend ...

  4. SUMMARIZE THE PATHOGEN, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF NOVEL INFLUENZA A(H1N1)%甲流(H1N1)的病原、诊断、治疗和预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄海容

    2009-01-01

    世界卫生组织已宣布对甲流(H1N1)的警戒级别升至6级,意味着它的世界性大流行已形成.本文根据世界最新文献,综述甲流(H1N1)的病原、诊断、治疗和预防,以期有一个总的明确的概念.

  5. Replication and transmission of influenza viruses in Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quail have emerged as a potential intermediate host in the spread of avian influenza A viruses in poultry in Hong Kong. To better understand this possible role, we tested the replication and transmission in quail of influenza A viruses of all 15 HA subtypes. Quail supported the replication of at least 14 subtypes. Influenza A viruses replicated predominantly in the respiratory tract. Transmission experiments suggested that perpetuation of avian influenza viruses in quail requires adaptation. Swine influenza viruses were isolated from the respiratory tract of quail at low levels. There was no evidence of human influenza A or B virus replication. Interestingly, a human-avian recombinant containing the surface glycoprotein genes of a quail virus and the internal genes of a human virus replicated and transmitted readily in quail; therefore, quail could function as amplifiers of influenza virus reassortants that have the potential to infect humans and/or other mammalian species

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months. PMID:24625341

  7. Pandemic influenza planning, United States, 1978-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, John; Strikas, Raymond A; Gensheimer, Kathleen F; Cox, Nancy J; Redd, Stephen C

    2013-06-01

    During the past century, 4 influenza pandemics occurred. After the emergence of a novel influenza virus of swine origin in 1976, national, state, and local US public health authorities began planning efforts to respond to future pandemics. Several events have since stimulated progress in public health emergency planning: the 1997 avian influenza A(H5N1) outbreak in Hong Kong, China; the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States; the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome; and the 2003 reemergence of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in humans. We outline the evolution of US pandemic planning since the late 1970s, summarize planning accomplishments, and explain their ongoing importance. The public health community's response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic demonstrated the value of planning and provided insights into improving future plans and response efforts. Preparedness planning will enhance the collective, multilevel response to future public health crises. PMID:23731839

  8. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  9. Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Ferroni, Eliana; Jefferson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Influenza viruses are constantly altering their antigenic structure, and every year the WHO recommends which strains of influenza should be included in vaccines. During the autumn–winter months, influenza circulates more frequently (influenza seasons), causing a greater proportion of influenza-like illness and sometimes serious seasonal epidemics.The incidence of symptoms depends on the underlying immunity of the population.

  10. Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Influenza viruses are constantly altering their antigenic structure, and every year the WHO recommends which strains of influenza should be included in vaccines. During the autumn-winter months, influenza circulates more frequently (influenza seasons), causing a greater proportion of influenza-like illness, and sometimes serious seasonal epidemics.The incidence of infection depends on the underlying immunity of the population.

  11. Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Sue Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design: All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion: Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9 virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control.

  12. Composting for Avian Influenza Virus Elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Elving, Josefine; Emmoth, Eva; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn; Ottoson, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Effective sanitization is important in viral epizootic outbreaks to avoid further spread of the pathogen. This study examined thermal inactivation as a sanitizing treatment for manure inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and bacteriophages MS2 and ϕ6. Rapid inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 was achieved at both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (45 and 55°C) temperatures. Similar inactivation rates were observed for bacteriophage ϕ6, while b...

  13. Influenza in de winter 1986/'87; wijziging van het influenzavaccin voor het seizoen 1987/'88

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Masurel (Nic); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractInfluenzavirussen van het subtype A(H1N1) werden reeds vroeg in het winterseizoen 1986/‘87 in Nederland geïsoleerd, en wel voor het eerst uit keelwatten van rekruten gelegerd bij Arnhem die op 9 december 1986 een influenza-achtige aandoening hadden (Nationaal Influenza Centrum, Rotterdam

  14. Radioimmunoassay of influenza A virus haemagglutinin. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual rabbits differed greatly in their antibody response to the ''strain-specific'' and ''cross-reactive'' antigenic determinants on the hemagglutinin (HA) subunit of influenza virus recombinant MRC11 (H3N2) and influenza virus Dunedin (H3N2), after immunization with whole virus or bromelain-released hemagglutinin (B-HA). Consequently, diverse cross-reactions between these viruses and A/Hong Kong/68 virus were found in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test as well as in homologous radioimmunoassay (125I-B-HA from MRC11: anti MRC11 serum, and 125I-B-HA from Dunedin: anti Dunedin serum) when sera from different animals were employed. Radioimmunoassay (RIA), over and above to the HI test, was also able to differentiate clearly the respective HAs with antisera reacting to the same HI titre with both corresponding influenza virus strains. Thus it appeared that antigenic differences could be identified with higher sensitivity by homologous RIA than by the HI test and that multiple antigenic determinants were reactive on the 125I-B-HA in the RIA procedure employed. MRC11 and A/HK/68 viruses were also compared by heterologous RIA (125I-B-HA from MRC11: anti A/HK/68 serum). It was found that preferentially antigenic determinants with a high degree of cross-reactivity could be studied in the heterologous system. (author)

