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Sample records for agrotis ipsilon hufnagel

  1. TOXIC ACTIVITY AND DELAYED EFFECTS OF FIVE BOTANICAL OILS ON THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER PARENTS TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, N A; El-Kady, M B; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is carried out to evaluate the toxic efficiency and delayed effects of five botanical oils on the greasy cut worm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a trial for the attainment of a possible use of an alternative safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. So as to minimize or prevent the repeated usage of conventional insecticides, then reduce the environmental pollution as well as the occurring hazards to man and domestic animal due to the use of the pesticides alone. Four tested concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5% v/v) from each of camphor, red basil, menthol, rose and anise oils, were bioassayed by treating the offered castor oil bean leaves, to the 4th instar larvae along 48h, under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2 °C and 65±5% R.H. The obtained results showed that the five tested oils were found to have more or less toxic activity and drastic effects on the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated parent generation of the insect, in particular, pupae, emerged adult moths and laid eggs/female. In this respect camphor and red basil oils were highly effective, followed by menthol oil, anise oil and the least effective one was rose oil. Moreover, the assessed unprofitable delayed effects on the going on of the biological performance within the treated insects showed the adverse effects on the fitness components of the consequent generations (fs) post (p) one treatment with each of the bioassyed oils. The prevalence of adverse effects and disturbance in the going on biological performance through the period of (p) generation; which is followed by the distinct failure of insect development in (f1) generation were recorded for each of the tested menthol oil at 0.5 and 1.5% (v/v); camphor oil at 1.5 and 2.5% and red basil oil at 2.5% (v/v). While anise and rose oils were somewhat less efficient causing the distinct failure of the following generations up to the 3rd and/or the 6th ones

  2. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  3. Evolution of noctuid pheromone binding proteins: identification of PBP in the black cutworm moth, Agrotis ipsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picimbon, J F; Gadenne, C

    2002-08-01

    Male black cutworm moths (Agrotis ipsilon, Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Noctuidae), which are attracted by a three-component pheromone blend ((Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Z7-12:Ac; (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Z9-14:Ac; (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, Z11-16:Ac), express diverse antennal pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). Two PBP isoforms (Aips-1 and Aips-2) that show 46% identity were cloned from antennal cDNA of male A. ipsilon. The protein Aips-1 displays a high degree of identity (70-95%) with PBPs of other noctuiids, but shows only 42-65% identity with the PBPs of more phylogenetically distant species. The other protein, Aips-2, represents a distinct group of PBP that includes proteins from Sphingidae and Yponomeutidae. These differences observed suggest that each of the two PBPs may be tuned to a specific pheromone ligand. PMID:12110291

  4. Biology and fertility life table of Agrotis ipsilon on artificial diet; Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Agrotis ipsilon em dieta artificial

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    Bento, Flavia de Moura Manoel; Fortes, Priscila; Zerio, Neide Graciano; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: flaviam@esalq.usp.br, pfortes@esalq.usp.br, ngzerio@esalq.usp.br, jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Magro, Sandra Regina [Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Fernandopolis, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sandra.magro@gmail.com

    2007-10-15

    The objective of this work was to develop an artificial diet to rear Agrotis ipsilon in laboratory using biological parameters and fertility life table. The artificial diet was prepared with bean, casein, soybean protein, yeast and wheat germ as protein sources. The biological aspects duration and viability of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, life span of adults, preoviposition period, egg laying capacity and fertility life table were evaluated. Six larval instars were observed comprising larval duration of 28,4 days and 93% of viability mean pupal duration of 12,4 days and viability of 96%. The total viability of the life cycle was 72%. The pupae weight was 387 mg for males and 484 mg for females. The sex ratio was 0,46 and the preoviposition period lasted one day and egg laying was 1,806 eggs per female. The net reproductive rate per generation and increase finite rate were 616,9 and 1,14, respectively. Artificial diet is adequate for rearing A. ipsilon in laboratory. (author)

  5. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect

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    Yongqiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants.

  6. Biology and fertility life table of Agrotis ipsilon on artificial diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to develop an artificial diet to rear Agrotis ipsilon in laboratory using biological parameters and fertility life table. The artificial diet was prepared with bean, casein, soybean protein, yeast and wheat germ as protein sources. The biological aspects duration and viability of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, life span of adults, preoviposition period, egg laying capacity and fertility life table were evaluated. Six larval instars were observed comprising larval duration of 28,4 days and 93% of viability mean pupal duration of 12,4 days and viability of 96%. The total viability of the life cycle was 72%. The pupae weight was 387 mg for males and 484 mg for females. The sex ratio was 0,46 and the preoviposition period lasted one day and egg laying was 1,806 eggs per female. The net reproductive rate per generation and increase finite rate were 616,9 and 1,14, respectively. Artificial diet is adequate for rearing A. ipsilon in laboratory. (author)

  7. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J;

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...... the effects of OA and an OA receptor antagonist, mianserin, on behavioral and AL neuron responses of mature and immature males during stimulation with sex pheromone. Our results indicate that, although OA injections enhanced the behavioral pheromone response in mature males, OA had no significant effect...... not reveal any difference. To study the possible interactive effects of JH and OA, the behavioral pheromone response was analyzed in JH-deprived mature males injected with OA, and in immature males injected with fenoxycarb, a JH agonist, and mianserin. Results show that both JH and OA are necessary to elicit...

  8. effect of gamma radiation and parasitic nematodes on the black cut-worm agrotis ipsilon(HUFN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) after gamma sterilization with at 0, 75, 100,125, 150,175 and 200 Gy, to identify the dose of gamma irradiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. The studied effects were included the percentage mated males with untreated females, copulation duration to format spermatophores directly in the female bursa copulatrix, number of eggs /female deposited by females mated to irradiated males and egg hatch through three sequential females.The irradiated males with tested doses as well as untreated control were tested for mating successive and starting copulation at the same period of the scotophase. The mating competitiveness calculated from the direct observation in A. ipsilon males emerged from pupae irradiated at doses 75 to 200 Gy was noticed. The effect of substerilizing dose (125Gy) on certain biological aspects and reproduction was studied among parental generation, as well as immature stages were investigated throughout two successive generations. The influence of two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrivae on the insect management was included. Special attention was given to combined effect of F1 progeny of partially sterile males and S. Carpocapsae (All) on A .ipsilon, the combination of tested treatments at all concentrations analyzed for synergistic effect. The parasitisation efficacy of EPNs, the morbidity and mortality induced by normal IJs (i.e., IJs derived from untreated host) and the incubation time taken by normal IJs were compared with these of IJs derived from irradiated host with 125 Gy

  9. Transformation of the sex pheromone signal in the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon: from peripheral input to antennal lobe output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarriault, David; Gadenne, Christophe; Lucas, Philippe; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia

    2010-10-01

    How information is transformed along synaptic processing stages is critically important to understand the neural basis of behavior in any sensory system. In moths, males rely on sex pheromone to find their mating partner. It is essential for a male to recognize the components present in a pheromone blend, their ratio, and the temporal pattern of the signal. To examine pheromone processing mechanisms at different levels of the olfactory pathway, we performed single-cell recordings of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antenna and intracellular recordings of central neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the antennal lobe of sexually mature Agrotis ipsilon male moths, using the same pheromone stimuli, stimulation protocol, and response analyses. Detailed characteristics of the ORN and MGC-neuron responses were compared to describe the transformation of the neuronal responses that takes place in the MGC. Although the excitatory period of the response is similar in both neuron populations, the addition of an inhibitory phase following the MGC neuron excitatory phase indicates participation of local interneurons (LN), which remodel the ORN input. Moreover, MGC neurons showed a wider tuning and a higher sensitivity to single pheromone components than ORNs.

  10. Histological Changes in Sex Pheromone Gland of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Females Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pheromone gland of Agrotis ipsilon(Hufn.) untreated adult female is simple closed ring shaped where the glandular epithelium of the abdomen of abdominal fold between the 8th and 9th segment is slightly investigate inside the body cavity. The scent gland as a characteristic tuft of modified scales or hairs which are thin and smooth covering the whole surface of the 9th of the abdominal segment in which the scent gland is located. The histological study of gamma irradiated sex pheromone of the black cut worm female showed that: 1. When 50 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be separated from each other, vacuoles where appeared among them. 2. When 100 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be irregular in shape and some vacuoles were found, the cuticle was also ruptured in some parts. 3. When 150 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium was irregular and vacuoles were obviously found. The cuticle appeared abnormal in some parts and oil drops were decreased

  11. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Mating Activity And Mating Competitiveness Of The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), after gamma sterilization. The objective was to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. Full grown pupae of the black cutworm from laboratory culture were irradiated at 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy. Results indicated that non-significant differences between untreated and treated groups in moth were observed in copula occurred and time of copulation while significant difference was recorded between the treated males and untreated once in spermatophore formation and percentage of females with sperm in their spermatheca at the last two doses. Low percentages of untreated female moths were mated when they were paired with previously mated males than when paired with virgin males. The sequence in which females were mated to an irradiated male did not affect the transfer of spermatophores. The percentage of eggs hatched was higher from the first mated females as compared to the second and third mated females. There were non-significant effects of 0 or 125 Gy exposures on female mating or time in copula. However, significant low percentages of mating of treated and untreated females were occurred with sequentially provided male moths on days 2, 3, to 5 following the first observed female mating. According to the mating competitiveness measured from direct

