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Sample records for agua hirviente bwr

  1. Cracks propagation by stress corrosion cracking in conditions of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR); Propagacion de grietas por corrosion bajo esfuerzo en condiciones de reactor de agua hirviente (BWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes C, P

    2003-07-01

    This work presents the results of the assays carried out in the Laboratory of Hot Cells of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) to a type test tube Compact Tension (CT), built in steel austenitic stainless type 304L, simulating those conditions those that it operates a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), at temperature 288 C and pressure of 8 MPa, to determine the speed to which the cracks spread in this material that is of the one that different components of a reactor are made, among those that it highlights the reactor core vessel. The application of the Hydrogen Chemistry of the Water is presented (HWC) that is one alternative to diminish the corrosion effect low stress in the component, this is gets controlling the quantity of oxygen and of hydrogen as well as the conductivity of the water. The rehearsal is made following the principles of the Mechanics of Elastic Lineal Fracture (LEFM) that considers a crack of defined size with little plastic deformation in the tip of this; the measurement of crack advance is continued with the technique of potential drop of direct current of alternating signal, this is contained inside the standard Astm E-647 (Method of Test Standard for the Measurement of Speed of Growth of Crack by fatigue) that is the one that indicates us as carrying out this test. The specifications that should complete the test tubes that are rehearsed as for their dimensions, it forms, finish and determination of mechanical properties (tenacity to the fracture mainly) they are contained inside the norm Astm E-399, the one which it is also based on the principles of the fracture mechanics. The obtained results were part of a database to be compared with those of other rehearsals under different conditions, Normal Chemistry of the Water (NWC) and it dilutes with high content of O{sub 2}; to determine the conditions that slow more the phenomena of stress corrosion cracking, as well as the effectiveness of the used chemistry and of the method of

  2. Propagation of cracks by stress corrosion in conditions of BWR type reactor; Propagacion de grietas por corrosion bajo esfuerzo en condiciones de reactor de agua en ebullicion (BWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino C, F.J. [ININ, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fuentes C, P. [ITT, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: fjmc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the obtained results when applying the Hydrogen Chemistry to a test tube type Compact Tension (CT), built in austenitic stainless steel 304l, simulating the conditions to those that it operates a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), temperature 288 C and pressure of 8 MPa are presented. With the application of this water chemistry, seeks to be proven the diminution of the crack propagation speed. (Author)

  3. Recent trends in the mitigation of the IGSCC through modifications in the water chemistry of BWR reactors; Tendencias recientes en la mitigacion del IGSCC mediante modificaciones en la quimica del agua de reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A.; Robles, E.F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    During the last years, the Nuclear Power stations had been that to adequate or to modify the parameters and operational conditions, attempting to maintain and to safeguard the integrity and functionality of its components and systems, as well as the personnel safety involved in its operation. In a Boiling water reactor (BWR), the chemical control of the water, constitutes one of the fundamental aspects to get a sure and reliable operation, having as main objectives: (a) The protection of the reactor vessel, of the structural materials of the same one and of the pipes and components of those recirculation systems against the Intergranular stress corrosion phenomena (IGSCC); (b) To guarantee the integrity of the nuclear fuel minimizing the corrosion phenomena in the fuel elements; and (c) The reduction of the operational dose of the personnel involved directly in the operation and maintenance by means of the control of the activated corrosion products. (Author)

  4. Simulation of the automatic depressurization system (Ads) for a boiling water reactor (BWR) based on RELAP; Simulacion del sistema de despresurizacion automatica (ADS) para un reactor de agua en ebullicion (BWR) basado en RELAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, C.; Chavez M, C., E-mail: ces.raga@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The automatic depressurization system (Ads) of the boiling water reactor (BWR) like part of the emergency cooling systems is designed to liberate the vapor pressure of the reactor vessel, as well as the main vapor lines. At the present time in the Engineering Faculty, UNAM personnel works in the simulation of the Laguna Verde reactor based on the nuclear code RELAP/SCADAP and in the incorporation to the same of the emergency cooling systems. The simulation of the emergency cooling systems began with the inclusion of two hydrodynamic volumes, one source and another drain, and the incorporation of the initiation logic for each emergency system. In this work is defined and designed a simplified model of Ads of the reactor, considering a detail level based on the main elements that compose it. As tool to implement the proposed model, the RELAP code was used. The simulated main functions of Ads are centered in the quick depressurization of the reactor by means of the vapor discharge through the relief/safety valves to the suppression pool, and, in the event of break of the main vapor line, the reduction of the vessel pressure operates for that the cooling systems of the core to low pressure (Lpcs and Lpci) they can begin their operation. (Author)

  5. Mitigation strategies of intergranular corrosion in systems of reactors of water boiling (BWR). Combined action of the chemistry of the hydrogen and the oxygen; Estrategias de mitigacion de la corrosion intergranular en sistemas de reactores de agua en ebullicion (BWR). Accion combinada de la quimica del hidrogeno y del oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdugo, M.

    2015-07-01

    Inter-Granular Stress Corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in austenitic stainless steel and in austenitic nickel-based alloys has been the subject of many studies the aim of which was to resolve one of the main problems faced by BWR nuclear power plants since the 1960s. This corrosion phenomenon is the result of the combined action of three factors: sensitization of the material, high local stresses and an aggressive medium. This paper deals with these factors separately and analyzes the oxidative chemistry of BWR reactors (aggressivity of the medium) as one the main causes if IGSCC. (Author)

  6. Agua(s) remisión de V. nivelador de (las) agua(s).

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Definición del término Agua(s) remisión de V. nivelador de (las) agua(s). en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Agua(s) remisión de V. nivelador de (las) agua(s). in the dictionary Dicter.

  7. Sector agua

    OpenAIRE

    Mabel Scharfhausen

    2012-01-01

    El agua constituye un recurso esencial para muchos aspectos de la vida humana como son el desarrollo y el bienestar humano. Gracias a los importantes avances en TICs es posible avanzar hacia soluciones que ofrecen una gestión eficiente e integral de los recursos hídricos, proporcionando datos en tiempo real respecto a la calidad, al consumo y la demanda del agua que permiten. Esto, no solamente para tener un mejor control del recurso, sino para hacer seguimiento del mismo y, quizás lo más imp...

  8. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morante, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hambric, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ziada, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  9. Development of a computer program of fast calculation for the pre design of advanced nuclear fuel 10 x 10 for BWR type reactors; Desarrollo de un program de computo de calculo rapido para el prediseno de celdas de combustible nuclear avanzado 10 x 10 para reactores de agua en ebullicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mrpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) a methodology is developed to optimize the design of cells 10x10 of assemble fuels for reactors of water in boil or BWR. It was proposed a lineal calculation formula based on a coefficients matrix (of the change reason of the relative power due to changes in the enrichment of U-235) for estimate the relative powers by pin of a cell. With this it was developed the computer program of fast calculation named PreDiCeldas. The one which by means of a simple search algorithm allows to minimize the relative power peak maximum of cell or LPPF. This is achieved varying the distribution of U-235 inside the cell, maintaining in turn fixed its average enrichment. The accuracy in the estimation of the relative powers for pin is of the order from 1.9% when comparing it with results of the 'best estimate' HELIOS code. With the PreDiCeldas it was possible, at one minimum time of calculation, to re-design a reference cell diminishing the LPPF, to the beginning of the life, of 1.44 to a value of 1.31. With the cell design with low LPPF is sought to even design cycles but extensive that those reached at the moment in the BWR of the Laguna Verde Central. (Author)

  10. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  11. 44 BWR Waste Package Loading Curve Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Scaglione

    2001-11-05

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of average initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of fuel into a potential 44 BWR waste package (WP). The potential WP design is illustrated in Attachment I. The scope of this calculation covers a range of initial enrichments from 1.5 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 50 GWd/mtU.

  12. Process inherent ultimate safety/boiling-water reactor PIUS/BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document is a series of viewgraphs on: design basis of PIUS/BWR, definition of PIUS/BWR, mechanisms of safe shutdown and afterheat cooling, advantages of PIUS/BWR, and research and development requirements. (DLC)

  13. ¡Aguas con el agua!

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias, Enildo; Iglesias, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    El 22 de marzo, se conmemoró el Día Mundial del Agua, un recurso que está en franco retroceso. Ya en 1516 Leonardo Da Vinci advertía sobre la falta de agua en el futuro. Hoy, muchos especialistas hablan del «oro azul», del «oro del mañana», «que el agua será el recurso más preciado del nuevo siglo», etc. Así mismo, un número importante de estudiosos, anticipan el estallido de conflictos regionales (incluyendo guerras) por el control de las reservas del vital elemento, el cual, como veremos má...

  14. Diagnostico integrado de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanely de la Caridad Esquijarosa Abradelo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda una metodología para el diagnóstico integrado del agua, basado en herramientas que brindan la información necesaria, teniendo en cuenta la necesidad de poner en práctica nuevas vías que posibiliten los índices cualitativos y cuantitativos de los servicios de agua, de acuerdo a la política energética y medioambiental y a las prioridades que demandan los objetivos sociales y económicos de cada territorio, que conllevan a la implantación de un sistema de gestión integral del agua.

  15. BWR mechanics and materials technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, E.

    1983-05-01

    This paper discusses technical results obtained from a variety of important programs underway at General Electric's Nuclear Engineering Division. The principal objective of these programs is to qualify and improve BWR product related technologies that fall broadly under the disciplines of Applied Mechanics and Materials Engineering. The paper identifies and deals with current technical issues that are of general importance to the LWR industry albeit the specific focus is directed to the development and qualification of analytical predictive methods and criteria, and improved materials for use in the design of the BWR. In this paper, specific results and accomplishments are summarized to provide a braod perspective of technology advances. Results are presented in sections which discuss: dynamic analysis and modeling; fatigue and fracture evaluation; materials engineering advances; and flow induced vibration.

  16. BWR Refill-Reflood Program, Task 4. 7 - model development: TRAC-BWR component models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Y K; Parameswaran, V; Shaug, J C

    1983-09-01

    TRAC (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) is a computer code for best-estimate analysis for the thermal hydraulic conditions in a reactor system. The development and assessment of the BWR component models developed under the Refill/Reflood Program that are necessary to structure a BWR-version of TRAC are described in this report. These component models are the jet pump, steam separator, steam dryer, two-phase level tracking model, and upper-plenum mixing model. These models have been implemented into TRAC-B02. Also a single-channel option has been developed for individual fuel-channel analysis following a system-response calculation.

  17. Destilador de agua

    OpenAIRE

    Reynoso, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto surge a partir del análisis del destilador construido por intiar y de la evaluación de las características del contexto en el cual se ubica, acotado en este caso al Noroeste Argentino (noa), zona que presenta en mayor medida el problema del agua contaminada con arsénico y que cuenta con una alta incidencia de radiación solar. Se arribó a la conclusión de que la cantidad de litros de agua que el antecedente producía por día (seis a ocho litros) no era suficiente para ab...

  18. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Arai, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  19. LBB application in Swedish BWR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornfeldt, H.; Bjoerk, K.O.; Ekstroem, P. [ABB Atom, Vaesteras (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    The protection against dynamic effects in connection with potential pipe breaks has been implemented in different ways in the development of BWR reactor designs. First-generation plant designs reflect code requirements in effect at that time which means that no piping restraint systems were designed and built into those plants. Modern designs have, in contrast, implemented full protection against damage in connection with postulated pipe breaks, as required in current codes and regulations. Moderns standards and current regulatory demands can be met for the older plants by backfitting pipe whip restraint hardware. This could lead to several practical difficulties as these installations were not anticipated in the original plant design and layout. Meeting the new demands by analysis would in this situation have great advantages. Application of leak-before-break criteria gives an alternative opportunity of meeting modem standards in reactor safety design. Analysis takes into account data specific to BWR primary system operation, actual pipe material properties, piping loads and leak detection capability. Special attention must be given to ensure that the data used reflects actual plant conditions.

  20. Concesiones de aguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Labaure Aliseris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del estudio que nos proponemos realizar es el de las concesiones de aguas.Dicho tema se inscribe en el más amplio de las concesiones en general, y de las concesiones de bienes del dominio público en particular.El estudio especial de las concesiones de aguas se justifica, ya que como en el caso de las demás concesiones sobre bienes del dominio público y privado del Estado, presenta particularidades en su régimen jurídico.El tema planteado fue objeto de nuestro análisis hace unos años, ya que precisamente nuestra tesis para aspirar al título de Profesor Adscripto fue el Código de Aguas, en que uno de los capítulos era el "Uso de las Aguas", que incluía a los permisos y concesiones de uso

  1. Behaviour of the reactivity for BWR fuel cells; Comportamiento de la reactividad para celdas de combustible BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Alonso, G.; Delfin, A.; Vargas, S. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: galonso@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, U. P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the behaviour of the reactivity of a fuel assembly type BWR was studied, the objective is to obtain some expressions that consider the average enrichment of U-235 and the gadolinium concentration like a function of the fuel cells burnt. Also, the applicability of the lineal reactivity model was analyzed for fuel cells type BWR. The analysis was carried out with the CASMO-4 code. (Author)

  2. Cuento: Agua rota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Puben

    1966-04-01

    Full Text Available Ya avanzada la noche la lluvia empezó a caer, clara y sonora, en el empedrado del patio y sobre los amplios techos de la vieja casa. El ruido del aguacero lo despertó de un profundo sueño. La sensación de que la cañada aumentaba, a cada momento, venía del atronador y permanente cauce de las aguas vecinas.

  3. Potencial del agua del suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Heliodoro

    2012-01-01

    La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es...

  4. BWR ASSEMBLY SOURCE TERMS FOR WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-02-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly radiation source term data for use during Waste Package (WP) design. The BWR assembly radiation source terms are to be used for evaluation of radiolysis effects at the WP surface, and for personnel shielding requirements during assembly or WP handling operations. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate BWR assembly radiation source terms that bound selected groupings of BWR assemblies, with regard to assembly average burnup and cooling time, which comprise the anticipated MGDS BWR commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream. The source term data is to be provided in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent shielding/radiation dose calculations. Since these calculations may also be used for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), with appropriate justification provided by TSPA, or radionuclide release rate analysis, the grams of each element and additional cooling times out to 25 years will also be calculated and the data included in the output files.

  5. Status update of the BWR cask simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durbin, Samuel G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are typically evaluated through detailed numerical analysis of the system's thermal performance. These modeling efforts are performed by the vendor to demonstrate the performance and regulatory compliance and are independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Numerous studies have been previously conducted. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have moved the storage location from above ground to below ground and significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the canister helium pressure. Previous cask performance validation testing did not capture these parameters. The purpose of the investigation described in this report is to produce a data set that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations presently used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern dry casks. These modern cask designs utilize elevated helium pressure in the sealed canister or are intended for subsurface storage. The BWR cask simulator (BCS) has been designed in detail for both the above ground and below ground venting configurations. The pressure vessel representing the canister has been designed, fabricated, and pressure tested for a maximum allowable pressure (MAWP) rating of 24 bar at 400 C. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly is being deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents the canister. The symmetric single assembly geometry with well-controlled boundary conditions simplifies interpretation of results. Various configurations of outer concentric ducting will be used to mimic conditions for above and below ground storage configurations

  6. Potencial del Agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Heliodoro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es importante por sí misma, sino por su relación con la energía en diferentes lugares dentro del suelo. El concepto Potencial de agua del suelo es un criterio para esta energía.

  7. Himno del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Donato Calderón, Fiorella

    2016-01-01

    El día 7 de octubre del 2003, se adoptó oficialmente la letra y la música del compositor costarricense Carlos Guzmán Bermúdez como el Himno al Agua de nuestro país, así lo confirma el siguiente decreto de la Ley General de la Administración Pública, publicado en La Gaceta N.° 78, 25 de abril de 2005

  8. Poema del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarría, Lísimaco

    2016-01-01

    —Le doy, ioh, caminante!, cuando la sed te abruma, –el agua dijo alegre– frescura a tu garganta, refresco de las aves la seda de su pluma y en las riberas mías yo bordo con mi espuma tejidos de colores cuando mi lira canta. Soy grito y soy arrullo, quietud y movimiento, arrumbo a las llanuras para buscar descanso, retozo entre las quiebras y canto con el viento, reflejo en mis cristales el vasto firmamento y acorto mi carrera tomándome remanso.

  9. An overview of the BWR ECCS strainer blockage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, A.W.; Marshall, M.L. Jr.; Elliott, R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This Paper provides a brief overview of actions taken in the mid 1980s to resolve Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, {open_quotes}Containment Emergency Sump Performance,{close_quotes} and their relationship to the BWR strainer blockage issue; the importance of insights gained from the Barseback-2 (a Swedish BWR) incident in 1992 and from ECCS strainer testing and inspections at the Perry nuclear power plant in 1992 and 1993; an analysis of an US BWR/4 with a Mark I containment; an international community sharing of knowledge relevant to ECCS strainer blockage, additional experimental programs; and identification of actions needed to resolve the strainer blockage issue and the status of such efforts.

  10. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Unit Nuclear Energy, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboorm, J.E.; De Leege, P.F.A. (International Reactor Institute IRI, University of Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)); Van de Voet, J.; Verhagen, F.C.M. (KEMA NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1992-01-01

    In order to carry out reliable reactor core calculations for a boiled water reactor (BWR) or a pressurized water reactor (PWR) first reactivity calculations have to be carried out for which several calculation programs are available. The purpose of the title project is to exchange experiences to improve the knowledge of this reactivity calculations. In a large number of institutes reactivity calculations of PWR and BWR pin cells were executed by means of available computer codes. Results are compared. It is concluded that the variations in the calculated results are problem dependent. Part of the results is satisfactory. However, further research is necessary.

  11. Manual de tratamiento de agua

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Parra, Jorge Arturo

    1981-01-01

    Este Manual de Tratamiento de Agua se ha hecho con la intención de ofrecer en forma conjunta una serie de principios y conocimientos sobre los diferentes procesos de tratamiento del agua, cuya descripción se hace no como operaciones unitarias sino siguiendo un orden práctico encaminado hacia el aspecto teórico y al diseño de las diferentes unidades que componen una planta de tratamiento para el acondicionamiento de las aguas utilizadas como fuente de abastecimiento

  12. Full system decontamination experience in BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N.; Sugai, K.; Katayouse, N.; Fujimori, A.; Iida, K.; Hayashi, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Kanasaki, T.; Inami, I. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Strohmer, F. [Framatome ANP Gmbh, Eelangen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 3, unit 2, unit 5 and unit 1 of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), the replacement of the core shroud and internals has been conducted since 1997 in this order. The welded core internals in operating BWR plants were replaced to improve stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance. At present these units are operating smoothly. The developed technology concept is to restore those internals in open air inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). To reduce the radiation dose rate inside the RPV, not only a shielding method was applied to cut the radiation from the irradiated structures but also a chemical decontamination method was applied to dissolve the radioactive crud deposited on the surface by using chemical agents. The calculated decontamination factor (DF) at the RPV bottom reached 35-117. As result, the dose rate decreased to approximately 0.1 mSv/h under water. Before and after the installation of the in-vessel shielding, a mechanical cleaning was extensively applied inside the RPV to remove the residual crud as well as the swarf, chips from cutting. As a result, the dose rate at the RPV bottom decreased to ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 mSv/h in air. A working environment for human access, which was better than expected, was established inside the RPV, resulting in 70, 140, 50 and 70 man-Sv (estimated) saving respectively at unit 3 (1F-3), unit 2(1F-2), unit 5(1F-5) and unit 1(1F-1). All four full system decontamination (FSDs) contributed to the successful realization of the core shroud replacement project under the dry condition in RPV.

  13. BWR stability using a reducing dynamical model; Estabilidad de un BWR con un modelo dinamico reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin Bolea, J. M.; Blazquez Martinez, J. B.

    1990-07-01

    BWR stability can be treated with reduced order dynamical models. When the parameters of the model came from dynamical models. When the parameters of the model came from experimental data, the predictions are accurate. In this work an alternative derivation for the void fraction equation is made, but remarking the physical structure of the parameters. As the poles of power/reactivity transfer function are related with the parameters, the measurement of the poles by other techniques such as noise analysis will lead to the parameters, but the system of equations is non-linear. Simple parametric calculation of decay ratio are performed, showing why BWRs become unstable when they are operated at low flow and high power. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Voet, J. van der (Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland NV, Dodewaard (Netherlands)); Verhagen, F.C.M. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 30 tabs.

  15. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, J.R. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  16. Radiactividad en aguas de consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gutiérrez-Villanueva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La directiva europea sobre calidad en el agua potable del año 2003 estableció los límites para los valores de los parámetros radiactivos. Esta directiva europea fue incorporada a la legislación 2003. Los parámetros a analizar son los índices alfa y beta total, el contenido en tritio y la dosis indicativa total. El correspondiente real decreto, en el caso de España, se comenzó a aplicar en el año 2008. No solamente el agua potable procedente de captaciones públicas está sujeta a control, sino que también se deben controlar las aguas comerciales. En ambos casos se han llevado a cabo estudios en todo el mundo. Existe un rango amplio de técnicas para la medida de la radiactividad en el agua de consumo. Este artículo describe tales técnicas e indica cuando se debe aplicar cada una de ellas. Por último, se muestran los resultados más importantes obtenidos tras el análisis de aguas potables y comerciales, tanto en aguas españolas como de fuera de España. Los resultados muestran que se superan los límites en algunos casos y por lo tanto se debe prestar especial atención a fin de reducir los niveles de radiactividad en las aguas potables todo lo posible.

  17. BWR refill-reflood program: core spray distribution experimental task plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, T.

    1981-02-01

    An experimental task plan for the BWR/4 core spray task of the Refill-Reflood Test Program is presented. The test program will provide core spray distribution data for a 30 degree sector of the BWR/4 and 5-218 design. This design uses different nozzle types and different sparger elevations than the BWR/6-218 design which was tested previously. Test parameter ranges are specified; individual tests are defined; and measurement and data utilization plans are defined.

  18. Connected analysis nuclear-thermo-hydraulic of parallel channels of a BWR reactor using distributed computation; Analisis acoplado nuclear-termohidraulico de canales paralelos de un reactor BWR empleando computacion distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Gonzalez, Rina Margarita

    2007-07-15

    de Estabilidad que brinda la oportunidad de contar con datos reales de planta. Ademas de que en el caso 9 del ciclo 14 de este Benchamark se presentaron oscilaciones fuera de fase, las cuales resultan de gran interes debido a que los sistemas de deteccion que registran el promedio de la potencia del nucleo no las detectan. Adicionalmente en este trabajo se obtiene de manera individual el modelo de los lazos de recirculacion como un modulo independiente, ya que este modelo pertenece a otro trabajo y trabaja acoplado con la vasija del reactor. El modelo de los lazos de recirculacion es capaz de modelar varios transitorios de interes, como se muestra en el apendice A de este trabajo, entre los que se encuentran el disparo de bombas de recirculacion o la transferencia a baja o alta velocidad de ellas. El alcance del trabajo desarrollado se centra solamente en el nucleo del reactor, pero aprovechando la modularidad que ofrece PVM, es posible agregar componentes como separadores y secadores de vapor, lineas de agua de alimentacion y de vapor para obtener un modelo de un circuito cerrado completo. Las aplicaciones se centran principalmente en el entrenamiento de personal en la fenomenologia del BWR, y como herramienta de investigacion en el estudio de la dinamica de reactores BWR. El estudio de oscilaciones fuera de fase presenta actualmente retos como son la explicacion de la variacion de la linea neutra con el tiempo, oscilaciones fuera de fase no azimutales, sino axiales, etc. Por lo pronto se tiene un primer modelo orientado en esta direccion.

  19. El Parque de las Aguas

    OpenAIRE

    Damiá Giménez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    El Parque de las Aguas fue inaugurado en 1978 tras numerosas protestas vecinales para que fuera abierto al público después de estar cerrado durante más de 100 años, cuando era propiedad de la compañía de Aguas de Barcelona. Aún hoy, existe un área de 5.000m2 inaccesible ocupada por un jardín de estilo clásico perteneciente a la Casa de las Alturas y bajo el que se esconden los dos depósitos de DosRius con capacidad para 16.000m3 de agua. En la sección transversal del lugar se o...

  20. El agua y el arte

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Not available.En el artículo «El agua y el arte» se analiza la importancia que tiene el agua en el mundo del arte, a través de los jardines y sus muchas variedades. El autor se refiere luego a los diversos aspectos que tienen el jardín francés, el jardín inglés, y el jardín español, de acuerdo con su geografía, pluviometría y cultura propias. El jardín español de abolengo musulmán es el jardín de los países secos que atesoran el agua como bien precioso, porque no lo regala la natu...

  1. Vertical Drop of 44-BWR Waste Package With Lifting Collars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.K. Scheider

    2005-08-23

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a waste package (WP) dropped flat on its bottom from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 44-Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. The Uncanistered Waste Disposal Container System is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 4, page 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 16). AP-3. 12Q, Design Calculations and Analyses (Ref. 11) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design of the type of 44-BWR WP considered in this calculation and provides the potential dimensions and materials for that design.

  2. Development of advanced BWR fuel bundle with spectral shift rod - BWR core characteristics with SSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, T.; Kondo, T.; Chaki, M.; Ohga, Y. [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., 1-1, Saiwai-cho, 3-chome, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 317-0073 (Japan); Makigami, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Company Inc., 1-1-3, Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0011 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The neutron energy spectrum can be varied during an operation cycle to generate and utilize more plutonium from the non-fissile {sup 238}U by changing the void fraction in the core through control of the core coolant flow rate. This operation method, which is called a spectral shift operation, is practiced in BWRs to save natural uranium. A new component called a spectral shift rod (SSR), which is utilized instead of a conventional water rod, has been introduced to amplify the void fraction change and increase the spectral shift effect. In this study, fuel bundle design with the SSR and core design were carried out for the ABWR and the next generation BWR, HP-ABWR (High-Performance ABWR).The core characteristics with the SSR were evaluated and compared with those when using the conventional water rod. Influences of uncertainty of the water level in the SSR on the safety limit minimum critical power ratio (SLMCPR) were considered for evaluation of the uranium saving effect attained by the SSR. As a result, it was found that the amount of natural uranium needed for an operation cycle could be reduced more than 3% with 20% core coolant flow change and more than 5% with 30% core coolant flow change, in the form of increased discharge exposure by using the SSR compared with the conventional water rod use. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Voet, J. van der (Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland NV, Dodewaard (Netherlands)); Verhagen, F.C.M. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on the PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs.; 9 figs.; 30 tabs.

  4. Latest experiences in inspecting the inside of BWR vessel shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, R.; Gonzalez, E.

    2001-07-01

    In the last few years, the owners of BWR nuclear power plants have been forced to address new fuel shield inspection requirements, TECNATOM has responded to this situation by launching the TEIDE projects, which include development of an inspection machine and the corresponding Non-Destructive Tests to examine the inside of this shield. With these projects, TECNATOM has performed more than 12 fuel shield inspections in different countries. This article describes the experience gained in the last three years. (Author)

  5. a considerar. II. Aguas residuales urbanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ortega Sastriques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El precio del agua potable es elevado y en muchas ciudades su disponibilidad está limitada y disminuirá en el futuro. La agricultura urbana es una concurrente en el uso del agua, en el futuro es muy probable que haya fuertes limitaciones para el riego con agua potable. Así es que para la producción de vegetales en medio urbano será necesario el empleo de agua de fuentes alternativas y no de los acueductos. Por lo general, el agua del subsuelo en el entorno de las ciudades, así como las corrientes superficiales está contaminada. En este trabajo se señalan los aspectos a tomar en cuenta para el riego seguro con aguas residuales, incluyendo las aguas albañales.

  6. Thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic in a BWR; Estabilidad termohidraulica acoplada a la neutronica en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleros M, G.; Zapata Y, M.; Gomez H, R.A.; Mendez M, A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Mpio. Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico); Castlllo D, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5, La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gcm9acpp@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-01

    In a BWR type reactor the phenomenon of the nuclear fission is presented, in which are liberated in stochastic form neutrons, originating that the population of the same ones varies in statistic form around a mean value. This variation will cause that when the neutron flow impacts on the neutron detectors, its are had as a result neutron flow signals with fluctuations around an average value. In this article it is shown that it conforms it lapses the time, this variations in the neutron flow (and therefore, in the flow signal due only to the fission), they presented oscillations inside a stable range, which won't be divergent. Considering that the BWR is characterized because boiling phenomena are presented, which affect the moderation of the neutrons, additional variations will be had in the signal coming from the neutron detectors, with relationship to the fission itself, which will be influenced by the feedback of the moderator's reactivity and of the temperature of the fuel pellet. Also, as the BWR it has coupled control systems to maintain the coolant level one and of the thermal power of the reactor, for each control action it was affected the neutron population. This means that the reactor could end up straying of a stable state condition. By it previously described, the study of the thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic is complex. In this work it is shown the phenomenology, the mathematical models and the theoretical behavior associated to the stability of the BWR type reactor; the variables that affect it are identified, the models that reproduce the behavior of the thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic, the way to maintain stable the reactor and the instrumentation that can settle to detect and to suppress uncertainties is described. In particular, is make reference to the evolution of the methods to maintain the stability of the reactor and the detection system and suppression of uncertainties implemented in the

  7. Agua Caliente and Their Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryterband, Roman

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the traditional music of the Agua Caliente band of California's Desert Cahuilla Indian tribe, including accompanying instruments, types of songs, thematic material, and performance routines. Exploring the structure of the music, the article describes meter, tempo, harmony and tonal gravitations, and use of words. (DS)

  8. Túnel bajo el agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamhuis, E.

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results obtained by the Dutch Central Institute of Scientific Research when studying the problem of underwater tunnels. This Institute has sought to establish general specifications for the design of this type of tunnels, so that they shall be more efficient than those at present in use. Firstly, a study was made of the strength, waterproof qualities, and most rational type of ventilation, with a view to drawing up of general principles on this aspect of the design. An analysis is given of the shape, suitable cross sections and constructive methods, and these are compared with those adopted in the construction of underwater tunnels at present in use in America. Particular attention has been given to designs which are largely based on prefabrication and the use of factory made structural parts, and also on the transport and erection of these at the site. The author goes on to discuss the interplay of soil and water pressures, buoyancy forces, and cases in which the tunnel is subjected to important bending and shear forces on particular sections of it. In this connection care is taken to give the theoretical considerations a ready practical interpretation. In particular, a description is given of special distance pieces which connect the two tubes making up a tunnel, also the system of joining two sections of the tube, and the measure of watertightness and flexibility which such joints provide. Finally, a summary is given of the theoretical foundations, as well as a number of observations and items of advise, which are applicable to these types of structures.El ingeniero A. Eggink describió, en un trabajo publicado últimamente, un nuevo tipo de túnel bajo el agua para canalizar la circulación rodada. En este trabajo se desarrolla un análisis sobre las consideraciones que han jugado un papel predominante en la redacción del proyecto de ejecución de un túnel subacuo. Acompañan al trabajo los resultados referentes

  9. Prevention of organic iodide formation in BWR`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjunen, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Laitinen, T.; Piippo, J.; Sirkiae, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    During an accident, many different forms of iodine may emerge. Organic iodides, such as methyl iodide and ethyl iodide, are relatively volatile, and thus their appearance leads to increased concentration of gaseous iodine. Since organic iodides are also relatively immune to most accident mitigation measures, such as sprays and filters, they can affect the accident source term significantly even when only a small portion of iodine is in organic form. Formation of organic iodides may not be limited by the amount of organic substances available. Excessive amounts of methane can be produced, for example, during oxidation of boron carbide, which is used in BWR`s as a neutron absorber material. Another important source is cable insulation. In a BWR, a large quantity of cables is placed below the pressure vessel. Thus a large quantity of pyrolyse gases will be produced, should the vessel fail. Organic iodides can be formed as a result of many different reactions, but at least in certain conditions the main reaction takes place between an organic radical produced by radiolysis and elemental iodine. A necessary requirement for prevention of organic iodide production is therefore that the pH in the containment water pools is kept high enough to eliminate formation of elemental iodine. In a typical BWR the suppression pool water is usually unbuffered. As a result, the pH may be dominated by chemicals introduced during an accident. If no system for adding basic chemicals is operable, the main factor affecting pool water pH may be hydrochloric acid released during cable degradation. Should this occur, the conditions could be very favorable for production of elemental iodine and, consequently, formation of organic iodides. Although high pH is necessary for iodine retention, it could have also adverse effects. High pH may, for example, accelerate corrosion of containment materials and alter the characteristics of the solid corrosion products. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  10. Prony's method application for BWR instabilities characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Ramírez, J. Ramón, E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier, E-mail: javier.ortiz@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Prony's method application for BWR instability events. • Several BWR instability benchmark are assessed using this method. • DR and frequency are obtained and a new parameter is proposed to eliminate false signals. • Adequate characterization of in-phase and out-of-phase events is obtained. • The Prony's method application is validated. - Abstract: Several methods have been developed for the analysis of reactor power signals during BWR power oscillations. Among them is the Prony's method, its application provides the DR and the frequency of oscillations. In this paper another characteristic of the method is proposed to determine the type of oscillations that can occur, in-phase or out-of-phase. Prony's method decomposes a given signal in all the frequencies that it contains, therefore the DR of the fundamental mode and the first harmonic are obtained. To determine the more dominant pole of the system a normalized amplitude W of the system is calculated, which depends on the amplitude and the damping coefficient. With this term, it can be analyzed which type of oscillations is present, if W of the fundamental mode frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is in-phase, if W of the first harmonic frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is out-of-phase. The method is applied to several stability benchmarks to assess its validity. Results show the applicability of the method as an alternative analysis method to determine the type of oscillations occurred.

  11. Derecho humano al agua en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrón Cisneros, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    En el Ecuador existe un proceso histórico de concentración y acaparamiento del agua. La política de ajuste estructural llevó a que empresas de servicios de agua potable sean privatizadas. La constitución del 2008 modificó el marco normativo para el agua en el país, se reconoce el derecho humano al agua, los derechos de la naturaleza, el manejo exclusivo público y comunitario y su no privatización. El proceso de reorganización institucional y de construcción de la nueva propuesta de ley de ...

  12. Alcalinidad en muestras de aguas. Ejercicio interactivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    La alcalinidad de un agua se debe fundamentalmente a la presencia de las especies básicas carbonato, hidrogenocarbonato y iones hidroxilos libres. En las aguas naturales, la especie de mayor interés es el hidrogenocarbonato, encontrándose el anión carbonato en aquellas aguas más alcalinas y en contacto con suelos o sedimentos ricos en calizas. La presencia de una base fuerte indica contaminación. En este ejercicio se analiza una muestra de agua para determinar su alcalinidad. La muestra puede...

  13. El agua y el arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueca Goitia, Fernando

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En el artículo «El agua y el arte» se analiza la importancia que tiene el agua en el mundo del arte, a través de los jardines y sus muchas variedades. El autor se refiere luego a los diversos aspectos que tienen el jardín francés, el jardín inglés, y el jardín español, de acuerdo con su geografía, pluviometría y cultura propias. El jardín español de abolengo musulmán es el jardín de los países secos que atesoran el agua como bien precioso, porque no lo regala la naturaleza y es necesario transportarlo y encerrarlo en el cofre de una arquitectura sugerente. Por eso el jardín español es un jardín recoleto y misterioso, enclaustrado y secreto, sin lejanías ni perspectivas. Se extiende luego el autor en los jardines de la Alhambra granadina, sin olvidar otros, principalmente andaluces. Jardines de los claustros monacales, de El Escorial y de los Sitios reales, también interesan, en suma, al articulista.

  14. Neutron dosimetry. Environmental monitoring in a BWR type reactor; Dosimetria de neutrones. Monitoreo ambiental en un reactor del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavera D, L.; Camacho L, M.E

    1991-01-15

    The measurements carried out on reactor dosimetry are applied mainly to the study on the effects of the radiation in 108 materials of the reactor; little is on the environmental dosimetry outside of the primary container of BWR reactors. In this work the application of a neutron spectrometer formed by plastic detectors of nuclear traces manufactured in the ININ, for the environmental monitoring in penetrations around the primary container of the unit I of the Laguna Verde central is presented. The neutron monitoring carries out with purposes of radiological protection, during the operational tests of the reactor. (Author)

  15. Stability prediction of continuous surveillance in BWR reactor; Predictor de estabilidad para la vigilancia continua de un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofino Gomez, Y.

    2006-07-01

    As result of the susceptibility of the Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) to suffer from power instabilities, the program LIP has been developed (LAPUR Input Preprocessor), which automatically determines the decay ratio (DR), as stability margin indication. For DR calculation, LAPUR program is a good predictive alternative: a fast execution for an acceptable precision. LAPUR demands a complex input, dependent on the instantaneous core configuration, requiring an exhaustive control of its generation. LIP, with a modular character, automatically generates the input from the core monitoring system, CAPRICORE (based on Simulate-3), obtaining the DR during the operation. This tool can accelerate the start-up maneuvers and other transients, increasing the plant availability. (Author)

  16. BWR Servicing and Refueling Improvement Program: Phase I summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D.R.

    1978-09-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship, General Electric Co. (GE) undertook a study of boiling water reactor (BWR) refueling outages for the purpose of recommending the development and demonstration of critical path time savings improvements. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) joined the study as a subcontractor, providing monitoring assistance and making the Browns Ferry Site available for improvement demonstrations. Agreement was also reached with Georgia Power Co., Power Authority of the State of New York, and Commonwealth Edison Co. for monitoring and data collection at Hatch 1, FitzPatrick, and Quad Cities 1 nuclear plants, respectively. The objective was to identify, develop, and demonstrate improved refueling, maintenance, and inspection procedures and equipment. The improvements recommended in this study are applicable to BWR nuclear plants currently in operation as well as those in the design and construction phases. The recommendations and outage information can be used as a basis to plan and conduct the first outages of new plants and to improve the planning and facilities of currently operating plants. Many of the recommendations can readily be incorporated in plants currently in the design and construction phases as well as in the design of future plants. Many of these recommended improvements can be implemented immediately by utilities without further technical development.

  17. BWR online monitoring system based on noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier [Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 52750 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jov@nuclear.inin.mx; Castillo-Duran, Rogelio [Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 52750 (Mexico)]. E-mail: rcd@nuclear.inin.mx; Alonso, Gustavo [Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 52750 (Mexico)]. E-mail: galonso@nuclear.inin.mx; Calleros-Micheland, Gabriel [Central Nuclear de Laguna Verde, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Carr. Cardel-Nautla, km. 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: gcm9acpp@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-11-15

    A monitoring system for during operation early detection of an anomaly and/or faulty behavior of equipment and systems related to the dynamics of a boiling water reactor (BWR) has been developed. The monitoring system is based on the analysis of the 'noise' or fluctuations of a signal from a sensor or measurement device. An efficient prime factor algorithm to compute the fast Fourier transform allows the continuous, real-time comparison of the normalized power spectrum density function of the signal against previously stored reference patterns in a continuously evolving matrix. The monitoring system has been successfully tested offline. Four examples of the application of the monitoring system to the detection and diagnostic of faulty equipment behavior are presented in this work: the detection of two different events of partial blockage at the jet pump inlet nozzle, miss-calibration of a recirculation mass flow sensor, and detection of a faulty data acquisition card. The events occurred at the two BWR Units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. The monitoring system and its possible coupling to the data and processing information system of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant are described. The signal processing methodology is presented along with the introduction of the application of the evolutionary matrix concept for determining the base signature of reactor equipment or component and the detection of off normal operation conditions.

  18. a considerar. I. Aguas salinas o alcalinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ortega Sastriques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El precio del agua potable es elevado y en muchas ciudades su disponibilidad está limitada y disminuirá en el futuro. La agricultura urbana es una concurrente en el uso del agua. En el futuro es muy probable que haya fuertes limitaciones para el riego con agua potable. Así es que para la producción de vegetales en medio urbano será necesario el empleo de agua de fuentes alternativas y no de los acueductos. La extracción de agua del manto freático para el riego es una práctica común que se incrementará en el futuro previsible. Casi todas las grandes urbes de Cuba tienen costas, es frecuente que los acuíferos subterráneos de estas ciudades presenten algún contenido de fácil solubilidad; o bien en otras ciudades interiores el agua puede ser alcalina. El riego con estos tipos de agua deprimen los rendimientos y pueden dañar los suelos y substratos. En este artículo se explican los aspectos que deben considerarse para poder emplear esta agua con seguridad.

  19. System control model of a turbine for a BWR; Modelo del sistema de control de una turbina para un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas O, Y. [Universidad del Valle de Mexico, Campus Toluca, Av. Las Palmas No. 136, Col. San Jorge Pueblo Nuevo, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R.; Delfin L, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: rodolfo.amador@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    In this work is presented a design of a control system of a turbine for a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model seeks to implement later on at thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The model is developed for control and protection of turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control could be employed for one or several turbines in series. The quality of present designs of control pattern of turbine it is that it considers the parameters more important in the operation of a turbine besides that is has incorporated at control the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a model more detailed. The development of control model of a turbine will be good in short and medium term to realize analysis about the operation of turbine with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction specific steps of turbine to feed other equipment s, besides analyzing the separate effect and integrated effect. (Author)

  20. Studies of fragileness in steels of vessels of BWR reactors; Estudios de fragilizacion en aceros de vasija de reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, E.F.; Balcazar, M.; Alpizar, A.M.; Calderon, B.E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The structural materials with those that are manufactured the pressure vessels of the BWR reactors, suffer degradation in its mechanical properties mainly to the damage taken place by the fast neutrons (E > 1 MeV) coming from the reactor core. Its are experimentally studied those mechanisms of neutron damage in this material type, by means of the irradiation of steel vessel in experimental reactors to age them quickly. Alternatively it is simulated the neutron damage by means of irradiation of steel with heavy ions. In this work those are shown first results of the damage induced by irradiation from a similar steel to the vessel of a BWR reactor. The irradiation was carried out with fast neutrons (E > 1 MeV, fluence of 1.45 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2}) in the TRIGA MARK lll reactor and separately with Ni{sup +3} ions in a Tandetrom accelerator, E = 4.8 MeV and range of the ionic flow of 0.1 to 53 iones/A{sup 2}. (Author)

  1. Separador de agua y aceite

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Pérez, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Este proyecto pretende responder a la demanda actual existente, en relación al reciclaje y la reutilización de los residuos generados por los seres humanos, concretamente para éste caso, el aceite usado (uso doméstico). Actualmente existen máquinas de separación de agua y aceite, pero únicamente de uso industrial. Igualmente existen contenedores de recogida de aceite de uso doméstico, pero éstos no realizan ningún tipo de discriminación entre la naturaleza de las mezclas que se vierten, p...

  2. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  3. El abastecimiento de agua a Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Borja Bernabé Crespo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua en la región del sureste peninsular, en la que se ubica Cartagena y su comarca,ha obligado a buscar y traer recursos foráneos de agua para atender sus necesidades de abastecimiento.Inicialmente, al no existir cursos permanentes de agua, se recurre a pozos y aljibes, apequeños acueductos desde fuentes y manantiales de aforo escaso, y a alumbramientos de subálveasmediante galerías con lumbreras. Las demandas aumentan y se plantea la traída de aguas dela parte alta de la Cuenca del Segura. Mediante las infraestructuras de la Mancomunidad de losCanales del Taibilla (MCT, creada por Decreto Ley de 4 de octubre de 1927 llega el agua hastaCartagena en 1945. En los últimos treinta y cinco años, a estas aguas se han unido caudales delTrasvase Tajo-Segura y finalmente aguas procedentes de desaladoras. La gestión del abastecimientode agua, a lo largo de la historia de Cartagena (desde la fundación de Carthago Nova enel 229 a.C. hasta los primeros años del siglo XXI ha generado un rico patrimonio de infraestructurashidráulicas y una experimentada cultura de usos del agua.Se expone la situación del abastecimiento de Cartagena (ciudad y barrios como demandante derecursos propios y foráneos de agua. La inversión en las redes de distribución y la concienciaciónde la mayor parte de los usuarios en un uso sostenible, que permiten un continuado abastecimientode «agua de boca», así como la regeneración de las aguas residuales para otros usos. Eneste trabajo geográfico (espacial e histórico (diacrónico, las fuentes utilizadas han sido las entrevistasa los gestores de las empresas encargadas de la distribución del agua en alta (conduccionesde gran diámetro como las de la MCT y en baja (conducciones de pequeño diámetro como las deHIDROGEA, y el acceso a la documentación del Archivo Municipal de Cartagena, del Regionalde Murcia, de la Mancomunidad de Canales del Taibilla, y el de la Confederación Hidrográficadel Segura

  4. Validation and Application of the Thermal Hydraulic System Code TRACE for Analysis of BWR Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT is participating on (Code Applications and Maintenance Program CAMP of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC to validate TRACE code for LWR transient analysis. The application of TRACE for the safety assessment of BWR requires a throughout verification and validation using experimental data from separate effect and integral tests but also using plant data. The validation process is normally focused on safety-relevant phenomena for example, pressure drop, void fraction, heat transfer, and critical power models. The purpose of this paper is to validate selected BWR-relevant TRACE-models using both data of bundle tests such as the (Boiling Water Reactor Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Test BFBT and plant data recorded during a turbine trip event (TUSA occurred in a Type-72 German BWR plant. For the validation, TRACE models of the BFBT bundle and of the BWR plant were developed. The performed investigations have shown that the TRACE code is appropriate to describe main BWR-safety-relevant phenomena (pressure drop, void fraction, and critical power with acceptable accuracy. The comparison of the predicted global BWR plant parameters for the TUSA event with the measured plant data indicates that the code predictions are following the main trends of the measured parameters such as dome pressure and reactor power.

  5. Oxide evolution on Alloy X-750 in simulated BWR environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzi, Silvia; Göransson, Kenneth; Rahman, Seikh M. H.; Eriksson, Sten G.; Liu, Fang; Thuvander, Mattias; Stiller, Krystyna

    2016-12-01

    In order to simulate the environment experienced by spacer grids in a boiling water reactor (BWR), specimens of the Ni-based Alloy X-750 were exposed to a water jet in an autoclave at a temperature of 286 °C and a pressure of 80 bar. The oxide microstructure of specimens exposed for 2 h, 24 h, 168 h and 840 h has been investigated mainly using electron microscopy. The specimens suffer mass loss due to dissolution during exposure. At the same time a complex layered oxide develops. After the longest exposure the oxide consists of two outer spinel layers consisting of blocky crystals, one intermediate layer of nickel oxide interspersed with Ti-rich oxide needles, and an inner layer of oxidized base metal. The evolution of the oxide leading up to this structure is discussed and a model is presented.

  6. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, S. J.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Hu, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Trellue, H.; Vo, D.

    2016-10-01

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  7. Debate sobre el agua : punto de partida

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A lo largo de este número de la revista encontrarás artículos concretos sobre el uso del agua en la agricultura, las bondades e inconvenientes de diferentes sistemas agrícolas y advertencias a los riesgos de privatización del agua, entre otros. Son temas que, desde la perspectiva de la Soberanía Alimentaria, debemos abordar contestando una pregunta fundamental: para que las y los agricultores puedan alimentar al Planeta y mantenerlo fértil, ¿qué uso y gestión hacemos del Agua?

  8. Analysis of the behavior of irradiated BWR fuel rod in storage dry conditions; Analisis del comportamiento de una barra combustible irradiada BWR en condiciones de almacenamiento en seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A.; Montes, D.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Munoz-Reja, C.

    2014-07-01

    In order to complete previous studies of creep on PWR sheath material, developed a joint experimental program by CSN, ENRESA and ENUSA about BWR (Zircaloy-2) sheath material. This program consisted in creep tests and then on the material under creep, compression testing diametral obtaining the permissible displacement of the sheath to break. (Author)

  9. An A BWR demonstration simulator for training and developing technical staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Yonezawa, H.; Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. Toshiba has developed a Demonstration Simulator of the A BWR control room that provides a realistic experience for training and education on BWR principles and operations fundamentals. The Demonstration Simulator is located in the Toshiba America Nuclear Energy (Tane) office in Charlotte, North Carolina and is composed of standard office computer equipment set up in a specific arrangement that is representative of the layout of an A BWR control room. The Demonstration Simulator is not intended for licensed operator training, but can provide a framework for encouraging entry level technically oriented nuclear workers to enter the operations field; strengthening the linkage between university energy field curricula and real-life application of theory; and, improving understanding of integrated plant operations for developing station technical staff. This paper describes the A BWR Demonstration Simulator and its applications for training and educating future nuclear workers. (Author)

  10. BWR/5 Pressure-Suppression Pool Response during an SBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortiz-Villafuerte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RELAP/SCDAPSIM Mod 3.4 has been used to simulate a station blackout occurring at a BWR/5 power station. Further, a simplified model of a wet well and dry well has been added to the NSSS model to study the response of the primary containment during the evolution of this accident. The initial event leading to severe accident was considered to be a LOOP with simultaneous scram. The results show that RCIC alone can keep the core fully covered, but even in this case about 30% of the original liquid water inventory in the PSP is vaporized. During the SBO, without RCIC, this inventory is reduced about 5% more within six hours. Further, a significant pressure rise occurs in containment at about the time when a sharp increase of heat generation occurs in RPV due to cladding oxidation. Failure temperature of fuel clad is also reached at this point. As the accident progresses, conditions for containment venting can be reached in about nine hours, although there still exists considerable margin before reaching containment design pressure. Detailed information of accident progress in reactor vessel and containment is presented and discussed.

  11. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  12. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  13. Effect of Control Blade History, and Axial Coolant Density and Burnup Profiles on BWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A technical basis for peak reactivity boiling water reactor (BWR) burnup credit (BUC) methods was recently generated, and the technical basis for extended BWR BUC is now being developed. In this paper, a number of effects related to extended BWR BUC are analyzed, including three major operational effects in BWRs: the coolant density axial distribution, the use of control blades during operation, and the axial burnup profile. Specifically, uniform axial moderator density profiles are analyzed and compared to previous results and an additional temporal fidelity study combing moderator density profiles for three different fuel assemblies is presented. Realistic control blade histories and cask criticality results are compared to previously generated constructed control blade histories. Finally, a preliminary study of the axial burnup profile is provided.

  14. Validation of SCALE (SAS2H) Isotopic Predictions for BWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.

    1998-01-01

    Thirty spent fuel samples obtained from boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel pins have been modeled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the SAS2H sequence of the SCALE code system. The SAS2H sequence uses transport methods combined with the depletion and decay capabilities of the ORIGEN-S code to estimate the isotopic composition of fuel as a function of its burnup history. Results of these calculations are compared with chemical assay measurements of spent fuel inventories for each sample. Results show reasonable agreement between measured and predicted isotopic concentrations for important actinides; however, little data are available for most fission products considered to be important for spent fuel concerns (e.g., burnup credit, shielding, source-term calculations, etc.). This work is a follow-up to earlier works that studied the ability to predict spent fuel compositions in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel pins. Biases and uncertainties associated with BWR isotopic predictions are found to be larger than those of PWR calculations. Such behavior is expected, as the operation of a BWR is significantly more complex than that of a PWR plant, and in general the design of a BWR has a more heterogeneous configuration than that of a PWR. Nevertheless, this work shows that the simple models employed using SAS2H to represent such complexities result in agreement to within 5% (and often less than 1%) or less for most nuclides important for spent fuel applications. On the other hand, however, the set of fuel samples analyzed represent a small subset of the BWR fuel population, and results reported herein may not be representative of the full population of BWR spent fuel.

  15. Validation of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions for BWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.; DeHart, M.D.

    1998-09-01

    Thirty spent fuel samples obtained from boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel pins have been modeled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the SAS2H sequence of the SCALE code system. The SAS2H sequence uses transport methods combined with the depletion and decay capabilities of the ORIGEN-S code to estimate the isotopic composition of fuel as a function of its burnup history. Results of these calculations are compared with chemical assay measurements of spent fuel inventories for each sample. Results show reasonable agreement between measured and predicted isotopic concentrations for important actinides; however, little data are available for most fission products considered to be important for spent fuel concerns (e.g., burnup credit, shielding, source-term calculations, etc.). This work is a follow-up to earlier works that studied the ability to predict spent fuel compositions in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel pins. Biases and uncertainties associated with BWR isotopic predictions are found to be larger than those of PWR calculations. Such behavior is expected, as the operation of a BWR is significantly more complex than that of a PWR plant, and in general the design of a BWR has a more heterogeneous configuration than that of a PWR. Nevertheless, this work shows that the simple models employed using SAS2H to represent such complexities result in agreement to within 5% (and often less than 1%) or less for most nuclides important for spent fuel applications. On the other hand, however, the set of fuel samples analyzed represent a small subset of the BWR fuel population, and results reported herein may not be representative of the full population of BWR spent fuel.

  16. en el riego con aguas residuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Roque R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es una realidad mundial, actual, que el agua potable es cada día más escasa para todos los usos en las actividades diarias de la población. La agricultura es el mayor consumidor de agua, con marcado incremento en los países en vías de desarrollo donde a su vez se requiere de una mayor producción de alimentos. En áreas urbanas y periurbanas el agua que se requiere para los cultivos hortícolas y riego de campos deportivos y de jardines compite fuertemente por las necesidades crecientes de la población. El uso de aguas residuales de las plantas de tratamiento y lagunas de oxidación se presenta como una alternativa viable para ser utilizada como agua de riego, empleando los sistemas de riego de pivote central, tecnología de punta que ha evolucionado cualitativamente en los últimos años, ofreciendo paquetes integrales, desde los módulos de emisores hasta las posibilidades de programación de los riegos que la hacen grandemente atractivas, técnica y económicamente para estos fines.

