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Sample records for agrotis ipsilon hufnagel

  1. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae); Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de acucares soluveis sobre populacoes de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) e Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

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    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Pinheiral, RJ (Brazil). Pro-Reitoria de Extensao], e-mail: edsonhenrique.azeredo@bol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Centro Integrado de Manejo de Pragas C.R.G.

    2004-03-15

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha{sup -1} of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha{sup -1}, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  2. TOXIC ACTIVITY AND DELAYED EFFECTS OF FIVE BOTANICAL OILS ON THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER PARENTS TREATMENT.

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    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, N A; El-Kady, M B; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is carried out to evaluate the toxic efficiency and delayed effects of five botanical oils on the greasy cut worm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a trial for the attainment of a possible use of an alternative safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. So as to minimize or prevent the repeated usage of conventional insecticides, then reduce the environmental pollution as well as the occurring hazards to man and domestic animal due to the use of the pesticides alone. Four tested concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5% v/v) from each of camphor, red basil, menthol, rose and anise oils, were bioassayed by treating the offered castor oil bean leaves, to the 4th instar larvae along 48h, under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2 °C and 65±5% R.H. The obtained results showed that the five tested oils were found to have more or less toxic activity and drastic effects on the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated parent generation of the insect, in particular, pupae, emerged adult moths and laid eggs/female. In this respect camphor and red basil oils were highly effective, followed by menthol oil, anise oil and the least effective one was rose oil. Moreover, the assessed unprofitable delayed effects on the going on of the biological performance within the treated insects showed the adverse effects on the fitness components of the consequent generations (fs) post (p) one treatment with each of the bioassyed oils. The prevalence of adverse effects and disturbance in the going on biological performance through the period of (p) generation; which is followed by the distinct failure of insect development in (f1) generation were recorded for each of the tested menthol oil at 0.5 and 1.5% (v/v); camphor oil at 1.5 and 2.5% and red basil oil at 2.5% (v/v). While anise and rose oils were somewhat less efficient causing the distinct failure of the following generations up to the 3rd and/or the 6th ones

  3. EFFICIENCY OF PREPARED BAITS OF LONE OR/AND ADMIXED FOUR BOTANICAL OILS ON THE VIABILITY OF SUCCESSIVE RAISED GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER TREATING THE PARENT ONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, Nagda A; El-Kady, Magda B; Tayeb, E H; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Zeinab M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is initiated to determine the toxic and delayed effects of four botanical oils on the greasy cutworm A. ipsilon, aiming to attain an alternative environmentally safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. Four botanical oils (camphor, red basil, menthol and rose oil) were added at rates of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w). The tested oils were added alone, and/or admixed at proportional rate of 1:1 in the prepared baits against the exposed 4th instar till the 6th instar larvae of the insect. The study was run under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2°C and 65±5% R.H. The results showed that the tested baits of camphor, red basil and menthol oils at concentration rates of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w) adversely affected the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated individuals of parent (p) generation. They gave more or less fewer numbers of weak unviable adult-moths, which were either sterile or they laid few numbers of infertile eggs and died before the induction of (F1) progeny. That failure could be elucidated by the rapid occurrence of drastic effects on the biological performance of both the influenced sexes of adult-moths along the period of parent's development. Finally it ended by the inhibited induction of (F1) progeny. A delayed effect of the prepared baits of rose oil at 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w), was assessed on the following raised F1, F2, F3 and F4 generations after parent's treatment. The delayed effect was detected as less efficient latent effect on each of these consequently raised generations; characterized by the gradual decrease of the number of alive immatures and adult-moths. The effect was recorded as gradual increase of dead and malformed individuals and adult-moths. In addition to the gradual decrease of deposited and/or hatched eggs up to the 4th generation, which ended by the complete failure of the development. That failure could be also attributed to the cumulated effects of the induced recessive lethal

  4. Activity of wild-type and hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins against Agrotis ipsilon

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    Maagd, de R.A.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Molthoff, J.W.; Naimov, S.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Cry1 and two Cry9 ?-endotoxins fromBacillus thuringiensis were tested for their activity against black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon).A. ipsilon was not susceptible to many toxins, but three toxins had significant activity. Cry9Ca was the most toxic, followed by Cry1Aa and Cry1Fb. Hybrids between

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the development and reproduction of the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

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    H.M. Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three substerilizing doses 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were tested against full – grown male and female pupae or against full-grown male or female pupae of Agrotis ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The decrease in egg – hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma radiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose level. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with the increase of used doses. In addition, larval and pupal durations were found to be significantly prolonged as a result of gamma- irradiation treatment. In general, the results obtained indicated that the biological action of gamma irradiation against A. ipsilon larvae was more remarkable when both crossed females and males were irradiated followed by irradiated females crossed with non-irradiated males.

  6. Biology and fertility life table of Agrotis ipsilon on artificial diet; Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Agrotis ipsilon em dieta artificial

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    Bento, Flavia de Moura Manoel; Fortes, Priscila; Zerio, Neide Graciano; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: flaviam@esalq.usp.br, pfortes@esalq.usp.br, ngzerio@esalq.usp.br, jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Magro, Sandra Regina [Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Fernandopolis, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sandra.magro@gmail.com

    2007-10-15

    The objective of this work was to develop an artificial diet to rear Agrotis ipsilon in laboratory using biological parameters and fertility life table. The artificial diet was prepared with bean, casein, soybean protein, yeast and wheat germ as protein sources. The biological aspects duration and viability of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, life span of adults, preoviposition period, egg laying capacity and fertility life table were evaluated. Six larval instars were observed comprising larval duration of 28,4 days and 93% of viability mean pupal duration of 12,4 days and viability of 96%. The total viability of the life cycle was 72%. The pupae weight was 387 mg for males and 484 mg for females. The sex ratio was 0,46 and the preoviposition period lasted one day and egg laying was 1,806 eggs per female. The net reproductive rate per generation and increase finite rate were 616,9 and 1,14, respectively. Artificial diet is adequate for rearing A. ipsilon in laboratory. (author)

  7. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...... the effects of OA and an OA receptor antagonist, mianserin, on behavioral and AL neuron responses of mature and immature males during stimulation with sex pheromone. Our results indicate that, although OA injections enhanced the behavioral pheromone response in mature males, OA had no significant effect...... a behavioral response of A. ipsilon males to sex pheromone....

  8. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect

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    Yongqiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants.

  9. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Ling; Cui, Wen-Xia; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KF163965). The length of this mitochondrial genome is 15,377 bp with an A + T content of 82.5%. There are 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes, that is, 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA gene and an A + T-rich region. The tRNA gene trnM was rearranged to the upstream of the trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Ten protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, whereas three protein-coding gene use incomplete stop codon T. The A + T-region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 332 bp and A + T content of 94.88%.

  10. Transformation of the sex pheromone signal in the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon: from peripheral input to antennal lobe output.

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    Jarriault, David; Gadenne, Christophe; Lucas, Philippe; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia

    2010-10-01

    How information is transformed along synaptic processing stages is critically important to understand the neural basis of behavior in any sensory system. In moths, males rely on sex pheromone to find their mating partner. It is essential for a male to recognize the components present in a pheromone blend, their ratio, and the temporal pattern of the signal. To examine pheromone processing mechanisms at different levels of the olfactory pathway, we performed single-cell recordings of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antenna and intracellular recordings of central neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the antennal lobe of sexually mature Agrotis ipsilon male moths, using the same pheromone stimuli, stimulation protocol, and response analyses. Detailed characteristics of the ORN and MGC-neuron responses were compared to describe the transformation of the neuronal responses that takes place in the MGC. Although the excitatory period of the response is similar in both neuron populations, the addition of an inhibitory phase following the MGC neuron excitatory phase indicates participation of local interneurons (LN), which remodel the ORN input. Moreover, MGC neurons showed a wider tuning and a higher sensitivity to single pheromone components than ORNs.

  11. Gene knockout demonstrates that vip3A contributes to the pathogenesis of Bacillus thuringiensis toward Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera exigua.

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    Donovan, W P; Donovan, J C; Engleman, J T

    2001-07-01

    Vip3A is an 89-kDa protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during vegetative growth. To determine the importance of Vip3A for the insect pathogenicity of B. thuringiensis the vip3A gene was deleted from strain HD1, yielding strain HD1Deltavip3A. Compared with HD1, strain HD1Deltavip3A was one-fourth as toxic to Agrotis ipsilon larvae and less than one-tenth as toxic to Spodoptera exigua larvae. When streptomycin was included in the S. exigua diet the toxicity of HD1Deltavip3A was approximately half that of HD1. Addition of HD1 spores increased the toxicity of purified Cry1 protein more than 600-fold against S. exigua, whereas addition of HD1Deltavip3A spores increased toxicity of Cry1 protein approximately 10-fold. These results demonstrate that an important component of B. thuringiensis insecticidal activity against S. exigua is the synthesis of Vip3A protein by B. thuringiensis cells after ingestion of spores and crystal proteins by insect larvae.