  12. Biological and physiological studies on the effect of some botanical oils and gamma irradiation on the Greasy Cut Worm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon ( Lepidoptera-Noctuidae ) is a serious pest for the seedlings of most crops such as cotton, maize, beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, chinese broccoli, chinese cabbage, Chinese spinach, corn, eggplant, flowering white cabbage, green beans, head cabbage, lettuce, mustard cabbage, potato, spinach, sugarcane, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, as well as many other plants. An extensive listing of hosts of the greasy cutworm may be found in (Rings et al. 1975). The extensive and continuous use of synthetic pesticides in control of agricultural pests have created many problems, one of them is the incapability of toxic agents in controlling the target pests at the recommended doses. Therefore, it was of great interest to investigate some alternative methods as substitutes for insecticides in the control of this pest. Among these methods, is the irradiation, plant extracts and oils. Irradiation techniques seem to offer solutions that are desirable in many aspects, contributing that this treatment should eventually prove to be cheaper, safer and more reliable than chemical control. Irradiation shortens life span of insects (Baxter and Blair, 1969), possibly by accelerating senescence (Aly et al., 1996). Irradiation may also cause protein denaturation, which may impair enzyme activity (Ljubenov and Andreev, 1974) and (Tribe and Webb, 1979 a, b, c). According to (Kinipling, 1955), insect exposure to ionizing radiation causes sterilization through induction of dominates lethal mutation in the genetic structure of organisms. This technique to be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including Agrotis ipsilon has been studied

  13. Different Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on Midgut Cell Transmembrane Potential of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon Larvae

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    Yingying Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry toxins from the Cry1A family demonstrate significantly different toxicities against members of the family Noctuidae for unknown reasons. In this study, membrane potential was measured and analyzed in freshly isolated midgut samples from Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae under oral administration and in vitro incubation with Bt toxin Cry1Ab to elucidate the mechanism of action for further control of these pests. Bioassay results showed that the larvae of M. separata achieved a LD50 of 258.84 ng/larva at 24 h after ingestion; M. separata larvae were at least eightfold more sensitive than A. ipsilon larvae to Cry1Ab. Force-feeding showed that the observed midgut apical-membrane potential (Vam of M. separata larvae was significantly depolarized from −82.9 ± 6.6 mV to −19.9 ± 7.2 mV at 8 h after ingestion of 1 μg activated Cry1Ab, whereas no obvious changes were detected in A. ipsilon larvae with dosage of 5 μg Cry1Ab. The activated Cry1Ab caused a distinct concentration-dependent depolarization of the apical membrane; Vam was reduced by 50% after 14.7 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.6 min of treatment with 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL Cry1Ab, respectively. Cry1Ab showed a minimal effect on A. ipsilon larvae even at 20 μg/mL, and Vam decreased by 26.3% ± 2.3% after 15 min. The concentrations of Cry1Ab displayed no significant effect on the basolateral side of the epithelium. The Vam of A. ipsilon (−33.19 ± 6.29 mV, n = 51 was only half that of M. separata (−80.94 ± 6.95 mV, n = 75. The different degrees of sensitivity to Cry1Ab were speculatively associated with various habits, as well as the diverse physiological or biochemical characteristics of the midgut cell membranes.

  14. Different Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on Midgut Cell Transmembrane Potential of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Hu, Zhaonong; Wu, Wenjun

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins from the Cry1A family demonstrate significantly different toxicities against members of the family Noctuidae for unknown reasons. In this study, membrane potential was measured and analyzed in freshly isolated midgut samples from Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae under oral administration and in vitro incubation with Bt toxin Cry1Ab to elucidate the mechanism of action for further control of these pests. Bioassay results showed that the larvae of M. separata achieved a LD50 of 258.84 ng/larva at 24 h after ingestion; M. separata larvae were at least eightfold more sensitive than A. ipsilon larvae to Cry1Ab. Force-feeding showed that the observed midgut apical-membrane potential (V(am)) of M. separata larvae was significantly depolarized from -82.9 ± 6.6 mV to -19.9 ± 7.2 mV at 8 h after ingestion of 1 μg activated Cry1Ab, whereas no obvious changes were detected in A. ipsilon larvae with dosage of 5 μg Cry1Ab. The activated Cry1Ab caused a distinct concentration-dependent depolarization of the apical membrane; V(am) was reduced by 50% after 14.7 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.6 min of treatment with 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL Cry1Ab, respectively. Cry1Ab showed a minimal effect on A. ipsilon larvae even at 20 μg/mL, and V(am) decreased by 26.3% ± 2.3% after 15 min. The concentrations of Cry1Ab displayed no significant effect on the basolateral side of the epithelium. The V(am) of A. ipsilon (-33.19 ± 6.29 mV, n = 51) was only half that of M. separata (-80.94 ± 6.95 mV, n = 75). The different degrees of sensitivity to Cry1Ab were speculatively associated with various habits, as well as the diverse physiological or biochemical characteristics of the midgut cell membranes. PMID:26694463

  15. The Binding Characterization of Cry Insecticidal Proteins to the Brush Border Membrane Vesicles of Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura and Agrotis ipsilon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiong; CAO Guang-chun; ZHANG Li-li; LIANG Ge-mei; GAO Xi-wu; ZHANG Yong-jun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective biological insecticides against certain insect species. However, there are potential risks of the evolved resistance of insects to Cry toxin owing to decreased binding of toxins to target sites in the brush border membranes of the larva midgut. The Cry toxins with different binding sites in the larval midgut have been considered to be a good combination to deploy in delaying resistance evolution. Bioassay results demonstrated that the toxicity of different Cry toxins ranked differently for each species. The toxicity ranking was Cry1Ac>Cry1Ab>Cry2Ab for Helicoverpa armigera, Cry1B>Cry1C>Cry2Ab for Spodoptera exigua, and Cry2Ab>Cry1B>Cry1C for S. litura. Only Cry2Ab was toxic to Agrotis ipsilon. Binding experiments were performed with 125I-Cry1Ab, 125I-Cry1Ac, 125I-Cry1B, 125I-Cry1C, 125I-Cry2Ab and the brush border membranes vesicles (BBMV) from H. armigera, S. exigua, S. litura and A. ipsilon. The binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of H. armigera BBMV (Kd=(45.00±2.01) nmol L-1 and (12.80±0.18) nmol L-1, respectively;Bmax=(54.95±1.79) ng and (55.44±0.91) ng, separately). The binding of Cry1B was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. exigua BBMV (Kd=(23.26±1.66) nmol L-1;Bmax=(65.37±1.87) ng). The binding of 125I-Cry toxins was shown to be non-saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. litura and A. ipsilon BBMV. In contrast, Cry1B and Cry1C showed some combination with the BBMV of S. litura, and a certain amount of Cry2Ab could bind to the BBMV of A. ipsilon. These observations suggest that a future strategy could be devised for the focused combination of specific cry genes in transgenic crops to control target pests, widen the spectrum of insecticide effectiveness and postpone insect resistance evolution.

  16. The Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Plant Extract (Barnoof) on the Nutritional Profile to the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effect of two sub sterilizing doses 100 and 150 Gray (Gy) of gamma irradiation and plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) on Ten day old larvae of F1 generation of Agrotis ipsilon in on their ability to consume, digest and utilize food was studied. Gamma irradiation alone reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the larvae as compared to unirradiated ones. Also, the utilization efficiency was more significantly decreased at dose level 150 Gy than at the dose level 100 Gy and leading to a reduction in weight gain. The effect of plant extract (Barnoof) alone was not significantly difference at the two tested concentration 1.5 and 3 % by the solvent (Petroleum ether) treatment. The combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract (on F1 larvae) were significantly decreased the growth rate of the larvae than the treatment of them alone when compared with the untreated larvae. Also, the combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract were significantly decreased the utilization of food as indicated by determining both efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.) and digested food (E.C.D.) to body matter. (authors)

  17. Biological and Histological Studies on the F1 Progeny of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Treated with Gamma Irradiation and / or Bacillus Thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full grown male pupae of black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn) were gamma irradiated with two sub sterilizing doses (50 and 100 Gy). the resulting F1 larvae were treated t the fourth instar larvae with six different concentrations (12.5,25,50,100,200 and 400 ppm.) of bacillus thuringiensis aizawai HD-112(Bta). the effect of radiation and / or B.t.on certain biological aspects in addition to histological effects on larval midgut were studied. the obtained results indicated that B.t. or irradiation treatments either alone or combined with each other decreased the number of F1 larvae that reached the adult stage as compared to the control. also the reduction in survived individuals was obvious at dose level 100 Gy than 50 Gy. the larval duration , percent pupation, percent emergence decreased gradually by increasing the concentration of B.t. especially at the combined treatments. as well percentage of adult malformations increased by increasing the irradiation dose or B.t. concentrations at separate or combined treatments. the sex ratio was altered in favor of male at either B.t. and / or irradiation treatments. certain histological changes through transverse section of the midgut tissues of F1 larvae due to irradiation and / or B.t. treatments were detected. the damage of the tissue increased by increasing the dose of irradiation and /or concentration of B.t. the cytoplasmic extrusion appeared as the apical margin of cells as a confluent mass and the muscular layers are broken in some parts, large amount of secretions released in the lumen of the midgut while a few amount were attached to the apical margin of the cells. Much destruction of the midgut took place when the B.t. treatments were combined with gamma irradiation where, large number of epithelial cells became vacuolated and the cytoplasm appeared as confluent masses because of the hydropic analysis of the epithelium

