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Sample records for agrotis ipsilon hufnagel

  1. EFEITO DE ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS CÍTRICOS SOBRE Agrotis ipsilon (HUFNAGEL (LEPIDOPTERA:NOCTUIDAE

    Ingrid Schimidt Kaiser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas inseticidas é cada vez mais frequente no controle de pragas. As plantas podem produzir diferentes compostos com atividade inseticida. Os óleos essenciais destacam-se dentre estes compostos, possuindo diferentes modos de ação inseticida, podendo ser uma ferramenta útil no manejo integrado de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito de óleos essenciais cítricos e seu composto majoritário D-limonemo visando sua adoção como métodos alternativos de controle de Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Para a realização do experimento foram utilizadas 50 lagartas de 1º ínstar por tratamento. Foram aplicados os óleos essenciais com auxilio do aerógrafo, sendo utilizado na concentração de 10% v v-1 para os óleos cítricos e o D-limoneno e para testemunha foi pulverizado água destilada. A avaliação foi realizada após 24, 48 e 72 horas verificando o número de lagartas mortas. Não foi observado efeito tóxico dos óleos essenciais cítricos e do D-limoneno sobre as lagartas de A. ipsilon. Deste modo, os óleos essenciais testados não são eficazes no controle da praga.

  2. Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of selected plant oils on black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antifeedant, insecticidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globules and gaultheria oil (Gaultheria procumbens L. against black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon. Methods: Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil and gaultheria oil were tested against black cutworm, A. ipsilon. Results: Significant antifeedant activity was found in eucalyptus oil (96.24% where as the highest insecticidal activity was noticed in gaultheria oil (86.92%. Percentages of deformities were highest on gaultheria oil treated larvae and percentage of adult emergence was deteriorated also by gaultheria oil. Conclusions: These plants oil has potential to serve as an alternative eco-friendly control of insect pest.

  3. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae); Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de acucares soluveis sobre populacoes de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) e Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Pinheiral, RJ (Brazil). Pro-Reitoria de Extensao], e-mail: edsonhenrique.azeredo@bol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Centro Integrado de Manejo de Pragas C.R.G.

    2004-03-15

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha{sup -1} of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha{sup -1}, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  4. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de; Lima, Eduardo; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha -1 of N + K with 27.03% at P -1 , in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  5. Activity of wild-type and hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins against Agrotis ipsilon

    Maagd, de R.A.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Molthoff, J.W.; Naimov, S.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Cry1 and two Cry9 ?-endotoxins fromBacillus thuringiensis were tested for their activity against black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon).A. ipsilon was not susceptible to many toxins, but three toxins had significant activity. Cry9Ca was the most toxic, followed by Cry1Aa and Cry1Fb. Hybrids between

  6. Mating Competitiveness of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Irradiated as Parental Pupae

    El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Ibrahim, S.M.; El-Shall, S.S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studied were carried out to evaluate the mating competitiveness of P 1 and F 1 generations of Agrotis ipsilon when irradiated as full grown pupae with 75 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation. The mating competitiveness values showed that either males or females of P 1 or F 1 generation were full competitive after treatment with 75 or 150 Gy at all released ratios. Mating competitiveness of both irradiated males and females was also studied to avoid problems concerning mass sexing. The results revealed that confining both sexes together gave an excellent results for population suppression in both P 1 and F 1 in both tested doses and ratios. The addition of irradiated females to the release ratio make these females encountered in mating with untreated females, and possessed 78% of all matings occurred in parent generation in the two tested doses at 5:5:1 ratio and increased to reach 88% by F 1 females 75 Gy while it was reduced to only 31% at 150 Gy, but still act in mating

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on the development and reproduction of the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

    H.M. Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three substerilizing doses 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were tested against full – grown male and female pupae or against full-grown male or female pupae of Agrotis ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The decrease in egg – hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma radiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose level. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with the increase of used doses. In addition, larval and pupal durations were found to be significantly prolonged as a result of gamma- irradiation treatment. In general, the results obtained indicated that the biological action of gamma irradiation against A. ipsilon larvae was more remarkable when both crossed females and males were irradiated followed by irradiated females crossed with non-irradiated males.

  8. Biology and fertility life table of Agrotis ipsilon on artificial diet; Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Agrotis ipsilon em dieta artificial

    Bento, Flavia de Moura Manoel; Fortes, Priscila; Zerio, Neide Graciano; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: flaviam@esalq.usp.br, pfortes@esalq.usp.br, ngzerio@esalq.usp.br, jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Magro, Sandra Regina [Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Fernandopolis, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sandra.magro@gmail.com

    2007-10-15

    The objective of this work was to develop an artificial diet to rear Agrotis ipsilon in laboratory using biological parameters and fertility life table. The artificial diet was prepared with bean, casein, soybean protein, yeast and wheat germ as protein sources. The biological aspects duration and viability of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, life span of adults, preoviposition period, egg laying capacity and fertility life table were evaluated. Six larval instars were observed comprising larval duration of 28,4 days and 93% of viability mean pupal duration of 12,4 days and viability of 96%. The total viability of the life cycle was 72%. The pupae weight was 387 mg for males and 484 mg for females. The sex ratio was 0,46 and the preoviposition period lasted one day and egg laying was 1,806 eggs per female. The net reproductive rate per generation and increase finite rate were 616,9 and 1,14, respectively. Artificial diet is adequate for rearing A. ipsilon in laboratory. (author)

  9. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...

  10. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Agrotis ipsilon em dieta artificial Biology and fertility life table of Agrotis ipsilon on artificial diet

    Flavia de Moura Manoel Bento

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma dieta artificial para criação de Agrotis ipsilon em laboratório com base em parâmetros biológicos e na tabela de vida de fertilidade. A dieta artificial utilizada continha feijão, caseína, proteína de soja, levedura e germe de trigo como fontes protéicas. Os parâmetros biológicos duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupas, de ambos os sexos, com 24 horas de idade, razão sexual, longevidade dos adultos, período de pré-oviposição e número de ovos produzidos por fêmea e a tabela de vida de fertilidade foram avaliados. Foram observados seis ínstares larvais com duração de 25,4 dias e viabilidade de 93%. A duração da fase pupal foi de 12,4 dias e viabilidade de 96%. A viabilidade de ciclo total foi 72%. O peso de pupas foi 387 mg (machos e 484 mg (fêmeas. A razão sexual foi 0,46. O período de pré-oviposição foi de um dia, com 1.806 ovos por fêmea. Na tabela de vida verificou-se que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram 616,9 e 1,14, respectivamente. A dieta artificial é adequada à manutenção da criação de A. ipsilon, em laboratório.The objective of this work was to develop an artificial diet to rear Agrotis ipsilon in laboratory using biological parameters and fertility life table. The artificial diet was prepared with bean, casein, soybean protein, yeast and wheat germ as protein sources. The biological aspects duration and viability of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, life span of adults, preoviposition period, egg laying capacity and fertility life table were evaluated. Six larval instars were observed comprising larval duration of 28,4 days and 93% of viability mean pupal duration of 12,4 days and viability of 96%. The total viability of the life cycle was 72%. The pupae weight was 387 mg for males and 484 mg for females. The sex ratio was 0,46 and the preoviposition period lasted one day and egg

  11. Studies on the effects of gamma irradiation of the black cutworm agrotis ipsilon (HUFN.)

    Ibrahim, S M

    1982-12-31

    The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), special attention was given to the sterilization studies in the hope of promoting the sterile insect technique for the pest control programme. The obtained results could be summarized as follows: Three ages of eggs were irradiated as newly laid egg (6-12 h-old), middle age egg (24-36 h -old) and old egg(60-72 h -old). - The mortality among irradiated eggs was directly related to the increase of irradiation dose or the decrease of the age of treated eggs. - The dose of irradiation required for complete mortality was found to be 5,25 and 70 Krad for newly laid eggs, middle age and old eggs, respectively, - Irradiation of eggs had no effect on the incubation period. 17 tabs., 125 refs.

  12. Studies on the effects of gamma irradiation of the black cutworm agrotis ipsilon (HUFN.)

    Ibrahim, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), special attention was given to the sterilization studies in the hope of promoting the sterile insect technique for the pest control programme. The obtained results could be summarized as follows: Three ages of eggs were irradiated as newly laid egg (6-12 h-old), middle age egg (24-36 h -old) and old egg(60-72 h -old). - The mortality among irradiated eggs was directly related to the increase of irradiation dose or the decrease of the age of treated eggs. - The dose of irradiation required for complete mortality was found to be 5,25 and 70 Krad for newly laid eggs, middle age and old eggs, respectively, - Irradiation of eggs had no effect on the incubation period

  13. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect

    Yongqiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants.

  14. Biology and fertility life table of Agrotis ipsilon on artificial diet

    Bento, Flavia de Moura Manoel; Fortes, Priscila; Zerio, Neide Graciano; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an artificial diet to rear Agrotis ipsilon in laboratory using biological parameters and fertility life table. The artificial diet was prepared with bean, casein, soybean protein, yeast and wheat germ as protein sources. The biological aspects duration and viability of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, life span of adults, preoviposition period, egg laying capacity and fertility life table were evaluated. Six larval instars were observed comprising larval duration of 28,4 days and 93% of viability mean pupal duration of 12,4 days and viability of 96%. The total viability of the life cycle was 72%. The pupae weight was 387 mg for males and 484 mg for females. The sex ratio was 0,46 and the preoviposition period lasted one day and egg laying was 1,806 eggs per female. The net reproductive rate per generation and increase finite rate were 616,9 and 1,14, respectively. Artificial diet is adequate for rearing A. ipsilon in laboratory. (author)

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on reproductive potential of the black cut worm, agrotis ipsilon (hufn. )

    Sallam, H A; Elnagar, S; Ibrahim, S M

    1991-01-01

    Full grown pupae of the black cut worm, agrotis ipsilon were irradiated with 5, 10, 15, 30 and 35 krad of gamma radiation for males and with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 krad for females. The emerged adults were paired with the untreated opposite sex. Both the percentage of mated females and the average number of spermatophores per mated female decreased by irradiating male pupae with 20 krad and above. percentage of inseminated mated females decreased at the dose 15 krad and the reduction increased with increasing the gamma dose. Fecundity of female paired with irradiated male was decreased gradually with increasing the dose. A severe reduction in fecundity was obtained, in the case of irradiated female pupae. Egg hatch was also dose dependent, as it decreased with the increase in the radiation dose. Females were more radiosensitive than males, as far as reduction in hatchability was concerned. The sterilizing doses ranged between 30-35 and 15-20 krad for males and females, respectively.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on reproductive potential of the black cut worm, agrotis ipsilon (hufn.)

    Sallam, H.A.; Elnagar, S.; Ibrahim, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Full grown pupae of the black cut worm, agrotis ipsilon were irradiated with 5, 10, 15, 30 and 35 krad of gamma radiation for males and with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 krad for females. The emerged adults were paired with the untreated opposite sex. Both the percentage of mated females and the average number of spermatophores per mated female decreased by irradiating male pupae with 20 krad and above. percentage of inseminated mated females decreased at the dose 15 krad and the reduction increased with increasing the gamma dose. Fecundity of female paired with irradiated male was decreased gradually with increasing the dose. A severe reduction in fecundity was obtained, in the case of irradiated female pupae. Egg hatch was also dose dependent, as it decreased with the increase in the radiation dose. Females were more radiosensitive than males, as far as reduction in hatchability was concerned. The sterilizing doses ranged between 30-35 and 15-20 krad for males and females, respectively

  17. Pathogencity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

    A. Gabarty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy (SEM allowed observing Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on Agrotis ipsilon larvae. SEM of A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appearing. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliae as declared by SEM showed a dense network together and cause the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is allowed tool to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  18. effect of gamma radiation and some plant extracts on the black cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (Hufn.)