  12. Different Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on Midgut Cell Transmembrane Potential of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon Larvae

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    Wang, Yingying; Hu, Zhaonong; Wu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins from the Cry1A family demonstrate significantly different toxicities against members of the family Noctuidae for unknown reasons. In this study, membrane potential was measured and analyzed in freshly isolated midgut samples from Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae under oral administration and in vitro incubation with Bt toxin Cry1Ab to elucidate the mechanism of action for further control of these pests. Bioassay results showed that the larvae of M. separata achieved a LD50 of 258.84 ng/larva at 24 h after ingestion; M. separata larvae were at least eightfold more sensitive than A. ipsilon larvae to Cry1Ab. Force-feeding showed that the observed midgut apical-membrane potential (Vam) of M. separata larvae was significantly depolarized from −82.9 ± 6.6 mV to −19.9 ± 7.2 mV at 8 h after ingestion of 1 μg activated Cry1Ab, whereas no obvious changes were detected in A. ipsilon larvae with dosage of 5 μg Cry1Ab. The activated Cry1Ab caused a distinct concentration-dependent depolarization of the apical membrane; Vam was reduced by 50% after 14.7 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.6 min of treatment with 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL Cry1Ab, respectively. Cry1Ab showed a minimal effect on A. ipsilon larvae even at 20 μg/mL, and Vam decreased by 26.3% ± 2.3% after 15 min. The concentrations of Cry1Ab displayed no significant effect on the basolateral side of the epithelium. The Vam of A. ipsilon (−33.19 ± 6.29 mV, n = 51) was only half that of M. separata (−80.94 ± 6.95 mV, n = 75). The different degrees of sensitivity to Cry1Ab were speculatively associated with various habits, as well as the diverse physiological or biochemical characteristics of the midgut cell membranes. PMID:26694463

  13. Different Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on Midgut Cell Transmembrane Potential of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon Larvae

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    Yingying Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry toxins from the Cry1A family demonstrate significantly different toxicities against members of the family Noctuidae for unknown reasons. In this study, membrane potential was measured and analyzed in freshly isolated midgut samples from Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae under oral administration and in vitro incubation with Bt toxin Cry1Ab to elucidate the mechanism of action for further control of these pests. Bioassay results showed that the larvae of M. separata achieved a LD50 of 258.84 ng/larva at 24 h after ingestion; M. separata larvae were at least eightfold more sensitive than A. ipsilon larvae to Cry1Ab. Force-feeding showed that the observed midgut apical-membrane potential (Vam of M. separata larvae was significantly depolarized from −82.9 ± 6.6 mV to −19.9 ± 7.2 mV at 8 h after ingestion of 1 μg activated Cry1Ab, whereas no obvious changes were detected in A. ipsilon larvae with dosage of 5 μg Cry1Ab. The activated Cry1Ab caused a distinct concentration-dependent depolarization of the apical membrane; Vam was reduced by 50% after 14.7 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.6 min of treatment with 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL Cry1Ab, respectively. Cry1Ab showed a minimal effect on A. ipsilon larvae even at 20 μg/mL, and Vam decreased by 26.3% ± 2.3% after 15 min. The concentrations of Cry1Ab displayed no significant effect on the basolateral side of the epithelium. The Vam of A. ipsilon (−33.19 ± 6.29 mV, n = 51 was only half that of M. separata (−80.94 ± 6.95 mV, n = 75. The different degrees of sensitivity to Cry1Ab were speculatively associated with various habits, as well as the diverse physiological or biochemical characteristics of the midgut cell membranes.

  14. The Binding Characterization of Cry Insecticidal Proteins to the Brush Border Membrane Vesicles of Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura and Agrotis ipsilon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiong; CAO Guang-chun; ZHANG Li-li; LIANG Ge-mei; GAO Xi-wu; ZHANG Yong-jun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective biological insecticides against certain insect species. However, there are potential risks of the evolved resistance of insects to Cry toxin owing to decreased binding of toxins to target sites in the brush border membranes of the larva midgut. The Cry toxins with different binding sites in the larval midgut have been considered to be a good combination to deploy in delaying resistance evolution. Bioassay results demonstrated that the toxicity of different Cry toxins ranked differently for each species. The toxicity ranking was Cry1Ac>Cry1Ab>Cry2Ab for Helicoverpa armigera, Cry1B>Cry1C>Cry2Ab for Spodoptera exigua, and Cry2Ab>Cry1B>Cry1C for S. litura. Only Cry2Ab was toxic to Agrotis ipsilon. Binding experiments were performed with 125I-Cry1Ab, 125I-Cry1Ac, 125I-Cry1B, 125I-Cry1C, 125I-Cry2Ab and the brush border membranes vesicles (BBMV) from H. armigera, S. exigua, S. litura and A. ipsilon. The binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of H. armigera BBMV (Kd=(45.00±2.01) nmol L-1 and (12.80±0.18) nmol L-1, respectively;Bmax=(54.95±1.79) ng and (55.44±0.91) ng, separately). The binding of Cry1B was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. exigua BBMV (Kd=(23.26±1.66) nmol L-1;Bmax=(65.37±1.87) ng). The binding of 125I-Cry toxins was shown to be non-saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. litura and A. ipsilon BBMV. In contrast, Cry1B and Cry1C showed some combination with the BBMV of S. litura, and a certain amount of Cry2Ab could bind to the BBMV of A. ipsilon. These observations suggest that a future strategy could be devised for the focused combination of specific cry genes in transgenic crops to control target pests, widen the spectrum of insecticide effectiveness and postpone insect resistance evolution.

  15. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  16. Udbredelsen af Eupithecia innotata (Hufnagel, 1767) og E. ochridata Schütze & Pinker, 1968 i Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švitra, Giedrius; Vilhelmsen, Flemming; Karsholt, Ole

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the distribution of E. innotata (Hufnagel) and E. ochridata Schütze & Pinker in Denmark we examined 1053 specimens of this species-pair. Altogether 397 genitalia preparations were made (269 of E. innotata and 128 of E. ochridata) using standard methods: Genitalia were prepared b...

  17. Agrotis Ochsenheimer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): a systematic analysis of South American species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Blas, Germán

    2014-03-03

    The genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) contains about 300 described species distributed worldwide, excepting the Poles. For South America 93 species have been described. Different diagnostic characters have been proposed for species from the northern Hemisphere, mostly from male genitalia. Recently, numerous South American species of the genus have been transferred to other genera. In this work, a systematic revision was undertaken of the South American species of Agrotis, restricting to 20 the number of species of this genus for the region and transferring the other species to different genera and/or synonymizing with other species.Based on a detailed study of the external morphology and genitalia of both sexes, several nomen clatural changes are proposed. New generic synonymy: Mesembreuxoa Hampson = Feltia Walker. New Agrotis synonymies include: Scotia forsteri Köhler = A. propriens (Dyar); Agrotis peruviana hampsoni Draudt, Rhizagrotis triclava Draudt, and Euxoa andina Köhler = A. peruviana (Hampson); Lycophotia achromatica Hampson, Feltia malefida patagiata Aurivillius, Prout and Meyrick, Agrotis psammophila Köhler, and Scotia (Feltia) canietensis Köhler = A. malefida Guenée; Chorizagrotis benefida Draudt = A. experta (Walker); Agrotis livens Köhler and Agrotis capayana Köhler = A. araucaria (Hampson). Species transferred to Feltia Walker tent. include: Scotia aspersula Köhler, n. comb.; Porosagrotis brachystria Hampson, n. comb.; Agrotis carrascoi Köhler, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa chilensis Hampson, n. comb.; Euxoa clavisigna Dognin, n. comb.; Euxoa conifrons Draudt, n. comb.; Agrotis consternans Hayes, n. comb.; Euxoa coquimbensis Hampson, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa fasicola Dyar, n. comb.; Chorizagrotis forasmicans Köhler, n. comb.; Agrotis giselae León, n. comb.; Agrotis gypaetina Guenée, n. comb.; Agrotis hispidula Guenée, n. comb.; Euxoa incarum Cockerell, n. comb.; Agrotis india Köhler, n. comb.; Scotia mansa Köhler, n

  18. Fluctuación poblacional de los principales insectos fitófagos y sus enemigos naturales en el cultivo de alcachofa en el valle de Ica

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani Gutierrez, Dina Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Manejo Integrado de Plagas El trabajo de investigación se desarrolló en el distrito de Santiago, departamento de Ica, en el cultivo de alcachofa cultivar “Lorca”, con el objetivo de determinar la fluctuación poblacional de los principales insectos fitófagos y sus enemigos naturales. Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) y Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) se presentaron en bajas poblaciones princ...

  19. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Agrotis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Description of a new species of the genus Agrotis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Germán San Blas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Noctuidae: Agrotis leucovenata sp. nov. Esta se distribuye en la estepa patagónica de la provincia de Neuquén, en Argentina. Se discuten los caracteres propios de la nueva especie, que la diferencian de otras especies similares del género.Agrotis leucovenata sp. nov., a new species of Noctuidae, is described and illustrated. This species is distributed in the Patagonian steppe of Neuquén province, Argentina. Characteristic traits of the new species which differentiate it from similar species of the genus are discussed.