  17. AREVA solutions to licensing challenges in PWR and BWR reload and safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curca-Tivig, Florin [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Regulatory requirements for reload and safety analyses are evolving: new safety criteria, request for enlarged qualification databases, statistical applications, uncertainty propagation.. In order to address these challenges and access more predictable licensing processes, AVERA is implementing consistent code and methodology suites for PWR and BWR core design and safety analysis, based on first principles modeling and extremely broad verification and validation data base. Thanks to the high computational power increase in the last decades methods' development and application now include new capabilities. An overview of the main AREVA codes and methods developments is given covering PWR and BWR applications in different licensing environments.

  18. Design of a redundant meteorological station for a BWR reactor; Diseno de una estacion meteorologica redundante para un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, R.; Celis del Angel, L.; Bucio, F.; Rivero, T.; Palacios, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: ramses@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    In this work the design of a meteorological station for a reactor type BWR is proposed. Two independent channels of data acquisition that allow him to have a bigger readiness is exposed. It is incorporate sensors without mobile parts to measure speed, wind direction and pluvial precipitation. It also counts, with sensors of global solar radiation, net radiation, barometric pressure, relative humidity and ambient temperature; with them they are possible to be calculated, moreover, other variables as temperature differential, dew point and atmospheric stability. The sensors are placed on a tower to different heights and send their information (each second) to a local registration system, the one which in turn, it remits the data to the monitoring office so that a computer is linked with the system, display and management the information in real time and automatic way. The redundant structure allows that in the event of maintenance the data acquisition is not interrupted, even if the information is transferred to another place. In all the station sections it is used protocols of standard communication to allow that a great quantity of devices can be connected without major problem. The above-mentioned would allow to the operators in the control room to have reliable information during the whole time of the reactor operation. (Author)

  19. Identification of the reduced order models of a BWR reactor; Identificacion de modelos de orden reducido de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez S, A. [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: augusto@correo.unam.mx

    2004-07-01

    The present work has as objective to analyze the relative stability of a BWR type reactor. It is analyzed that so adaptive it turns out to identify the parameters of a model of reduced order so that this it reproduces a condition of given uncertainty. This will take of a real fact happened in the La Salle plant under certain operation conditions of power and flow of coolant. The parametric identification is carried out by means of an algorithm of recursive least square and an Output Error model (Output Error), measuring the output power of the reactor when the instability is present, and considering that it is produced by a change in the reactivity of the system in the same way that a sign of type step. Also it is carried out an analytic comparison of the relative stability, analyzing two types of answers: the original answer of the uncertainty of the reactor vs. the obtained response identifying the parameters of the model of reduced order, reaching the conclusion that it is very viable to adapt a model of reduced order to study the stability of a reactor, under the only condition to consider that the dynamics of the reactivity is of step type. (Author)

  20. Repercusiones sanitarias de la calidad del agua: los residuos de medicamentos en el agua

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Postigo Rebollo; Meritxell Gros Calvo; María José López de Alda Villaizán; Mira Petrovic; Antoni Ginebreda Martí; Damià Barceló Culleres

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo resume varios estudios de monitorización de fármacos y drogas de abuso llevados a cabo en el medio ambiente acuático de las cuencas de los ríos Llobregat y Ebro con el fin de evaluar la calidad del agua en relación a la presencia de estas substancias y su potencial riesgo para la salud ambiental y pública. La identificación de estos compuestos aguas abajo del punto de vertido de las plantas depuradoras apunta a la descarga de agua residual tratada como la principal fuente de emis...

  1. Applied methods for mitigation of damage by stress corrosion in BWR type reactors; Metodos aplicados para la mitigacion del dano por corrosion bajo esfuerzo en reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez C, R.; Diaz S, A.; Gachuz M, M.; Arganis J, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The Boiling Water nuclear Reactors (BWR) have presented stress corrosion problems, mainly in components and pipes of the primary system, provoking negative impacts in the performance of energy generator plants, as well as the increasing in the radiation exposure to personnel involucred. This problem has caused development of research programs, which are guided to find solution alternatives for the phenomena control. Among results of greater relevance the control for the reactor water chemistry stands out particularly in the impurities concentration and oxidation of radiolysis products; as well as the supervision in the materials selection and the stresses levels reduction. The present work presents the methods which can be applied to diminish the problems of stress corrosion in BWR reactors. (Author)

  2. Minor Actinides Loading Optimization for Proliferation Resistant Fuel Design - BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. S. Chang; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-09-01

    One approach to address the United States Nuclear Power (NP) 2010 program for the advanced light water reactor (LWR) (Gen-III+) intermediate-term spent fuel disposal need is to reduce spent fuel storage volume while enhancing proliferation resistance. One proposed solution includes increasing burnup of the discharged spent fuel and mixing minor actinide (MA) transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel. Thus, we can reduce the spent fuel volume while increasing the proliferation resistance by increasing the isotopic ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, MAs are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. A typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of adding MAs (237Np and/or 241Am) to enhance proliferation resistance and improve fuel cycle performance for the intermediate-term goal of future nuclear energy systems. However, adding MAs will increase plutonium production in the discharged spent fuel. In this work, the Monte-Carlo coupling with ORIGEN-2.2 (MCWO) method was used to optimize the MA loading in the UO2 fuel such that the discharged spent fuel demonstrates enhanced proliferation resistance, while minimizing plutonium production. The axial averaged MA transmutation characteristics at different burnup were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality and the ratio of 238Pu/Pu discussed.

  3. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, Hernan, E-mail: htb@forsmark.vattenfall.s [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, SE-742 03 Osthammar (Sweden); Buchwald, Przemyslaw [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor, E-mail: wiktor@reactor.sci.kth.s [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of

  4. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  5. Analysis CFD for the hydrogen transport in the primary containment of a BWR; Analisis CFD para el transporte de hidrogeno en la contencion primaria de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez P, D. A.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Edificio 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: guerreroazteca_69@hotmail.com [ININ, Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This study presents a qualitative and quantitative comparison among the CFD GASFLOW and OpenFOAM codes which are related with the phenomenon of hydrogen transport and other gases in the primary containment of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). GASFLOW is a commercial license code that is well validated and that was developed in Germany for the analysis of the gases transport in containments of nuclear reactors. On the other hand, OpenFOAM is an open source code that offers several evaluation solvers for different types of phenomena; in this case, the solver reacting-Foam is used to analyze the hydrogen transport inside the primary containment of the BWR. The results that offer the solver reacting-Foam of OpenFOAM are evaluated in the hydrogen transport calculation and the results are compared with those of the program of commercial license GASFLOW to see if is viable the use of the open source code in the case of the hydrogen transport in the primary containment of a BWR. Of the obtained results so much quantitative as qualitative some differences were identified between both codes, the differences (with a percentage of maximum error of 4%) in the quantitative results are small and they are considered acceptable for this analysis type, also, these differences are attributed mainly to the used transport models, considering that OpenFOAM uses a homogeneous model and GASFLOW uses a heterogeneous model. (Author)

  6. "Zaragoza,ciudad ahorradora de agua"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viñuales Edo, Victor

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In the year before the project was initiated, 11 million Spaniards were undergoing daily water restrictions. There were serious inter-regional conflicts over this scarce commodity. There seemed to be only one solution: more reservoirs and more water trans-shipments, what means high costs and harm to the environment. In Zaragoza, a city of 700.000 inhabitants in the north -cast of Spain, as in other cities in Spain, a triple paradox was to emerge: rainfall was scarce and irregular. water was cheap, and it was being misused. February 1997 saw the beginning of the "Zaragoza, the water-saving city" project. This aimed to promote a new water-saving consciousness through a more efficient management of this resource. It emphasised, above all, the importance of simple technological change to achieve a sustainable reduction in water consumption. The project was to issue a challenge to the city: to save 1.000 million litres of domestic water consumption in one year The project has shown that it is possible to deal with the shortage of water incities, using a cheap, ecological, fast and contentious-free app roach, by increasing efficiency in consumption. The most important lesson to be learnt is that the shared responsibility between the main players (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, distributors. plumbers, etc. has managed to create a new synergy which favours water-use efficiency. 1176 million litres of water have been saved. Spanish cities now have a successful model to follow for the most ecologically-so und method of facing up to the next drought.EI año anterior al inicio del proyecto, 11 millones de españoles sufrieron restricciones diarias de agua. Los conflictos entre regiones por el agua escasa fueron muy graves. Parecía que solo había una solución: mas pantanos y mas trasvases. Y su consecuencia inevitable: inversiones multintillonarias, daños al medio ambiente, larguisimos plazos de ejecución. En Zaragoza, ciudad del nordeste de Espa

  7. Signal analysis of acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR main steam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Prieto-Guerrero, A. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Núñez-Carrera, A. [Comisión Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Doctor Barragán 779, Col. Narvarte, México, D.F. 03020 (Mexico); Vázquez-Rodríguez, A. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Centeno-Pérez, J. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas Unidad Profesional “Adolfo López Mateos”, Av. IPN, s/n, México, D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Espinosa-Martínez, E.-G. [Departamento de Sistemas Energéticos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR are analyzed. • BWR performance after extended power uprate is considered. • Effect of acoustic side branches (ASB) is analyzed. • The ASB represents a reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer. • Methodology developed for simultaneous analyzing the signals in the MSL. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the signal analysis of acoustic waves due to phenomenon known as singing in Safety Relief Valves (SRV) of the main steam lines (MSL) in a typical BWR5. The acoustic resonance in SRV standpipes and fluctuating pressure is propagated from SRV to the dryer through the MSL. The signals are analyzed with a novel method based on the Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (M-EMD). The M-EMD algorithm has the potential to find common oscillatory modes (IMF) within multivariate data. Based on this fact, we implement the M-EMD technique to find the oscillatory mode in BWR considering the measurements obtained collected by the strain gauges located around the MSL. These IMF, analyzed simultaneously in time, allow obtaining an estimation of the effects of the multiple-SRV in the MSL. Two scenarios are analyzed: the first is the signal obtained before the installation of the acoustic dampers (ASB), and the second, the signal obtained after installation. The results show the effectiveness of the ASB to damp the strong resonances when the steam flow increases, which represents an important reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer.

  8. Development and Testing of CTF to Support Modeling of BWR Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This milestone supports developing and assessing COBRA-TF (CTF) for the modeling of boiling water reactors (BWRs). This is achieved in three stages. First, a new preprocessor utility that is capable of handling BWR-specic design elements (e.g., channel boxes and large water rods) is developed. A previous milestone (L3:PHI.CTF.P12.01) led to the development of this preprocessor capability for single assembly models. This current milestone expands this utility so that it is applicable to multi-assembly BWR models that can be modeled in either serial or parallel. The second stage involves making necessary modications to CTF so that it can execute these new models. Specically, this means implementing an outer-iteration loop, specic to BWR models, that equalizes the pressure loss over all assemblies in the core (which are not connected due to the channel boxes) by adjusting inlet mass ow rate. A third stage involves assessing the standard convergence metrics that are used by CTF to determine when a simulation is steady-state. The nal stage has resulted in the implementation of new metrics in the code that give a better indication of how steady the solution is at convergence. This report summarizes these eorts and provides a demonstration of CTF's BWR-modeling capabilities. CASL-U-2016-1030-000

  9. Predictions by the proper orthogonal decomposition reduced order methodology regarding non-linear BWR stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prill, Dennis; Class, Andreas G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). AREVA Nuclear Professional School (ANPS)

    2013-07-01

    Unexpected non-linear boiling water reactor (BWR) instability events in various plants, e.g. LaSalle II in 1988 and Oskarshamn II in 1990 amongst others, emphasize the major safety relevance and the existence of parameter regions with unstable behavior. A detailed description of the complete dynamical non-linear behavior is of paramount importance for BWR operation. An extension of state-of-the-art methodology towards a more general stability description, also applicable in the non-linear region, could lead to a deeper understanding of non-linear BWR stability phenomena. With the intention of a full non-linear stability analysis of the two-phase BWR system, the present paper aims at a general non-linear methodology capable to achieve reliable and numerical stable reduced order models (ROMs), representing the dynamical behavior of an original system based on a small number of transients. Model-specific options and aspects of the proposed methodology are focused on and illustrated by means of a strongly non-linear dynamical system showing complex oscillating behavior. Prediction capability of the proposed methodology is also addressed. (orig.)

  10. Plutonium and Minor Actinides Recycling in Standard BWR using Equilibrium Burnup Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Plutonium (Pu and minor actinides (MA recycling in standard BWR with equilibrium burnup model has been studied. We considered the equilibrium burnup model as a simple time independent burnup method, which can manage all possible produced nuclides in any nuclear system. The equilibrium burnup code was bundled with a SRAC cell-calculation code to become a coupled cell-burnup calculation code system. The results show that the uranium enrichment for the criticality of the reactor, the amount of loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply per year decrease for the Pu recycling and even much lower for the Pu & MA recycling case compared to those of the standard once-through BWR case. The neutron spectra become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides in the reactor core. The total fissile rises from 4.77% of the total nuclides number density in the reactor core for the standard once-through BWR case to 6.64% and 6.72% for the Plutonium recycling case and the Pu & MA recycling case, respectively. The two later data may become the main basis why the required uranium enrichment declines and consequently diminishes the annual loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply. All these facts demonstrate the advantage of plutonium and minor actinides recycling in BWR.

  11. Acuerdos, desacuerdos y conflictos sobre el agua. EL juez de agua en el Valle de Quibor, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Canelón, Jesús Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    El siguiente artículo discute varios planteamientos realizados por expertos en el tema de los conflictos sobre el agua. Se hace un análisis psicosocial, de la producción de sentidos sobre los conflictos y acuerdos que se relacionan con el agua, en el Valle de Quibor, sobre todo, con el agua de riego y su manejo en época de sequía. Aparece la figura del juez del agua quien, sin tener un poder legal sino un poder que le otorga el ser electo por los usuarios del agua. Se concluye, entre otras co...

  12. Flex concept for US-A BWR extended loss of AC power events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (US-A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (Stp 3 and 4) Combined License Application (Cola) and incorporates numerous design and technology enhancements for improved safety performance. Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The Stp 3 and 4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola, and the final safety evaluation report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in 2015. Following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, the US-A BWR was reviewed for Beyond Design Basis Event (BDBE) safety using industry and regulatory guidance for US NRC Order EA-12-049 Order Modifying Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation of Beyond Design Basis External Events (BDBEE). By virtue of the design approach, the US-A BWR is capable of providing an indefinite coping period for a station blackout. The use of installed systems with extended coping times is a significant advantage of the US-A BWR compared to most of the plants currently operating in the U.S. In addition, the Stp 3 and 4 design incorporates enhancements consistent with the current US industry Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies (Flex) initiative. The final technical topic requiring review by the US NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards was the Flex Integrated Plan submitted by NINA, and this review was successfully completed. This paper summarizes the progress of the US-A BWR in licensing the Flex Integrated Plan for the project, and describes the technology and features of the US-A BWR design that contribute to safety post-Fukushima. It also provides an informational comparison of the design capabilities of the US-A BWR for extreme external events, and relates these capabilities to re

  13. Assessment of the Prony's method for BWR stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier, E-mail: javier.ortiz@inin.gob.m [Gerencia de Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Castillo-Duran, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.m [Gerencia de Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Palacios-Hernandez, Javier C., E-mail: javier.palacios@inin.gob.m [Gerencia de Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Mexico 52750 (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: This paper describes a method to determine the degree of stability of a BWR. Performance comparison between Prony's and common AR techniques is presented. Benchmark data and actual BWR transient data are used for comparison. DR and f results are presented and discussed. The Prony's method is shown to be a robust technique for BWR stability. - Abstract: It is known that Boiling Water Reactors are susceptible to present power oscillations in regions of high power and low coolant flow, in the power-flow operational map. It is possible to fall in one of such instability regions during reactor startup, since both power and coolant flow are being increased but not proportionally. One other possibility for falling into those areas is the occurrence of a trip of recirculation pumps. Stability monitoring in such cases can be difficult, because the amount or quality of power signal data required for calculation of the stability key parameters may not be enough to provide reliable results in an adequate time range. In this work, the Prony's Method is presented as one complementary alternative to determine the degree of stability of a BWR, through time series data. This analysis method can provide information about decay ratio and oscillation frequency from power signals obtained during transient events. However, so far not many applications in Boiling Water Reactors operation have been reported and supported to establish the scope of using such analysis for actual transient events. This work presents first a comparison of decay ratio and frequency oscillation results obtained by Prony's method and those results obtained by the participants of the Forsmark 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactor Stability Benchmark using diverse techniques. Then, a comparison of decay ratio and frequency oscillation results is performed for four real BWR transient event data, using Prony's method and two other techniques based on an autoregressive modeling. The four

  14. Como una luna en el agua [Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco del Pino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title of the solo piano piece Como una luna en el agua, composed between June and July of 2014, refers to the end of the seventh chapter of the novel Rayuela (Hopscotch by the Argentine writer Julio Cortázar, in which an allegorical description of a kiss takes the form of a prose poem.

  15. Agua y tiempo en el arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pando Despierto

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Elemento básico de la división simbólica del mundo antiguo, el agua sigue siéndolo en la modernidad, y con una autoridad indiscutible, a la que su propia potencia —y su rareza esencial tratándose de agua dulce—, proporcionan un vigor estético y una fuerza geoestratégica planetarias. El arte hizo siempre del agua un factor de meditación y de representación, de concreción de los sueños del hombre. Su ductilidad plástica, propia para todos los marcos, todas las facturas, la hizo servir también como vehículo expresivo de todas las culturas. Unida a la eclosión misma de la vida, el agua es símil igualmente de tiempo: mientras ella exista, aquél será «comprensible», esto es, habitado por la inteligencia humana.

  16. Trihalometanos en aguas de consumo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Hernández Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los trihalometanos (THMs son subproductos de desinfección que resultan de la cloración de las aguas. Los THMs engloban a sustancias como el cloroformo (CHCl , el 3 bromodiclorometano (CHBrCl , el clorodibromometano (CHBr Cl 2 2 y el tribromometano (CHBr . La Agencia Internacional para la 3 Investigación del Cáncer ha clasificado al cloroformo y al bromodiclorometano en el grupo 2B que incluye a las sustancias posiblemente carcinogénicas en humanos. Debido a su toxicidad y a que el agua de consumo humano constituye la principal vía de exposición del hombre a estos compuestos, su presencia en las aguas de consumo humano está limitada por la Directiva Europea 98/83/CE a 100 ìg/L. En esta revisión se destacan los aspectos más relevantes sobre su toxicidad, reglamentación, determinación, concentración en aguas, variaciones estacionales y eliminación.

  17. Axial profiles of burned and fraction of holes for calculations of criticality with credit for BWR fuel burning; Perfiles axiales de quemado y fraccion de huecos para calculos de criticidad con credito al quemado para combustible BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado Sanchez, C.; Rubio Oviedo, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a method to define surround profiles of burning and fraction of holes suited for use in applications of credit to burning of BWR fuel from results obtained with the module STARBUCS of SCALE. (Author)

  18. Current and anticipated use of thermal-hydraulic codes for BWR transient and accident analyses in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Kenji; Ebata, Shigeo [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    This paper summarizes the current and anticipated use of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes for the BWR transient and accident analyses in Japan. The codes may be categorized into the licensing codes and the best estimate codes for the BWR transient and accident analyses. Most of the licensing codes have been originally developed by General Electric. Some codes have been updated based on the technical knowledge obtained in the thermal hydraulic study in Japan, and according to the BWR design changes. The best estimates codes have been used to support the licensing calculations and to obtain the phenomenological understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena during a BWR transient or accident. The best estimate codes can be also applied to a design study for a next generation BWR to which the current licensing model may not be directly applied. In order to rationalize the margin included in the current BWR design and develop a next generation reactor with appropriate design margin, it will be required to improve the accuracy of the thermal-hydraulic and neutronic model. In addition, regarding the current best estimate codes, the improvement in the user interface and the numerics will be needed.

  19. Design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel for BWR reactors; Diseno y optimizacion axial de combustible nuclear para reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A

    2006-07-01

    In the present thesis, the modifications made to the axial optimization system based on Tabu Search (BT) for the axial design of BWR fuel type are presented, developed previously in the Nuclear Engineering Group of the UNAM Engineering Faculty. With the modifications what is mainly looked is to consider the particular characteristics of the mechanical design of the GE12 fuel type, used at the moment in the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV) and that it considers the fuel bars of partial longitude. The information obtained in this thesis will allow to plan nuclear fuel reloads with the best conditions to operate in a certain cycle guaranteeing a better yield and use in the fuel burnt, additionally people in charge in the reload planning will be favored with the changes carried out to the system for the design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel, which facilitate their handling and it reduces their execution time. This thesis this developed in five chapters that are understood in the following way in general: Chapter 1: It approaches the basic concepts of the nuclear energy, it describes the physical and chemical composition of the atoms as well as that of the uranium isotopes, the handling of the uranium isotope by means of the nuclear fission until arriving to the operation of the nuclear reactors. Chapter 2: The nuclear fuel cycle is described, the methods for its extraction, its conversion and its enrichment to arrive to the stages of the nuclear fuel management used in the reactors are described. Beginning by the radial design, the axial design and the core design of the nuclear reactor related with the fuel assemblies design. Chapter 3: the optimization methods of nuclear fuel previously used are exposed among those that are: the genetic algorithms method, the search methods based on heuristic rules and the application of the tabu search method, which was used for the development of this thesis. Chapter 4: In this part the used methodology to the

  20. Coolant Density and Control Blade History Effects in Extended BWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase investigates the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used for spent fuel pools to spent fuel storage and transportation casks and the validation of reactivity (keff) calculations and predicted spent fuel compositions. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents work performed to date investigating some aspects of extended BUC. (The technical basis for application of peak reactivity methods to BWR fuel in storage and transportation systems is presented in a companion paper.) Two reactor operating parameters are being evaluated to establish an adequate basis for extended BWR BUC: (1) the effect of axial void profile and (2) the effect of control blade utilization during operation. A detailed analysis of core simulator data for one cycle of a modern operating BWR plant was performed to determine the range of void profiles and the variability of the profile experienced during irradiation. Although a single cycle does not provide complete data, the data obtained are sufficient to determine the primary effects and to identify conservative modeling approaches. These data were used in a study of the effect of axial void profile. The first stage of the study was determination of the necessary moderator density temporal fidelity in depletion modeling. After the required temporal fidelity was established, multiple void profiles were used to examine the effect on cask reactivity. The results of these studies are being used to develop recommendations for conservatively modeling the void profile effects for BWR depletion calculations. The second operational parameter studied was control blade history. Control blades are inserted in

  1. Estudio de patentes sobre tecnologías para tratamiento de agua y el agua residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odonel González-Cabrera

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de patentes sobre la temática tratamiento de agua y agua residual. Se localizan y descargan más de 2.500 documentos de patentes relacionados con la temática. Estos se procesan en software al efecto y herramientas de procesamiento. Se extraen indicadores de patentes para esta tecnología con alto valor para actividades comerciales y de investigación, tales como tecnologías emergentes sobre tratamiento de agua, países, entidades e inventores líderes a nivel mundial según el resultado de la tecnología patentada. Se presenta la evolución de las tecnologías de tratamiento del agua y el agua residual en los últimos veinte años a nivel mundial según el registro de las patentes. La entrega de todo el material se realiza enuna herramienta de visualización que logra hacer más atractivo el servicio, tener un producto más amigable y cómodo para el uso, constituyendo una información de alto nivel de actualización y eficacia para la toma de decisiones de una empresa de proyectos e investigaciones hidráulicas.

  2. Agua, población y desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Campo Urbano, Salustiano

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.A escala mundial, el problema del agua no consiste tanto en su volumen de existencias como en su reparto desigual. En este artículo, tras hacer algunas consideraciones acerca de la importancia del agua para la civilización y de su accesibilidad en general, se describen diversas limitaciones causadas por el hombre y cómo se utiliza ante las demandas provocadas por la presión demográfica. El trabajo concluye con una sección dedicada al Mediterráneo en la que se apuntan vías de solución para su escasez, sobre todo en la zona Sur.

  3. Minería del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds Vargas, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    En Costa Rica el recurso hídrico se ve amenazado ante una explotación sin control en actividades que implican la extracción o minería del agua, es decir, la fuente es empleada hasta que se agota, cuando ya es inútil para consumo, irrigación o recreación. Se señala en este artículo el agravamiento del problema por la falta de mecanismos de protección que promuevan un uso sotenible del agua y se brindan algunas recomendaciones en pro de mejorar la calidad del recurso.

  4. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Interfacial Bonding Efficiency Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiang, Hao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The objective of this project is to perform a systematic study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF, also known as “used nuclear fuel” [UNF]) integrity under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 2013. Under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsorship, ORNL completed four benchmark tests, four static tests, and twelve dynamic or cycle tests on H. B. Robinson (HBR) high burn-up (HBU) fuel. The clad of the HBR fuels was made of Zircaloy-4. Testing was continued in fiscal year (FY) 2014 using Department of Energy (DOE) funds. Additional CIRFT testing was conducted on three HBR rods; two specimens failed, and one specimen was tested to over 2.23 × 107 cycles without failing. The data analysis on all the HBR SNF rods demonstrated that it is necessary to characterize the fatigue life of the SNF rods in terms of (1) the curvature amplitude and (2) the maximum absolute of curvature extremes. The maximum extremes are significant because they signify the maximum tensile stress for the outer fiber of the bending rod. CIRFT testing has also addressed a large variation in hydrogen content on the HBR rods. While the load amplitude is the dominant factor that controls the fatigue life of bending rods, the hydrogen content also has an important effect on the lifetime attained at each load range tested. In FY 15, eleven SNF rod segments from the Limerick BWR were tested using the ORNL CIRFT equipment; one test under static conditions and ten tests under dynamic loading conditions. Under static unidirectional loading, a moment of 85 N·m was obtained at a maximum curvature of 4.0 m-1. The specimen did not show any sign of failure during three repeated loading cycles to a similar maximum curvature. Ten cyclic tests were conducted with amplitudes varying from 15.2 to 7.1 N·m. Failure was observed in nine of

  5. Effect of Control Blade History, and Axial Coolant Density and Burnup Profiles on BWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S [ORNL

    2015-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation systems (often referred to as casks) and spent fuel pools (SFPs). This work is divided into two main phases. The first phase investigated the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used in SFPs to transportation and storage casks and the validation of reactivity calculations and spent fuel compositions within these methods. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents the analysis of the effects of control blade insertion history, and moderator density and burnup axial profiles for extended BWR BUC.

  6. Full scale stability and void fraction measurements for the ATRIUM trademark 10XM BWR fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehle, Franz; Velten, Roger; Kronenberg, Juris; Beisiegel, Achim [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Pruitt, D.W.; Greene, K.R. [AREVA NP Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Farawila, Y.M. [Farawila et al., Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes recent advances in BWR fuel testing at AREVA NP's KATHY loop including stability and void fraction measurements. The stability tests for the ATRIUM trademark 10XM bundle with corner PLFR's were expanded in scope compared with previous campaigns to include simulated reactivity and power feedback essentially reproducing BWR operational environment. The oscillation magnitude was allowed to grow to explore inlet flow reversal and cyclical dryout and rewetting. The void fraction measurements employed a gamma ray computed tomography technique that reveals not only the average but the detailed sub-channel void distribution, and the range of measured void fraction has been expanded to higher values than was previously attained. With the completion of the required licensing tests and stability performance demonstration, the ATRIUM trademark 10XM is available and fully qualified for reload supply. (orig.)

  7. Development of a scatter search optimization algorithm for BWR fuel lattice design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, J.L.; Martin-del-Campo, C. [Mexico Univ. Nacional Autonoma, Facultad de Ingenieria (Mexico); Morales, L.B.; Palomera, M.A. [Mexico Univ. Nacional Autonoma, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A basic Scatter Search (SS) method, applied to the optimization of radial enrichment and gadolinia distributions for BWR fuel lattices, is presented in this paper. Scatter search is considered as an evolutionary algorithm that constructs solutions by combining others. The goal of this methodology is to enable the implementation of solution procedures that can derive new solutions from combined elements. The main mechanism for combining solutions is such that a new solution is created from the strategic combination of two other solutions to explore the solutions' space. Results show that the Scatter Search method is an efficient optimization algorithm applied to the BWR design and optimization problem. Its main features are based on the use of heuristic rules since the beginning of the process, which allows directing the optimization process to the solution, and to use the diversity mechanism in the combination operator, which allows covering the search space in an efficient way. (authors)

  8. Impact of Reactor Operating Parameters on Cask Reactivity in BWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Betzler, Benjamin R [ORNL; Ade, Brian J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of reactor operating parameters used in fuel depletion calculations on spent fuel cask reactivity, with relevance for boiling-water reactor (BWR) burnup credit (BUC) applications. Assessments that used generic BWR fuel assembly and spent fuel cask configurations are presented. The considered operating parameters, which were independently varied in the depletion simulations for the assembly, included fuel temperature, bypass water density, specific power, and operating history. Different operating history scenarios were considered for the assembly depletion to determine the effect of relative power distribution during the irradiation cycles, as well as the downtime between cycles. Depletion, decay, and criticality simulations were performed using computer codes and associated nuclear data within the SCALE code system. Results quantifying the dependence of cask reactivity on the assembly depletion parameters are presented herein.

  9. Status report: Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of BWR core shrouds and other internal components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    On July 25, 1994, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 94-03 to obtain information needed to assess compliance with regulatory requirements regarding the structural integrity of core shrouds in domestic boiling water reactors (BWRs). This report begins with a brief description of the safety significance of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) as it relates to the design and function of BWR core shrouds and other internal components. It then presents a brief history of shroud cracking events both in the US and abroad, followed by an indepth summary of the industry actions to address the issue of IGSCC in BWR core shrouds and other internal components. This report summarizes the staff`s basis for issuing GL 94-03, as well as the staff`s assessment of plant-specific responses to GL 94-03. The staff is continually evaluating the licensee inspection programs and the results from examinations of BWR core shrouds and other internal components. This report is representative of submittals to and evaluations by the staff as of September 30, 1995. An update of this report will be issued at a later date.

  10. Characterization of corrosion layers on irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces in BWR conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kysela, J.; Balek, V.; Zmitko, M.; Brozova, A.; Burda, J. [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Czech Republic); Hoffmann, H.; Ruehle, W. [VGB Essen (Germany); Bezdicka, P. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, ASCR, Rez (Czech Republic)

    2002-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of low-alloyed steel 22NiMoCr37 is evaluated with the goal to determine crack growth rate in irradiated steel under conditions simulating closely conditions of BWR RPV under operation. For the experiment, in pile BWR experimental loop has been built at Nuclear Research Institute, Rez. During the experiment, specimens are loaded by cyclic and constant load. Crack growth is monitored by means of potential drop measurement and COD. Corrosion layers formed on specimens in reactor water loop exposed to BWR primary water chemistry and radiation were studied. Two sets of specimens were placed in loop channels. One set of specimens was situated in reactor conditions and the second set out of reactor, other parameters like water chemistry (e.g. concentration of hydrogen, oxygen and conductivity), temperature and flow rate were identical. By means of this an effect of radiation could be studied. The differences in chemical composition, structure and microstructure of corrosion products were characterized by SEM and X-ray powder diffractometry. The differences in microstructure of corrosion layer formed under different conditions were observed. (authors)

  11. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: The DF-4 BWR Damaged Fuel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautges, T.J.

    1993-10-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRs. As a part of an ongoing assessment, program, MELCOR has been used to model the ACRR in-pile DF-4 Damaged Fuel experiment. DF-4 provided data for early phase melt progression in BWR fuel assemblies, particularly for phenomena associated with eutectic interactions in the BWR control blade and zircaloy oxidation in the canister and cladding. MELCOR provided good agreement with experimental data in the key areas of eutectic material behavior and canister and cladding oxidation. Several shortcomings associated with the MELCOR modeling of BWR geometries were found and corrected. Twenty-five sensitivity studies were performed on COR, HS and CVH parameters. These studies showed that the new MELCOR eutectics model played an important role in predicting control blade behavior. These studies revealed slight time step dependence and no machine dependencies. Comparisons made with the results from four best-estimate codes showed that MELCOR did as well as these codes in matching DF-4 experimental data.

  12. Damage by radiation in structural materials of BWR reactor vessels; Dano por radiacion en materiales estructurales de vasijas de reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, E.; Balcazar, M.; Alpizar, A.M.; Calderon, B.E. [Departamento de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The structural materials which are manufactured the pressure vessels of the BWR reactors undergo degradation in their mechanical properties mainly due to the damage produced by the fast neutrons (E> 1 MeV) coming from the reactor core. The mechanisms of neutron damage in this type of materials are experimentally studied, through the irradiation of vessel steel in experimental reactors for a quickly ageing. Alternately the neutron damage through steel irradiation with heavy ions is simulated. In this work the first results of the damage induced by irradiation of a similar steel to the vessel of a BWR reactor are shown. The irradiation was performed with fast neutrons (E> 1 MeV, fluence of 1.45 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2}) in the TRIGA Mark III Salazar reactor and separately with Ni{sup +3} ions in a Tandetrom accelerator (E= 4.8 MeV and an ion flux rank of 0.1 to 53 ions/A{sup 2}). (Author)

  13. Logical model for the control of a BWR turbine;Modelo logico para el control de una turbina de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas O, Y. [Universidad del Valle de Mexico, Campus Toluca, Av. Las Palmas No. 136, Col. San Jorge Pueblo Nuevo, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R., E-mail: yonaeton@hotmail.co [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a design of a logical model is presented for the turbine control of a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model is sought to implement later on inside the thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The logical model is developed for the control and protection of the turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control will be been able to use for one or several turbines in series. The quality of the present design of the logical model of the turbine control is that it considers the most important parameters in the operation of a turbine, besides that they have incorporated to the logical model the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a detailed model. The development of the logical model of a turbine will be of utility in the short and medium term to carry out analysis on the turbine operation with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction, specific steps of the turbine to feed other equipment s, in addition to analyze the separate and the integrated effect. (Author)

  14. Entrainment and deposition modeling of liquid films with applications for BWR fuel rod dryout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ruwan Kumara

    While best estimate computer codes provide the licensing basis for nuclear power facilities, they also serve as analytical tools in overall plant and component design procedures. An ideal best estimate code would comprise of universally applicable mechanistic models for all its components. However, due to the limited understanding in these specific areas, many of the models and correlations used in these codes reflect high levels of empiricism. As a result, the use of such models is strictly limited to the range of parameters within which the experiments have been conducted. Disagreements between best estimate code predictions and experimental results are often explained by the mechanistic inadequacies of embedded models. Significant mismatches between calculated and experimental critical power values are common observations in the analyses of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Based on experimental observations and calculations, these mismatches are attributed to the additional entrainment and deposition caused by spacer grids in BWR fuel assemblies. In COBRA-TF (Coolant Boiling in Rod Arrays-Two Fluid); a state of the art industrial best estimate code, these disagreements are hypothesized to occur due the absence of an appropriate spacer grid model. In this thesis, development of a suitably detailed spacer grid model and integrating it to COBRA-TF is documented. The new spacer grid model is highly mechanistic so that the applicability of it is not seriously affected by geometric variations in different spacer grid designs. COBRA-TF (original version) simulations performed on single tube tests and BWR rod bundles with spacer grids showed that single tube predictions were more accurate than those of the rod bundles. This observation is understood to arise from the non-availability of a suitable spacer grid model in COBRA-TF. Air water entrainment experiments were conducted in a test section simulating two adjacent BWR sub channels to visualize the flow behavior at

  15. El agua como principio de sustentabilidad para el desarrollo urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Cartes S.

    2015-01-01

    • El ciclo hidrológico. • Los procesos de Urbanización y Desarrollo Urbano. • Crisis ambiental y los recursos de agua. • Abastecimiento, consumo y tratamiento. • Proyectos emblemáticos y diseño urbano apropiado. • Tecnología y tratamiento de agua para la sustentabilidad urbana.

  16. Hydraulic modeling and simulation of a System Division of Essential Service Water in a BWR plant with Flow master; Modelo hidraulico y simulacion de una division del Sistema de Agua de Servicio Esencial de una central BWR con Flowmaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegazo Juzgado, L.; Rodriguez Garcia, G. M.; Mota Coloma, M.

    2012-07-01

    At the conclusion of the project can say that Flow master is a simulation tool that allows you to create your model from a library of components and obtain useful results from the point of view of the operation, engineering and maintenance. Compared to previous software from the point of view of use, can comment that Flow master is a tool which has an intuitive and user-friendly interaction between the user and the program thus facilitating the modeling of the system and definition of the components of same.

  17. Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago Garavito, Ana Isabel; Jiménez, Eliana; Tobón, Marco Alejandro; Gendrau Acho, Sheila; Ciro Rodríguez, Estefanía; Ciro Rodríguez, Alejandra; Trujillo Osorio, Catalina; Currea Dereser , Alejandra; Torres Zambrano, Nestor Ned; Serrato Hurtado, Clemencia; Duque, Santiago R.; Moreno Hurtado, Flavio; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Lloyd, Jon; Patiño, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Con el ánimo de contribuir a la comprensión social, histórica y económica de la gente que habita la región amazónica y al entendimiento del funcionamiento de sus ecosistemas surge el libro Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia. lmani mundo III. Este libro es el tercero de la serie Imani mundo, la cual expone trabajos de investigación en la región amazónica tanto en aspectos sociales como en aspectos ecológicos, realizados por el instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones IMANI de la Universidad Nac...

  18. PVT modeling of reservoir fluids using PC-SAFT EoS and Soave-BWR EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Varzandeh, Farhad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2015-01-01

    non-cubic EoS models, such as the Perturbed Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) EoS and the Soave modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (Soave-BWR) EoS, may partly replace the roles of these classical cubic models in the upstream oil industry. Here, we attempt to make a comparative study...... of non-cubic models (PC-SAFT and Soave-BWR) and cubic models (SRK and PR) in several important aspects related to PVT modeling of reservoir fluids, including density description for typical pure components in reservoir fluids, description of binary VLE, prediction of multicomponent phase envelopes...... and Soave-BWR. For PC-SAFT, new correlations for estimating its model parameters in heptanes plus are developed. The results reveal that the non-cubic models are clearly advantageous in density calculation of pure components. For binary VLE and multicomponent phase envelopes, the results are similar...

  19. Analysis of high fidelity of a BWR fuel element with COBRA-TF/PARCS codes and TRACE; Analisis de Alta Fidelidad de un Elemento Combustible BWR con los codigos COBRA-TF/PARCS y TRACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.; Solar, A.; Concejal, A.; Melara, J.; Albendea, M.

    2013-07-01

    It has been modeled a 10 x 10 BWR fuel element, containing 91 fuel rods (81 of 10 partial length and total length) and a great water bar of square section in the central part of it. Such fuel element has been modeled in detail: at the level of sub-channel code COBRA-TF and using parametric models for fuel elements BWR that owns the plant code TRACE. Has been an exercise in comparison of the results obtained by both codes in the simulation of a stationary and a small transient flow injection, highlighting the differences observed.

  20. Reciclado de las aguas de decapado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, F. A.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Pickling liquors from steel industry, listed as hazardous wastes in most industrializated countries, have been treated by means of several procedures in order to recover the iron and other metals and to obtain an environmental friendly effluent. Depending on the treatment employed, different valuable ferrous products have been obtained. Ammoniojarosite and zinc ferrite were precipitated from the previously oxidised ferrous solutions.

    En la mayoría de los países industrializados, se incluyen las aguas de decapado, tanto las procedentes de los aceros al carbono como de aceros inoxidables, dentro de las listas de residuos tóxicos y peligrosos. Se presentan en este trabajo los resultados obtenidos en las investigaciones realizadas en los últimos años en los que se ha estudiado el tratamiento y recuperación de aguas de decapado de aceros comunes e inoxidables. Su tratamiento se ha enfocado hacia la consecución de dos objetivos: la recuperación del contenido total de metales y la obtención de un efluente de menor impacto ambiental. Se presentan los procedimientos estudiados para la obtención de compuestos de hierro, amoniojarosita y ferritas de zinc, con cierto valor añadido.

  1. The Agua Salud Project, Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R. F.; Elsenbeer, H.; Ogden, F. L.; Hall, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal's central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. It will be the largest field experiment of its kind in the tropics aimed at quantifying the environmental services (water, carbon, and biodiversity) provided by tropical forests. The Agua Salud Watershed is our principal field site. This watershed and the headwaters of several adjacent rivers include both protected mature forests and a wide variety of land uses that are typical of rural Panama. Experiments at the scale of entire catchments will permit complete water and carbon inventories and exchanges for different landscape uses. The following questions will be addressed: (1) How do landscape treatments and management approaches affect ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water quality and quantity, dry- season water supply, and biodiversity? (2) Can management techniques be designed to optimize forest production along with ecosystem services during reforestation? (3) Do different tree planting treatments and landscape management approaches influence groundwater storage, which is thought to be critical to maintaining dry-season flow, thus insuring the full operation of the Canal during periods of reduced rainfall and severe climatic events such as El Niño. In addition we anticipate expanding this project to address biodiversity, social, and economic values of these forests.

  2. LECTURAS DEL AGUA (SÍMBOLOS, ECOCRÍTICA Y CULTURA DEL AGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Martos Núñez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Existen diversos paradigmas sobre el estudio del agua que inciden en ella desde distintos puntos de vista. La gestión del agua es abordada desde las ciencias físicas y geológicas, y se soporta sobre tecnologías como la ingeniería hidráulica. En el aspecto histórico-social, se subraya la importancia de considerar el agua no como un recurso como parte esencial de una cosmovisión que vertebra el patrimonio cultural de una comunidad. Por ejemplo, en el estudio de los desastres (inundaciones, plagas, etc. se ha puesto el énfasis en los datos hidroclimáticos, las respuestas sociales o la vulnerabilidad social. Sin embargo, la ecocrítica ha subrayado el papel de las fabulaciones folklóricas y de los Imaginarios en general para aportar una comprensión holística del problema. Los discursos fabulados admonitorios sobre las aguas y sus riesgos subrayan la importancia de estos lugares de memoria y de reforzar las identidades a través de estas ecoficciones y rituales. Se convierten, pues, en tradiciones útiles porque en realidad hablan de la sostenibilidad, la ética y la necesidad de preservar la memoria y la identidad cultural de la comunidad, frente a la depredación de la Naturaleza. De este modo, el conocimiento de esta cultura del agua no sólo contribuye a la adquisición de las competencias básicas de la educación, y en particular, a la educación literaria y del patrimonio, sino que contribuye a la gobernanza del agua y a la gestión sostenible y responsable de los recursos hídricos. Como indica E. Morin, la lectura y la literatura son una escuela de complejidad, y estos mitos inciden siempre en la multicausalidad de las acciones humanas.http://dx.doi.org/10.14572/nuances.v22i23.1749

  3. Crack growth tests on a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel under the simultaneous influence of simulated BWR coolant and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, H. [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany); Huettner, F. [Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke AG, Hamburg (Germany); Ilg, U. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Philippsburg (Germany); Wachter, O. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover(Germany); Widera, M. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Brozova, A.; Ernestova, M.; Kysela, J.; Vsolak, R. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    Crack growth tests under constant load with initial in-situ cycling were performed on the low alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel 22 NiMoCr 3 7 (A 508 Cl. 2) with the goal to determine crack growth rates of irradiated and non-irradiated steel under the simultaneous influence of simulated BWR coolant and irradiation. The tests were performed under conditions as near as possible to operational conditions in a commercial BWR reactor. The research results are summarized and are compared with international data. (orig.)

  4. Behavior of irradiated BWR fuel under reactivity-initiated-accident conditions; Results of tests FK-1, -2 and -3

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels with burnups of 41 to 45 GWd/tU were pulse-irradiated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate fuel behavior under cold startup reactivity-initiated-accident (RIA) conditions. BWR fuel segment rods of 8times8BJ (STEP I) type from Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 nuclear power plant were refabricated into short test rods, and they were subjected to prompt enthalpy insertion from 293 to 607 J/g (70 to 145 cal/g) within about 20 ms. The fuel cladding...

  5. Study of transient turbine shot without bypass in a BWR; Estudio del transitorio disparo de turbina sin bypass en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo Q, J. A.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Fuentes M, L.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: amhed_jvq@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The study and analysis of operational transients are important for predicting the behavior of a system to short-terms events and the impact that would cause this transition. For the nuclear industry these studies are indispensable due to economic, environmental and social impacts that could result in an accident during the operation of a nuclear reactor. In this paper the preparation, simulation and analysis of results of a turbine shot transient, which is not taken into operation the bypass is presented. The study is realized for a BWR of 2027 MWt, to an intermediate cycle life and using the computer code Simulate-3K a depressurization stage of the vessel is created which shows the response of other security systems and gives a coherent prediction to the event presented type. (Author)

  6. Study of transient rod extraction failure without RBM in a BWR; Estudio del transitorio error de extraccion de barra sin RBM en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo Q, J. A.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Fuentes M, L.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: amhed_jvq@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The study and analysis of the operational transients are important for predicting the behavior of a system to short-term events and the impact that would cause this transient. For the nuclear industry these studies are indispensable due to economic, environmental and social impacts that could cause an accident during the operation of a nuclear reactor. In this paper the preparation, simulation and analysis results of the transient rod extraction failure in which not taken into operation the RBM is presented. The study was conducted for a BWR of 2027 MWt, in an intermediate cycle of its useful life and using the computer code Simulate-3K a scenario of anomalies was created in the core reactivity which gave a coherent prediction to the type of presented event. (Author)

  7. Obtention control bars patterns for a BWR using Tabo search; Obtencion de patrones de barras de control para un BWR usando busqueda Tabu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, A.; Ortiz, J.J.; Alonso, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico 52045 (Mexico); Morales, L.B. [UNAM, IIMAS, Ciudad Universitaria, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Valle, E. del [IPN, ESFM, Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' , Col. Lindavista 07738, D. F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jacm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The obtained results when implementing the technique of tabu search, for to optimize patterns of control bars in a BWR type reactor, using the CM-PRESTO code are presented. The patterns of control bars were obtained for the designs of fuel reloads obtained in a previous work, using the same technique. The obtained results correspond to a cycle of 18 months using 112 fresh fuels enriched at the 3.53 of U-235. The used technique of tabu search, prohibits recently visited movements, in the position that correspond to the axial positions of the control bars, additionally the tiempo{sub t}abu matrix is used for to manage a size of variable tabu list and the objective function is punished with the frequency of the forbidden movements. The obtained patterns of control bars improve the longitude of the cycle with regard to the reference values and they complete the restrictions of safety. (Author)

  8. Thermal hydraulics characterization of the core and the reactor vessel type BWR; Caracterizacion termohidraulica del nucleo y de la vasija de un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata Y, M.; Lopez H, L.E. [CFE, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Municipio Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: marxlenin.zapata@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-07-01

    The thermal hydraulics design of a reactor type BWR 5 as the employees in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde involves the coupling of at least six control volumes: Pumps jet region, Stratification region, Core region, Vapor dryer region, Humidity separator region and Reactor region. Except by the regions of the core and reactor, these control volumes only are used for design considerations and their importance as operative data source is limited. It is for that is fundamental to complement the thermal hydraulics relations to obtain major data that allow to determine the efficiency of internal components, such as pumps jet, humidity separator and vapor dryer. Like example of the previous thing, calculations are realized on the humidity of the principal vapor during starting, comparing it with the values at the moment incorporated in the data banks of the computers of process of both units. (Author)

  9. Optimization of fuel reloads for a BWR using the ant colony system; Optimizacion de recargas de combustible para un BWR usando el sistema de colonia de hormigas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50110 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortiz S, J. J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: jaime.es.jaime@gmail.com

    2009-10-15

    In this work some results obtained during the development of optimization systems are presented, which are employees for the fuel reload design in a BWR. The systems use the ant colony optimization technique. As first instance, a system is developed that was adapted at travel salesman problem applied for the 32 state capitals of Mexican Republic. The purpose of this implementation is that a similarity exists with the design of fuel reload, since the two problems are of combinatorial optimization with decision variables that have similarity between both. The system was coupled to simulator SIMULATE-3, obtaining good results when being applied to an operation cycle in equilibrium for reactors of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  10. Analysis of assemblies exchange in the core of a reactor BWR; Analisis del intercambio de ensambles en el nucleo de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauil U, J. S. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Ingenieria, Av. Industrias no contaminantes por Anillo Periferico Norte s/n, Apdo. Postal 150 Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Fuentes M, L.; Castillo M, J. A.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Perusquia del Cueto, R., E-mail: san_dino@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The performance of the core of a boiling water reactor (BWR) was evaluated when two assemblies are exchanged during the fuel reload in erroneous way. All with the purpose of analyzing the value of the neutrons effective multiplication factor and the thermal limits for an exchange of assemblies. In their realization the mentioned study was based in a transition cycle of the Unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The obtained results demonstrate that when carrying out an exchange between two fuel assemblies in erroneous way, with regard to the original reload, the changes in the neutrons effective multiplication factor do not present a serious problem, unless the exchange has been carried out among a very burnt assembly with one fresh, where this last is taken to the periphery. (Author)

  11. Precio y manejo del agua urbana en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Castro Rosales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone evaluar el potencial del precio que pagan los usuarios como ins - trumento para el manejo de la demanda urbana de agua en México. Nuestros resulta - dos basados en un análisis de datos provenientes de cientos de organismos operadores de agua potable del país, revelan que la demanda de agua sí es sensible al precio, tal y como se ha señalado en otros estudios. No obstante, encontramos también que la demanda es aún mucho más sensible al efecto del crecimiento poblacional y económi - co. Por lo tanto, considerando la dinámica demográfica, urbana y económica del país, un aumento en el precio del agua en sí no podría contribuir significativamente a la estabilización de los requerimientos nacionales de extracción de agua para uso urbano. Además, nuestro análisis de los determinantes del precio del agua urbana revela que los organismos operadores pasan sistemáticamente el costo de sus ineficiencias técnicas y financieras a los usuarios, por lo que un aumento en el precio del agua tampoco podría contribuir al saneamiento de sus finanzas. Concluimos que para un manejo efectivo, eficiente y sustentable del uso urbano de agua, resulta imprescindible un cambio de fondo en la manera en que operan los sistemas urbanos de agua.

  12. Estimation of dose rate around the spent control rods of a BWR; Estimacion de la rapidez de dosis alrededor de las barras de control gastadas de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino P, G.

    2016-10-01

    The energy can come from fossil renewable sources (solar (natural gas, oil), wind, hydro, tidal, geothermal, biomass, bio energy and nuclear. Nuclear power can be obtained by fission reactions and fusion (still under investigation) atomic nuclei. Fission, is a partition of a very heavy nucleus (Uranium 235, for example) into two lighter nuclei. Much of the world's electric power is generated from the energy released by fission processes. In a nuclear power reactor, light water as the BWR, there are many important elements that allow safe driving operation, one of them are the elements or control systems, the burnable poison or neutron absorber inherently allow control power reactor. The control rods, which consist mostly of stainless steel and absorbing elements (such as boron carbide, hafnium, cadmium, among others) of thermal neutrons is able to initiate, regulate or stop the reactor power. These, due to the use of depleted burned or absorbing material and therefore reach their lifespan, which can be 15 years or have other values depending on the manufacturer. Control rods worn should be removed, stored or confined in expressly places. Precisely at this stage arises the importance of knowing their radiological condition to manipulate safely and without incident to the people health responsible for conducting these proceedings state arises. This thesis consists in the estimation of the dose rate in spent control rod made of boron carbide, from a typical BWR reactor. It will be estimated by direct radiation measurements with measurement equipment for radiotherapy ionization chamber, in six spent control rods, which were taken at different reactor operating cycles and are in a spent fuel pool. Using bracket electromechanical and electronic equipment for positioning and lifting equipment for radiation measurement around the control rod in the axial and radial arrangement for proper scanning. Finally will be presented a graphic corresponding to the dose

  13. Crack growth rate in core shroud horizontal welds using two models for a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis Juárez, C.R., E-mail: carlos.arganis@inin.gob.mx; Hernández Callejas, R.; Medina Almazán, A.L.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Two models were used to predict SCC growth rate in a core shroud of a BWR. • A weld residual stress distribution with 30% stress relaxation by neutron was used. • Agreement is shown between the measurements of SCC growth rate and the predictions. • Slip–oxidation model is better at low fluences and empirical model at high fluences. - Abstract: An empirical crack growth rate correlation model and a predictive model based on the slip–oxidation mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) were used to calculate the crack growth rate in a BWR core shroud. In this study, the crack growth rate was calculated by accounting for the environmental factors related to aqueous environment, neutron irradiation to high fluence and the complex residual stress conditions resulting from welding. In estimating the SCC behavior the crack growth measurements data from a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant are referred to, and the stress intensity factor vs crack depth throughout thickness is calculated using a generic weld residual stress distribution for a core shroud, with a 30% stress relaxation induced by neutron irradiation. Quantitative agreement is shown between the measurements of SCC growth rate and the predictions of the slip–oxidation mechanism model for relatively low fluences (5 × 10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2}), and the empirical model predicted better the SCC growth rate than the slip–oxidation model for high fluences (>1 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}). The relevance of the models predictions for SCC growth rate behavior depends on knowing the model parameters.