    Sileem, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    the present study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma radiation and plant extracts separately or combined on certain biological and histological aspects of the black cut worm agrotis ipsilon (Hufn). , throughout two successive generations. this work comprised the study of effects of two low doses 75 and 150 Gy) of gamma irradiation as well as two species of plant extracts(M.azedarach and S. terebinthifolius). special stress was given to study the reproductive biology and the histological changes in the gonads of the parental adult males . parental adult females and their f1 generation. - effect of gamma irradiation on p1 and f1 generation: 1. when full grown male pupae were irradiated with the doses of 75 or 150, the number of deposited eggs per mated female was not significantly affected among p1 generations at the two tested radiation doses while it was significantly affected among f1 generation. 2. the eg hatchability percentage among p1 and f1 generations was significantly reduced by increasing the radiation dose applied to p1 male. 3. the two tested doses of gamma irradiation (75 and 150 Gy) did not clearly affect the percentage of mated females among p1 and f1 generations. 4. the average number of spermatophores per mated female was not evidently different from the control.-effect of plant extracts on p1 and f1 generations:1)effect of petroleum ether (p.t) extract treatment on certain biological aspects. 2) effect of acetone extracts treatment on certain biological aspects.3)effect o plant extracts on reproductive biology through p1 generation.4)effect of plant extracts on the reproductive biology through f1 generation.3. the combined effects of irradiation and plant extracts.4.histological effects of different treatments on on gonads of adult and females

  19. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Leaves Extract of Barnoof Plant on Larval Development of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufngel)

    Mohamed, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiating parental male full grown pupae agrotis ipsilon with the two sub sterile doses 100 and 150 Gray (Gy) followed by treated F1 4 th instar larvae with three concentrations of the barnoof plant leaves extract (0,15000 and 30000 ppm) or each of them alone were studied. the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and the barnoof plant extract to F1 larvae had a deleterious effects on average larval duration, average weight of last larval instar, total morality, pupation, adult emergence and survival when compared with the effect of gamma irradiation or plant leaves extract which of them alone. gamma irradiation increased the susceptibility of F 1 Larvae descendant from irradiated parental male pupae with 100 and 150 Gy to the barnoof plant leaves extract. A gradual increase in susceptibility was noticed as the dose of radiation increase. the efficiency of gamma irradiation and/or plant leaves extract to inhibit the 4 th instar larvae of A-. ipsilon was evaluated. the results showed highly toxic effect to the 4 th instar larvae at the two concentrations (15000 and 30000 ppm). on the other hand the dose 150 Gy combined with 30000 ppm of plant extract treatment (Acetone or petroleum ether solvents) had highly effect on the 4 th instar larvae as compared with the other treatments

  20. Molecular characterization and differential expression of olfactory genes in the antennae of the black cutworm moth Agrotis ipsilon.

    Shao-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Insects use their sensitive and selective olfactory system to detect outside chemical odorants, such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Several groups of olfactory proteins participate in the odorant detection process, including odorant binding proteins (OBPs, chemosensory proteins (CSPs, odorant receptors (ORs, ionotropic receptors (IRs and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs. The identification and functional characterization of these olfactory proteins will enhance our knowledge of the molecular basis of insect chemoreception. In this study, we report the identification and differential expression profiles of these olfactory genes in the black cutworm moth Agrotis ipsilon. In total, 33 OBPs, 12 CSPs, 42 ORs, 24 IRs, 2 SNMPs and 1 gustatory receptor (GR were annotated from the A. ipsilon antennal transcriptomes, and further RT-PCR and RT-qPCR revealed that 22 OBPs, 3 CSPs, 35 ORs, 14 IRs and the 2 SNMPs are uniquely or primarily expressed in the male and female antennae. Furthermore, one OBP (AipsOBP6 and one CSP (AipsCSP2 were exclusively expressed in the female sex pheromone gland. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs were suggested to be responsible for pheromone and general odorant detection and thus could be meaningful target genes for us to study their biological functions in vivo and in vitro.

  1. effect of gamma radiation and parasitic nematodes on the black cut-worm agrotis ipsilon(HUFN)

    Sileem, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) after gamma sterilization with at 0, 75, 100,125, 150,175 and 200 Gy, to identify the dose of gamma irradiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. The studied effects were included the percentage mated males with untreated females, copulation duration to format spermatophores directly in the female bursa copulatrix, number of eggs /female deposited by females mated to irradiated males and egg hatch through three sequential females.The irradiated males with tested doses as well as untreated control were tested for mating successive and starting copulation at the same period of the scotophase. The mating competitiveness calculated from the direct observation in A. ipsilon males emerged from pupae irradiated at doses 75 to 200 Gy was noticed. The effect of substerilizing dose (125Gy) on certain biological aspects and reproduction was studied among parental generation, as well as immature stages were investigated throughout two successive generations. The influence of two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrivae on the insect management was included. Special attention was given to combined effect of F1 progeny of partially sterile males and S. Carpocapsae (All) on A .ipsilon, the combination of tested treatments at all concentrations analyzed for synergistic effect. The parasitisation efficacy of EPNs, the morbidity and mortality induced by normal IJs (i.e., IJs derived from untreated host) and the incubation time taken by normal IJs were compared with these of IJs derived from irradiated host with 125 Gy

  2. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Cyantraniliprole on the Development, Fecundity and Nutritional Physiology of the Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Chunmei Xu

    Full Text Available To better understand the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, several studies were carried out to investigate sublethal effects on development stages, population parameters, feeding indices and nutrient content of A. ipsilon. The result of a bioassay showed that cyantraniliprole had high toxicity against A. ipsilon fourth-instar larvae with an LC50 of 0.354 μg.g-1 using an artificial diet. Compared with controls, sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole at LC5, LC20 and LC40 levels prolonged larval and pupal duration and extended mean generation time and total preovipositional period. In addition, survival rate, reproductive value, intrinsic and finite rates of increase and net reproduction rate declined significantly. Meanwhile, cyantraniliprole had markedly antifeedant effects; decreased the relative growth rate (RGR, the relative consumption rate (RCR, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI, the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD; and increased the approximate digestibility (AD significantly. This phenomenon contributed to the decrease of nutrient contents, including lipids, protein and carbohydrates, to the point that insufficient energy was available for normal growth. Therefore, sublethal concentrations of cyantraniliprole decreased growth speed and reduced population reproduction of A. ipsilon. This result provides information useful in integrated pest management (IPM programs for A. ipsilon.

  3. Histological Changes in Sex Pheromone Gland of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Females Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    Ibrahim, S.M.; Abd El Hamid, W.A.; Elbolok, M.M.; Elshabrawy, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The pheromone gland of Agrotis ipsilon(Hufn.) untreated adult female is simple closed ring shaped where the glandular epithelium of the abdomen of abdominal fold between the 8th and 9th segment is slightly investigate inside the body cavity. The scent gland as a characteristic tuft of modified scales or hairs which are thin and smooth covering the whole surface of the 9th of the abdominal segment in which the scent gland is located. The histological study of gamma irradiated sex pheromone of the black cut worm female showed that: 1. When 50 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be separated from each other, vacuoles where appeared among them. 2. When 100 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be irregular in shape and some vacuoles were found, the cuticle was also ruptured in some parts. 3. When 150 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium was irregular and vacuoles were obviously found. The cuticle appeared abnormal in some parts and oil drops were decreased

  4. First report of detection of the putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Vip3Aa from black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon

    Gamal H. Osman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Black cutworm (BCW Agrotis ipsilon, an economically important lepidopteran insect, has attracted a great attention. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt is spore forming soil bacteria and is an excellent environment-friendly approach for the control of phytophagous and disease-transmitting insects. In fact, bio-pesticide formulations and insect resistant transgenic plants based on the bacterium Bt delta-endotoxin have attracted worldwide attention as a safer alternative to harmful chemical pesticides. The major objective of the current study was to understand the mechanism of interaction of Bt toxin with its receptor molecule(s. The investigation involved the isolation, identification, and characterization of a putative receptor – vip3Aa. In addition, the kinetics of vip toxin binding to its receptor molecule was also studied. The present data suggest that Vip3Aa toxin bound specifically with high affinity to a 48-kDa protein present at the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV prepared from the midgut epithelial cells of BCW larvae. Keywords: Receptor, vip3Aa, Bacillus thuringiensis, BBMV

  5. Biological and physiological studies on the effect of some botanical oils and gamma irradiation on the Greasy Cut Worm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUF)

    EL- Wahed Ali, A G.A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon ( Lepidoptera-Noctuidae ) is a serious pest for the seedlings of most crops such as cotton, maize, beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, chinese broccoli, chinese cabbage, Chinese spinach, corn, eggplant, flowering white cabbage, green beans, head cabbage, lettuce, mustard cabbage, potato, spinach, sugarcane, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, as well as many other plants. An extensive listing of hosts of the greasy cutworm may be found in (Rings et al. 1975). The extensive and continuous use of synthetic pesticides in control of agricultural pests have created many problems, one of them is the incapability of toxic agents in controlling the target pests at the recommended doses. Therefore, it was of great interest to investigate some alternative methods as substitutes for insecticides in the control of this pest. Among these methods, is the irradiation, plant extracts and oils. Irradiation techniques seem to offer solutions that are desirable in many aspects, contributing that this treatment should eventually prove to be cheaper, safer and more reliable than chemical control. Irradiation shortens life span of insects (Baxter and Blair, 1969), possibly by accelerating senescence (Aly et al., 1996). Irradiation may also cause protein denaturation, which may impair enzyme activity (Ljubenov and Andreev, 1974) and (Tribe and Webb, 1979 a, b, c). According to (Kinipling, 1955), insect exposure to ionizing radiation causes sterilization through induction of dominates lethal mutation in the genetic structure of organisms. This technique to be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including Agrotis ipsilon has been studied.

  6. Biological and physiological studies on the effect of some botanical oils and gamma irradiation on the Greasy Cut Worm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUF)

    EL- Wahed Ali, A.G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon ( Lepidoptera-Noctuidae ) is a serious pest for the seedlings of most crops such as cotton, maize, beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, chinese broccoli, chinese cabbage, Chinese spinach, corn, eggplant, flowering white cabbage, green beans, head cabbage, lettuce, mustard cabbage, potato, spinach, sugarcane, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, as well as many other plants. An extensive listing of hosts of the greasy cutworm may be found in (Rings et al. 1975). The extensive and continuous use of synthetic pesticides in control of agricultural pests have created many problems, one of them is the incapability of toxic agents in controlling the target pests at the recommended doses. Therefore, it was of great interest to investigate some alternative methods as substitutes for insecticides in the control of this pest. Among these methods, is the irradiation, plant extracts and oils. Irradiation techniques seem to offer solutions that are desirable in many aspects, contributing that this treatment should eventually prove to be cheaper, safer and more reliable than chemical control. Irradiation shortens life span of insects (Baxter and Blair, 1969), possibly by accelerating senescence (Aly et al., 1996). Irradiation may also cause protein denaturation, which may impair enzyme activity (Ljubenov and Andreev, 1974) and (Tribe and Webb, 1979 a, b, c). According to (Kinipling, 1955), insect exposure to ionizing radiation causes sterilization through induction of dominates lethal mutation in the genetic structure of organisms. This technique to be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including Agrotis ipsilon has been studied

  7. Different Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on Midgut Cell Transmembrane Potential of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon Larvae

    Yingying Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry toxins from the Cry1A family demonstrate significantly different toxicities against members of the family Noctuidae for unknown reasons. In this study, membrane potential was measured and analyzed in freshly isolated midgut samples from Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae under oral administration and in vitro incubation with Bt toxin Cry1Ab to elucidate the mechanism of action for further control of these pests. Bioassay results showed that the larvae of M. separata achieved a LD50 of 258.84 ng/larva at 24 h after ingestion; M. separata larvae were at least eightfold more sensitive than A. ipsilon larvae to Cry1Ab. Force-feeding showed that the observed midgut apical-membrane potential (Vam of M. separata larvae was significantly depolarized from −82.9 ± 6.6 mV to −19.9 ± 7.2 mV at 8 h after ingestion of 1 μg activated Cry1Ab, whereas no obvious changes were detected in A. ipsilon larvae with dosage of 5 μg Cry1Ab. The activated Cry1Ab caused a distinct concentration-dependent depolarization of the apical membrane; Vam was reduced by 50% after 14.7 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.6 min of treatment with 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL Cry1Ab, respectively. Cry1Ab showed a minimal effect on A. ipsilon larvae even at 20 μg/mL, and Vam decreased by 26.3% ± 2.3% after 15 min. The concentrations of Cry1Ab displayed no significant effect on the basolateral side of the epithelium. The Vam of A. ipsilon (−33.19 ± 6.29 mV, n = 51 was only half that of M. separata (−80.94 ± 6.95 mV, n = 75. The different degrees of sensitivity to Cry1Ab were speculatively associated with various habits, as well as the diverse physiological or biochemical characteristics of the midgut cell membranes.