  20. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Agrotis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    SAN BLAS Germán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Noctuidae: Agrotis leucovenata sp. nov. Esta se distribuye en la estepa patagónica de la provincia de Neuquén, en Argentina. Se discuten los caracteres propios de la nueva especie, que la diferencian de otras especies similares del género.

  1. [Rezensionen zu:] Gerhard Menk: Vom Bismarckianer zum Liberalen: der Politiker und Lehrer Otto Hufnagel (1885-1944) in Waldeck und Frankfurt am Main. Erster Band: Darstellung, Marburg: N.G.Elwert 2006, VIII + 972 S., ISBN 978-3-7708-1297-4 : Gerhard Menk (Hg.): Vom Bismarckianer zum Liberalen: der Politiker und Lehrer Otto Hufnagel (1885-1944) in Waldeck und Frankfurt am Main. Zweiter Band: Dokumente, Marburg: N.G.Elwert 2006, VI + 776 S., ISBN 978-3-7708-1298-1

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrmeir, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Otto Hufnagel war bis vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg ein typischer wilhelminischer Bildungsbürger. Er wurde 1885 als Sohn eines protestantischen Frankfurter Volksschullehrers und Veteranen des Kriegs von 1870 geboren, legte 1905 das Abitur ab und studierte in Heidelberg und Leipzig Geschichte, Deutsch und Latein. Während die kontroverse Bewertung seiner Dissertation zeigte, dass (nur) ein Teil der Leipziger Historiker in ihm ein wissenschaftliches Talent sah, waren auch die Skeptiker sicher, dass e...

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on potato cutworm Agrotis segetum Schiffer-Mueller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, R.M.; Kumar, A. (Himachal Pradesh Univ., Simla (India). Dept. of Bio-sciences)

    1982-11-01

    Larvae of Agrotis segetum were collected from potato fields. The larvae were kept in petri dishes in an incubator, under controlled conditions of temperature (27 +- 0.5 /sup 0/C) and an alternate photoperiod (12L : 12 D). The larvae were fed on fresh potato leaves. Fifth instar larvae from laboratory-reared insects (after third generation) were gamma irradiated at different doses of 0, 50, 100 and 150 Gy. For each dose 20 larvae were irradiated and daily observations were made on postirradiation mortality. Similarly 5 day old pupae from laboratory-reared insects were irradiated at doses of 0, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy. For each dose 20 pupae were irradiated and adults which emerged out were mated with normal females to see the egg laying and their hatchability percentage. The mortality as well as the number of eggs laid and the hatchability percentage were dose-dependent. A sterility dose is proposed between 50-75 Gy in 5 day old pupae.

  3. Susceptibility of Agrotis segetum (noctuidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis and analysis of midgut proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Sauer, Annette Juliane; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir; Stephan, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-eight Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were selected for a screening against the Lepidoptera species Agrotis segetum to search the higher insecticidal activity. In a preliminary bioassay, the spore-crystal mixture of 78 B. thuringiensis isolates was tested against L1 larvae of A. segetum. Fifty-two isolates had more than 60% corrected mortality after 3 days. Seven isolates caused a corrected mortality of 100% on A. segetum. Twelve isolates were selected for a second bioassay investigating the effect of the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) against third-instar larvae. After 7 days, the weight gain and the larval stage of each larva were recorded. This bioassay showed an aberration in larval growth increases, morphology, and weight gain. After plasmid pattern analysis, the most active strains are most likely B. thuringiensis kurstaki strains expressing the Vip3A toxin. The absence of two proteinase activities observed in the case of Cry1Ac would be the consequence of the difference in susceptibility of A. segetum to the toxins used.

  4. Olfactory protocerebral pathways processing sex pheromone and plant odor information in the male moth Agrotis segetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, H; Anton, S; Hansson, B S

    2001-04-01

    We investigated protocerebral processing of behaviorally relevant signals in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. Single neurons were studied both physiologically and morphologically using intracellular recording techniques. In moth pheromone communication systems, the presence of the complete, female-produced pheromone blend is necessary for male attraction. We predicted that more protocerebral neurons, compared with AL, would display blend interactions. However, only a few protocerebral neurons responded differently to the blend than could be deduced from the response to single components. The majority of the pheromone-sensitive protocerebral neurons identified in this study responded to the major pheromone component. In coding time, most AL neurons can follow a 5-Hz odor stimulus, whereas most protocerebral neurons failed at higher frequencies than 1 Hz. The majority of neurons that responded to the odorants tested innervated one or both of the protocerebral lateral accessory lobes. If only one of these was innervated, then the innervation always displayed a varicose appearance, suggesting a presynaptic function. Thus, information seems to be transferred from other protocerebral areas to the lateral accessory lobes. Into these, descending neurons sent smooth, postsynaptic branches. A majority of the neurons innervating the superior medial protocerebrum were found to display single-component specificity. Few additional correlations between odor specificity and structural characteristics were apparent.

  5. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWarrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they hibernate over the summer months (referred to as aestivation. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their aestivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear

  6. Examination of the biological effects of high anionic peroxidase production in tobacco plants grown under field conditions. I. Insect pest damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Lagrimini, L Mark

    2006-04-01

    At least 25 wild type and high peroxidase tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. plants were examined semiweekly over several weeks for pest insect distribution and damage in a 2 year field study. Incidence and/or severity of naturally occurring caterpillar damage (dingy cutworm (Feltia ducens Walker), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.), and false tobacco budworm (= corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)) was significantly reduced at several sample dates for high peroxidase vs. wild type plants. These results parallel those of prior laboratory studies with caterpillars. The number of adult whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) per plant was significantly reduced on high peroxidase compared to wild type plants on most sample dates in both years. The number of plants with leaves containing >100 aphids (primarily Myzus persicae Sulzer) per leaf on high peroxidase plants was significantly lower that on wild type plants after an equivalent invasion period in both years. A significantly higher proportion of aphids were found dead on leaf five of high peroxidase compared to wild type plants at most sample dates in both years. These results indicate that high peroxidase plants have resistance to a wide range of insects, implicating this enzyme as a broad range resistance mechanism.

  7. Agrotis segetum midgut putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16 differs from that of Cry1Ac toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Boukedi, Hanen; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Considering the fact that Agrotis segetum is one of the most pathogenic insects to vegetables and cereals in the world, particularly in Africa, the mode of action of Vip3Aa16 of Bacillus thuringiensis BUPM95 and Cry1Ac of the recombinant strain BNS3Cry-(pHTcry1Ac) has been examined in this crop pest. A. segetum proteases activated the Vip3Aa16 protoxin (90kDa) yielding three bands of about 62, 45, 22kDa and the activated form of the toxin was active against this pest with an LC50 of about 86n...

  8. Functional evolution of a multigene family: orthologous and paralogous pheromone receptor genes in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Zhang

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs, for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z-5-decenyl, (Z-7-dodecenyl and (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z-5-decenyl acetate, (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08029-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Agrotis ipsilon cytoplasmic actin ... 247 9e-64 FJ372564_1( FJ372564 |pid:none) Sedum alfredii i... mRNA for cytoplasmic gamma-actin. 244 4e-63 FJ372563_1( FJ372563 |pid:none) Sedum alfredii isolate Heact1 a

  10. 小地老虎UV视蛋白基因的克隆及序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of UV Opsin in Agrotis ypsilon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫硕; 张青文; 熊晓菲; 韩娜娜; 王琼; 张璟; 刘小侠

    2012-01-01

    视蛋白是感光物质的重要组成成分,是动物感知周围光环境的重要途径之一.本文以小地老虎(Agrotis ypsilon)3日龄成虫为材料,利用RT-PCR和RACE末端扩增技术克隆得到小地老虎UV视蛋白基因的cDNA序列.序列分析表明,小地老虎视蛋白基因的cDNA序列1 632 bp,包括一个1 140 bp的完整开放阅读框架,编码379个氨基酸,理论蛋白分子量(Mw) 41.50 ku,等电点(pI) 7.56.GenBank登录号为JN185654.UV视蛋白包括7个跨膜拓扑结构和一个G蛋白偶联受体家族,第107位赖氨酸与UV视蛋白的紫外敏感性有重要关系.同源性分析显示,小地老虎UV视蛋白基因与其他昆虫的UV视蛋白基因具有较高同源性.本研究对深入探究UV视蛋白在动物夜行生活中的作用具有重要意义.%Opsin is the main content of photoactive substances, and it is important for the light perception of animals. Total RNA was isolated from the third day adult of the Agrotis ypsilon. The cDNA sequence was cloned by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). UV opsin cDNA sequence is 1 632 bp in length, containing an open reading frame of 1 140 bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 379 amino acids residues. The predicted molecular weight of the amino acid is about 41. 50 ku,with an isoelectric point of 7. 56. GenBank accession number; JN185654. The analysis of phylogenetic relationship showed that the cloned gene had high amino acid sequences homology with other insect UV opsins. The molecular cloning of UV opsin gene may play an important role in the study of nocturnal insect vision in the night.