  18. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  19. The Combined Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Plant Extract (Barnoof) on the Nutritional Profile of the black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) II-The effect on the F1 Progeny during the 5 th and 6 th instars larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of two sub-sterilizing doses (100 and 150 Gray) of gamma irradiation to male Full grown pupae of Agrotis ipsilon and Barnoof plant extract, Conyza dioscorides to the resulting larvae of F1 progeny on the consumption and utilization of food during the fifth and sixth instars larvae were studied. In general, plant extract and gamma irradiation each of them alone or in combination reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the F1 larvae as compared to the control. As well, Barnoof treatments decreased significantly the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.), together with the efficiency of conversion of digested food to body substances (E.C.D.) at the two tested concentration (1.5 and 3 %) for the two solvents (Acetone and Petroleum ether) when compared with the untreated ones, Also, the food utilization efficiencies decreased in both irradiation doses leading to a significant reduction in weight gain and growth rate. In addition, it could be noticeable that, food utilization efficiencies for growth and development were lower in F1 larvae resulting from irradiation treatment alone than those resulting from combination treatments. Supplementary the combined effects of gamma irradiation and/or plant extract on the percentage of development per day, the growth and survival indices were considered. Most of the treatments decreased the values of these indices of the F1 progeny, as compare to the control. The reduction in these values was more obvious in combination treatments compared to gamma irradiation or plant extract treatments each of them alone. However, this decrease in the values of the previous indices associated with an increase of assimilation index in most treatments compare to control. However, a significant increase of the assimilation index values was observed at the majority of combination treatment as compare to the control

  20. Histological studies of gamma irradiation and/ or bacillus thuringiensis var. berliner on the testes and ovaries of the black cut worm, Agitators Ipsilon (HUFN.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to determine the effects of the sub sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (100 Gy) applied to the full grown pupae as well as two concentrations (50 and 100 ppm) of Bacillus thuringiensis var Berliner (Crycl A) applied to the fourth instar larvae and their combination on the histology of the testis and overies of the adults (male or female) black cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), throughout the first filial (F1) generation. The results indicated that the testes showed many symptoms of retardation in their growth in the form of retardation of spermatogenesis, reduction in sperm bundle numbers, degeneration and liquefaction of sperm bundles which lead to appearance of large vacuoles or retardation in sperm maturation. The data also showed that the follicular epithelial cells in the ovarioles (F, female ovary) appeared abnormal in shape, beside their limited separation from the developing oocytes, which became shrinking, semi absorbed or completely absorbed leaving vacuoles. Otherwise, the oocyte shape became rectangular and the nurse cells were reduced in size or absent in some parts

  1. Combined and separated effects of gamma irradiation and bifuran plant extract on the dietary profile of the black cutworm, agitators ipsilon (Hun.) 1- treatment of the eight days old larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined and separate effects of two sub sterilizing doses 100 or 150 Gy of gamma irradiation and the plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) on eight days- old larvae of F1 generation of Agrotis ipsilon as to their ability to consume, digest and utilize food were studied. Gamma irradiation alone reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the larvae as compared to non-irradiated ones. Also, the utilization efficiency was decreased more significantly at the dose level 150 Gy than at the dose level 100 Gy leading to a reduction in weight gain. The effect of plant extract (Barnoof) alone was non-significantly different at the two tested concentrations 1.5 or 3 % by the solvent (Petroleum ether) treatment. The combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract on F1 larvae significantly decreased the growth rate of the larvae than when treating them alone as compared to the untreated larvae. Also, the combined effects of gamma radiation and plant extract significantly decreased the utilization of food as indicated by determining both efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.) and digested food (E.C.D.) to body matters

  2. HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN CHICKPEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cra...

  3. Phenology and pest status of Agrotis segetum in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Peter; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Insects are strongly dependent on climatic factors, especially temperature. For this reason, changes in insect phenology are predicted to be one of the many effects of climate change. We analysed the effect of climate warming on Agrotis segetum (Denis & Schiffermüller) in Denmark. Agrotis segetum...... is an agricultural pest that causes root crop damage. Extensive registers of root crop damages by A.segetum in Denmark were kept between 1905 and 1980. These records show a correlation between A.segetum outbreaks and hot, dry summers. The last outbreak in Denmark, in 1976, prompted the implementation of pheromone...... trap monitoring. Data from these pheromone traps, for the periods between 1981-1991 and 1997-2009, show a decline in the number of A. segetum individuals during 2000-2009. We used this pheromone trapping data to test the hypothesis that temporal changes in phenology and abundance are correlated...

  4. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    OpenAIRE

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...

  5. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eWarrant; Barrie eFrost; Ken eGreen; Henrik eMouritsen; David eDreyer; Andrea eAdden; Kristina eBrauburger; Stanley eHeinze

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...

  6. Duração do desenvolvimento de Mythimna unipuncta, Xestla c-nigrum, Agrotis ipsilon, Heliothis armigera, Peridroma saucia, Spodoptera littoralis (Lep.: Noctuidae) e Pieris brassicae azorensis (Lep.: Piralidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Rui; Oliveira, Luísa; Tavares, João

    1998-01-01

    III Simpósio Fauna e Flora das Ilhas Atlânticas / Symposium Fauna and Flora of the Atlantic Islands, Universidade dos Açores, Ponta Delgada (Açores), 21 - 25 September, 1998. A influência dos factores abióticos sobre o desenvolvimento de espécies de Lepidópteros, nomeadamente no estado larvar, foi e será objecto de numerosos estudos, contribuindo assim para o conhecimento dos seus limites teóricos, duração/velocidade de desenvolvimento e percentagem de mortalidade no estado larvar. A...

  7. Olfactory protocerebral pathways processing sex pheromone and plant odor information in the male moth Agrotis segetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, H; Anton, S; Hansson, B S

    2001-04-01

    We investigated protocerebral processing of behaviorally relevant signals in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. Single neurons were studied both physiologically and morphologically using intracellular recording techniques. In moth pheromone communication systems, the presence of the complete, female-produced pheromone blend is necessary for male attraction. We predicted that more protocerebral neurons, compared with AL, would display blend interactions. However, only a few protocerebral neurons responded differently to the blend than could be deduced from the response to single components. The majority of the pheromone-sensitive protocerebral neurons identified in this study responded to the major pheromone component. In coding time, most AL neurons can follow a 5-Hz odor stimulus, whereas most protocerebral neurons failed at higher frequencies than 1 Hz. The majority of neurons that responded to the odorants tested innervated one or both of the protocerebral lateral accessory lobes. If only one of these was innervated, then the innervation always displayed a varicose appearance, suggesting a presynaptic function. Thus, information seems to be transferred from other protocerebral areas to the lateral accessory lobes. Into these, descending neurons sent smooth, postsynaptic branches. A majority of the neurons innervating the superior medial protocerebrum were found to display single-component specificity. Few additional correlations between odor specificity and structural characteristics were apparent.

  8. Mortality in hibernating turnip moth larvae, Agrotis segetum, caused by Tolypocladium cylindrosporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Øgaard, Leif

    2000-01-01

    At one sampling site an entomopathogenic fungus, tentatively identified as Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, was found to severely reduce populations of hibernating turnip moth larvae (Agrotis segetum) in consecutive winters, while it was never recorded from other collection sites. It produced...... infested site the prevalence was 21% in mid-October and by March it had reached 93%. The ability of the fungus to infect insects at low temperatures may be related to a relatively low optimum temperature for growth of 21 °C, which is lower than for the majority of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes. Host range...

  9. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of five noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on São Miguel - Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Michael; Tavares, João; Vieira, Virgílio

    1995-01-01

    The adult flight periods of Agrotis ipsilon (HÜFNAGEL), Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba LINNAEUS, Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER) and Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) were studied between July of 1988 and December of 1989, at Ribeira Grande, Arribanas and Lagoa do Congro on the island of São Miguel, using Pennsylvania blacklight traps. While there was evidence of considerable fluctuations in density, A. ipsilon, A. segetum, P. saucia and X c-nigrum ...

  10. Examination of the biological effects of high anionic peroxidase production in tobacco plants grown under field conditions. I. Insect pest damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Lagrimini, L Mark

    2006-04-01

    At least 25 wild type and high peroxidase tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. plants were examined semiweekly over several weeks for pest insect distribution and damage in a 2 year field study. Incidence and/or severity of naturally occurring caterpillar damage (dingy cutworm (Feltia ducens Walker), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.), and false tobacco budworm (= corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)) was significantly reduced at several sample dates for high peroxidase vs. wild type plants. These results parallel those of prior laboratory studies with caterpillars. The number of adult whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) per plant was significantly reduced on high peroxidase compared to wild type plants on most sample dates in both years. The number of plants with leaves containing >100 aphids (primarily Myzus persicae Sulzer) per leaf on high peroxidase plants was significantly lower that on wild type plants after an equivalent invasion period in both years. A significantly higher proportion of aphids were found dead on leaf five of high peroxidase compared to wild type plants at most sample dates in both years. These results indicate that high peroxidase plants have resistance to a wide range of insects, implicating this enzyme as a broad range resistance mechanism.