  15. Symptoms of influenza virus infection in hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dool, C; Hak, E; Wallinga, J; van Loon, A M; Lammers, J W J; Bonten, M J M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During influenza outbreaks, fever and cough are the most accurate symptoms in predicting influenza virus infection in the community. OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of fever, cough, and other symptoms for diagnosing influenza virus infection in hospitalized patients. DESIGN: Prosp

  16. Radioimmunoassay of influenza A virus haemagglutinin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemagglutinin released from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to the strain A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] by bromelain treatment and purified by rate zonal centrifugation (further on B-HA) was examined for possible contamination by neuraminidase. Specific enzymatic activities of the MRC11 virus and the B-HA respectively showed that B-HA contained less than 0.1% of enzymatically active neuraminidase originally present in the virus. Gel double diffusion tests, specificities of rabbit antisera induced by B-HA as well as radioimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that B-HA was devoid of any antigenically active neuraminidase. Precipitation of 125I-labelled B-HA with antisera to influenza virus recombinants with N2 neuraminidase was evidently caused by antibodies to host antigenic determinant(s) present in these sera. As for purity and radioimmunoprecipitation properties, B-HA is quite suitable for radioimmunoassay experiments. (author)

  17. Protective effects of phillyrin against influenza A virus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xin-Yan; Li, Qing-Jun; Zhang, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2016-07-01

    Influenza A virus infection represents a great threat to public health. However, owing to side effects and the emergence of resistant virus strains, the use of currently available anti-influenza drugs may be limited. In order to identify novel anti-influenza drugs, we investigated the antiviral effects of phillyrin against influenza A virus infection in vivo. The mean survival time, lung index, viral titers, influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein and serum cytokines levels, and histopathological changes in lung tissue were examined. Administration of phillyrin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 3 days significantly prolonged the mean survival time, reduced the lung index, decreased the virus titers and interleukin-6 levels, reduced the expression of HA, and attenuated lung tissue damage in mice infected with influenza A virus. Taken together, these data showed that phillyrin had potential protective effects against infection caused by influenza A virus. PMID:27323762

  18. Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Xudong Lin; Seth Schobel; Magdalena Plancarte; Kelly, Terra R.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined ...

  19. Improving influenza virological surveillance in Europe: strain-based reporting of antigenic and genetic characterisation data, 11 European countries, influenza season 2013/14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Eeva; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Prosenc, Katarina; Daniels, Rod; Guiomar, Raquel; Ikonen, Niina; Kossyvakis, Athanasios; Pozo, Francisco; Puzelli, Simona; Thomas, Isabelle; Waters, Allison; Wiman, Åsa; Meijer, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data are crucial for influenza vaccine composition decision making. Previously, aggregate data were reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control by European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. A system for collecting case-specific influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data was established for the 2013/14 influenza season. In a pilot study, 11 EU/EEA countries reported through the new mechanism. We demonstrated feasibility of reporting strain-based antigenic and genetic data and ca 10% of influenza virus-positive specimens were selected for further characterisation. Proportions of characterised virus (sub)types were similar to influenza virus circulation levels. The main genetic clades were represented by A/StPetersburg/27/2011(H1N1)pdm09 and A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2). A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were more prevalent in age groups (by years) < 1 (65%; p = 0.0111), 20–39 (50%; p = 0.0046) and 40–64 (55%; p = 0.00001) while A(H3N2) viruses were most prevalent in those ≥ 65 years (62%*; p = 0.0012). Hospitalised patients in the age groups 6–19 years (67%; p = 0.0494) and ≥ 65 years (52%; p = 0.0005) were more frequently infected by A/Texas/50/2012 A(H3N2)-like viruses compared with hospitalised cases in other age groups. Strain-based reporting enabled deeper understanding of influenza virus circulation among hospitalised patients and substantially improved the reporting of virus characterisation data. Therefore, strain-based reporting of readily available data is recommended to all reporting countries within the EU/EEA. PMID:27762211

  20. Influenza viruses and the evolution of avian influenza virus H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeik, Nedaa; Jabr, Fadi I