  11. Insecticidal activity of Vip3Aa, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af from Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran corn pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Rie, Jeroen Van; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Vip3Aa, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda and Agrotis ipsilon. Vip3Ad was non-toxic to the two species. Vip3Ae and Vip3Af were significantly more toxic than Vip3Aa against S. frugiperda, both as protoxins and as toxins. Against A. ipsilon, Vip3Ae protoxin was more toxic than Vip3Aa and Vip3Af protoxins. Purification by metal-chelate affinity chromatography significantly affected Vip3Ae toxicity against the two insect species.

  12. Use of natural enemies and biorational pest control of corne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the potential use of natural enemies and biorational insecticides for control of main pests of corn in thestate of Sinaloa is presented. A discuss on their composition, dosage, toxicity and type of effect on beneficial organisms(natural enemies and pollinators is too included. The work revealed that is possible implement the use of these natural enemies and products for the control of neonate larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda fall armyworm (J. E Smith with Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow (Samson; against thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande using the nematodes Steinernema riobravis (Cabanillas and Poinar, S. feltiae (Filipjev and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar at doses of 10,000 IJ (4x10 ~ IJ/m; against the corn silk fly Euxesta stigmatias (Loew encouraging the natural parasitism of Spalangia sp., while for the cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel can be with spinosad (soluble concentrate at doses of 0.123 kg a. i, and to the corn earwormHelicoverpa zea (Boddie using the analog of methoxyfenozide molting hormone (24% at 144 mg of a. i/L. The biorational control agents that not affect significantly to the natural enemies were the nucleopoliedrosis virus SfMNPV and SeMNPV; N. rileyi and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize; Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier; the azadirachtin (neem and parasitoids. In the case of products of chemical synthesis: Spinosad, oxymatrine and bifenthrin showed high rates of mortality in the control of corn pests, so these are considered as of high and moderate risk to Aphis mellifera (L. bees, the methoxyfenozide presented relatively low toxicity to natural enemies. In general, biorational products have repellent effect on larvae and adults of these insects, inhibit feeding and induce molting, also causing deformities and impede the development and growth, too interfere with sexual intercourse and copulate, reducing the oviposition, as well as cause sterility of adults, so these may also constitute a risk to

  13. Toxicity Evaluation of Four Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against Agrotis ypsilon%四株对小地老虎有活性的苏云金芽胞杆菌的毒力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓垒; 王品舒; 束长龙; 王秀丽; 郝再彬; 张永军; 宋福平

    2012-01-01

    本文对4株苏云金芽胞杆菌Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)的杀虫基因类型、杀虫蛋白表达类型、蛋白表达量以及杀虫活性进行了初步的评价分析。菌株PS9-D12和PS9-C12的基因类型与蛋白表达类型丰富,且其杀虫蛋白表达量是对照菌株HD-1的1.7倍。在相同培养条件下,制备菌株胞晶混合冻干粉对小地老虎Agrotis ypsilon的生测结果显示,菌株HD-1、PS9-D12、PS9-C12、PS9-D11和PS9-H9的LC50分别为0.71、0.19、0.14、0.24和1.16 mg·g^-1,菌株PS9-D12和PS9-C12的杀虫活性显著高于菌株HD-1(P〈0.05);此4株菌株对小菜蛾Plutella xylostella幼虫的校正死亡率均大于78%,它们对甜菜夜蛾Spodoptera exigua幼虫的活性均高于菌株HD-1;而对大猿叶甲Colaphellus bowringi幼虫均无活性。可见菌株PS9-D12和PS9-C12比商业化生产的HD-1有更好的杀虫活性,可作为Bt杀虫剂的候选材料。%The types of insecticidal genes and expressed proteins,expressed protein contents and insecticidal activity of four Bacillus thuringiensis strains were evaluated in this study.Results indicated that more types of insecticidal gene and protein were found in the strains PS9-D12 and PS9-C12 and the amount of expressed protein in PS9-D12 and PS9-C12 was 1.7 fold that in HD-1.Bioassay results with crystal-spore powder of the strains prepared against Agrotis ypsilon in the same cultured condition showed that the LC50 value of strains HD-1,PS9-D12,PS9-C12,PS9-D11and PS9-H9 were 0.71,0.19,0.14,0.24 and 1.16 mg· g^- 1,respectively.The virulence of the strains PS9-D12 and PS9-C12 was significantly higher than that of the strain HD-1(P〈0.05).The toxicity of 4 strains in this study to larvae of Plutella xylostella with mortality of more than 78%,and more virulent to larvae of Spodoptera exigua than that of HD-1,but no insecticidal activity to larvae of Colaphellus bowringi.All results suggest that PS9-D12 and PS9-C12 with higher insecticidal activity than

  14. The Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A lyses midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, C G; Mullins, M A; Warren, G W; Koziel, M G; Estruch, J J

    1997-01-01

    The Vip3A protein is a member of a newly discovered class of vegetative insecticidal proteins with activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran insects. Histopathological observations indicate that Vip3A ingestion by susceptible insects such as the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) causes gut paralysis at concentrations as low as 4 ng/cm2 of diet and complete lysis of gut epithelium cells resulting in larval death at concentrations above 40 ng/cm2....

  15. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran insects.

    OpenAIRE

    Estruch, J J; Warren, G W; Mullins, M A; Nye, G J; Craig, J. A.; Koziel, M G

    1996-01-01

    A novel vegetative insecticidal gene, vip3A(a), whose gene product shows activity against lepidopteran insect larvae including black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) has been isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. VIP3-insecticidal gene homologues have been detected in approximately 15% of Bacillus strains analyzed. The sequence of the vip3A(...

  16. Insecticidal Effect of Transgenic Tobacco Harboring cry2Ab4 or vip3Aa11 Gene on Agrotis ypsilon%转cry2Ab4和vip3Aa11基因烟草对小地老虎杀虫效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高川; 郎志宏; 朱莉; 宋福平; 张永军; 张杰; 黄大昉

    2012-01-01

    小地老虎严重危害农业生产,通过转基因技术提高作物对小地老虎的杀虫效果是一条切实可行的途径.cry2Ab4和vip3Aa11是从苏云金芽胞杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis,Bt)中克隆到的两个杀虫基因.分别构建了pCS2Ab和pCSvip3A两种植物表达载体,利用农杆菌介导法转化烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)NC89,并得到32株和35株阳性转基因植株.通过对其进行RT-PCR分析、Western杂交分子检测证实两种外源基因在烟草植株中可以正常表达.人工饲喂初龄小地老虎幼虫,对两种转基因植株进行生物活性检测,结果显示饲喂转基因叶片的小地老虎幼虫死亡率在82%以上,抗虫能力比对照显著提高,转vip3A植株抗虫效果优于转cry2Ab植株.%Agrotis ypsilon is a destructive pest in agricultural production. The way to improve crop resistance against Agrotis ypsilon by genetic manipulation is available. Previously,the cry2Ab4 gene and vip3Aall gene were cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis. Two plant expressive vectors pCS2Ab and pCSvip3A harboring cry2Ab4 gene and vip3Aall gene were constructed and transferred into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L. ) NC89 by Agrobacterium mediated method. 32 and 35 positive regenerated plants were obtained and confirmed by PCR,RT-PCR and Western blot,respectively. The insect-resistant capability in the transgenic tobacco plants with pCS2Ab and pCSvip3A vectors had also been detected by bioassay. The mortality of Agrotis ypsilon larvae fed with leaves from transgenic plants was above 82% ,which was significantly more than the contrast. The insecticidal activity of transgenic tobacco harboring vip3Aa11 gene is higher than that of transgenic tobacco with cry2Ab4 gene.

  17. Selective toxicity of three amide pesticides to black cutworm Agrotis ypsilon and earthworm Eisenia foetida%三种双酰胺类杀虫剂对小地老虎和蚯蚓的选择毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军辉; 于伟丽; 王猛; 张灿光; 慕卫

    2013-01-01

    To screen effective insecticides,the laboratory toxicities of 11 insecticides to 3rd instar black cutworm Agrotis ypsilon (Rottemberg) were measured using leaf-dipping method.And both artificial soil method and contact filter method were used to determine the acute response of these insecticides to earthworm Eisenia foetida (Savigny).In addition,pot experiment was done at the same time.The results revealed the toxicity of cyantraniliprole,chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide were significantly higher than that of other eight insecticides.The acute response of these insecticides to earthworm showed that the LC50 values of cyantraniliprole,chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide belonged to the inferior toxic category.The selective toxicity of cyantraniliprole was the highest.The control effect of three new amide pesticides to A.ypsilon was lower than that of other pesticides and they were all safe to earthworm using toxic soil method.There is no significant difference compared with the protection effect on seedling of 10% cyantraniliprole dispersible oil suspension and other pesticides,but significantly higher than 5% chlorantraniliprole suspension and 20% carbosulfan emulsifiable concentrate.In conclusion,cyantraniliprole could be chosen as the ideal pesticide against black cutworm A.ypsilon in cotton field.%为筛选出高效安全的土壤处理杀虫剂,室内采用浸叶法比较了溴氰虫酰胺、氯虫苯甲酰胺、氟虫双酰胺与8种常规杀虫剂对小地老虎的毒力,用滤纸接触法和人工土壤法分别测定了11种药剂对蚯蚓的急性毒性,并通过盆栽试验比较了其对小地老虎和蚯蚓的选择毒性.结果表明,3种双酰胺类杀虫剂对小地老虎的室内毒力明显高于其它8种对照药剂,对蚯蚓的LC50均属于低毒级,其中以溴氰虫酰胺的毒力选择性最高.盆栽试验中双酰胺类药剂防虫效果均低于其它对照药剂,10%溴氰虫酰胺可分散油悬

  18. Amélioration des activités insecticides des protéines Vip3 de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh SELLAMI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vip3 proteins were considered as a second generation of biopesticides. They are synthesized and secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative growth phase. Vip3 proteins, which are discovered in 1990, are of great interest for the control of Lepidopteran insects pests such as Agrotis ipsilon, Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera frugiperda. Many researches were conducted on the Vip3 proteins in order to enlarge their spectrum, improve their insecticidal activities and resolve the problems of resistance that appeared recently after the massive use of δ-endotoxins, considered as first generation of biopesticides. In this review, we tried to summarize research studies interested in the improvement of the insecticidal activities of Vip3 proteins.