  11. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  12. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWarrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they hibernate over the summer months (referred to as aestivation. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their aestivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear

  13. Functional evolution of a multigene family: orthologous and paralogous pheromone receptor genes in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Zhang

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs, for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z-5-decenyl, (Z-7-dodecenyl and (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z-5-decenyl acetate, (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and

  14. Increased Risk of Insect Injury to Corn Following Rye Cover Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; O'Neal, Matthew E; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-08-01

    Decreased pest pressure is sometimes associated with more diverse agroecosystems, including the addition of a rye cover crop (Secale cereale L.). However, not all pests respond similarly to greater vegetational diversity. Polyphagous pests, such as true armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta Haworth), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel), and common stalk borer (Papaipema nebris Guenee), whose host range includes rye have the potential to cause injury to crops following a rye cover crop. The objectives of this study were to compare the abundance of early-season insect pests and injury to corn (Zea mays L.) from fields with and without a rye cover crop on commercial farms. Fields were sampled weekly to quantify adult and larval pests and feeding injury to corn plants from mid-April until corn reached V8 stage, during 2014 and 2015. Measurements within fields were collected along transects that extended perpendicularly from field edges into the interior of cornfields. Adult true armyworm and adult black cutworm were captured around all cornfields, but most lepidopteran larvae captured within cornfields were true armyworm and common stalk borer. Cornfields with a rye cover crop had significantly greater abundance of true armyworm and greater proportion of injured corn. Both true armyworm abundance and feeding injury were significantly greater in the interior of cornfields with rye. Common stalk borer abundance did not differ between cornfields with or without rye cover. Farmers planting corn following a rye cover crop should be aware of the potential for increased presence of true armyworm and for greater injury to corn. PMID:27325884

  15. Agrotis segetum雄蛾触角叶性信息素反应神经元对电刺激触角神经的反应%Electrophysiological Characteristics of Neurons Responding to Sex Pheromone in the Antennal Lobe of the Male Moth Agrotis segetum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项辉; SylviaANTON; 等

    2001-01-01

    为探讨电刺激Agrotis segetum雄蛾触角神经是否可以作为MGC中神经元的识别手段,采用细胞内电生理记录方法,共记录34个对性信息素有反应的MGC神经元,并测试了其中12个神经元对性信息素刺激的反应,22个神经元对性信息素刺激和电刺激的反应。结果表明,MGC神经元对性信息素及电刺激的反应模式基本一致,为一种双相反应模式。两种刺激方式均能诱导出兴奋反应,电刺激得到的兴奋反应比由性信息素刺激引起的要短;MGC神经元对两种刺激的超极化反应(抑制反应)幅度影响没有显著性差别,在电刺激实验的22个神经元上,超极化反应幅度和抑制时间都与神经元本身放电频率有一定的相关性。超极化反应是在LN参与下一定的神经回路对刺激所产生的反应而形成的,这提示两种刺激所作用的神经回路应是一致的,但从整个实验过程记录到的神经元情况来看,还须进一步结合形态学实验来验证电刺激触角神经作为MGC神经元的识别手段。%The PN response pattern evoked by electrical shock would be interdependent with morphological results and could be used as descriptor of neurons in some moths.In this study,intracellular recordings were performed and 34 neurons in MGC of Agrotis segetum were recorded;all those neurons responded to sex pheromone.12 neurons just tested by sex pheromone,and 22 neurons both tested by sex pheromone and electrical stimulation.Electrical stimulation elicited similar response of neuron as blend,which was one kind of biphasic response pattern consisting of a depolarization phase and followed by a hyperpolarization phase.The depolarization phase stimulated by electrical shock was very short,but it was clearly present in this and all other tested neurons.In all tested neurons stimulated by electrical shock,there were 2-10 spikes followed the stimulus artifact and 10-80 ms burst

  16. Use of natural enemies and biorational pest control of corne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the potential use of natural enemies and biorational insecticides for control of main pests of corn in thestate of Sinaloa is presented. A discuss on their composition, dosage, toxicity and type of effect on beneficial organisms(natural enemies and pollinators is too included. The work revealed that is possible implement the use of these natural enemies and products for the control of neonate larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda fall armyworm (J. E Smith with Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow (Samson; against thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande using the nematodes Steinernema riobravis (Cabanillas and Poinar, S. feltiae (Filipjev and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar at doses of 10,000 IJ (4x10 ~ IJ/m; against the corn silk fly Euxesta stigmatias (Loew encouraging the natural parasitism of Spalangia sp., while for the cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel can be with spinosad (soluble concentrate at doses of 0.123 kg a. i, and to the corn earwormHelicoverpa zea (Boddie using the analog of methoxyfenozide molting hormone (24% at 144 mg of a. i/L. The biorational control agents that not affect significantly to the natural enemies were the nucleopoliedrosis virus SfMNPV and SeMNPV; N. rileyi and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize; Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier; the azadirachtin (neem and parasitoids. In the case of products of chemical synthesis: Spinosad, oxymatrine and bifenthrin showed high rates of mortality in the control of corn pests, so these are considered as of high and moderate risk to Aphis mellifera (L. bees, the methoxyfenozide presented relatively low toxicity to natural enemies. In general, biorational products have repellent effect on larvae and adults of these insects, inhibit feeding and induce molting, also causing deformities and impede the development and growth, too interfere with sexual intercourse and copulate, reducing the oviposition, as well as cause sterility of adults, so these may also constitute a risk to

  17. Toxicity Evaluation of Four Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against Agrotis ypsilon%四株对小地老虎有活性的苏云金芽胞杆菌的毒力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓垒; 王品舒; 束长龙; 王秀丽; 郝再彬; 张永军; 宋福平

    2012-01-01

    本文对4株苏云金芽胞杆菌Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)的杀虫基因类型、杀虫蛋白表达类型、蛋白表达量以及杀虫活性进行了初步的评价分析。菌株PS9-D12和PS9-C12的基因类型与蛋白表达类型丰富,且其杀虫蛋白表达量是对照菌株HD-1的1.7倍。在相同培养条件下,制备菌株胞晶混合冻干粉对小地老虎Agrotis ypsilon的生测结果显示,菌株HD-1、PS9-D12、PS9-C12、PS9-D11和PS9-H9的LC50分别为0.71、0.19、0.14、0.24和1.16 mg·g^-1,菌株PS9-D12和PS9-C12的杀虫活性显著高于菌株HD-1(P〈0.05);此4株菌株对小菜蛾Plutella xylostella幼虫的校正死亡率均大于78%,它们对甜菜夜蛾Spodoptera exigua幼虫的活性均高于菌株HD-1;而对大猿叶甲Colaphellus bowringi幼虫均无活性。可见菌株PS9-D12和PS9-C12比商业化生产的HD-1有更好的杀虫活性,可作为Bt杀虫剂的候选材料。%The types of insecticidal genes and expressed proteins,expressed protein contents and insecticidal activity of four Bacillus thuringiensis strains were evaluated in this study.Results indicated that more types of insecticidal gene and protein were found in the strains PS9-D12 and PS9-C12 and the amount of expressed protein in PS9-D12 and PS9-C12 was 1.7 fold that in HD-1.Bioassay results with crystal-spore powder of the strains prepared against Agrotis ypsilon in the same cultured condition showed that the LC50 value of strains HD-1,PS9-D12,PS9-C12,PS9-D11and PS9-H9 were 0.71,0.19,0.14,0.24 and 1.16 mg· g^- 1,respectively.The virulence of the strains PS9-D12 and PS9-C12 was significantly higher than that of the strain HD-1(P〈0.05).The toxicity of 4 strains in this study to larvae of Plutella xylostella with mortality of more than 78%,and more virulent to larvae of Spodoptera exigua than that of HD-1,but no insecticidal activity to larvae of Colaphellus bowringi.All results suggest that PS9-D12 and PS9-C12 with higher insecticidal activity than

  18. Application of Insect Sex Pheromone in the Black Cutworm (Agrotis ipilon ) Forecast%昆虫性信息素在小地老虎预测预报上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅珍

    2012-01-01

    In Shanghai area, black cutworm {Agrotis ipilon) breeds 4~5 generation in a year. The first generation larvae have more serious hazards and is a major pest damaging vegetable seedling. From 2009 to 2011, to further enhance the black cutworm forecasting quality and improve the monitoring technology, we conducted the monitoring and comparison test by using light, sweet with sour and sex pheromone attractants. The results showed that the attractant produced by Ningbo NewCon Inc for trapping black cutworm had higher capture rate, clearer moths peak, higher accuracy, simpler installation and less affection by climate, which could be one of the main methods for forecasting black cutworm.%在上海地区,小地老虎年发生4~5代,以第1代幼虫为害较重,是蔬菜苗期的主要害虫.为进一步提高小地老虎预测预报的质量,完善测报技术,于2009年~2011年开展了灯诱、糖醋诱蛾和性诱监测比较试验.结果表明,采用宁波纽康生物技术有限公司生产的小地老虎诱芯进行监测,诱获虫量多、蛾峰清晰、准确度高,而且操作简便,受气候影响小,宜作为小地老虎测报的主要监测手段.