  8. The Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Plant Extract (Barnoof) on the Nutritional Profile to the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.)

    El-Naggar, S. E. M.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Mohamed, H. F.

    2004-01-01

    The combined effect of two sub sterilizing doses 100 and 150 Gray (Gy) of gamma irradiation and plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) on Ten day old larvae of F1 generation of Agrotis ipsilon in on their ability to consume, digest and utilize food was studied. Gamma irradiation alone reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the larvae as compared to unirradiated ones. Also, the utilization efficiency was more significantly decreased at dose level 150 Gy than at the dose level 100 Gy and leading to a reduction in weight gain. The effect of plant extract (Barnoof) alone was not significantly difference at the two tested concentration 1.5 and 3 % by the solvent (Petroleum ether) treatment. The combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract (on F1 larvae) were significantly decreased the growth rate of the larvae than the treatment of them alone when compared with the untreated larvae. Also, the combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract were significantly decreased the utilization of food as indicated by determining both efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.) and digested food (E.C.D.) to body matter. (authors)

  9. Nutritional and histopathological studies on Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) fed on irradiated Canola and bean plants

    Rizk, S.A.; Mansour, W.; Abdel-Hamid, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The black cutworm (fifth instar) were fed on leaves of canola and bean plants irradiated as seeds at the dose levels 10, 20 and 30 Gy. Their effects on food utilization, consumption, digestion and on the mid gut were detected. It was noticed that using irradiated bean and canola plants leads to decrease in values of consumption index and growth rate than control. Also, approximate digest ability (A.D), efficiency of conversion of digested food (E.C.D) and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I) were also less than control in most treatments. A. ipsilon larvae fed on bean and canola plants gamma irradiated at the dose levels 10 and 30 Gy in both bean and canola plants, respectively, caused some histopathological changes such as separation of muscle layers, breakdown of epithelium with the appearance of some gaps as well as disintegration of epithelial cells and appearance of vacuoles

  10. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  11. Seleção e caracterização de estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis tóxicas a Agrotis ipsilon - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v8i2.1142

    Rafael Silva Menezes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, conhecida como lagarta rosca, é uma praga polífaga e cosmopolita, causadora de sérios danos em cultivos hortícolas e em sistemas de produção de grãos. Uma das alternativas para o combate a esta praga pode ser a utilização de produtos a base de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, bactéria aeróbica, Gram positiva, caracterizada pela produção proteínas tóxicas a insetos. A Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia possui uma coleção de cerca de 2.300 estirpes de Bt. Neste trabalho cem estirpes desta coleção foram testadas para controle de A. ipsilon e destas, nove foram bastante tóxicas. Essas estirpes pertencem aos sorotipos kurstaki, aizawai, sotto e galleriae. A análise molecular e protéica mostrou a presença dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B, cry1C, cry1F, cry2 e cry11 e suas respectivas proteínas, indicando serem elas as proteínas envolvidas na atividade tóxica das estirpes selecionadas.

  12. Molecular characterization of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus from Poland

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Oers, van M.M.; Ziemnicka, J.; Lipa, J.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is an important pest insect in Europe, Asia, and Africa. We have genetically characterized and classified a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from A. segetum larvae in Poland (AgseNPV-P). The restriction pattern of AgseNPV-P was distinct from an

  13. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  14. Phenology and pest status of Agrotis segetum in a changing climate

    Esbjerg, Peter; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Insects are strongly dependent on climatic factors, especially temperature. For this reason, changes in insect phenology are predicted to be one of the many effects of climate change. We analysed the effect of climate warming on Agrotis segetum (Denis & Schiffermüller) in Denmark. Agrotis segetum...

  15. Combined and separated effects of gamma irradiation and bifuran plant extract on the dietary profile of the black cutworm, agitators ipsilon (Hun.) 1- treatment of the eight days old larvae

    El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Mohamed, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    The combined and separate effects of two sub sterilizing doses 100 or 150 Gy of gamma irradiation and the plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) on eight days- old larvae of F1 generation of Agrotis ipsilon as to their ability to consume, digest and utilize food were studied. Gamma irradiation alone reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the larvae as compared to non-irradiated ones. Also, the utilization efficiency was decreased more significantly at the dose level 150 Gy than at the dose level 100 Gy leading to a reduction in weight gain. The effect of plant extract (Barnoof) alone was non-significantly different at the two tested concentrations 1.5 or 3 % by the solvent (Petroleum ether) treatment. The combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract on F1 larvae significantly decreased the growth rate of the larvae than when treating them alone as compared to the untreated larvae. Also, the combined effects of gamma radiation and plant extract significantly decreased the utilization of food as indicated by determining both efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.) and digested food (E.C.D.) to body matters

  16. Insecticidal activity of bio-oils and biochar as pyrolysis products and their combination with microbial agents against Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Pyrolysis technology for producing biochar and bio-oils can be used as a potential alternative to make biopesticides, which are urgently needed in integrated pest management (IPM). Insecticidal activity of three components of bio-oils: aqueous, organic and their mixture, was evaluated individually a...

  17. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Agrotis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Description of a new species of the genus Agrotis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Germán San Blas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Noctuidae: Agrotis leucovenata sp. nov. Esta se distribuye en la estepa patagónica de la provincia de Neuquén, en Argentina. Se discuten los caracteres propios de la nueva especie, que la diferencian de otras especies similares del género.Agrotis leucovenata sp. nov., a new species of Noctuidae, is described and illustrated. This species is distributed in the Patagonian steppe of Neuquén province, Argentina. Characteristic traits of the new species which differentiate it from similar species of the genus are discussed.

  18. Life cycle of Agrotis malefida (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: a diapausing cutworm

    Alexandre Specht

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the life cycle of Agrotis malefida Guenée, 1852 (Noctuidae: Noctuinae under laboratory conditions. The insects were reared in a controlled environment (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours photo phase and observed daily. The larvae were fed Greene's artificial diet and adults were offered a 10% sucrose solution. The viability and duration of immature stages were assessed. The experiment initiated with 2,410 eggs. Larvae were isolated shortly after hatching. Longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition, fecundity and fertility of 13 adult couples were also evaluated. The viability of eggs, larvae, pupae and pre-pupae was 96.72, 91.25, 78.37 and 95.26%, respectively. The average duration of egg, larva, pre-pupa, pupa and adult was 7.93, 54.26, 61.61, 37.43 and 12.85 days, respectively. The immature stage of A. malefida lasted an average of 161.29 days, ranging from 102 to 227 days. The life cycle of A. malefida is much longer than that of congeners. The mean fecundity was 1,696.77 eggs and fertility 1,641.15 larvae per female. Under the conditions in which the study was conducted, the biotic potential of A. malefida was of 606,666.59 individuals/female/year. The results also indicated that this species goes through larval (pre-pupae and pupal diapause.

  19. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Agrotis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    SAN BLAS Germán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Noctuidae: Agrotis leucovenata sp. nov. Esta se distribuye en la estepa patagónica de la provincia de Neuquén, en Argentina. Se discuten los caracteres propios de la nueva especie, que la diferencian de otras especies similares del género.

  20. Genome sequence of an enhancin gene-rich nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) from Agrotis segetum: collinearity with Spodoptera exigua multiple NPV

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Peters, S.A.; Ziemnicka, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genome sequence of a Polish isolate of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgseNPV-A) was determined and analysed. The circular genome is composed of 147 544 bp and has a G+C content of 45¿7 mol%. It contains 153 putative, non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) encoding predicted proteins

  1. Host-range expansion of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus to Agrotis segetum larvae when the midgut is bypassed

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Lynn, D.E.; Herrero, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high similarity in genome content and organization between Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgseNPV), as well as the high percentages of similarity found between their 30 core genes, the specificity of these NPVs was

  2. Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus is not infectious for Agrotis segetum larvae per os, but only after intrahemocoelic injection

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Ince, I.A.; Herrero, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and Agrotis segetum NPV are close relatives, but distinct baculovirus species. Their genomic organization is remarkably similar. The cross infectivity of these two viruses for S. exigua and A. segetum larvae has been analyzed. AgseNPV was able

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on potato cutworm Agrotis segetum Schiffer-Mueller

    Bhagat, R M; Kumar, A [Himachal Pradesh Univ., Simla (India). Dept. of Bio-sciences

    1982-11-01

    Larvae of Agrotis segetum were collected from potato fields. The larvae were kept in petri dishes in an incubator, under controlled conditions of temperature (27 +- 0.5 /sup 0/C) and an alternate photoperiod (12L : 12 D). The larvae were fed on fresh potato leaves. Fifth instar larvae from laboratory-reared insects (after third generation) were gamma irradiated at different doses of 0, 50, 100 and 150 Gy. For each dose 20 larvae were irradiated and daily observations were made on postirradiation mortality. Similarly 5 day old pupae from laboratory-reared insects were irradiated at doses of 0, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy. For each dose 20 pupae were irradiated and adults which emerged out were mated with normal females to see the egg laying and their hatchability percentage. The mortality as well as the number of eggs laid and the hatchability percentage were dose-dependent. A sterility dose is proposed between 50-75 Gy in 5 day old pupae.

  4. Annual Migration of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Observed on a Small Isolated Island in Northern China.

    Jianglong Guo

    Full Text Available Migration behavior of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is not well known by far. Here, we present the data from an 11-year study on A. segetum by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection on Beihuang (BH Island, which located in the center of the Bohai Strait in northern China. The data showed a large number of A. segetum flight across the strait each year, which provides direct evidence that A. segetum is a long-distance migrant, migrating at least 40-60 km to reach the trapping site. The migration period during 2003-2013 ranged from 115 to 172 d. Among the catches, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males in each month from May to September. Ovarian dissection showed that the proportion of mated females and the proportion of sexually mature females was significantly higher than that of unmated females and sexually immature females in early summer, respectively, but conversely in autumn. The early summer populations migrate in a south-north direction, which might undertake a long-distance flight on several successive nights. The autumn populations migrate in a north-south direction, which might originate not far from the trapping site. Based on these findings, the migratory physiology of A. segetum was discussed.