  19. Udbredelsen af Eupithecia innotata (Hufnagel, 1767) og E. ochridata Schütze & Pinker, 1968 i Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švitra, Giedrius; Vilhelmsen, Flemming; Karsholt, Ole

    2012-01-01

    . innotata it has step-like bend on both sides, while in E. ochridata it has no bend and generally is oval-shaped. 3. Ductus seminalis in E. innotata enters from the right side of corpus bursa (seen from dorsal side), while in E. ochridata it enters from the central or left side. We compared specimens...

  20. A screening of five Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins for their activity against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Banyuls, Núria; Bel, Yolanda; Maeztu, Mireya; Escriche, Baltasar; Muñoz, Delia; Caballero, Primitivo; Ferré, Juan

    2014-03-01

    Five Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins (Vip3Aa, Vip3Ab, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af) and their corresponding trypsin-activated toxins were tested for their toxicity against eight lepidopteran pests: Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Mamestra brassicae, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, Ostrinia nubilalis and Lobesia botrana. Toxicity was first tested at a high dose at 7 and 10 days. No major differences were found when comparing protoxins vs. trypsin-activated toxins. The proteins that were active against most of the insect species were Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af, followed by Vip3Ab. Vip3Ad was non-toxic to any of the species tested. Considering the results by insect species, A. ipsilon, S. frugiperda and S. littoralis were susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ab, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af; S. exigua was susceptible to Vip3Aa and Vip3Ae, and moderately susceptible to Vip3Ab; M. brassicae and L. botrana were susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af; H. armigera was moderately susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af, and O. nubilalis was tolerant to all Vip3 proteins tested, although it showed some susceptibility to Vip3Af. The results obtained will help to design new combinations of insecticidal protein genes in transgenic crops or in recombinant bacteria for the control of insect pests.

  1. Phenology and pest status of Agrotis segetum in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Peter; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    an economically important attack of A.segetum is challenging because of the early emergence of A.segetum and more variable local weather conditions than 20 years ago; forecasting relies on the timely and correct delivery of monitoring results. Farmers are a vital source of information for monitoring...

  2. In-silico determination of insecticidal potential of Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein against Lepidopteran targets using molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab eAhmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study and research of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic plants have opened new ways to combat insect pests. Over the decades, however, insect pests, especially the Lepidopteran, have developed tolerance against Bt delta-endotoxins. Such issues can be addressed through the development of novel toxins with greater toxicity and affinity against a broad range of insect receptors. In this computational study, functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin (Cry1Ac insecticidal protein and vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa have been fused to develop a broad-range Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa are non-homologous insecticidal proteins possessing receptors against different targets within the midgut of insects. The insecticidal proteins were fused to broaden the insecticidal activity. Molecular docking analysis of the fusion protein against aminopeptidase-N (APN and cadherin receptors of five Lepidopteran insects (Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura revealed that the Ser290, Ser293, Leu337, Thr340 and Arg437 residues of the fusion protein are involved in the interaction with insect receptors. The Helicoverpa armigera cadherin receptor, however, showed no interaction, which might be due to either loss or burial of interactive residues inside the fusion protein. These findings revealed that the Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein has a strong affinity against Lepidopteran insect receptors and hence has a potential to be an efficient broad-range insecticidal protein.

  3. Horizontal gene transfer of a bacterial insect toxin gene into the Epichloë fungal symbionts of grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M.; Belanger, Faith C.

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is recognized as an important factor in genome evolution, particularly when the newly acquired gene confers a new capability to the recipient species. We identified a gene similar to the makes caterpillars floppy (mcf1 and mcf2) insect toxin genes in Photorhabdus, bacterial symbionts of nematodes, in the genomes of the Epichloë fungi, which are intercellular symbionts of grasses. Infection by Epichloë spp. often confers insect resistance to the grass hosts, largely due to the production of fungal alkaloids. A mcf-like gene is present in all of the Epichloë genome sequences currently available but in no other fungal genomes. This suggests the Epichloë genes were derived from a single lineage-specific HGT event. Molecular dating was used to estimate the time of the HGT event at between 7.2 and 58.8 million years ago. The mcf-like coding sequence from Epichloë typhina subsp. poae was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. E. coli cells expressing the Mcf protein were toxic to black cutworms (Agrotis ipsilon), whereas E. coli cells containing the vector only were non-toxic. These results suggest that the Epichloë mcf-like genes may be a component, in addition to the fungal alkaloids, of the insect resistance observed in Epichloë-infected grasses. PMID:24990771

  4. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, J J; Warren, G W; Mullins, M A; Nye, G J; Craig, J A; Koziel, M G

    1996-05-28

    A novel vegetative insecticidal gene, vip3A(a), whose gene product shows activity against lepidopteran insect larvae including black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) has been isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. VIP3-insecticidal gene homologues have been detected in approximately 15% of Bacillus strains analyzed. The sequence of the vip3A(b) gene, a homologue of vip3A(a) isolated from B. thuringiensis strain AB424 is also reported. Vip3A(a) and (b) proteins confer upon Escherichia coli insecticidal activity against the lepidopteran insect larvae mentioned above. The sequence of the gene predicts a 791-amino acid (88.5 kDa) protein that contains no homology with known proteins. Vip3A insecticidal proteins are secreted without N-terminal processing. Unlike the B. thuringiensis 5-endotoxins, whose expression is restricted to sporulation, Vip3A insecticidal proteins are expressed in the vegetative stage of growth starting at mid-log phase as well as during sporulation. Vip3A represents a novel class of proteins insecticidal to lepidopteran insect larvae.

  5. The Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A lyses midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C G; Mullins, M A; Warren, G W; Koziel, M G; Estruch, J J

    1997-02-01

    The Vip3A protein is a member of a newly discovered class of vegetative insecticidal proteins with activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran insects. Histopathological observations indicate that Vip3A ingestion by susceptible insects such as the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) causes gut paralysis at concentrations as low as 4 ng/cm2 of diet and complete lysis of gut epithelium cells resulting in larval death at concentrations above 40 ng/cm2. The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), a nonsusceptible insect, does not develop any pathology upon ingesting Vip3A. While proteolytic processing of the Vip3A protein by midgut fluids obtained from susceptible and nonsusceptible insects is comparable, in vivo immunolocalization studies show that Vip3a binding is restricted to gut cells of susceptible insects. Therefore, the insect host range for Vip3A seems to be determined by its ability to bind gut cells. These results indicate that midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects are the primary target for the Vip3A insecticidal protein and that their subsequent lysis is the primary mechanism of lethality. Disruption of gut cells appears to be the strategy adopted by the most effective insecticidal proteins.

  6. In-Silico Determination of Insecticidal Potential of Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac Fusion Protein Against Lepidopteran Targets Using Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Javed, Muhammad R; Rao, Abdul Q; Khan, Muhammad A U; Ahad, Ammara; Din, Salah Ud; Shahid, Ahmad A; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Study and research of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) transgenic plants have opened new ways to combat insect pests. Over the decades, however, insect pests, especially the Lepidopteran, have developed tolerance against Bt delta-endotoxins. Such issues can be addressed through the development of novel toxins with greater toxicity and affinity against a broad range of insect receptors. In this computational study, functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin (Cry1Ac) insecticidal protein and vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa) have been fused to develop a broad-range Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa are non-homologous insecticidal proteins possessing receptors against different targets within the midgut of insects. The insecticidal proteins were fused to broaden the insecticidal activity. Molecular docking analysis of the fusion protein against aminopeptidase-N (APN) and cadherin receptors of five Lepidopteran insects (Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera exigua, and Spodoptera litura) revealed that the Ser290, Ser293, Leu337, Thr340, and Arg437 residues of the fusion protein are involved in the interaction with insect receptors. The Helicoverpa armigera cadherin receptor, however, showed no interaction, which might be due to either loss or burial of interactive residues inside the fusion protein. These findings revealed that the Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein has a strong affinity against Lepidopteran insect receptors and hence has a potential to be an efficient broad-range insecticidal protein.