  19. Selective toxicity of three amide pesticides to black cutworm Agrotis ypsilon and earthworm Eisenia foetida%三种双酰胺类杀虫剂对小地老虎和蚯蚓的选择毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军辉; 于伟丽; 王猛; 张灿光; 慕卫

    2013-01-01

    To screen effective insecticides,the laboratory toxicities of 11 insecticides to 3rd instar black cutworm Agrotis ypsilon (Rottemberg) were measured using leaf-dipping method.And both artificial soil method and contact filter method were used to determine the acute response of these insecticides to earthworm Eisenia foetida (Savigny).In addition,pot experiment was done at the same time.The results revealed the toxicity of cyantraniliprole,chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide were significantly higher than that of other eight insecticides.The acute response of these insecticides to earthworm showed that the LC50 values of cyantraniliprole,chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide belonged to the inferior toxic category.The selective toxicity of cyantraniliprole was the highest.The control effect of three new amide pesticides to A.ypsilon was lower than that of other pesticides and they were all safe to earthworm using toxic soil method.There is no significant difference compared with the protection effect on seedling of 10% cyantraniliprole dispersible oil suspension and other pesticides,but significantly higher than 5% chlorantraniliprole suspension and 20% carbosulfan emulsifiable concentrate.In conclusion,cyantraniliprole could be chosen as the ideal pesticide against black cutworm A.ypsilon in cotton field.%为筛选出高效安全的土壤处理杀虫剂,室内采用浸叶法比较了溴氰虫酰胺、氯虫苯甲酰胺、氟虫双酰胺与8种常规杀虫剂对小地老虎的毒力,用滤纸接触法和人工土壤法分别测定了11种药剂对蚯蚓的急性毒性,并通过盆栽试验比较了其对小地老虎和蚯蚓的选择毒性.结果表明,3种双酰胺类杀虫剂对小地老虎的室内毒力明显高于其它8种对照药剂,对蚯蚓的LC50均属于低毒级,其中以溴氰虫酰胺的毒力选择性最高.盆栽试验中双酰胺类药剂防虫效果均低于其它对照药剂,10%溴氰虫酰胺可分散油悬

  20. 苦皮藤素V在粘虫和小地老虎幼虫体内的穿透与代谢%Investigation on the penetration and metabolism of celangulin V in the larvae of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ypsilon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 姬志勤; 吴文君; 魏少鹏

    2015-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱技术研究了苦皮藤素Ⅴ在粘虫Mythimna separata和小地老虎Agrotis ypsilon幼虫中的穿透及代谢。结果表明:苦皮藤素V均不能从粘虫和小地老虎幼虫的体壁穿透到血腔或从血腔穿透到中肠,但很容易从中肠穿透到血腔,且穿透速率无差异;苦皮藤素V在小地老虎幼虫体内的代谢解毒速率远大于其在粘虫幼虫体内的代谢速率,其半衰期分别为5.5和13.1 h。本研究结果表明,苦皮藤素V对粘虫和小地老虎幼虫的选择毒杀作用与药物的穿透能力无关,其在试虫体内的解毒代谢差异才是其对昆虫具有选择作用的机理之一。%Penetration and metabolism of celangulin V in the larvae of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ypsilon were studied using high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that celangulin V can not penetrate into the haemolymph from the body wall or penetrate into the midgut from the haemolymph in both of larvae. Whereas,celangulin V with the same rate of penetration is easily penetrate into the haemolymph from the midgut in the case of both larvae. The metabolic rate of celangulin V in the larvae of A. ypsilon is greater than that in the larvae of M. separata and the half-life of celangulin V was 5. 5 h and 13. 1 h in the larvae of A. ypsilon and M. separata,respectively. The results indicate that the penetration was not involved in the selective toxicity of celangulin V,whereas, detoxification metabolism in the larvae of A. ypsilon and M. separata was one of the mechanisms of this selective toxicity.

  1. Alguns dados sobre a Fauna entomológica da ilha das Flores - Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Virgílio; Tavares, João; Anunciada, Lorete; McNeil, Jeremy

    1990-01-01

    IV Expedição Científica do Departamento de Biologia - Flores 1989 Com este trabalho, realizado em Julho de 1989 nas Flores - a ilha mais ocidental do Arquipélago dos Açores -, acrescentaram-se onze espécies de Lepidópteros à lista referenciada para aquela ilha, pertencendo uma à família Lycaenidae (Lampides boeticus L.), oito a familia Noctuidae (Agrotis ipsilon HFN., Brotolomia meticulosa L., Chrysodeixis chalcites ESPER., Heliothis armigera HBN., Noctua atlantica WARREN, Noctua pronub...

  2. 六种杀虫剂对小地老虎的毒力及对土壤生物安全性评价%Toxicity of six insecticides to black cutworm Agrotis ypsilon (Rottemberg) and safety evaluation to oil organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于伟丽; 杜军辉; 胡延萍; 申瑞平; 慕卫

    2012-01-01

    为筛选出高效安全的土壤处理杀虫剂,室内采用浸叶法比较了3种新杀虫剂与3种已登记的杀虫剂对小地老虎的毒力,同时用人工土壤法和密闭法分别测定了6种药剂对蚯蚓的急性毒性和对土壤呼吸强度的影响。结果显示,溴虫腈、茚虫威和甲维盐对小地老虎3龄幼虫的毒力明显高于3种已登记药剂毒死蜱、辛硫磷和高效氯氟氰菊酯;溴虫腈、茚虫威和甲维盐对蚯蚓的LC50分别为1320.80、1153.42和167.91mg/kg,均低于其它3种药剂,属于低毒级;供试杀虫剂中以溴虫腈对小地老虎和蚯蚓的毒力选择性最高,其毒力选择性比值(蚯蚓LC50/小地老虎LC50)为7115.23;6种药剂对土壤微生物均无危害性。%Leaf-dip, artificial soil and direct absorption methods were used conducted to determine the laboratory toxicity of six insecticides to the black cutworm, Agrotis ypsilon ( Rottemberg), the acute re- sponse to the earthworm, Eisenia foelida and the effects on respiration of soil microorganism, respective- ly. Results showed that the toxicity of chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was significantly higher than that of chlorpyrifos, phoxim and lambadacyhalothrin. The acute response to the earthworm re- suits showed that the LCs0 of chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was 1 320.80, 1 153.42 and 167.91 mg/kg, which belonged to the inferior toxic category. The selective toxicity of chlorfenapyr was the highest among 6 insecticides tested, and its selective toxicity ratio reached 7115.23. These pesti- cides all belong to the lower poisonous pesticide category on soil microbe.

  3. Effects of periplocosides P and E from Periploca sepium on the proteinase activities in the midgut of larvae of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ypsilon ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)%杠柳新苷P和E对东方粘虫和小地老虎幼虫中肠蛋白酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠翠; 高履桐; 师宝君; 温万东; 胡兆农; 吴文君

    2012-01-01

    从杀虫植物杠柳Periploca sepiutm Bunge根皮中分离得到的杠柳新苷P具有很高的杀虫活性,为了探索其杀虫机理,采用经典的昆虫蛋白酶活性测定方法,比较研究了杠柳新苷P和无杀虫活性的杠柳新苷E对东方粘虫Mythimna separata与小地老虎Agrotis ypsilon 6龄幼虫中肠类胰蛋白酶和类胰凝乳蛋白酶活性的影响.结果表明:对东方粘虫弱碱性类胰蛋白酶,杠柳新苷P表现出强激活作用(酶活性为对照的3.43倍),激活时间可长达8h,而杠柳新苷E则无明显激活作用.杠柳新苷P和E对东方粘虫弱碱性类胰蛋白酶活性的影响二者差异显著(P=0.01),杠柳新苷P药后2,4和8h,东方粘虫中肠弱碱性类胰蛋白酶的活性分别是杠柳新苷E药后的15.4,106.8和242.7倍.酶活性测定结果还表明,与东方粘虫相比,小地老虎中肠类胰蛋白酶活性相对较低,且杠柳新苷P的激活作用也较弱,这可能是杠柳新苷P对东方粘虫具杀虫活性,而小地老虎对其不敏感的原因之一;另外,杠柳新苷P和E对试虫中肠类凝乳胰蛋白酶活性均无明显影响.据此推测,杠柳活性成分新苷P对东方粘虫中肠弱碱性类胰蛋白酶的激活作用可能是造成试虫中毒的机理之一.%Periplocoside P, which was isolated from the root bark of the insecticidal plant Periploca sepium Bunge, has strong insecticidal activity. To explore the insecticidal mechanism of periplocoside P, the classical determination methods for insect protease activity were used to compare the different effects on the activities of trypsin-like protease and chymotrypsin-like protease in the midgut of the 6th instar larvae of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ypsilon beween periplocoside P and periplocoside E which has no insecticidal activity. The results showed that periplocoside P displayed strong activation effect on the weakly alkaline trypsin-like protease activity in the midgut of M. separata larvae, which was 3.43 times

  4. Udbredelsen af Eupithecia innotata (Hufnagel, 1767) og E. ochridata Schütze & Pinker, 1968 i Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švitra, Giedrius; Vilhelmsen, Flemming; Karsholt, Ole

    2012-01-01

    of the two species identified by the above Lepidoptera bind X, nr. 4, 2012 129 mentioned differences in the genitalia. The only difference in the appearance we have been able to find is that in some (but not all!) specimens of E. ochridata is an elongated bright spot just before the black middle spot...... of the forewing. This is not seen - or only indistinctly - in E. innotata. This means that specimens without this bright spot can be both E. innotata and E. ochridata. Therefore, it will often be necessary to examine the genital organs in order to reach a safe determination of the two species. Data from all...