  5. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Eric Warrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes

  6. Analysis of the Agrotis segetum pheromone gland transcriptome in the light of sex pheromone biosynthesis.

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Löfstedt, Christer

    2015-09-18

    Moths rely heavily on pheromone communication for mate finding. The pheromone components of most moths are modified from the products of normal fatty acid metabolism by a set of tissue-specific enzymes. The turnip moth, Agrotis segetum uses a series of homologous fatty-alcohol acetate esters ((Z)-5-decenyl, (Z)-7-dodecenyl, and (Z)-9 tetradecenyl acetate) as its sex pheromone components. The ratio of the components differs between populations, making this species an interesting subject for studies of the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway and their influence on sex pheromone variation. Illumina sequencing and comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the pheromone gland and abdominal epidermal tissue, enabled us to identify genes coding for putative key enzymes involved in the pheromone biosynthetic pathway, such as fatty acid synthase, β-oxidation enzymes, fatty-acyl desaturases (FAD), fatty-acyl reductases (FAR), and acetyltransferases. We functionally assayed the previously identified ∆11-desaturase [GenBank: ES583599, JX679209] and FAR [GenBank: JX679210] and candidate acetyltransferases (34 genes) by heterologous expression in yeast. The functional assay confirmed that the ∆11-desaturase interacts with palmitate and produces (Z)-11-hexadecenoate, which is the common unsaturated precursor of three homologous pheromone component acetates produced by subsequent chain-shortening, reduction and acetylation. Much lower, but still visible, activity on 14C and 12C saturated acids may account for minor pheromone compounds previously observed in the pheromone gland. The FAR characterized can operate on various unsaturated fatty acids that are the immediate acyl precursors of the different A. segetum pheromone components. None of the putative acetyltransferases that we expressed heterologously did acetylate any of the fatty alcohols tested as substrates. The massive sequencing technology generates enormous amounts of candidate genes potentially

  7. Agrotis fatidica (Hübner, 1824 species-group revisited, with description of two new species from the Alps and the Pyrenees (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    László Ronkay

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrative taxonomic analysis of the European species of the Agrotis fatidica species-group is presented with special reference to the European sister taxa of A. fatidica (Hübner, 1824; in addition, a general overview of the entire species-group is given. The remarkable differences found in the barcodes of the Central and Western European populations of A. fatidica (sensu lato led us to recognise isolated species of the A. fatidica complex. Two new species, A. mayrorum sp. n. (Northern Italy and the French Alps and A. mazeli sp. n. (French Pyrenees are described. The neotype of A. fatidica is designated. Agrotis luehri von Mentzer & Moberg, 1987 is treated as a subspecies of A. fatidica (stat. n..

  8. Functional evolution of a multigene family: orthologous and paralogous pheromone receptor genes in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum.

    Dan-Dan Zhang

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs, for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z-5-decenyl, (Z-7-dodecenyl and (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z-5-decenyl acetate, (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and

  9. Sublethal effects of Cry 1F Bt corn and clothianidin on black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval development.

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Sears, Mark K; Schaafsma, Arthur W

    2011-04-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an occasional pest of maize (corn), Zea mays L., that may cause severe stand losses and injury to corn seedlings. The efficacy of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin at two commercially available rates and their interaction with a transgenic corn hybrid (Bt corn), trait expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis variety aizawai insecticidal toxin Cry 1Fa2, against black cutworm larvae was investigated. Clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) on Bt corn increased larval mortality and reduced larval weight gains additively. In contrast, weights of larvae fed non-Bt corn seedlings treated with clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) increased significantly, suggesting either compensatory overconsumption, hormesis, or hormoligosis. Both Bt corn alone and clothianidin at a rate of 125 mg kernel(-1) applied to non-Bt corn seedlings caused increased mortality and reduced larval weight gains. In two field trials, plots planted with Bt corn hybrids consistently had the highest plant populations and yields, regardless of whether they were treated with clothianidin at the lower commercial rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) The use of Bt corn alone or in combination with the low rate of clothianidin (25 mg kernel(-1)) seems suitable as a means of suppressing black cutworm in no-tillage cornfields, although rescue treatments may still be necessary under severe infestations. Clothianidin alone at the low rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) is not recommended for black cutworm control until further studies of its effects on larval physiology and field performance have been completed.

  10. Increased Risk of Insect Injury to Corn Following Rye Cover Crop.

    Dunbar, Mike W; O'Neal, Matthew E; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-08-01

    Decreased pest pressure is sometimes associated with more diverse agroecosystems, including the addition of a rye cover crop (Secale cereale L.). However, not all pests respond similarly to greater vegetational diversity. Polyphagous pests, such as true armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta Haworth), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel), and common stalk borer (Papaipema nebris Guenee), whose host range includes rye have the potential to cause injury to crops following a rye cover crop. The objectives of this study were to compare the abundance of early-season insect pests and injury to corn (Zea mays L.) from fields with and without a rye cover crop on commercial farms. Fields were sampled weekly to quantify adult and larval pests and feeding injury to corn plants from mid-April until corn reached V8 stage, during 2014 and 2015. Measurements within fields were collected along transects that extended perpendicularly from field edges into the interior of cornfields. Adult true armyworm and adult black cutworm were captured around all cornfields, but most lepidopteran larvae captured within cornfields were true armyworm and common stalk borer. Cornfields with a rye cover crop had significantly greater abundance of true armyworm and greater proportion of injured corn. Both true armyworm abundance and feeding injury were significantly greater in the interior of cornfields with rye. Common stalk borer abundance did not differ between cornfields with or without rye cover. Farmers planting corn following a rye cover crop should be aware of the potential for increased presence of true armyworm and for greater injury to corn. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Use of natural enemies and biorational pest control of corne

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the potential use of natural enemies and biorational insecticides for control of main pests of corn in thestate of Sinaloa is presented. A discuss on their composition, dosage, toxicity and type of effect on beneficial organisms(natural enemies and pollinators is too included. The work revealed that is possible implement the use of these natural enemies and products for the control of neonate larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda fall armyworm (J. E Smith with Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow (Samson; against thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande using the nematodes Steinernema riobravis (Cabanillas and Poinar, S. feltiae (Filipjev and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar at doses of 10,000 IJ (4x10 ~ IJ/m; against the corn silk fly Euxesta stigmatias (Loew encouraging the natural parasitism of Spalangia sp., while for the cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel can be with spinosad (soluble concentrate at doses of 0.123 kg a. i, and to the corn earwormHelicoverpa zea (Boddie using the analog of methoxyfenozide molting hormone (24% at 144 mg of a. i/L. The biorational control agents that not affect significantly to the natural enemies were the nucleopoliedrosis virus SfMNPV and SeMNPV; N. rileyi and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize; Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier; the azadirachtin (neem and parasitoids. In the case of products of chemical synthesis: Spinosad, oxymatrine and bifenthrin showed high rates of mortality in the control of corn pests, so these are considered as of high and moderate risk to Aphis mellifera (L. bees, the methoxyfenozide presented relatively low toxicity to natural enemies. In general, biorational products have repellent effect on larvae and adults of these insects, inhibit feeding and induce molting, also causing deformities and impede the development and growth, too interfere with sexual intercourse and copulate, reducing the oviposition, as well as cause sterility of adults, so these may also constitute a risk to

  12. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    Saour, G.

    1995-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are: 3 H, 14 Ca, 32 P, 35 S, 38 Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: 198 Au, 134 Cs, 131 I, 86 Rb, 65 Zn, 59 Fe, 45 Ca, 24 Na, 22 Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs

  13. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    Saour, G [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are:{sup 3}H, {sup 14}Ca, {sup 32}P, {sup 35}S, {sup 38}Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: {sup 198}Au, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 45}Ca, {sup 24}Na, {sup 22}Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs.

  14. Amélioration des activités insecticides des protéines Vip3 de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Sameh SELLAMI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vip3 proteins were considered as a second generation of biopesticides. They are synthesized and secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative growth phase. Vip3 proteins, which are discovered in 1990, are of great interest for the control of Lepidopteran insects pests such as Agrotis ipsilon, Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera frugiperda. Many researches were conducted on the Vip3 proteins in order to enlarge their spectrum, improve their insecticidal activities and resolve the problems of resistance that appeared recently after the massive use of δ-endotoxins, considered as first generation of biopesticides. In this review, we tried to summarize research studies interested in the improvement of the insecticidal activities of Vip3 proteins.

  15. Insight into the Mode of Action of Celangulin V on the Transmembrane Potential of Midgut Cells in Lepidopteran Larvae

    Yingying Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Celangulin V (CV is the main insecticidal constituent of Celastrus angulatus. The V-ATPase H subunit of the midgut cells of lepidopteran larvae is the putative target protein of CV. Here, we compared the effects of CV on the midgut membrane potentials of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae with those of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis and with those of inactive CV-MIA, a synthetic derivative of CV. We investigated the changes in the apical membrane potentials (Vam and basolateral membrane potentials (Vbm of the midguts of sixth-instar larvae force-fed with the test toxins. We also measured the Vam and Vbm of larval midguts that were directly incubated with the test toxins. Similar to the effect of Cry1Ab, the Vam of CV-treated midguts rapidly decayed over time in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, CV-MIA did not influence Vam. Meanwhile, the Vam of A. ipsilon larval midguts directly incubated with CV decayed less than that of M. separata larval midguts, whereas that of larvae force-fed with CV did not significantly change. Similar to Cry1Ab, CV did not affect the Vbm of isolated midguts. CV significantly inhibited V-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, CV initially inhibits V-ATPase in the apical membrane and affects intracellular pH, homeostasis, and nutrient transport mechanisms in lepidopteran midgut cells.

  16. Transgenic cotton coexpressing Vip3A and Cry1Ac has a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran pests.

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Lu, Guo-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Liu, Chen-Xi; Xiao, Yu-Tao; Xu, Chao; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Although farmers in China have grown transgenic Bt-Cry1Ac cotton to resist the major pest Helicoverpa armigera since 1997 with great success, many secondary lepidopteran pests that are tolerant to Cry1Ac are now reported to cause considerable economic damage. Vip3AcAa, a chimeric protein with the N-terminal part of Vip3Ac and the C-terminal part of Vip3Aa, has a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran pests and has no cross resistance to Cry1Ac. In the present study, we tested insecticidal activities of Vip3AcAa against Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera exigua, and Agrotis ipsilon, which are relatively tolerant to Cry1Ac proteins. The bioassay results showed that insecticidal activities of Vip3AcAa against these three pests are superior to Cry1Ac, and after an activation pretreatment, Vip3AcAa retained insecticidal activity against S. litura, S. exigua and A. ipsilon that was similar to the unprocessed protein. The putative receptor for this chimeric protein in the brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) in the three pests was also identified using biotinylated Vip3AcAa toxin. To broaden Bt cotton activity against a wider spectrum of pests, we introduced the vip3AcAa and cry1Ac genes into cotton. Larval mortality rates for S. litura, A. ipsilon and S. exigua that had fed on this new cotton increased significantly compared with larvae fed on non-Bt cotton and Bt-Cry1Ac cotton in a laboratory experiment. These results suggested that the Vip3AcAa protein is an excellent option for a "pyramid" strategy for integrated pest management in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chlorantraniliprole as a candidate pesticide used in combination with the attracticides for lepidopteran moths.

    Liu, Yongqiang; Gao, Yu; Liang, Gemei; Lu, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    Methomyl is currently used as a toxicant for the attracticide BioAttract in cotton and vegetables in China. However, methomyl is highly toxic to non-target organisms and a more environmental friendly acceptable alternative is required. Larvae of three lepidopteran insects Helicoverpa armigera, Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera litura are important pests of these crops in China. In the present study, the toxicity of 23 commonly used insecticides were tested on H. armigera, then tested the susceptibility of A. ipsilon and S. litura moths to the insecticides which were the most toxic to H. armigera, and the acute toxicity of the most efficacious insecticides were further investigated under laboratory conditions. Chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinetoram, spinosad and methomyl exhibited high levels of toxicity to H. armigera moths with a mortality of 86.67%, 91.11%, 73.33%, 57.78% and 80.00%, respectively, during 24 h period at the concentration of 1 mg a.i. L-1. Among these five insecticides, A. ipsilon and S. litura moths were more sensitive to chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate and methomyl. The lethal time (LT50) values of chlorantraniliprole and methomyl were shorter than emamectin benzoate for all three lepidopteran moth species at 1000 mg a.i. L-1 compared to concentrations of 500, 100 and 1 mg a.i L-1. Chlorantraniliprole was found to have similar levels of toxicity and lethal time on the three lepidopteran moths tested to the standard methomyl, and therefore, can be used as an alternative insecticide to methomyl in the attracticide for controlling these pest species.

  18. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor DopEcR in the behavioral response to sex pheromone in an insect.