    2008-05-01

    Although small in size and simple in structure, influenza viruses are sophisticated organisms with highly mutagenic genomes and wide antigenic diversity. They are species-specific organisms. Mutation and reassortment have resulted in newer viruses such as H5N1, with new resistance against anti-viral medications, and this might lead to the emergence of a fully transmissible strain, as occurred in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. Influenza viruses are no longer just a cause of self-limited upper respiratory tract infections; the H5N1 avian influenza virus can cause severe human infection with a mortality rate exceeding 50%. The case death rate of H5N1 avian influenza infection is 20 times higher than that of the 1918 infection (50% versus 2.5%), which killed 675000 people in the USA and almost 40 million people worldwide. While the clock is still ticking towards what seems to be inevitable pandemic influenza, on April 17, 2007 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first vaccine against the avian influenza virus H5N1 for humans at high risk. However, more research is needed to develop a more effective and affordable vaccine that can be given at lower doses.

  1. Current Approaches for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infections in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Vemula, Sai Vikram; Zhao, Jiangqin; Liu, Jikun; Wang, Xue; Biswas, Santanu; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advancement in vaccine and virus research, influenza continues to be a major public health concern. Each year in the United States of America, influenza viruses are responsible for seasonal epidemics resulting in over 200,000 hospitalizations and 30,000–50,000 deaths. Accurate and early diagnosis of influenza viral infections are critical for rapid initiation of antiviral therapy to reduce influenza related morbidity and mortality both during seasonal epidemics and pandemi...

  2. Animal Models for Influenza Viruses: Implications for Universal Vaccine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Margine; Florian Krammer

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Depending on the virulence of the influenza virus strain, as well as the immunological status of the infected individual, the severity of the respiratory disease may range from sub-clinical or mild symptoms to severe pneumonia that can sometimes lead to death. Vaccines remain the primary public health measure in reducing the influenza burden. Though the first influenza vaccine preparation wa...

  3. Influenza virus types and subtypes among pediatric patients having influenza like illness in summer season

    OpenAIRE

    Bishwanath Acharya; Bishnu Prasad Upadhyay; Shailaja Adhikari; Ajit Rayamajhi; Kanchan Thapa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) represent one of the major causes of childhood mortality and morbidity in Nepal. The Influenza virus is one of the common causes of viral ARIs and bacterial infection secondary to influenza contributes to majority of childhood death worldwide. However, the diagnosis of influenza virus infection is not routinely suggested in Nepal even for children clinically presenting with influenza like illness (ILI). Methods: With an aim to describe the statu...

  4. Review Article: Influenza Transmission on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air travel is associated with the spread of influenza through infected passengers and potentially through in-flight transmission. Contact tracing after exposure to influenza is not performed systematically. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the evidence for influenza transmission aboard aircraft. Methods: Using PubMed and EMBASE databases, we identified and critically appraised identified records to assess the evidence of such transmission to passengers seated in close proximity to the index cases. We also developed a bias assessment tool to evaluate the quality of evidence provided in the retrieved studies. Results: We identified 14 peer-reviewed publications describing contact tracing of passengers after possible exposure to influenza virus aboard an aircraft. Contact tracing during the initial phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic was described in 11 publications. The studies describe the follow-up of 2,165 (51%) of 4,252 traceable passengers. Altogether, 163 secondary cases were identified resulting in an overall secondary attack rate among traced passengers of 7.5%. Of these secondary cases, 68 (42%) were seated within two rows of the index case. Conclusion: We found an overall moderate quality of evidence for transmission of influenza virus aboard an aircraft. The major limiting factor was the comparability of the studies. A majority of secondary cases was identified at a greater distance than two rows from the index case. A standardized approach for initiating, conducting, and reporting contact tracing could help to increase the evidence base for better assessing influenza transmission aboard aircraft. PMID:27253070

  5. Localization of influenza virus proteins to nuclear dot 10 structures in influenza virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied influenza virus M1 protein by generating HeLa and MDCK cell lines that express M1 genetically fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP-M1 was incorporated into virions produced by influenza virus infected MDCK cells expressing the fusion protein indicating that the fusion protein is at least partially functional. Following infection of either HeLa or MDCK cells with influenza A virus (but not influenza B virus), GFP-M1 redistributes from its cytosolic/nuclear location and accumulates in nuclear dots. Immunofluorescence revealed that the nuclear dots represent nuclear dot 10 (ND10) structures. The colocalization of authentic M1, as well as NS1 and NS2 protein, with ND10 was confirmed by immunofluorescence following in situ isolation of ND10. These findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated involvement of influenza virus with ND10, a structure involved in cellular responses to immune cytokines as well as the replication of a rapidly increasing list of viruses