  14. Calidad del agua de unidades odontológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila de Navia, Sara; Estupiñán Torres, Sandra Mónica; Estupiñán Torres, Diana Milena

    2012-01-01

    El agua es una fuente importante de contaminación en pacientes odontológicos, esta contaminación se ha clasificado en dos clases: la primera, proveniente del suministro primario de agua, es decir, del agua pública y, la segunda, la que se encuentra adherida a las paredes de las mangueras de la unidad odontológica formando una biocapa, que se forma por los fluidos orales que son aspirados durante el procedimiento. La biocapa estará continuamente contaminando las mangueras de la unidad y expuls...

  15. El acceso al agua para consumo humano en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Yánez Contreras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El acceso al agua es un derecho humano que se debe garantizar sin ninguna discriminación. Este artículo examina la existencia de inequidades en el ejercicio de este derecho mediante un análisis discriminante que identifica los factores que explican las diferencias en la calidad del agua para consumo humano entre los municipios colombianos en 2009. Los resultados indican que existen inequidades en el acceso al agua potable. En particular, los municipios más pobres registran los niveles de calidad más bajos.

  16. Plan director de aguas pluviales de Jumilla (Murcia)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Tárraga, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Debido a la necesidad de encauzamiento de las aguas pluviales en el casco urbano y zonas industriales cercanas se procede a realizar un estudio que sirva de plan director para los proyectos futuros, que de a conocer las necesidades en cuanto a diseño y planificación de una red de aguas pluviales separativa que hasta el momento no existe en la ciudad salvo casos muy puntuales y que tiene como objetivo la evacuación de las aguas pluviales del casco urbano y alrededores para pa...

  17. Los Floruros de Aguas Potables de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón S., Bernardo; Acuña B., Armando; Ortiz C., Edgar

    2015-01-01

    El agua que se utiliza en los sistemas de abastecimientos para consumo de las poblaciones, contiene en disolucion proporciones variables de fluoruros, y por lo general, solo trazas debido ala poca solubilidad en agua de los minerales de fluor.La practica de adicionar fluoruros a las aguas potables se inicio a principios del presente siglo despues de muchos años de investigaciones, y hoy se ha superado la etapa experimental para convertirse en una operacion normal y valiosa en proyectos de sal...

  18. El agua es vida… ¡Cuídala!

    OpenAIRE

    Lobón Olmedo, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Mi intención con este proyecto sobre el agua: “EL AGUA ES VIDA…¡¡ CUÍDALA!!” es que los niños y niñas, mediante esas cualidades innatas a su edad, como son la curiosidad, la observación y la experimentación, sean capaces de apreciar la importancia de hacer un uso racional del agua, por lo tanto que sean capaces de “amar al agua” al ser un elemento tan cotidiano y cercano en su vida diaria.

  19. El futuro de la industria de agua en el mundo

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    En el presente artículo se expone una visión personal, adquirida en buena medida desde la responsabilidad de dirigir la DVGW (la asociación alemana de compañías de distribución de agua y gas, que agrupa a varios miles de socios) sobre el futuro de la industria del agua en el mundo en general y en Europa en particular, a la luz de la Directiva Marco del Agua. La idea que preside el artículo es que cada país debe establecer los mecanismos necesarios para, a partir de sus peculiaridades y del co...

  20. Calidad sanitaria del agua del Parque Natural Chicaque

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila de Navia, Sara Lilia; Estupiñán Torres, Sandra Mónica

    2013-01-01

    La eutrofización es un proceso natural en los ecosistemas acuáticos, se produce por el enriquecimiento del cuerpo de agua con nutrientes. Durante los últimos años el ser humano ha acelerado estos procesos de eutrofización modificando tanto la calidad de las aguas como la estructura de las comunidades biológicas, debido al aumento en la carga orgánica e inorgánica de los cuerpos de agua. La eutrofización reduce los usos potenciales de los recursos hídricos ya que induce a la mortalidad de espe...

  1. El acceso al agua para consumo humano en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Yánez Contreras; Karina Acevedo González

    2014-01-01

    El acceso al agua es un derecho humano que se debe garantizar sin ninguna discriminación. Este artículo examina la existencia de inequidades en el ejercicio de este derecho mediante un análisis discriminante que identifica los factores que explican las diferencias en la calidad del agua para consumo humano entre los municipios colombianos en 2009. Los resultados indican que existen inequidades en el acceso al agua potable. En particular, los municipios más pobres registran los niveles de cali...

  2. Directrices para una política sostenible del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Cañas, José; Cabrera, Emilio; Cobacho, R.; Cabrera Jr., E.

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo revisa, a la luz de la Directiva Marco del Agua (DMA) y de las conclusiones de las reuniones internacionales ligadas al agua celebradas en los últimos años, las directrices que debe seguir una política sostenible del agua. Al tiempo tiene vocación de sintetizar los artículos que completan el presente monográfico. Algunas de nuestras valoraciones están más desarrolladas en los artículos que siguen. Con todos guarda una buena sintonía. Por ello, lo más singular de esta contribució...

  3. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments.

  4. A Mechanistic Approach for the Prediction of Critical Power in BWR Fuel Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraker, Dinesh Kumar; Vijayan, Pallipattu Krishnan; Sinha, Ratan Kumar; Aritomi, Masanori

    The critical power corresponding to the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) or dryout condition is an important design parameter for the evaluation of safety margins in a nuclear fuel bundle. The empirical approaches for the prediction of CHF in a rod bundle are highly geometric specific and proprietary in nature. The critical power experiments are very expensive and technically challenging owing to the stringent simulation requirements for the rod bundle tests involving radial and axial power profiles. In view of this, the mechanistic approach has gained momentum in the thermal hydraulic community. The Liquid Film Dryout (LFD) in an annular flow is the mechanism of CHF under BWR conditions and the dryout modeling has been found to predict the CHF quite accurately for a tubular geometry. The successful extension of the mechanistic model of dryout to the rod bundle application is vital for the evaluation of critical power in the rod bundle. The present work proposes the uniform film flow approach around the rod by analyzing individual film of the subchannel bounded by rods with different heat fluxes resulting in different film flow rates around a rod and subsequently distributing the varying film flow rates of a rod to arrive at the uniform film flow rate as it has been found that the liquid film has a strong tendency to be uniform around the rod. The FIDOM-Rod code developed for the dryout prediction in BWR assemblies provides detailed solution of the multiple liquid films in a subchannel. The approach of uniform film flow rate around the rod simplifies the liquid film cross flow modeling and was found to provide dryout prediction with a good accuracy when compared with the experimental data of 16, 19 and 37 rod bundles under BWR conditions. The critical power has been predicted for a newly designed 54 rod bundle of the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). The selected constitutive models for the droplet entrainment and deposition rates validated for the dryout in tube were

  5. LOCA steam condensation loads in BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Namatame, K.; Takeshita, I.; Shiba, M.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrodynamic loads induced in the BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment system during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) were investigated using a large scale test facility. The maximum-bounding loading conditions on the pressure suppression pool-boundary structures were defined by conducting experiments for a wide range of parameters. The maximum-bounding loads occurred when steam, with air concentration less than 1% in weight, was injected at moderate rates (approx. = 30 kg/m/sup 2/.s) into a low-temperature (below 310 K) pool. Such conditions are most likely to be encountered during LOCAs with intermediate break sizes.

  6. LOCA air-injection loads in BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Shiba, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki); Namatame, K. (Institute of Nuclear Safety, Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-02-01

    Large-scale blowdown tests were conducted to investigate the thermal-hydrodynamic response of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark II pressure suppression containment system to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. This paper presents the test results on the early blowdown transients, where air in the drywell is injected into the pressure suppression pool and induces various hydrodynamic loads onto the containment pressure boundary and internal structures. The test data are compared to predictions by analytical models used for the licensing evaluation of the hydrodynamic loads to assess these models.

  7. Effect of non-heterogeneous wetwell boundaries on pressure suppression system response. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.; Namatame, K.; Kukita, Y.; Shiba, M.

    1980-08-29

    The Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program is in progress at the Tokai-Mura Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The primary objective of the on-going CRT Program is to provide a data base for evaluation of the pressure suppression pool (wetwell) hydrodynamic loads associated with a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the BWR Mark II containment system. The test facility is 1/18 of full scale in volume and has a wetwell which is a full-scale geometric replica of one 20/sup 0/-sector of a reference 1100MWe Mark II.

  8. TRACE code validation for BWR spray cooling injection based on GOTA facility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racca, S. [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), Pisa (Italy); Kozlowski, T. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Best estimate codes have been used in the past thirty years for the design, licensing and safety of NPP. Nevertheless, large efforts are necessary for the qualification and the assessment of such codes. The aim of this work is to study the main phenomena involved in the emergency spray cooling injection in a Swedish designed BWR. For this purpose, data from the Swedish separate effect test facility GOTA have been simulated using TRACE version 5.0 Patch 2. Furthermore, uncertainty calculations have been performed with the propagation of input errors method and the identification of the input parameters that mostly influence the peak cladding temperature has been performed. (author)

  9. Aguas diversas. Derechos de agua y pluralidad legal en las comunidades andinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boelens, Rutgerd

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Water rights and property relations have become pivotal issues in water debates, reforms and intervention programs. Governments, development agencies and expert centers tend to consider ‘water rights’ as merely standard black boxes that juxtapose the frameworks of positivist technical and economist water science. But far beyond universal manuals and irrigation regulations, there is another water world, entrenched in the everyday lives of real people, male and female water users. The paper makes clear how Andean user collectives practice an enormous variety of water rights and management forms, as localnational- international hybrids that are created and affirmed in local water territories, embedded in historical and cultural-political contexts.

    Por el aumento generalizado de los conflictos por el agua, los derechos a este recurso se han vuelto ejes en los debates, reformas y programas de intervención hídrica. Los gobiernos, las agencias de desarrollo y los centros expertos tienden a considerar los ‘derechos de agua’ como meras cajas negras estándar que se yuxtaponen a los marcos de las ciencias técnicas y económicas positivistas. Pero mucho más allá de los manuales y las regulaciones de riego, hay otro mundo del agua íntimamente ligado a la vida diaria de gente real, hombres y mujeres que usan ese agua. Este artículo estudia cómo los colectivos de usuarios en la región andina practican una enorme variedad de derechos de agua y formas de gestión, como híbridos locales-nacionales-internacionales que se crean y afirman en los territorios hídricos locales, embebidos en contextos históricos y cultural-políticos.

  10. Phenomenology of severe accidents in BWR type reactors. First part; Fenomenologia de accidentes severos en reactores nucleares de agua en ebullicion. Primera parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval V, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Energia Nuclear, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A Severe Accident in a nuclear power plant is a deviation from its normal operating conditions, resulting in substantial damage to the core and, potentially, the release of fission products. Although the occurrence of a Severe Accident on a nuclear power plant is a low probability event, due to the multiple safety systems and strict safety regulations applied since plant design and during operation, Severe Accident Analysis is performed as a safety proactive activity. Nuclear Power Plant Severe Accident Analysis is of great benefit for safety studies, training and accident management, among other applications. This work describes and summarizes some of the most important phenomena in Severe Accident field and briefly illustrates its potential use based on the results of two generic simulations. Equally important and abundant as those here presented, fission product transport and retention phenomena are deferred to a complementary work. (Author)

  11. El agua, el TLC y el agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Suárez Mejía

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de absoluta actualidad se re- fiere al tratamiento que el poder ejecutivo viene dando al tema del agro y los recursos de los cuales depende. Ya en prensa el tema de tierras, corrupción y violencia ha sido registrado en relación con el gobierno del presidente Uribe y el Incoder. Ahora se trata de examinar de qué manera el Incoder desmonta el manejo y propiedad de los distritos de adecuación de tierras de los cuales depende la actividad agropecuaria sin que para tal expropiación del recurso agua se requiera acudir a las instancias de un TLC. La hipertrofia de las posiciones contra el TLC ha permitido sin lugar a dudas que desde el derecho interno mientras se negocia se adelanten las normas que permiten las inversiones que interesan al espacio de la “integración comercial”

  12. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  13. El mundo yanacona alrededor del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Camargo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto procura hacer una breve descripción del pueblo indígena Yanacona, que, a pesar de los atropellos que ha sufrido desde tiempos remotos, logra conservar su historia, y trabaja por el fortalecimiento de su cultura y el rescate de sus formas de vida. Los yanaconas han contrarrestado los distintos sincretismos culturales que representa el medio, conservan algunas características de los pueblos quechuas andinos y el vínculo que une al indígena con la naturaleza y su territorio, -el Macizo Colombiano-, y en particular, con el agua, concebida desde su cosmovisión como fuente de vida y punto de partida de la existencia.

  14. El agua, el TLC y el agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sampedro Torres

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de absoluta actualidad se refiere al tratamiento que el poder ejecutivo viene dando al tema del agro y los recursos de los cuales depende. Ya en prensa el tema de tierras, corrupción y violencia ha sido registrado en relación con el gobierno del presidente Uribe y el Incoder. Ahora se trata de examinar de qué manera el Incoder desmonta el manejo y propiedad de los distritos de adecuación de tierras de los cuales depende la actividad agropecuaria sin que para tal expropiación del recurso agua se requiera acudir a las instancias de un

  15. Contaminación del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca Monge, Sergio; Mora Brenes, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se reflexiona acerca de los factores que inciden en la contaminación del recurso hídrico y sus efectos sobre la calidad de vida y la salud de la población. Se señala que el agua potable no solo se contamina de forma natural, sino también por diferentes sustancias introducidas por actividades humanas en campos como la industria y la agricultura. No obstante, el mayor riesgo para la salud de la población lo representan los diferentes patógenos causantes de enfermedades mediante...

  16. Repercusiones sanitarias de la calidad del agua: los residuos de medicamentos en el agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Postigo Rebollo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo resume varios estudios de monitorización de fármacos y drogas de abuso llevados a cabo en el medio ambiente acuático de las cuencas de los ríos Llobregat y Ebro con el fin de evaluar la calidad del agua en relación a la presencia de estas substancias y su potencial riesgo para la salud ambiental y pública. La identificación de estos compuestos aguas abajo del punto de vertido de las plantas depuradoras apunta a la descarga de agua residual tratada como la principal fuente de emisión de estos contaminantes en el medio acuático. El perfil de contaminación por fármacos fue bastante similar en ambas cuencas. No obstante, los índices de riesgo (HQ calculados para los fármacos en diferentes niveles tróficos (algas, dáfnidos y peces indican que los compuestos que presentan un mayor riesgo ecotóxico en el Llobregat son el sulfametoxazol (antibiótico sulfamida para las algas, el gemfibrozil (regulador de lípidos para las algas y los peces, el ácido clofíbrico (regulador de lípidos y la eritromicina (antibiótico macrólido para los dáfnidos, y el ibuprofeno (analgésico anti-inflamatorio para todos los eslabones tróficos. En el Ebro, los compuestos más problemáticos son el sulfametoxazol para las algas, y la eritromicina, el ácido clofíbrico y la fluoxetina (antidepresivo para los dáfnidos.Los niveles de drogas de abuso (y sus metabolitos determinados en la cuenca del Ebro son aproximadamente uno y dos órdenes de magnitud más bajos respectivamente que los determinados en las aguas de salida y de entrada a las depuradoras. Sin embargo, debido a la falta de datos sobre su ecotoxicidad, no se han podido calcular índices de riesgo.La presencia de estos compuestos (fármacos y drogas en aguas superficiales y de bebida aun no está regulada y, por lo tanto, no constituyen parámetros de obligado control. Aún es imprescindible seguir investigando para poder evaluar su posible efecto en la salud humana.

  17. El derecho al agua en las legislaciones nacionales

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Cuando sobreviene una catástrofe las víctimas reciben en primer lugar ayuda médica, agua potable, alimentación y un refugio. Todo el mundo está de acuerdo en reconocer que los servicios médicos, la alimentación y el alojamiento son derechos económicos y sociales que cada persona debería tener, pero aún hay quienes se preguntan sobre la naturaleza del acceso al agua. ¿Hoy en día puede dudarse de la existencia de un derecho al agua? ¿Es posible disociar de modo razonable el agua de otros bienes...

  18. Abasto del agua en la frontera norte de Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús FRAUSTO ORTEGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ref lexiona sobre el abasto de agua potable en los municipios fronterizos del norte de Tamaulipas, a partir de la perspectiva del derecho humano al agua ( DHA . Se responde la pregunta: ¿cómo se ha desarrollado la cobertura de agua potable en esos municipios? Se revisan estadísticas del Inegi de 1990 a 2010, ejemplares del Periódico o f icial del estado y diversas fuen - tes secundarias. Se encuentra que hay coberturas altas, tanto en agua potable como en drenaje, superiores a los promedios nacional y regional. Sin embargo, aún existe población sin acceso a estos servicios en sus viviendas y que, utilizando el DHA como una herramienta de gestión, puede demandar la dotación de esos servicios.

  19. Política descentralizadora del agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Cienfuegos Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de política descentralizadora en relación con la gestión del agua potable implica aclarar el significado de descentralización y su aplicación en México. En este trabajo se ofrecen algunas aportaciones al concepto y se describe el proceso que, de hecho, ha ocurrido en la política de descentralización del agua en el país.

  20. Investigation of control rod worth and nuclear end of life of BWR control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Per

    2008-01-15

    This work has investigated the Control Rod Worth (CRW) and Nuclear End of Life (NEOL) values for BWR control rods. A study of how different parameters affect NEOL was performed with the transport code PHOENIX4. It was found that NEOL, expressed in terms of {sup 10}B depletion, can be generalized beyond the conditions for which the rod is depleted, such as different power densities and void fractions, the corresponding variation in the NEOL will be about 0.2-0.4% {sup 10}B. It was also found that NEOL results for different fuel types and different fuel enrichments have a variation of about 2-3% in {sup 10}B depletion. A comparative study on NHOL and CRW was made between PHOENIX4 and the stochastic Monte Carlo code MCNP. It was found that there is a significant difference, both due to differences in the codes and to limitations in the geometrical modeling in PHOENIX4. Since MCNP is considered more physically correct, a methodology was developed to calculate the nuclear end of life of BWR control rods with MCNP. The advantages of the methodology are that it does not require other codes to perform the depletion of the absorber material, it can describe control rods of any design and it can deplete the control rod absorber material without burning the fuel. The disadvantage of the method is that is it time-consuming.

  1. Transient and stability analysis of a BWR core with thorium-uranium fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Carrera, Alejandro [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779 Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx; Francois, Juan-Luis [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec Mor. (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    The kinetic response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) equilibrium core using thorium as a nuclear material, in an integrated blanket-seed assembly, is presented in this work. Additionally an in-house code was developed to evaluate this core under steady state and transient conditions including a stability analysis. The code has two modules: (a) the time domain module for transient analysis and (b) the frequency domain module for stability analysis. The thermal-hydraulic process is modeled by a set of five equations, considering no homogeneous flow with drift-flux approximation and non-equilibrium thermodynamic. The neutronic process is calculated with a point kinetics model. Typical BWR reactivity effects are considered: void fraction, fuel temperature, moderator temperature and control rod density. Collapsed parameters were included in the code to represent the core using an average fuel channel. For the stability analysis, in the frequency domain, the transfer function is determined by applying Laplace-transforming to the calculated pressure drop perturbations in each of the considered regions where a constant total pressure drop was considered. The transfer function was used to study the system response in the frequency domain when an inlet flow perturbation is applied. The results show that the neutronic behavior of the core with thorium uranium fuel is similar to a UO{sub 2} core, even during transient conditions. The stability and transient analysis show that the thorium-uranium fuel can be operated safely in current BWRs.

  2. TRACE Model for Simulation of Anticipated Transients Without Scram in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng L. Y.; Baek J.; Cuadra,A.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

    2013-11-10

    A TRACE model has been developed for using theTRACE/PARCS computational package [1, 2] to simulate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The model represents a BWR/5 housed in a Mark II containment. The reactor and the balance of plant systems are modeled in sufficient detail to enable the evaluation of plant responses and theeffectiveness of automatic and operator actions tomitigate this beyond design basis accident.The TRACE model implements features thatfacilitate the simulation of ATWS events initiated by turbine trip and closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIV). It also incorporates control logic to initiate actions to mitigate the ATWS events, such as water levelcontrol, emergency depressurization, and injection of boron via the standby liquid control system (SLCS). Two different approaches have been used to model boron mixing in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel: modulate coolant flow in the lower plenum by a flow valve, and use control logic to modular.

  3. Analysis of containment venting following a core damage at a BWR Mark I using THALES-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, Surip [Nuclear Safety Technology Development Center, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Tangerang (Indonesia); Ishikawa, Jun; Muramatsu, Ken [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sakamoto, Toru [Toshiba Advanced System Co., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    Analysis of containment venting following a core damage at a boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark I using THALES-2 was performed. In this analysis, the effect of various parameters, namely, the areas of the vent path, containment venting pressure, and accident sequences on the containment thermodynamic response, and radionuclide transport and release in the containment venting at a BWR was examined. The code THALES-2B developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was used in this analysis. The model plant in this analysis was the Browns Ferry plant. From this analysis was found that the 4-inch pipe of containment venting flow path is sufficient to maintain the containment pressure in the specified range if the containment was pressurized by the decay heat power. The entrainment by the pool swelling as well as by the flashing was not occurred during the containment venting. The source terms are not sensitive to the variation of containment venting flow path area. The containment venting pressure operation setting point has important rule in the containment venting. In the containment venting, the source terms are not sensitive to the accident sequence, except for Sr source term. In order to get better understanding on the containment venting strategy, the following analyses are necessary. Analyses of accident sequence which has a high power such as anticipated transient without scram are necessary, as well as analyses of accident sequence which pressurize the containment before the core damage. (author)

  4. Identification and initial assessment of candidate BWR late-phase in-vessel accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1991-04-15

    Work sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and perform preliminary assessments of candidate BWR (boiling water reactor) in-vessel accident management strategies was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during fiscal year 1990. Mitigative strategies for containment events have been the subject of a companion study at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The focus of this Oak Ridge effort was the development of new strategies for mitigation of the late phase events, that is, the events that would occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage. The work began with an investigation of the current status of BWR in-vessel accident management procedures and proceeded through a preliminary evaluation of several candidate new strategies. The steps leading to the identification of the candidate strategies are described. The four new candidate late-phase (in-vessel) accident mitigation strategies identified by this study and discussed in the report are: (1) keep the reactor vessel depressurized; (2) restore injection in a controlled manner; (3) inject boron if control blade damage has occurred; and (4) containment flooding to maintain core and structural debris in-vessel. Additional assessments of these strategies are proposed.

  5. High-fidelity multiphysics simulation of BWR assembly with coupled TORT-TD/CTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magedanz, J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State Univ., Reber Building, Univ. Park, PA 16802 (United States); Perin, Y. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, Forschungsinstitute, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Avramova, M. [Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State Univ., Reber Building, Univ. Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pautz, A.; Puente-Espel, F.; Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, Forschungsinstitute, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the application of the coupled codes TORT-TD and CTF to the pin-by-pin modeling of a BWR fuel assembly with thermal-hydraulic feedback. TORT-TD, developed at GRS, is a time-dependent three dimensional discrete ordinates code. CTF is the PSU's improved version of the subchannel code COBRA-TF, which uses a two-fluid, three-field model to represent two-phase flow with entrained droplets, and is commonly applied to evaluate LWR safety margins. The coupled codes system TORT-TD/CTF, already applied to several PWR cases involving MOX, was adapted from PWR to BWR applications. The purpose of the research described in this paper is to verify the coupling for modeling two-phase flow at the pin cell level. Using an ATRIUM-10 assembly, the system's steady-state capabilities were tested on two cases: one without control blade insertion and another with partially inserted blades. The influence of the neutron absorber on local axial and radial parameters is presented. The description of an inlet flow reduction transient is an example for the time-dependent capability of the coupled system. (authors)

  6. Desarrollo sostenible y el agua como derecho en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica-Paola Díaz-Pulido

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El agua como recurso ambiental, bien económico y bien social debería hacer parte de la agenda pública colombiana, no sólo en cuanto a su manejo y preservación, sino también en cuanto a las implicaciones sociales que se puedan generar en su tenencia y uso. Esta preocupación tiene sus orígenes en los años setenta, en los que se inició un proceso de preocupación mundial por los recursos naturales y su rápida disminución, escasez y extinción. Uno de los resultados fue el establecimiento de convenciones y acuerdos internacionales sobre el manejo responsable de los recursos naturales. En cuanto al agua como recurso ambiental, se encuentra intrínsecamente ligado al funcionamiento de los ecosistemas y a los ciclos naturales del planeta. Para el caso del contexto colombiano, este artículo analiza: el agua como parte del desarrollo sostenible, el agua como derecho y, finalmente, el agua como derecho en el contexto colombiano dentro del marco explicativo del Referendo del Agua.

  7. Estudio de la calidad del agua en cisternas de captación de agua de lluvia en escuelas rurales de Alagoas (Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Abelleira, Mafalda

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo se centra en el estudio de la calidad del agua de Sistemas de Recogida de agua de lluvia en escuelas del Semiárido Alagoano de Brasil. Aspectos de la obra civil también son incluidos. Los Sistemas principalmente están formados por un área de captación de agua de lluvia, cisternas de placas de cemento, canalizaciones que las unen y una bomba manual para la retirada del agua de la cisterna. Se analizaron 206 muestras de parámetros básicos de la calidad del agua – conducti...

  8. El régimen jurídico de las aguas para usos agrícolas: aguas subterráneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brebbia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Como ha señalado el profesor Adolfo Gelsi Bidart la relación entre tierra yagua es alguno de los aspectos que el derecho agrario debe tener en cuenta y ello importa establecer si la regulación de las aguas compete al derecho agrario, constituye una disciplina autónoma, o bien si su estudio corresponde a diversas ramas del derecho cada una de las cuales debe ocuparse de examinar determinados aspectos, o mejor, de distintas formas de su uso y aprovechamientol (...Contenido: Derecho agrario y derecho de aguas. Algunos datos estadísticos acerca del agua. Los usos del agua. Aguas públicas y aguas privadas. La utilización del agua para la agricultura. El tratamiento legal de las aguas para la agricultura en los países del Mercosur: Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay, Uruguay. Evolución legislativa del régimen de las aguas subterráneas en el derecho agrario comparado. Modernas tendencias sobre el dominio de las aguas subterráneas. Las leyes de aguas de España e Italia

  9. Analysis of a German BWR core with TRACE/PARCS using different cross section sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, C., E-mail: Christoph.Hartmann@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (KIT), Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Sanchez, V.H. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (KIT), Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Tietsch, W. [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    'Full text:' Coupled Thermal-hydraulic/Neutron-kinetic (TH/NK) simulations of Boiling Water Reactor transients require well validated and accurate simulation tools as well as appropriate cross sections (XS) libraries depending on the individual thermal hydraulic state parameters. Problem-dependent XS-sets for 3D core simulations are being generated mainly by well validated, fast running and user-friendly lattice codes such as Casco and Helios. At research institutions and universities, alternative tools to the commercial ones with full access to the source code as well as moderate cost are urgently needed. The Scale system is being developed and improved for lattice physics calculations of real core loading of Light Water Reactors (LWR). It represents a promising alternative to the commercial lattice codes. At Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Kit) a computational route based on Scale/Triton/Newt for BWR core loading is under development. The generated XS-data sets have to be transformed in PMAXS-format for use in the reactor dynamic code PARCS. This task is performed by the module GenPMAXS being developed and tested at the Michigan University. To verify the computational route, a BWR fuel assembly depletion problem was calculated by PARCS and compared to the CASMO results. Since the SCALE/TRITON XS-file does actually not contain all required neutronic data, FORTRAN routines have been developed to incorporate the missing data e.g. the yields of Iodine, Xenon and Promethium into the XS-data sets in the PMAXS-format. The comparison of the results obtained with PARCS (using the corrected PMAXS file) and CASMO for the depletion problem exhibited a good agreement. Consequently, this approach was followed for the generation of a complete XS-set for a real BWR core to be used in subsequent transient analysis. Then 3D neutronic and thermal hydraulic core model were elaborated for a TRACE/PARCS analysis. The thermal hydraulic model is based on the 3D VESSEL

  10. Optimization of fuel cells for BWR based in Tabu modified search; Optimizacion de celdas de combustible para BWR basada en busqueda Tabu modificada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Palomera P, M.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Posgrado en Ingenieria en Computacion, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: cmcm@fi-b.unam.mx

    2004-07-01

    The advances in the development of a computational system for the design and optimization of cells for assemble of fuel of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) are presented. The method of optimization is based on the technique of Tabu Search (Tabu Search, TS) implemented in progressive stages designed to accelerate the search and to reduce the time used in the process of optimization. It was programed an algorithm to create the first solution. Also for to diversify the generation of random numbers, required by the technical TS, it was used the Makoto Matsumoto function obtaining excellent results. The objective function has been coded in such a way that can adapt to optimize different parameters like they can be the enrichment average or the peak factor of radial power. The neutronic evaluation of the cells is carried out in a fine way by means of the HELIOS simulator. In the work the main characteristics of the system are described and an application example is presented to the design of a cell of 10x10 bars of fuel with 10 different enrichment compositions and gadolinium content. (Author)

  11. SUN-RAH: a nucleoelectric BWR university simulator based in reduced order models; SUN-RAH: simulador universitario de nucleoelectrica BWR basado en modelos de orden reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales S, J.B.; Lopez R, A.; Sanchez B, A.; Sanchez S, R.; Hernandez S, A. [DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jms0620@yahoo.com

    2003-07-01

    The development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of a nucleo electric central, with nuclear reactor of the BWR type, using reduced order models is presented. These models present the characteristics defined by the dominant poles of the system (1) and most of those premature operation transitories in a power station can be reproduced with considerable fidelity if the models are identified with data of plant or references of a code of better estimate like RAMONA, TRAC (2) or RELAP. The models of the simulator are developments or own simplifications starting from the physical laws and retaining the main terms. This work describes the objective of the project and the general specifications of the University student of Nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor type (SUN-RAH) as well as the finished parts that fundamentally are the nuclear reactor, the one of steam supply (NSSS), the plant balance (BOP), the main controllers of the plant and the implemented graphic interfaces. The pendent goals as well as the future developments and applications of SUN-RAH are described. (Author)

  12. Artificial intelligence applied to fuel management in BWR type reactors; Inteligencia artificial aplicada a la administracion de combustible en reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J

    1998-10-01

    In this work two techniques of artificial intelligence, neural networks and genetic algorithms were applied to a practical problem of nuclear fuel management; the determination of the optimal fuel reload for a BWR type reactor. This is an important problem in the design of the operation cycle of the reactor. As a result of the application of these techniques, comparable or even better reloads proposals than those given by expert companies in the subject were obtained. Additionally, two other simpler problems in reactor physics were solved: the determination of the axial power profile and the prediction of the value of some variables of interest at the end of the operation cycle of the reactor. Neural networks and genetic algorithms have been applied to solve many problems of engineering because of their versatility but they have been rarely used in the area of fuel management. The results obtained in this thesis indicates the convenience of undertaking further work on this area and suggest the application of these techniques of artificial intelligence to the solution of other problems in nuclear reactor physics. (Author)

  13. Prediction of the stability of BWR reactors during the start-up process; Prediccion de la estabilidad de reactores BWR durante el proceso de arranque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz E, J.A.; Castillo D, R. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Blazquez M, J.B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energetics, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) are susceptible of uncertainties of power when they are operated to low flows of coolant (W) and high powers (P), being presented this situation mainly in the start-up process. The start-up process could be made but sure if the operator knew the value of the stability index Decay reason (Dr) before going up power and therefore to guarantee the stability. The power and the flow are constantly measures, the index Dr could also be considered its value in real time. The index Dr depends on the power, flow and many other values, such as, the distribution of the flow axial and radial neutronic, the temperature of the feeding water, the fraction of holes and other thermohydraulic and nuclear parameters. A simple relationship of Dr is derived leaving of the pattern reduced of March-Leuba, where three independent variables are had that are the power, the flow and a parameter that it contains the rest of the phenomenology, that is to say all the other quantities that affect the value of Dr. This relationship developed work presently and verified its prediction with data of start-up of commercial reactors could be used for the design of a practical procedure practice of start-up, what would support to the operator to prevent this type of events of uncertainty. (Author)

  14. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  15. Non-local two phase flow momentum transport in S BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa P, G.; Salinas M, L.; Vazquez R, A., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Apdo. Postal 55-535, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The non-local momentum transport equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection, diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow. For instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail. The S BWR was considered to study the non-local effects on the two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic core performance in steady-state, and the results were compared with the classical local averaging volume conservation equations. (Author)

  16. Optimized clearing work concept for the BWR containment; Optimiertes Raeumungskonzept fuer SWR-Sicherheitsbehaelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraps, Uwe [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Based on the experiences of reactor dismantling in the NPPs Wuergasse, Obrigheim and Stade an optimized clearing work concept for the BWR containment including the reactor pressure vessel and the biological shield was developed. The concept is focused on the safety objective, the reduction of the collective dose and the reduction of the execution time. Precondition for the decommissioning license was up to now the removal of fuel elements from the reactor; due to the significantly increased period until fulfillment of this premises concepts are developed that can be performed with simultaneous reduction of the radiological inventories and the fire loads. The most important step of the guideline of the concept is the transition from hot to cold. The in-situ disassembling of the reactor internals can be performed with decreased water level in the reactor pressure vessel, with following water treatment and complete shutdown of operational systems. This status allows an accelerated further dismantling of the plant.

  17. Revised uranium--plutonium cycle PWR and BWR models for the ORIGEN computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A. G.; Bjerke, M. A.; Morrison, G. W.; Petrie, L. M.

    1978-09-01

    Reactor physics calculations and literature searches have been conducted, leading to the creation of revised enriched-uranium and enriched-uranium/mixed-oxide-fueled PWR and BWR reactor models for the ORIGEN computer code. These ORIGEN reactor models are based on cross sections that have been taken directly from the reactor physics codes and eliminate the need to make adjustments in uncorrected cross sections in order to obtain correct depletion results. Revised values of the ORIGEN flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST were calculated along with new parameters related to the activation of fuel-assembly structural materials not located in the active fuel zone. Recommended fuel and structural material masses and compositions are presented. A summary of the new ORIGEN reactor models is given.

  18. Experimental simulation of the water cooling of corium spread over the floor of a BWR containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morage, F.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Podowski, M.Z. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the cooling effect of water collected on the surface of corium released onto the floor of a BWR drywell. In the present experiments, the actual reactor materials were replaced by simulant materials. Specifically, the results are shown for Freon-11 film boiling over liquid Wood`s metal spread above a solid porous surface through which argon gas was injected. An analysis of the obtained experimental data revealed that the actual film boiling heat transfer between a molten pool of corium and the water above the pool should be more efficient than predicted by using standard correlations for boiling over solid surfaces. This effect will be further augmented by the gas released due to the ablation of concrete floor beneath the corium and percolating towards its upper surface and into through the water layer above.

  19. Safety/relief valve quencher loads: evaluation for BWR Mark II and III containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.M.

    1982-10-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) plants are equipped with safety/relief valves (SRVs) to protect the reactor from overpressurization. Plant operational transients, such as turbine trips, will actuate the SRV. Once the SRV opens, the air column within the partially submerged discharge line is compressed by the high-pressure steam released from the reactor. The compressed air discharged into the suppression pool produces high-pressure bubbles. Oscillatory expansion and contraction of these bubbles create hydrodynamic loads on the containment structures, piping, and equipment inside containment. This report presents the results of the staff's evaluation of SRV loads. The evaluation, however, is limited to the quencher devices used in Mark II and III containments. With respect to Mark I containments, the SRV acceptance criteria are presented in NUREG-0661 issued July 1980. The staff acceptance criteria for SRV loads for Mark II and III containments are presented in this report.

  20. Kuosheng BWR/6 containment pressure and temperature responses after recirculation line break using GOTHIC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, A.; Wang, J-R.; Chen, Y-S., E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw, E-mail: jrwang@iner.gov.tw, E-mail: yschen@iner.gov.tw [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council (China); Shih, C., E-mail: ckshih@ess.nthu.edu.tw [National Tsing Hua Univ., Dept. of Engineering and System Science (China)

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we presented the calculated results of the containment P/T (pressure and temperature) response after the recirculation line break (RCLB) accident of a GE-designed twin-unit BWR/6 plant, which can be served as the design basis for the containment system. During the simulation, a power of SPU (stretch power uprate) range was used and a model of the Mark III type containment was built using the GOTHIC (Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments) code. The calculated results, similar to the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) results, indicate the GOTHIC code has the capability to simulate the containment P/T response to the RCLB accident. (author)

  1. Development of a parametric containment event tree model for a severe BWR accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T. [OTO-Consulting Ay, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-04-01

    A containment event tree (CET) is built for analysis of severe accidents at the TVO boiling water reactor (BWR) units. Parametric models of severe accident progression and fission product behaviour are developed and integrated in order to construct a compact and self-contained Level 2 PSA model. The model can be easily updated to correspond to new research results. The analyses of the study are limited to severe accidents starting from full-power operation and leading to core melting, and are focused mainly on the use and effects of the dedicated severe accident management (SAM) systems. Severe accident progression from eight plant damage states (PDS), involving different pre-core-damage accident evolution, is examined, but the inclusion of their relative or absolute probabilities, by integration with Level 1, is deferred to integral safety assessments. (33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.).

  2. CSAU methodology and results for an ATWS event in a BWR using information theory methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L., E-mail: jlcobos@iqn.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Thermal-Hydraulics and Nuclear Engineering Group (TIN), Institute for Energy Engineering (IEE), Valencia (Spain); Escrivá, A., E-mail: aescriva@iqn.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Thermal-Hydraulics and Nuclear Engineering Group (TIN), Institute for Energy Engineering (IEE), Valencia (Spain); Mendizabal, R., E-mail: rmsanz@csn.es [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pelayo, F., E-mail: fpl@csn.es [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Melara, J., E-mail: jls@iberdrola.es [IBERINCO, IBERDROLA Ingeniería y Construcción, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We apply the CSAU methodology to an ATWS in a BWR using information theory methods. • We show how to perform the selection of the most influential inputs on the critical safety parameter. • We apply the maximum entropy principle to get the input parameter distribution. • We examine the maximum relative entropy principle to update the input parameter PDF. • We quantify the uncertainty of the critical safety parameter using order statistics and information theory. - Abstract: This paper shows an application of the CSAU methodology to an ATWS in a BWR reactor, when the temperature of the suppression pool is taken as the critical safety parameter. The method combines CSAU methodology with recent techniques of information theory. In this paper we use auxiliary tools to help in the evaluation and improvement of the parameters distribution that enter in the elements II and III of CSAU based methodologies. These tools have been implemented in two FORTRAN programs: GEDIPA (Generation of the Parameter Distribution) and UNTHERCO (Uncertainty in Thermal Hydraulic Codes). The first one analyzes the information data available on a given parameter or parameters with the goal to know all the information about the probability distribution function of these parameters. The second apply information theory methods, as the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and the maximum relative entropy Principle (MREP), in order to build conservative distribution functions for the parameters from the available data. Also, the distribution function of a given parameter can be updated using the MREP principle when new information is provided. UNTHERCO performs the MONTECARLO sampling for a given set of parameters when the distribution function of these parameters is previously known. If the distribution of a parameter is unknown, then, the MEP is applied to deduce the distribution function for this parameter.

  3. Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels in BWR Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chopra, O. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gruber, Eugene E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shack, William J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The internal components of light water reactors are exposed to high-energy neutron irradiation and high-temperature reactor coolant. The exposure to neutron irradiation increases the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) because of the elevated corrosion potential of the reactor coolant and the introduction of new embrittlement mechanisms through radiation damage. Various nonsensitized SSs and nickel alloys have been found to be prone to intergranular cracking after extended neutron exposure. Such cracks have been seen in a number of internal components in boiling water reactors (BWRs). The elevated susceptibility to SCC in irradiated materials, commonly referred to as irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), is a complex phenomenon that involves simultaneous actions of irradiation, stress, and corrosion. In recent years, as nuclear power plants have aged and irradiation dose increased, IASCC has become an increasingly important issue. Post-irradiation crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests have been performed to provide data and technical support for the NRC to address various issues related to aging degradation of reactor-core internal structures and components. This report summarizes the results of the last group of tests on compact tension specimens from the Halden-II irradiation. The IASCC susceptibility of austenitic SSs and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials sectioned from submerged arc and shielded metal arc welds was evaluated by conducting crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests in a simulated BWR environment. The fracture and cracking behavior of HAZ materials, thermally sensitized SSs and grain-boundary engineered SSs was investigated at several doses (≤3 dpa). These latest results were combined with previous results from Halden-I and II irradiations to analyze the effects of neutron dose, water chemistry, alloy compositions, and welding and processing conditions on IASCC

  4. Influence of iron and nickel species upon activity buildup under simulated BWR conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornsson, S.; Chen, J. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Lejon, J. [OKG AB, Oskarshamn (Sweden); Granath, G. [Ringhals AB, Varobacka (Sweden); Tanse-Larsson, M. [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Osthammar (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Activity build-up in BWR systems are of importance for service- and maintenance work performed at the plants. Minimizing the activity build-up is desirable for minimizing doses of personnel at the plants. Numerous studies have been carried out in this important field to understand the activity uptake mechanisms. This paper studied the possible role of Fe(II/III) and Ni(II) impurities in reactor water in activity uptake on stainless steel surfaces. The study was carried out by using a test loop with simulated BWR water containing Fe(II/III), Ni(II) and Co-60 marked Co(II) species of varied concentration and 500 ppb O{sub 2}. The test tube section in the loop system was pre-exposed type 316L stainless steel material. The microstructures of the formed oxide films were examined with high resolution electron microscopy (FE-SEM and FE-TEM). The activity monitoring on the test section showed that injection of 10 ppb Ni(II) and 0.1 ppb Fe(II/III) in the water with 0.1 ppb Co(II) was capable of stopping completely activity uptake. When Co(II) addition in the loop was stopped no activity return to the water could be seen. In another exposure test, injection of combined 2 ppb Fe(II/III) and 0.5∼10 ppb Ni(II) profoundly increased activity uptake on the test section with a maximum in activity buildup at 5 ppb Ni(II). When Co(II) addition in the loop was stopped a slight activity return was seen. The observed differences as seen in the two tests are discussed in view of the microstructures of the oxide films formed. (author)

  5. Simulation of Thermal Stratification in BWR Suppression Pools with One Dimensional Modeling Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The suppression pool in a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant not only is the major heat sink within the containment system, but also provides the major emergency cooling water for the reactor core. In several accident scenarios, such as a loss-of-coolant accident and extended station blackout, thermal stratification tends to form in the pool after the initial rapid venting stage. Accurately predicting the pool stratification phenomenon is important because it affects the peak containment pressure; the pool temperature distribution also affects the NPSHa (available net positive suction head) and therefore the performance of the Emergency Core Cooling System and Reactor Core Isolation Cooling System pumps that draw cooling water back to the core. Current safety analysis codes use zero dimensional (0-D) lumped parameter models to calculate the energy and mass balance in the pool; therefore, they have large uncertainties in the prediction of scenarios in which stratification and mixing are important. While three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods can be used to analyze realistic 3-D configurations, these methods normally require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, resulting in a long simulation time. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, the BMIX++ code (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) has been developed to implement a highly efficient analysis method for stratification where the ambient fluid volume is represented by one-dimensional (1-D) transient partial differential equations and substructures (such as free or wall jets) are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to multi-dimensional CFD modeling. One heat-up experiment performed at the Finland POOLEX facility, which was designed to study phenomena relevant to Nordic design BWR suppression pool including thermal stratification and mixing, is used for

  6. An efficient modeling method for thermal stratification simulation in a BWR suppression pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; Hua Li; Walter Villanueva; Pavel Kudinov

    2012-09-01

    The suppression pool in a BWR plant not only is the major heat sink within the containment system, but also provides major emergency cooling water for the reactor core. In several accident scenarios, such as LOCA and extended station blackout, thermal stratification tends to form in the pool after the initial rapid venting stage. Accurately predicting the pool stratification phenomenon is important because it affects the peak containment pressure; and the pool temperature distribution also affects the NPSHa (Available Net Positive Suction Head) and therefore the performance of the pump which draws cooling water back to the core. Current safety analysis codes use 0-D lumped parameter methods to calculate the energy and mass balance in the pool and therefore have large uncertainty in prediction of scenarios in which stratification and mixing are important. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze realistic 3D configurations, these methods normally require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, therefore long simulation time. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, the BMIX++ code has been developed to implement a highly efficient analysis method for stratification where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. The POOLEX experiments at Finland, which was designed to study phenomena relevant to Nordic design BWR suppression pool including thermal stratification and mixing, are used for validation. GOTHIC lumped parameter models are used to obtain boundary conditions for BMIX++ code and CFD simulations. Comparison between the BMIX++, GOTHIC, and CFD calculations against the POOLEX experimental data is discussed in detail.

  7. Cofrentes EOC16B poolside measurements of channels from the three BWR vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedano, Pablo J. Garcia; Ayuela, Javier Iglesias [Iberdrola Ingenieria Construccion SAU, Veronica Anaures (Mexico); Albendea, Manuel [Iberdrola Generation S. A., Plaza Euskadi, 5 48009 BILBAO (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    As part of the EPRI Fuel Reliability Program, a fuel channel focus group was formed in 2002 to initiate measurements on irradiated BWR fuel channels. Fuel channels from GNF and AREVA have been measured in campaigns performed during 2004{approx}2007. Fuel channels designed and supplied by Westinghouse were of particular interest since no measurement information had been previously taken on modern Westinghouse channels operating on conventional loading pattern cycles, either in European or U.S. plants. Conventional loading pattern cycles are more susceptible to experience shadow corrosion induced bow since the fresh bundles are exposed to control blade influence early in life. During summer of 2007 extensive poolside measurements of a total of 180 fuel channels (24 SVEA-96 +/L, 68 SVEA-96 Optima-2, 36 GE-12, 42 GE-14 and 10 ATRIUM-10XP) have been performed by Westinghouse at Cofrentes NPP (Spanish BWR-6 operating on 24 month cycle strategy). This campaign has been co-sponsored by EPRI, Iberdrola and Westinghouse Sweden. Channels covering a range of exposure and control blade history were selected in order to determine the dependency of the channel deformation with those parameters. Channels with the most limiting conditions of exposure and control blade history were included. Channel bow, bulge and twist have been measured and fast neutron fluence calculations have been performed in order to determine the effects of neutron fluence gradient and shadow corrosion on the total channel deformation. Additionally channel oxide measurements have been performed on 20 channels from the three fuel vendors.The results indicate that channel bow and bulge remained at anticipated levels with no indication of significant channel bow due to shadow corrosion phenomenon. Destructive metallographic evaluations of samples taken from one cycle Westinghouse channels with high control blade exposure are underway at Studsvik hot cell facilities. These examinations will provide additional

  8. Analysis of the performance of fuel cells BWR with a single enrichment and radial distribution of enrichments; Analisis del desempeno de celdas combustibles BWR con un solo enriquecimiento y con distribucion radial de enriquecimientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Vargas, S.; Alonso, G.; Del Valle, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. Lindavista, Mexico D. F. 07738 (Mexico); Xolocostli M, J. V. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: govaj666@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The efficient use of the fuel is one of the objectives in the assemblies design of type BWR. The present tendency in the assemblies design of type BWR is through a radial distribution of enrichments. The present work has like object showing the because of this decision, for what a comparison of the neutronic performance of two fuel cells with the same enrichment average but one of them with radial distribution of enrichment and the other with a single enrichment equal to the average. The cells were analyzed with the CASMO-4 code and the obtained results of the behavior of the neutron flow and the power sustain the because of the radial distribution of enrichments. (Author)

  9. Comparative analysis of results between CASMO, MCNP and Serpent for a suite of Benchmark problems on BWR reactors; Analisis comparativo de resultados entre CASMO, MCNP y SERPENT para una suite de problemas Benchmark en reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J. V.; Vargas E, S.; Gomez T, A. M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Reyes F, M. del C.; Del Valle G, E., E-mail: vicente.xolocostli@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, UP - Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper a comparison is made in analyzing the suite of Benchmark problems for reactors type BWR between CASMO-4, MCNP6 and Serpent code. The Benchmark problem consists of two different geometries: a fuel cell of a pin and assembly type BWR. To facilitate the study of reactors physics in the fuel pin their nuclear characteristics are provided to detail, such as burnt dependence, the reactivity of selected nuclide, etc. With respect to the fuel assembly, the presented results are regarding to infinite multiplication factor for burning different steps and different vacuum conditions. Making the analysis of this set of Benchmark problems provides comprehensive test problems for the next fuels generation of BWR reactors with high extended burned. It is important to note that when making this comparison the purpose is to validate the methodologies used in modeling for different operating conditions, if the case is of other BWR assembly. The results will be within a range with some uncertainty, considering that does not depend on code that is used. Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas of Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN (Mexico) has accumulated some experience in using Serpent, due to the potential of this code over other commercial codes such as CASMO and MCNP. The obtained results for the infinite multiplication factor are encouraging and motivate the studies to continue with the generation of the X S of a core to a next step a respective nuclear data library is constructed and this can be used by codes developed as part of the development project of the Mexican Analysis Platform of Nuclear Reactors AZTLAN. (Author)

  10. Los conflictos del agua en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Mairal Buil

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los conflictos producidos en España en los últimos años en torno a la construcción de grandes presas, tratando de mostrar cómo los afectados han forjado una noción compartida de riesgo y cómo ha surgido un movimiento social con un discurso proyectado hacia ámbitos más globales. Estos hechos se sitúan en relación con la política del agua de la nueva Directiva Marco del Agua (2000 de la Unión Europea para mostrar una insuficiencia, ya que ésta no toma en cuenta el significado cultural de los usos del agua.

  11. Defensa del agua desde la participación comunitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las organizaciones comunitarias en Colombia defienden el mantenimiento de los páramos, indispensables para la provisión de agua en zonas rurales y urbanas. Se oponen a la idea del desarrollo económico que concibe al agua como servicio ambiental, vulnerando un derecho fundamental. Un ejemplo de organización es la que se lleva a cabo en el Santuario de Flora y Fauna de Iguaque. Ahí, los veedores saben que si no luchan por el agua perderán un derecho, como sucedió en las veredas de Olivos Alto y Bajo del municipio de Sanjuan de Rioseco, donde el Estado impuso sus políticas.

  12. Química recreativa con agua oxigenada

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Muñoz, Mª Luisa; Durán Torres, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Con el objeto de despertar el interés por la química así como de tratar diversos conceptos químicos y biológicos, presentamos la reacción de descomposición catalítica del agua oxigenada (H2O2) en tres experiencias diferentes y con distintos catalizadores. Esta reacción es muy exotérmica, produciendo agua y oxigeno. En la primera experiencia, se mezclan en una probeta la disolución de agua oxigenada y un poco de lavavajillas. Al añadir yoduro de potasio, este actúa como catalizador y aparece g...

  13. Pre-study of dynamic loads on the internals caused by a large pipe break in a BWR; Foerstudie av stroemningsinducerade laster paa interndelar vid brott i huvudcirkulationskretsarna i BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkiewicz, Jerzy; Lindgren, Anders [Det Norske Veritas Nuclear Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Det Norske Veritas Nuclear Technology has performed a literature study of dynamic load on a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) internals caused by a large pipe break. The goal of the study was to improve the knowledge about the physics of phenomena occurring in the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) after pipe break in the main circulation system and also to make a review of calculation methods, models and computer programs including their capabilities when calculating the dynamic loads. The report presents description of relevant parts of a BWR, initial and boundary conditions, and phenomena determining the loads - rapid depressurization and propagation of pressure wave (including none-equilibrium). Furthermore, the report generally describes possible methodologies for calculating the dynamic loads on internals after the pipe break and the experiences from calculations the dynamic loads with different methods (computer programs) including comparisons with experimental data. Fluid-Structure Interaction methodology and its importance for calculation of dynamic loads on reactor internals is discussed based on experimental data. A very intensive research program for studying and calculating the dynamic loads on internals after pipe breaks has been performed in USA and Germany during the seventies and the eighties. Several computer programs have been developed and a number of large-scale experiments have been performed to calibrate the calculation methods. In spite of the fact that all experiments were performed for PWR several experiences should be valid also for BWR. These experiences, connected mainly to capabilities of computer programs calculating dynamic loads, are discussed in the report.