  7. The GPCR membrane receptor, DopEcR, mediates the actions of both dopamine and ecdysone to control sex pheromone perception in an insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eAbrieux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory information mediating sexual behavior is crucial for reproduction in many animals, including insects. In male moths, the macroglomerular complex of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL is specialized in the treatment of information on the female-emitted sex pheromone. Evidence is accumulating that modulation of behavioral pheromone responses occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. We recently showed that a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, AipsDopEcR, with its homologue known in Drosophila for its double affinity to the main insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, and dopamine (DA, present in the ALs, is involved in the behavioral response to pheromone in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Here we tested the role of AipsDopEcR as compared to nuclear 20E receptors in central pheromone processing combining receptor inhibition with intracellular recordings of AL neurons. We show that the sensitivity of AL neurons for the pheromone in males decreases strongly after AipsDopEcR-dsRNA injection but also after inhibition of nuclear 20E receptors. Moreover we tested the involvement of 20E and DA in the receptor-mediated behavioral modulation in wind tunnel experiments, using ligand applications and receptor inhibition treatments. We show that both ligands are necessary and act on AipsDopEcR-mediated behavior. Altogether these results indicate that the GPCR membrane receptor, AipsDopEcR, controls sex pheromone perception through the action of both 20E and DA in the central nervous system, probably in concert with 20E action through nuclear receptors.

  8. Single-stranded DNA fragments of insect-specific nuclear polyhedrosis virus act as selective DNA insecticides for gypsy moth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the DNA insecticides as a novel preparation against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) based on DNA fragments of the anti-apoptotic gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus. It was found that the external application of a solution with two single-stranded DNA fragments from BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV (L.dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene induces a significantly higher mortality of gypsy moth caterpillars in comparison with the application of the control solutions. This effect does not depend on the infection of caterpillars with LdMNPV. The results also show that DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV IAP-3 gene fragments can be selective in action, and at least are not harmful to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon). Part of the gypsy moth genome cloned with the fragments of BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV IAP-3 gene as primers, has an overlap with the corresponding part of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene and L.dispar IAP-1 mRNA for an inhibitor of apoptosis protein with the high cover by query, allows assuming that we cloned a part of gypsy moth anti-apoptosis gene. This finding gives the grounding that proposed here DNA insecticides might act through the blocking of the mechanisms involved in post transcriptional expression of insect anti-apoptosis genes. The results show the insecticidal potential of the viral genome fragments that can be used to create safe and relatively fast-acting DNA insecticides to control the quantity of gypsy moth populations, important task for forestry and agriculture.

  9. Insecticidal spectrum and mode of action of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Ca insecticidal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis-Cebolla, Joaquín; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Vera-Velasco, Natalia Mara; Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Ceballos, Tomás; Palma, Leopoldo; Escriche, Baltasar; Caballero, Primitivo; Ferré, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The Vip3Ca protein, discovered in a screening of Spanish collections of Bacillus thuringiensis, was known to be toxic to Chrysodeixis chalcites, Mamestra brassicae and Trichoplusia ni. In the present study, its activity has been tested with additional insect species and we found that Cydia pomonella is moderately susceptible to this protein. Vip3Ca (of approximately 90kDa) was processed to an approximately 70kDa protein when incubated with midgut juice in all tested species. The kinetics of proteolysis correlated with the susceptibility of the insect species to Vip3Ca. The activation was faster to slower in the following order: M. brassicae (susceptible), Spodoptera littoralis (moderately susceptible), Agrotis ipsilon and Ostrinia nubilalis (slightly susceptible). Processing Vip3Ca by O. nubilalis or M. brassicae midgut juice did not significantly changed its toxicity to either insect species, indicating that the low susceptibility of O. nubilalis is not due to a problem in the midgut processing of the toxin. M. brassicae larvae fed with Vip3Ca showed binding of this toxin to the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells. Histopathological inspection showed sloughing of the epithelial cells with further disruption, which suggests that the mode of action of Vip3Ca is similar to that described for Vip3Aa. Biotin-labeled Vip3Ca and Vip3Aa bound specifically to M. brassicae brush border membrane vesicles and both toxins competed for binding sites. This result suggests that insects resistant to Vip3A may also be cross-resistant to Vip3C, which has implications for Insect Resistance Management (IRM).

  10. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Smigocki

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  11. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigocki, Ann C; Ivic-Haymes, Snezana; Li, Haiyan; Savić, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  12. Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Deisig

    Full Text Available Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants, mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization.

  13. 虫草菌感染地老虎幼虫的研究%Research on Agrotis larvae infected by"insect herb"fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵恒; 屈新兰

    2000-01-01

    本文报道了两种虫草菌在室内接种感染地老虎幼虫的结果.不同种性的虫草菌,对虫体感染要求的条件存在较大差别.代寄主虫被感染后能否形成菌核,当视虫草菌和昆虫体同步生长的吻合程度.

  14. A Background of a Volatile Plant Compound Alters Neural and Behavioral Responses to the Sex Pheromone Blend in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Fabienne; Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Anton, Sylvia; Renou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of intra-specific olfactory signals within a complex environment of plant-related volatiles is crucial for reproduction in male moths. Sex pheromone information is detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons (Phe-ORNs), highly abundant on the male antenna. The information is then transmitted to the pheromone processing macroglomerular complex (MGC) within the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, where it is processed by local interneurons and projection neurons. Ultimately a behavioral response, orientation toward the pheromone source, is elicited. Volatile plant compounds (VPCs) are detected by other functional types of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) projecting in another area of the antennal lobe. However, Phe-ORNs also respond to some VPCs. Female-produced sex pheromones are emitted within a rich environment of VPCs, some of which have been shown to interfere with the detection and processing of sex pheromone information. As interference between the different odor sources might depend on the spatial and temporal features of the two types of stimuli, we investigated here behavioral and neuronal responses to a brief sex pheromone blend pulse in a VPC background as compared to a control background in the male noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. We observed male orientation behavior in a wind tunnel and recorded responses of Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons to a brief sex pheromone pulse within a background of individual VPCs. We also recorded the global input signal to the MGC using in vivo calcium imaging with the same stimulation protocol. We found that VPCs eliciting a response in Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons masked responses to the pheromone and decreased the contrast between background odor and the sex pheromone at both levels, whereas α-pinene did not interfere with first order processing. The calcium signal produced in response to a VPC background was tonic, lasting longer than the VPC stimulus duration, and masked entirely the pheromone response

  15. Cloning, Expression and Analysis of Insecticidal Activity of a Novel vip 3A a-type Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis%苏云金芽胞杆菌新型vip3Aa基因的克隆、表达与活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓明; 束长龙; 刘晓垒; 李海涛; 高继国; 张杰; 宋福平

    2011-01-01

    To find novel vip3 genes, the vip3-type genes in 72 Bt stains were identified by PCR method and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) system. The results indicated that three vip3 gene types, vip3Aa, vip3Af and vip3Ba were found in 18 positive strains. A full-length vip3 gene fragment, which obtained by PCR amplification with a pair of primers designed according to lupJ-type gene sequences and DNA from T03B001 (B. Thuringiensis subsp. Sumiyoshiensis) as template, was introduced into expression vector pEB and transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). At low temperatures, a peptide of 88 kD was expressed by IPTG induction. Theencoded protein was composed of 789 amino acid rsidues. It shared a 96% sequence homology with Vip3Aa protein. This gene designated as vip3A a39 by International Nomenclature Committee of Bt endotoxin, GenBank accession No. Was HMI17631. Vip3Aal 1 protein was obtained in our previous study, 39 amino acid residues were found to be different between the Vip3Aa39 and Vip3Aal 1 proteins. Insecticidal activities of soluble expressed products of vip3Aa39 and vip3Aall genes were tested against Agrotis ipsilon, Plutella xylostella, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptem exigua by feeding method. The bioassay results indicated that Vip3Aa39 had insecticidal activity against A.ipsilon with 50% lethal concentration (LCX) of 5.43 |xg/mL compared to 73.62 p-g/mL for Vip3Aal 1; Vip3Aa39 showed insecticidal activity against P.xylostella with LCX of 140.64 (xg/mL while Vip3Aal 1 protein had no activity against P.xylostella; Vip3Aal 1 demonstrated insecticidal activity against H.armigera with LCX of 35.18 |xg/mL compared to 286.99 |xg/mL for Vip3Aa39; Vip3Aa39 had insecticidal activity against S. Exigua with LCX of 2.02 |xg/mL similar to 2.04 |xg/mL for Vip3Aal 1. The results indicated that insecticidal activity of Vip3Aa39 and Vip3Aal 1 was different from each other against A.ipsilon, P.xylostella and H.armigera. Compared with the Vip3Aall, Vip3Aa39 had

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-21-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-21-0014 ref|YP_001023668.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Hexamermis agro...tis] gb|ABM79869.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Hexamermis agrotis] YP_001023668.1 0.15 20% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2886 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2886 ref|YP_001023668.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Hexamermis agro...tis] gb|ABM79869.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Hexamermis agrotis] YP_001023668.1 0.068 27% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-29-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-29-0004 ref|YP_001023663.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Hexamermis agro...tis] gb|ABM79864.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Hexamermis agrotis] YP_001023663.1 1.8 25% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1209 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1209 ref|YP_001023671.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Hexamermis agro...tis] gb|ABM79872.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Hexamermis agrotis] YP_001023671.1 0.31 23% ...