  5. Establishment and characterization of insect cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C L; El Sayed, G N; McIntosh, A H; Grasela, J J; Stiles, B

    2001-06-01

    Cell lines from selected lepidopteran species were established for the overall purpose of use in baculovirus production. A total of 36 new cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species were generated, including cell lines from a pyralid, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a plutellid, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, as well as eight noctuids: the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Tissues used for cell line establishment included fat bodies, ovaries, testes, or whole embryos/larvae/pupae. All the cell lines were subcultured numerous times, characterized by isoenzyme analysis and/or deoxyribonucleic acid amplification fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Many of the cell lines were adapted to grow in serum-free medium, with cell lines from A. ipsilon and H. virescens being adapted to suspension culture using shaker flasks. The potential use for these cell lines in baculovirus production is discussed. PMID:11515970

  6. Low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide modify pheromone response thresholds of central but not peripheral olfactory neurons in a pest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Deisig, Nina; Demondion, Elodie; Le Corre, Julie; Robert, Guillaume; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2016-02-10

    Insect pest management relies mainly on neurotoxic insecticides, including neonicotinoids, leaving residues in the environment. There is now evidence that low doses of insecticides can have positive effects on pest insects by enhancing various life traits. Because pest insects often rely on sex pheromones for reproduction, and olfactory synaptic transmission is cholinergic, neonicotinoid residues could modify chemical communication. We recently showed that treatments with different sublethal doses of clothianidin could either enhance or decrease behavioural sex pheromone responses in the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon. We investigated now effects of the behaviourally active clothianidin doses on the sensitivity of the peripheral and central olfactory system. We show with extracellular recordings that both tested clothianidin doses do not influence pheromone responses in olfactory receptor neurons. Similarly, in vivo optical imaging does not reveal any changes in glomerular response intensities to the sex pheromone after clothianidin treatments. The sensitivity of intracellularly recorded antennal lobe output neurons, however, is upregulated by a lethal dose 20 times and downregulated by a dose 10 times lower than the lethal dose 0. This correlates with the changes of behavioural responses after clothianidin treatment and suggests the antennal lobe as neural substrate involved in clothianidin-induced behavioural changes. PMID:26842577

  7. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  8. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther K Rabhi

    Full Text Available In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress.

  9. LEVANTAMENTO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE Eucalyptus spp. POR MEIO DE ARMADILHA LUMINOSA EM SÃO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garlet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of eucalyptus has become an important economic activity in Brazil. However, with the increase of the plantation areas, some entomological problems tend to increase in the same proportion. The constant monitoring of the insects associated with homogeneous planting systems is very important in order to seek the development of programs for integrated pest management. Thus, the purpose of this study was to perform a survey on the insect populations associated with Eucalyptus spp., in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The collects were carried out by light traps from July 2008 to August 2009 in three-year-old stands with the species: Eucalyptus dunni, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla . The insects collected were analyzed using the faunistic indices, frequency, abundance, diversity, and constancy. The correlation between the pest species identified and the meteorological variables for the period were also performed. We collected 3623 individuals belonging to eight orders (Blattodea, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea and Odonata. Three species and three genus of lepidoptera defoliators considered of economic importance were identified: Automeris illustris, Eupseudosoma sp., Sabulodes sp., Sarsina sp., Thyrinteina arnobia and Agrotis ipsilon as well as the borer Phoracantha semipunctata . Our results show that there are important pest species of Eucalyptus already established in the region therefore some constant monitoring is required so that these species do not cause damage to plantations.

  10. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some fungal control agents on the greasy cut- worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera- Noctuidae) is widely distributed all over the world, particularly in moderate and subtropical countries of the northern and southern hemispheres (Kononenko ,2003). The greasy cut worm causes damage to vegetables, cucurbitaceous and industrial crops. The greatest damage is caused to cotton, essential-oil cultures, maize, tobacco, sunflower, tomatoes, sugar beet and potato. The pest can strongly harm vegetables, and also damage seedlings of tree species (pine, maple, and nut). This pest has solitary habits. They commonly feed on seedlings at ground level, cutting off the stem and sometimes dragging the plants into their burrows. The continuous use of chemical pesticides against pests, resistance to the action of pesticides had dramatically evolved. Also, the extensive use of these chemicals has given rise to problems such as residual toxicity (pollution) and harmful effects on beneficial insects, which are natural enemies of target or nontarget pest species. Such problems have become a cause of search for safety pesticides including microbial agents as fungi, bacteria and viruses (Rashed, 1993). The use of radiation to induce dominate lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique (SIT) is now as the major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Adult insects, and their different developmental stages, differ in their sensitivity to the induction of dominate lethal mutation. Care has to be taken to identify the appropriate dose of radiation that produces the required level of sterility without impairing the overall fitness of the released insects.(Sawires, 2005). This technique would be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including A. Ipsilon has been studied (EL- kady et al., 1983, EL-Naggar et al., 1984, Abd El -Hamid 2004 and Gabarty, 2008). Entomopathogenic fungi that infect insects have received considerable

  11. Host range of an NPV and a GV isolated from the common cutworm, Agrotis segetum: pathogenicity within the cutworm complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourner, T.C.; Cory, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The term cutworm covers a range of species with a similar life history that can be very damaging pests on a wide range of crops. Attacks by cutworms are often made up of more than one species; thus, the most cost effective microbial control agent needs to be pathogenic for multiple species within th

  12. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Smigocki

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  13. Single-stranded DNA fragments of insect-specific nuclear polyhedrosis virus act as selective DNA insecticides for gypsy moth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the DNA insecticides as a novel preparation against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) based on DNA fragments of the anti-apoptotic gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus. It was found that the external application of a solution with two single-stranded DNA fragments from BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV (L.dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene induces a significantly higher mortality of gypsy moth caterpillars in comparison with the application of the control solutions. This effect does not depend on the infection of caterpillars with LdMNPV. The results also show that DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV IAP-3 gene fragments can be selective in action, and at least are not harmful to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon). Part of the gypsy moth genome cloned with the fragments of BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV IAP-3 gene as primers, has an overlap with the corresponding part of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene and L.dispar IAP-1 mRNA for an inhibitor of apoptosis protein with the high cover by query, allows assuming that we cloned a part of gypsy moth anti-apoptosis gene. This finding gives the grounding that proposed here DNA insecticides might act through the blocking of the mechanisms involved in post transcriptional expression of insect anti-apoptosis genes. The results show the insecticidal potential of the viral genome fragments that can be used to create safe and relatively fast-acting DNA insecticides to control the quantity of gypsy moth populations, important task for forestry and agriculture.

  14. 虫草菌感染地老虎幼虫的研究%Research on Agrotis larvae infected by"insect herb"fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵恒; 屈新兰

    2000-01-01

    本文报道了两种虫草菌在室内接种感染地老虎幼虫的结果.不同种性的虫草菌,对虫体感染要求的条件存在较大差别.代寄主虫被感染后能否形成菌核,当视虫草菌和昆虫体同步生长的吻合程度.

  15. Cloning, Expression and Analysis of Insecticidal Activity of a Novel vip 3A a-type Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis%苏云金芽胞杆菌新型vip3Aa基因的克隆、表达与活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓明; 束长龙; 刘晓垒; 李海涛; 高继国; 张杰; 宋福平

    2011-01-01

    To find novel vip3 genes, the vip3-type genes in 72 Bt stains were identified by PCR method and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) system. The results indicated that three vip3 gene types, vip3Aa, vip3Af and vip3Ba were found in 18 positive strains. A full-length vip3 gene fragment, which obtained by PCR amplification with a pair of primers designed according to lupJ-type gene sequences and DNA from T03B001 (B. Thuringiensis subsp. Sumiyoshiensis) as template, was introduced into expression vector pEB and transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). At low temperatures, a peptide of 88 kD was expressed by IPTG induction. Theencoded protein was composed of 789 amino acid rsidues. It shared a 96% sequence homology with Vip3Aa protein. This gene designated as vip3A a39 by International Nomenclature Committee of Bt endotoxin, GenBank accession No. Was HMI17631. Vip3Aal 1 protein was obtained in our previous study, 39 amino acid residues were found to be different between the Vip3Aa39 and Vip3Aal 1 proteins. Insecticidal activities of soluble expressed products of vip3Aa39 and vip3Aall genes were tested against Agrotis ipsilon, Plutella xylostella, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptem exigua by feeding method. The bioassay results indicated that Vip3Aa39 had insecticidal activity against A.ipsilon with 50% lethal concentration (LCX) of 5.43 |xg/mL compared to 73.62 p-g/mL for Vip3Aal 1; Vip3Aa39 showed insecticidal activity against P.xylostella with LCX of 140.64 (xg/mL while Vip3Aal 1 protein had no activity against P.xylostella; Vip3Aal 1 demonstrated insecticidal activity against H.armigera with LCX of 35.18 |xg/mL compared to 286.99 |xg/mL for Vip3Aa39; Vip3Aa39 had insecticidal activity against S. Exigua with LCX of 2.02 |xg/mL similar to 2.04 |xg/mL for Vip3Aal 1. The results indicated that insecticidal activity of Vip3Aa39 and Vip3Aal 1 was different from each other against A.ipsilon, P.xylostella and H.armigera. Compared with the Vip3Aall, Vip3Aa39 had

  16. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  17. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  18. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogt, Erik; Sabers, Darrell; Prather, Edward E.; Deming, Grace L.; Hufnagel, Beth; Slater, Timothy F.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy undergraduate class sections were examined from the database of Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) results of Deming and Hufnagel to determine if course format correlated with ADT normalized gain scores. Normalized gains were calculated for four different classroom scenarios: lecture, lecture with discussion, lecture with lab, and lecture…

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the conditions in 7 CFR 319.56-42 and were inspected and found free from Agrotis segetum... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of...