  14. Estimate of coolant flow in assemblies of a natural circulation BWR applying and equivalent electric model; Estimacion del flujo de refrigerante en los ensambles de un BWR de circulacion natural aplicando un modelo electrico equivalente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J. B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: julfi_jg@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-10-15

    The present work exposes the design and implementation of an advanced controller that it allows to estimate the coolant flow in fuel assemblies of a natural circulation BWR in real time. the complete development of this study is part of a doctoral project in course. In this work the construction of optimal controller is shown that allows to estimate the coolant flows in reactor and its operation applied to an equivalent electric model to natural circulation ESBWR. The controller design that allows the completely automatic starter of natural circulation reactor, required of a variables estimator not meter directly of nuclear power plant and use of local distributions estimates of coolant flow, (this controller type at the moment is utilized in the A BWR and several BWR in operation in Japan). The construction of estimator controller is mathematically based in the theory referring to Kalman filter, whose algorithm provides an advanced control of system. To prove the estimator operation was developed a simplified model that reproduces the basic dynamic of coolant flowing in the ESBWR, a practice way and very interesting of representing this phenomenon is by means the use of an equivalent electric model, which was developed starting from analogies that there is among the relation that keep the pressure differences with the mass flow and differences of electric potential with electric current. A detailed analysis of equivalence among models will be presented in a later article. (Author)

  15. VIPRE-W / MEFISTO-T - A mechanistic tool for transient prediction of dryout in BWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsson, C., E-mail: carl.adamsson@psi.ch [Westinhouse Electric Sweden, Vasteras (Sweden); Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Le Corre, J-M., E-mail: lecorrjm@westinghouse.com [Westinhouse Electric Sweden, Vasteras (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    The VIPRE-W/MEFISTO-T code package constitutes a simplified approach to sub-channel film-flow analysis whereby the transport equations for the liquid films are decoupled from each other. The approach allows fast and robust simulation with high axial resolution of realistic BWR transients. It has previously been shown that a steady-state version of the model agrees well with dryout measurements in full-scale fuel assembly mock-ups performed at the Westinghouse FRIGG loop. In this paper, we present validation of the transient version of the code with around 300 transient dryout experiments from the same loop. The transients involve realistic variations of flow and power and three different axial power distributions at conditions typical for BWR operation. The results from the film-flow analysis show high precision in the dryout prediction but a hitherto unexplained bias that reduces the accuracy. (author)

  16. IMPACTO DEL USO DE AGUA RESIDUAL EN LA AGRICULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Guadarrama-Brito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua para uso urbano y la dependencia del riego para la producción agrícola en zonas de rápido crecimiento demográfico, han contribuido a que a nivel internacional aumente el interés en el reuso del agua. Existen riesgos para la salud debido a la presencia de microorganismos y contaminantes como los metales pesados y mutagénicos; los primeros impactan a corto plazo, debido a la contaminación de alimentos que pueden provocar, y los segundos impactan a largo plazo, contribuyendo a la salinización de suelos, lo que detrimenta la productividad para eventualmente derivar en el abandono de terrenos. El reuso del agua residual en la agricultura se ha convertido en una necesidad, la cual debe ser considerada como una alternativa, aunque no ha sido evaluada en los aspectos de contenido y migración de contaminantes, en particular de metales pesados. Algunos de los metales pesados pueden forman parte natural del suelo en cantidades que no resultan tóxicas para los seres vivos; sin embargo, la industrialización ha provocado un aumento de la presencia de estos en las aguas residuales que se utilizan para riego, con el consecuente riesgo para la salud humana y ambiental. El proceso de migración y fijación de contaminantes dentro de un sistema cerrado, dependerá de la capacidad de absorción por parte de los subsistemas agua-suelo-planta, aplicación de tasas de riego (concentración del contaminante, y de la persistencia y toxicidad de los contaminantes. El estudio aquí presentado, evalúa las tasas de migración de metales pesados presentes en un agua de riego, a través del sistema agua-suelo-planta; la evaluación se realizó con material del distrito de riego 028-Tulancingo que recibe aguas residuales de origen industrial, con presencia de Cobre, Manganeso y Zinc para diferentes grados de impacto.

  17. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello ...

  18. INFRAESTRUCTURA SUSTENTABLE: LAS PLANTAS DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Lahera Ramón

    2010-01-01

    El tratamiento de las aguas servidas para reúso, reincorporación a los cuerpos de agua superficiales o reinfiltración a los mantos freáticos no es una opción generalizada en México. Las plantas de tratamiento que existen utilizan tecnologías contaminantes, son altas en uso de energía y producen desechos tóxicos como resultado de su operación. Para ir construyendo una infraestructura urbana sustentable, es necesario optar por tecnología alternativa que permita reutilizar los caudales y/o regre...

  19. Stakes and Solutions for current and up-coming Licensing Challenges in PWR and BWR Reload and Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curca-Tiving, F.; Opel, S.

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory requirements for reloads and safety analyses are evolving: New safety criteria, requests for enlarged qualification databases, statistical applications, uncertainty propagation... In order to address these challenges and access more predictable licensing processes, AREVA implements a consistent code and methodology suite for PWR and BWR core design and safety analysis, based on a first principles modeling with an extremely broad international verification and validation data base. (Author)

  20. Impact of modeling Choices on Inventory and In-Cask Criticality Calculations for Forsmark 3 BWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Ade, Brian J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, Stephen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Marshall, William BJ J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel depletion poses a challenge for nuclide inventory validation and nuclear criticality safety analyses. This challenge is due to the complex operating conditions and assembly design heterogeneities that characterize these nuclear systems. Fuel depletion simulations and in-cask criticality calculations are affected by (1) completeness of design information, (2) variability of operating conditions needed for modeling purposes, and (3) possible modeling choices. These effects must be identified, quantified, and ranked according to their significance. This paper presents an investigation of BWR fuel depletion using a complete set of actual design specifications and detailed operational data available for five operating cycles of the Swedish BWR Forsmark 3 reactor. The data includes detailed axial profiles of power, burnup, and void fraction in a very fine temporal mesh for a GE14 (10×10) fuel assembly. The specifications of this case can be used to assess the impacts of different modeling choices on inventory prediction and in-cask criticality, specifically regarding the key parameters that drive inventory and reactivity throughout fuel burnup. This study focused on the effects of the fidelity with which power history and void fraction distributions are modeled. The corresponding sensitivity of the reactivity in storage configurations is assessed, and the impacts of modeling choices on decay heat and inventory are addressed.

  1. Development of a fuzzy logic method to build objective functions in optimization problems: application to BWR fuel lattice design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J.L.; Barragan, A.M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico - Facultad de Ingenieria (Mexico); Palomera, M.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico - Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistema, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we develop a methodology based on the use of the Fuzzy Logic technique to build multi-objective functions to be used in optimization processes applied to in-core nuclear fuel management. As an example, we selected the problem of determining optimal radial fuel enrichment and gadolinia distributions in a typical 'Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)' fuel lattice. The methodology is based on the use of the mathematical capability of Fuzzy Logic to model nonlinear functions of arbitrary complexity. The utility of Fuzzy Logic is to map an input space into an output space, and the primary mechanism for doing this is a list of if-then statements called rules. The rules refer to variables and adjectives that describe those variables and, the Fuzzy Logic technique interprets the values in the input vectors and, based on the set of rules assigns values to the output vector. The methodology was developed for the radial optimization of a BWR lattice where the optimization algorithm employed is Tabu Search. The global objective is to find the optimal distribution of enrichments and burnable poison concentrations in a 10*10 BWR lattice. In order to do that, a fuzzy control inference system was developed using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox of Matlab and it has been linked to the Tabu Search optimization process. Results show that Tabu Search combined with Fuzzy Logic performs very well, obtaining lattices with optimal fuel utilization. (authors)

  2. Acerca de una nueva legislación de aguas las medidas sobre la conservación de las aguas

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    La Ley General de Salud se refiere en forma muy clara a la contaminación de las aguas. Establece la prohibición de contaminar los abastos de agua. De la misma manera el Código Penal establece sanciones contra los que contaminan el agua. A pasar de ello, las sanciones, tanto administrativas como penales, son inadecuadas e insuficiencias, se requiere de todo un nuevo capítulo respecto a esto.

  3. La gestión del agua y la nueva Ley de Aguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lloret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La intención de este artículo, al contrario de lo que se esperaría en estos días, no es el de realizar una crítica a los borradores de la nueva “Ley Orgánica de Recursos Hídricos, Uso y Aprovechamiento de las Aguas” o al Nuevo Código Ambiental propuesto, es más bien la de sensibilizar y alertar a quienes estamos involucrados con la gestión de los recursos hídricos, es un llamado a trabajar, de manera corresponsable, en la construcción de una nueva Ley de Aguas que tenga como base la Constitución, la participación, la técnica, lo público, lo privado, en definitiva, pensar en el bien colectivo y en el futuro de nuestros hijos.

  4. Simulation of the injection system of cooling water to low pressure (Lpci) for a boiling water reactor (BWR) based on RELAP; Simulacion del sistema de inyeccion de agua de refrigeracion a baja presion (LPCI) para un reactor de agua en ebullicion (BWR) basado en RELAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado C, R. A.; Lopez S, E.; Chavez M, C., E-mail: renedelgado2015@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The present article describes the modeling and simulation of the Injection System of Cooling Water to Low Pressure (Lpci) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Is very important to be able to predict the behavior of the nuclear plant in the case of an emergency stop, and while nearer to the reality are the results of a simulation, better is the safety protocol that can be devised. In the Engineering Faculty of the UNAM at the present is had logical models of the safety systems, but due to the nature of the same, these simulations do not provide of the quantity of enough information to be able to reproduce with more accuracy the behavior of the Lpci in the case of a severe accident. For this reason, the RELAP code was used for the flows modeling, components and structures of heat transfers in relation to the system Lpci. The modeling of the components is carried out with base on technical information of the nuclear plant and the results will be corroborated with information in reference documents as the Rasp (the Reactor analysis support package) and the Fsar (Final safety analysis report) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  5. Technical Basis for Peak Reactivity Burnup Credit for BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel in Storage and Transportation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Mertyurek, Ugur [ORNL; Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate application of burnup credit for boiling-water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase (1) investigates applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used in spent fuel pools (SFPs) to storage and transportation systems and (2) evaluates validation of both reactivity (keff) calculations and burnup credit nuclide concentrations within these methods. The second phase will focus on extending burnup credit beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents the first phase, including an analysis of lattice design parameters and depletion effects, as well as both validation components. Initial efforts related to extended burnup credit are discussed in a companion paper. Peak reactivity analyses have been used in criticality analyses for licensing of BWR fuel in SFPs over the last 20 years. These analyses typically combine credit for the gadolinium burnable absorber present in the fuel with a modest amount of burnup credit. Gadolinium burnable absorbers are used in BWR assemblies to control core reactivity. The burnable absorber significantly reduces assembly reactivity at beginning of life, potentially leading to significant increases in assembly reactivity for burnups less than 15–20 GWd/MTU. The reactivity of each fuel lattice is dependent on gadolinium loading. The number of gadolinium-bearing fuel pins lowers initial lattice reactivity, but it has a small impact on the burnup and reactivity of the peak. The gadolinium concentration in each pin has a small impact on initial lattice reactivity but a significant effect on the reactivity of the peak and the burnup at which the peak occurs. The importance of the lattice parameters and depletion conditions are primarily determined by their impact on the gadolinium depletion. Criticality code validation for BWR burnup

  6. Contaminantes en los cuerpos de agua del sur de Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Ríos Olga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Ahondar en el conocimiento sobre la incidencia de las actividades productivas del hombre en su medio, y el riesgo potencial que representa el deterioro ambiental para su propia salud y la sobrevivencia de especies animales. Material y métodos. Se utilizó el paquete informático Decision Support System for Industrial Pollution Control DSS (IPC, desarrollado por el Banco Mundial, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, que se aplicó a un estudio de caso sobre los cuerpos de agua del sur de Sonora, durante 1996. Resultados. Estos sugieren que existen al menos tres factores que han contribuido a la desaparición de criaderos naturales de pescado y camarón en el municipio de Huatabampo: a la filtración de fertilizantes y pesticidas en las aguas de los drenes; b el asolvamiento producido por el depósito continuo, en el pasado, de agua de cola de la industria, c y la descarga inapropiada de aguas negras en los drenes. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  7. El Agua Salina y los Métodos de Riego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Betancur Fabio

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available La selección del método más adecuado de riego está notoriamente influenciado por las condiciones de salinidad que pueda haber en el suelo o en el agua que se usará para el riego. El objetivo principal del riego es el de abastecer el suelo con agua para que ella sea fácilmente disponible a los cultivos que en él se desarrollan o crecen. Bajo condiciones normales el método de riego que mejor se adapta, depende del cultivo, la topografía, las características del suelo y la disponibilidad del agua. Las condiciones de salinidad y sodicidad presentes en el suelo, están influenciadas por la concentración local de sales; la aplicación del riego, es una de las causas de la migración de sales y puede influenciar notoriamente el efecto salino del agua que con una determinada calidad sea aplicada.

  8. Uso Eficiente y Sustentable del agua. Implicancias y Condicionantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mathus Escorihuela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El agua no es un recurso natural más, es un recurso vital que permite explicar integralmente los ciclos de la naturaleza y las interacciones entre las especies y el medio en que habitan en virtud del ciclo hidrológico. Pero el agua resiste al hombre, por lo que su aprovechamiento exige acciones concretas, que deben ser racionales y servir al bienestar de la sociedad, para poder alcanzar lo que hoy se llama calidad de vida en un ambiente sano. Para ello, el agua requiere de la Política Hídrica donde se determinan los fines; de la Planificación Hídrica racional y coherente que se encuentre volcada en Planes, Etapas y Programas; de la Legislación, que brinde el marco normativo, de la Administración que lleve a cabo la Política de la Gestión que es el ámbito neurálgico vinculado al uso eficiente del agua

  9. Radioactivity in drinking water Radiactividad en aguas de consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Estrada Vélez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Directive on the quality of drinking water in 2003 establishing limits on the values of the radioactive parameters concerning the quality of drinking waters was translated to the Spanish legislation on 2003. These parameters are the gross alpha and beta indexes, tritium content and total indicative dose. The corresponding Spanish Royal Decree came into force in 2008. Not only tap drinking water is subjected to control of radioactivity but also commercial drinking water. Different estudies have been carried out all over the world in both cases. There is a wide range of techniques for the measurement of radioactivity in water. This article describes these techniques and shows when they must be applied. Finally the most important results obtained after analysis in tap water and commercial water are shown both in Spanish and non-Spanish waters. The results show that limits are overtaken in some cases and special care must be taken in order to reduce the levels of radioactivity in drinking water as much as possible.La directiva europea sobre calidad en el agua potable del año 2003 estableció los límites para los valores de los parámetros radiactivos. Esta directiva europea fue incorporada a la legislación 2003. Los parámetros a analizar son los índices alfa y beta total, el contenido en tritio y la dosis indicativa total. El correspondiente real decreto, en el caso de España, se comenzó a aplicar en el año 2008. No solamente el agua potable procedente de captaciones públicas está sujeta a control, sino que también se deben controlar las aguas comerciales. En ambos casos se han llevado a cabo estudios en todo el mundo. Existe un rango amplio de técnicas para la medida de la radiactividad en el agua de consumo. Este artículo describe tales técnicas e indica cuando se debe aplicar cada una de ellas. Por último, se muestran los resultados más importantes obtenidos tras el análisis de aguas potables y comerciales, tanto en

  10. Remoción de Metales de Aguas Residuales Industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúa la tasa de remoción de cuatro metales pesados, comúnmente encontrado en Aguas Residuales Industriales (A,R,I,: Cobre, Cromo, Mercurio y Plata, mediante el empleo de plantas acuáticas vasculares "Jacintos de Agua". Las investigaciones para cada metal se realizaron, acondicionando aguas con cinco concentraciones diferentes que oscilaran por encima y por debajo del valor promedio encontrado en A,R,1,Se adoptó un modelo de comportamiento del sistema debido a la similitud que muestra la remoción de metales por el Jacinto de Agua, con el estudio de cultivos puros de MONOD, Esto permite realizar los ajustes estadísticos a los datosexperimentales encontrados en el presente proyecto. La ecuación establecida para el estudio de remoción de metales por un método biológico es el siguiente: % Remoción = A x t / B + t A= Porcentaje de remoción máxima B= Tiempo mínimo para alcanzar la mitad de la remoción máxima, t =Tiempo de remoción Las constantes A y B, indican la tendencia a la remoción y el tiempo mínimo de recolección, respectivamente. El Jacinto de Agua presenta limitación en su capacidad de remoción de metales, esto determina concentraciones máximas permisibles de metales en el agua para poder utilizar estas plantas acuáticas. El estudio de selectividad en la remoción de metales, indica que la presencia de Cromo, Mercurio y Plata disminuyen el porcentaje de remoción de Cobre, Se observa disminución en el porcentaje de remoción de Cromo, cuando están presentes Cobre, Mercurio y Plata en el agua residual. El caso del Mercurio es diferente a los dos anteriores, observándose más bien un efecto sinergético.

  11. Radial optimization of a BWR fuel cell using genetic algorithms; Optimizacion radial de una celda de combustible BWR usando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo M, C.; Carmona H, R.; Oropeza C, I.P. [UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: cmcm@fi-b.unam.mx

    2006-07-01

    The development of the application of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) to the optimization of the radial distribution of enrichment in a cell of fuel of a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) is presented. The optimization process it was ties to the HELIOS simulator, which is a transport code of neutron simulation of fuel cells that has been validated for the calculation of nuclear banks for BWRs. With heterogeneous radial designs can improve the radial distribution of the power, for what the radial design of fuel has a strong influence in the global design of fuel recharges. The optimum radial distribution of fuel bars is looked for with different enrichments of U{sup 235} and contents of consumable poison. For it is necessary to define the representation of the solution, the objective function and the implementation of the specific optimization process to the solution of the problem. The optimization process it was coded in 'C' language, it was automated the creation of the entrances to the simulator, the execution of the simulator and the extraction, in the exit of the simulator, of the parameters that intervene in the objective function. The objective function includes four parameters: average enrichment of the cell, average gadolinia concentration of the cell, peak factor of radial power and k-infinite multiplication factor. To be able to calculate the parameters that intervene in the objective function, the one evaluation process of GA was ties to the HELIOS code executed in a Compaq Alpha workstation. It was applied to the design of a fuel cell of 10 x 10 that it can be employee in the fuel assemble designs that are used at the moment in the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. Its were considered 10 different fuel compositions which four contain gadolinia. Three heuristic rules that consist in prohibiting the placement of bars with gadolinia in the ends of the cell, to place the compositions with the smallest enrichment in the corners of the cell and to fix

  12. Environmentally assisted cracking behavior of dissimilar metal weldments in simulated BWR coolant environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. Y.; Chiang, M. F.; Jeng, S. L.; Huang, J. S.; Kuo, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The environmentally assisted cracking behavior of dissimilar metal (DM) welds, including Alloy 52-A 508 and Alloy 82-A508, under simulated BWR coolant conditions was studied. Effects of postweld heat treatment and sulfur content of the base metal on the corrosion fatigue and SCC growth rates of DM welds were evaluated. The crack growth rates for the DM weld heat-treated at 621 °C for 24 h were observed to be faster than those for the as-welded. But the DM weld heat-treated at 621 °C for 8 h + 400 °C for 200 h showed better SCC resistance than the as-welded. The longer the heat treatment at 621 °C, the higher the chromium carbides density along the grain boundary was observed. Sulfur could diffuse out of the base metal and segregate along the grain boundaries of the dilution zone, leading to weakening the grain boundary strength and the SCC resistance of the Alloy 52-A508 weld.

  13. Plant analyzer for high-speed interactive simulation of BWR power plant transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.; Wulff, W.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer technology is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times faster than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. The mathematical models account for nonequilibrium, nonhomogeneous two-phase flow effects in the coolant, for acoustical effects in the steam line and for the dynamics of the recirculation loop and feedwater train. Point kinetics incorporate reactivity feedback due to void fraction, fuel temperature, coolant temperature, and boron concentration. Control systems and trip logic are simulated for the nuclear steam supply system. The AD10 of Applied Dynamics International is the special-purpose peripheral processor. It is specifically designed for high-speed digital system simulation, accommodates hardware (instrumentation) in the input/output loop, and operates interactively on-line, like an analog computer. Results are shown to demonstrate computing capacity, accuracy, and speed. Simulation speeds have been achieved which are orders of magnitude faster than those of a CDC-7600 mainframe computer or ten times faster than real-time speed.

  14. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrell, W.

    1983-07-01

    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350/sup 0/F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage.

  15. Standard technical specifications General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  16. Generic BWR-4 degraded core in-vessel study. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-01

    Original intent of this project was to produce a phenomenological study of the in-vessel degradation which occurs during the TQUX and TQUV sequences for a generic BWR-4 from the initiation of the FSAR Chapter 15 operational transient through core debris bed formation to the failure of the primary pressure boundary. Bounding calculations were to be performed for the two high pressure and low pressure non-LOCA scenarios to assess the uncertainties in the current state of knowledge regarding the source terms for containment integrity studies. Source terms as such were defined in terms of hydrogen generation, unreacted metal, and coolant inventroy, and in terms of the form, sequencing and mode of dispersal through the primary vessel boundary. Fission product release was not to be considered as part of this study. Premature termination of the project, however, led to the dicontinuation of work on an as is basis. Work on the in-core phase from the point of scram to core debris bed formation was largely completed. A preliminary scoping calculation on the debris bed phase had been initiated. This report documents the status of the study at termination.

  17. Void Reactivity Coefficient Analysis during Void Fraction Changes in Innovative BWR Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Slavickas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the void reactivity variation in innovative BWR fuel assemblies is presented in this paper. The innovative assemblies are loaded with high enrichment fresh UO2 and MOX fuels. UO2 fuel enrichment is increased above existing design limitations for LWR fuels (>5%. MOX fuel enrichment with fissile Pu content is established to achieve the same burnup level as that of high enrichment UO2 fuel. For the numerical analysis, the TRITON functional module of SCALE 6.1 code with the 238-group ENDF/B-VI cross section data library was applied. The investigation of the void reactivity feedback is performed in the entire 0–100% void fraction range. Higher values of void reactivity coefficient for assembly loaded with MOX fuel are found in comparison with values for assembly loaded with UO2 fuel. Moreover, coefficient values for MOX fuel are positive over 75% void fraction. The variation of the void reactivity coefficient is explained by the results of the decomposition analysis based on four-factor formula and neutron absorption reactions for main isotopes. Additionally, the impact of the moderation enhancement on the void reactivity coefficient was investigated for the innovative assembly with MOX fuel.

  18. Decomposition Analysis of Void Reactivity Coefficient for Innovative and Modified BWR Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Slavickas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition analysis of void reactivity coefficient for innovative BWR assemblies is presented in this paper. The innovative assemblies were loaded with high enrichment UO2 and MOX fuels. Additionally the impact of the moderation enhancement on the void reactivity coefficient through a full fuel burnup discharge interval was investigated for the innovative assembly with MOX fuel. For the numerical analysis the TRITON functional module of SCALE code with ENDF/B-VI cross section library was applied. The obtained results indicate the influence of the most important isotopes to the void reactivity behaviour over a fuel burnup interval of 70 GWd/t for both UO2 and MOX fuels. From the neutronic safety concern positive void reactivity coefficient values are observed for MOX fuel at the beginning of the fuel irradiation cycle. For extra-moderated assembly designs, implementing 8 and 12 water holes, the neutron spectrum softening is achieved and consequently the lower void reactivity values. Variations in void reactivity coefficient values are explained by fulfilled decomposition analysis based on neutrons absorption reactions for separate isotopes.

  19. Diffusion bonded matrix of HGMF applied for BWR condensate water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soda, Fumitaka; Yukawa, Takao; Ito, Kazuyuki

    1984-03-01

    A high Gradient Magnetic Filter (HGMF) applied to the purification of power plant primary water has recently attracted much attention. In the application of HGMF to the water treatment of power plants, especially nuclear power plants, reliabillties of matrix (filtering medium) as well as removal performance for cruds (insoluble corrosion products) are considered to be important factors. To satisfy these factors, a new filtering medium named Diffision Bonded Matrix (DBM) has been developed and the test results are reported. Filtering efficiency and mechanical stiffness of DBM were examined using HGMF pilot test units consisting of 160 mm diameters x 240 mm length filter. The filtering velocity and the magnetic flux density used in this test were 800 m/h 5 kG, respectively. The filtering efficiencies and of 85-100% were obtained for artificial cruds for DBM. The DBM indicated slightly better filtering efficiency than for conventional wool matrix under the same filtering and matrix conditions. The DBM kept its original mechanical properties and very few pieces of fibers were broken off while the conventional wool matrix lost its volume elasticities and the considerable amount of fibers was broken off during the test operation. The results described here demonstrated the applicability of DBM for treatment of BWR primary water by High Gradient Magnetic Filter.

  20. A conceptual study on large-capacity safety relief valve (SRV) for future BWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Katsumi; Tokunaga, Takashi; Iwanaga, Masakazu; Kurosaki, Toshikazu [Toshiba Corporation, Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a conceptual study of Safety Relief Valve (SRV) which has larger flow capacity than that of the conventional one and a new structure. Maintenance work of SRVs is one of the main concerns for next-generation Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants whose thermal power is planned to be increased. Because the number of SRVs increases with the thermal power, their maintenance would become critical during periodic inspections. To decrease the maintenance work, reduction of the number by increasing the nominal flow rate per SRV and a new structure suitable for easier treatment have been investigated. From a parameter survey of the initial and maintenance cost, the optimum capacity has been estimated to be between 180 and 200 kg/s. Primarily because the number of SRVs decreases in inversely proportional to the capacity, the total maintenance work decreases. The new structure of SRV, with an internally mounted actuator, decreases the number of the connecting parts and will make the maintenance work easier. A 1/4-scale model of the new SRV has been manufactured and performance tests have been conducted. The test results satisfied the design target, which shows the feasibility of the new structure. (author)

  1. In-plant material test experience under hydrogen water chemistry at a Japanese BWR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masami; Koshiishi, Masato; Kato, Takahiko [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works; Abe, Ayumi; Sekiguchi, Masahiko; Takiguchi, Hideki

    1999-07-01

    Hydrogen injection technology has been applied to Japanese domestic aged BWR plants since 1994 to mitigate corrosive environment regarding Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) of Reactor Internals (RINs). The Tsuruga Unit-1 plant has also been operated with this technology since 1997, considering suppression of radiation increase in the main steam piping system besides mitigation of corrosive environment in the reactor; the hydrogen injection rate in the feed water was about 0.5 ppm. In order to confirm the effects of the hydrogen injection on suppression of SCC susceptibility of the RIN materials, several in-plant material tests have been conducted using the reactor water clean up system (RWCU). Cyclic-Slow Strain Rate Tensile (C-SSRT) test, Slow Strain Rate Tensile (SSRT) test and Compact Tension (CT) test were performed in the test facilities which were installed at the sampling line from the RWCU. Evaluation of SCC life by means of the C-SSRT test was the first application as an accelerated SCC test for in-plant material tests. It was confirmed that the hydrogen injection in the feed water has a good mitigation effects on IGSCC performance of the RIN materials. Results will be discussed from a viewpoint of the test condition such as total oxidant, ECP, conductivity and loading/unloading. (author)

  2. Thermal utilization opportunities with a small-to-medium sized BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konkin, D.; Simonson, C.J.; Dalai, A.K.; Tanino, K.; Guo, H., E-mail: doug.konkin@usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan (Canada); Nishida, K.; Mochida, T. [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Ikegawa, T.; Kito, K. [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Knudsen, R. [LeanOptions Consulting, Inc., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Aikman, A. [SNC-Lavalin, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Humphries, R. [AMEC, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy Ltd. (Hitachi-GE) has developed a conceptual design for a Double MS: Modular Simplified & Medium Small Reactor (DMS) under the sponsorship of The Japan Atomic Power Company. Recent efforts have yielded enhancements for improved safety and reactor core performance. The DMS is an innovative small-to-medium sized Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), which, based only on electricity generation, has been estimated to almost overcome economy of scale concerns when compared to proven conventional Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) technologies. In order to make the DMS more attractive, the University of Saskatchewan (U of S), Hitachi-GE and Hitachi Ltd. (Hitachi) have collaborated on a joint research and development (R&D) initiative to study the utilization of heat and steam from the Balance of Plant (BOP) associated with the DMS for thermal utilization (TU) applications. In this paper, the advanced features of the DMS and the individual projects of the R&D program will be described. (author)

  3. Genusa Bepu methodologies for the safety analysis of BWRs; Metodologias Bepu de Genusa para el analisis de seguridad de reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, M.; Garcia, J.; Goodson, C.; Ibarra, L.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the BEPU methodologies developed by General Electric-Hitachi (GEH) for the evaluation of the BWR reactor safety analysis based on the TRACG best-estimate code. These methodologies are applicable to a wide range of events, operational transients (AOO), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), loss of coolant accidents (LOCA) and instability events; to different BWR types operating commercially. General Electric (GE( designs and other vendors, including Generation III+ESBWR; to the new operation strategies, and to all types of BWR fuel. Their application achieves, among other benefits, a better understanding of the overall plant response and an improvement in margins to the operating limits; thus, the increase of flexibility in reactor operation and reduction in generation costs. (Author)

  4. Agua y abastecimiento: gestión de cuerpos de agua en la ciudad de San Luis Potosí (México, 1831-1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuritzi Hernández Fuentes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo plantea una aproximación sobre la gestión de cuerpos de agua y de los sistemas hidráulicos en la ciudad de San Luis Potosí (México, durante el período 1831-1887, a partir de las medidas que tomó el gobierno municipal para atender las necesidades de abastecimiento de agua. El texto analiza dos proyectos importantes en el manejo del agua: el acueducto La Cañada del Lobo y las acciones sobre las derivaciones de aguas a través de La Corriente. Los dos proyectos enfrentaron diversos problemas, entre ellos, el brote de enfermedades asociadas a los cuerpos de agua y la escasez del flujo de líquido a través del acueducto de La Cañada del Lobo

  5. Agua y abastecimiento: gestión de cuerpos de agua en la ciudad de San Luis Potosí (México, 1831-1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuritzi Hernández Fuentes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo plantea una aproximación sobre la gestión de cuerpos de agua y de los sistemas hidráulicos en la ciudad de San Luis Potosí (México, durante el período 1831-1887, a partir de las medidas que tomó el gobierno municipal para atender las necesidades de abastecimiento de agua. El texto analiza dos proyectos importantes en el manejo del agua: el acueducto La Cañada del Lobo y las acciones sobre las derivaciones de aguas a través de La Corriente. Los dos proyectos enfrentaron diversos problemas, entre ellos, el brote de enfermedades asociadas a los cuerpos de agua y la escasez del flujo de líquido a través del acueducto de La Cañada del Lobo.

  6. Detección de mutacarcinógenos y genotoxicidad en aguas residuales que surten dos plantas de tratamiento de agua de consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo LC.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Las aguas residuales están cargadas de gran variedad de mutacarcinógenos entre ellos Hidro-carburos Policíclicos aromáticos, nitrosaminas y aminas Heterocíclicas todos ellos formadosdurante la combustión de material orgánico y en alimentos proteicos cocidos a altas tempe-raturas. Dichos mutacarcinógenos llegan a las aguas residuales especialmente a través de laorina y heces. Las aguas residuales procedentes de la población del Retiro son vertidas al ríoPantanillo después de ser tratadas en una planta a base de lodos activados. Este río surte repre-sas que alimentan las plantas de tratamiento de agua de consumo la Ayurá y Rionegro quedistribuyen agua potable a más de 2’000.000 de habitantes.

  7. Optimization of analysis best-estimate of a fuel element BWR with Code STAR-CCM+; Optimizacion del analisis best-estimate de un elemento combustible BWR con el codigo STAR-CCM+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado Canada, E.; Concejal Barmejo, A.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Solar Martinez, A.

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the project is the evaluation of the code STAR-CCM +, as well as the establishment of guidelines and standardized procedures for the discretization of the area of study and the selection of physical models suitable for the simulation of BWR fuel. For this purpose several of BFBT experiments have simulated [1] provide a data base for the development of experiments for measuring distribution of fractions of holes to changes in power in order to find the most appropriate models for the simulation of the problem. (Author)

  8. Benchmark calculation for radioactivity inventory using MAXS library based on JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.0/A for decommissioning BWR plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed benchmark calculation for radioactivity activated in a Primary Containment Vessel (PCV of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR by using MAXS library, which was developed by collapsing with neutron energy spectra in the PCV of the BWR. Radioactivities due to neutron irradiation were measured by using activation foil detector of Gold (Au and Nickel (Ni at thirty locations in the PCV. We performed activation calculations of the foils with SCALE5.1/ORIGEN-S code with irradiation conditions of each foil location as the benchmark calculation. We compared calculations and measurements to estimate an effectiveness of MAXS library.

  9. Gestión y cultura del agua en Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús FRAUSTO ORTEGA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ref l exiona sobre la relación entre la gestión del agua urbana y la cultura del agua, bajo el supuesto de que hay una contradicción entre estos dos aspectos. Se enfoca en el servicio de agua potable de Nuevo Laredo. La metodología contempla la revisión de indi - cadores de gestión del servicio, consulta de fuentes bibliográf i cas sobre la cultura del agua y entrevistas a actores locales sobre la concientización de la gente en el cuidado del recurso. El trabajo encuentra prácticas inef i cientes de manejo del agua que contradicen los objetivos de la política de la cultura del agua.

  10. Tratamiento de aguas industriales mediante reactor biológico de membranas

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Jiménez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    El Laboratorio de Ingeniería para el Tratamiento de Aguas de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, de investigación y servicios en el tratamiento de aguas residuales, optimiza el diseño y puesta a punto de reactores biológicos de membranas (MBR), indicados para obtener agua depurada de alta calidad y/o aumentar la capacidad de tratamiento.

  11. H2O, una biografía del agua

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Adelantándose a este año 2008, en el que la ciudad de Zaragoza acogerá la “Exposición Agua y Desarrollo Sostenible”, aparece esta biografía de la molécula más importante de nuestro planeta, escrita por Philip Ball, químico y físico que ha desarrollado su carrera como editor de la prestigiosa revista “Nature” y colaborador asiduo de “New Scientist”. En contraste con la mayoría de los libros sobre el agua, que suelen centrarse en el análisis y gestión de los problemas que genera ésta como recur...

  12. CCF analysis of high redundancy systems safety/relief valve data analysis and reference BWR application. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy (Finland); Bjoere, S.; Olsson, Lena [ABB Atom AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    1992-12-01

    Dependent failure analysis and modeling were developed for high redundancy systems. The study included a comprehensive data analysis of safety and relief valves at the Finnish and Swedish BWR plants, resulting in improved understanding of Common Cause Failure mechanisms in these components. The reference application on the Forsmark 1/2 reactor relief system, constituting of twelve safety/relief lines and two regulating relief lines, covered different safety criteria cases of reactor depressurization and overpressure protection function, and failure to re close sequences. For the quantification of dependencies, the Alpha Factor Model, the Binomial Probability Model and the Common Load Model were compared for applicability in high redundancy systems.

  13. Modeling and validation of a mechanistic tool (MEFISTO) for the prediction of critical power in BWR fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsson, Carl, E-mail: carl.adamsson@psi.ch [Westinghouse Electric Sweden, SE-721 63, Vaesteras (Sweden); Le Corre, Jean-Marie, E-mail: lecorrjm@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Sweden, SE-721 63, Vaesteras (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The MEFISTO code efficiently and accurately predicts the dryout event in a BWR fuel bundle, using a mechanistic model. > A hybrid approach between a fast and robust sub-channel analysis and a three-field two-phase analysis is adopted. > MEFISTO modeling approach, calibration, CPU usage, sensitivity, trend analysis and performance evaluation are presented. > The calibration parameters and process were carefully selected to preserve the mechanistic nature of the code. > The code dryout prediction performance is near the level of fuel-specific empirical dryout correlations. - Abstract: Westinghouse is currently developing the MEFISTO code with the main goal to achieve fast, robust, practical and reliable prediction of steady-state dryout Critical Power in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel bundle based on a mechanistic approach. A computationally efficient simulation scheme was used to achieve this goal, where the code resolves all relevant field (drop, steam and multi-film) mass balance equations, within the annular flow region, at the sub-channel level while relying on a fast and robust two-phase (liquid/steam) sub-channel solution to provide the cross-flow information. The MEFISTO code can hence provide highly detailed solution of the multi-film flow in BWR fuel bundle while enhancing flexibility and reducing the computer time by an order of magnitude as compared to a standard three-field sub-channel analysis approach. Models for the numerical computation of the one-dimensional field flowrate distributions in an open channel (e.g. a sub-channel), including the numerical treatment of field cross-flows, part-length rods, spacers grids and post-dryout conditions are presented in this paper. The MEFISTO code is then applied to dryout prediction in BWR fuel bundle using VIPRE-W as a fast and robust two-phase sub-channel driver code. The dryout power is numerically predicted by iterating on the bundle power so that the minimum film flowrate in the bundle

  14. Riesgos de escasez de agua en la ciudad de Huancayo al año 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Carlos Gómez; Roy Grijalva Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: Estimar los riesgos de escasez de agua en la ciudad de Huancayo (distritos de Huancayo, El Tambo y Chilca) al año 2030, mediante la recopilación y análisis de datos de oferta y demanda de agua. Métodos: Se desarrolló una investigación de alcance descriptivo, diseño transversal. Se utilizó el método de análisis del peligro de escasez de agua, considerando la oferta de agua para abastecimiento urbano, demanda doméstica y su balance, para la vulnerabilidad fue observada la conducta de...

  15. Toma, transporte y metabolismo del agua y nutrientes en la planta

    OpenAIRE

    Arjona Díaz, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista de la termodinámica, sistema es una región de espacio o cantidad de materia sobre la cual enfocamos nuestra atención. Los sistemas interactúan entre sí. El potencial hídrico de cualquier sistema o parte de un sistema que contiene agua o que puede contener agua es una medida de la máxima energía del agua en el sistema, disponible para hacer trabajo. EI agua en el sistema suelo-planta-atmosfera se mueve siguiendo un gradiente de potencial hídrico, el cual es mayor en el ...

  16. Dimensionamiento del sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales en la industria de la pintura

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Gavilanes, Silvia; Parrales Baquerizo, Narcisa; Villamar Bajaña, Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Las aguas residuales en la Industria de la pintura son el conjunto de las aguas que son contaminadas durante su empleo en actividades de limpieza realizadas en el proceso de elaboración de las pinturas acuosas. Para reparar esta alteración a la naturaleza aplicaremos sistemas de tratamientos de aguas donde se realiza distintos procesos necesarios para poder llegar al estado inicial del agua sin contaminación, los sistemas de tratamiento no hacen otra cosa que separar todos los contaminante...

  17. Tratamiento de aguas residuales textiles mediante un biorreactor de membrana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Salazar Gámez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, los investigadores dedicados al tratamiento de agua residual se han esforzado por obtener mejores rendimientos de depuración, reducción de costos de operación y mantenimiento en la generación de procesos que posean una elevada flexibilidad para soportar las variaciones en el afluente, que generen una mínima producción de lodos y que sean diseñados en condiciones mínimas de área. En este trabajo se expone una nueva tecnología en el tratamiento de agua residual, la de los Biorreactores de Membrana (BRM, que nace como respuesta de estas exigencias, ya que combina el sistema de fangos activados (FA convencional y la filtración por membrana. Así mismo evalúa comparativamente el proceso de fangos activados y Biorreactor de Membrana a escala piloto en aguas de difícil tratamiento como son los efluentes textiles. Los resultados indican que el proceso de BRM reduce un 82 - 92% de la materia orgánica (DQO, un 95% de los sólidos en suspensión totales (SST, mientras que el proceso de fangos activados reduce un 54- 70% de la materia orgánica (DQO y un 32- 43% de SST.

  18. MICROCONTAMINANTES EMERGENTES EN AGUAS: TIPOS Y SISTEMAS DE TRATAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Patiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se revisan las distintas clases de contaminantes emergentes, su origen y uso, y su presencia en las cuencas españolas, tanto en aguas superficiales como subterráneas. Los microcontaminantes emergentes son compuestos de distinto origen y naturaleza que hasta ahora habían pasado inadvertidos debido a su baja concentración (en el orden de las ppb y sobre los que no hay regulación específica. Están divididos en seis grandes grupos y muchos de ellos se comportan como disruptores endocrinos, provocando efectos negativos sobre la salud humana y el medio ambiente. Se encuentran presentes en las aguas ya que las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales no están diseñadas para su eliminación, por lo que están siendo vertidos. Se discuten las distintas alternativas para su eliminación – tratamiento físico-químicos, biológicos y tecnologías híbridas - , destacando dentro de los procesos físico-químicos el empleo de procesos avanzados de oxidación (AOPs que están resultando muy prometedores.

  19. Overview of New Tools to Perform Safety Analysis: BWR Station Black Out Test Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Mandelli; C. Smith; T. Riley; J. Nielsen; J. Schroeder; C. Rabiti; A. Alfonsi; Cogliati; R. Kinoshita; V. Pasucci; B. Wang; D. Maljovec

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies couple system simulator codes (e.g., RELAP, MELCOR) with simulation controller codes (e.g., RAVEN, ADAPT). While system simulator codes accurately model system dynamics deterministically, simulation controller codes introduce both deterministic (e.g., system control logic, operating procedures) and stochastic (e.g., component failures, parameter uncertainties) elements into the simulation. Typically, a DPRA is performed by: 1) sampling values of a set of parameters from the uncertainty space of interest (using the simulation controller codes), and 2) simulating the system behavior for that specific set of parameter values (using the system simulator codes). For complex systems, one of the major challenges in using DPRA methodologies is to analyze the large amount of information (i.e., large number of scenarios ) generated, where clustering techniques are typically employed to allow users to better organize and interpret the data. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of a nuclear simulation dataset that is part of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) station blackout (SBO) case study. We apply a software tool that provides the domain experts with an interactive analysis and visualization environment for understanding the structures of such high-dimensional nuclear simulation datasets. Our tool encodes traditional and topology-based clustering techniques, where the latter partitions the data points into clusters based on their uniform gradient flow behavior. We demonstrate through our case study that both types of clustering techniques complement each other in bringing enhanced structural understanding of the data.

  20. BWR: Development and Validation of KERENA reactor; Les REB: Developpement et validation du reacteur KERENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, F.; Fuchs, M. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH (Germany); Erve, M.; Pasler, D. [AREVA (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    KERENA is an advanced boiling water reactor, combining AREVA's and E.ON's expertise. A project was launched to customize the final basic design for this advanced nuclear power plant having a net power output of about 1, 250 MW, a net efficiency of about 37% and a design service life of 60 years. The development takes into account the technical and accumulated operating experience of the project partners. The plant safety concept is based on an optimized combination of a reduced number of proven active safety systems and passive safety systems, utilizing basic laws of physics, such as gravity, enabling them to function without electrical power supplies or activation by powered instrumentation and control systems. Control of a postulated core melt accident is assured with considerable safety margins thanks to passive flooding of the containment for in-vessel melt retention. All passive safety systems are validated in an experimental test program at AREVA, using 1:1 scale test facilities (INKA test facility Karlstein). The KERENA boiling water reactor is compliant with international nuclear codes and standards, and is also designed to withstand the effects of an aircraft crash involving a military aircraft or a large passenger airline. The safety level of the KERENA reactor has been able to be significantly increased compared to existing BWR plants. The advantages of the new safety concept are: -) Reduced susceptibility of safety systems to failures; -) Larger safety margins; -) Good plant behavior in the event of accidents due to the fact that conditions change at a slower rate; -) Grace periods of several days after an accident before operator intervention is required; -) Significantly reduced impact of operator error on reactor safety; -) No need for large-scale emergency response actions such as temporary evacuation or relocation of the neighboring population following a core melt accident. (A.C.)

  1. Environmental mitigation for SCC initiation of BWR core internals by hydrogen injection during start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dozaki, K.; Abe, A.; Nagata, N.; Takiguchi, H. [The Japan Atomic Power Co. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen injection into the reactor water has been applied to many BWR power stations. Since hydrogen injected accelerates recombination of oxidant generated by water radiolysis, oxidant concentration, such as dissolved oxygen concentration in reactor water can be reduced. As the result of the reduction of oxidant concentration, Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) at the surface of structural material can be lowered. Lowered ECP moderates Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) sensitivity of structural materials, such as stainless steels. As usual, hydrogen injection system begins to work after the plant start-up is finished, when the condition of normal operation is established. Accordingly, Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) does not cover all the period of plant operation. As far as SCC crack growth is considered, loss of HWC during plant start-up does not result in significant crack growth, because of duration of plant start-up is much shorter than that of plant normal operation, when HWC condition is being satisfied. However, the reactor water environment and load conditions during a plant start-up may contribute to the initiation of SCC. It is estimated that the core internals are subjected to the strain rate that may cause susceptibility to SCC initiation during start-up. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has a peak, and ECP is in high levels during start-up. Therefore it is beneficial to perform hydrogen injection during start-up as well in order to suppress SCC initiation. We call it HWC During Start-up (HDS) here. (orig.)

  2. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  3. Application of the MOVE algorithm for the identification of reduced order models of a core of a BWR type reactor; Aplicacion del algoritmo MOVE para la identificacion de modelos de orden reducido del nucleo de un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria R, M.A.; Morales S, J.B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: angelvr@gmail.com

    2005-07-01

    Presently work is applied the modified algorithm of the ellipsoid of optimal volume (MOVE) to a reduced order model of 5 differential equations of the core of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with the purpose of estimating the parameters that model the dynamics. The viability is analyzed of carrying out an analysis that calculates the global dynamic parameters that determine the stability of the system and the uncertainty of the estimate. The modified algorithm of the ellipsoid of optimal volume (MOVE), is a method applied to the parametric identification of systems, in particular to the estimate of groups of parameters (PSE for their initials in English). It is looked for to obtain the ellipsoid of smaller volume that guarantees to contain the real value of the parameters of the model. The PSE MOVE is a recursive identification method that can manage the sign of noise and to ponder it, the ellipsoid represents an advantage due to its easy mathematical handling in the computer, the results that surrender are very useful for the design of Robust Control since to smaller volume of the ellipsoid, better is in general the performance of the system to control. The comparison with other methods presented in the literature to estimate the reason of decline (DR) of a BWR is presented. (Author)

  4. Design of a mixed recharge with MOX assemblies of greater relation of moderation for a BWR reactor; Diseno de una recarga mixta con ensambles MOX de mayor relacion de moderacion para un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J.R.; Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrrs@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The study of the fuel of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium (MOX) it has been topic of investigation in many countries of the world and those are even discussed in many places the benefits of reprocessing the spent fuel to extract the plutonium created during the irradiation of the fuel in the nuclear power reactors. At the moment those reactors that have been loaded partially with MOX fuel, are mainly of the type PWR where a mature technology has been achieved in some countries like they are France, Belgium and England, however the experience with reactors of the type BWR is more limited and it is continued studying the best way to introduce this type of fuel in BWRs, one of the main problems to introduce MOX in reactors BWR is the neutronic design of the same one, existing different concepts to introduce the plutonium in the assemblies of fuel and one of them is the one of increasing the relationship of moderation of the assemble. In this work a MOX fuel assemble design is presented and the obtained results so far in the ININ. These results indicate that the investigated concept has some exploitable advantages in the use of the MOX fuel. (Author)

  5. Development of the radiation models of a BWR type reactor and it facility in the SUN-RAH; Desarrollo de modelos de radiacion de un reactor tipo BWR y su instalacion en el SUN-RAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron A, I. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: isbarron@yahoo.com.mx

    2005-07-01

    This work about generation models, transport in processes and radioactive contamination of areas of a BWR central, is an amplification to the project developed in the UNAM to have a support tool in subjects or electric generation courses. It is planned about the implementation of models of radiation generation in a BWR type reactor for complement the functions developed in the University Simulator of Nucleo electric- Boiling water reactor (SUN-RAH) which it has been implemented in Simulink of MatLab and it has a model for the dynamics of one nucleo electric central that presents the main characteristics of the reactor vessel, the recirculation system, steam lines, turbines, generator, condensers and feeding water, defined by the main processes that intervene in the generation of energy of these plants. By this way the radiation monitoring systems for area and process, operate simultaneously with the processes of energy generation, with that is possible to observe the changes that present with respect to the operation conditions of the plant, and likewise to appreciate the radiation transport process through the components of the reactor, steam lines and turbines, for different operation conditions and possible faults that they could be presented during the reactor operation. (Author)

  6. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello representa, varios días de análisis y costos elevados. Para hacer una evaluación sencilla, económica y fiable de la presencia de patógenos, la vigilancia de la calidad del agua se efectúa mediante indicadores de contaminación, aplicando diferentes enfoques técnicos, cada uno con sus cualidades, defectos y limitaciones. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar el enfoque actual existente a nivel nacional e internacional, en relación con los indicadores microbiológicos empleados para la evaluación del agua potable, como elementos clave, y a partir de estos, proponer un esquema de monitoreo en Cuba. Los resultados reflejaron, la alternativa de considerar, la aplicación de un esquema para monitoreo complementario en Cuba, que incluya como indicadores de contaminación del agua potable además de las bacterias, algunos agentes biológicos no considerados en la norma, como los virus y los parásitos. Asimismo indicaron la necesidad de establecer un valor de referencia y definir los microorganismos a emplear en los monitoreos de validación, operativo o verificación. Esta propuesta aportaría importante información para la actualización de la norma cubana sobre la base del conocimiento de los estándares internacionales más reconocidos.

  7. IMPACTO AMBIENTAL DE LOS CONTAMINANTES PROVENIENTES DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DE FEED-LOT SOBRE AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter M. Glessi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigó el impacto de los contaminantes de efluentes líquidos generados por doce feedlot del sudeste de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el objeto de determinar los aspectos significativos sobre la vulnerabilidad de las aguas subterráneas. Se utilizó la Guía metodológica de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental propuesta por Conesa (2010 partiendo de do ce Estudios de Impacto Ambiental y analizando como influye la actividad sobre el agua subterránea. Se analizó la dimensión de los establecimientos partiendo del número de animales, el tipo de suelo, profundidad freática y tipo de práctica (estacional o continua, así como las doce matrices de impacto en la emisión de contaminantes sobre el medio físico agua. Se obtuvo que los parámetros de mayor incidencia son: el grado de Destrucción, el área de influencia, el momento de manifestación del efecto y la regularidad de la manifestación.

  8. 76 FR 63614 - Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-000] Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding of Agua Caliente Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. Aguas dulces y derecho internacional : el agua como bien común y como derecho humano desde la perspectiva del desarrollo sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto el análisis del régimen internacional de las aguas dulces como bien común y como derecho humano, desde una perspectiva del desarrollo sostenible. El análisis separado del régimen internacional de las aguas dulces compartidas y el régimen internacional del derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento nos permite detectar un cambio de paradigma en la regulación de la materia que puede apuntar una progresiva priorización de la garantía del DHAS y la gestió...

  10. Detección de mutacarcinógenos y genotoxicidad en aguas residuales que surten dos plantas de tratamiento de agua de consumo

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo LC.; Zuleta M.; López C.; Orozco LY.

    2001-01-01

    Las aguas residuales están cargadas de gran variedad de mutacarcinógenos entre ellos Hidro-carburos Policíclicos aromáticos, nitrosaminas y aminas Heterocíclicas todos ellos formadosdurante la combustión de material orgánico y en alimentos proteicos cocidos a altas tempe-raturas. Dichos mutacarcinógenos llegan a las aguas residuales especialmente a través de laorina y heces. Las aguas residuales procedentes de la población del Retiro son vertidas al ríoPantanillo después de ser tratadas en un...

  11. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown. A risk perspective with application to the RHR/SSW systems of a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements.

  12. Data report of BWR post-CHF tests. Transient core thermal-hydraulic test program. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Itoh, Hideo; Kiuchi, Toshio; Watanabe, Hironori; Kimura, Mamoru; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    JAERI has been performing transient core thermal-hydraulic test program. In the program, authors performed BWR/ABWR DBE simulation tests with a test facility, which can simulate BWR/ABWR transients. The test facility has a 4 x 4 bundle core simulator with 15-rod heaters and one non-heated rod. Through the tests, authors quantified the thermal safety margin for core cooling. In order to quantify the thermal safety margin, authors collected experimental data on post-CHF. The data are essential for the evaluation of clad temperature transient when core heat-up occurs during DBEs. In comparison with previous post-CHF tests, present experiments were performed in much wider experimental condition, covering high clad temperature, low to high pressure and low to high mass flux. Further, data at wider elevation (lower to higher elevation of core) were obtained in the present experiments, which make possible to discuss the effect of axial position on thermal-hydraulics, while previous works usually discuss the thermal-hydraulics at the position where the first heat-up occurs. This data report describes test procedure, test condition and major experimental data of post-CHF tests. (author)

  13. An assessment of BWR (boiling water reactor) Mark-II containment challenges, failure modes, and potential improvements in performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Jones, K.R.; Dallman, R.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Wagner, K.C. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-07-01

    This report assesses challenges to BWR Mark II containment integrity that could potentially arise from severe accidents. Also assessed are some potential improvements that could prevent core damage or containment failure, or could mitigate the consequences of such failure by reducing the release of fission products to the environment. These challenges and improvements are analyzed via a limited quantitative risk/benefit analysis of a generic BWR/4 reactor with Mark II containment. Point estimate frequencies of the dominant core damage sequences are obtained and simple containment event trees are constructed to evaluate the response of the containment to these severe accident sequences. The resulting containment release modes are then binned into source term release categories, which provide inputs to the consequence analysis. The output of the consequences analysis is used to construct an overall base case risk profile. Potential improvements and sensitivities are evaluated by modifying the event tree spilt fractions, thus generating a revised risk profile. Several important sensitivity cases are examined to evaluate the impact of phenomenological uncertainties on the final results. 75 refs., 25 figs., 65 tabs.

  14. 75 FR 21034 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National... Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw-Harquahala Planning Area, located in central Arizona. The... occupied or used portions of the planning area during prehistoric or historic times. The Agua Fria...

  15. LOCALIZACIÓN Y AFECTACIÓN DE COSTES MEDIOAMBIENTALES Y NO MEDIOAMBIENTALES EN LAS EMPRESAS DE AGUAS: EL COSTE DEL AGUA DESALADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Pérez Alemán

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La Directiva 2000/60/EC del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo establece un marco de acción comunitaria en el ámbito de la política de aguas. Esta norma indica, en su artículo 9, que los miembros de los Estados tendrán en cuenta el principio de recuperación de los costes de los servicios de aguas, incluidos los medioambientales. Así pues, las empresas de tratamiento y abastecimiento urbano de aguas tienen la necesidad de generar información sobre los costes en general, y sobre los costes (y otras magnitudes medioambientales en particular. En el presente trabajo centramos nuestra atención en el coste de uno de los outputs de tales empresas: el agua desalada.