  6. Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohskopf, Lisa A; Sokolow, Leslie Z; Broder, Karen R; Olsen, Sonja J; Karron, Ruth A; Jernigan, Daniel B; Bresee, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    This report updates the 2015-16 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines (Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Olsen SJ, Bresee JS, Broder KR, Karron RA. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015-16 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:818-25). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. For the 2016-17 influenza season, inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) will be available in both trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent (IIV4) formulations. Recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) will be available in a trivalent formulation (RIV3). In light of concerns regarding low effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons, for the 2016-17 season, ACIP makes the interim recommendation that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) should not be used. Vaccine virus strains included in the 2016-17 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will be an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus, an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage). Quadrivalent vaccines will include an additional influenza B virus strain, a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage).Recommendations for use of different vaccine types and specific populations are discussed. A licensed, age-appropriate vaccine should be used. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended product is otherwise appropriate. This information is intended for vaccination providers, immunization program personnel, and public health personnel. Information in this report reflects discussions during public meetings of ACIP held on October 21, 2015; February 24, 2016; and June 22, 2016

  7. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; SASHIKA, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health.

  8. Improved and simplified recombineering approach for influenza virus reverse genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qinfang; Wang, Shuai; Ma, Guangpeng; Pu, Juan; Forbes, Nicole E.; Brown, Earl G.; Liu, Jin-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Typical reverse genetics systems for generating influenza viruses require the insertion of each genome segments by DNA ligation into vectors for genome synthesis and expression. Herein is described the construction and use of a novel pair of plasmid vectors for cloning all eight genome segments of influenza A virus by homologous recombination for influenza virus reverse genetics. Plasmids, pLLBA and pLLBG, were constructed to possess opposing RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase II transcripti...

  9. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno; Fouchier, Ron

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the current knowledge of the determinants of pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in mammals is summarized. It is becoming apparent that common mechanisms exist across influenza A virus strains and...

  10. Animal Models for Influenza Virus Pathogenesis and Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Lowen, Anice C.; Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus infection of humans results in a respiratory disease that ranges in severity from sub-clinical infection to primary viral pneumonia that can result in death. The clinical effects of infection vary with the exposure history, age and immune status of the host, and also the virulence of the influenza strain. In humans, the virus is transmitted through either aerosol or contact-based transfer of infectious respiratory secretions. As is evidenced by most zoonotic influenza virus in...

  11. Avian influenza viruses - new causative a gents of human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Influenza A viruses can infect humans, some mammals and especially birds. Subtypes of human influenza A viruses: ACH1N1, ACH2N2 and A(H3N2 have caused pandemics. Avian influenza viruses vary owing to their 15 hemagglutinins (H and 9 neuraminidases (N. Human cases of avian influenza A In the Netherlands in 2003, there were 83 human cases of influenza A (H7N7. In 1997, 18 cases of H5N1 influenza A, of whom 6 died, were found among residents of Hong Kong. In 2004, 34 human cases (23 deaths were reported in Viet Nam and Thailand. H5N1 virus-infected patients presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. Complications included respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, liver dysfunction and hematologic disorders. Since 1999, 7 cases of human influenza H9N2 infection have been identified in China and Hong Kong. The importance of human infection with avian influenza viruses. H5N1 virus can directly infect humans. Genetic reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses may occur in humans co infected with current human A(HIN1 or A(H3N2 subtypes and avian influenza viruses. The result would be a new influenza virus with pandemic potential. All genes of H5Nl viruses isolated from humans are of avian origin. Prevention and control. The reassortant virus containing H and N from avian and the remaining proteins from human influenza viruses will probably be used as a vaccine strain. The most important control measures are rapid destruction of all infected or exposed birds and rigorous disinfection of farms. Individuals exposed to suspected animals should receive prophylactic treatment with antivirals and annual vaccination. .

  12. The Regulation of Autophagy by Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a dreadful pathogen of animals and humans, causing widespread infection and severe morbidity and mortality. It is essential to characterize the influenza A virus-host interaction and develop efficient counter measures against the viral infection. Autophagy is known as a catabolic process for the recycling of the cytoplasmic macromolecules. Recently, it has been shown that autophagy is a critical mechanism underlying the interaction between influenza A virus and its host. Autophagy can be induced by the infection with influenza A virus, which is considered as a necessary process for the viral proliferation, including the accumulation of viral elements during the replication of influenza A virus. On the other hand, influenza A virus can inhibit the autophagic formation via interaction with the autophagy-related genes (Atg and signaling pathways. In addition, autophagy is involved in the influenza virus-regulated cell deaths, leading to significant changes in host apoptosis. Interestingly, the high pathogenic strains of influenza A virus, such as H5N1, stimulate autophagic cell death and appear to interplay with the autophagy in distinct ways as compared with low pathogenic strains. This review discusses the regulation of autophagy, an influenza A virus driven process.