  20. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  1. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of eleven noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on Terceira Island (Azores)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Virgílio; Araújo, M. G. Gomes de; Tavares, João

    1998-01-01

    The adult flight periods of Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba (LINNAEUS), Noctua atlantica (WARREN), Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER), Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS), Mythimna loreyi (DUPONCHEL), Phlogophora meticulosa (LINNAEUS), Phlogophora interrupta(WARREN), Mesapamea storai (REBEL), Autographa gamma (LINNAEUS), and Trichoplusia orichalcea (FABRICIUS) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied between November 1992 and November 1993, at Terra Chã (110 m), Granja (310 m), Faj...

  2. Efecto de las enhancinas sobre las propiedades insecticidas de los baculovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Sánchez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar molecularmente una enhancina (VEF, virus enhancing factor) localizada en el genoma de un granulovirus de Agrotis segetum (AgseGV) aislado en Badajoz y determinar su efecto sobre la actividad insecticida del Alphabaculovirus de Autographa californica (AcMNPV) para distintas especies de insectos susceptibles. La enhancina de AgseGV presentó un 99% de identidad con la enhancina de otro aislado del AgseGV de China (AY522332) mientra...

  3. Two New Record Species of Noctuinae(Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Northeast China%东北地区夜蛾亚科2新记录种记述(鳞翅目,夜蛾科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏; 隋华; 韩辉林

    2010-01-01

    在整理东北地区夜蛾亚科标本时,发现东北地区2新记录种:疆夜蛾(Peridroma saucia (Hübner,1808))和汉地老虎(Agrotis characteristica Alpheraky,1892).对其外部形态进行了描述,同时还对汉地老虎在国内一直沿用的同物异名进行了更正.

  4. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  5. 不同保藏处理的昆虫标本DNA提取及其随机扩增多态DNA反应%DNA extraction and RAPD-PCR of insect specimens preserved with different meth-ods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎春; 刘波; 郑哲民; 李力

    2002-01-01

    实验利用CTAB法对柳二十斑叶甲Chrysomela vigintipunctata(Scopoli)、异色瓢虫Harnania axyridis Pllas、七星瓢虫Coc-cinella septempunctata Linnaeus、小地老虎Agrotis ypsilon(Rottemberg)、红蜻Crocothemis servilia Drury、无齿稻蝗Oxya anbentata Willemse和中华稻蝗Oxya cinensis(Thunberg)等7种昆虫进行了基因组DNA提取.从自然干燥标本、烘干标本及酒精浸泡标本获得的DNA均可用于RAPD-PCR反应,且烘干标本、酒精浸泡标本提取效果优于自然干燥标本.这种提取方法简便易行,容易掌握,且耗资小于其它分子生物学方法.

  6. Networks and Models with Heterogeneous Population Structure in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, R. R.

    Heterogeneous population structure can have a profound effect on infectious disease dynamics, and is particularly important when investigating “tactical” disease control questions. At times, the nature of the network involved in the transmission of the pathogen (bacteria, virus, macro-parasite, etc.) appears to be clear; however, the nature of the network involved is dependent on the scale (e.g. within-host, between-host, or between-population), the nature of the contact, which ranges from the highly specific (e.g. sexual acts or needle sharing at the person-to-person level) to almost completely non-specific (e.g. aerosol transmission, often over long distances as can occur with the highly infectious livestock pathogen foot-and-mouth disease virus—FMDv—at the farm-to-farm level, e.g. Schley et al. in J. R. Soc. Interface 6:455-462, 2008), and the timescale of interest (e.g. at the scale of the individual, the typical infectious period of the host). Theoretical approaches to examining the implications of particular network structures on disease transmission have provided critical insight; however, a greater challenge is the integration of network approaches with data on real population structures. In this chapter, some concepts in disease modelling will be introduced, the relevance of selected network phenomena discussed, and then results from real data and their relationship to network analyses summarised. These include examinations of the patterns of air traffic and its relation to the spread of SARS in 2003 (Colizza et al. in BMC Med., 2007; Hufnagel et al. in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:15124-15129, 2004), the use of the extensively documented Great Britain livestock movements network (Green et al. in J. Theor. Biol. 239:289-297, 2008; Robinson et al. in J. R. Soc. Interface 4:669-674, 2007; Vernon and Keeling in Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci. 276:469-476, 2009) and the growing interest in combining contact structure data with phylogenetics to

  7. The peripheral auditory characteristics of noctuid moths: responses to the search-phase echolocation calls of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters; Jones

    1996-01-01

    The noctuid moths Agrotis segetum and Noctua pronuba show peak auditory sensitivity between 15 and 25 kHz, and a maximum sensitivity of 35 dB SPL. A. segetum shows a temporal integration time of 69 ms. It is predicted that bats using high-frequency and short-duration calls will be acoustically less apparent to these moths. Short-duration frequency-modulated (FM) calls of Plecotus auritus are not significantly less acoustically apparent than those of other FM bats with slightly longer call durations, based on their combined frequency and temporal structure alone. Long-duration, high-frequency, constant-frequency (CF) calls of Rhinolophus hipposideros at 113 kHz are significantly less apparent than those of the FM bats tested. The predicted low call apparency of the 83 kHz CF calls of R. ferrumequinum appears to be counteracted by their long duration. It is proposed that two separate mechanisms are exploited by bats to reduce their call apparency, low intensity in FM bats and high frequency in CF bats. Within the FM bats tested, shorter-duration calls do not significantly reduce the apparency of the call at the peripheral level, though they may limit the amount of information available to the central nervous system. PMID:9318627

  8. Bird predation on cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in wheat fields and chlorpyrifos effects on brain cholinesterase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, L.C.; DeWeese, L.R.; Schladweiler, P.

    1986-01-01

    Horned larks, Eremophila alpestris (L.), and McCown's longspurs, Calcarius mccownii (Lawrence), were collected at intervals from two winter wheat fields in Montana [USA] after aerial application of chlorpyrifos to control cutworms. Both bird species had a high (95-100%) incidence of Lepidoptera, mostly pale western cutworms, Agrotis orthogonia Morrison, in their stomachs at 3 days postspray. Incidence of cutworms and other insects in stomachs of birds from sprayed fields was lower at 9 and 16 days postspray than in control birds, presumably due to insecticide-caused reduction of insects. Effects of birds on population dynamics of insect pests in wheat are unknown, but birds do contribute to cutworm mortality. Predation is one of the limiting factors to cutworm increase and can supplement insecticidal control. Brain cholinesterase activity in horned larks collected from the sprayed fields at 3 and 9 days postspray was significantly lower than in unexposed larks, but at 16 days the difference was not significant. Although nontarget birds clearly were exposed to chlorpyrifos and manifested a sublethal physiological response, toxic effects were less severe than those resulting from endrin application for cutworm control in wheat. More study is needed of larger chlorpyrifos-treated fields under a variety of conditions to fully assess effects on nontarget life.

  9. Flight periodicity and the vertical distribution of high-altitude moth migration over southern Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C R; Reynolds, D R; Wells, P M; Barlow, J F; Woiwod, I P; Chapman, J W

    2009-10-01

    The continuous operation of insect-monitoring radars in the UK has permitted, for the first time, the characterization of various phenomena associated with high-altitude migration of large insects over this part of northern Europe. Previous studies have taken a case-study approach, concentrating on a small number of nights of particular interest. Here, combining data from two radars, and from an extensive suction- and light-trapping network, we have undertaken a more systematic, longer-term study of diel flight periodicity and vertical distribution of macro-insects in the atmosphere. Firstly, we identify general features of insect abundance and stratification, occurring during the 24-hour cycle, which emerge from four years' aggregated radar data for the summer months in southern Britain. These features include mass emigrations at dusk and, to a lesser extent, at dawn and daytime concentrations associated with thermal convection. We then focus our attention on the well-defined layers of large nocturnal migrants that form in the early evening, usually at heights of 200-500 m above ground. We present evidence from both radar and trap data that these nocturnal layers are composed mainly of noctuid moths, with species such as Noctua pronuba, Autographa gamma, Agrotis exclamationis, A. segetum, Xestia c-nigrum and Phlogophora meticulosa predominating. PMID:19224662

  10. Influence of Sowing Times, Densities, and Soils to Biomass and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Xuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels helps to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and therefore decreases CO2 emission. Ethanol mixed with gasoline in mandatory percentages has been used in many countries. However, production of ethanol mainly depends on food crops, commonly associated with problems such as governmental policies and social controversies. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is one of the most potential and appropriate alternative crops for biofuel production because of its high biomass and sugar content, strong tolerance to environmental stress conditions and diseases, and wide adaptability to various soils and climates. The aim of this study was to select prospective varieties of sweet sorghum, optimum sowing times and densities to achieve high yields of ethanol production and to establish stable operational conditions in cultivating this crop. The summer-autumn cropping season combined with the sowing densities of 8.3–10.9 plant m−2 obtained the highest ethanol yield. Among cultivated locations, the soil with pH of 5.5 and contents of Al and Zn of 39.4 and 0.6 g kg−1, respectively, was the best condition to have an ethanol yield >5000 L ha−1. The pH ≥ 6.0 may be responsible for the significant reduction of zinc content in soils, which decreases both biomass of sweet sorghum and ethanol yield, while contents of N, P, K, organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe likely play no role. The cultivar 4A was the preferred candidate for ethanol production and resistant to pests and diseases, especially cut worm (Agrotis spp..