  16. Siete lecciones de la experiencia de Chile en materia de mercados del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Dourojeanni, Axel; Jouraviev, Andrei

    2001-01-01

    A principios de la década de los ochenta, Chile adoptó un nuevo Código de Aguas cuyo objeto central fue fortalecer la propiedad privada, limitar el rol del Estado en la gestión del agua y generar un mercado del agua bajo el supuesto de que ello promovería la inversión privada y llevaría a la eficiencia en la asignación del agua. Estas reformas, especialmente las tendentes a la creación de un mercado del agua, han despertado gran interés en todo el mundo. En algunos países, los anteproyectos d...

  17. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    utilized or referenced, justification has been provided as to why the data can be utilized for BWR fuel.

  18. Qualification of helium measurement system for detection of fuel failures in a BWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L.; Loner, H.; Grundin, A.; Helmersson, J.-O.; Ledergerber, G.

    2014-05-01

    There are several methods for surveillance of fuel integrity during the operation of a boiling water reactor (BWR). The detection of fuel failures is usually performed by analysis of grab samples of off-gas and coolant activities, where a measured increased level of ionizing radiation serves as an indication of new failure or degradation of an already existing one. At some nuclear power plants the detection of fuel failures is performed by on-line nuclide specific measurements of the released fission gases in the off-gas system. However, it can be difficult to distinguish primary fuel failures from degradation of already existing failures. In this paper, a helium measuring system installed in connection to a nuclide specific measuring system to support detection of fuel failures and separate primary fuel failures from secondary ones is presented. Helium measurements provide valuable additional information to measurements of the gamma emitting fission gases for detection of primary fuel failures, since helium is used as a fill gas in the fuel rods during fabrication. The ability to detect fuel failures using helium measurements was studied by injection of helium into the feed water systems at the Forsmark nuclear power plant (NPP) in Sweden and at the nuclear power plant Leibstadt (KKL) in Switzerland. In addition, the influence of an off-gas delay line on the helium measurements was examined at KKL by injecting helium into the off-gas system. By using different injection rates, several types of fuel failures with different helium release rates were simulated. From these measurements, it was confirmed that the helium released by a failed fuel can be detected. It was also shown that the helium measurements for the detection of fuel failures should be performed at a sampling point located before any delay system. Hence, these studies showed that helium measurements can be useful to support detection of fuel failures. However, not all fuel failures which occurred at

  19. Development of an Input Model to MELCOR 1.8.5 for the Oskarshamn 3 BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Lars [Lentek, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    An input model has been prepared to the code MELCOR 1.8.5 for the Swedish Oskarshamn 3 Boiling Water Reactor (O3). This report describes the modelling work and the various files which comprise the input deck. Input data are mainly based on original drawings and system descriptions made available by courtesy of OKG AB. Comparison and check of some primary system data were made against an O3 input file to the SCDAP/RELAP5 code that was used in the SARA project. Useful information was also obtained from the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) for O3 and the SKI report '2003 Stoerningshandboken BWR'. The input models the O3 reactor at its current state with the operating power of 3300 MW{sub th}. One aim with this work is that the MELCOR input could also be used for power upgrading studies. All fuel assemblies are thus assumed to consist of the new Westinghouse-Atom's SVEA-96 Optima2 fuel. MELCOR is a severe accident code developed by Sandia National Laboratory under contract from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). MELCOR is a successor to STCP (Source Term Code Package) and has thus a long evolutionary history. The input described here is adapted to the latest version 1.8.5 available when the work began. It was released the year 2000, but a new version 1.8.6 was distributed recently. Conversion to the new version is recommended. (During the writing of this report still another code version, MELCOR 2.0, has been announced to be released within short.) In version 1.8.5 there is an option to describe the accident progression in the lower plenum and the melt-through of the reactor vessel bottom in more detail by use of the Bottom Head (BH) package developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory especially for BWRs. This is in addition to the ordinary MELCOR COR package. Since problems arose running with the BH input two versions of the O3 input deck were produced, a NONBH and a BH deck. The BH package is no longer a separate package in the new 1

  20. Acuaporinas: proteínas mediadoras del transporte de agua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Todos los organismos vivos están compuestos en su mayoría por agua, siendo ésta fundamental para la homeostasis celular a todo nivel. Por esta razón su transporte a través de las membranas biológicas ha sido siempre un campo de gran interés en la fisiología. La investigación acerca de este tópico se ha incrementado notablemente en los últimos años a partir del descubrimiento de las acuaporinas, las cuales han permitido comprender mejor los mecanismos que la célula utiliza para el control de los flujos de agua a través de la membrana y por ende, la regulación de su osmolaridad interna. Tema general. Hasta el momento se han descrito 11 subtipos de acuaporinas (AQP0-10, las cuales comparten similitudes estructurales y se han relacionado con una gran diversidad de enfermedades en diversos sistemas, desde cataratas hasta diabetes insípida. Objetivo. Se presenta una visión del estado actual del conocimiento acerca de estas importantes proteínas y su relación con diversos procesos fisiológicos y patológicos. Conclusiones. Las acuaporinas son proteínas mediadoras del transporte de agua y las alteraciones en su funcionamiento pueden conducir a una gran diversidad de enfermedades, por lo cual deben ser un objeto prioritario de investigación en el futuro próximo para ayudar a comprender mejor su fisiopatología.

  1. La fundamentalidad del derecho al agua en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mies Sutorius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El agua es un recurso natural finito de vital importancia para el ser humano, lo que explica que con el paso del tiempo se busque con mayor fuerza su protección, no solo en el ámbito internacional sino también en el orden jurídico interno. De ahí el interés en realizar una revisión normativa y especialmente jurisprudencial que permita evidenciar la evolución del derecho al agua, los matices y las diversas formas de protección del mismo, profundizando en su dimensión personal. La Constitución Política colombiana omite enunciar el derecho al agua como derecho individual, razón por la cual se procede a estudiar la jurisprudencia constitucional, seleccionándose algunas sentencias en donde existen sujetos de especial protección, en tanto al reconocerse a estos la vulneración y garantía de derechos se prevé la protección de los derechos del resto de la población; así como algunos casos en donde existen condiciones particulares, a partir de la suspensión del servicio por falta de pago a la empresa encargada del suministro, conexión fraudulenta y reconexión ilegal; para concluir que se han presentado dos tendencias en el amparo de este derecho, que ha pasado de ser protegido por vía de la “teoría de la conexidad” a ser catalogado como fundamental con una tutela restringida a la cantidad mínima necesaria para sobrevivir.

  2. Hormigón en aguas y terrenos agresivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García de Paredes y Gaibrois, Pablo

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEl Dr. Ingeniero H. J. Wierig, del Laboratorio de la Industria del Cemento de Westfalia, ha publicado, en la revista «Bau und Bauindustrie» (núm. 6 de 1961, un interesante artículo acerca de la Preparación del hormigón en aguas y suelos agresivos, de~ cual entresacamos las siguientes notas con la complacencia que supone encontrar totalmente coincidentes, las opiniones del Dr. Wierig con el contenido de las «Recomendaciones» publicadas en la Instrucción sobre hormigón armado H. A. 61 de este Instituto.

  3. La electrolisis salina para el tratamiento de aguas de lastre

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del proyecto, es el desarrollo de equipos electrolíticos para el tratamiento de aguas de lastre, acorde con los requerimientos de la normativa, y los del sector. Para ello, los objetivos específicos, son:  Definición de los requerimientos de la tecnología, teniendo en consideración todas las normativas navales que afecten al proyecto.  Definición de los requerimientos de la tecnología, teniendo en consideración todas las especificaciones técnicas y comerciales qu...

  4. CAMPANA DE AGUA [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XIX CAMPANA HECHA EN PIEDRA Y CAL DE UNOS 3 METROS DE DIAMETRO Y 15 DE PROFUNDIDAD. LA ENTRADA ES DE FORMACUADRADA CON UNAS DIMSENSIONES DE UN METRO POR UN METRO. Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN HIDROLÓGICA Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No ES PRECEPTIVO RECUPERAR EL CANAL DE CAPTACIÓN Y EXTRACCIÓN DE AGUA, PARA LO QUE SE HACE NECESARIO UTILIZAR METODOLOGÍA ARQUEOLÓGICA.LAS CAMPANAS DEL CAUCE DEL BARRANCO DE TELDE HAN ENTRADO E...

  5. Control de ph para planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Fabián Amaya; Óscar Alberto Cañón; Óscar F. Avilés

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el problema de controlar el pH en una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR), la cual recibe soluciones ácidas provenientes de la producción de jugos (pH 2-5) que se dosifica con la sustancia usada para aseo (soda cáustica 0.04%) con valores oscilatorios de pH 9-11. Se desarrolló e implementó un controlador clásico PI en un PLC comercial y se automatiza la PTAR mostrando el resultado obtenido en simulación en MatLAB.

  6. Control de ph para planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Fabián Amaya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el problema de controlar el pH en una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR, la cual recibe soluciones ácidas provenientes de la producción de jugos (pH 2-5 que se dosifica con la sustancia usada para aseo (soda cáustica 0.04% con valores oscilatorios de pH 9-11. Se desarrolló e implementó un controlador clásico PI en un PLC comercial y se automatiza la PTAR mostrando el resultado obtenido en simulación en MatLAB.

  7. Agua de lastre y especies exóticas

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, N; Almada, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    El agua que los navíos embarcan como lastre cuando deben atravesar el océano sin carga suele contener organismos vivos. Al ser descargada aquella, estos ingresan en un medio al que son ajenos y pueden convertirse en plagas y en muchos casos originan serios trastornos ambientales. Los organismos descargados son especies exóticas. Se muestra un estudio en 5 puertos argentinos (océano Atlántico sudoccidental), formas de mitigar los trastornos y el estado de la situación actual de la problemática...

  8. EFECTOS COOPERATIVOS EN HETEROTETRÁMEROS (ETANOL3-AGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol M. Mejía

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de funcionales de la densidad (DFT: B3LYP/6-31+G(d fue empleada para la optimización de agregados estables sobre la superficie de energía potencial de los heterotetrámeros (etanol3-agua.  Las energías de tetramerización pueden llegar a valores hasta de −21,00 kcal/mol.  Esta energía no se puede obtener considerando solo contribuciones de interacciones entre dos moléculas del agregado, lo cual sugiere la presencia de efectos cooperativos globales (positivos.  Tales efectos son reflejados en distancias menores de los puentes de hidrógeno y distancias menores oxígeno-oxígeno, lo mismo que en elongaciones mayores del enlace O-H en la molécula dadora de protón con un corrimiento hacia el rojo mayor en los heterotetrámeros comparado con los heterodímeros de etanol-agua y el dímero de etanol.  La mayor cooperatividad fue observada en los cuatro puentes de hidrógeno dispuestos en el patrón geométrico cíclico más grande posible, actuando todas las moléculas como aceptoras y dadoras de protón simultáneamente.  Un análisis similar al de la caracterización de heterotetrámeros de (etanol3-agua se llevó a cabo para los heterotetrámeros  (metanol3-agua y tetrámeros de etanol y metanol.  La comparación de estos valores mostró que existe una gran similitud entre todos los parámetros analizados para agregados con el mismo patrón geométrico.  

  9. Ejercicio de autoevaluación sobre alcalinidad en agua.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    El ejercicio de autoevaluación contiene 12 cuestiones de entrada múltiple que pueden responderse por páginas (en este caso la corrección es página a página) o de forma global (la calificación se obtiene al finalizar el test). Se pueden hacer correcciones en las dos modalidades antes de obtener la calificación del ejercicio. Las cuestiones tratan sobre la determinación ácido-base de la alcalinidad del agua.

  10. Gente de agua: Comunidades negras en el Bajo Atrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruíz Serna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available “Gente de agua” es un conjunto de imágenes sobre el universo social de las comunidades negras del Bajo Atrato chocoano. Ilustra de forma sensible el sistema de texturas de la vida negra en el río. Desde las pieles brillantes bajo el sol, pasando por todos los colores del agua, hasta la ignominiosa condena del racismo y la exclusión son objeto del lente del etnógrafo que ha encontrado en las imágenes una opción para hacer antropología.

  11. Diseño preliminar evaporador de agua dulce

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero Puente, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    En el presente proyecto se diseña un evaporador del tipo sumergido que aprovecha la energía térmica del motor propulsor de una embarcación de recreo. El evaporador diseñado trata de ser competitivo dentro del mercado existente de instalaciones de generación de agua dulce para embarcaciones de recreo, monopolizado en la actualidad por plantas de desalinización por ósmosis inversa. Durante el proyecto se desarrolla el diseño de un prototipo de baja potencia y alimentado eléctr...

  12. Estudio del mecanismo de falla de terraplenes debido a la infiltración de aguas lluvias mediante el monitoreo de presiones de poros y contenidos de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWIN GARCÍA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra experimentos realizados utilizando modelos a escala para estudiar el proceso de infiltración en terraplenes sometidos a aguas lluvias. Varios modelos a escala fueron construidos usando un suelo arenoso con alto contenido de finos; para aplicar la lluvia artificial y observar el proceso de infiltración del agua se utilizó un tubo de irrigación. Para monitorear los cambios en succión ocasionados por los ciclos de humedecimiento y secado se instalaron dentro del suelo varios sensores de presión de poros, contenido de agua y de desplazamiento en diferentes puntos. El cambio de la presión de poros en el tiempo, el contenido de agua y las relaciones entre las mediciones de presión de poros y desplazamientos del suelo son presentados. Este estudio muestra que el movimiento del suelo en un talud está directamente relacionado con el contenido de agua del suelo y las presiones de poros existentes en él, sugiriendo que por medio del monitoreo de estos dos parámetros es posible predecir fallas locales inducidas por infiltración de aguas lluvias en los taludes.

  13. Thorium mobilization in groundwaters from Aguas da Prata, Sao Paulo state; Mobilizacao de torio em aguas subterraneas de Aguas da Prata, estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonetto, Erica Martini [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Area de Concentracao Geociencias e Meio Ambiente. Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias]. E-mail: etonetto@rc.unesp.br; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia]. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br

    2002-09-15

    The paper describes and discusses results of the determination, by alpha spectrometry, of the natural thorium isotopes in groundwaters associated with different rock types in Aguas da Prata spa, state of Sao Paulo. The dissolved Thorium is relatively low (0.003 to 1.72 mg.L{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th), while the {sup 22}'8Th/{sup 232}Th isotopic ratios for dissolved thorium were higher than unity (1.8 to 34). The thorium concentration in suspended solids of these waters ranged between 183 up and 3445 mug.g{sup -1} and indicates that significant thorium transport occurs under this condition. The obtained results allowed to calculate the factor for preferential mobilization of thorium in particulate matter relative to the liquid phase, an important parameter for understanding the geochemical behaviour of this element in hydrosphere. (author)

  14. Proyecto EDAR de Huesca: Proyecto de una Estación Depuradora de Aguas Residuales en Huesca

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Paricio, Félix

    2015-01-01

    El objeto del presente proyecto es el diseño, construcción y explotación inicial de las obras de la Estación Depuradora de Aguas Residuales de Huesca. Las obras de las que se compone la estación depuradora de Huesca engloban: toma de entrada de las aguas residuales a la estación de tratamiento; instalaciones de tratamiento de las aguas residuales (Estación Depuradora de Aguas Residuales); restitución al río Isuela del efluente tratado; instalaciones de energía eléctrica, agua potable y telefo...

  15. Riesgos microbiológicos en agua de bebida: una revisión clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Ruiz B.; Maribel Cervantes F.; José Luis Ortega S.; Gerardo Álvarez H.; José de Jesús Alba R.; Norma Urtiz E.; Aurora Martínez R.

    2013-01-01

    La contaminación microbiológica y química del agua potable origina efectos adversos a la salud. Un suministro adecuado de agua potable es universalmente reconocido como una necesidad humana básica. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue conocer los riesgos microbiológicos en agua de bebida. Calidad del agua, es garantizar que los consumidores no estén expuestos a agentes patógenos que puedan causar enfermedades. El agua natural puede contener una gran variedad de microorganismos patógenos, b...

  16. PSI contribution to the CASTOC round robin on EAC of low-alloy RPV steels under BWR conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S

    2001-08-01

    Within the CASTOC-project (5th EU FW programme), the environmentally-assisted crack growth (EAC) behaviour of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is experimentally investigated under simulated transient and steady-state BWR power operation conditions by 6 European laboratories. The present report contains a summary of the PSI contribution to the Working Package 1 (WP1) of this project. WP1 is an interlaboratory round robin EAC test in simulated BWR/NWC environment under cyclic and static loading conditions. The round robin shall demonstrate the applicability of the used advanced test technique and establishes the technical basis for the decision of test conditions in the other working packages. In the first part of the report, the PSI testing facility/measurement instruments and the applied test and evaluation procedure are discussed in detail. In the second part, the exact test conditions and test results with detailed post-test fractographical evaluation in the SEM are presented. The test results are compared with other PSI results, literature data and nuclear codes. Stable and stationary test conditions within the specified range could be achieved in the PSI test during the whole conditioning and experimental phase. The cyclic crack growth rate results agree well with recent PSI results at a higher dissolved oxygen content of 8 ppm and are slightly below the 'high-sulphur line' of the PLEDGE-model. The crack growth rates are significantly above the ASME XI 'wet' curve. Compared to fatigue crack growth rates in air under otherwise identical test conditions, the effect of the high-temperature water environment resulted in an acceleration of crack growth by a factor of 150-250 under these low-cyclic loading conditions. The test results at constant load confirm the extremely low susceptibility to SCC crack growth under static load at 288 {sup o}C observed in tests at MPA, PSI and in a European Round Robin. They agree well with the RPV

  17. Estimation of the coolant flow through a natural circulation BWR fuel channel applying and equivalent electrical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J. B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Campus Morelos en IMTA, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: julfi_ig@yahoo.com.m [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work presents the design and implementation of an advanced controller for a reduced order model of a BWR reactor core cooled by natural circulating water, which allows real time estimates of coolant flows through fuel assemblies about standard neutron flux strings. Nuclear power plants with boiling water reactors control individual fuel assembly coolant flows by forced circulation using external or internal water pumps and different core support plate orifices. These two elements reduce flow dependency on local channel pressure drops. In BWR reactors using only natural circulation coolant flows, these two elements are not available and therefore individual channel coolant flows are highly dependent in local conditions, such as power distributions and local pressure drops. Therefore it is expected that grater uncertainties in these variables be used during safety, fuel management and other analysis, which in turns may lead to increased operation penalties, such as tighter operating limits. The objective of this work is to asses by computer simulations means to reduce uncertainties in the measurement of fuel assembly coolant flows and eventually the associated penalties. During coolant phase transitions, pressure drops and local power may alter local natural circulation through fuel assemblies and flow estimates can be helped or not by control rod moves. This work presents the construction of an optimal controller for a core flow estimator based on a reduced order model of the coolant going though the reactor vessel components and nuclear core. This model is to be driven by plant signals from standard BWR instrumentation in order to estimate the coolant flows in selected fuel assemblies about a LPRM string. For this purpose an equivalent electrical model has been mathematically developed and numerically tested. The power-flow maps of typical BRW are used as steady state references for this equivalent model. Once these were fully reproduced for steady state

  18. Simulations of ex-vessel fuel coolant interactions in a Nordic BWR using MC3D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, S.; Ma, W. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    Nordic Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) employ a drywell cavity flooding technique as a nuclear severe accident management strategy. In case of core melt accident where the reactor pressure vessel will fail and the melt will eject from the lower head and fall into a water pool, may be in the form of a continuous jet. It is assumed that the melt jet will fragment, quench and form a coolable debris bed into the water pool. The melt interaction with a water pool may cause an energetic steam explosion which creates a potential risk towards the integrity of containment, leading to fission products release into the atmosphere. The results of the APRI-7 project suggest that the significant damage to containment structures by steam explosion cannot be ruled according to the state-of-the-art knowledge about corresponding accident scenario. In the follow-up project APRI-8 (2012-2016) one of the goals of the KTH research is to resolve the steam explosion energetics (SEE) issue, developing a risk-oriented framework for quantifying conditional threats to containment integrity for a Nordic type BWR. The present study deals with the premixing and explosion phase calculations of a Nordic BWR dry cavity, using MC3D, a multiphase CFD code for fuel coolant interactions. The main goal of the study is the assessment of pressure buildup in the cavity and the impact loading on the side walls. The conditions for the calculations are used from the SERENA-II BWR case exercise. The other objective was to do the sensitivity analysis of the parameters in modeling of fuel coolant interactions, which can help to reduce uncertainty in assessment of steam explosion energetics. The results show that the amount of liquid melt droplets in the water (region of void<0.6) is maximum even before reaching the jet at the bottom. In the explosion phase, maximum pressure is attained at the bottom and the maximum impulse on the wall is at the bottom of the wall. The analysis is carried out using two different

  19. MCTP, a code for the thermo-mechanical analysis of a fuel rod of BWR type reactors (Neutron part); MCTP, un codigo para el analisis termo-mecanico de una barra combustible de reactores tipo BWR (Parte Neutronica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez L, H.; Ortiz V, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: hhl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico a code for the thermo-mechanical analysis of the fuel rods of the BWR type reactors of the Nucleo electric Central of Laguna Verde is developed. The code solves the diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates with several energy groups. The code, likewise, calculates the temperature distribution and power distribution in those fuel rods. The code is denominated Multi groups With Temperatures and Power (MCTP). In the code, the energy with which the fission neutrons are emitted it is divided in six groups. They are also considered the produced perturbations by the changes in the temperatures of the materials that constitute the fuel rods, the content of fission products, the uranium consumption and in its case the gadolinium, as well as the plutonium production. In this work there are present preliminary results obtained with the code, using data of operation of the Nucleo electric Central of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  20. Impact analysis of modifying the composition of the nuclear fuel of a BWR with beryllium oxide; Analisis del impacto de modificar la composicion del combustible nuclear de un BWR con oxido de berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo V, J. M.; Morales S, J. B., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The beryllium oxide (Be O) presents excellent physical properties, especially its high thermal conductivity that contrasts clearly with that of the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) used at the present as fuel in a great number of nuclear plants. The present work models a nuclear reactor cooled by light water in boiling with two external recirculation loops (BWR/5) using the code for the transitory analysis and postulated accidents Trac-B F1, implementing a UO{sub 2} mixture and different fractions of Be O, with the objective of improving the thermal conductivity of the fuel. The numeric results and the realized analyses indicate that when adding a fraction in volume of 10% the central temperature decreases in 30.4% in stationary state, while during the large break loss of coolant accident the peak cladding temperature diminishes in 7%. Although the real interaction of the mixture has not been determined experimentally, the obtained results are promising. (Author)

  1. A methodology for obtaining the control rod patterns in a BWR using genetic algorithms; Una metodologia para obtener los patrones de barras de control en un BWR usando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Montes T, J.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Requena R, I. [Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. e-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the GACRP system based on the genetic algorithms technique for the obtaining of the drivers of control bars in a BWR reactor is presented. This methodology was applied to a transition cycle and a one of balance of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station (CNLV). For each one of the studied cycles, it was executed the methodology with a fixed length of the cycle and it was compared the effective multiplication factor of neutrons at the end of the cycle that it is obtained with the proposed drivers of control bars and the multiplication factor of neutrons obtained by means of a Haling calculation. It was found that it is possible to extend several days the length of both cycles with regard to the one Haling calculation. (Author)

  2. BUTREN-RC an hybrid system for the recharges optimization of nuclear fuels in a BWR; BUTREN-RC un sistema hibrido para la optimizacion de recargas de combustible nuclear en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Castillo M, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The obtained results with the hybrid system BUTREN-RC are presented that obtains recharges of nuclear fuel for a BWR type reactor. The system has implemented the methods of optimization heuristic taboo search and neural networks. The optimization it carried out with the technique of taboo search, and the neural networks, previously trained, were used to predict the behavior of the recharges of fuel, in substitution of commercial codes of reactor simulation. The obtained recharges of nuclear fuel correspond to 5 different operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, Veracruz in Mexico. The obtained results were compared with the designs of this cycles. The energy gain with the recharges of fuel proposals is of approximately 4.5% with respect to those of design. The time of compute consumed it was considerably smaller that when a commercial code for reactor simulation is used. (Author)

  3. BWR simulation in a stationary state for the evaluation of fuel cell design; Simulacion de un reactor BWR en estado estacionario para la evaluacion del diseno de celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes T, J. L.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Perusquia del C, R.; Castillo M, A., E-mail: joseluis.montes@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper the simulation of a BWR in order to evaluate the performance of a set of fuel assemblies under stationary state in three dimensions (3-D) is presented. 15 cases selected from a database containing a total of 18225 cases are evaluated. The main selection criteria were based on the results of the design phase of the power cells in two dimensions (2-D) and 3-D initial study. In 2-D studies the parameters that were used to qualify and select the designs were basically the local power peaking factor and neutron multiplication factor of each fuel cell. In the initial 3-D study variables that defined the quality of results, and from which the selection was realized, are the margins to thermal limits of reactor operation and the value of the effective multiplication factor at the end of cycle operation. From the 2-D and 3-D results of the studies described a second 3-D study was realized, where the optimizations of the fuel reload pattern was carried out. The results presented in this paper correspond to this second 3-D study. It was found that the designs of the fuel cell they had a similar behavior to those provided by the fuel supplier of reference BWR. Particularly it noted the impact of reload pattern on the cold shut down margin. An estimate of the operation costs of reference cycle analyzed with each one designed reload batch was also performed. As a result a positive difference (gain) up to 10,347 M/US D was found. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of the radial design of fuel cells in an operation cycle of a BWR reactor; Evaluacion del diseno radial de celdas de combustible en un ciclo de operacion de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, J.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jgco@ver.megared.net.mx

    2003-07-01

    This work is continuation of one previous in the one that the application of the optimization technique called Tabu search to the radial design of fuel cells of boiling water reactors (BWR, Boiling Water Reactor) is presented. The objective function used in the optimization process only include neutron parameters (k-infinite and peak of radial power) considering the cell at infinite media. It was obtained to reduce the cell average enrichment completing the characteristics of reactivity of an original cell. The objective of the present work is to validate the objective function that was used for the radial design of the fuel cell (test cell), analyzing the operation of a one cycle of the reactor in which fuels have been fresh recharged that contain an axial area with the nuclear database of the cell designed instead of the original cell. For it is simulated it with Cm-Presto the cycle 10 of the reactor operation of the Unit 1 of the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (U1-CNLV). For the cycle evaluation its were applied so much the simulation with the Haling strategy, as the simulation of the one cycle with control rod patterns and they were evaluated the energy generation and several power limits and reactivity that are used as design parameters in fuel reloads of BWR reactors. The results at level of an operation cycle of the reactor, show that the objective function used in the optimization and radial design of the cell is adequate and that it can induce to one good use of the fuel. (Author)

  5. Simulation in 3 dimensions of a cycle 18 months for an BWR type reactor using the Nod3D program; Simulacion en 3 dimensiones de un ciclo de 18 meses para un reactor BWR usando el programa Nod3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, N.; Alonso, G. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: nhm@nuclear.inin.mx; Valle, E. del [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The development of own codes that you/they allow the simulation in 3 dimensions of the nucleus of a reactor and be of easy maintenance, without the consequent payment of expensive use licenses, it can be a factor that propitiates the technological independence. In the Department of Nuclear Engineering (DIN) of the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics (ESFM) of the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) a denominated program Nod3D has been developed with the one that one can simulate the operation of a reactor BWR in 3 dimensions calculating the effective multiplication factor (kJJ3, as well as the distribution of the flow neutronic and of the axial and radial profiles of the power, inside a means of well-known characteristics solving the equations of diffusion of neutrons numerically in stationary state and geometry XYZ using the mathematical nodal method RTN0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec of index zero). One of the limitations of the program Nod3D is that it doesn't allow to consider the burnt of the fuel in an independent way considering feedback, this makes it in an implicit way considering the effective sections in each step of burnt and these sections are obtained of the code Core Master LEND. However even given this limitation, the results obtained in the simulation of a cycle of typical operation of a reactor of the type BWR are similar to those reported by the code Core Master LENDS. The results of the keJ - that were obtained with the program Nod3D they were compared with the results of the code Core Master LEND, presenting a difference smaller than 0.2% (200 pcm), and in the case of the axial profile of power, the maxim differs it was of 2.5%. (Author)

  6. El cultivo de alfalfa utilizando agua de perforación, agua residual urbana y precipitaciones The cultivation of alfalfa using artesian well water, urban wastewater and rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Plevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción de biomasa aérea, la eficiencia del uso de agua y el valor nutritivo de alfalfa cultivada aplicando riego con agua residual urbana, agua de perforación y un testigo (precipitaciones, en el Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. Los tratamientos de riego tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre la producción de biomasa aérea obteniéndose un 24% más de producción de biomasa que en la situación de secano (precipitaciones. Entre los tratamientos con riego también se manifestaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La alfalfa regada con aguas residuales urbana supero en un 19% a la cultivada con agua de perforación. La eficiencia del uso del agua por parte del cultivo se incrementó cuando el riego se realizó con aguas residuales urbanas. Además, se determinó que la alfalfa regada con agua residual, supera los valores nutritivos del cultivo que crece en condiciones sin riego; encontrándose 39% más de proteínas, 14% más de digestibilidad e igual porcentaje de energía metabólica. Se puede concluir que el agua residual urbana representa otra posible fuente de agua, factible de ingresar al suelo y estar a disposición para el cultivo de alfalfa.The objective of this study was to analyse the production of alfalfa biomass, the efficiency of water use and the nutritional value of forage, inside an irrigation structure of an experimental facility that uses treated urban wastewater, artesian well water and rainfall, at the campus of the Universidad National de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. The irrigation treatment had a positive effect on the production of biomass of alfalfa. On an average 24% increase in production was observed when compared to dry-land farming. Regarding the quality of the irrigation water, statistical differences in production were observed, the irrigation with urban wastewater produced 19% more than that of well water. The

  7. EFECTOS REDISTRIBUTIVOS DE LAS TARIFAS DE AGUA POTABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÉLEZ GOMEZ LUIS DIEGO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aunque para Colombia la situación no es tan dramática, se avizora un problema de cobertura y escasez de agua potable para los niveles más desprotegidos de la población, en razón de su incapacidad de pago. La consecuencia inmediata es una acentuación de los índices de pobreza y de su manifestación más clara: el hambre. Este trabajo pretende mostrar que los niveles de pobreza son muy sensibles al precio de los servicios públicos domiciliarios, entre ellos, del agua, y atribuye a las fallas de inclusión y exclusión de los subsidios parte del grueso número de personas que hoy están por debajo de la línea de pobreza, aunque ésta no sea la única causa. Dada, entonces, la prominencia de las empresas de servicios públicos en la economía, los gobiernos tienen la obligación de resolver parte del difícil problema de equidad a través de las tarifas, sin dejar de garantizar la sostenibilidad económica de los proveedores del recurso.

  8. El agua en Segobriga (Saelices, Hispania Citerior: Las fistulae plumbeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebrián, Rosario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the lead pipes found in the archaeological site of Segobriga and in its surroundings are presented. Some of these fistulae are related to the siphon aqueduct that brought drinking water from Fuente la Mar in Saelices, while others correspond to the internal water supply in the city. Both epigraphic references containing the abbreviated name of the municipality, r(es p(ublica S(egobrigensis vel Segobrigensium, identified on a fistula and in a lead cover, show the public property of the Segobriga hydraulic network.En este artículo presentamos las tuberías de plomo halladas en el yacimiento arqueológico de Segobriga y su entorno. Algunas de estas fistulae están relacionadas con el sifón del acueducto que condujo el agua potable desde la Fuente de la Mar en Saelices, mientras que otras corresponden a la red de distribución del agua en el interior de la ciudad. Las dos menciones epigráficas con el nombre abreviado del municipio, r(es p(ublica S(egobrigensis vel Segobrigensium, documentadas en una fistula y en la tapa de un registro ponen de manifiesto la propiedad pública del sistema hidráulico de Segobriga.

  9. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWR-GALE Code)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangart, R.L.; Bell, L.G.; Boegli, J.S.; Burke, W.C.; Lee, J.Y.; Minns, J.L.; Stoddart, P.G.; Weller, R.A.; Collins, J.T.

    1978-12-01

    The calculational procedures described in the report reflect current NRC staff practice. The methods described will be used in the evaluation of applications for construction permits and operating licenses docketed after January 1, 1979, until this NUREG is revised as a result of additional staff review. The BWR-GALE (Boiling Water Reactor Gaseous and Liquid Effluents) Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the release of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment.

  10. Regulation of the alpha-glucuronidase-encoding gene ( aguA) from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, R P; van de Vondervoort, P J I; Hendriks, L; van de Belt, M; Visser, J

    2002-09-01

    The alpha-glucuronidase gene aguA from Aspergillus niger was cloned and characterised. Analysis of the promoter region of aguA revealed the presence of four putative binding sites for the major carbon catabolite repressor protein CREA and one putative binding site for the transcriptional activator XLNR. In addition, a sequence motif was detected which differed only in the last nucleotide from the XLNR consensus site. A construct in which part of the aguA coding region was deleted still resulted in production of a stable mRNA upon transformation of A. niger. The putative XLNR binding sites and two of the putative CREA binding sites were mutated individually in this construct and the effects on expression were examined in A. niger transformants. Northern analysis of the transformants revealed that the consensus XLNR site is not actually functional in the aguA promoter, whereas the sequence that diverges from the consensus at a single position is functional. This indicates that XLNR is also able to bind to the sequence GGCTAG, and the XLNR binding site consensus should therefore be changed to GGCTAR. Both CREA sites are functional, indicating that CREA has a strong influence on aguA expression. A detailed expression analysis of aguA in four genetic backgrounds revealed a second regulatory system involved in activation of aguA gene expression. This system responds to the presence of glucuronic and galacturonic acids, and is not dependent on XLNR.

  11. Actitudes y comportamiento para el uso sostenible del agua en pobladores de Huancayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Yarlequé Chocas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Establecer si el Programa de Gestión Sostenible del Agua (PROGESA mejora el comportamiento y las actitudes de estudiantes del nivel inicial y padres de familia para el uso sostenible del agua en seis instituciones educativas de Huancayo. Métodos: Se empleó el diseño cuasi experimental de grupos no equivalentes con pre y posprueba. El tamaño muestral fue de 160 estudiantes y 160 padres. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron cuestionarios estructurados, listas de cotejo y guías de entrevista para identificar las principales conductas y mecanismos de pérdida del agua y de actitudes hacia su cuidado. Resultados: El 98% de la población infantil tiene actitudes de rechazo hacia el uso sostenible del agua sin la influencia de PROGESA ni del área de Ciencia y Ambiente; el 79,7% de los adultos acepta el uso sostenible del agua. Los principales mecanismos de pérdida de agua en hogares e instituciones educativas de Huancayo son los inodoros y caños malogrados y mal cerrados. Conclusiones: PROGESA sí hace posible el desarrollo de actitudes y el comportamiento hacia el uso sostenible del agua en los niños y a través de ellos en sus padres; el área de Ciencia y Ambiente tiene también un efecto positivo al respecto, pero menor que el de PROGESA; los adultos saben qué se debería hacer, pero no siempre lo hacen; los inodoros y caños malogrados son las principales fuentes de pérdida del agua; en las instituciones y en los hogares no se reusa ni cosecha agua.

  12. El abastecimiento de agua en las ciudades del Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulido Bosch, Antonio

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En las ciudades costeras, como en las no costeras, una buena parte del agua captada se pierde en las redes de distribución; además, el usuario no es siempre consciente de la necesidad de ahorrar al máximo este recurso. Hay que tener en cuenta igualmente que el agua residual, una vez depurada, puede constituir un buen recurso que permite satisfacer parte de la demanda y a la vez reducir los problemas planteados por la eliminación de las aguas usadas directamente en el mar. Las soluciones a los problemas de la escasez de agua deben pasar por el ahorro de agua, la reducción de las pérdidas en las redes de distribución, la reutilización y, a veces, la importación de agua de lugares excedentarios, sin olvidar la desalación de las aguas saladas o salobres. El desarrollo sostenible exige una planificación partiendo de la demanda máxima admisible, compatible con el respeto a los equilibrios ambientales; esto puede exigir la limitación del crecimiento de las ciudades, lo que no es siempre aceptado. Por último, se comentan dos ejemplos, uno representativo de una ciudad donde no existe gran competencia por el agua entre la demanda agrícola y la demanda urbana (Almería; y el otro relativo a una ciudad donde el turismo de verano aumenta casi diez veces la población, con una agricultura para la que la demanda de agua alcanza en verano también su máximo (Almuñécar, Granada.

  13. Analysis of BWR instabilities coupled with 3D code RELAP5 / PARCSv2.7. Application to the event happened in Oskarshamn-2 in 1999; Analisis de inestabilidades en BWR con el codigo acoplado 3D RELAP5/PARCSv2.7. Aplicacion al evento sucedido en Oskarshamn-2 en1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, part of our works in the frame of the OECD/NEA Oskarshamn-2 (O{sub 2}) BWR Stability Benchmark for Coupled Code Calculations and Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling are shown. The objective is to simulate the instability event registered in February 1999 at the Swedish NPP Oskarshamn-2 with the coupled code RELAP5/PARCSv2.7. (Author)

  14. La importancia del agua en la crianza de remplazos de lechería

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Rojas, Cynthia Rebeca; Elizondo-Salazar, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El agua, además de ser indispensable para la vida, es el nutriente esencial más importante en el ganado de leche, representa la mayoría de peso vivo del animal, y es el medio en el cual se llevan a cabo todas las reacciones químicas del organismo. Una cantidad importante de agua es necesaria para la fermentación, el metabolismo, la digestión y la absorción de nutrientes, así como la excreción de productos de desecho. La cantidad y disponibilidad de agua para los animales es de vital importanc...

  15. Compuestos orgánicos presentes en aguas de escombreras de carbón.

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas Borrajo, Juan F.; Canoira López, Laureano; García-Martínez, Mª Jesús; Ortega Romero, Marcelo; Llamas Lois, Alberto; Diaz Bautista, Maria Aranzazu

    2008-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio de la influencia de las aguas acidas de mina en la movilización de los hidrocarburos policidicos aromáticos (PAHs) presentes en las escombreras de carbón. Se observa como dichas aguas acidas disuelven preferentemente a los PAHs de menor peso molecular. También se ha realizado un análisis de riesgos que indica que existe un riesgo real por uso y consumo, en el interior de las viviendas, del agua subterránea. Por último, se han establecido las bases para una técnica p...

  16. ECOFICCIONES E IMAGINARIOS DEL AGUA Y SU IMPORTANCIA PARA LA MEMORIA CULTURAL Y LA SOSTENIBILIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy Martos Núñez; Alberto Martos García

    2013-01-01

    La cultura del agua debe ser vinculada de forma especial a las manifestaciones del patrimonio cultural intangible de los pueblos, como las tradiciones orales o escritas, la simbología o los rituales, que conforman lo que llamamos los Imaginarios del Agua. Estos deben ser analizados y deconstruidos a la luz de los nuevos paradigmas, como la hermenéutica y la ecocrítica. De este modo, la mitografía ayuda a perfilar el significado profundo de la cultura del agua ante las nuevas demandas medioamb...

  17. PRODUCTIVIDAD DEL AGUA EN EL CULTIVO DE NOPAL CON RIEGO POR GOTEO EN LA COMARCA LAGUNERA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Ante la escasez de agua en la Comarca Lagunera, situada en la zona árida del norte de México, se requiere encontrar cultivos que, combinados con tecnologías de ahorro de agua, hagan un uso eficiente de este recurso. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar la productividad del agua en variedades de nopal hortícola (Opuntia spp.) con riego por goteo, utilizando cintilla colocada en forma superficial y subsuperficial, para lo cual se evaluaron cuatro variedades de nopal que pueden destinarse al c...

  18. Memorias del proyecto cultural Agua: un patrimonio que circula de mano en mano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Concha Roldan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El interés de Banco de la República en trabajar un proyecto cultural sobre el agua tiene varios orígenes. Las inundaciones del 2010 le recordaron a Colombia que pase lo que pase, el agua vuelve a su cauce y recuerda su camino. Esos cauces se organizan en cuencas hidrográficas que conectan y estructuran la vida de quienescomparten el territorio. Las cuencas unen y afectan sin atender a las fronteras políticas y por ello la sostenibilidad del agua es una responsabilidad compartida, su mal uso nos afecta a todos y su futuro es una responsabilidad prioritaria del presente.

  19. Gestión sostenible del agua y de los residuos en zonas urbanas

    OpenAIRE

    Otterpohl, Ralf; Grottker, Matthias; Lange, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    El sistema habitual de alcantarillado y las estaciones de depuración aerobia de aguas residuales (EDAR), no deberían considerarse como la única solución posible para el saneamiento. Los sistemas con separación en origen pueden evitar muchos problemas de la tecnología empleada en el vertido, al tener en cuenta las diferentes calidades de las aguas residuales y darles un tratamiento adecuado para su reutilización.Las diferentes calidades de los residuos y de las aguas residuales en los asentami...

  20. Biomateriales sorbentes para la limpieza de derrames de hidrocarburos en suelos y cuerpos de agua

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio esta encaminado a identificar y evaluar materiales orgánicos naturales que puedan ser utilizados como sorbentes en las operaciones de limpieza de derrames de hidrocarburos tanto en suelos como en cuerpos de agua. Se evaluó la capacidad de sorción de tres materiales: fibra de caña, fibra de coco y buchón de agua, con tres hidrocarburos: 35, 30 y 25°API, y dos tipos de agua: destilada y marina artificial, adaptando la norma ASTM F-726 y siguiendo la metodología sugerida por el pr...

  1. Derechos emergentes en regiones emergentes: el derecho al agua potable y al saneamiento en Asia Central

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Estapà, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    El derecho humano al agua potable y al saneamiento viene afirmándose de manera cada vez más rotunda en el plano internacional. Supone la capacidad de cada ser humano de acceder a agua limpia y segura de manera asequible, y la obligación correlativa de los Estados de garantizar y proteger este derecho. Los Estados de Asia Central disponen de agua suficiente para garantizar este derecho a todos sus ciudadanos, pero la mala gestión y el despilfarro hace que algunas zonas, sobre todo rurales, ten...

  2. Bacterias resistentes a antibióticos en aguas grises como agentes de riesgo sanitario

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez,Lidia; Tornello,Carina; Puentes,Noel; Moretton, Juan

    2012-01-01

    La eliminación y disposición final de las aguas residuales originadas por las actividades domésticas constituye un importante problema sanitario en áreas urbanas densamente pobladas. En muchas zonas del Gran Buenos Aires las aguas grises se eliminan en zanjas a cielo abierto cuyo riesgo potencial no ha sido adecuadamente cuantificado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la prevalencia de bacterias resistentes y el perfil de resistencia a antibióticos, en muestras de aguas grises de canale...

  3. Plan estratégico sectorial de agua potable y saneamiento de Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Fernández; Carlos Arturo Aguilera; Juan Bóbeda; Julio Giménez

    2010-01-01

    Esta nota técnica contiene la exposición del Plan Estratégico Sectorial de Agua Potable y Saneamiento de Paraguay elaborado para la Unidad de los Servicios de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado Sanitario (USAPAS) del Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones (MOPC) del gobierno paraguayo. El documento presenta en primer lugar datos sobre la situación administrativa y el contexto socioeconómico del país, así como de sus recursos hídricos. Luego analiza el marco institucional del sector de agua ...

  4. Modelo de distribución de agua en suelo regado por goteo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez de Cartagena Bisbe, Francesc; Sáinz Sánchez, Miguel A.

    1997-01-01

    Se desarrolla un modelo de simulación de la dinámica del agua en el suelo en riego localizado, denominado SIMDAS. Para el desarrollo del procedimiento numérico, se utiliza la teoría de flujo de agua en condiciones de no saturación, sin efecto histerético, resolviendo la ecuación de flujo axisimétrico sin y con extracción de agua por la planta a partir de un método en diferencias finitas, con la consideración de los distintos horizontes del suelo. Verificado el modelo en campo, los resultados ...

  5. Development of Sirius facility that simulates void-reactivity feedback, and regional and core-wide stability estimation of natural circulation BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, M.; Inada, F.; Yasuo, A. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., Central Research Institute (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The SIRIUS facility was designed and constructed for highly accurate simulation of core-wide and regional instabilities of the BWR. A real-time simulation was performed in the digital controller for modal point kinetics of reactor neutronics and fuel-rod conduction on the basis of measured void fractions in reactor core sections of the thermal-hydraulic loop. Stability experiments were conducted for a wide range of fluid conditions, power distributions, and fuel rod thermal conductivity time constants, including the normal operating conditions of a typical natural circulation BWR. The results showed that there is a sufficiently wide stability margin under normal operating conditions, even when void-reactivity feedback is taken into account. (author)

  6. BWR spent fuel transport and storage system for KKL: TN trademark 52L, TN trademark 97L, TN trademark 24 BHL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, D.; Verdier, A. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Monsigny, P.A. [NOK/KKL (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    The LEIBSTADT (KKL) nuclear power plant in Switzerland has opted to ship spent fuel to a central facility called ZWILAG for interim storage. In the mid-nineties, COGEMA LOGISTICS was contracted by KKL for the supply of the TN trademark a52L and TN trademark 97L transport and storage casks for BWR fuel types. In 2003, KKL also ordered from COGEMA LOGISTICS the supply of six TNae24 BHL transport and storage casks. This paper shows how all the three cask designs have responded to the KKL needs to ship and store BWR spent fuel. In addition, it highlights the already significant operational feedback of the TN trademark 52L and TN trademark 97L casks by the KKL and ZWILAG operators.

  7. Las matemáticas limpian el agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Narro Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la ciudad de León es preocupante el problema del agua que es contaminada, principalmente, por curtidores de piel, fabricantes de calzado y agroindustriales. Por ley, las autoridades ambientales han presionado a cada infractor para que disminuya su contaminación, pero el esfuerzo ha resultado inútil. El objetivo de este trabajo es demostrar que este problema tiene solución. Para encontrarla se construye un programa no lineal dinámico que a partir de los procesos tradicionalmente utilizados en la limpieza proporciona como solución una estrategia innovadora de costo moderado que se prorratea entre los infractores usando jerarquización analítica.

  8. Acuaporinas: proteínas mediadoras del transporte de agua.

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Introducción. Todos los organismos vivos están compuestos en su mayoría por agua, siendo ésta fundamental para la homeostasis celular a todo nivel. Por esta razón su transporte a través de las membranas biológicas ha sido siempre un campo de gran interés en la fisiología. La investigación acerca de este tópico se ha incrementado notablemente en los últimos años a partir del descubrimiento de las acuaporinas, las cuales han permitido comprender mejor los mecanismos que la célula utiliza para e...

  9. Pasado, presente y futuro del agua: compartiendo una responsabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier Solano, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se reflexiona sobre la importancia del agua, su relación con aspectos económicos y políticos relevantes para la población civil, y sobre la esperanza del poder popular responsable y organizado para el rescate del recurso. Asimismo, se señalan ciertas relaciones del recurso hídrico con el Banco Mundial, el Plan Puebla Panamá, los corredores biológicos mesoamericanos privados, los tratados de libre comercio y la privatización de las áreas silvestres protegidas. Se destaca el he...

  10. Efectos cooperativos en heterotetrámeros (etanol)3-agua

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La teoría de funcionales de la densidad (DFT: B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) fue empleada para la optimización de agregados estables sobre la superficie de energía potencial de los heterotetrámeros (etanol)3-agua.  Las energías de tetramerización pueden llegar a valores hasta de −21,00 kcal/mol.  Esta energía no se puede obtener considerando solo contribuciones de interacciones entre dos moléculas del agregado, lo cual sugiere la presencia de efectos cooperativos globales (positivos).  Tales efectos son re...

  11. Development and Assessment of CFD Models Including a Supplemental Program Code for Analyzing Buoyancy-Driven Flows Through BWR Fuel Assemblies in SFP Complete LOCA Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnak, Edward Joseph, III

    This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.

  12. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  13. RAMONA-4B a computer code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics for BWR and SBWR system transient - models and correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Cheng, H.S.; Khan, H.J.; Mallen, A.N.; Neymotin, L.Y.

    1998-03-01

    This document describes the major modifications and improvements made to the modeling of the RAMONA-3B/MOD0 code since 1981, when the code description and assessment report was completed. The new version of the code is RAMONA-4B. RAMONA-4B is a systems transient code for application to different versions of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) such as the current BWR, the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), and the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). This code uses a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with a multichannel, non-equilibrium, drift-flux, two-phase flow formulation of the thermal hydraulics of the reactor vessel. The code is designed to analyze a wide spectrum of BWR core and system transients and instability issues. Chapter 1 is an overview of the code`s capabilities and limitations; Chapter 2 discusses the neutron kinetics modeling and the implementation of reactivity edits. Chapter 3 is an overview of the heat conduction calculations. Chapter 4 presents modifications to the thermal-hydraulics model of the vessel, recirculation loop, steam separators, boron transport, and SBWR specific components. Chapter 5 describes modeling of the plant control and safety systems. Chapter 6 presents and modeling of Balance of Plant (BOP). Chapter 7 describes the mechanistic containment model in the code. The content of this report is complementary to the RAMONA-3B code description and assessment document. 53 refs., 81 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Mitos y realidades sobre la crisis del agua en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llamas Madurga, M. Ramón

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Los problemas del agua están con tanta frecuencia en los periódicos que se ha hecho usual hablar de la existencia de una crisis del agua. Esos problemas se caracterizan por su complejidad y por su variabilidad, debida ésta tanto a la irregularidad climática, como a los rápidos cambios en la percepción social de estos problemas. Se analizan los principales paradigmas que rigen la política del agua en España. Se clasifican en tres grupos: éticos, estéticos y tecnológicos. Se da prioridad al análisis del primer grupo ya que los paradigmas éticos son los que más influyen en la gestión del agua.

  15. La hidrología y su papel en ingeniería del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda García-Marín; José Roldán-Cañas; Javier Estévez; Fátima Moreno-Pérez; Aleix Serrat-Capdevila; Javier González; Félix Francés; Francisco Olivera; Oscar Castro-Orgaz; Giráldez, Juan V.

    2014-01-01

    La Hidrología es una ciencia esencial en Ingeniería del Agua, la cual abarca un amplio abanico de temas de investigación que engloban los diversos estadios del agua en el ciclo Hidrológico, tanto en atmósfera, superficie y suelo. Con motivo del relanzamiento de la revista Ingeniería del Agua se presenta un breve artículo de carácter introductorio en el que se muestran algunas de la líneas de investigación actuales en Hidrología, dedicadas a lluvia, interceptación de agua por la vegetación, se...

  16. Servicios ambientales, agua y economía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Ruiz Soto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Los servicios ambientales (SA asociados a los ecosistemas naturales están seriamente amenazados por acciones locales y por el calentamiento global. El SA asociado al agua y su efecto sobre calidad y cantidad en cuencas hidrográficas aportantes a acueductos y sistemas de riego, son de gran importancia económica y social. Para Bogotá-Colombia el SA de los páramos y bosque nublado en la cuenca de Chingaza representa US$18,2 millones anuales. Para el abastecimiento de agua a la ciudad de Quito-Ecuador, el efecto negativo del cambio climático (CC asociado a la contracción de los glaciares representa un incremento en la inversión de un 31% versus el escenario sin CC. Se deben tomar medidas para asegurar la permanencia de los SA y mitigar los efectos del CC./ Environmental services (ES related to natural ecosystems are seriously threatened by local activities and global warming. The ES related to water and its effect on quality and quantity in watersheds that supply aqueducts and irrigation systems has great social and economic importance. For Bogotá-Colombia the ES of páramos and cloudy forest in the Chingaza basin represents US$18.2 million per year. For water supply in the city of Quito-Ecuador, the negative effect of climate change (CC related to the contraction of glaciers represents a 31% increase in investments versus the scenario without CC. Measures must be taken to ensure the permanence of ES and mitigate the effects of CC.

  17. Respuesta productiva del cafeto al manejo del riego. Función agua-rendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cisneros Zayas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La disponibilidad de agua para la agricultura está disminuy endo progresivamente, debido a la competencia entre dif erentes usuarios, lo que impone una utilización eficiente de este importante recurso. Para lograr elevar la productividad del agua es imprescindible el estudio de las f unciones agua-rendimiento. E l presente trabaj o tiene como obj etivo determinar las distintas f ormas de ex presió n de la f unció n agua-rendimiento, así como la productividad del agua (WP para el caf eto. Como resultado se tiene q ue el modelo lineal f ue el de mej or aj uste para las relaciones rendimiento/ evapotranspiración y rendimiento/agua aplicada por riego del cafeto, con coeficientes de determinación superiores a 0,70 y una eficiencia del agua evapotranspirada alrededor de 0,75 k g de caf é oro por cada milí metro adicional de agua. L os resultados del aná lisis de las f unciones usando valores relativos mostraron q ue si se satisf acen al 100% las necesidades del caf eto durante todo el ciclo del cultivo se puede esperar un rendimiento má x imo de 2,78 t· h a-1, y si se logra satisf acer en má s del 8 0% podrían ser superiores a 2,6 t· h a-1. E l f actor de respuesta del rendimiento Ky para el cafeto en las condiciones de este estudio resultó ser de 0,52. Por cada metro cú bico de agua consumida y agua aplicada por riego el caf eto produce como promedio 1,9 2 y 3 ,8 k g de caf é oro, respectivamente. L a productividad máxima se obtuvo con 5 3 9 9 m3 · h a-1 de agua consumida durante todo el año.