  20. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogt, Erik; Sabers, Darrell; Prather, Edward E.; Deming, Grace L.; Hufnagel, Beth; Slater, Timothy F.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy undergraduate class sections were examined from the database of Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) results of Deming and Hufnagel to determine if course format correlated with ADT normalized gain scores. Normalized gains were calculated for four different classroom scenarios: lecture, lecture with discussion, lecture with lab, and lecture…

  1. Structure and Dynamics of Shear Bands in Metallic Glasses and Nanophase Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    FUNDING NUMBERS DAAG55-98-1-0487 6. AUTHOR(S) T. C. Hufnagel 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Johns ...ATTN: AMSRL-R0-S (TR) P. O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Submitted by: Department of Materials Science and Engineering Johns ...H. Liebermann, editor, Rapidly Solidified Alloys, pages 269–301. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993. [7] S. C. Glade , R. Busch, D. S. Lee, W. L. Johnson, R

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the conditions in 7 CFR 319.56-42 and were inspected and found free from Agrotis segetum... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of...

  3. Betabaculovirus F proteins showed different efficiencies when rescuing the infectivity of gp64-null Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, F.; Wang, M.; Ying, T.; Deng, F.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.; Wang, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Agrotis segetum granulovirus (AgseGV) F protein was previously identified as the first betabaculovirus F protein with functional homology to Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) GP64. In the current study, F proteins from Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV), Cydia pomonella gra

  4. Three Papers in International Health Policy: Modeling the Links between Economics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    health  preparedness  and  response” CRS Reports  for Congress, Congressional Research Service. Washington D.C.:  Library  of  Congress  82 UN System...and Medical Modelling. 2006;3(32).  26.  Hufnagel L, Brockmann D,  Geisel  T. Forecast and control of epidemics in a globalized world.  PNAS. 2004;101

  5. Optimizing calculation of phase screen distribution with minimum condition along an inhomogeneous turbulent path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wen-Yi; Xian, Hao

    2016-11-01

    When building an experimental platform for light propagation along an inhomogeneous turbulent path, it is very essential to set up the reasonable distribution of phase screen. Based on multi-layered model of phase screen, an iterative optimization algorithm of phase screen position is given in this paper. Thereafter, the optimal position of phase screens is calculated under the Hufnagel-Valley5/7 and Hefei-day turbulence profile. The results show that the positions of phase screen calculated by the iterative algorithm can fit well with the turbulence profile rather than mechanically placed phase screens at equal distance. Compared with the uniform distribution of phase screens position, the residual phase error of the iterative algorithm decreases very significantly. The similarity degree between them is minimal when number of layers is equal to two. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61308082).

  6. Functional Specialization of Olfactory Glomeruli in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bill S.; Ljungberg, Hakan; Hallberg, Eric; Lofstedt, Christer

    1992-05-01

    The specific function of the glomerular structures present in the antennal lobes or olfactory bulbs of organisms ranging from insects to humans has been obscure because of limitations in neuronal marking methods. By tracing individual neurons in the moth Agrotis segetum, it was determined that physiologically distinct types of pheromone receptor neurons project axons to different regions of the macroglomerular complex (MGC). Each glomerulus making up the MGC has a specific functional identity, initially processing information about one specific pheromone component. This indicates that, at least through the first stage of synapses, olfactory information moves through labeled lines.

  7. Application of Bioactive Coatings Based on Chitosan for Soybean Seed Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defang Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seeds suffer attacks of various pests that result in a decreased yield in northeastern China. Until recently, people use pesticides such as insecticides to achieve the goal of controlling pests. Chitosan extracted from deacetylation of chitin is promising candidates as a seed-coating agent to control agrotis ypsilon, soybean pod borer, and soybean aphid effectively. An experimental study on influences of chitosan with different concentrations on pest controlling and soybean growth was made in the paper. Coating based on chitosan was used as a feeding deterrent and for enhancing the germination and quality of soybean seeds. Results indicated that all chitosan coating had a significant effect on antifeeding against pests; with the increasing concentration, antifeedant rate (AR were increased obviously, especially when in the concentration of 5%, santifeedant rate of agrotis ypsilon, soybean pod borer, and soybean aphid reached 82.89%, 87.24%, and 80.21%, respectively. Also chitosan coating increased seed germination, plant growth, and soybean yield efficiently, especially when, in the concentration of 5%, the yield was increased by about 20% compared with CK. The application of chitosan in soybean seed coated is an appropriate option to control pests replacing high-toxicity pesticides and enhance soybean yield.

  8. Observation and analysis of optical turbulence in Northwest plateau%西北高原地区光学湍流的观测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小威; 李学彬; 孙刚; 刘庆; 朱文越; 翁宁泉

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal evolution of optical turbulence is important for site-testing and optimizing the performance of adaptive optical systems. Measurements were taken over three years using surface layer atmospheric parameter system and differential image motion monitor. Microthermal sensors measured structure constant of refractive index and differential image motion monitors measured atmospheric coherent length and isoplanatic angle. Analysis of structure constant of refractive index showed the monthly and seasonal evolution of surface optical turbulence. Different parameters were analyzed during inversion time. The vertical profile of atmospheric structure constant of refractive index was gained based on Hufnagel-Valley mode1 for night,day and inversion time and different characters were found for different profiles. Based on longtime experiments, the results are credible and valuable for engineering application.%天文选址的决策和激光传输系统的设计和应用需要掌握大气光学湍流的时空变化规律。利用HTP-2型温度脉动仪测量近地面湍流,用大气相干长度仪测量整层湍流积分效应。分析折射率结构常数C2n的实测数据,得到近地面光学湍流月平均和季平均的变化规律。分析了早晚两个“转换时刻”不同参数的变化规律。根据广义Hufnagel-Valley模式反演得到夜间、白天及“转换时刻”整层湍流廓线,比较了不同时刻湍流廓线的特点。在连续多年实测数据的基础上所得结论全面可靠,具有重要的工程参考价值。

  9. Using AER to Improve Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Randi R.

    2013-06-01

    In many ways, the astronomy education community is uniquely poised to influence pre-service and in-service teacher preparation. Astro101 courses are among those most commonly taken to satisfy general education requirements for non-science majors, including 9-25% education majors (Deming & Hufnagel, 2001; Rudolph et al. 2010). In addition, the astronomy community's numerous observatories and NASA centers engage in many efforts to satisfy demand for in-service teacher professional development (PD). These efforts represent a great laboratory in which we can apply conclusions from astronomy education research (AER) studies in particular and science education research (SER) in general. Foremost, we can work to align typical Astro101 and teacher PD content coverage to heavily hit topics in the Next Generation Science Standards (http://www.nextgenscience.org/) and utilize methods of teaching those topics that have been identified as successful in AER studies. Additionally, we can work to present teacher education using methodology that has been identified by the SER community as effective for lasting learning. In this presentation, I will highlight some of the big ideas from AER and SER that may be most useful in teacher education, many of which we implement at UT Austin in the Hands-on-Science program for pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher PD.

  10. Limits of use of social media for monitoring biosecurity events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welvaert, Marijke; Al-Ghattas, Omar; Cameron, Mark; Caley, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Compared to applications that trigger massive information streams, like earthquakes and human disease epidemics, the data input for agricultural and environmental biosecurity events (ie. the introduction of unwanted exotic pests and pathogens), is expected to be sparse and less frequent. To investigate if Twitter data can be useful for the detection and monitoring of biosecurity events, we adopted a three-step process. First, we confirmed that sightings of two migratory species, the Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) and the Common Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus) are reported on Twitter. Second, we developed search queries to extract the relevant tweets for these species. The queries were based on either the taxonomic name, common name or keywords that are frequently used to describe the species (symptomatic or syndromic). Third, we validated the results using ground truth data. Our results indicate that the common name queries provided a reasonable number of tweets that were related to the ground truth data. The taxonomic query resulted in too small datasets, while the symptomatic queries resulted in large datasets, but with highly variable signal-to-noise ratios. No clear relationship was observed between the tweets from the symptomatic queries and the ground truth data. Comparing the results for the two species showed that the level of familiarity with the species plays a major role. The more familiar the species, the more stable and reliable the Twitter data. This clearly presents a problem for using social media to detect the arrival of an exotic organism of biosecurity concern for which public is unfamiliar.

  11. Исторические факты о первой в мире клинической постмортальной эксплантации и последующей аллогенной гетеротопной трансплантации донорской почки: легендарные страницы жизни выдающегося хирурга Ю. Вороного

    OpenAIRE

    Matevossian, E.; SNOPOK I.; NÄHRIG J.; Sinicina, I.; Doll, D

    2014-01-01

    Пересадка почки является рутинным вмешательством в современной трансплантологии, спасающим десятки тысяч жизней по всему миру ежегодно. Эта методика прошла долгий путь развития, прежде чем достичь современного состояния. У истоков трансплантации почки стояли такие всемирно известные ученые-хирурги как Carrel, Landsteiner, Hufnagel и Murray. Почетное место среди них принадлежит украинскому хирургу Юрию Вороному, впервые в мире выполнившему эксплантацию почки у трупного донора, а также ее аллот...