    Antoine Abrieux

    Full Text Available Most animals including insects rely on olfaction to find their mating partners. In moths, males are attracted by female-produced sex pheromones inducing stereotyped sexual behavior. The behaviorally relevant olfactory information is processed in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL. Evidence is now accumulating that modulation of sex-linked behavioral output occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR binding to 20-hydroxyecdysone, the main insect steroid hormone, and dopamine, has been identified in Drosophila (DmDopEcR, and was suggested to modulate neuronal signaling. In the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral and central nervous responses to pheromone are age-dependent. To further unveil the mechanisms of this olfactory plasticity, we searched for DopEcR and tested its potential role in the behavioral response to sex pheromone in A. ipsilon males. Our results show that A. ipsilon DopEcR (named AipsDopEcR is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. The corresponding protein was detected immunohistochemically in the ALs and higher brain centers including the mushroom bodies. Moreover, AipsDopEcR expression increased with age. Using a strategy of RNA interference, we also show that silencing of AipsDopEcR inhibited the behavioral response to sex pheromone in wind tunnel experiments. Altogether our results indicate that this GPCR is involved in the expression of sexual behavior in the male moth, probably by modulating the central nervous processing of sex pheromone through the action of one or both of its ligands.

  19. A functional F analogue of AcMNPV GP64 is from the Agrotis segetum granulovirus

    Yin, F.; Wang, M.; Tan, Y.; Deng, F.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.; Wang, H.

    2008-01-01

    The envelope fusion protein F of Plutella xylostella granulovirus is a computational analogue of the GP64 envelope fusion protein of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Granulovirus (GV) F proteins were thought to be unable to functionally replace GP64 in the AcMNPV pseudotyping

  20. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect.

    Abrieux, Antoine; Mhamdi, Amel; Rabhi, Kaouther K; Egon, Julie; Debernard, Stéphane; Duportets, Line; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males) and after different delays (2 h and 24 h), and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides

  1. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect.

    Antoine Abrieux

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males and after different delays (2 h and 24 h, and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses

  2. Modeling the cellular mechanisms and olfactory input underlying the triphasic response of moth pheromone-sensitive projection neurons.

    Yuqiao Gu

    Full Text Available In the antennal lobe of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon, most pheromone-sensitive projection neurons (PNs exhibit a triphasic firing pattern of excitation (E1-inhibition (I-excitation (E2 in response to a pulse of the sex pheromone. To understand the mechanisms underlying this stereotypical discharge, we developed a biophysical model of a PN receiving inputs from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs via nicotinic cholinergic synapses. The ORN is modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process whose firing rate is a function of time and is fitted to extracellular data recorded in response to pheromone stimulations at various concentrations and durations. The PN model is based on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism with realistic ionic currents whose parameters were derived from previous studies. Simulations revealed that the inhibitory phase I can be produced by a SK current (Ca2+-gated small conductance K+ current and that the excitatory phase E2 can result from the long-lasting response of the ORNs. Parameter analysis further revealed that the ending time of E1 depends on some parameters of SK, Ca2+, nACh and Na+ currents; I duration mainly depends on the time constant of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, conductance of Ca2+ currents and some parameters of nACh currents; The mean firing frequency of E1 and E2 depends differentially on the interaction of various currents. Thus it is likely that the interplay between PN intrinsic currents and feedforward synaptic currents are sufficient to generate the triphasic firing patterns observed in the noctuid moth A. ipsilon.

  3. Taxonomic and Biological Characterization of Steinernema rarum Found in the Southeastern United States

    Nguyen, Khuong B.; Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Fuxa, James R.; Wood, Bruce W.; Bertolotti, Maria A.; Adams, Byron J.

    2006-01-01

    Two Steinernema isolates found in Louisiana and Mississippi were later identified as isolates of S. rarum. DNA sequences of ITS regions of the United States isolates are identical with sequences of Argentinean S. rarum strains Samiento and Noetinger and differ by two bases from the Arroyo Cabral isolate from Córdoba, Argentina. SEM observations revealed several new structures in the isolates from the US: female face views have a hexagonal-star perioral disc and eye-shaped lips; some females do not have cephalic papillae; lateral fields of infective juveniles are variable; there are two openings observed close to the posterior edge of the cloaca. Virulence of the US isolates to Anthonomus grandis, Diaprepes abbreviatus, Solenopsis invicta, Coptotermes formosanus, Agrotis ipsilon, Spodoptera frugiperda, and Trichoplusia ni and reproductive potential were evaluated in comparison with other heterorhabditid and steinernematid nematodes. Results such as particularly high virulence to S. frugiperda indicate that the biocontrol potential of the new S. rarum strains merits further study. PMID:19259427

  4. Low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide modify pheromone response thresholds of central but not peripheral olfactory neurons in a pest insect.

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Deisig, Nina; Demondion, Elodie; Le Corre, Julie; Robert, Guillaume; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2016-02-10

    Insect pest management relies mainly on neurotoxic insecticides, including neonicotinoids, leaving residues in the environment. There is now evidence that low doses of insecticides can have positive effects on pest insects by enhancing various life traits. Because pest insects often rely on sex pheromones for reproduction, and olfactory synaptic transmission is cholinergic, neonicotinoid residues could modify chemical communication. We recently showed that treatments with different sublethal doses of clothianidin could either enhance or decrease behavioural sex pheromone responses in the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon. We investigated now effects of the behaviourally active clothianidin doses on the sensitivity of the peripheral and central olfactory system. We show with extracellular recordings that both tested clothianidin doses do not influence pheromone responses in olfactory receptor neurons. Similarly, in vivo optical imaging does not reveal any changes in glomerular response intensities to the sex pheromone after clothianidin treatments. The sensitivity of intracellularly recorded antennal lobe output neurons, however, is upregulated by a lethal dose 20 times and downregulated by a dose 10 times lower than the lethal dose 0. This correlates with the changes of behavioural responses after clothianidin treatment and suggests the antennal lobe as neural substrate involved in clothianidin-induced behavioural changes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  6. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Kaouther K Rabhi

    Full Text Available In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress.

  7. LEVANTAMENTO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE Eucalyptus spp. POR MEIO DE ARMADILHA LUMINOSA EM SÃO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS - RS

    Juliana Garlet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of eucalyptus has become an important economic activity in Brazil. However, with the increase of the plantation areas, some entomological problems tend to increase in the same proportion. The constant monitoring of the insects associated with homogeneous planting systems is very important in order to seek the development of programs for integrated pest management. Thus, the purpose of this study was to perform a survey on the insect populations associated with Eucalyptus spp., in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The collects were carried out by light traps from July 2008 to August 2009 in three-year-old stands with the species: Eucalyptus dunni, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla . The insects collected were analyzed using the faunistic indices, frequency, abundance, diversity, and constancy. The correlation between the pest species identified and the meteorological variables for the period were also performed. We collected 3623 individuals belonging to eight orders (Blattodea, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea and Odonata. Three species and three genus of lepidoptera defoliators considered of economic importance were identified: Automeris illustris, Eupseudosoma sp., Sabulodes sp., Sarsina sp., Thyrinteina arnobia and Agrotis ipsilon as well as the borer Phoracantha semipunctata . Our results show that there are important pest species of Eucalyptus already established in the region therefore some constant monitoring is required so that these species do not cause damage to plantations.

  8. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    Angéla eRouyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior towards the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e. single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone.

  9. In-silico determination of insecticidal potential of Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein against Lepidopteran targets using molecular docking

    Aftab eAhmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study and research of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic plants have opened new ways to combat insect pests. Over the decades, however, insect pests, especially the Lepidopteran, have developed tolerance against Bt delta-endotoxins. Such issues can be addressed through the development of novel toxins with greater toxicity and affinity against a broad range of insect receptors. In this computational study, functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin (Cry1Ac insecticidal protein and vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa have been fused to develop a broad-range Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa are non-homologous insecticidal proteins possessing receptors against different targets within the midgut of insects. The insecticidal proteins were fused to broaden the insecticidal activity. Molecular docking analysis of the fusion protein against aminopeptidase-N (APN and cadherin receptors of five Lepidopteran insects (Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura revealed that the Ser290, Ser293, Leu337, Thr340 and Arg437 residues of the fusion protein are involved in the interaction with insect receptors. The Helicoverpa armigera cadherin receptor, however, showed no interaction, which might be due to either loss or burial of interactive residues inside the fusion protein. These findings revealed that the Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein has a strong affinity against Lepidopteran insect receptors and hence has a potential to be an efficient broad-range insecticidal protein.

  10. Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran populations from selected crops of district faisalabad, pakistan

    Maalik, S.; Rana, S.A.; Khan, H.A.; Ashfaq, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopterans are represented by one of the most diverse group of insects. They are phytophagous as well as pollinators at the same time. During present study four crops i.e Wheat, Fodder, Brassica and Vegetables were sampled to assess the diversity and abundance of Lepidopteran populations. A total of 2811 specimens belonging to 14 species and 6 families were recorded. Pieris brassicae (29.46%) was the dominant species followed by Trichoplusia ni (19.28%), Helicoverpa Zea (11.78%), Helicoverpa armigera (11.60%), Spodoptera exigua (6.65%), Psedoplusia includes (5.09%), Spodoptera litura (3.81%), Agrotis ipsilon (4.87%), Plutella xylostella (2.92%), Lymatria dispar (2.24%), Pieris rapae (0.92%), Galleria mellonella (0.71%), Evergestris rimosalis (0.53%) and Menduca sexta (0.14%). Significant differences were observed among different crops by applying Shannon Diversity Index and T- test. CA (Cluster analysis) represented the species association with different crops. Majority of the species showed association with Vegetables and Fodder and least association was observed with Wheat. Such types of studies are necessary to design integrated pest management programs to control these pests. (author)

  11. Host range of an NPV and a GV isolated from the common cutworm, Agrotis segetum: pathogenicity within the cutworm complex

    Bourner, T.C.; Cory, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The term cutworm covers a range of species with a similar life history that can be very damaging pests on a wide range of crops. Attacks by cutworms are often made up of more than one species; thus, the most cost effective microbial control agent needs to be pathogenic for multiple species within

  12. The release of a pheromonotropic neuropeptide, PBAN, in the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, exhibits a circadian rhythm

    Závodská, Radka; von Wowern, G.; Löfstedt, C.; Rosén, W. Q.; Šauman, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 435-440 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : pheromone biosynthesis activating * neuropeptide (PBAN) * circadian rhythm Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2009

  13. Mortality in hibernating turnip moth larvae, Agrotis segetum, caused by Tolypocladium cylindrosporum

    Steenberg, Tove; Øgaard, Leif

    2000-01-01

    -induced mortality. The experiment was started in mid-October and buckets were collected four times from January until May. The fungus had caused high mortality by January, when almost 70% of the treated larvae were infected and by March more than 94% of the larvae had been killed. For larvae from the naturally...... infested site the prevalence was 21% in mid-October and by March it had reached 93%. The ability of the fungus to infect insects at low temperatures may be related to a relatively low optimum temperature for growth of 21 °C, which is lower than for the majority of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes. Host range...