  18. Productividad del agua en algunos cultivos agrícolas en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicita González Robaina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Para el mejor uso económico y social del agua se requieren de métodos para evaluar su productividad, a fin de tomar mejores decisiones en cuanto a políticas y estrategias de utilización de manera sostenible. Los administradores del agua para el riego necesitan iden- tificar tendencias en los patrones de uso y niveles de eficiencia con vistas a fijar metas y mejorar la productividad por unidad de volumen utilizado y/o consumido. El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar los indicadores de productividad agronómica del agua de 17 cultivos a partir de la información obtenida en más de 100 experimentos de campo disponibles en la base de datos sobre necesidades hídricas del Instituto de Investigaciones de Ingeniería Agrícola. Se determinaron los rendimientos máximo y mínimo y sus respectivos valores de consumo, agua aplicada por riego y la productividad agronómica del agua aplicada para los 17 cultivos estudiados. Cultivos como los frijoles, maíz, boniato y los plátanos obtienen incrementos de rendimiento superiores al 100% cuando se aplica el agua necesaria para satisfacer su demanda hídrica, mientras que la yuca obtuvo valores menores del 50%. Los altos valores obtenidos de productividad en base al agua utilizada como riego no son un buen indicador del uso eficiente del agua por las plantas para las condiciones de la zona de estudio, donde se informan para los años analizados, porcentajes de lluvia aprovechable de hasta el 41%, supliendo ésta una parte importante de las necesidades de los cultivos agrícolas.

  19. Rehabilitación de la Casa del Agua (Trinitat Nova, Barcelona)

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Fernández-Cueto, Íñigo

    2016-01-01

    EL proyecto propone la rehablitación de la casa del Agua en Trinitat Nova, un antiguo depósito de agua en este barrio de Barcelona. Se proyecta un sistema de cerramientos que comparten la luz y las solicitaciones técnicas, respetando la naturaleza del depósito y poniendo en valor su arquitectura. El nuevo programa responde a biblioteca + centro cívico.

  20. La privatización del agua en la Comunidad de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Yunquera, Rebeca; Rodríguez Sebastián, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Índice general:El gobierno especula: se cierra el grifo del agua pública.Los expertos opinan: razones contra la privatización.El pueblo habla: consulta social sobre el agua.La derecha ataca: intento de desprestigio público a Ladislao Martínez, promotor de la consulta.La oposición responde: políticos y sindicatos se posicionan.

  1. Plan director red de abastecimiento de agua potable en la localidad de Gestalgar (Valencia)

    OpenAIRE

    HERRERA AGUILAR, MANUEL JOSÉ

    2011-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto es definir las características técnicas necesarias para aumentar la eficiencia de las redes de alta de suministro de agua potable en la localidad de Gestalgar (Valencia) Herrera Aguilar, MJ. (2011). Plan director red de abastecimiento de agua potable en la localidad de Gestalgar (Valencia). http://hdl.handle.net/10251/12468. Archivo delegado

  2. ¿Qué tan importante es el agua? Desarrollo sustentable y recursos naturales

    OpenAIRE

    Kras, Eva; Simonsen, Ove

    2001-01-01

    A partir de una definición de desarrollo sustentable, se presenta el modelo de desarrollo global como filosofía imperante en torno al agua, y las realidades globales del agua, particularmente en torno a la contaminación, la salud, y la sustentabilidad y seguridad. Se analizan las oportunidades y retos para los países en desarrollo de América Latina, y se proponen acciones puntuales.

  3. Los Catastros y Registros de Aguas como herramientas indispensables para garantizar la gestión integrada y desarrollo ambientalmente sustentable de las aguas subterráneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego De Rosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los catastros y registros de aguas resultan ser herramientas indispensables para garantizar la  gestión integrada y desarrollo ambientalmente sustentable de las aguas subterráneas.  Ellos constituyen instrumentos fundamentales ya no solo para asegurar el control y vigilancia respecto a quién o quienes se otorgan estos permisos, derechos o usos -y a quienes éstos son transmitidos-; sino también, y fundamentalmente, para determinar  qué cantidad, qué calidad y qué regularidad se tiene o posee del recurso hídrico subterráneo. A pesar de estar legislados en normas provinciales, no en todas se hallan implementados.  He aquí unos breves contrastes surgidos entre un  análisis comparativo de legislación sobre aguas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires y Mendoza.

  4. La hidrología y su papel en ingeniería del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda García-Marín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La Hidrología es una ciencia esencial en Ingeniería del Agua, la cual abarca un amplio abanico de temas de investigación que engloban los diversos estadios del agua en el ciclo Hidrológico, tanto en atmósfera, superficie y suelo. Con motivo del relanzamiento de la revista Ingeniería del Agua se presenta un breve artículo de carácter introductorio en el que se muestran algunas de la líneas de investigación actuales en Hidrología, dedicadas a lluvia, interceptación de agua por la vegetación, sensores en Hidrología, agua subterránea, entre otras. Dicha revisión no pretende ser exhaustiva, dado el tamaño limitado de este formato de publicación, sino motivar la publicación en Ingeniería del Agua de artículos dentro de la temática Hidrología.

  5. ECOFICCIONES E IMAGINARIOS DEL AGUA Y SU IMPORTANCIA PARA LA MEMORIA CULTURAL Y LA SOSTENIBILIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Martos Núñez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La cultura del agua debe ser vinculada de forma especial a las manifestaciones del patrimonio cultural intangible de los pueblos, como las tradiciones orales o escritas, la simbología o los rituales, que conforman lo que llamamos los Imaginarios del Agua. Estos deben ser analizados y deconstruidos a la luz de los nuevos paradigmas, como la hermenéutica y la ecocrítica. De este modo, la mitografía ayuda a perfilar el significado profundo de la cultura del agua ante las nuevas demandas medioambientales, educativas y culturales del siglo XXI, en un contexto donde el agua ya no es solo un recurso estratégico, sino un bien cultural ligado al desarrollo local y a las políticas de sostenibilidad. Por ello, al conocer las tradiciones ancestrales y los imaginarios en torno al agua, y al sensibilizar a los alumnos con los valores plurales de estas manifestaciones culturales --que siempre van encaminados al respeto y al conocimiento del patrimonio natural y cultural--, contribuimos de forma decisiva a la gobernanza del agua y a la gestión sostenible y responsable de los recursos hídricos, pues sin duda el principal problema de la sostenibilidad será la educación de los ciudadanos.

  6. Prediction of the local power factor in BWR fuel cells by means of a multilayer neural network; Prediccion del factor local de potencia en celdas de combustible BWR mediante una red neuronal multicapas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Perusquia C, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Francois, J.L.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlmt@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    To the beginning of a new operation cycle in a BWR reactor the reactivity of this it increases by means of the introduction of fresh fuel, the one denominated reload fuel. The problem of the definition of the characteristics of this reload fuel represents a combinatory optimization problem that requires significantly a great quantity of CPU time for their determination. This situation has motivated to study the possibility to substitute the Helios code, the one which is used to generate the new cells of the reload fuel parameters, by an artificial neuronal network, with the purpose of predicting the parameters of the fuel reload cell of a BWR reactor. In this work the results of the one training of a multilayer neuronal net that can predict the local power factor (LPPF) in such fuel cells are presented. The prediction of the LPPF is carried out in those condition of beginning of the life of the cell (0.0 MWD/T, to 40% of holes in the one moderator, temperature of 793 K in the fuel and a moderator temperature of 560 K. The cells considered in the present study consist of an arrangement of 10x10 bars, of those which 92 contains U{sup 235}, some of these bars also contain a concentration of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 8 of them contain only water. The axial location inside the one assembles of recharge of these cells it is exactly up of the cells that contain natural uranium in the base of the reactor core. The training of the neuronal net is carried out by means of a retro-propagation algorithm that uses a space of training formed starting from previous evaluations of cells by means of the Helios code. They are also presented the results of the application of the neuronal net found for the prediction of the LPPF of some cells used in the real operation of the Unit One of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power station. (Author)

  7. Design and optimization of a fuel reload of BWR with plutonium and minor actinides; Diseno y optimizacion de una recarga de combustible de BWR con plutonio y actinidos menores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman A, J. R.; Francois L, J. L.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Palomera P, M. A. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico)]. e-mail: maestro_juan_rafael@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    In this work is designed and optimized a pattern of fuel reload of a boiling water reactor (BWR), whose fuel is compound of uranium coming from the enrichment lines, plutonium and minor actinides (neptunium, americium, curium); obtained of the spent fuel recycling of reactors type BWR. This work is divided in two stages: in the first stage a reload pattern designs with and equilibrium cycle is reached, where the reload lot is invariant cycle to cycle. This reload pattern is gotten adjusting the plutonium content of the assembly for to reach the length of the wished cycle. Furthermore, it is necessary to increase the concentration of boron-10 in the control rods and to introduce gadolinium in some fuel rods of the assembly, in order to satisfy the margin approach of out. Some reactor parameters are presented: the axial profile of power average of the reactor core, and the axial and radial distribution of the fraction of holes, for the one reload pattern in balance. For the design of reload pattern codes HELIOS and CM-PRESTO are used. In the second stage an optimization technique based on genetic algorithms is used, along with certain obtained heuristic rules of the engineer experience, with the intention of optimizing the reload pattern obtained in the first stage. The objective function looks for to maximize the length of the reactor cycle, at the same time as that they are satisfied their limits related to the power and the reactor reactivity. Certain heuristic rules are applied in order to satisfy the recommendations of the fuel management: the strategy of the control cells core, the strategy of reload pattern of low leakage, and the symmetry of a quarter of nucleus. For the evaluation of the parameters that take part in the objective function it simulates the reactor using code CM-PRESTO. Using the technique of optimization of the genetic algorithms an energy of the cycle of 10834.5 MW d/tHM is obtained, which represents 5.5% of extra energy with respect to the

  8. La posible creación de mercados de agua y la gobernabilidad de este recurso en Colombia. Comentarios sobre el proyecto de ley del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rodríguez Becerra

    2005-01-01

    En la actualidad se está tramitando un proyecto de Ley del Agua en el Congreso de la República, presentado a su consideración por el Gobierno Nacional, mediante el cual "se establecen medidas para orientar la planificación y administración del recurso hídrico en el territorio nacional." Se trata de la segunda reforma del gobierno del Presidente Alvaro Uribe relacionada con la gestión del agua en Colombia. En efecto, al principio de su gobierno se expidió la Ley de 2003 de creación del Ministe...

  9. El agua no cae del cielo: gobernación y gestión del agua en el Pacífico Sur

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La seguridad hídrica se está volviendo una preocupación central en el cotidiano de muchas comunidades rurales por todo el mundo y se relaciona con cada una de las siete dimensiones de la seguridad humana, ampliando todo tipo de vulnerabilidades. De acuerdo con el informe del Foro Económico Mundial sobre el nexo agua-alimentos-energía-clima, la gestión del agua se está volviendo una materia política urgente en el debate de la sostenibilidad y de la seguridad humana a escala global. Asimismo, h...

  10. Volúmenes molales parciales de transferencia de algunas sulfonamidas desde el agua hasta la mezcla agua-etanol (X = 0.5)

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A partir de valores de densidad de soluciones de diferentes concentraciones, determinados a 25,00 °C, se calcularon los volúmenes molales parciales de transferencia a dilución infinita de algunas sulfonamidas estructuralmente relacionadas, como especies moleculares y como sales sódicas, desde el agua hasta la mezcla agua-etanol de composición 0.5 en fracción molar; adicionalmente se calcularon los volúmenes de los grupos sustituyentes. Los resultados se discuten en términos de interacciones e...

  11. Huella energética del agua y manejo sustentable urbano del agua: diagnóstico estratégico aplicado a la vivienda de Tamaulipas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Córdova Canela

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo general el proponer un diagnóstico estratégico aplicable a la vivienda del Estado de Tamaulipas, en cinco ciudades elegidas para tal fin, que vincule los conceptos de huella energética del agua en la vivienda con el manejo sustentable del agua en la ciudad. Dicho diagnóstico identificará las relaciones sistémicas entre los conceptos citados a partir de la interpretación de la información generada desde instrumentos que califiquen la huella energética de...

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LOS BIOSÓLIDOS DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DE LA ESTACIÓN DEPURADORA DE AGUAS RESIDUALES "QUIBÚ"

    OpenAIRE

    E. Utria; Inés Reynaldo; Cabrera, A; D. Morales; Ada Morúa; Nereida Álvarez

    2006-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar la composición química y microbiológica de los biosólidos de aguas residuales urbanas procedentes de la Estación Depuradora de Aguas Residuales (EDAR) "Quibu", se realizó el presente trabajo en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA). En él se evidenció que estos residuos orgánicos presentan niveles de materia orgánica (MO), nitrógeno (N), fósforo (P) y calcio (Ca) relativamente altos, y los niveles de magnesio (Mg) y potasio (K) se presentan en concentra...

  13. Determinación de la concentración de metales pesados en agua, suelo y cultivos regados con agua de la Presa Manuel Avila Camacho.

    OpenAIRE

    Larenas Bazán, Nelli Natalia

    2011-01-01

    La presa Manuel Ávila Camacho se construyó para aprovechar los escurrimientos de los ríos Atoyac y Alseseca, con propósitos de riego. La contaminación de estos ríos tiene su origen en las descargas de aguas residuales urbanas e industriales, y el uso de aguas residuales no tratadas para la irrigación de cultivos agrícolas, ha contribuido en la contaminación de suelos y plantas por metales pesados (MP), lo cual representa un riesgo para la salud humana y animal. En este sentido, el objetivo de...

  14. Effect of a Sulphate Transient on the EAC Crack Growth Behaviour of Low-Alloy RPV Steels under Simulated BWR Operating Conditions (CASTOC WP 3, PSI Test 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H. P

    2002-03-01

    Within the CASTOC-project (5th EU FW programme), the environmentally-assisted crack (EAC) growth behaviour of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is experimentally investigated under simulated transient and steady-state boiling water reactor (BWR) power operation conditions by six European laboratories. Within WP 3 of this project, the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) investigates the effect of water chemistry transients on the EAC crack growth behaviour under periodical partial unloading (PPU) conditions. The present report is a summary of the first PSI test of WP 3 with a Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} transient. In the first part of the report, the theoretical background on crack growth mechanisms, crack chemistry, mass transport and water chemistry transients as well as a brief literature survey on other water chemistry transient investigations is given. Furthermore, the experimental equipment and test procedure is presented, followed by a summary of the results of PSI test 1 of WP 3. Finally the results are discussed in detail and compared to literature data. In the first part of the experiment, an actively growing EAC crack was generated by PPU in oxygenated high-temperature, high-purity water (T = 288 {sup o}C, DO = 8 ppm, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} < 0.6 ppb). Then a sulphate transient was applied. The duration ({approx} 300 h) and the amount of sulphate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = 368 ppb) of the applied sulphate transient conservatively covered all sulphate transients, which might occur in BWR/normal water chemistry (NWC) practice. After the transient, outlet conductivity was lowered from ca. 1 {mu}S/cm to less than 0.15 {mu}S/cm within 2.6 h by a 'two-loop technique'. No accelerating effect of the sulphate transient on the EAC crack growth of both tested fracture mechanics specimens under highly oxidising BWR/NWC conditions was observed, making it impossible to deterrnine incubation or delay times. The EAC crack growth rates (CGR) before, during and after the

  15. Dispositivo electrónico de medición del caudal de agua para canales abiertos

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Ayala López; Roberto Albóniga Gil

    2015-01-01

    El método de riego por inundación, que desplaza el agua mediante canales abiertos y surcos ha sido usado durante años en la producción agrícola, aunque requiere una gran cantidad de agua y su eficacia no es muy alta ya que la mayoría del agua no se puede extraer directamente en las raíces de las plantas. Siendo de vital importancia lograr datos de campo confiables y lo suficientemente precisos que nos permitan estudiar y proyectar manejos del agua con el menor grado de incertidumbre posi...

  16. Funciones agua rendimiento para 14 cultivos agrícolas en condiciones del sur de La Habana

    OpenAIRE

    Felicita González Robaina; Julián Herrera Puebla; Teresa López Seijas; Greco Cid Lazo

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de las funciones agua rendimiento y su uso dentro de la planificación del uso del agua es una vía importante para trazar estrategias de manejo que contribuyan al incremento en la producción agrícola. Utilizando los datos de consumo de agua, agua aplicada por riego, precipitaciones y los rendimientos obtenidos en más de 100 experimentos de campo realizados fundamentalmente en suelo Ferralítico Rojo de la zona sur de La Habana y con ayuda de herramientas de análisis de regresión en e...

  17. Modelaje estocástico de la variabilidad espacial de la calidad de agua en un ecosistema lacustre

    OpenAIRE

    Celia de la Mora Orozco; J. Germán Flores Garnica; J. Ariel Ruiz Corral; Javier García Velasco

    2004-01-01

    Por su importancia como fuente abastecedora de agua de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, el Lago de Chapala requiere de estrategias de manejo adecuadas. Esto implica la evaluación de la calidad de agua, lo cual incluye varios parámetros físicos, químicos y biológicos, que por sí mismos no proporcionan un diagnóstico adecuado. Por lo que, para caracterizar los niveles de calidad de agua en el Lago de Chapala, en este proyecto se usó el concepto de Índice de Calidad del Agua (ICA). Para cap...

  18. Mercado de derechos de agua para uso agrícola en el noroeste de México

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Fidel Cota-Verdugo; Alfredo Beltrán-Morales; Enrique Troyo-Diéguez; José Luís García-Hernández; Luis Felipe Beltrán-Morales; Víctor Ángel Hernández-Trejo; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Agustín Navarro Bravo

    2013-01-01

    El estado de Baja California sur, es una zona árida y la provisión de agua para la agricultura y demás usos, se sustenta en acuíferos subterráneos. La legislación en materia de agua se ha modificado acorde al problema evidente del crecimiento en el consumo, especialmente para uso agrícola, incluyendo la figura de mercados de derechos de agua. El objetivo de este trabajo, es buscar mecanismos de mercado que legalicen las transacciones de agua entre usuarios agrícolas, proponer la implementaci...

  19. Characterization of welding of AISI 304l stainless steel similar to the core encircling of a BWR reactor; Caracterizacion de soldaduras de acero inoxidable AISI 304L similares a las de la envolvente del nucleo de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gachuz M, M.E.; Palacios P, F.; Robles P, E.F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Plates of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304l of 0.0381 m thickness were welded by means of the SMAW process according to that recommended in the Section 9 of the ASME Code, so that it was reproduced the welding process used to assemble the encircling of the core of a BWR/5 reactor similar to that of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant, there being generated the necessary documentation for the qualification of the one welding procedure and of the welder. They were characterized so much the one base metal, as the welding cord by means of metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, mechanical essays and fracture mechanics. From the obtained results it highlights the presence of an area affected by the heat of up to 1.5 mm of wide and a value of fracture tenacity (J{sub IC}) to ambient temperature for the base metal of 528 KJ/m{sup 2}, which is diminished by the presence of the welding and by the increment in the temperature of the one essay. Also it was carried out an fractographic analysis of the fracture zone generated by the tenacity essays, what evidence a ductile fracture. The experimental values of resistance and tenacity are important for the study of the structural integrity of the encircling one of the core. (Author)

  20. Comparison of results for burning with BWR reactors CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON / NEWT); Comparacion de los resultados de quemado para reactores BWR con CASMO y SCALE 6.2 (TRITON/NEWT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we compare the results from two codes burned, CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON). To do this, is simulated all segments corresponding to a boiling water reactor (BWR) using both codes. In addition, to account for different working points, simulations changing the instantaneous variables, these are repeated: void fractions (6 points), fuel temperature (6 points) and control rods (two points), with a total of 72 possible combinations of different instantaneous variables for each segment. After all simulations are completed for each segment, we can reorder the obtained cross sections, as SCALE CASMO both, to create a library of compositions nemtab format. This format is accepted by the neutronic code of nodal diffusion, PARCS v2.7. Finally compares the results obtained with PARCS and with the SIMULATE3 -SIMTAB methodology to level of full reactor. Also, we have made use of the KENO-VI and MCDANCOFF modules belonging to SCALE. The first is a Monte Carlo transport code with which you can validate the value of the multiplier, the second has been used to obtain values of Dancoff factor and increase the accuracy of model SCALE. (Author)

  1. Optimal estimate of the coolant flow in the assemblies of a BWR of natural circulation in real time; Estimacion optima del flujo de refrigerante en los ensambles de un BWR de circulacion natural en tiempo real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J. B. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: julfi_jg@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The present work exposes the design and the implementation of an advanced controller that allows estimating the coolant flow in the fuel assemblies of a BWR reactor of natural circulation in real time. To be able to reduce the penalizations that are established in the calculations of the operation limits due to the magnitude of the uncertainties in the coolant flows of a natural circulation reactor, is the objective of this research. In this work the construction of the optimal controller that allows estimating the coolant flows in a fuel channels group of the reactor is shown, as well as the operation of this applied to a reduced order model that simulates the dynamics of a natural circulation reactor. The controller design required of an estimator of the valuation variables not directly of the plant and of the estimates use of the local distributions of the coolant flow. The controller construction of the estimator was based mathematically in the filter Kalman whose algorithm allows to be carried out an advanced control of the system. To prove the estimator operation was development a simplified model that reproduces the basic dynamics of the flowing coolant in the reactor, which works as observer of the system, this model is coupled by means of the estimator controller to a detail model of the plant. The results are presented by means of graphics of the interest variables and the estimate flow, and they are documented in the chart that is presented at the end of this article. (Author)

  2. Optimization of fuel cells for BWR using Path Re linking and flexible strategies of solution;Optimizacion de celdas de combustible para BWR empleando Path Relinking y estrategias flexibles de solucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo M, J. A.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Torres V, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, R., E-mail: alejandro.castillo@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    In this work are presented the obtained preliminary results to design nuclear fuel cells for boiling water reactors (BWR) using new strategies. To carry out the cells design some of the used rules in the fuel administration were discarded and other were implemented. The above-mentioned with the idea of making a comparative analysis between the used rules and those implemented here, under the hypothesis that it can be possible to design nuclear fuel cells without using all the used rules and executing the security restrictions that are imposed in these cases. To evaluate the quality of the obtained cells it was taken into account the power pick factor and the infinite multiplication factor, in the same sense, to evaluate the proposed configurations and to obtain the mentioned parameters was used the CASMO-4 code. To optimize the design it is uses the combinatorial optimization technique named Path Re linking and the Dispersed Search as local search method. The preliminary results show that it is possible to implement new strategies for the cells design of nuclear fuel following new rules. (Author)

  3. Actinides record, power calculations and activity for present isotopes in the spent fuel of a BWR; Historial de actinidos y calculos de potencia y actividad para isotopos presentes en el combustible gastado de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez C, P.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Lucatero, M. A., E-mail: pastor.enriquez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The administration of spent fuel is one of the more important stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, and this has become a problem of supreme importance in countries that possess nuclear reactors. Due to this in this work, the study on the actinides record and present fission products to the discharge of the irradiated fuel in a light water reactor type BWR is shown, to quantify the power and activity that emit to the discharge and during the cooling time. The analysis was realized on a fuel assembly type 10 x 10 with an enrichment average of 3.69 wt % in U-235 and the assembly simulation assumes four cycles of operation of 18 months each one and presents an exposition of 47 G Wd/Tm to the discharge. The module OrigenArp of the Scale 6 code is the computation tool used for the assembly simulation and to obtain the results on the actinides record presents to the fuel discharge. The study covers the following points: a) Obtaining of the plutonium vector used in the fuel production of mixed oxides, and b) Power calculation and activity for present actinides to the discharge. The results presented in this work, correspond at the same time immediate of discharge (0 years) and to a cooling stage in the irradiated fuel pool (5 years). (Author)

  4. La competencia por el agua en el valle de Izúcar, Puebla. Los repartimientos de agua y los ingenios, 1550-1650

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Camacho Pichardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El eje principal de este artículo consiste en analizar el proceso de adquisición de derechos, distribución y uso del agua por parte de los labradores españoles e indígenas, en torno al río Nexapa en el valle de Izúcar, Puebla, entre 1550 y 1650, en un período de expansión de la propiedad de los españoles, de la introducción de nuevos cultivos que implicaban riego y de una baja considerable de población indígena. Se analizan los conflictos entre los regantes de aguas arriba con los de aguas abajo, así como las formas de solucionar las tensiones a través de los diversos repartimientos de agua en torno al Nexapa, como instrumento que les permitió a los regantes "resolver" sus diferencias.

  5. La posible creación de mercados de agua y la gobernabilidad de este recurso en Colombia. Comentarios sobre el proyecto de ley del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rodríguez Becerra

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad se está tramitando un proyecto de Ley del Agua en el Congreso de la República, presentado a su consideración por el Gobierno Nacional, mediante el cual "se establecen medidas para orientar la planificación y administración del recurso hídrico en el territorio nacional." Se trata de la segunda reforma del gobierno del Presidente Alvaro Uribe relacionada con la gestión del agua en Colombia. En efecto, al principio de su gobierno se expidió la Ley de 2003 de creación del Ministerio del Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (MAVDT, a partir del anterior Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, al cual se le trasladaron las funciones de vivienda, agua potable, saneamiento básico y desarrollo territorial, antes en cabeza del Ministerio de Desarrollo que se clausuró. Este ensayo tiene como objetivo hacer un examen de algunos aspectos críticos del proyecto de ley, tal como fue aprobado en primer debate en al Comisión Quinta de la Cámara de Representantes, y también efectuar algunas consideraciones sobre la marcha del MAVDT como autoridad nacional del agua, debido a que ambas reformas están encaminadas a fortalecer la gobernabilidad de este recurso en Colombia.

  6. Ahorro de agua y materia prima en los procesos de pelambre y curtido del cuero mediante precipitación y recirculación de aguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA AGUDELO A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El principio del proceso de recuperación de cromo, consiste en precipitar el cromo contenido en el licor residual como hidróxido utilizando un álcali; este precipitado se separa por sedimentación y se disuelve nuevamente con ácido sulfúrico. De los resultados obtenidos, se observaron porcentajes de remoción superiores al 99%. Con la recirculación directa de aguas de pelambre fue posible obtener ahorros de agua del 64% y ahorros en materia prima del 32 %, además, con una adecuada selección del tamizador es posible recircular el agua un número máximo de tres veces, sin afectar la calidad del producto final. Así mismo, se comprobó la viabilidad de la recirculación directa de aguas de curtido, con ahorros de materia prima del 17%. Con medidas de este tipo, prácticas y fáciles de implementar, la industria del curtido del cuero podría disminuir considerablemente la contaminación, operar de una forma mas segura y con mayor eficiencia de producción.

  7. Analyses of containment source term of BWR5 considering iodine chemistry suppression pool with THALES-2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Jun; Moriyama, Kiyofumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    After JCO criticality accident in 1999, recognized the importance of PSA application research for emergency planning and basic technical study supporting decision making in protective actions. In order to evaluate containment source term in the late phase SA, coupling of severe accident analysis code THALES-2 and kinetics of iodine chemistry code Kiche was done. And containment source term analyses were performed a typical accident sequence TQUV of BWR5/Mark-II. The lower the pH in the pool was, the more fraction of iodine were released to gas phase, as was in agreement with the known tendency. Total release fractions of all iodine species to gas phase at 40 hr were 0.1[-](pH=5), 0.01[-](pH=7), 4x10{sup -4}[-] (pH=9). I{sub 2} was dominant in released iodine to gas phase and most of released I{sub 2} was adsorbed to the wall. As the operation of the containment spray, the release of iodine tot the gas phase was enhanced due to the break of a steady state by the circulation in the containment. In future, JAEA will perform containment source term analyses for extensive accident sequences with consideration of iodine chemistry.

  8. Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits during BWR Station Blackout Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

  9. Radiological consequence assessments of degraded core accident scenarios derived from a generic Level 2 PSA of a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Jun; Tomita, Kenichi; Muramatsu, Ken [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-12-01

    The radiological consequence assessments have been made of postulated core damage accidents with source terms derived from a generic Level 2 PSA of a BWR carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The source terms used were for the five core damage accident sequences with the drywell and wetwell failure cases, the release control case by venting of the containment and the accident termination case by the containment spray. The radiological consequences have been assessed for individual dose, collective dose, individual risk of early health effects and individual risk of late health effects by a probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR developed in JAERI. Following conclusions were obtained for the assumed source terms. In case of the over pressure failures of the primary containment vessel, the early fatalities can be mitigated through the implementation of early countermeasures, and the late cancer fatalities remains small. For the release control and accident termination cases, the individual and collective doses to the public can be reduced without any countermeasures due to the release reduction of the volatile radionuclides such as iodine and cesium. (author)

  10. OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality benchmarks phase IIIA: Criticality calculations of BWR spent fuel assemblies in storage and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ando, Yoshihira [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    The report describes the final results of Phase IIIA Benchmarks conducted by the Burnup Credit Criticality Calculation Working Group under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The benchmarks are intended to confirm the predictive capability of the current computer code and data library combinations for the neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of a layer of irradiated BWR fuel assembly array model. In total 22 benchmark problems are proposed for calculations of k{sub eff}. The effects of following parameters are investigated: cooling time, inclusion/exclusion of FP nuclides and axial burnup profile, and inclusion of axial profile of void fraction or constant void fractions during burnup. Axial profiles of fractional fission rates are further requested for five cases out of the 22 problems. Twenty-one sets of results are presented, contributed by 17 institutes from 9 countries. The relative dispersion of k{sub eff} values calculated by the participants from the mean value is almost within the band of {+-}1%{delta}k/k. The deviations from the averaged calculated fission rate profiles are found to be within {+-}5% for most cases. (author)

  11. Progress of Ambiente & Agua Journal after three years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available After completing three years since its first issue was published on August 2006, we are proud to report the development of Ambiente & Agua - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science, ISSN:1980-993X, doi:10.4136/1980-993X that is publishing its 10th issue with 17 peer reviewed articles. Thanks to the great support of the scientific community, especially to the authorse and peer reviewers, all issues have been published on-time, i.e. at the end of April, August and December. Missions and goals are progressively being achieved. We have two new metadata harvester agencies listing the journal: the Portal of the Brazilian Agency from the Ministry of Education concerned with the graduate level education, known as CAPES in its service “Portal de Periódicos da CAPES” accessed by most of the scientific community in Brazil and the Summary of Brazilian Journals (Sumarios.org. We report in this current issue the growing international interest in the journal, by monitoring the access of readers, using several tools. Therefore, we anticipate a growing interest in the journal from not only the Brazilian but also from the global scientific community.

  12. Progress of Ambiente & Agua Journal after three years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available After completing three years since its first issue was published on August 2006, we are proud to report the development of Ambiente & Agua - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science, ISSN:1980-993X, doi:10.4136/1980-993X that is publishing its 10th issue with 17 peer reviewed articles. Thanks to the great support of the scientific community, especially to the authors e peer reviewers, all issues have been published on-time, i.e. at the end of April, August and December. Missions and goals are progressively being achieved. We have two new metadata harvester agencies listing the journal: the Portal of the Brazilian Agency from the Ministry of Education concerned with the graduate level education, known as CAPES in its service “Portal de Periódicos da CAPES” accessed by most of the scientific community in Brazil and the Summary of Brazilian Journals (Sumarios.org. We report in this current issue the growing international interest in the journal, by monitoring the access of readers, using several tools. Therefore, we anticipate a growing interest in the journal from notonly the Brazilian but also from the global scientific community.

  13. Bioética del derecho al agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohórquez Caldera, Luis Alfredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se observa también, que en la prestación del servicio domiciliario de agua potable en Colombia, servicio que ha de ser asumido como derechos humanos fundamental, hoy en Colombia se conrroboran aspectos preocupantes en relación a la prestación de este servicio fundamental en los que se evidencia improvisación, manejo bajo la lógica del negocio y aplicación por ende de modelos inequitativos de prestación de servicios públicos. Abstract. It is observed that in the provision of the service of drinking water in Colombia, a service that has to be taken as a fundamental human right. Today in Colombia, worrying aspects as for the provision of this key service are corroborated, in which improvisation is made evident, which is carried out under the logics of business and the application, therefore, of inequitable models of the provision of public utilities.

  14. Maracaibo: De pueblo de Agua a Ciudad, Puerto siglos XVIXVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Parra Grazzina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El pueblo de Maracaibo aborigen y sus términos antecedió a lo que fue la ciudad-puerto de Maracaibo en los siglos XVI y XVII inserta en la expansión capitalista europea. La ventajosa situación de Maracaibo en el intermedio del agua lacustre y marítimas, propició la alternativa de comunicación entre los centros productores andinos-lacustres con el Caribe y el Atlántico. Factor aprovechado por las poblaciones del norte del Lago de Maracaibo para el dominio de la navegación lacustre que derivó en rivalidades económicas y políticas, tanto en los tiempos aborígenes como en los tiempos de sometimiento hispánico. Se trata de interpretar el crecimiento del puerto y su competitividad con los otros puertos lacustres como Moporo, Tomoporo, Gibraltar y Zulia por el control comercial, de los cuales dependió paradójicamente para su abastecimiento en razón de la esterilidad de las tierras maracaiberas. Tal proceso se estudió en el marco de la política mercantilista de los Austrias, a través del análisis histórico de las fuentes documentales del Archivo General de Indias.

  15. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells; Construccion de un electrodo externo para determinacion del potencial de corrosion electroquimico en condiciones normales de operacion de un reactor tipo BWR para celdas calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R. [Departamento de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm{sup 2}, to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  16. Simulation of the aspersion system of the core low pressure (LPCS) for a boiling water reactor (BWR) based on RELAP; Simulacion del sistema de aspersion del nucleo a baja presion (LPCS) para un reactor de agua en ebullicion (BWR) basado en RELAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrillo G, O. E.; Chavez M, C., E-mail: garzo1012@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The present work presents the modeling and simulation of the aspersion system to low pressure of reactor of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde using the nuclear code RELAP/SCDAP. The objective of the emergency systems inside a nuclear reactor is the cooling of the core, nor caring the performance of any other emergency system in the case of an accident design base for coolant loss. To obtain a simulation of the system is necessary to have a model based on their main components, pipes, pumps, valves, etc. This article describes the model for the simulation of the main line and the test line for the HPCS. At the moment we have the simulation of the reactor vessel and their systems associated to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, this work will allow to associate the emergency system model LPCS to the vessel model. The simulation of the vessel and the emergency systems will allow knowing the behavior of the reactor in the stage of the coolant loos, giving the possibility to analyze diverse scenarios. The general model will provide an auxiliary tool for the training in classroom and at distance in the operation of nuclear power plants. (Author)

  17. Simulation of the aspersion system of the core at high pressure (HPCS) for a boiling water reactor (BWR) based on RELAP; Simulacion del sistema de aspersion del nucleo alta presion (HPCS) para un reactor de agua en ebullicion (BWR) basado en RELAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas O, D.; Chavez M, C., E-mail: danmirnyi@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    A high-priority topic for the nuclear industry is the safety, consequently a nuclear power plant should have the emergency systems of cooling of the core (ECCS), designed exclusively to enter in operation in the event of an accident with coolant loss, including the design base accident. The objective of the aspersion system of the core at high pressure (HPCS) is to provide in an autonomous way the cooling to the core maintaining for if same the coolant inventory even when a small break is presented that does not allow the depressurization of the reactor and also avoiding excessive temperatures that affect the shielding of the fuel. The present work describes the development of the model and the simulation of the HPCS using the RELAP/SCDAP code. During the process simulation, for the setting in march of the system HPCS in an accident with coolant loss is necessary to implement the main components of the system taking into account what unites them, the main pump, the filled pump, the suction and injection valves, pipes and its water sources that can be condensed storage tanks and the suppression pool. The simulation of this system will complement the model with which counts the Analysis Laboratory in Nuclear Reactors Engineering of the UNAM regarding to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde which does not have a detailed simulation of the emergency cooling systems. (Author)

  18. Derecho ambiental legislación nacional e internacional sobre calidad de aguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Casaux

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Antecedentes. Principios esenciales. El criterio general de Naciones Unidas. La costumbre en Uruguay. Competencias nacionales. Código Civil y Código Penal. Código Rural. Código de Aguas. Ley 13.667 de 18.6.68 sobre Suelos y Aguas y su modificativa decreto-ley 15.239 de 23-12-81 o Ley de Suelos. Ley de Riego Nº16.858 y reglamentación posterior. Ministerio de Transporte y Obras Públicas (Dirección de Hidrografía, Ministerio de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca (Dirección de Suelos yAguas, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (DINAMA, Ministerio de Salud Pública (Ley 9.202 de 1934, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (Dirección de Asuntos Internacionales, Ministerio de Industria y Energía (Dirección de Minería y Geología Municipios.  Obras Sanitarias del Estado (OSE Universidad de la República. Panorama jurídico de la región. Tratados internacionales. Normas. Mercosur. Derecho Ambiental y Obras de la zona. Pasivo y activo del Mercosur. El Derecho Comparado. Conclusiones. La importancia económica, jurídica y ambiental del agua. Las diferenteslegislaciones y su trascendencia para el desarrollo. El recurso agua como fuente de poder

  19. Concepto y trascendencia del derecho de aprovechamiento en materia de aguas (Propiedad y Aprovechamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Guerra Daneri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La disciplina de las aguas se encuentra estructurada jurídicamente, sólo en base a dos derechos: el de propiedad y el de aprovechamiento. La caracterización que posee el agua como cosa, impide que puedan ejercerse otros derechos sobre ella.El punto de partida para explicar este fenómeno, radica en que el agua responde a dos hechos técnicos que ofician como fuente material o factor de calificación jurídica: el principio de territorialidad y la unidad del ciclo hidrológico. Estos dan motivo a su comportamiento universal y en ellos se asienta su disciplina, más allá de la regulación particular que cada derecho positivo quiera desarrollar, imponiendo una política en la materia.  En síntesis, el agua es un bien cuyas particularidades determinan que en definitiva, el derecho de propiedad sea desplazado en su trascendencia patrimonial por otro derecho que ocupa su lugar en jerarquía e individualidad: el derecho de aprovechamiento. Sin embargo y a pesar de los sólidos fundamentos que lo sustentan, la identidad de este derecho parece todavía opacada por los reflejos de una propiedad, que en materia de aguas, es inoperante.       

  20. Nematodos en las plantas de tratamiento de agua para consumo humano en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Peinador

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Los nematodos acuáticos son habitantes frecuentes en las plantas de tratamiento de agua para consumo humano. Su presencia en ellas y el grado en que son removidos por dichas plantas puede ser utilizado como un parámetro de funcionamiento y de calidad de agua, ya que muchos organismos patógenos pueden pasar a los sistemas de distribución de agua dentro del cuerpo de los nematodos. Para analizar esta problemática se realizaron 1356 muestreos en el agua cruda y tratada de 27 plantas de tratamiento. Los resultados demuestran la alta incidencia de nematodos y la baja taza de remoción que presentan varias plantas de tratamiento, llegando a ser de 0. 5 en el 11% de las plantas, 0.4 en el 18% y 0.3 en el 29%. Este hecho se agrava si se toma en cuenta que dentro de las plantas de tratamiento que tienen una menor taza de remoción se encuentran las de mayor producción de agua para consumo.

  1. [Water birds from Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary, Jalisco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vázquez, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    Waterbird abundance, and seasonal and spatial distribution, were studied in two natural water pools at Jalisco, Mexico, from December 1997 through November 1998. Maximum monthly abundance in Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary was 86 471 birds (29 686 in Agua Dulce and 56 785 in Ermitaño), with a total cummulative abundance of 179 808 individuals (66 976 in Agua Dulce and 112 832 in Ermitaño). A total of 87 waterbirds species were recorded, 78 in Agua Dulce and 73 in Ermitaño. The higher species richness and abundance was observed during winter, when migratory species arrived. Most species prefered shallow waters, except seabirds which prefered protected areas such as dunes in Agua Dulce. Other groups, like clucks and related species. prefered low salinity areas, for example in the south-east area of Ermitaño. The higher abundance of the shorehirds was found when the water level on the estuary was low. Herons were seen often at areas with high salinity and influenced by tides (e.g. mouth of Ermitaño).

  2. Pueblos indígenas de Sonora: el agua, ¿es de todos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Luque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad cultural y la problemática ambiental del agua en el estado de Sonora convergen en el presente trabajo, abordadas desde la perspectiva de la ecología política y la diversidad biocultural mediante un análisis transdisciplinario. Se distingue entre el acceso al agua para la subsistencia tradicional del agua para el desarrollo. Se advierten tendencias generalizadas de despojo de los territorios indígenas y sus recursos naturales, en las que los conflictos por el agua para la subsistencia son cada vez más graves, que exacerban la vulnerabilidad de las comunidades y la desorganización del complejo biocultural. El servicio del agua potable no tiene las condiciones para impulsar el desarrollo comunitario sustentable. Estas tendencias no son homogéneas, y se observan posibilidades de reconfiguración. Se requiere precisar el análisis para aportar al desarrollo de los pueblos indígenas, desde una plataforma biocultural contemporánea, en pleno respeto de sus derechos humanos individuales y colectivos.

  3. Calidad del agua y sedimento en el lago de Maracaibo, estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovany José-Bracho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el agua y el sedimento del lago de Maracaibo en seis estaciones de muestreo distribuidas de norte a sur del lago. Los parámetros físicoquímicos y ambientales fueron determinados y establecidas las relaciones entre estos y las áreas afectadas por descargas de aguas residuales, depósitos de basura, residuos industriales líquidos y sólidos, actividad petrolera y agrícola y materiales orgánicos acarreados por ríos y drenajes pluviales. Se evidenció la contaminación por incremento de utrientes(nitrógeno y fósforo en las zonas influenciadas por los ríos y vertederos de agua residual y se validó la presencia de una cuña salina por la penetración al lago de las aguas del golfo de Venezuela. Las concentraciones de metalespesados están por debajo de los límites permisibles para el agua; en los sedimentos es muy heterogénea.

  4. Los Imaginarios del agua y sus lecturas pansemióticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E. Martos García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Imaginarios del Agua constituyen un conjunto de etnotextos, ritos y símbolos que son susceptibles de ser leídos desde muy diferentes perspectivas. En este artículo se profundiza en dos aspectos concretos: la totemización o personificación que suponen los genios del agua y sus lecturas plurisimbólicas, y la necesidad de establecer una lectura poética y pansemiótica del agua, conforme a los postuladosde la Ecocrítica. En segundo lugar, se exponen las virtualidades de la cultura del agua en la educación en cuanto a contribuir a la adquisición de las competencias básicas educativas, y en particular, a la educación literaria y del patrimonio, además de ayudar a comprenderla gobernanza del agua y a la gestión sostenible y responsable de los recursos hídricos. Como indica E. Morin, la lectura y la literatura son una escuela de complejidad, y estos mitos inciden siempre en lacomplejidad del sentido de las acciones humanas.

  5. Reutilización de aguas grises: grupo de viviendas en el municipio de Victoria de Acentejo

    OpenAIRE

    Ysún Barrio, Mª Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Esta tesina analiza el potencial de la reutilización de las aguas grises generadas en las viviendas para devenir una fuente no convencional de agua, y ofrecer así una opción adicional con la que paliar los déficits hídricos.

  6. Implementation of a Newton-Krylov iterative method to address strong non-linear feedback effects in FORMOSA-B BWR core simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanya, Doddy Febrian

    A Newton-BICGSTAB solver has been developed to reduce the CPU execution time of the FORMOSA-B boiling water reactor (BWR) core simulator. The new solver treats the strong non-linearities in the problem explicitly using the Newton's method, replacing the traditionally used nested iterative approach. Taking advantage of the higher convergence rate provided by the Newton's method, assuming that a good initial estimate of the unknowns is provided, and utilizing an efficient preconditioned BICGSTAB solver, we have developed a computationally efficient Newton-BICGSTAB solver to evaluate the three-dimensional, two-group neutron diffusion equations coupled with a two-phase flow model within a BWR core simulator. The robustness of the solver has been tested against numerous BWR core configurations and consistent results have been observed each time. The best exact Newton-BICGSTAB solver performance provides an overall speedup of 2.07 to the core simulator, with reference to the traditional approach, i.e. outer (fission-source)-inner (red/black line SOR). When solving the same problem using the traditional approach but with the BICGSTAB solver as the inner iteration solver [traditional (BICGSTAB)], we observed a speedup of 1.85. This means that the Newton-BICGSTAB solver provides an additional 12% increase in the overall speedup over the traditional (BICGSTAB) solver. However, one needs to note that, on average, the exact Newton-BICGSTAB solver provides an overall speedup of around 1.70; whereas, on average, the traditional (BICGSTAB) provides an overall speedup of around 1.60. An investigation on the feasibility of implementing an inexact Newton-BICGSTAB solver indicates that further reduction in the execution time can likely be obtained through this approach. This study shows that the inexact Newton-BICGSTAB solver can provide speedups of 1.73 to 2.10 with respect to the traditional solver.

  7. Stability analysis of a recycling circuit of a BWR type reactor. Theoretical study; Analisis de estabilidad de un circuito de recirculacion de un reactor del tipo BWR. Estudio teorico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas H, J.G.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez M, V.M. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, 04000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Technology, Regulation and Services Management of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards financed and in coordinate form with the I.P.H. Department of the Metropolitan Autonomous-Iztapalapa University developed the present project with the purpose of studying the effect of the recycling system on the linear stability of a BWR reactor whose reference central is the Laguna Verde power station. The present project forms part of a work series focused to the linear stability of the nuclear reactor of the Unit 1 at Laguna Verde power station. The components of the recycling system considered for the study of stability are the recycling external circuit (recycling pumps, valves) and the internal circuit (downcomer, jet pumps, lower full, driers, separators). The mathematical model is obtained applying mass balances and movement quantity in each one of the mentioned circuits. With respect to the nucleus model two regions are considered, the first one is made of a flow in one phase and the second one of a flow in two phases. For modelling the biphasic region it is considered homogenous flow. Generally it is studied the system behavior in the frequency domain starting from the transfer function applied to four operational states which correspond to the lower stability zone in the map power-flow of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde power station. The Nyquist diagrams corresponding to each state as well as their characteristic frequency were determined. The results show that exists a very clear dependence of the power-flow relation on the stability of the system. It was found that the boiling length is an important parameter for the linear stability of the system. The obtained results show that the characteristic frequencies in unstability zones are similar to the reported data of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde power station in the event of power oscillations carried out in January 1995. (Author)

  8. Simplified system for the pressure control of a Nucleo electric central of the BWR type; Sistema simplificado para el control de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J. [FI-UNAM, DEPFI Campus Morelos, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    One of the main preoccupations of the electric power generator stations is the appropriate operation of the same ones. The operators must be qualified to respond in an adequate way and to be able to take to these power stations to an optimal, sure and stable operation condition under any circumstance. The Laboratory of Analysis in Nuclear Reactors Engineering (LAIRN) of the Engineering Faculty of UNAM (Fl) in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it develops an interactive classroom simulator in which simulations of the phenomena which take place in a nuclear power station are executed. The classroom simulator bases its operation on specialized nuclear codes feeding interactive graphic unfolding with those that it is possible to make a monitoring, supervision and control of the behavior of the power station under any operation regime, either in normal operation, transitory events or postulated accident sequence. The development of this classroom simulator includes a modular and re configurable structure. Due to it is indispensable to count with a higher inter activity with the system it is included the simulation of the control system of the plant and inside the same, one of those more important it is the reactor pressure control system. The present work describes the conceptual design and the used methodology for the development and implementation in the simulator of a simplified model of the pressure control system for a BWR generic central. The reach of the development will allow to accomplish the necessary tests to demonstrate that this has an adequate performance according to the carried out simplifications. (Author)

  9. Study of environmental noise in a BWR plant like the Nuclear Power Plant Laguna Verde; Estudio de ruido ambiental en una planta BWR como la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Cruz G, M.; Amador C, C., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In all industry type the health costs generated by the noise are high, because the noise can cause nuisance and to harm the capacity to work when causing tension and to perturb the concentration, and in more severe cases to reach to lose the sense of the hearing in the long term. The noise levels in the industry have been designated for the different types of use like residential, commercial, and industrial and silence areas. The noise can cause accidents when obstructing the communications and alarm signs. For this reason the noise should be controlled and mitigated, at a low level as reasonably is possible, taking into account that the noise is an acoustic contamination. The present study determines a bases line of the environmental noise levels in a nuclear power plant BWR-5 as Laguna Verde, (like reference) to be able to determine and to give pursuit to the possible solutions to eliminate or to limit the noise level in the different job areas. The noise levels were registered with a meter of integrative noise level (sonometer) and areas of noise exposure levels mapping the general areas in the buildings were established, being the registered maximum level of 96.94 dba in the building of the Reactor-elevation 0.65 m under the operation conditions of Extended Power Up rate (EPU) of 120% PTN. Knowing that the exposition to noises and the noise dose in the job place can influence in the health and in the safety of the workers, are extensive topics that they should be analyzed for separate as they are: to) the effects in the health of the exposure to the noise, b) how measuring the noise, c) the methods and technologies to combat and to control the noise in the industry by part of engineering area and d) the function of the industrial safety bodies as delegates of the health and safety in the task against the noise in the job. (author)

  10. Determination of stresses caused by fluctuation of acoustic load in the steam dryers of a BWR; Determinacion de esfuerzos originados por fluctuacion de carga acustica en los secadores de vapor de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centeno P, J.; Quezada G, S.; Prieto G, A.; Vazquez R, A.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Nunez C, A., E-mail: javcuami26@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The extended power up-rate (EPU) in a nuclear power plant cause various problems in BWR components also in the steam system. This due to increased steam flow generated in the reactor and is conveyed to the turbine by the four main steam lines (MSL). One of the most serious problems is the generation of acoustic pressure loads in the metal structure of the steam dryer which eventually leads to fatigue failure and even the appearance of cracks, and in turn it causes loose parts that are entrained by the steam and transported in the MSL. This problem is due to the fluctuation of load acoustics caused by the union of the safety or relief valves (SRV) with the MSL, spreading through these to reach the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) where the effect of resonance of the acoustic wave is amplified and impacts directly in the supporting structure of the steam dryer, skirt and the panels where the mixture liquid-steam is dried, by centrifugation effect and runoff of liquid water. Efforts in the steam dryer operating conditions of EPU for two cases will be analyzed in this work, the first is before the installation of Acoustic Side Branch (ASB), and in the second case we consider the installation of said ASB in the standpipes of SRV. The analysis was performed with numerical experiments on a platform for computational fluid dynamics with virtual geometries previously designed based on the actual components of the reactor and steam system. The model to study is delimited by the top of the RPV, the steam dryer and a section of each of the four MSL with ten standpipes of SRV. With the obtained data and considering the mechanical-structural properties of the steam dryer material, we can evaluate the mechanical resistance to impacts by acoustic pressure load and its possible deformation or cracking. (Author)

  11. Description and assessment of RAMONA-3B Mod. 0 Cycle 4: a computer code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics for BWR system transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W; Cheng, H S; Diamond, D J; Khatib-Rahbar, M

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the physical models and the numerical methods employed in the BWR systems code RAMONA-3B. The RAMONA-3B code simulates three-dimensional neutron kinetics and multichannel core hydraulics of nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium two-phase flows. RAMONA-3B is programmed to calculate the steady and transient conditions in the main steam supply system for normal and abnormal operational transients, including the performances of plant control and protection systems. Presented are code capabilities and limitations, models and solution techniques, the results of development code assessment and suggestions for improving the code in the future.

  12. Influence of the wet-well nodalization of a BWR3 Mark I on the containment thermal-hydraulic response during an SBO accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, Luis E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es; Fontanet, Joan; Fernández, Elena; López, Claudia

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Analysis of SBO sequences in BWR3 Mark I containments. • Multiple-mesh nodalization allows pool stratification set up. • Mass, momentum and energy exchanges between nodes play a key role. • Validation/verification against a scaled-down database required to credit meshing schemes. - Abstract: In the field of severe accidents simulation one of the most challenging issues is nodalization. This paper explores the effect of the wet well modeling on significant variables describing the sequence evolution. The code used for the study has been MELCOR 2.1 and the scenario chosen has been a prolonged SBO occurring in a BWR3 Mark I. The results indicate that some significant magnitudes show a moderate scatter depending on WW nodalization (i.e., core uncovery, RPV failure, hydrogen production), whereas the SP thermal state might display outstanding deviations, which sometimes affect significantly key variables like containment pressure. The difficulties and uncertainties around defining a suitable WW nodalization have been highlighted and the need to properly balance the entire plant meshing has been stressed. Even though a number of noding schemes has been explored, the results discussion underlines the importance of having a deep understanding of the potential phenomena governing the scenario and of mastering the code facilities to better model it. Some insights into WW nodalization in MELCOR 2.1 have been gained for the specific scenario (i.e., a prolonged SBO in a BWR3 Mark I) explored: a single node assumption might underestimate PCV pressurization; a loose coupling of water and gas exchanges in the WW nodalization would be preferred if the drift flux model is chosen for momentum exchange in the flow pathways between WW nodes; the potential of some axial thermal stratification in the pool should be taken into account when noding the WW; sensitivity analyses on physically supported WW nodalization schemes should be conducted and focused on key

  13. Valoración de la calidad del agua del arroyo Guachinango, con fines de riego

    OpenAIRE

    Jeny Pérez Petitón; Geisy Hernández Cuello

    2007-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en la finca «La Conchita» perteneciente a la Cooperativa de Créditos y Servicios (CCS) «Lidia Doce». Se valoró la posible utilización del agua del arroyo Guachinango para el riego del cultivo del guayabo. Se da una explicación detallada de las condiciones constructivas del área, desde la toma de agua en el río hasta el punto de muestreo. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de agua a la salida del cabezal de riego a los que se le realizó análisis químico-físico y m...