  13. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky;

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential....... Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds...

  14. Excess mortality associated with influenza epidemics in Portugal, 1980 to 2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltazar Nunes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza epidemics have a substantial impact on human health, by increasing the mortality from pneumonia and influenza, respiratory and circulatory diseases, and all causes. This paper provides estimates of excess mortality rates associated with influenza virus circulation for 7 causes of death and 8 age groups in Portugal during the period of 1980-2004. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compiled monthly mortality time series data by age for all-cause mortality, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, diseases of the respiratory system, chronic respiratory diseases, pneumonia and influenza. We also used a control outcome, deaths from injuries. Age- and cause-specific baseline mortality was modelled by the ARIMA approach; excess deaths attributable to influenza were calculated by subtracting expected deaths from observed deaths during influenza epidemic periods. Influenza was associated with a seasonal average of 24.7 all-cause excess deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, approximately 90% of which were among seniors over 65 yrs. Excess mortality was 3-6 fold higher during seasons dominated by the A(H3N2 subtype than seasons dominated by A(H1N1/B. High excess mortality impact was also seen in children under the age of four years. Seasonal excess mortality rates from all the studied causes of death were highly correlated with each other (Pearson correlation range, 0.65 to 0.95, P0.64, P<0.05. By contrast, there was no correlation with excess mortality from injuries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our excess mortality approach is specific to influenza virus activity and produces influenza-related mortality rates for Portugal that are similar to those published for other countries. Our results indicate that all-cause excess mortality is a robust indicator of influenza burden in Portugal, and could be used to monitor the impact of influenza epidemics in this country. Additional studies are warranted to confirm these findings in other

  15. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  16. Molecular characterization of severe and mild cases of influenza A (H1N1 2009 strain from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Baumeister

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available While worldwide pandemic influenza A(H1N1 pdm case fatality rate (CFR was 0.4%, Argentina's was 4.5%. A total of 34 strains from mild and severe cases were analyzed. A full genome sequencing was carried out on 26 of these, and a partial sequencing on the remaining eight. We observed no evidence that the high CFR can be attributed to direct virus changes. No evidence of re-assortment, mutations associated with resistance to antiviral drugs, or genetic drift that might contribute to virulence was observed. Although the mutation D225G associated with severity in the latest reports from the Ukraine and Norway is not observed among the Argentine strains, an amino acid change in the area (S206T surrounding the HA receptor binding domain was observed, the same previously established worldwide.

  17. TMPRSS2 Independency for Haemagglutinin Cleavage In Vivo Differentiates Influenza B Virus from Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Ami, Yasushi; Nakajima, Noriko; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Anraku, Masaki; Takayama, Ikuyo; Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Komura, Miyuki; Sato, Yuko; Asanuma, Hideki; Takashita, Emi; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takehara, Kazuaki; Tashiro, Masato; Hasegawa, Hideki; Odagiri, Takato; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses show clear differences in their host specificity and pandemic potential. Recent studies have revealed that the host protease TMPRSS2 plays an essential role for proteolytic activation of H1, H3, and H7 subtype strains of influenza A virus (IAV) in vivo. IAV possessing a monobasic cleavage site in the haemagglutinin (HA) protein replicates poorly in TMPRSS2 knockout mice owing to insufficient HA cleavage. In the present study, human isolates of influenza B virus (IBV) strains and a mouse-adapted IBV strain were analysed. The data showed that IBV successfully underwent HA cleavage in TMPRSS2 knockout mice, and that the mouse-adapted strain was fully pathogenic to these mice. The present data demonstrate a clear difference between IAV and IBV in their molecular mechanisms for spreading in vivo. PMID:27389476

  18. TMPRSS2 Independency for Haemagglutinin Cleavage In Vivo Differentiates Influenza B Virus from Influenza A Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Ami, Yasushi; Nakajima, Noriko; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Anraku, Masaki; Takayama, Ikuyo; Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Komura, Miyuki; Sato, Yuko; Asanuma, Hideki; Takashita, Emi; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takehara, Kazuaki; Tashiro, Masato; Hasegawa, Hideki; Odagiri, Takato; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses show clear differences in their host specificity and pandemic potential. Recent studies have revealed that the h