  14. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some fungal control agents on the greasy cut- worm

    Abd EL- Wahed, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera- Noctuidae) is widely distributed all over the world, particularly in moderate and subtropical countries of the northern and southern hemispheres (Kononenko ,2003). The greasy cut worm causes damage to vegetables, cucurbitaceous and industrial crops. The greatest damage is caused to cotton, essential-oil cultures, maize, tobacco, sunflower, tomatoes, sugar beet and potato. The pest can strongly harm vegetables, and also damage seedlings of tree species (pine, maple, and nut). This pest has solitary habits. They commonly feed on seedlings at ground level, cutting off the stem and sometimes dragging the plants into their burrows. The continuous use of chemical pesticides against pests, resistance to the action of pesticides had dramatically evolved. Also, the extensive use of these chemicals has given rise to problems such as residual toxicity (pollution) and harmful effects on beneficial insects, which are natural enemies of target or nontarget pest species. Such problems have become a cause of search for safety pesticides including microbial agents as fungi, bacteria and viruses (Rashed, 1993). The use of radiation to induce dominate lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique (SIT) is now as the major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Adult insects, and their different developmental stages, differ in their sensitivity to the induction of dominate lethal mutation. Care has to be taken to identify the appropriate dose of radiation that produces the required level of sterility without impairing the overall fitness of the released insects.(Sawires, 2005). This technique would be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including A. Ipsilon has been studied (EL- kady et al., 1983, EL-Naggar et al., 1984, Abd El -Hamid 2004 and Gabarty, 2008). Entomopathogenic fungi that infect insects have received considerable

  15. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

    Ann C Smigocki

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  16. Avaliação da infestação de insetos-praga associados à batata (Solanum tuberosum L. sob efeito de nutrientes nitrogenados e potássicos e teores acumulados de aminoácidos livres nas cultivares Achat e Monalisa

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of insect-pest infestation associated to potato (Solanum tuberosum L. under effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and the accumulated amount of free aminoacids in Achat and Monalisa cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurence of insect-pests on potato plants influenced by dosages of nitrogen and potassium accumulated in plant organs. A total of 169 plants of the Achat and Monalisa cultivars were evaluated to determine the presence-absence of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon Hüfnagel, 1767. The experiment was carried out and executed at the Universidade Federal Fluminense, and the delineation was complete randomized block design, with four replication and nine treatments, using three fertilization level (0; 75 and 150 Kg/ha with N-urea + KCl. The aminoacid levels were adjusted by the Leucine standard-curve (µg/l, using the Ninhydrin method, at 570 nm. The results showed that the tubercles of Monalisa accumulated high free aminoacid levels with 7,95% in the treatment N1K2 and 7,75% in the N2K1.These treatments, induced the infestation by D. speciosa larvae in 27,03%, when the aminoacid level was 2,01 ± 0,58% (X ± EP, with probability of 0,0196

  17. Insights into the Structure of the Vip3Aa Insecticidal Protein by Protease Digestion Analysis

    Yolanda Bel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vip3 proteins are secretable proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis whose mode of action is still poorly understood. In this study, the activation process for Vip3 proteins was closely examined in order to better understand the Vip3Aa protein stability and to shed light on its structure. The Vip3Aa protoxin (of 89 kDa was treated with trypsin at concentrations from 1:100 to 120:100 (trypsin:Vip3A, w:w. If the action of trypsin was not properly neutralized, the results of SDS-PAGE analysis (as well as those with Agrotis ipsilon midgut juice equivocally indicated that the protoxin could be completely processed. However, when the proteolytic reaction was efficiently stopped, it was revealed that the protoxin was only cleaved at a primary cleavage site, regardless of the amount of trypsin used. The 66 kDa and the 19 kDa peptides generated by the proteases co-eluted after gel filtration chromatography, indicating that they remain together after cleavage. The 66 kDa fragment was found to be extremely resistant to proteases. The trypsin treatment of the protoxin in the presence of SDS revealed the presence of secondary cleavage sites at S-509, and presumably at T-466 and V-372, rendering C-terminal fragments of approximately 29, 32, and 42 kDa, respectively. The fact that the predicted secondary structure of the Vip3Aa protein shows a cluster of beta sheets in the C-terminal region of the protein might be the reason behind the higher stability to proteases compared to the rest of the protein, which is mainly composed of alpha helices.

  18. Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth.

    Nina Deisig

    Full Text Available Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants, mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization.

  19. The GPCR membrane receptor, DopEcR, mediates the actions of both dopamine and ecdysone to control sex pheromone perception in an insect

    Antoine eAbrieux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory information mediating sexual behavior is crucial for reproduction in many animals, including insects. In male moths, the macroglomerular complex of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL is specialized in the treatment of information on the female-emitted sex pheromone. Evidence is accumulating that modulation of behavioral pheromone responses occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. We recently showed that a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, AipsDopEcR, with its homologue known in Drosophila for its double affinity to the main insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, and dopamine (DA, present in the ALs, is involved in the behavioral response to pheromone in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Here we tested the role of AipsDopEcR as compared to nuclear 20E receptors in central pheromone processing combining receptor inhibition with intracellular recordings of AL neurons. We show that the sensitivity of AL neurons for the pheromone in males decreases strongly after AipsDopEcR-dsRNA injection but also after inhibition of nuclear 20E receptors. Moreover we tested the involvement of 20E and DA in the receptor-mediated behavioral modulation in wind tunnel experiments, using ligand applications and receptor inhibition treatments. We show that both ligands are necessary and act on AipsDopEcR-mediated behavior. Altogether these results indicate that the GPCR membrane receptor, AipsDopEcR, controls sex pheromone perception through the action of both 20E and DA in the central nervous system, probably in concert with 20E action through nuclear receptors.

  20. Investigation of species diversity of fauna of the Palesse state radioecological reservation

    Kalinichenko, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In territory of Republic of Belarus the rare kind of a moth - She-bear Geba - Eucharia festiva (Hufnagel, 1766) is found out. Acknowledgement of existence of a steady population demands the further researches. (authors)

  1. A Background of a Volatile Plant Compound Alters Neural and Behavioral Responses to the Sex Pheromone Blend in a Moth.

    Dupuy, Fabienne; Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Anton, Sylvia; Renou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of intra-specific olfactory signals within a complex environment of plant-related volatiles is crucial for reproduction in male moths. Sex pheromone information is detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons (Phe-ORNs), highly abundant on the male antenna. The information is then transmitted to the pheromone processing macroglomerular complex (MGC) within the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, where it is processed by local interneurons and projection neurons. Ultimately a behavioral response, orientation toward the pheromone source, is elicited. Volatile plant compounds (VPCs) are detected by other functional types of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) projecting in another area of the antennal lobe. However, Phe-ORNs also respond to some VPCs. Female-produced sex pheromones are emitted within a rich environment of VPCs, some of which have been shown to interfere with the detection and processing of sex pheromone information. As interference between the different odor sources might depend on the spatial and temporal features of the two types of stimuli, we investigated here behavioral and neuronal responses to a brief sex pheromone blend pulse in a VPC background as compared to a control background in the male noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon . We observed male orientation behavior in a wind tunnel and recorded responses of Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons to a brief sex pheromone pulse within a background of individual VPCs. We also recorded the global input signal to the MGC using in vivo calcium imaging with the same stimulation protocol. We found that VPCs eliciting a response in Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons masked responses to the pheromone and decreased the contrast between background odor and the sex pheromone at both levels, whereas α-pinene did not interfere with first order processing. The calcium signal produced in response to a VPC background was tonic, lasting longer than the VPC stimulus duration, and masked entirely the pheromone response

  2. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  3. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  4. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test

    Brogt, Erik; Sabers, Darrell; Prather, Edward E.; Deming, Grace L.; Hufnagel, Beth; Slater, Timothy F.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy undergraduate class sections were examined from the database of Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) results of Deming and Hufnagel to determine if course format correlated with ADT normalized gain scores. Normalized gains were calculated for four different classroom scenarios: lecture, lecture with discussion, lecture with lab, and lecture…

  5. Genomic support for speciation and specificity of baculoviruses

    Jakubowska, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: baculovirus, insects, speciation, genomics, phylogeny, host specificity

    The Baculoviridae comprise a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting
    arthropods. In this thesis two baculoviruses, Leucoma salicis nucleopolyhedrovirus
    (LesaNPV) and Agrotis

  6. Learning Technology Specification: Principles for Army Training Designers and Developers

    2013-09-01

    Bowers & Bowers, 2010; Moreno, 2006; Shönborn, 2011; Watkins & Hufnagel, 2007). • Interactive technologies can help maintain student engagement when...modified to better suit the trainee characteristics, learning objectives, and environmental constraints. • To maintain student engagement when...learning styles (e.g., auditory, visual, tactile) 1 2 3 4 5 Improves student engagement 1 2 3 4 5 Please list any additional factors that are

  7. The Genetics of Chemoreception in the Labella and Tarsi of Aedes aegypti

    2014-01-01

    Plutella xylostella (Li and Qin, 2011), C. medinalis (Liu et al., 2013) and A. ipsilon (Gu et al., 2013), to antennal-specific in other species including A...pattern analysis in the Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 46, 497e504. Lin, H., Mann, K.J

  8. Lepidoptera

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31 spe....... maderensis ssp. maderensis (Bethune-Baker, 1891) (n. syn). Agrotis selvagensis Pinker & Bacallado, 1978 is a synonym of A. lanzarotensis Rebel, 1894 (n. syn) and Agrotis trux spp. maderensis Pinker, 1971 is a synonym of A. trux ssp. trux (Hübner, 1824) (n. syn.)....

  9. BIOECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF WINTER TURNIP MOTH IN AGROBIOCENOSES OF DAGESTAN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PREDICTION MODEL OF ITS STRENGTH

    B. U. Misrieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the biology and ecology of the dominant species of phytophages is necessary for optimization of crop protection. The turnip moth (Agrotis segetum is one of these phytophages. It allows optimizing the existing approaches to limit the number of phytophages.

  10. Betabaculovirus F proteins showed different efficiencies when rescuing the infectivity of gp64-null Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Yin, F.; Wang, M.; Ying, T.; Deng, F.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.; Wang, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Agrotis segetum granulovirus (AgseGV) F protein was previously identified as the first betabaculovirus F protein with functional homology to Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) GP64. In the current study, F proteins from Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV), Cydia pomonella

  11. 75 FR 62484 - Importation of Shepherd's Purse With Roots From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    2010-10-12

    ... roots: Insect pests: Sawfly (Athalia rosae) Leaf miner (Chromatomyia horticola) Turnip moth (Agrotis... production are necessary. Fields must be certified free of the quarantine nematodes by sampling and microscopic inspection of the samples by the Korean NPPO. The sampling and inspection protocol must be...

  12. Type A Dissection Involving Intimo-Intimal Intussusception Through the Aortic Valve.

    Armour, Trygve; Armour, Sarah; Reddy, Pingle; Brinster, Derek

    2015-07-15

    The presentation, evaluation, management, and outcome of a case of type A circumferential dissection involving repeated retrograde intussusception of the intimal flap through the aortic valve is described in this case report. Fewer than 20 intimo-intimal intussusception cases have been described since the first report was published by Hufnagel in 1962, and outcomes have typically been poor because of delays in diagnosis. This case shows the potential for a positive outcome when the diagnosis of intimo-intimal intussusception is entertained and confirmed early in the course of treatment. Preoperative computed tomography and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography were essential in diagnosis and operative planning.

  13. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  14. Image-quality degradation in a turbid medium under partially coherent illumination

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Tam, W.G.; Embury, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The image-quality degradation as a result of propagation through a turbid medium is analyzed within the small-angle approximation to the equation of transfer. By using the well-known correspondence between the radiance distribution and the mutual-coherence function, we formulate a factorization assumption for the mutual coherence in order to restrict the class of radiance distributions in the object plane. Depending on the contrast factor, that is, in general, the class of partially coherent light beams. The general formula for the irradiance distribution in the image plane contains the classic result of Hufnagel and Stanley [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 52 (1964)] as a special case. We study the limits of an infinite lens and a Gaussian aperture and investigate in detail the case of a Gaussian beam with a cosinusoidally superimposed signal. The solution in the form of a multiple-scattering series enables us to discuss the signficance of scattering events of higher order

  15. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    Fouda, M.A.; Abas, A.A.; Ibrahium, A.A.; Salem, H.; Gabarty, A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc 50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  16. The effect of potassium nutrition on sup 137 Cs uptake in two upland species

    Jones, H E; Harrison, A F; Poskitt, J M; Roberts, J D; Clint, G [Institute for Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-over-Sands (UK)

    1991-01-01

    Agrostis capillaris (Agrostis) and Calluna vulgaris (Calluna), two species with differing phenologies and widespread presence in upland areas of Britain where high Chernobyl fallout occurred, were grown in pot culture with varying concentrations of potassium in the rooting medium. Tissue content of potassium increased with increasing supply in both species. Roots, excised from these plants, were placed in a solution of {sup 137}Cs-labelled caesium chloride for 15 min to determine uptake potential. There were clear negative relationships between the rate of uptake of {sup 137}Cs by both species and (a) the concentration of potassium supplied and (b) plant issue potassium concentrations. With Agrotis, there was an approximately ten-fold difference in {sup 137}Cs uptake between potassium-deficient and optimum plants; with Calluna, it was approximately eight-fold. These results demonstrate the suppression of {sup 137}Cs uptake into plants by potassium supply. (author).