  14. El agua en discordia: balance cualitativo de la situación.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mussetta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 95 523 Agustin 4 1 617 14.0 96 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-TRAD JA X-NONE Partiendo de una selección de situaciones conflictivas y problemas por agua en algunos países latinoamericanos, el trabajo establece un balance cualitativo de la situación del campo de los conflictos por agua en la región latinoamericana. Esto implica un doble objetivo. Por un lado, esbozar las dimensiones más importantes que se repiten en el escenario: los motivos y temas, actores, definiciones de la situación. Por otro lado, partiendo de ese escenario reseñado, sentar las bases analíticas definiendo la importancia del Estado como eje desde donde orientar a futuro los estudios sobre los conflictos por agua

  15. Usos y riesgos del agua en la cuenca La Antigua, Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rita Román-Jiménez; Martín Alfonso Mendoza-Briseño; Alejandro Velázquez-Martínez; Mario Roberto Martínez-Ménez; Juan Manuel Torres-Rojo; Hugo Ramírez-Maldonado

    2011-01-01

    El agua en México se considera un recurso escaso y valioso. Este trabajo es un ensayo que toma como caso de estudio la cuenca del río La Antigua, en Veracruz, México. En este lugar la condición y manejo de las tierras se relacionó con atributos del agua en función de usos varios. La cuenca de La Antigua capta una gran cantidad de agua y aún así se perciben problemas relacionados con el vital líquido. Las evidencias y el análisis en este estudio revelan la existencia de un imaginario colectiv...

  16. TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS DE ESCORRENTÍA MEDIANTE HUMEDALES ARTIFICIALES: ESTADO DEL ARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Peña Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La concentración de contaminantes en aguas lluvia es un tema que preocupa a las entidades gubernamentales porque deterioran la calidad hídrica de las fuentes receptoras. En varios países, se han iniciado investigaciones y desarrollo de metodologías para tratar este tipo de aguas. Una de estas técnicas es la ejecución de humedales artificiales, y es una de las más aceptadas por su gran eficiencia en la remoción de contaminantes. El presente artículo expondrá el estado del conocimiento, estudiando los métodos de diseño, eficiencias y las nuevas tendencias en la investigación de humedales artificiales que tratan aguas lluvia y/o escorrentía urbana.

  17. Distribución del agua en el Perú desde una perspectiva de cuenca

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El artículo plantea la importancia de integrar el concepto de cuenca a la distribución de los recursos. Se propone integrar un trabajo detallado por cuenca que involucre el cálculo del caudal de agua, la variación de la napa freática, el caudal ecológico, los volúmenes de erosión y la distribución actual del agua, para de allí plantear la distribución del agua en la cuenca. El aprovechamiento y distribución de los recursos naturales se encuentran estrechamente vinculados a la distribución del...

  18. Las características del mercado de derechos de agua en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Embid Irujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Por diversas circunstancias el derecho español conoce desde 1999 de una regulación jurídica de los mercados de derechos de uso de aguas. De ellos se ha hecho bastante utilización durante la última gran sequía (2005-2009 y la experiencia ha sido favorable. La regulación de los mercados intenta evitar la especulación y el acaparamiento de derechos. Sin que sea gran cantidad de agua la que se mueve por razón de los mercados, sí que es suficiente para evitar graves inconvenientes y, con el adecuado control, deseable para conseguir recursos hídricos que sirvan para satisfacer las nuevas necesidades y producir una gestión más eficaz del agua

  19. El arte de aforar: del nilómetro a la paja de agua cordobesa

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Cañas, José

    2014-01-01

    Esta ponencia pretende describir la evolución diacrónica del aforo desde los orígenes hasta la paja de agua cordobesa, o medida de agua que se usó en la ciudad de Córdoba entre los siglos XVI y XIX. También se presenta la determinación de su valor expresándolo en unidades del sistema métrico decimal. El aforo de corrientes de agua ha tenido un gran interés para la humanidad desde sus albores. Las grandes civilizaciones han nacido y crecido a la orilla de los grandes ríos, y ...

  20. Riesgos a la salud por presencia del aluminio en el agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Trejo Vázquez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad el aluminio tiene una amplia aplicación en la industria alimenticia, farmacéutica, del papel, de la construcción y en el tratamiento de agua para beber y agua residual. Sin embargo, no se ha dado énfasis a los posibles daños a la salud originados por el consumo de este elemento. Una de las enfermedades que ha sido asociada a la ingesta de este elemento es el Alzheimer y se corre el riesgo de desarrollar otros padecimientos. En el presente documento se resumen los resultados obtenidos de una investigación bibliográfica relacionada con los daños a la salud originados por el consumo de aluminio y compuestos fluoroaluminados, la finalidad es poner de manifiesto la importancia que tiene vigilar y controlar el contenido del aluminio en el agua potable

  1. Agua y Plan Hidrológico en la Región de Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Tobarra González

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se plantea la necesidad de contemplar el agua como un activo social y no sólo como un mero factor de producción, admitiendo que esta última concepción proporciona un alto valor a la producción final agraria regional. Se hace, además, un análisis de las demandas y consumos de agua, se estudian las causas y consecuencias de la escasez de recursos hídricos que conduce inevitablemente a la sobreexplotación de los acuíferos. Finalmente se estudian los precios y problemas de los distintos tipos de agua que se consumen en la región de Murcia y las razones por las cuales es necesario que cuanto antes se culmine el Plan Hidrológico Nacional.

  2. Efectos de la calidad del agua en la resistencia del concreto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rodríguez F.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este es el segundo proyecto de una serie que estudia los "Efectos de la calidad del agua en la resistencia del concreto". En el primer proyecto se analizan los efectos producidos por diferentes concentraciones de sulfatos, sólidos disueltos y materia orgánica en el agua de mezcla, sobre la resistencia y manejabilidad del concreto. En esta segunda parte se estudia únicamente el efecto del sulfato de magnesio en un rango de concentraciones en el agua de mezcla de 600 a 1.200 mg/lt. con variación de 100 mg/lt en las concentraciones, según la recomendación dada en la primera parte.

  3. Las aguas de consumo envasadas en España. Trasvases muy rentables y nada cuestionados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayetano Espejo Marín

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de agua envasada en España ha ido en paralelo desde finales de los años ochenta al incremento en el nivel de vida de los españoles. Un reducido grupo de empresas, con una gran incidencia de las multinacionales, controla la mayor parte del mercado. Con este artículo se pretende destacar la importancia de este sector a través del análisis de los siguientes aspectos: tipos de agua envasada, evolución de la producción, localización de los manantiales, estructura de las empresas, y por último se estudia el caso de la ciudad de Murcia, ejemplo significativo de área de recepción de agua envasada procedente de varias provincias españolas.

  4. Gobernanza del agua residual en Aguascalientes: captura regulatoria y arreglos institucionales complejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Pacheco-Vega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de agua en Aguascalientes se ha estudiado desde la perspectiva del suministro, pero no se ha analizado la gobernanza del agua residual. En este artículo se examina el manejo de efluentes del municipio de Aguascalientes utilizando las teorías del neoinstitucionalismo histórico, de la gobernanza y de la captura regulatoria. Se explica los factores que han influido en la operación reciente (2010-2013 del tratamiento y reuso de agua municipal. El análisis está fundamentado en los debates contemporáneos sobre priva - tización del recurso hídrico, y enfocado en el periodo de la administración priista de Lorena Martínez, y sus proyectos emblemáticos: Línea Verde y Líneas Moradas.

  5. Vigilancia sanitaria del agua: un nuevo enfoque para municipalidades de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Valiente

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de vigilancia sanitaria constituyen el nuevo enfoque para complementar los programas de control de calidad del agua y consisten en la aplicación de una metodología que permite determinar el grado de riesgo para la salud que presentan los sistemas de agua para consumo humano. En el presente trabajo se presenta el desarrollo y adaptación de un Programa de Vigilancia Sanitaria para ser utilizado en Costa Rica. Este programa se basa principalmente en determinar el grado de riesgo para la salud que posee un acueducto, relacionando el nivel de contaminación fecal con el grado de la inspección sanitaria obtenido a partir de encuestas de campo. Los alcances del programa son proveer una plataforma para dar prioridad racional a las inversiones en el sector agua y unifica esfuerzos entre los dos roles importantes en esta área, el de las instituciones encargadas del abastecimiento de agua y el ente rector o autoridad reguladora en el campo del agua y la salud. Inicialmente, para implementar este programa se seleccionaron las Municipales de Costa Rica, de las 81 municipalidades existentes, 37 operan sistemas de suministro de agua para un total de 243 acueductos. El programa fue implementado durante los años 1996 y 1997. Se presentan para ilustración los resultados obtenidos en dos acueductos pertenecientes a las municipalidades de Cartago y San Marcos de Tarrazú. La ventaja de este tipo de programas sobre otros de control de calidad, radica principalmente en poder determinar el estado en que se encuentran las estructuras del acueducto y no solo su calidad, con el fin de establecer las prioridades para una inversión eficiente de los recursos existentes y así evitar la exposición de los usuarios a enfermedades de transmisión hídrica.

  6. Genotoxicidad del agua contaminada por plaguicidas en un área de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Tobón M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar genotoxicidad del extracto orgánico de recursos hídricos de la vereda Monterredondo (Antioquia, contaminados por el uso de pesticidas en la agricultura, en la producción porcina y avícola como un diagnóstico de su calidad para entender su influencia en estas fuentes de agua en el municipio de San Pedro de Los Milagros (Antioquia. Materiales y métodos. Se empleó el ensayo cometa para establecer fragilidad osmótica de eritrocitos, viabilidad celular y alteración del ADN de linfocitos humanos al incubar estas células en agua recogida de tres fuentes hídricas de la vereda Monterredondo en el laboratorio de Bioquímica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia. Resultados. El análisis de los datos de la longitud del cometa del extracto orgánico de las tres muestras, indicaron genotoxicidad. Este efecto fue dependiente de la concentración del extracto y del sitio de muestreo (p<0.001. La muestra de agua de la quebrada el Hato, presentó el mayor efecto genotóxico a 4 y 37ºC; la muestra de agua de la planta de tratamiento de la Hacienda La Montaña, presentó una alta genotoxicidad relativa, comparada con la muestra de agua de la quebrada Fray Juana. Conclusiones. El análisis de las tres muestras de agua recogidas en la vereda Monterredondo reveló genotoxicidad. Sin embargo, se sugiere en el futuro evaluar el grado de toxicidad de los componentes orgánicos concentrados y la genotoxicidad en personas que la consumen.

  7. Aguaclara, una alternativa para el tratamiento de agua para consumo humano. Aguaclara - an alternativefor drinking water treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Arturo Díaz Ordóñez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Agua Para el Pueblo con el apoyo técnico del Programa AguaClara de la Universidad de Cornell, facilita asistencia técnica a comunidades rurales mayores de 2,000 habitantes y pequeñas y medianas ciudades con poblaciones menores de 50,000 habitantes, para la construcción de plantas de tratamiento denominadas AguaClara. Este esfuerzo institucional es una respuesta para optimizar la desinfección del agua con cloro en aquellos sistemas de agua ya construidos y que por razones naturales o antropicas se han visto afectados con problemas de alta turbiedad en los suministros de agua. La tecnología consiste en la floculación hidráulica, la sedimentación de alto rendimiento y la desinfección con alta eficiencia, sin el uso de la filtración o energía eléctrica para asegurar una entrega de agua de acuerdo a la Norma Técnica Nacional de Calidad del Agua de Honduras. La gestión de las plantas de tratamiento AguaClara va más allá de los aspectos constructivos y enfatiza simultáneamente la organización comunitaria, la capacitación de los diferentes actores, la readecuación de las tarifas, la operación y mantenimiento del sistema incluyendo la planta de tratamiento, así como la mitigación de las vulnerabilidades del sistema de agua y la protección sanitaria y ambiental en general de los entornos comunitarios donde se construyen las plantas de tratamiento.

  8. Dispositivo electrónico de medición del caudal de agua para canales abiertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ayala López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El método de riego por inundación, que desplaza el agua mediante canales abiertos y surcos ha sido usado durante años en la producción agrícola, aunque requiere una gran cantidad de agua y su eficacia no es muy alta ya que la mayoría del agua no se puede extraer directamente en las raíces de las plantas. Siendo de vital importancia lograr datos de campo confiables y lo suficientemente precisos que nos permitan estudiar y proyectar manejos del agua con el menor grado de incertidumbre posible. Para poder aplicar conocimientos actuales de la relación agua-suelo-planta debemos conocer la cantidad de agua en el campo o en regiones específicas del mismo, para así poder prever un uso eficiente del agua mediante la aplicación en el momento oportuno y en volúmenes adecuados, Por lo que en el Centro de Mecanización Agropecuaria (CEMA diseñ ó un dispositivo electrónico de medición e indicación de caudales y consumo de agua para canales abiertos, apli - cable para cualquier estructura hidráulica que relacione el nivel de agua de una sección de área conocida, con el caudal de agua que pasa por la misma sección, con el propósito de crear un dispositivo preciso y económico, capaz de realizar mediciones en el campo.

  9. Tratabilidad de aguas residuales de matadero con filtros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mario Ortiz A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la tratabilidad anaeróbica de las aguas residuales provenientes de un matadero de ganado vacuno, se emplearon un sistema de dos filtros en serie y un tercer filtro único como testigo. Con valores promedio de carga orgánica volumétrica y tiempo de retención de 1.6 kg/(m3*d y 26 horas respectivamente, las eficiencias de remoción de DQO total fueron similares en el filtro único y en el sistema en serie, del orden del 64% en promedio. Así mismo, la retención y acumulación de sólidos biológicos en el lecho, se mostro como la vía principal de remoción de la DQO. La diferenciación del proceso lograda con los dos filtros en serie permitió establecer que la mayor parte de la acumulación ocurrió en el filtro primario, en tanto que lo fundamental de la bioconversion en metano se produjo en el filtro secundario del sistema en serie. EI bajo nivel relativo de metanogenización obtenido podría explicarse por las limitaciones a la actividad de la biomasa metanogénica impuestas por las bajas temperaturas, aunque no se podría descartar una probable inhibición por los productos de hidrolisis de las grasas acumuladas: Resumen del Proyecto de Tesis Presentado por el autor Para optar al titulo de Magister en Ambiental. Dirección: Consuelo Díaz, Bióloga; M.S.c. U.N. Facultad de Ingenieria.1992.

  10. Tratamiento con ozono de las aguas residuales de almazara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez Vargas, Joaquín R.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the ozonation of olive mill wastewater has been studied. The evolution process was followed by measuring the chemical oxygen demand, the aromaticity and the contents of phenolic compounds. The aromaticity conversion ranged between 4.85 and 21%, chemical oxygen demand degradation varied from 3.25 to 19.4%, and the total polyphenolic reduction varied between 6.86 and 43.7%. The ozone consumption in the reduction of each variable was determined, being the average values of 57.2 g COD/mol O3, 2.9 un. Abs/mol O3 and 3.3 g polyphen./mol O3. Finally, considering a first order kinetic equation with respect to each reactant, the apparent kinetic constants are evaluated for the studied variables.En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la ozonización de las aguas residuales provenientes de almazaras (alpechín. La evolución del proceso de degradación fue seguida por la medida de la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, de la aromaticidad y del contenido en polifenoles totales. El tanto por ciento de DQO eliminada varía entre 3.25 y 19.4%, el de aromaticidad entre 4.85 y 21.1% y el de polifenoles totales entre 6.86 y 43.7%. Se determinó el consumo de ozono en la reducción de cada variable, dando valores medios de 57.2 g DQO/mol O3, 2.9 un. Abs/mol O3 y 3.3 g polif/mol O3. Por último, considerando una cinética de primer orden respecto de cada reaccionante, se han evaluado las constantes cinéticas aparentes respecto de cada variable.

  11. Agua Para Todos: A New Regionalist Hydraulic Paradigm in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lopez-Gunn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.

  12. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians, Palm Springs, CA (United States); Stewart, Royce [Red Mountain Energy Partners, Sante Fe, NM (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  13. Proyecto de un sistema de abastecimiento de agua potable en Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Alonso, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto es procurar el abastecimiento de agua apta para el consumo humano a la comunidad de Apéyémé y Todomé que cuenta con una población actual de 8.000 habitantes. Al cubrir una necesidad básica como el acceso al agua potable, conseguiremos que las personas enfermen con una frecuencia mucho menor y puedan desarrollar sus actividades de trabajo con más normalidad, no tengan la necesidad de comprar medicamentos y puedan invertir ese dinero en su nutrición, en...

  14. Materiales de carbono para desalinización de aguas mediante desionización capacitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Baizán, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo muestra los resultados obtenidos al emplear materiales de carbono de elevada área superficial en el proceso de desalinización de aguas mediante desionización capacitiva (CDI). Esta técnica electroquímica, basada en la formación de la doble capa eléctrica en la interfase electrodo/electrolito para retener las sales presentes en el agua tratada, es una alternativa energéticamente menos costosa a las tecnologías comúnmente empleadas como son la ósmosis inversa y la destilació...

  15. Medida de la concentración de actividad Alfa/Beta grueso, en agua potable

    OpenAIRE

    Zutta Villate, Julián Mateo

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La calidad del agua de consumo humano es de creciente interés en el mundo; para que esta pueda ser considerada como potable, debe ajustarse a ciertos niveles biológicos, químicos, físicos y radiológicos. Siguiendo recomendaciones de organismos internacionales de salud o, a estándares emitidos por cada país, establecidos según sus condiciones tanto ambientales, como socioeconómicas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), en sus guías de potabilización del agua de consu...

  16. Procedimiento para la eliminación de microorganismos en aguas por filtración

    OpenAIRE

    Undabeytia López, Tomás; Nir, Shlomo; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo; Laiz Trobajo, L.; Morillo González, Esmeralda

    2013-01-01

    Procedimiento para la eliminación de microorganismos en aguas por filtración. El objeto de la presente invención es un procedimiento para el tratamiento y purificación de aguas, dirigido a la eliminación de microorganismos, especialmente bacterias, pero de utilidad también para virus o protozoos. El procedimiento presenta ventajas frente a los métodos actualmente existentes ya que minimiza la aparición de efectos no deseados, tales como la formación de productos carcinógenos, por ejem...

  17. Diatomeas: bioindicación en aguas dulces e invasiones biológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Lanza, Saúl

    2015-01-01

    Como factores esenciales para la determinación del estado ecológico de los ecosistemas acuáticos, la Directiva Marco del Agua establece, en el anexo V, el uso de comunidades de organismos como bioindicadores de la calidad de las aguas en las que se desarrollan. Un bioindicador es aquel organismo que nos permite cuantificar y calificar el nivel y la evolución de la contaminación presente en un determinado ecosistema, gracias a su sensibilidad diferencial a diversas sustancias contaminantes. En...

  18. Calentador solar de agua : Manual del usuario. Tecnología sencilla

    OpenAIRE

    San Juan, Gustavo Alberto; Barros, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Este manual aporta los conocimientos necesarios para la construcción y uso del calentador solar de agua. Tiene por objeto divulgar y transferir tecnología apropiadas a muestra realidad social, mediante la incorporación de conocimiento, a partir de la utilización de tecnología sencilla, tendiendo a la promoción del ser humano. Está orientado a familias en emergencia social que no cuentan con agua caliente en sus hogares, y que actualmente queman leña o carbón en el interior de las mismas, p...

  19. La gestión del agua: tensiones globales y latinoamericanas

    OpenAIRE

    Nubia Nieto

    2011-01-01

    La historia del mundo está llena de tensiones provocadas por la escasez de recursos naturales, oro, diamantes y petróleo. Sin embargo, el agua, que hasta ahora no había sido considerada un factor de conflicto, con el cambio climático se convierte en "el oro azul" de este siglo. El presente texto analiza los riesgos de la falta de agua a escala mundial, particularmente en América Latina, que pese a sus abundantes recursos, enfrenta problemas de escasez. El aumento de la población, inadecuadas ...

  20. Polielectrolitos Orgánicos Naturales en el Tratamiento de Agua para Consumo Humano

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriano Mamani, Jappsem; Matos Chamorro, Rodrigo Alfredo; Universidad Peruana Unión

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es revisar el uso de los polímeros naturales en el tratamiento de agua para consumo humano, así como los mecanismos de coagulación y floculación, y los compuestos naturales más utilizados. Las fuentes de agua pueden estar contaminadas con materiales inorgánicos, en forma natural o en combinación con otros (sales disueltas, materiales suspendidos como las arcillas, silicio) y materiales orgánicos (células o algas microbianas, zooplancton, fitoplancton, bacterias, v...

  1. PRODUCCIÓN DE AGUA ELECTROLIZADA PARA ELIMINACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS EN LECHUGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Chaves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo la construcción de una celda electrolítica para la producción de agua electrolizada oxidante (EO, observando constantemente su pH y contenido de cloro residual. La eficacia del agua EO (14ppm de cloro residual y pH 2.7±0.2 fue evaluada con la cepa de Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (Experimentos “in vitro” y carga microbiana de lechuga (recuento de bacterias mesófilas aeróbios, NMP coliformes y coliformes termotolerantes, hongos y levaduras. Después de obtener un inóculo de E. coli de 9 horas (fase estacionaria, 63 X 10 11UFC/ml, este fue sometido a tratamiento con agua EO en diferentes tiempos de exposición (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20min para luego hacer recuentos en placa. Para el análisis microbiológico in vivo se sumergieron 10 gramos de lechuga en 200ml de agua EO a diferentes tiempos de acción (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20min. Posterior a esto serealizaron pruebas microbiológicas de estos ensayos (Recuento de mesófilos aeróbios, número mas probable de coliformes totales, coliformes termotolerantes y recuento de hongos y levaduras. Los ensayos in vitro arrojaron datos que comprueban la acción microbicida del agua EO sobre el inoculo sometido a tratamiento durante 20 minutos, reduciendo en 11.34 Unidades Logarítmicas (UL los recuen-tos de E. coli.La experimentación con la lechuga mostró reducciones en el NMP de coliformes totales y termotolerantes que pasaron de >2400 NMP a <3 NMP, descenso de 4.16 UL para los recuentos de mesófilos aeróbios(Recuento inicial de 57 X 105 UFC/g y 3.95 UL para los de hongos y levaduras (recuento inicial de 89 X 103; luego del tratamiento con agua EO durante 20 min. Se demostró que la utilización de agua EO sobre lechuga contaminada tiene efecto microbicida estadísticamente significativo (p=0.0001, permitiendo de esta manera utilizar esta agua para el proceso de lavado y desinfección de las lechugas.

  2. Tratamientos de depuración de aguas residuales contaminadas con pesticidas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Rodríguez, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    [ES] En el presente trabajo se ha comparado la eficiencia de los tratamientos biológicos y fotocatalíticos en la depuración de aguas contaminadas con dos pesticidas: Pirimetanil y Triadimenol, ampliamente utilizados como fungicidas sistémicos en la lucha contra plagas de hongos en los cultivos de tomate de la isla de Gran Canaria. Ambos compuestos son considerados tóxicos para organismos acuáticos, hecho que justifica la necesidad de estudiar un tratamiento efectivo de depuración de aguas res...

  3. Generación de bioaerosoles en estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Ángel; Aguilar, María Isabel; Fenoll, Rocío; Roig, Asunción

    2007-01-01

    [ES] Las operaciones que habitualmente tienen lugar en las estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales dan lugar a la formación de bioaerosoles, o partículas aerotransportables de origen biológico, que en el caso de ser inhalados, pueden suponer un riesgo para la salud tanto para los operarios de la planta como para los habitantes de zonas residenciales vecinas. Se realizó en este trabajo un estudio en una estación depuradora de aguas residuales con el objetivo de identificar los p...

  4. Aspectos técnico-económicos de los vertidos de aguas residuales y depuraciones

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Muñoz, Aurelio

    2011-01-01

    La primera consiste en un análisis del, problema de la escasez del agua, analizando sus causas naturales y la influencia del hombre sobre estos recursos. La segunda parte consiste en un análisis e investigación sobre los elementos con los que el hombre cuenta para influir sobre los condicionantes que limitan los recursos hidráulicos disponibles, principalmente los relacionados con la contaminación» tratamiento de las aguas y reutilzación. La tercera parte es un estudio económico de t...

  5. Sistemas urbanos alternativos para el biotratamiento y reciclaje de aguas residuales en colonias de bajos ingresos

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Bazant

    2003-01-01

    En México, los gobiernos locales no cuentan con suficientes recursos financieros ni reservas hídricas para extender las redes de infraestructura hacia asentamientos de población de bajos ingresos que atomizada y desordenadamente van ocupando las periferias de las ciudades. Se plantea en este artículo un “sistema urbano alternativo” que proporcione soluciones técnicamente viables al problema del abastecimiento de agua en las periferias. La canalización y tratamiento de aguas residuales por med...

  6. COSTUMBRES COMUNES, DERECHOS INDIVIDUALES. BARRIOS Y AGUA EN IZÚCAR, PUEBLA

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Gómez Carpintero

    2002-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza una forma de organización local para el uso del agua en los barrios de Izúcar de Matamoros, Puebla, la cual fue transformada en las dos primeras décadas de la etapa posrevolucionaria. El estudio es una buena oportunidad para entender los procesos de formación del Estado y la comunidad nacional y su articulación a los poderes locales; en este caso a partir de las políticas barriales en torno al control del agua federal para riego

  7. Código de aguas de la provincia de Río Negro

    OpenAIRE

    Volonté, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es destacar en forma sintética los aspectos jurídicos más importantes que surgen del Código de Aguas de la Provincia de Río Negro, sus antecedentes y bases constitucionales, tomando como guía una serie de preguntas planteadas con el objeto de realizar un análisis comparativo con los códigos de las restantes provincias. Se recorren los antecedentes normativos del Código actual y el tratamiento que éste hace de los tipos de aguas comprendidas, los usos regula...

  8. Estación depuradora del agua de abastecimiento a Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrón Egusquiza, Pablo

    1958-05-01

    Full Text Available Por Orden ministerial del 1 de septiembre de 1951 comenzó a redactarse el proyecto definitivo del abastecimiento de agua a la ciudad de Córdoba. En el abastecimiento existente por aquella época, las múltiples procedencias del agua, aportaciones, casi todas, de pequeño caudal, sin garantía alguna respecto a su posible contaminación, tenían como consecuencia la aparición periódica de epidemias que se propagaban rápidamente.

  9. Tratamiento de aguas residuales por humedales artificiales tropicales en Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Marín Acosta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En las dos últimas décadas, los humedales artificiales han incrementado mundialmente su desarrollo para el tratamiento de aguas residuales. En el presente estudio, doce humedales artificiales tropicales de flujo subsuperficial (HAFS fueron diseñados y operados específicamente para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas. La eficiencia de remoción de contaminantes básicos (DBO5, DQO, SST, NT, PT, Turbiedad y Color fue evaluada bajo tres tratamientos: 1 Pontederia cordata (HAFS-Tule, 2 Phragmites australis (HAFS-Carrizo y 3 grava como prueba testigo (HAFS-Grava.

  10. Plan de emergencia interior de una instalación tipo para tratamiento de agua potable

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo evidente de una ETAP es la de conseguir de manera constante la producción de agua de consumo de la mejor calidad y a un coste técnico y económico razonable. Como más relevantes, las características fundamentales que deben modificarse de un agua bruta para conseguir su potabilización son: color, turbidez, concentraciones originales de hierro, manganeso, amonio, nitritos, y materia orgánica, así como, inexcusablemente, supresión de la flora microbiana. Una estación po...

  11. Caracterización de las aguas residuales de la planta refinadora de aceites comestibles ERASOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelis Abalos

    2007-01-01

    regulaciones de la Norma Cubana para el vertido en cuerpos receptores marinos. Los análisis demostraron que la bahía recibe la descarga de aguas residuales de ERASOL con un pH de 9,7 unidades, 40232,50 mg/L de materia orgánica, 18537,13 g/L de aceites y 0,2 mL/L de sólidos sedimentables. Estos resultados evidenciaron que las aguas residuales de la planta de aceites ERASOL no cumplen con las especificaciones de la norma de vertido en cuerpos marinos.

  12. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.

  13. Estudio de materiales adsorbentes para el tratamiento de aguas contaminadas con colorantes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo forma parte de una línea de investigación que se viene desarrollando en el grupo de investigación de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación(CyPS) del Departamento de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, relacionada con el tratamiento de aguas contaminadas con materia orgánica. En esta línea se han desarrollado diversos proyectos generales, tales como “Tratamiento y reutilización de aguas residuales para un desarrollo sostenible-TRAGUA” (CSD2006- 044) ...

  14. Excelencia en la explotación del agua como recurso

    OpenAIRE

    Rotllant Miras, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    El documento aquí introducido es la memoria de la ejecución de un proyecto que busca la excelencia optimizando la actividad en una empresa internacional de utilities que se dedica a la gestión, distribución y saneamiento del agua. Debido a que los precios de venta al público relacionados con el agua están muy regulados, la optimización se buscará mediante una reducción de costes, una reestructuración interna y la implantación de un cambio cultural en el seno de la empresa, buscando una filoso...

  15. ELIMINACION DEL COLORANTE NEGRO ACIDO 194 DESDE AGUAS RESIDUALES TEXTILES MEDIANTE ELECTROCOAGULACION

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAL FUENTES, JORGE ARTURO

    2013-01-01

    Diariamente, las industrias textiles descargan grandes volúmenes de aguas que contienen altas concentraciones de colorantes y aditivos, los cuales ocasionan daños considerables al medio ambiente. Muchos de estos colorantes son estables a la luz y a la biodegradación, siendo considerados como compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs). Es por esto que es necesario aplicar métodos que permitan la eliminación de estos contaminantes desde las aguas. Una metodología efectiva para la eliminación de C...

  16. Sistemas de tratamiento pasivo para aguas ácidas de mina

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Alonso, Almudena

    1999-01-01

    Asociada a la actividad minera se encuentra con frecuencia la generación de las llamadas "aguas ácidas de mina", que de no ser tratadas pueden dar lugar a un importante impacto ambiental. En este trabajo se presentan los procesos mediante los que se producen este tipo de aguas y las alternativas para su tratamiento, centrándose en los sistemas pasivos como procedimientos adecuados para su remediación. Los sistemas de tratamiento pasivo combinan procesos naturales de tipo físico, químico y bi...

  17. Manejo de la salinidad en aguas asociadas de producción de la industria petrolera.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Fajardo, Carlos Alberto; Escobar C, Sandra; Ramírez N, Diego

    2010-01-01

    En este artIculo se presenta el diseno conceptual de una alternativa complementaria de la solución al manelo de las aguas asociadas de producción dentro de un marco ambiental y técnico factible, cuyo fin es la recuperación de la sal de mayor porcentale, mediante un proceso de cristalización fraccionada tipo I.Para plantear y analizar la alternativa de trabalo con las aguas asociadas de producción provenientes de las estaciones La Gloria, La Gloria Norte y Morichal, pertenecientes a la Asociac...

  18. Experimentos en el aula para el estudio de las propiedades del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Rodríguez, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo de fin de grado expone una manera de enseñar a los niños de Educación Infantil las propiedades del agua, mediante la experimentación en el aula. Con ello se busca que estos alumnos sean capaces de reconocer las propiedades del agua en el mundo que les rodea. Los alumnos aprenderán cada una de estas propiedades gracias a la experimentación en el aula, la cual se desarrolla a lo largo de unas sesiones de tipo experimental. El aprendizaje mediante experimentación ofrece al alumna...

  19. Eliminación del nitrógeno amoniacal en aguas residuales sanitarias

    OpenAIRE

    Siles Fernández, Esther; Monforte Garrido, José; Estrany Coda, Francesc; Oliver Pujol, Ramon; Carreras Coma, Sergi

    2008-01-01

    Premi "Principado de Asturias" atorgat per la Fundación Técnica Industrial del Consejo General de Colegios de Ingenieros Técnicos Industriales de España La presencia de NH4+ de origen orgánico en las corrientes de aguas residuales industriales es un problema que en la actualidad afecta a un número creciente de industrias. En este trabajo se ha comprobado el efecto del borboteo de aire atmosférico en el seno de un medio acuoso que simula la composición de las aguas residuales sanitarias, qu...

  20. Portal Web "Portagua" para apoyar los conocimientos sobre la calidad del agua

    OpenAIRE

    José R. Ramírez Venega; Nancy García Álvarez; Yanet Nodal Álvarez; Tomás A. Padilla Cámbara

    2012-01-01

    Se elaboró el portal Web "Portagua" cuyo contenido, sobre calidad del agua, resulta de vital importancia ya que en las últimas décadas la contaminación del agua, tanto superficial como subterránea, se ha incrementado notablemente. El portal incluye informaciones tales como: conferencias, regulaciones, artículos científicos, trabajos de diploma, figuras, videos y otras que han sido recopiladas y debidamente organizadas, a las que puede accederse con facilidad. Por el alcance de su contenido, ...

  1. Hacia una garantía constitucional del derecho al agua en México

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Trejo Sánchez; Carlos Adolfo Sanabria Valdés

    2011-01-01

    En la actualidad, ya hay problemas de abastecimiento de agua en varias partes del territorio nacional. Dicha situación encamina hacia tomar medidas para que el vital líquido sea distribuido de forma equitativa entre la población, lo cual sólo podrá ser asequible si nuestra Carta Fundamental lo garantiza. Con una base constitucional sólida, el derecho al agua podrá ser regulado por una ley reglamentaria que prevea los mecanismos para su distribución y aprovechamiento equitativos, debido a que ...

  2. Last experiences on ID BWR shroud inspection and the new developments to examine the below core plate areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, R.; Gonzalez, E.; Willke, A.; Yague, L. [TECNATOM SA, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    In recent years, the owners of BWR type nuclear power plants have had to address new inspection requirements relating to the core shroud inside the reactor vessel, the aim of which is to contain the fuel assemblies and provide support for the structures located in the upper part of the reactor. The shroud consists of a cylinder measuring some 40-50 mm in thickness, manufactured from various sections of AISI-304 stainless steel and INCONEL, joined by vertical and circumferential welds. The appearance of unstable cracks in these welds would directly affect the structural integrity of the component and the safety of the plant. As regards access to the core shroud and to the surface to be examined, two alternatives might be considered: inspection from outside the component, moving along the so-called annulus between the reactor vessel wall and the component (OD inspection), or from the interior (ID inspection). With a view to addressing this problem, Tecnatom has in recent years launched several projects, grouped under the generic name TEIDE, in order to develop scanners and NDT techniques achieving the maximum inspection coverage of this component. The decision was taken to perform ID inspections, mainly because this type of scanners were not available at that time, and which provide the 4 following advantages. 1) Maximum inspected weld length. This avoids interference with the jet pumps and the systems present in the annulus and affecting OD inspections. Besides, the repairs performed on in-service core shrouds in all cases imply the addition of new fixed elements on their outer surface, since the fuel assembly space must be left free. 2) Reduction of inspection times and of unforeseen events: maintenance of planning schedules, reduction of personnel doses, reduced critical path time. 3) High inspection accuracy and repeatability. 4) Simplification of equipment positioning work (similar to the installation of fuel assemblies). As regards inspection techniques, the

  3. Experimental data report for test TS-2; Reactivity initiated accident test in NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    本報告書は、1990年2月に実施した照射済BWR燃料を用いた2回目の反応度事故模擬実験であるTS-2について実験データをまとめたものである。TS-2実験に使用した試験燃料は初期濃縮度2.79%であり、敦賀1号炉で照射されたBWR7times7型燃料棒を短尺化したものである。短尺化に供した実用燃料のバンドル平均燃焼度は21.3Gwd/tであった。NSRRにおける照射実験は、大気圧、室温の静止水冷却条件下で行い、発熱量は72pm5cal/g・fuel(ピークエンタルピ66pm5cal/g・fuel)を与えた。その結果燃料破損は生じなかった。実験条件、実験方法、パルス照射時の燃料の過渡挙動及び照射後検査の結果をまとめて示した。...

  4. Experimental data report for test TS-1; Reactivity initiated accident test in NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    本報告書は、1989年10月に実施した照射済BWR燃料を用いた最初の反応度事故模擬実験であるTS-1について、実験データをまとめたものである。TS-1実験に使用した試験燃料は、初期濃縮度2.79%であり、敦賀1号炉で照射されたBWR7times7型燃料棒を短尺化したものである。短尺化に供した実用燃料のバンドル平均燃焼度は21.3GWd/tであった。NSRRにおける照射実験は、新たに開発した専用の2重カプセルを用い、大気圧・室温の静止水冷却条件下で行い、発熱量61cal/g・fuel(ピークエンタルピ55cal/g・fuel)を与えた。その結果、燃料破損は生じなかった。実験条件、実験方法、燃料燃焼度の測定結果、パルス照射時の燃料の過渡挙動及び照射後検査の結果をまとめて示した。...

  5. Validation of the CASMO-4 code against SIMS-measured spatial gadolinium distributions inside a BWR pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzgrewe, F.; Gavillet, D.; Restani, R.; Zimmermann, M.A

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a database, useful for the assessment of the predictive capabilities of assembly burnup codes with respect to the depletion of the burnable absorber gadolinium (Gd). An SVEA-96 fuel assembly containing one unique Gd rod, with an initial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-content of 9 wt%, was irradiated for one cycle in a Swiss Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), and then transported to the PSI hotcells for post-irradiation examination. Relative radial and azimuthal Gd distributions were obtained from Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) at three axial positions. Two perpendicular line scans were performed at each position in order to capture the expected asymmetry in the Gd depletion. Since such high-spatial-resolution experimental data for individual fuel pins are quite rare, they form a valuable basis for the further validation of the calculational methods in reactor physics codes. The goal of this study was to contribute to the validation of the micro-region depletion model of CASMO-4 with respect to its standard application of generating two-group cross sections for the 3-D core simulator SIMULATE-3. The only notable difference to the standard application is a more detailed noding scheme for the Gd pin, required to obtain an improved resolution of the calculated distributions. The comparison of measurements with calculational results was found to be quite insensitive to the axial position, and the agreement was found to be very good for all isotopes investigated. The two important neutron-absorbing isotopes {sup 155} Gd and {sup 157} Gd, in particular, show excellent agreement. In conclusion, the CASMO-4 micro-region depletion model has been demonstrated to accurately predict the evolution of the radial distribution of the burnable absorber gadolinium. (authors)

  6. Health surveys of cyanobacteria in drinking and recreational waters Vigilancia sanitaria de cianobacterias en aguas de consumo humano y aguas de baño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Martínez Juárez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental surveys of drinking and recreational waters with the objective of related health risk control are a common component in public health policy. Based in updated scientific knowledge proliferation of Cyanobacteria constitutes a new risk, and it should be considered in public health programs. The principal objective of this work is to assess the presence of cyanobacteria and microcystins in drinking and recreational waters. Results of a four year survey in the sanitary department of Talavera de la Reina are presented. A descriptive study of the presence of cyanobacteria and microcystins, in non treated water from two reservoirs at the pick up point and after treatment in the exit point from two treatment plants. The same approach has been used in two recreational summer natural water reservoirs. Every fifteen days samples were analysed for cyanobateria recount and free microcystin level determination by ELISA essay. From the results of the analysis in drinking water we concluded that microcystines levels in non treated water from reservoirs are not high, less than 6 per cent of samples showed a positive results for microcystins. Treatment was effective as no sample after treatment showed a positive result for microcystins. 48 per cent of recreational water samples showed levels above 100,000 cells per ml, which corresponds to the WHO moderate adverse effect risk guide level. Public health policy should include systematic level survey of cyanobaterias from drinking and recreational water. Exposure related health adverse effects surveys should be conducted.Las autoridades de Salud Pública tienen implantados y consolidados programas de vigilancia sanitaria de aguas de consumo humano y aguas de baño, cuya finalidad es evitar riesgos para la salud de la población que consume agua o que utiliza con fines recreativos zonas de baño continentales. A la luz de los conocimientos científicos actuales, la proliferación de cianobacterias es un

  7. Estrategias para coadyuvar a la sustentabilidad en la gestión del agua en la ciudad de México

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jesús Ceja Pizano; María Luisa Gómez González; Concepción Herrera Alcázar

    2013-01-01

    El garantizar el acceso al agua potable se ha vuelto un reto difícil de vencer. Primeramente por la escasez de agua potable, la falta de saneamiento y alcantarillado. Además del urbanismo desordenado que impide la planeación de infraestructura hidráulica acorde a las necesidades de los usuarios de agua. Por lo que es imprescindible contar con un Modelo de Gestión de Agua para garantizar el acceso al agua potable, motivando una sana gobernanza e incentivando la participación ciudadana. Para lo...

  8. Comparación medioambiental de dos plantas de producción de agua potable basada en el método ACV

    OpenAIRE

    Poch Barrera, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad, las medidas adoptadas para reducir la contaminación del agua son varias. Sin embargo, la purificación del agua para consumo como agua potable en lasciudades requiere la implementación de procesos de purificación de carácter industrial.Estos procesos a su vez afectan el medio ambiente y contribuyen al cambio climático.La producción de agua potable es una actividad que puede implicar, entre otrosprocesos, la ultrafiltración del agua y por lo tanto exige un consumo de energíaco...

  9. Calidad fisico-química del agua en los manantiales de los términos municipales de Benafer y Viver (Castellón)

    OpenAIRE

    PIQUERAS URBÁN, VANESA

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El agua es un recurso imprescindible para la vida y, por tanto, es necesario preservar su calidad. Si bien la mayoría de los problemas relacionados con la salud derivan de la contaminación microbiológica del agua de consumo, existen algunos problemas derivados de la contaminación química. En muchas localidades es habitual que existan manantiales o puntos de agua asociados a las aguas subterráneas. La gestión de estas aguas subterráneas es más compleja por la dificultad de control al exis...

  10. Gobernanza del agua en México 1984-2014: derecho humano al agua, relaciones intergubernamentales y la construcción de ciudadanía

    OpenAIRE

    Vega López, Obdulia María del Socorro

    2016-01-01

    El propósito de ésta disertación es contribuir a la literatura de ciencias sociales sobre gobierno y administración pública utilizando un caso de suministro de agua urbana como un modelo de entrega de servicios públicos y analizándolo desde varias perspectivas teóricas. Esto ilumina los procesos sociopolíticos que son de interés a teóricos y practicantes de la investigación en administración pública. El caso del agua y del suministro del vital líquido en contextos urbanos es extremadamente in...

  11. Performance of iron-chromium-aluminum alloy surface coatings on Zircaloy 2 under high-temperature steam and normal BWR operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weicheng; Mouche, Peter A.; Han, Xiaochun; Heuser, Brent J.; Mandapaka, Kiran K.; Was, Gary S.

    2016-03-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) coatings deposited on Zircaloy 2 (Zy2) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by magnetron sputtering have been tested with respect to oxidation weight gain in high-temperature steam. In addition, autoclave testing of FeCrAl-coated Zy2 coupons under pressure-temperature-dissolved oxygen coolant conditions representative of a boiling water reactor (BWR) environment has been performed. Four different FeCrAl compositions have been tested in 700 °C steam; compositions that promote alumina formation inhibited oxidation of the underlying Zy2. Parabolic growth kinetics of alumina on FeCrAl-coated Zy2 is quantified via elemental depth profiling. Autoclave testing under normal BWR operating conditions (288 °C, 9.5 MPa with normal water chemistry) up to 20 days demonstrates observable weight gain over uncoated Zy2 simultaneously exposed to the same environment. However, no FeCrAl film degradation was observed. The 900 °C eutectic in binary Fe-Zr is addressed with the FeCrAl-YSZ system.

  12. Strain-induced corrosion cracking in ferritic components of BWR primary circuits; Risskorrosion in druckfuehrenden ferritischen Komponenten des Primaerkreislaufes von Siedewasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.-P.; Ritter, S.; Ineichen, U.; Tschanz, U.; Gerodetti, B

    2003-04-01

    The present final report of the RIKORR project is a summary of a literature survey and of the experimental work performed by PSI on the environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) and dynamic strain ageing (DSA) susceptibility of low-alloy steels (LAS) in high-temperature (HT) water. Within this project, the EAC crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy RPV steels, weld filler and weld heat-affected zone materials has been investigated under simulated transient and steady-state BWR/NWC power operation conditions. The strain-induced corrosion cracking (SICC) / low-frequency corrosion fatigue (CF) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy RPV steels under simulated transient and stationary BWR/NWC conditions was characterized by slow rising load / low-frequency corrosion fatigue and constant load / periodical partial unloading / ripple load tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens in oxygenated HT water at temperatures of either 288, 250, 200 or 150 {sup o}C. Modern high-temperature water loops, on-line crack growth monitoring and fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to quantify the cracking response. (author)

  13. RAMONA-4B a computer code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics for BWR and SBWR system transient - user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Cheng, H.S.; Khan, H.J.; Mallen, A.N.; Neymotin, L.Y.

    1998-03-01

    This document is the User`s Manual for the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) systems transient code RAMONA-4B. The code uses a three-dimensional neutron-kinetics model coupled with a multichannel, nonequilibrium, drift-flux, phase-flow model of the thermal hydraulics of the reactor vessel. The code is designed to analyze a wide spectrum of BWR core and system transients. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the code`s capabilities and limitations; Chapter 2 describes the code`s structure, lists major subroutines, and discusses the computer requirements. Chapter 3 is on code, auxillary codes, and instructions for running RAMONA-4B on Sun SPARC and IBM Workstations. Chapter 4 contains component descriptions and detailed card-by-card input instructions. Chapter 5 provides samples of the tabulated output for the steady-state and transient calculations and discusses the plotting procedures for the steady-state and transient calculations. Three appendices contain important user and programmer information: lists of plot variables (Appendix A) listings of input deck for sample problem (Appendix B), and a description of the plotting program PAD (Appendix C). 24 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Agua y pobreza en Santiago de Chile: Morfología de la inequidad en la distribución del consumo domiciliario de agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Durán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En la trayectoria temporal de la relación entre agua y pobreza en Santiago de Chile, el "acceso" como indicador ha sufrido, para los estudios urbanos, una suerte de desgaste, y en la actualidad no representa un dato significativo para medir las condiciones de inequidad en esta sociedad urbana. De otra parte, el "consumo" sobresale como un indicador con mayor capacidad de revelar las circunstancias de vida de los pobres en esa ciudad, que si bien les ofrece posibilidades de inserción en términos de acceso a las redes físicas del sistema, los excluye a través de mecanismos de mercado, como un sistema tarifario en permanente proceso de crecimiento y el desbalance de este respecto del ingreso familiar. Este proceso sostenido de contracción del consumo domiciliario de agua potable que se viene registrando a partir de la privatización, se produce en el marco de un claro proceso de "mercantilización" (Winpenny, 1994, p.110 de un bien básico, como lo es el agua en la ciudad.

  15. CORRELACCIONES MATEMATICAS PARA LA OBTENCION DE RENDIMIENTO DE PRODUCCION, REMOCION DE CENIZAS Y PARTICION DE AGUA USANDO UN HIDROCICLON "SOLO AGUA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO ETAYO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron correlaciones matemáticas de rendimiento de producción, remoción de cenizas y partición de agua para describir el comportamiento de un hidrociclon "solo agua" (usa solamente agua como medio denso desde el punto de vista hidráulico y geométrico. Se utilizó un hidrociclón de 254mm de diámetro y un carbón de la mina la Yolanda (Valle del Cauca. La concentración másica de carbón usada fue entre 3.0 y 10.0% (p/p, la longitud del "vortex finder" entre 152.4 y 228.6mm y el diámetro del "apex" entre 19.1 y 44.5mm. A partir de las diferentes pruebas se obtuvieron rendimientos de producción entre 11.9 y 83.2% (p/p y remociones de cenizas entre 41.8 y 95.2% (p/p. Las ecuaciones matemáticas obtenidas presentaron factores de correlación superiores al 98.7% lo cual predice buena confiabilidad entre los resultados experimentales y los teóricos.

  16. Cálculo y diseño de la instalación de reutilización de aguas grises y recogida de aguas pluviales en un edificio de viviendas

    OpenAIRE

    Lillo García, Lorena

    2007-01-01

    La falta del agua en nuestro país, es algo evidente, ya que cada vez consumimos más agua y tomamos pocas medidas para consumir menos o reutilizarla. El proyecto pretende dar a conocer como podemos ahorrar agua, mediante reutilización, utilizando la Ordenanza Municipal de Barcelona, en al cual Reus que es la ciudad donde tiene lugar nuestro proyecto, está incluida para su aplicación y aplicando las normas del CTE, SH4 y SH5, para cálculo de las instalaciones. Partiendo de un edificio ...

  17. Lo colectivo y el agua: entre los derechos y las prácticas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustamante Zenteno, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Reseña: La reivindicación de los derechos colectivos ha sido parte importante de las luchas de las organizaciones sociales que gestionan el agua en los Andes. Las formas de lo colectivo y las reglas en torno a su constitución están muy vinculadas a la existencia de estas organizaciones y a la divers

  18. CALIDAD DEL AGUA EN EL ÁREA COSTERA DE SANTA MARTA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO GARCÍA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se usaron técnicas de análisis estadístico multivariado, para determinar la variación temporal y espacial de la calidad del agua en la zona costera de Santa Marta, donde se ubica un emisario submarino que descarga 1 m3/s de aguas residuales domésticas. La ANOVA de dos vías, los análisis de clúster y de componentes principales mas la interpolación de krigging, fueron considerados para este análisis. En la variación temporal se encontraron diferencias que marcan en el año dos periodos de tiempos heterogéneos, de diciembre a abril la concentración de los parámetros de calidad del agua es más alta. El resto del año (mayo, junio, agosto - noviembre, exceptuando el mes de julio donde se presentaron concentraciones altas, se registran concentraciones sensiblemente inferiores. En la variación espacial se reportan dos grupos de áreas en las cuales la calidad del agua es diferente, dicha diferencia está relacionada con la cercanía a la descarga del emisario submarino.

  19. Economía de agua, economía de instalaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Serrano, Julián

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Water is a scare resource and for this reason it is necessary to use it wisely. This paper puts forward some techniques and strategies which have been developed in different countries, to minimize wasteful water consumption for domestic use. The reason for this is to avoid considerable public expense which is caused by the purifying of unneccessarily polluted water and by equipment and pipes which are too large for their purpose. Also this paper deals with the state of art on techniques saving money on sanitation and treatment of sewage.

    El agua es un recurso escaso y por lo tanto se considera cada vez más importante optimizar su uso. En este artículo se exponen algunas técnicas y estrategias desarrolladas, en diversos países, para minimizar las pérdidas y el consumo inútil de agua en usos domésticos y evitar los gastos que supone, a la colectividad, la depuración de agua innecesariamente contaminada, así como el sobredimensionamiento de equipos e instalaciones. También se presenta, de un modo general, el estado de la cuestión en cuanto a posibles ahorros económicos en saneamiento (entendido como las instalaciones sanitarias interiores de la vivienda y la red de evacuación exterior y en depuración de aguas residuales.

  20. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    Science.gov (United States)

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  1. HOJA INFORMATIVA Presencia de PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable Avisos de salud

    Science.gov (United States)

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales y locales para que puedan adoptar las me

  2. Patogenicidad de las amebas de vida libre aisladas de fuentes de agua en Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Garaycochea

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la presencia de amebas de vida libre (AVL en fuentes de agua del departamento de Lima y evaluar su capacidad patógena en ratones normales e inmunosuprimidos. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron muestras de agua de ríos, lagos, piscinas y pozos de Lima. El aislamiento se realizó por cultivo en agar no nutritivo al 2% con E. coli o E. aerogenes a 37 °C. Posteriormente se instiló en ratones normales e inmunosuprimidos (betametasona 1,4 mg/mL, dosis única una suspensión con las amebas aisladas. A los 15 días se evaluaron histológicamente los daños en ambos grupos. Resultados. Se identificaron AVL en 40/83 muestras, 31,3% de las muestras se desarrollaron en los cultivos. Se aislaron 26 cepas de AVL de siete géneros (Hartmannella, Acanthamoeba, Mayorella, Naegleria, Vahlkampfia, Vannella y Saccamoeba, Acanthamoeba fue la más frecuente (44,2%. Se encontraron AVL en 53,8% de los ratones inmunosuprimidos y 15,4% de los normales (p<0,05. Conclusiones. Existen AVL en cuerpos de agua de Lima, las cuales tienen un potencial patógeno en pacientes inmunosuprimidos, existiendo un riesgo de infección amebiana asociada con estas fuentes de agua.

  3. El abastecimiento de agua potable a las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 1800-1946

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    [ES] Estudio monográfico que trata de desvelar los hechos y las claves históricas del servicio de suministro de agua potable en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, complejo y eterno problema para el Ayuntamiento de esta ciudad.