  11. Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of potato pests and their management in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sikhu Okonya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we initiate entomological research on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. in Uganda, there is need to understand farmers’ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and their management practices. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM strategy. A farm household survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted among 204 potato farmers in six districts of Uganda (i.e., Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, Kapchorwa, Mubende, and Kyegegwa during August and September 2013. Diseases, insect pests, price fluctuations, and low market prices were the four highest ranked constraints in potato production, in order of decreasing importance. Cutworms (Agrotis spp., aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer, and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller were the three most severe insect pests. Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard were pests of moderate importance. Major yield losses are predominantly due to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary and reached 100% without chemical control in the districts of Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, and Kapchorwa. On average, farmers had little to moderate knowledge about pest characteristics. The predominant control methods were use of fungicides (72% of respondents and insecticides (62% of respondents. On average, only 5% of the 204 farmers knew about insect pests and their natural enemies. This lack of knowledge calls for training of both farmers and extension workers in insect pest identification, their biology, and control. Empowering farmers with knowledge about insect pests is essential for the reduction of pesticide misuse and uptake of more environmentally friendly approaches like IPM. Field surveys would need follow-up in order to assess the actual field infestation rates and intensities of each insect pest and compare the results with the responses

  12. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  13. Immunolocalization of odorant-binding proteins in noctuid moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Maida, R; Steinbrecht, R A

    2001-09-01

    Odorant-binding proteins were studied in the noctuid moths Agrotis segetum, Autographa gamma, Helicoverpa armigera, Heliothis virescens and Spodoptera littoralis using antisera raised against the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding protein 2 (GOBP2) of Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Proteins immunoreacting with these antisera were only found on the antennae and PBP and GOBP2 could be identified on western blots of males and females of all five species. PBPs were predominantly localized in sensilla trichodea and GOBP2 in sensilla basiconica, in good correlation with the stimulus specificity of the receptor cells in these sensilla. In H. armigera and H. virescens the majority of the s. trichodea immunoreacted with the antiserum against PBP of A. polyphemus; in A. segetum, A. gamma and S. littoralis, on the other hand, a high percentage of s. trichodea remained unlabelled. Probably, the PBP expressed in these sensilla is so different that it does not immunoreact with the antiserum used. Such a protein was found by native PAGE of antennal extracts of A. segetum and S. littoralis. These data correlate with the fact that the two heliothine species use pheromones with the same alkyl chain length as A. polyphemus, while the other three species use pheromones with shorter chains. In H. armigera, H. virescens, A. gamma and S. littoralis female antennae were also immunolabelled and a large number of PBP-expressing s. trichodea was consistently found. In S.littoralis this fits with the electrophysiologically recorded high pheromone sensitivity of female s. trichodea, whereas in females of H. armigera and H. virescens no or only weak responses to pheromone stimulation have been reported. Therefore, PBP expression in a sensillum does not necessarily imply pheromone sensitivity of its receptor cells. PMID:11555483

  14. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timus Asea M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each phenological phase needs different temperatures: at least 4C° is necessary for planting and springing an amount of 650°C is necessary for foliar apparatus; an amount of 1150- 1800°C is necessary to grow the volume of roots and for sugar depositing the average of 2400 to 2600°C is necessary. The mentioned temperatures ensure a normal development of sugar beet plants. If these temperatures fluctuate, the pathogens and pests are stimulated to develop. The most frequent diseases of sugar beet are: Pythium de baryanum Hesse., Aphanomyces cochlioides Dresch. Peronospora schachtii Fuck., Phoma betae Fr. Cercospora beticola Sacc. Erysiphe communis Grev. f. betae Jacz., virosis - Beta virus 2, 3 si 4 etc. The main pests belong to the following categories: Homoptera: Aphis fabae Scop. (fam. Aphididae, Pemphigus fuscicornis Koch. (fam. Pemphigidae Coleoptera: Agriotes sp. (fam. Elateridae, Chaetocnema concinna M. Ch. breviuscula Fld., Cassida nebulosa L. (fam. Chrysomelidae, Atomaria linearis Step. (fam. Cryptophagidae; Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ., Tanymechus dilaticollis Gyll., T. palliatus F., Psalidium maxillosum F. (Curculionidae; Lepidoptera: Agrotis segetum Den. et Schiff., Authographa gamma L. Mamestra (Barathra brassicae L. (Noctuidae, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Pyralidae, Gnorimoschema ocellatella Boyd.; Diptera Pegomyia betae Curtis. (fam. Anthomyidae. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (Heteroderidae. The most recommended insecticides for fighting the

  15. IN VITRO CULTIVATION OF THE ENTOMOGENOUS NEMATODE OVOMERMIS SINENSIS%中华卵索线虫的体外培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国秀; 陈曲侯; 陈果

    2001-01-01

    在研究中华卵索线虫的体外培养方法的同时,对其在不同培养基中的生长发育情况进行了观察。结果表明:以培养基TC-199加20%热灭活胎牛血清的培养效果较为理想,大多数线虫可存活3个月,最大虫体长55.1 mm、宽204.13 μm,其发育程度大致与该种索线虫在宿主粘虫体内寄生8~9天的情况相近。培养期间观察到2次蜕皮:第一次蜕皮在卵内,第二次在培养6~8天之后。口针消失,虫体内滋养物体发育明显,尾部附器已经形成,没有观察到生殖原基的发育。%The insectparasitic nematode, Ovomermis sinensis Chenet al, 1991 has the potential for the biological control of a range of insect pests due to many insect sep ecies are susceptible to this nematode. For example Leucania separata, Helioth is armigera, Prodenia litura, Spodoptera exigua, Plutella xylostella, Pieris rapae, Agrotis ypsilon, Euxoa segetumetc. The insect host invariably dies when the juvenile nematode completes its parasitic development and exits from the host's hemocoel's hemocoel. There is an important significance for studying the mass cultivation of O. sinensis for field trials. This paper describes the techniques of in vitro cultivation of O. sinensis.   Gravid females of O. sinensis collected from sand were washed three times with an antibiotic solution of 200 U penicillin/ml and 200 μg/ml streptomycin/ml per ml solution. Surface washed gravid female were placed in 25 ml culture tubes containing 1~10 ml deionized water, 100 U penicillin/ml, and 100 μg streptomycin /ml for oviposition. Eggs were collected and their surface were sterilized by immersing them for 5~10 min in 0.13%~0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution and rinsing four times with sterile distilled water. Surface sterilized eggs were incubated at 26±1℃ in the culture media. The preparasites which emerged from those eggs were utilized for culture work. The four media were

  16. IN VITRO CULTIVATION OF THE ENTOMOGENOUS NEMATODE OVOMERMIS SINENSIS%中华卵索线虫的体外培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国秀; 陈曲侯; 陈果

    2001-01-01

    在研究中华卵索线虫的体外培养方法的同时,对其在不同培养基中的生长发育情况进行了观察。结果表明:以培养基TC-199加20%热灭活胎牛血清的培养效果较为理想,大多数线虫可存活3个月,最大虫体长55.1 mm、宽204.13 μm,其发育程度大致与该种索线虫在宿主粘虫体内寄生8~9天的情况相近。培养期间观察到2次蜕皮:第一次蜕皮在卵内,第二次在培养6~8天之后。口针消失,虫体内滋养物体发育明显,尾部附器已经形成,没有观察到生殖原基的发育。%The insectparasitic nematode, Ovomermis sinensis Chenet al, 1991 has the potential for the biological control of a range of insect pests due to many insect sep ecies are susceptible to this nematode. For example Leucania separata, Helioth is armigera, Prodenia litura, Spodoptera exigua, Plutella xylostella, Pieris rapae, Agrotis ypsilon, Euxoa segetumetc. The insect host invariably dies when the juvenile nematode completes its parasitic development and exits from the host's hemocoel's hemocoel. There is an important significance for studying the mass cultivation of O. sinensis for field trials. This paper describes the techniques of in vitro cultivation of O. sinensis.   Gravid females of O. sinensis collected from sand were washed three times with an antibiotic solution of 200 U penicillin/ml and 200 μg/ml streptomycin/ml per ml solution. Surface washed gravid female were placed in 25 ml culture tubes containing 1~10 ml deionized water, 100 U penicillin/ml, and 100 μg streptomycin /ml for oviposition. Eggs were collected and their surface were sterilized by immersing them for 5~10 min in 0.13%~0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution and rinsing four times with sterile distilled water. Surface sterilized eggs were incubated at 26±1℃ in the culture media. The preparasites which emerged from those eggs were utilized for culture work. The four media were