  17. Nontarget lepidoptera species found in the pheromone traps for selected Tortricid species in 2002 and 2003 years

    Eva Hrudová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone traps were used to monitor the following tortricid moths, i.e. Adoxophyes orana, Archips podanus, A. rosanus, Hedya nubiferana, Pandemis heparana, Spilonota ocellana, Cydia pomonella, Cydia funebrana and Cydia molesta in the localities Brno-Tuřany (Brno-město, Nebovidy (Brno-venkov and Prakšice (Uherské Hradiště. Other Lepidoptera non-target species were present in these target-species pheromone traps, i.e. Adoxophyes orana, Agrotis segetum, Amphipoea oculaea, Archips rosanus, Celypha striana, Cydia coronillana, Enarmonia formosana, Epiblema scutulanum, Epinotia huebneriana, Eucosma fervidana, Euxoa tritici, Hedya pruniana, H. nubiferana, Lymantria dispar, Noctua pronuba, Notocelia rosaecolana, N. roborana, Pammene albuginana, P. suspectana, Pandemis cerasana, Pyrausta rectefascialis, P. aurata, Spilonota ocellana, Yponomeuta malinellus and Zygaena purpuralis.

  18. Stable isotope signatures reflect dietary diversity in European forest moths.

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Seifert, Carlo Lutz; Lehner, Lisamarie; Truxa, Christine; Wanek, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Information on larval diet of many holometabolous insects remains incomplete. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis in adult wing tissue can provide an efficient tool to infer such trophic relationships. The present study examines whether moth feeding guild affiliations taken from literature are reflected in isotopic signatures. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance indicate that centroids of dietary groups differ significantly. In particular, species whose larvae feed on mosses or aquatic plants deviated from those that consumed vascular land plants. Moth δ(15)N signatures spanned a broader range, and were less dependent on species identity than δ(13)C values. Comparison between moth samples and ostensible food sources revealed heterogeneity in the lichenivorous guild, indicating only Lithosia quadra as an obligate lichen feeder. Among root-feeding Agrotis segetum, some specimens appear to have developed on crop plants in forest-adjacent farm land. Reed-feeding stem-borers may partially rely on intermediary trophic levels such as fungal or bacterial growth. Diagnostic partitioning of moth dietary guilds based on isotopic signatures alone could not be achieved, but hypotheses on trophic relationships based on often vague literature records could be assessed with high resolution. Hence, the approach is well suited for basic categorization of moths where diet is unknown or notoriously difficult to observe (i.e. Microlepidoptera, lichen-feeders).

  19. The genetic basis for altered blood vessel function in disease: large artery stiffening

    Alex Agrotis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alex AgrotisThe Cell Biology Laboratory, Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: The progressive stiffening of the large arteries in humans that occurs during aging constitutes a potential risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is accompanied by an elevation in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. While the underlying basis for these changes remains to be fully elucidated, factors that are able to influence the structure and composition of the extracellular matrix and the way it interacts with arterial smooth muscle cells could profoundly affect the properties of the large arteries. Thus, while age and sex represent important factors contributing to large artery stiffening, the variation in growth-stimulating factors and those that modulate extracellular production and homeostasis are also being increasingly recognized to play a key role in the process. Therefore, elucidating the contribution that genetic variation makes to large artery stiffening could ultimately provide the basis for clinical strategies designed to regulate the process for therapeutic benefit.Keywords: arterial stiffness, genes, polymorphism, extracellular matrix proteins

  20. Molecular-Assisted Pollen Grain Analysis Reveals Spatiotemporal Origin of Long-Distance Migrants of a Noctuid Moth

    Hong Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains are regularly used as markers to determine an insect’s movement patterns or host (plant feeding behavior, yet conventional morphology-based pollen grain analysis (or palynology encounters a number of important limitations. In the present study, we combine conventional analytical approaches with DNA meta-barcoding to identify pollen grains attached to migrating adults of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Northeast China. More specifically, pollen grains were dislodged from 2566 A. segetum long-distance migrants captured on Beihuang Island (Bohai Sea and identified to many (plant species level. Pollen belonged to 26 families of plants, including Fagaceae, Oleaceae, Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Pinaceae and Rosaceae, including common species such as Citrus sinensis, Olea europaea, Ligustrum lucidum, Robinia pseudoacacia, Castanopsis echinocarpa, Melia azedarach and Castanea henryi. As the above plants are indigenous to southern climes, we deduce that A. segetum forage on plants in those locales prior to engaging in northward spring migration. Our work validates the use of DNA-assisted approaches in lepidopteran pollination ecology research and provides unique and valuable information on the adult feeding range and geographical origin of A. segetum. Our findings also enable targeted (area-wide pest management interventions or guide the future isolation of volatile attractants.

  1. Fluorescence Localization and Comparative Ultrastructural Study of Periplocoside NW from Periploca sepium Bunge in the Midgut of the Oriental Amyworm, Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Mingxing Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Periplocoside NW (PSNW is a novel insecticidal compound isolated from the root bark of Periploca sepium Bunge and has potent stomach toxicity against some insect pests. Previous studies showed that the Mythimna separata larva is sensitive to PSNW, but the Agrotis ispilon larva is insensitive. In this study, preliminary target localization on the midgut of M. separata larvae was conducted via a fluorescence labeling technique. A comparative ultrastructural study on the effects of PSNW on the midguts of M. separata and A. ispilon larvae was performed. Symptom observation results showed that typical stomach toxicity was induced by PSNW in M. separata larvae. Fluorescence localization results showed that PSNW binds to the midgut cells of M. separata larvae. Ultrastructure observations showed destruction of the microvilli, organelle, and cytomembrane in the midgut cells of M. separata larvae, whereas no obvious changes were observed in midgut cells of A. ispilon larvae. These results were consistent with the insecticidal activity of PSNW. Therefore, PSNW might act on the midgut tissues of the insects, and one or more binding sites of PSNW may exist in M. separata larvae midgut cell cytomembranes.

  2. Ultraviolet and gamma-radiation effect on the zymotic characteristics of turnip moth's granules

    Khakimova, M A

    1975-01-01

    Virus granules of the winter cutworm (Agrotis segetum Schiff) were used as agents for biological control of this pest of field and vegetable crops. The authors first studied the effect of uv and gamma radiation on granules of the cutworm. A purified suspension of winter moth granules, 0.5 mg of granules per mm/sup 3/, was irradiated with a BUV-15 lamp at a distance of 9 cm from the radiation source. The dose rate was 6.6x10/sup 3/ ergs/cm/sup 2/.sec. The results showed that a uv dose of 71.1x10/sup 6/ ergs/cm/sup 2/ decreased the virulence of the granules by a factor of 3 compared to the original suspension (larval mortality of 27.5%) and a dose of 95x10/sup 6/ ergs/cm/sup 2/ completely inactivated the granules. With gamma radiation (/sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) the inactivating dose was only 21.6x10/sup 5/ rads. The work indicated that cutworm granules are very resistant to uv and gamma radiation.

  3. Assessment of pest and pesticide trends in vegetable crops in united arab emirates and sultanate of oman

    Waakeh, W.; Aldahmani, J.H.; Deadman, M.L.; Saadi, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary survey on pesticide uses in 40 vegetable-growing farms representing different agricultural areas in Oman and the UAE, twenty farms from each country, revealed that all the vegetable farms used pesticides for crop protection. Among the major insect-pests, white flies (Bemisia tabaci), leafminers (Liriomyza trifolii), melon fruit flies (Bactrocera ciliatus), aphids (Aphis spp.) and tobacco leafworm (Spodoptera litteralis) were recorded in Omani farms. In the UAE, white flies, leafminers, cutworms (Agrotis ypsilan), tomato fruitworms (Helicoverpa armigera) and eggplant fruitworms (Leucinodes orbonalis) were the 5 top insect-pests. Among the plant diseases, powdery mildew (Erysiphe spp.), blight (Alternaria spp.), damping off (Pythium spp.), leafspot (Alternaria spp.) and mosaic (CMV) Were major cause of vegetable diseases in Omani farms; whereas, damping off (Pythium aphanidermatum), downy mildew (Pseudoperonspora cubensis), early blight (Alternaria solani), septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici) and anthracnose rip rot (colletotrichum spp.) were the most predominant diseases encountered in most UAE farms. Among the most commonly used pesticides, 29 insecticides, 16 fungicides and 3 herbicides were used by the vegetable farmers. Around 55% of Omani farms used routine application of pesticides, irrespective of the pest presence. Whereas, in the UAE, most farmers started to spray pesticides at 6-20% pest (insect, disease and weeds) infection. Over 65 of the farms, in both the countries, received chemical pest management information from the sales representatives. (author)

  4. Influence of Sowing Times, Densities, and Soils to Biomass and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum

    Tran Dang Xuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels helps to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and therefore decreases CO2 emission. Ethanol mixed with gasoline in mandatory percentages has been used in many countries. However, production of ethanol mainly depends on food crops, commonly associated with problems such as governmental policies and social controversies. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is one of the most potential and appropriate alternative crops for biofuel production because of its high biomass and sugar content, strong tolerance to environmental stress conditions and diseases, and wide adaptability to various soils and climates. The aim of this study was to select prospective varieties of sweet sorghum, optimum sowing times and densities to achieve high yields of ethanol production and to establish stable operational conditions in cultivating this crop. The summer-autumn cropping season combined with the sowing densities of 8.3–10.9 plant m−2 obtained the highest ethanol yield. Among cultivated locations, the soil with pH of 5.5 and contents of Al and Zn of 39.4 and 0.6 g kg−1, respectively, was the best condition to have an ethanol yield >5000 L ha−1. The pH ≥ 6.0 may be responsible for the significant reduction of zinc content in soils, which decreases both biomass of sweet sorghum and ethanol yield, while contents of N, P, K, organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe likely play no role. The cultivar 4A was the preferred candidate for ethanol production and resistant to pests and diseases, especially cut worm (Agrotis spp..

  5. Distribution of zinc-65 in Agrostis tenuis Sibth. and A. stolonifera L. tissues

    Peterson, P J

    1969-11-01

    The distribution of /sup 65/Zn in zinc-tolerant and copper-tolerant plants of Agrotis spp. from toxic mine-tailings in England and Wales was compared with zinc distribution in non-tolerant plants. Isotope was applied in culture solution in which the plants were growing. No differences could be demonstrated between the plants by whole-plant radioautography, or by zinc analyses of the tops. Root/shoot ratios calculated from specific activity values varied with population, the non-tolerant plants having the lowest and the zinc-tolerant plants the highest ratio. After solvent (80% ethanol and water) extractions, the root residue of zinc-tolerant plants contained a higher percentage of /sup 65/Zn than that of non-tolerant plants. Chemical fractionation of the roots revealed that the main difference was that the amount of /sup 65/Zn in the pectate extract of the cell wall was high in zinc-tolerant plants and low in non-tolerant plants. The /sup 65/Zn distribution in the copper-tolerant plants was similar to that in the non-tolerant plants, indicating that the tolerance mechanisms for the two elements are different. Soluble protein and RNA preparations were made but they contained low levels of /sup 65/Zn. An exception was the relatively high value for RNA from zinc-tolerant A. stolonifera shoots. An anionic complex of /sup 65/Zn in the soluble fraction was investigated. This complex accounted for most of the radioactivity in A. tenuis extracts of shoots but the concentration of the complex was low in A. stolonifera shoots, and in root extracts of all plants examined. 18 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Insecticidal and Feeding Deterrent Effects of Fraxinellone from Dictamnus dasycarpus against Four Major Pests

    Huixia Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinellone, a well-known and significant naturally occurring compound isolated from Meliaceae and Rutaceae spp. has been widely used as a drug for the treatment of tumors. On the other hand, fraxinellone exhibited a variety of insecticidal activities including feeding-deterrent activity, inhibition of growth, and larvicidal activity. The present study focused on the antifeedant and larvicidal activities of fraxinellone against the larvae of Lepidoptera, including Mythimna separata, Agrotis ypsilon, Plutella xylostella, and one kind of sanitary pest, Culux pipiens pallens. Meanwhile, the ovicidal activities and the effects of fraxinellone on the larval development of M. separata were also observed. The LC50 values of fraxinellone against 3rd instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 4th instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens were 15.95/6.43/3.60 × 10−2 mg mL−1, and its AFC50 values against 5th instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 2nd instar larvae of A. ypsilon were 10.73/7.93/12.58 mg mL−1, respectively. Compared with the control group, fraxinellone obviously inhibited the pupation rate and the growth of M. separata. Once M. separata was treated with fraxinellone at concentrations of 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg mL−1, respectively, the stages from the larvae to adulthood and the egg hatching duration were prolonged to 1/2/3, and 4/3/4 days, respectively. Additionally, fraxinellone strongly inhibited the development rate and the egg hatch proportion of M. separata.