  4. Sistema de gestión de asignación de aguas disponibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida María Saúco Peña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los problemas del adecuado manejo de los recursos hidráulicos, que pueden surgir en una evaluación ambiental, tienen quever con decisiones sobre el uso del agua que afectan la cantidad o calidad del agua super!cial o subterránea. Precisamente elpresente trabajo está enmarcado en el objetivo de realizar un sistema software titulado: “Balance de Aguas”, que informatice los procesos de asignación de aguas disponibles en el país, basado en la idea de controlar las entregas de agua que se establecen a diferentes entidades usuarias, a la vez quese recepcionen las demandas de estos y teniendo en cuenta las condiciones de cada una de las fuentes de abasto (reguladas, no reguladas y subterráneas al inicio del año. El propósito fundamental es la consolidación del sistema, así como la documentación de los pasos en su desarrollo ingenieril, paralo cual se hace un estudio exhaustivo de los principales modelos, metodologías y herramientas para el desarrollo, así como de las tendencias actuales, permitiendo el análisis para seleccionar las más adecuadas que apoyen la solución del problema. En correspondencia con los objetivos propuestosla implantación del sistema facilita el manejo de los recursos hidráulicos.

  5. CLARIFICACIÓN DE AGUAS USANDO COAGULANTES POLIMERIZADOS: CASO DEL HIDROXICLORURO DE ALUMINIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MIGUEL COGOLLO FLÓREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un estudio del proceso de clarificación en sistemas de tratamiento de aguas industriales usando un coagulante inorgánico polimerizado (hidroxicloruro de aluminio. Inicialmente, se establecen los elementos conceptuales más importantes de las etapas del proceso de clarificación (coagulación, floculación y sedimentación. Luego, se señalan los principales coagulantes convencionales utilizados en el tratamiento de aguas y se abordan los policloruros de aluminio (PAC´s como integrantes de una nueva generación de coagulantes alternativos cuyo uso se ha incrementado en las últimas décadas dado su mejor desempeño respecto a los coagulantes convencionales; se especifican los aspectos técnicos y operativos que se deben considerar al momento de implementar un proceso de clarificación de aguas usando un PAC como coagulante. Finalmente, se presentan datos comparativos de condiciones operacionales reales de un proceso de clarificación de aguas, producto de un trabajo previo, donde se remplazó un coagulante convencional (sulfato de aluminio por hidroxicloruro de aluminio, donde se corrobora el mejor desempeño del proceso luego del remplazo.

  6. Blasting forward in underground work; Voladuras de camara de la mina de Aguas Tenidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Maneiro, C. H.; Maqueda Jimenez, S.; Pazos Perez, L.; Carnero Ortiz, F.

    2012-11-01

    This paper explains the drilling and blasting techniques of stopes in Aguas Tenidas Mine (Huelva, Spain), including slot raises and slots. Highights are: application of electronic detonators and a 30'' hole in slot raise blasts, ANFO uphole chrging of 89 mm holes and high productive fan drillin, in order to maintain stoping production of 150.000 t/month. (Author)

  7. 25 CFR 115.106 - Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians. 115.106 Section 115.106 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.106 Assets of members of the...

  8. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  9. El agua y las obras públicas en la Bogotá del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Gamboa M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre el acceso y la circulación Agua y gestión de obras hidráulicas en la ciudad de Santafé (1757-1810. Nelson Fernando González M. Universidad de los Andes, Colección Prometeo. Maestría, Bogotá, 2011, 201 págs., il.

  10. Contenido en nitratos de aguas de consumo público españolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Vitoria

    2015-05-01

    Conclusiones: El nivel de nitratos de la mayoría de las aguas de consumo público que abastecen los municipios donde habita casi la mitad de la población española tiene niveles inferiores a 15 mg/l.

  11. Desarrollo de una red de monitoreo por sensores remotos de la calidad de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Chaves Campos

    Full Text Available A partir de la integración de tecnologías, se diseña una red de sensores cuyos datos son transferidos de manera remota a una estación central a partir de un sistema inalámbrico de transmisión, para el monitoreo de la calidad del agua.

  12. Representación social del agua y de sus usos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. Navarro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua es actualmente una cuestión política y geoestratégica de gran importancia mundial. Colombia, una de las potencias hídricas del mundo, abastece solamente la mitad de sus habitantes. La degradación del recurso y de los ecosistemas que lo generan, la polución, el despilfarro, el crecimiento de la población y su concentración en los centros urbanos, así como la falta de equidad en el acceso al agua, son algunos de los problemas que atentan contra las posibilidades de un desarrollo sostenible en el país. Con el fin de dar cuenta de los valores acordados al agua, se propuso un estudio que busca identificar la representación social que de ésta tiene un grupo social colombiano. Se entrevistó a 150 estudiantes de ciencias sociales en la ciudad de Bogotá. El análisis prototípico y categorial nos permitió plantear algunas hipótesis con respecto a las características de la representación social del agua elaborada por el grupo participante

  13. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  14. Calidad de las aguas meteóricas en la ciudad de Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlane Costa Calheiros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad del agua meteórica en la ciudad de Itajubá, ubicado en la parte sur de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Para ello, se realizaron la colecta y análisis de la calidad de las muestras de agua de lluvia después de escurrir sobre la superficie de tres tipos de materiales; amianto, zinc y cerámica. También se realizó una colecta directa para comparar los resultados y verificar los cambios en la calidad del agua. Se observó que la calidad del agua de lluvia varía en función del material a través en el cual fluye, alterando de esta manera los parámetros físicos-microbiológicos como el pH, dureza, alcalinidad, turbidez y el contenido de coliformes. Por lo tanto, el material de la superficie de los sistemas de colección de agua de lluvia puede modificar la calidad del agua, y el destino final de este tipo de agua. A pesar que las aguas meteóricas de Itajubá presentaron un bajo grado de contaminación, se concluye que el tratamiento de estas aguas deben prever la remoción de sólidos, el ajuste de pH y la desinfección, de esta forma, se estará obteniendo una alternativa ventajosa, sustentable y asequible de uso en época de escases hídrica.

  15. Calidad de las aguas de drenaje de procedentes de campos arroceros sobre suelos salinos en la Cuenca del Cauto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Herrera Puebla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad química del agua de drenaje procedente de áreas sembradas con arroz en suelos salinos y beneficiada para su recuperación con drenaje sub superficial en la zona de Vado del Yeso en la Provincia de Granma, fue estudiada a través de las observaciones de 6 años sobre la composición salina y la descarga de aguas de drenaje. Se encontró una relación estrecha entre la salinidad del agua de drenaje y la salinidad del suelo de donde ellas provienen (R2=0.89; la concentración de sales en las aguas de drenaje, superó en más de diez veces la concentración de las aguas de drenaje superficial y a las de riego, las cuales presentan a su vez muy poca diferencia; entre el volumen de agua drenada y la Ce de la misma se encontró una relación potencial que permite a través de las variaciones en los gastos explicar alrededor del 57% de las variaciones en los tenores salinos del agua. De este modo, aun para los gastos máximos alcanzados en los drenajes, que corresponden generalmente a la época de lluvias (mayores de 0,2 lps, el agua tiene valores de conductividad eléctrica (Ce superiores a 2 dS/m, el cual es considerado como valor critico para su uso en el riego del arroz. A partir de estos resultados se analiza la capacidad contaminante de esta agua y la necesidad de un monitoreo continuo donde se incluya otros elementos.

  16. Calidad del agua subterránea para usos agropecuarios en el departamento Villaguay, Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pedro Vivot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El agua subterránea constituye una fuente relevante de agua dulce necesaria para la vida, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los pueblos. Este recurso se caracteriza tanto por su finitud como por su vulnerabilidad, aspectos aparentemente ignorados por el hombre que continúa contaminándolo y alterando sus aptitudes. La demanda mundial de agua dulce ha crecido en correlación con la población mundial, pero el sector agropecuario ha aumentado sensiblemente la explotación de los acuíferos, en particular para riego de cultivos, que insumen el 70 % del total. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en realizar la caracterización hidroquímica del agua subterránea rural del departamento Villaguay (Entre Ríos y determinar la calidad para los usos rurales, utilizando para ello metodologías estandarizadas para analizarlas y aceptados criterios de evaluación. Los resultados muestran que las aguas se caracterizan como bicarbonatadas en los distritos al este del río Gualeguay, y como sulfatadas al oeste del mismo. La evaluación del agua para bebida animal indica que poseen aptitud buena a regular. En cuanto a calidad del agua para riego, presenta en general ligeras restricciones de uso. Las aguas para las aplicaciones de pesticidas muestran limitantes que requieren la corrección particular del pH y la dureza. Palabras clave: agua subterránea rural; caracterización hidroquímica; calidad para usos agropecuarios.

  17. Fuel design with low peak of local power for BWR reactors with increased nominal power; Diseno de un combustible con bajo pico de potencia local para reactores BWR con potencia nominal aumentada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R.; Montes, J.L.; Hernandez, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Castillo, A. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mrpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    The Federal Commission of Electricity recently announcement the beginning of the works related with the increase of the power to 120% of the original nominal one in the Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV): In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) are carried out studies of the impact on the design of the recharge of derived fuel of this increase. One of the main effects of the power increase type that it is promoting, is the increment of the flow of generated vapor, what takes, to a bigger fraction of vacuum in the core presenting increased values of the maximum fraction to the limit, so much of the ratio of lineal heat generation (XFLPD) as of the ratio of critic power (MFLCPR). In the made studies, it is found that these fractions rise lineally with the increase of the nominal power. Considering that the reactors of the CLV at the moment operate to 105% of the original nominal power, it would imply an increment of the order of 13.35% in the XFLPD and in the MFLCPR operating to a nominal power of 120% of the original one. This would propitiate bigger problems to design appropriately the fuel cycle and the necessity, almost unavoidable, of to resort to a fuel assembly type more advanced for the recharges of the cores. As option, in the ININ the feasibility of continuing using the same type of it fuel assembles that one has come using recently in the CLV, the type GE12 is analyzed. To achieve it was outlined to diminish the peak factor of local power (LPPF) of the power cells that compose the fuel recharge in 13.35%. It was started of a fuel design previously used in the recharge of the unit 1 cycle 12 and it was re-design to use it in the recharge design of the cycle 13 of the unit 1, considering an increase to 120% of the original power and the same requirements of cycle extension. For the re-design of the fuel assembly cell it was used the PreDiCeldas computer program developed in the ININ. It was able to diminish the LPPF

  18. Cause-Effect relationship of the Laguna Verde BWR power instability by empirical mode decomposition; Relacion efecto-causa de la inestabilidad de potencia del BWR de Laguna Verde por descomposicion modal empirica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez, J.; Ruiz, J.; Castillo, R. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The signals coming from natural phenomena are in essence non lineal and not stationary. A recent development, well-known as Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) it presents a novel focus that allows to represent in adaptative form non stationary signals as a sum of components of half zero. These components denominated Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) they help to the analysis of the frequency composition of unidimensional signals. The use of the EMD followed by the Hilbert transform of the IMFs it allows to carry out an analysis in time-frequency of the non lineal and not stationary data. This technique is known as the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT). In this work a power instability event occurred in January 24, 1995 in the unit I of the nuclear power station of Laguna Verde (Mexico), corresponding to a BWR/5 is analyzed. When a Nuclear Plant suffers a power instability event, it is required obligatorily to explain to the Regulator Organism the effects and the causes of the event. The effects are described simply; not in vain there is a registration of signals in the Process Computer of where the required information is extracted. But the causes are not always immediate and easy for to identify. The power instability can happen during the start, when the refrigeration flow is relatively low in front to the power. By reason of that the reactivity coefficient by holes is negative, the power oscillates with a very defined frequency, generally of the order of 0.5 Hz. If the oscillations increase progressively of amplitude, we are in an instability event. It is interesting to include in the report the instant in that the began instability and the actions of the operator before and after the same one. As the actions are registered, the investigation is focused toward the instant of the beginning to be able to identify them. In this work the power signal in five empiric ways of Hilbert-Huang and a residual breaks down. The instability is only reflected in the way of smaller

  19. Neutron flux calculation and fluence in the encircling of the core and vessel of a reactor BWR; Calculo de flujo neutronico y fluencia en la envolvente del nucleo y la vasija de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, E.

    2011-07-01

    One of the main objectives related to the safety of any nuclear power plant, including the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde is to ensure the structural integrity of reactor pressure vessel. To identify and quantify the damage caused by neutron irradiation in the vessel of any nuclear reactor, it is necessary to know both the neutron flux and the neutron fluence that the vessel has been receiving during its operation lifetime, and that the damage observed by mechanical testing are products of microstructural effects induced by neutron irradiation; therefore, it is important the study and prediction of the neutron flux in order to have a better understanding of the damage that these materials are receiving. The calculation here described uses the DORT code, which solves the neutron transport equation in discrete ordinates in two dimensions (x-y, r-{theta} and r-z), according to a regulatory guide, it should make an approximation of the neutron flux in three dimensions by the so called synthesis method. It is called in that way because it achieves a representation of 3 Dimensional neutron flux combining or summarizing the fluxes calculated by DORT r-{theta}, r-z and r. This work presents the application of synthesis method, according to Regulatory Guide 1190, to determine the 3 Dimensional fluxes in internal BWR reactor using three different spatial meshes. The results of the neutron flux and fluence, using three different meshes in the directions r, {theta} and z were compared with results reported in the literature obtaining a difference not larger than 9.61%, neutron flux reached its maximum, 1.58 E + 12 n/cm{sup 2}s, at a height H 4 (239.07 cm) and angle 32.236{sup o} in the core shroud and 4.00 E + 09 n/cm{sup 2}s at a height H 4 and angle 35.27{sup o} in the inner wall of the reactor vessel, positions that are consistent to within {+-}10% over the ones reported in the literature. (Author)

  20. Decay profiles of {beta} and {gamma} for a radionuclide inventory in equilibrium cycle of a BWR type reactor; Perfiles de decaimiento de radiacion {beta} y {gamma} para un inventario de radionuclidos en ciclo de equilibrio de un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaices, M.; Sandoval, S.; Ovando, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. Gerencia de Energia Nuclear, Av. Reforma 113 Col. Palmira. 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: sal@iie.org.mx

    2007-07-01

    Presently work the {beta} and {gamma} radiation decay profiles for a radionuclides inventory in equilibrium cycle of a BWR type reactor is presented. The profiles are presented in terms of decay in the activity of the total inventory as well as of the chemical groups that conform the inventory. In the obtaining of the radionuclides inventory in equilibrium cycle the ORIGEN2 code, version 1 was used, which simulates fuel burnup cycles and it calculates the evolution of the isotopic composition as a result of the burnt one, irradiation and decay of the nuclear fuel. It can be observed starting from the results that the decrease in the activity for the initial inventory and the different chemical groups that conform it is approximately proportional to the base 10 logarithm of the time for the first 24 hours of having concluded the burnt one. It can also be observed that the chemical groups that contribute in more proportion to the total activity of the inventory are the lanthanides-actinides and the transition metals, with 39% and 28%, respectively. The groups of alkaline earth metals, halogens, metalloids, noble gases and alkaline metals, contribute with percentages that go from the 8 to 5%. The groups that less they contribute to the total activity of the inventory they are the non metals and semi-metals with smaller proportions that 1%. The chemical groups that more contribute to the energy of {beta} and {gamma} radiation its are the transition metals and the lanthanides-actinides with a change in the order of importance at the end of the 24 hours period. The case of the halogens is of relevance for the case of the {gamma} radiation energy due that occupying the very near third site to the dimensions of the two previous groups. Additionally, the decay in the activity for the total inventory and the groups that conform it can be simulated by means of order 6 polynomials or smaller than describe its behavior appropriately. The results presented in this work, coupled

  1. Performance of the primary containment of a BWR during a severe accident whit the code RELAP/SCDAPSIM; Comportamiento del contenedor primario de un reactor BWR durante un accidente severo con el codigo RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo G, F.

    2015-07-01

    In this thesis work, it was developed a model of the vacuum breaker valves and down comers for a BWR Mark II primary containment for the code RELAP/SCDAPSIM Mod. 3.4. This code was used to simulate a Station Blackout (Sbo) that evolves to a severe accident scenario. To accomplish this task, the vacuum breaker valves and down comers were included in a simplified model of the primary containment that includes both wet well and dry well, which was coupled with a model of the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS), in order to study the behavior of the primary containment during the evolution of the accident scenario. In the analysis of the results of the simulation, the behavior of the wet well and dry well during the event was particularly monitored, by analyzing the evolution of temperature and pressure profiles in such volumes, this to determine the impact of the inclusion of the breaker vacuum valves and down comers. The results show that the effect of this extension of the model is that more conservative results are obtained, i.e., higher pressures are reached in both wet well and dry well than when it is used a containment model that does not include neither the vacuum valves nor the down comers. The most relevant results obtained show that the Rcic alone is able to keep the core fully covered, but even in such a case, it evaporates about 15% of the initial inventory of liquid water in the Pressure Suppression Pool (Psp). When the Rcic operation is lost, 20% more of the liquid water inventory in the Psp is further reduced within four to twelve hours (approximately), time at which the simulation crashed. Besides, there is a significant increase of pressure in the containment. As the accident evolves, the pressure in the containment continues increasing, but there is still considerable margin to reach the design pressure of the containment. At the end of the simulation, the results show a gauge pressure value of 224,550 Pa in the Psp and 187,482 Pa in the wet well

  2. Aspectos jurídicos de la política del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Retortillo Baquer, Sebastián

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La que un tanto pedantemente se califica hoy como nueva «cultura» del agua, tiene unas raíces arraigadas que no cabe desconocer. La ordenación jurídica del agua ha sido desde siempre temática de la mayor trascendencia social y económica, cuyo planteamiento debe conectarse con la de las obras hidráulicas, que son las que precisamente permiten su utilización. Se hace especial hincapié en los condicionamientos que a esa ordenación imponen las características geográficas y físicas de cada país. El problema central que hay que afrontar no es otro que el de la ordenación de unos recursos de los que no se dispone ilimitadamente. Ello conduce a revisar los criterios que han venido siendo habituales en política hidráulica, sobre todo los relacionados con la fijación de la demanda y la oferta de los recursos: que, si en relación con la primera, hay que actuar de modo en extremo selectivo e imponer de verdad una política de ahorro del agua, por lo que a la oferta se refiere es obligado formularla siempre de modo conjunto, no sólo de aguas corrientes, haciendo entrar en juego también de modo efectivo las aguas subterráneas al mismo tiempo que se incorporan aquellos otros recursos que la técnica permite, como puede ser de caudales de agua de mar, de aguas residuales; también, de las obras de regulación que puedan resultar necesarias. En cualquier caso, las exigencias medioambientales deben regir, y además con efectos condicionantes, todas las acciones que requiere la política hidráulica.

  3. Mantenerse público o privatizar? Análisis comparativo del servicio de agua entre Quito y Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Carrillo; Orazio Bellettini; Elizabeth Coombs

    2007-01-01

    En el presente documento se analiza la evolución de algunos indicadores sobre la provisión de agua potable en las dos principales ciudades de Ecuador. En Quito, el agua potable ha sido administrada directamente por la municipalidad mientras que en Guayaquil estos servicios fueron privatizados. El estudio compara varios índices de cobertura, calidad, y precios del agua potable, antes y después de la privatización, y entre estas dos ciudades. Los resultados sugieren que después de la privatizac...

  4. Eliminación de los sólidos incrustados en las conducciones de agua potable de Cantillana (Sevilla)

    OpenAIRE

    García Martinez de Simón, Isabel; García García, Francisco; Escot Toledo, Encarnación; Lebrato Martínez, Julián

    1998-01-01

    Artículo original escaneado para el Repositorio (archivo delegado) La presencia de hierro y manganeso en las aguas subterráneas por lixiviación de las rocas puede dar problemas en el agua de distribución.La oxidación de estos metales da lugar a precipitados que modifican la calidad del agua (turbiedad y mal sabor) y que puedan llegar a atascar las tuberías de abastecimiento. El siguiente trabajo presenta una solución para la eliminación de este problema de las conducciones del municipi...

  5. ANÁLISIS DE LA SOLUBILIDAD DE LA MEZCLA GASOLINA-ETANOL-AGUA A DIFERENTES PRESIONES Y TEMPERATURAS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el efecto de pruebas de solubilidad hechas a mezclas gasolina-etanol-agua mediante ensayos de tolerancia al agua (temperatura de separación de fase) paramuestras de E10, E15, E20, E25 y E30. Adicionalmente, se estudia el efecto de la presión de vacíosobre la separación de la mezcla. Los resultados muestran que las temperaturas de separacióndependen inversamente de la cantidad de etanol en la mezcla combustible y directamente de lacantidad de agua en la misma. Así ...

  6. Plan de negocio para regeneración de carbón activo granular para agua de consumo humano

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    AB Group es un grupo empresarial dedicado a la gestión del ciclo integral del agua en todas sus vertientes. Dentro de la rama propia de agua o la de medioambiente se buscan nuevos negocios que ofrezcan buenas rentabilidades y que consoliden este liderazgo en la gestión de agua potable y todos sus actividades adyacentes. En aras de promover un área de negocio rentable cuya razón de ser tenga un enfoque medioambiental y de sostenibilidad, se ha trazado este Plan de Negocio para R...

  7. Respuesta del sorgo al riego en dos épocas de siembra. Función agua rendimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Felicita González Robaina; Julián Herrera Puebla; Teresa López Seijas; Greco Cid Lazo

    2011-01-01

    La disponibilidad del agua para la agricultura está disminuyendo rápidamente, lo que impone una utilización más eficiente de este recurso. Para lograr el incremento de la productividad del agua es imprescindible el estudio de las funciones agua rendimiento. Utilizando datos de dos experimentos realizados en la Estación de Alquízar en el sur de La Habana (suelo ferralítico rojo) y con ayuda de herramientas de análisis de regresión en este trabajo se calculan las distintas formas de expresión d...

  8. Evaluación del funcionamiento de un sistema alternativo de humedales artificiales para el tratamiento de aguas residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Salazar, Roy; Alfaro Chinchilla, Carolina; Sasa Marín, Jihad; Agüero Pérez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    En Costa Rica, las aguas negras generalmente son depositadas en tanques sépticos en donde se dan procesos de sedimentación y el efluente se infiltra en el subsuelo. Esta actividad representa un gran riesgo para la salud humana y un impacto negativo en el medio ambiente debido a la posible contaminación de aguas subterráneas. En este caso de estudio, se presenta la aplicación de un humedal artificial horizontal de flujo subsuperficial para el tratamiento de aguas negras en una industria cosmét...

  9. Tecnologías apropiadas para abastecimiento de agua y saneamiento en la Zona Andina para poblaciones rurales y aisladas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En el texto que viene a continuación se describen las tecnologías más importantes utilizadas en las zonas rurales de la cordillera andina para el abastecimiento de agua y saneamiento. Se trata de tecnología apropiada, ya que otra no podría ser aplicable debido a las peculiaridades de la misma. Entre ellas se analizaran las distintas estructuras para el abastecimiento de agua, distintos tipos de letrinas y un sistema para el tratamiento de aguas grises. También brevemente haremos hincapié ...

  10. Sistemas de drenajes y agua de riego en la cuenca alta, media y baja del río valdivia

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez R., Edwin; Robalino R., Carlos; Lopez Z., Ramón

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo se realizó en la cuenca hidrográfica del río Valdivia-California que tiene aproximadamente 50.2 Km de longitud. La metodología consistió en tomar muestras de agua a lo largo del río, tomándose dieciocho muestras, doce en aguas superficiales y seis en aguas subterráneas; además se realizaron trece mediciones de caudal. A las dieciocho muestras se les analizó calcio, magnesio, sodio, potasio, carbonatos, sulfato, cloro, nitratos, pH, dureza, conductividad eléctrica, sólido...

  11. Modelo sistématico de gestión sustentable de agua para la ciudad de México.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez González, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    El agua, un derecho humano. Ha sido afectada por la creciente industrialización, la urbanización descontrolada, la comercialización del recurso mediante el agua embotellada, el desperdicio del vital líquido en la agricultura, una economía depredatoria del ambiente. Los estragos se dejan ver en todo el planeta. La necesidad de remediar la contaminación, la escasez de agua, la falta de planeación de grandes ciudades ha llevado al mundo a realizar cumbres de la tierra a fin de ...

  12. Calidad bacteriológica del agua potable de la ciudad de Mérida, México

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Jesús Flores; Guadalupe de Jesús Suárez; Miguel Angel Puc; Mario Ramón Heredia; María de la Luz Vivas; José Franco

    1995-01-01

    Para determinar la calidad microbiológica del agua potable de la ciudad de Mérida, Yucatán, México, se analizaron 383 pares de muestras (dos por domicilio). De éstas, 364 (95%) muestras de las llaves exteriores y 283 (73.89%) de las interiores cumplieron las normas microbiológicas. La calidad del agua distribuida es aceptable, excepto en la zona de influencia de la planta Mérida III, en donde se encontró contaminación con mesofílicos aerobios en 21.7% de las muestras. El agua intradomiciliari...

  13. Uso de Arcillas Especiales para Depuración de Aguas Residuales Use of Special Clays for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,L.; E.F. Covelo; F.A. Vega

    2005-01-01

    Para evaluar la eficacia de las arcillas especiales para la remoción de metales pesados de aguas residuales, se muestrearon y caracterizaron varios tipos de arcillas y las aguas de tres efluentes residuales industriales. Los componentes mayoritarios de las arcillas fueron: sepiolita: montmorillonita (76%); bentonita magnésica: vermiculita (74,4%); bentonita alumínica: esmectita (69,1%) y paligorskita (80%). Las aguas residuales se hicieron circular a través de lechos de cada una de las arcill...

  14. El agua subterránea en la Costa de Hermosillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moreno Vázquez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el papel que desempeñó la evolución del conocimiento científico en materia de agua subterránea en el desarrollo de una región agrícola del noroeste del país. En la introducción, se aborda el contexto económico y la visión dominante que existía sobre la disponibilidad y aprovechamiento del agua que hicieron posible el nacimiento de la Costa de Hermosillo a mediados de los años 40. En el primer apartado, se describe el conocimiento que había sobre el agua del subsuelo en ciertas zonas del país y del estado de Sonora antes de dicho nacimiento. En el segundo, se muestran las diferentes estimaciones realizadas acerca del potencial de agua subterránea a nivel nacional y estatal, así como los métodos empleados para tal efecto. En el tercer apartado, se discuten las diversas estimaciones efectuadas sobre la recarga natural del acuífero de la Costa a lo largo de la década de los años 60. Por último, en el cuarto se ofrece un resumen de las conclusiones derivadas de este análisis y los riesgos de la falta de conocimiento actualizado sobre este acuífero ante la posible puesta en práctica de nuevos proyectos de aprovechamiento de agua.

  15. Alternativas para conocer el comportamiento de la calidad del agua en un tramo del arroyo guachinango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeny Pérez P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo actual ha evolucionado la tecnología para tratamiento y reutilización de aguas residuales, pero la obtención y aplicación de las mismas conlleva grandes inversiones, por lo que un país como el nuestro no está al alcance de la misma. Esto conlleva a la búsqueda de alternativas que se ajusten a nuestro presupuesto y nuestras condiciones, siempre que las mismas cumplan con las medidas de protección e higiene que existen para la utilización de estas aguas. En un tramo de arroyo con vertimientos fundamentalmente urbanos se realizan estudios preliminares con la intención de predecir la calidad de las aguas superficiales contaminadas a partir del seguimiento de indicadores físico químicos. El presente trabajo pretende estimar la calidad del agua a partir de la determinación de los parámetros: pH, conductividad eléctrica, sólidos totales, contenido de nitratos. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el arroyo Guachinango, uno de los afluentes del río Luyanó que atraviesa el municipio San Miguel del Padrón en el sureste de Ciudad de la Habana. Para ello se parte del seguimiento de estos indicadores en puntos escogidos a partir del levantamiento de las fuentes contaminantes. Con los datos obtenidos se realizaron análisis estadísticos y se determinó la calidad del agua.

  16. DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA EXPERTO PARA REUTILIZACIÓN DE AGUAS RESIDUALES TRATADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone un sistema experto basado en lógica difusa para apoyar la toma de decisiones en proyectos de reutilización de aguas residuales domésticas tratadas. La herramienta hidroinformática diseñada estima el potencial de reutilización de agua residual tratada a partir de factores como el índice de escasez y la eficiencia en DBO 5 de una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR. La herramienta fue validada a través de un caso de estudio en la PTAR del municipio de Nátaga, Huila, Colombia. En el caso de estudio, se utilizó el balance hídrico, análisis de calidad del agua y encuestas a expertos para establecer la estructura del sistema de lógica difusa, el cual fue implementado en Matlab ® . Los resultados indican una eficiencia del tratamiento de 88,7%, un índice de escasez de 28,5, que corresponde a un índice de escasez medio alto, y por tanto el sistema experto recomienda la reutilización de agua residual tratada con un 92,2%, lo que se clasifica como una reutilización confiable justificada. Se concluye que el sistema experto es adecuado para identificar fuentes alternas de recursos hídricos y esta información puede ayudar a los tomadores de decisiones en la implementación de políticas de gestión integral del recurso hídrico.

  17. Experimental result of BWR post-CHF tests. Critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwaki, Chikako [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Authors performed post-CHF experiments under wider pressure ranges of 2 MPa - 18 MPa, wider mass flux ranges of 33 kg/m{sup 2}s - 1651 kg/m{sup 2}s and wider superheat of heaters up to 500 K in comparison to experimental ranges at previous post-CHF experiments. Data on boiling transition, critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient were obtained. Used test section was 4x4-rod bundle with heaters, which diameter and length were the same as those of BWR nuclear fuels. As the result of the experiments, it was found that the boiling transition occurred just below several grid spacers, and that the fronts of the boiling transition region proceeded lower with increase of heated power. Heat transfer was due to nucleate boiling above grid spacers, while it was due to film boiling below grid spacers. Consequently, critical heat flux is affected on the distance from the grid spacers. Critical heat flux above the grid spacers was about 15% higher than that below the grid spacers, by comparing them under the same local condition. Heat transfer by steam turbulent flow was dominant to post-CHF heat transfer, when superheat of heaters was sufficiently high. Then, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was predicted with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. On the other hand, when superhead of heaters was not sufficiently high, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was higher than the prediction with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. Mass flux effect on post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was described by standardization of post-CHF heat transfer coefficient with the prediction for single-phase flow. However, pressure effect, superheat effect and effect of position were not described. Authors clarified that those effects could be described with functions of heater temperature and position. Post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was lowest just blow the grid spacers, and it increased with the lower positions. It increased by about 30% in one span of

  18. Implementation of a methodology to perform the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the control rod drop in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M. del C.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to perform uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for the cross sections used in a Trace/PARCS coupled model for a control rod drop transient of a BWR-5 reactor was implemented with the neutronics code PARCS. A model of the nuclear reactor detailing all assemblies located in the core was developed. However, the thermohydraulic model designed in Trace was a simple model, where one channel representing all the types of assemblies located in the core, it was located inside a simple vessel model and boundary conditions were established. The thermohydraulic model was coupled with the neutronics model, first for the steady state and then a Control Rod Drop (CRD) transient was performed, in order to carry out the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. To perform the analysis of the cross sections used in the Trace/PARCS coupled model during the transient, Probability Density Functions (PDFs) were generated for the 22 parameters cross sections selected from the neutronics parameters that PARCS requires, thus obtaining 100 different cases for the Trace/PARCS coupled model, each with a database of different cross sections. All these cases were executed with the coupled model, therefore obtaining 100 different outputs for the CRD transient with special emphasis on 4 responses per output: 1) The reactivity, 2) the percentage of rated power, 3) the average fuel temperature and 4) the average coolant density. For each response during the transient an uncertainty analysis was performed in which the corresponding uncertainty bands were generated. With this analysis it is possible to observe the results ranges of the responses chose by varying the uncertainty parameters selected. This is very useful and important for maintaining the safety in the nuclear power plants, also to verify if the uncertainty band is within of safety margins. The sensitivity analysis complements the uncertainty analysis identifying the parameter or parameters with the most influence on the

  19. Solution of the transport equation in stationary state, in one and two dimensions, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte en estado estacionario, en 1 y 2 dimensiones, para ensambles tipo BWR usando metodos nodales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J.V

    2002-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to solve the neutron transport equation in one and two dimensions (slab geometry and X Y geometry, respectively), with no time dependence, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods. In slab geometry, the nodal methods here used are the polynomial continuous (CMPk) and discontinuous (DMPk) families but only the Linear Continuous (also known as Diamond Difference), the Quadratic Continuous (QC), the Cubic Continuous (CC), the Step Discontinuous (also known as Backward Euler), the Linear Discontinuous (LD) and the Quadratic Discontinuous (QD) were considered. In all these schemes the unknown function, the angular neutron flux, is approximated as a sum of basis functions in terms of Legendre polynomials, associated to the values of the neutron flux in the edges (left, right, or both) and the Legendre moments in the cell, depending on the nodal scheme used. All these schemes were implemented in a computer program developed in previous thesis works and known with the name TNX. This program was modified for the purposes of this work. The program discreetizes the domain of concern in one dimension and determines numerically the angular neutron flux for each point of the discretization when the number of energy groups and regions are known starting from an initial approximation for the angular neutron flux being consistent with the boundary condition imposed for a given problem. Although only problems with two-energy groups were studied the computer program does not have limitations regarding the number of energy groups and the number of regions. The two problems analyzed with the program TNX have practically the same characteristics (fuel and water), with the difference that one of them has a control rod. In the part corresponding to two-dimensional problems, the implemented nodal methods were those designated as hybrids that consider not only the edge and cell Legendre moments, but also the values of the neutron flux in the corner points

  20. Solution of the transport equation in stationary state, in one and two dimensions, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte en estado estacionario, en 1 y 2 dimensiones, para ensambles tipo BWR usando metodos nodales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J.V

    2002-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to solve the neutron transport equation in one and two dimensions (slab geometry and X Y geometry, respectively), with no time dependence, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods. In slab geometry, the nodal methods here used are the polynomial continuous (CMPk) and discontinuous (DMPk) families but only the Linear Continuous (also known as Diamond Difference), the Quadratic Continuous (QC), the Cubic Continuous (CC), the Step Discontinuous (also known as Backward Euler), the Linear Discontinuous (LD) and the Quadratic Discontinuous (QD) were considered. In all these schemes the unknown function, the angular neutron flux, is approximated as a sum of basis functions in terms of Legendre polynomials, associated to the values of the neutron flux in the edges (left, right, or both) and the Legendre moments in the cell, depending on the nodal scheme used. All these schemes were implemented in a computer program developed in previous thesis works and known with the name TNX. This program was modified for the purposes of this work. The program discreetizes the domain of concern in one dimension and determines numerically the angular neutron flux for each point of the discretization when the number of energy groups and regions are known starting from an initial approximation for the angular neutron flux being consistent with the boundary condition imposed for a given problem. Although only problems with two-energy groups were studied the computer program does not have limitations regarding the number of energy groups and the number of regions. The two problems analyzed with the program TNX have practically the same characteristics (fuel and water), with the difference that one of them has a control rod. In the part corresponding to two-dimensional problems, the implemented nodal methods were those designated as hybrids that consider not only the edge and cell Legendre moments, but also the values of the neutron flux in the corner points

  1. Propuesta de un sistema de aprovechamiento de agua lluvia como alternativa para el ahorro de agua potable, en la institución educativa María Auxiliadora de Caldas, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio Castañeda Natalia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento del agua lluvia es una práctica interesante, tanto ambiental como económicamente, si se tiene en cuenta la gran demanda del recurso sobre las cuencas hidrográficas, el alto grado de contaminación de las fuentes superficiales y los elevados costos por el consumo de agua potable en una institución educativa. Este proyecto presenta la ingeniería conceptual de una propuesta de diseño de un si stema de aprovechamiento de agua lluvia como alternativa para el ahorro de agua potable en usos tales como la descarga de sanitarios, el lavado de zonas comunes, entre otros. Se presenta, adicionalmente, un análisis aproximado de la viabilidad técnica y económica de dicho aprovechamiento en una institución educativa del municipio de Caldas, Antioquia. Se desarrollan en este documento tres aspectos principales: el cálculo de los volúmenes disponibles de agua lluvia en la zona, la evaluación del volumen de agua potable ahorrado con el aprovechamiento del agua lluvia, la estimación del presupuesto para la construcción del sistema y la proyección del ahorro generado al utilizarlo. Los resultados sugieren que el aprovechamiento de agua lluvia es una opción técnicamente viable, pero financieramente no, pues la inversión inicial es alta, por lo que es importante buscar financiación externa para desarrollar este tipo de proyectos que representan una solución interesante para contribuir al desarrollo sostenible de la institución educativa.

  2. Desarrollo metodológico para la correcta evaluación del estado ecológico de las aguas costeras de la Comunidad Valenciana, en el ámbito de la Directiva Marco del Agua, utilizando la clorofila a como parámetro indicador de la calidad.

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosilla Gomez, Zuriñe

    2009-01-01

    La Directiva Marco del Agua de la UE (2000/60/CE) (en adelante, DMA) tiene como objetivo establecer un marco para la protección de las aguas superficiales continentales, las aguas de transición, las aguas costeras y las aguas subterráneas, para prevenir todo deterioro adicional y proteger y mejorar el estado de los ecosistemas acuáticos. El objetivo final de la DMA es llegar a un buen estado ecológico de los ecosistemas acuáticos para el año 2015. Para lograr este objetivo se precisa carac...

  3. Study of instabilities in phase by using the tool {sup D}ynamics{sup :} analysis of the evolution space temporary of the waves of density in channels of reactors BWR; Estudio de las Inestabilidades en Fase Mediante la Herramienta Dinamics: analisis de la Evolucion Espacio Temporal de las Ondas de Densidad en Canales de Reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Escriva, R.; Merino, R.; Melara, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the basics of Dynamics V2 to code It allows calculations of stability for oscillations in phase in BWR reactors in the time domain. The equations of the model are exposed and is the integration of the equations. The model can be used in a large number of nodes thrust for the calculations to an acceptable computational cost, it has simplified dynamics of recirculation loop and the code has been incorporated the Oscillation in phase boundary conditions. The code incorporates the equations of boiling sub-cooled which allows to make more realistic calculations as well as subroutines to calculate the subroutines-based properties of the MATPRO and ASME.

  4. NUEVOS SISTEMAS ELECTROQUÍMICOS Y FOTOQUÍMICOS PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES Y DE BEBIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sarria

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la creciente presión hacia un uso más racional del recurso hídrico, el desarrollo de tecnologías apropiadas de tratamientode aguas es cada vez más urgente. Debido a ello, en los últimos años se han propuesto procesos de oxidación fotoquímicos y electroquímicos como alternativa para el tratamiento de aguas contaminadas con sustancias antropogénicas difícilmente biodegradables, así como para eliminar bacterias en aguas destinadas al consumo humano. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar algunas de nuestras más recientes investigaciones que demuestran que tanto la electroquímica como la fotoquímica, al igual que el acople de estos procesos con tratamientos biológicos, son alternativas muy prometedoras para aumentar la calidad del agua

  5. Un Modelo para Explicar el Uso del Agua en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz García Lirios

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La problemática de abasto irregular de agua en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, se estudiará en dos fases. En la primera, se establecerá la confiabilidad de los instrumentos que miden (1 Situación de Abasto, (2 Creencias de Disponibilidad, (3 Motivos de Ahorro, (4 Actitudes hacia la Situación de Abasto, (5 Percepción de Control de Fugas, (6 Intención de Uso, (7 Uso para Higiene y (8 Detección de fugas de agua. En una segunda fase, se probara empíricamente la modelación de estas ocho variables. Finalmente,  se espera que la falta de agua determine indirecta, positiva y significativamente  el ahorro de agua y la detección de fugas.

  6. Respuesta del sorgo al riego en dos épocas de siembra. Función agua rendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicita González Robaina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La disponibilidad del agua para la agricultura está disminuyendo rápidamente, lo que impone una utilización más eficiente de este recurso. Para lograr el incremento de la productividad del agua es imprescindible el estudio de las funciones agua rendimiento. Utilizando datos de dos experimentos realizados en la Estación de Alquízar en el sur de La Habana (suelo ferralítico rojo y con ayuda de herramientas de análisis de regresión en este trabajo se calculan las distintas formas de expresión de la función de producción (CWPF, así como la productividad del agua (WP para el sorgo. El modelo lineal fue el de mejor ajuste para la relación entre el rendimiento del grano de sorgo y la evapotranspiración, con un coeficiente de determinación de 0,81 y una eficiencia del agua evapotranspirada de alrededor de 6 kg de grano de sorgo por cada milímetro adicional de agua. Mientras que la función rendimiento versus agua total es de naturaleza curvilínea y se calcula usando un polinomio de segundo orden. Si se logra satisfacer en más del 80% las necesidades hídricas de este cultivo los rendimientos podrían superar los 4 000 kg/ha. Al relacionar los valores relativos de rendimiento y evapotranspiración se obtuvo una pendiente igual a 0,59, resultado que clasifica al sorgo como un cultivo de respuesta al agua entre débil y media. El factor de respuesta del rendimiento Ky para el sorgo en las condiciones de este estudio resultó igual a 0,62 e inferior al 0,9 reportado en la literatura. Por cada metro cubico de agua consumida y agua total el sorgo produce como promedio 1,15 y 0,73 kg, respectivamente. La productividad máxima se obtuvo con 3620 m³/ha de agua total en la época de invierno.

  7. Plan de negocios para la creación de la empresa Agua Vida S.A.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rio Caicedo, Sergio Antonio; Rosero Morán, Daniel Hernando

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo contiene el plan de negocios para crear la empresa Agua Vida SAS., donde sus productos son la purificación y comercialización de agua potable en universidades mediante dispensadores; el documento presenta el plan de mercadeo y a su vez pretende despertar en los estudiantes conciencia ambiental para que carguen un termo y paguen para que este sea llenado en los dispensadores de las instituciones educativas

  8. Aporte del agua de bebida a los requerimientos de calcio de la población costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner Mora Alvarado

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la primera investigación a nivel nacional, para determinar el aporte del agua de bebida a los requerimientos de calcio del costarricense, asumiendo una ingesta diaria de 2 litros de agua. Para calcular las concentraciones porcentuales de calcio iónico, se promediaron y agruparon por cantones los contenidos de Carbonato de Calcio (CACO3 de las fuentes de agua utilizadas por acueductos rurales, municipales y los administrados por Acueductos y Alcantarillados; además, como complemento, se incluyeron los datos de las aguas envasadas. Los resultados se presentan en un mapa, que muestra los porcentajes de contribución del agua a la recomendación diaria admisible (RDA de calcio (800 mg/día. Estos datos indican que las aguas suministradas en los cantones de las provincias de San José, Alajuela, Heredia y Cartago apórtan valores inferiores a 8.9%, mientras que la mayoría de los acueductos ubicados en los cantones de las provincias costeras (Guanacaste, Puntarenas y Limón contribuyen con más de 10%, lo que resulta significativo en las RDA de Costa Rica. Con base en esto se recomienda a los nutricionistas incluir el aporte del agua de bebida en la preparación de las RDA de calcio. Además, pretendemos fomentar el desarrollo de investigaciones, en donde se analice la influencia del calcio del agua con enfermedades como osteoporosis, problemas cardiovasculares y cálculos renales.

  9. Fluoruro en aguas minerales naturales envasadas en España y prevención de la caries dental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maraver

    2015-01-01

    Conclusiones: Las concentraciones de fluoruro en las aguas minerales naturales comercializadas en España muestran una gran variabilidad. Dado el creciente consumo de las aguas minerales naturales en España, este tipo de información es de suma importancia para poder hacer una correcta utilización de flúor en la prevención primaria de la caries dental.

  10. Análisis de Cadmio y Plomo en aguas superficiales por potenciometría de Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Arias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la implementación y validación de una metodología analítica para determinar la presencia de cadmio y plomo en aguas supjerficiales como herramienta para la descripción del estado actual y el control cualitativo y cuantitativo de las descargas de estos metales peligrosos en los cuerpos de agua.

  11. SISTEMA DE ELECTROCOAGULACIÓN COMO TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES GALVÁNICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Bibiana Morales Posada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra la segunda fase del proyecto "Implementación y evaluación de un sistema piloto de electrocoagulación como tratamiento de aguas residuales con fines de reuso. Estudio de caso: aguas residuales industriales de origen galvánico". Para su desarrollo, se valoró y optimizó un prototipo existente en la Universidad, a partir de ensayos realizados en aguas residuales con contenido de metales, implementando un porcentaje mayor al 47% para la remoción de metales pesados como Cr+6, Pb y Zn de tales aguas, mediante proceso de electrocoagulación. Para el estudio, se utilizaron 10L de agua residual correspondientes al vertimiento de la empresa Compañía Eléctrica Ltda. Los análisis se hicieron, mediante la confrontación de parámetros de Cu, Cr, Cr+6, Ni, Pb y Zn, antes y después del tratamiento de electrocoagulación. Se obtuvo una reducción en Cr del 51.65%, donde el valor arrojado está por debajo de los estándares establecidos en materia de vertimientos (Res. No 1074 28 Oct. 1997, Ni del 18.09%, Pb del 50%, Zn del 47.37%, los cuales a pesar de la remoción producida, tienen valores superiores a lo estipulado en esta normativa. El Cu tuvo un aumento del 519.48%, debido a la placa empleada para el tratamiento. Los valores promedio obtenidos durante los ensayos fueron: pH: 3.18, conductividad: 21.83 mS/m y temperatura: 48.5 ºC. A pesar de que los valores de las variables y los parámetros no se encuentran dentro de los rangos generalmente expuestos por la literatura consultada para sistemas de electrocoagulación con aguas residuales, se obtuvo una reducción relevante en cuanto a la presencia de los metales estudiados.

  12. Gasto de agua de limpieza y tratamiento del residual en naves de ceba porcina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Chao Espinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio del sistema de limpieza en las tres naves de ceba de una unidad porcina de 80 reproductoras del Instituto de Investigaciones Porcinas, así como de la depuración del residual producido en dichas naves mediante un biodigestor de cúpula fija de 90 m3 de volumen de digestión. El estudio se efectuó en condiciones de producción durante tres meses, se realizaron las siguientes mediciones en cada nave: Cantidad de animales y peso de los mismos, tiempo de limpieza, cantidad de agua gastada en la limpieza y residual total (excreta más orine más agua de limpieza. Los animales por naves fueron de: 91,87 y 111 y sus pesos promedio de: 52, 56 y 72 kg. El tiempo empleado en la limpieza fueron de 39, 47 y 55 minutos. La cantidad de agua empleada en la limpieza fue de: 2,28 m3, 2,31 m3 y 2.80 m3 y el residual (incluyendo la excreta más la orine de: 2,55 m3, 2,57 m3 y 3,24 m3. A las medidas anteriores se le realizaron análisis de varianza. La cantidad total de residual de las tres naves fue de 8,36 m3 y el gasto de agua por animal en total fue de 25,51 L. La reducción de los sólidos totales, sólidos volátiles y demanda química de oxigeno fue de 75, 79 y 62% respectivamente, este último resultado es menor que lo obtenido en evaluaciones realizadas a otros biodigestores de cúpula fija. Se aprecia que se gasta mucha agua en la limpieza y por lo tanto se necesita instrumentar sistema de tratamiento de residuales que puedan soportar estos grandes gastos de agua lo que hace que la inversión en el tratamiento del residual se encarezca.

  13. Riesgos de escasez de agua en la ciudad de Huancayo al año 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Carlos Gómez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar los riesgos de escasez de agua en la ciudad de Huancayo (distritos de Huancayo, El Tambo y Chilca al año 2030, mediante la recopilación y análisis de datos de oferta y demanda de agua. Métodos: Se desarrolló una investigación de alcance descriptivo, diseño transversal. Se utilizó el método de análisis del peligro de escasez de agua, considerando la oferta de agua para abastecimiento urbano, demanda doméstica y su balance, para la vulnerabilidad fue observada la conducta de uso y preparación frente a la escasez mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a jefes de familia de 1 172 viviendas de la zona urbana de los distritos de Huancayo, El Tambo y Chilca; luego sistematizamos la información generando una base de datos a través del software ArcGis que tuvo como unidad de análisis espacial los sectores urbanos; para después estimar los riesgos expresados en sector y población afectada para un escenario actual y para el año 2030. Resultados: Las tendencias de crecimiento poblacional indican que la ciudad de Huancayo tendrá 429 100 habitantes en el año 2030, por lo tanto demandarán un volumen de 25,8 millones de metros cúbicos, superando a la oferta en 45% debido a pérdidas en la distribución, afectando de este modo a un 33,7% de la ciudad, que pertenecen a sectores de alto riesgo y donde se encuentran 42 centros educativos, 7 centros de salud y 12 centros comerciales. Conclusiones: Al año 2030 la población afectada por la escasez de agua ascenderá a 152 432 habitantes, debido a un racionamiento de agua promedio de 2 horas menos a las actuales.

  14. Evaluación del funcionamiento de un sistema alternativo de humedales artificiales para el tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Pérez Salazar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica, las aguas negras generalmente son depositadas en tanques sépticos en donde se dan procesos de sedimentación y el efluente se infiltra en el subsuelo. Esta actividad representa un gran riesgo para la salud humana y un impacto negativo en el medio ambiente debido a la posible contaminación de aguas subterráneas. En este caso de estudio, se presenta la aplicación de un humedal artificial horizontal de flujo subsuperficial para el tratamiento de aguas negras en una industria cosmética y farmacéutica, como tecnología de bajo costo, utilizando un sistema de macrófitas enraizadas emergentes. El Cyperus papyrus, una especie común y fácilmente adaptable a las condiciones climáticas del país, fue utilizada en la remoción de cargas orgánicas de los efluentes de aguas negras y se obtuvieron porcentajes de remoción entre un 61% y un 90%. La calidad del agua vertida post- tratamiento resultó acorde con la legislación nacional vigente. Los resultados obtenidos permiten demostrar la efectividad de este tipo de sistemas para el tratamiento de aguas residuales en países con climas tropicales.

  15. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschbach, M.C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review their decommissioning cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  16. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs. A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software: Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschbach, M.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the U.S. Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning BWR power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  17. Calculations for a BWR Lattice with Adjacent Gadolinium Pins Using the Monte Carlo Cell Code Serpent v.1.1.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ferraro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo neutron transport codes are usually used to perform criticality calculations and to solve shielding problems due to their capability to model complex systems without major approximations. However, these codes demand high computational resources. The improvement in computer capabilities leads to several new applications of Monte Carlo neutron transport codes. An interesting one is to use this method to perform cell-level fuel assembly calculations in order to obtain few group constants to be used on core calculations. In the present work the VTT recently developed Serpent v.1.1.7 cell-oriented neutronic calculation code is used to perform cell calculations of a theoretical BWR lattice benchmark with burnable poisons, and the main results are compared to reported ones and with calculations performed with Condor v.2.61, the INVAP's neutronic collision probability cell code.

  18. Effects of hydrogen water chemistry on corrosion fatigue behavior of cold-worked 304L stainless steel in simulated BWR coolant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, M.F., E-mail: mfchiang@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Division of Nuclear Fuels and Materials, Lungtan, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China); Young, M.C.; Huang, J.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Division of Nuclear Fuels and Materials, Lungtan, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    Corrosion fatigue behavior of stainless steel 304L (SS304L) in a simulated BWR coolant with hydrogen injection was investigated. Hydrogen water chemistry slightly mitigated the corrosion fatigue degradation of the as-received SS304L specimens, but, on the contrary, it slightly increased the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates (CFCGRs) of the cold-worked specimens. All the CFCGR-tested specimens showed similar fracture features, except for the amounts of deposited corrosion debris. The results indicated that decreasing the oxygen concentration of water environment is not an effective measure to suppress the fatigue crack growth rate of cold-worked SS304L. The CFCGRs of the SS304L were determined by an interaction between corrosion, oxide-induced crack closure and cold work in corrosive environments. At a specific level of reduction, cold work could enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of SS304 both in the air-saturated and HWC coolant environments.

  19. Effects of hydrogen water chemistry on corrosion fatigue behavior of cold-worked 304L stainless steel in simulated BWR coolant environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, M. F.; Young, M. C.; Huang, J. Y.

    2011-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue behavior of stainless steel 304L (SS304L) in a simulated BWR coolant with hydrogen injection was investigated. Hydrogen water chemistry slightly mitigated the corrosion fatigue degradation of the as-received SS304L specimens, but, on the contrary, it slightly increased the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates (CFCGRs) of the cold-worked specimens. All the CFCGR-tested specimens showed similar fracture features, except for the amounts of deposited corrosion debris. The results indicated that decreasing the oxygen concentration of water environment is not an effective measure to suppress the fatigue crack growth rate of cold-worked SS304L. The CFCGRs of the SS304L were determined by an interaction between corrosion, oxide-induced crack closure and cold work in corrosive environments. At a specific level of reduction, cold work could enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of SS304 both in the air-saturated and HWC coolant environments.

  20. Preliminary Assessment of the Possible BWR Core/Vessel Damage States for Fukushima Daiichi Station Blackout Scenarios Using RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, Innovative Systems Software and other members of the international SCDAP Development and Training Program started an assessment of the possible core/vessel damage states of the Fukushima Daiichi Units 1–3. The assessment included a brief review of relevant severe accident experiments and a series of detailed calculations using RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The calculations used a detailed RELAP/SCDAPSIM model of the Laguna Verde BWR vessel and related reactor cooling systems. The Laguna Verde models were provided by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, the Mexican nuclear regulatory authority. The initial assessment was originally presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency on March 21 to support their emergency response team and later to our Japanese members to support their Fukushima Daiichi specific analysis and model development.