  7. Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of potato pests and their management in Uganda

    Joshua Sikhu Okonya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we initiate entomological research on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. in Uganda, there is need to understand farmers’ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and their management practices. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM strategy. A farm household survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted among 204 potato farmers in six districts of Uganda (i.e., Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, Kapchorwa, Mubende, and Kyegegwa during August and September 2013. Diseases, insect pests, price fluctuations, and low market prices were the four highest ranked constraints in potato production, in order of decreasing importance. Cutworms (Agrotis spp., aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer, and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller were the three most severe insect pests. Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard were pests of moderate importance. Major yield losses are predominantly due to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary and reached 100% without chemical control in the districts of Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, and Kapchorwa. On average, farmers had little to moderate knowledge about pest characteristics. The predominant control methods were use of fungicides (72% of respondents and insecticides (62% of respondents. On average, only 5% of the 204 farmers knew about insect pests and their natural enemies. This lack of knowledge calls for training of both farmers and extension workers in insect pest identification, their biology, and control. Empowering farmers with knowledge about insect pests is essential for the reduction of pesticide misuse and uptake of more environmentally friendly approaches like IPM. Field surveys would need follow-up in order to assess the actual field infestation rates and intensities of each insect pest and compare the results with the responses

  8. Limits of use of social media for monitoring biosecurity events.

    Marijke Welvaert

    Full Text Available Compared to applications that trigger massive information streams, like earthquakes and human disease epidemics, the data input for agricultural and environmental biosecurity events (ie. the introduction of unwanted exotic pests and pathogens, is expected to be sparse and less frequent. To investigate if Twitter data can be useful for the detection and monitoring of biosecurity events, we adopted a three-step process. First, we confirmed that sightings of two migratory species, the Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa and the Common Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus are reported on Twitter. Second, we developed search queries to extract the relevant tweets for these species. The queries were based on either the taxonomic name, common name or keywords that are frequently used to describe the species (symptomatic or syndromic. Third, we validated the results using ground truth data. Our results indicate that the common name queries provided a reasonable number of tweets that were related to the ground truth data. The taxonomic query resulted in too small datasets, while the symptomatic queries resulted in large datasets, but with highly variable signal-to-noise ratios. No clear relationship was observed between the tweets from the symptomatic queries and the ground truth data. Comparing the results for the two species showed that the level of familiarity with the species plays a major role. The more familiar the species, the more stable and reliable the Twitter data. This clearly presents a problem for using social media to detect the arrival of an exotic organism of biosecurity concern for which public is unfamiliar.

  9. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies; Praktische Anwendung insektenparasitischer Nematoden und sterilisierter Fliegen

    Galle, F. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Muenchen (Germany); Loosjes, M. [De Groene Vlieg, Nieuwe Tonge (Netherlands)

    1987-07-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars.

  10. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  11. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    Timus Asea M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each phenological phase needs different temperatures: at least 4C° is necessary for planting and springing an amount of 650°C is necessary for foliar apparatus; an amount of 1150- 1800°C is necessary to grow the volume of roots and for sugar depositing the average of 2400 to 2600°C is necessary. The mentioned temperatures ensure a normal development of sugar beet plants. If these temperatures fluctuate, the pathogens and pests are stimulated to develop. The most frequent diseases of sugar beet are: Pythium de baryanum Hesse., Aphanomyces cochlioides Dresch. Peronospora schachtii Fuck., Phoma betae Fr. Cercospora beticola Sacc. Erysiphe communis Grev. f. betae Jacz., virosis - Beta virus 2, 3 si 4 etc. The main pests belong to the following categories: Homoptera: Aphis fabae Scop. (fam. Aphididae, Pemphigus fuscicornis Koch. (fam. Pemphigidae Coleoptera: Agriotes sp. (fam. Elateridae, Chaetocnema concinna M. Ch. breviuscula Fld., Cassida nebulosa L. (fam. Chrysomelidae, Atomaria linearis Step. (fam. Cryptophagidae; Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ., Tanymechus dilaticollis Gyll., T. palliatus F., Psalidium maxillosum F. (Curculionidae; Lepidoptera: Agrotis segetum Den. et Schiff., Authographa gamma L. Mamestra (Barathra brassicae L. (Noctuidae, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Pyralidae, Gnorimoschema ocellatella Boyd.; Diptera Pegomyia betae Curtis. (fam. Anthomyidae. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (Heteroderidae. The most recommended insecticides for fighting the

  12. A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory.

    Hagström, Åsa K; Wang, Hong-Lei; Liénard, Marjorie A; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Johansson, Tomas; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-12-13

    Moths (Lepidoptera) are highly dependent on chemical communication to find a mate. Compared to conventional unselective insecticides, synthetic pheromones have successfully served to lure male moths as a specific and environmentally friendly way to control important pest species. However, the chemical synthesis and purification of the sex pheromone components in large amounts is a difficult and costly task. The repertoire of enzymes involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis in insecta can be seen as a library of specific catalysts that can be used to facilitate the synthesis of a particular chemical component. In this study, we present a novel approach to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory. We first identified and functionally characterized a ∆11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The ∆11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 μg Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that genes from different

  13. Farmers′ perceptions, believes, knowledge and management practices of potato pests in South-Kivu Province, eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo

    Munyuli Théodore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous complaints and reports from farmers to researchers about potato (Solanum tuberosum L. problems in South-Kivu Province, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (RDCongo, there was a need to understand farmers′ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and current management practice challenges. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM strategy for the Province. Hence, using a semi-structured questionnaire, a farm household survey was conducted among 300 potato farmers in six sites belonging to 2 territories (Kabare, Kalehe of South- Kivu Province from June to August 2015. Insect pests, diseases and price fluctuations were among the highest ranked constraints in potato production by farmers. Cutworms (Agrotis spp., aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer, and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller were the most severe insect pests in medium altitude zones (1600-1950m. Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard were the pests of high importance reported from sites of very high altitude (2000-2600m. Major yield losses were mostly attributed to late blight (Phytophthora infestans Mont. de Bary and or insect pests and reached 65-90% without chemical control in most study sites. On average, farmers had little knowledge about pest characteristics (bio-ecology, behavior,…. Most (71.5% farmers were not able to correctly identify insect pest species names. Sometimes, two or more species had the same local name. There was a great confusion between damages (attacks due to pests, diseases and environmental stresses (rains, soil nutrient deficiency among farmers. Very few (18.5% farmers interviewed knew with precision some insect pests. Most (80% farmers did not know what natural enemies of insect pests and IPM were. Seasonal pest outbreak and emerging new pests were phenomenon related

  14. Breve Estudio Biológico del Predator Coleomejilla Maculata de Geer (Coleoptera -Coccinellidae en el Valle de Medellín

    Bravo V. Gilberto

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available El insecto tiene los siguientes nombres comunes: "Petaquita", "Grajito". En México lo denominan "Catarinita" y en EE. UU. "Lady Birds"; "Lady-Buys" (Vaquita de Dios. El Coleomegilla maculata de Geer, tiene las siguientes sinonimias: Megilla maculata, coleomegilla fuscilabris, Ceratomegilla fuscilabris, Megilla fuscilabris, Ceratomegilla maculata (Szumkowski 1955 y Ceratomegilla floridiana Leng. (Humbbell 1932. En cuanto a su distribución mundial podemos afirmar que existe el insecto en todo el Continente Americano. En Colombia existe en las zonas de clima cálido y medio. Su ciclo biológico está determinado por condiciones ambientales, así: período de preoviposición comprendido entre 8 a 25 días. Las hembras depositan los huevos sobre plantas de maíz y fríjol y sobre las siguientes malezas: "Coquito" (Cyperus sp., verdolaga (Portulaca oleracea, acedera (Oxalis sp. y otras. El período de incubación demora de 3 a 6 días. La larva es de tipo campodeiforme y tiene una duración que varía entre 10 a 22 días, tiempo en el cual hemos observado hasta 4 instars. El período de encrisalidación puede establecerse entre 3 a 12 días. Los adultos pueden vivir hasta 100 días (Szumkowski 1955. Se ha constatado que las hembras depositan su pos-tura en masas de 4 a 36 huevos, los cuales se consideran con un 100 %, de fertilidad. Las larvas son parasitadas por un pequeño Himenóptero, posiblemente se trate de un Chalcido. Los adultos son parasitados por un braconido al parecer se trata de un Habrobracon. Tanto las larvas como los adultos tienen hábitos canibalescos. La acción predatora del Coleomegilla maculata no está limitada solamente a insectos pequeños de cuerpo blando de la orden Homóptera, sino que su acción destructiva puede ser también sobre muchas especies de lepidópteros perjudiciales (huevos y larvas pequeñas, tales como: Laphygma frugiperda, Agrotis, Diatrea lineolata, Prodenia lati-jascia, Feltias, Alabama

  15. St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm analysis based on Real Time Ionosphere Monitoring

    García-Rigo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Alberto García-Rigo (1), David Roma-Dollase (2), Manuel Hernández-Pajares (1), Zishen Li (3), Michael Terkildsen (4), German Olivares (4), Reza Ghoddousi-Fard (5), Denise Dettmering (6), Eren Erdogan (6), Haris Haralambous (7), Yannick Béniguel (8), Jens Berdermann (9), Martin Kriegel (9), Anna Krypiak-Gregorczyk (10), Tamara Gulyaeva (11), Attila Komjathy (12), Panagiotis Vergados (12), Joachim Feltens (13,19), René Zandbergen (13), Tim Fuller-Rowell (14), David Altadill (15), Nicolas Bergeot (16), Andrzej Krankowski (17), Loukis Agrotis (18), Ivan Galkin (20), Raul Orus-Perez (21) 1. UPC-IonSAT research group, Technical University of Catalonia, Spain 2. Department of Engineering: Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), Spain 3. Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China 4. Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services, Australia 5. Canadian Geodetic Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) / Government of Canada, Canada 6. Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut der Technischen Universität München (DGFI-TUM), Germany 7. Frederick University Cyprus, Cyprus 8. IEEA, France 9. Institute of Communications and Navigation, DLR, Germany 10. Institute of Geodesy, UWM, Poland 11. Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia 12. NASA - Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, USA 13. Navigation Support Office, ESA-ESOC, Germany 14. NOAA affiliate, USA 15. Observatori de l'Ebre (OE), CSIC - Universitat Ramon Llull, 43520 Roquetes, Spain 16. Planetology and Reference Systems, Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB), Belgium 17. Space Radio-Diagnostics Research Centre, UWM (SRRC/UWM), Poland 18. SYMBAN Limited, ESA-ESOC, Germany 19. Telespazio VEGA Deutschland GmbH c/o ESA-ESOC, Germany 20. University of Massachusetts Lowell, Space Science Lab, USA 21. Wave Interaction and Propagation Section (TEC-EEP), ESA-ESTEC, The Netherlands IAG's Real Time