  12. Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of potato pests and their management in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sikhu Okonya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we initiate entomological research on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. in Uganda, there is need to understand farmers’ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and their management practices. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM strategy. A farm household survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted among 204 potato farmers in six districts of Uganda (i.e., Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, Kapchorwa, Mubende, and Kyegegwa during August and September 2013. Diseases, insect pests, price fluctuations, and low market prices were the four highest ranked constraints in potato production, in order of decreasing importance. Cutworms (Agrotis spp., aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer, and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller were the three most severe insect pests. Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard were pests of moderate importance. Major yield losses are predominantly due to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary and reached 100% without chemical control in the districts of Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, and Kapchorwa. On average, farmers had little to moderate knowledge about pest characteristics. The predominant control methods were use of fungicides (72% of respondents and insecticides (62% of respondents. On average, only 5% of the 204 farmers knew about insect pests and their natural enemies. This lack of knowledge calls for training of both farmers and extension workers in insect pest identification, their biology, and control. Empowering farmers with knowledge about insect pests is essential for the reduction of pesticide misuse and uptake of more environmentally friendly approaches like IPM. Field surveys would need follow-up in order to assess the actual field infestation rates and intensities of each insect pest and compare the results with the responses

  13. Limits of use of social media for monitoring biosecurity events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welvaert, Marijke; Al-Ghattas, Omar; Cameron, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Compared to applications that trigger massive information streams, like earthquakes and human disease epidemics, the data input for agricultural and environmental biosecurity events (ie. the introduction of unwanted exotic pests and pathogens), is expected to be sparse and less frequent. To investigate if Twitter data can be useful for the detection and monitoring of biosecurity events, we adopted a three-step process. First, we confirmed that sightings of two migratory species, the Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) and the Common Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus) are reported on Twitter. Second, we developed search queries to extract the relevant tweets for these species. The queries were based on either the taxonomic name, common name or keywords that are frequently used to describe the species (symptomatic or syndromic). Third, we validated the results using ground truth data. Our results indicate that the common name queries provided a reasonable number of tweets that were related to the ground truth data. The taxonomic query resulted in too small datasets, while the symptomatic queries resulted in large datasets, but with highly variable signal-to-noise ratios. No clear relationship was observed between the tweets from the symptomatic queries and the ground truth data. Comparing the results for the two species showed that the level of familiarity with the species plays a major role. The more familiar the species, the more stable and reliable the Twitter data. This clearly presents a problem for using social media to detect the arrival of an exotic organism of biosecurity concern for which public is unfamiliar. PMID:28231339

  14. Influence of Sowing Times, Densities, and Soils to Biomass and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Xuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels helps to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and therefore decreases CO2 emission. Ethanol mixed with gasoline in mandatory percentages has been used in many countries. However, production of ethanol mainly depends on food crops, commonly associated with problems such as governmental policies and social controversies. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is one of the most potential and appropriate alternative crops for biofuel production because of its high biomass and sugar content, strong tolerance to environmental stress conditions and diseases, and wide adaptability to various soils and climates. The aim of this study was to select prospective varieties of sweet sorghum, optimum sowing times and densities to achieve high yields of ethanol production and to establish stable operational conditions in cultivating this crop. The summer-autumn cropping season combined with the sowing densities of 8.3–10.9 plant m−2 obtained the highest ethanol yield. Among cultivated locations, the soil with pH of 5.5 and contents of Al and Zn of 39.4 and 0.6 g kg−1, respectively, was the best condition to have an ethanol yield >5000 L ha−1. The pH ≥ 6.0 may be responsible for the significant reduction of zinc content in soils, which decreases both biomass of sweet sorghum and ethanol yield, while contents of N, P, K, organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe likely play no role. The cultivar 4A was the preferred candidate for ethanol production and resistant to pests and diseases, especially cut worm (Agrotis spp..

  15. Insecticidal and Feeding Deterrent Effects of Fraxinellone from Dictamnus dasycarpus against Four Major Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinellone, a well-known and significant naturally occurring compound isolated from Meliaceae and Rutaceae spp. has been widely used as a drug for the treatment of tumors. On the other hand, fraxinellone exhibited a variety of insecticidal activities including feeding-deterrent activity, inhibition of growth, and larvicidal activity. The present study focused on the antifeedant and larvicidal activities of fraxinellone against the larvae of Lepidoptera, including Mythimna separata, Agrotis ypsilon, Plutella xylostella, and one kind of sanitary pest, Culux pipiens pallens. Meanwhile, the ovicidal activities and the effects of fraxinellone on the larval development of M. separata were also observed. The LC50 values of fraxinellone against 3rd instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 4th instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens were 15.95/6.43/3.60 × 10−2 mg mL−1, and its AFC50 values against 5th instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 2nd instar larvae of A. ypsilon were 10.73/7.93/12.58 mg mL−1, respectively. Compared with the control group, fraxinellone obviously inhibited the pupation rate and the growth of M. separata. Once M. separata was treated with fraxinellone at concentrations of 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg mL−1, respectively, the stages from the larvae to adulthood and the egg hatching duration were prolonged to 1/2/3, and 4/3/4 days, respectively. Additionally, fraxinellone strongly inhibited the development rate and the egg hatch proportion of M. separata.

  16. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timus Asea M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each phenological phase needs different temperatures: at least 4C° is necessary for planting and springing an amount of 650°C is necessary for foliar apparatus; an amount of 1150- 1800°C is necessary to grow the volume of roots and for sugar depositing the average of 2400 to 2600°C is necessary. The mentioned temperatures ensure a normal development of sugar beet plants. If these temperatures fluctuate, the pathogens and pests are stimulated to develop. The most frequent diseases of sugar beet are: Pythium de baryanum Hesse., Aphanomyces cochlioides Dresch. Peronospora schachtii Fuck., Phoma betae Fr. Cercospora beticola Sacc. Erysiphe communis Grev. f. betae Jacz., virosis - Beta virus 2, 3 si 4 etc. The main pests belong to the following categories: Homoptera: Aphis fabae Scop. (fam. Aphididae, Pemphigus fuscicornis Koch. (fam. Pemphigidae Coleoptera: Agriotes sp. (fam. Elateridae, Chaetocnema concinna M. Ch. breviuscula Fld., Cassida nebulosa L. (fam. Chrysomelidae, Atomaria linearis Step. (fam. Cryptophagidae; Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ., Tanymechus dilaticollis Gyll., T. palliatus F., Psalidium maxillosum F. (Curculionidae; Lepidoptera: Agrotis segetum Den. et Schiff., Authographa gamma L. Mamestra (Barathra brassicae L. (Noctuidae, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Pyralidae, Gnorimoschema ocellatella Boyd.; Diptera Pegomyia betae Curtis. (fam. Anthomyidae. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (Heteroderidae. The most recommended insecticides for fighting the

  17. Breve Estudio Biológico del Predator Coleomejilla Maculata de Geer (Coleoptera -Coccinellidae en el Valle de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo V. Gilberto

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available El insecto tiene los siguientes nombres comunes: "Petaquita", "Grajito". En México lo denominan "Catarinita" y en EE. UU. "Lady Birds"; "Lady-Buys" (Vaquita de Dios. El Coleomegilla maculata de Geer, tiene las siguientes sinonimias: Megilla maculata, coleomegilla fuscilabris, Ceratomegilla fuscilabris, Megilla fuscilabris, Ceratomegilla maculata (Szumkowski 1955 y Ceratomegilla floridiana Leng. (Humbbell 1932. En cuanto a su distribución mundial podemos afirmar que existe el insecto en todo el Continente Americano. En Colombia existe en las zonas de clima cálido y medio. Su ciclo biológico está determinado por condiciones ambientales, así: período de preoviposición comprendido entre 8 a 25 días. Las hembras depositan los huevos sobre plantas de maíz y fríjol y sobre las siguientes malezas: "Coquito" (Cyperus sp., verdolaga (Portulaca oleracea, acedera (Oxalis sp. y otras. El período de incubación demora de 3 a 6 días. La larva es de tipo campodeiforme y tiene una duración que varía entre 10 a 22 días, tiempo en el cual hemos observado hasta 4 instars. El período de encrisalidación puede establecerse entre 3 a 12 días. Los adultos pueden vivir hasta 100 días (Szumkowski 1955. Se ha constatado que las hembras depositan su pos-tura en masas de 4 a 36 huevos, los cuales se consideran con un 100 %, de fertilidad. Las larvas son parasitadas por un pequeño Himenóptero, posiblemente se trate de un Chalcido. Los adultos son parasitados por un braconido al parecer se trata de un Habrobracon. Tanto las larvas como los adultos tienen hábitos canibalescos. La acción predatora del Coleomegilla maculata no está limitada solamente a insectos pequeños de cuerpo blando de la orden Homóptera, sino que su acción destructiva puede ser también sobre muchas especies de lepidópteros perjudiciales (huevos y larvas pequeñas, tales como: Laphygma frugiperda, Agrotis, Diatrea lineolata, Prodenia lati-jascia, Feltias, Alabama

  18. 基于机器视觉的作物多姿态害虫特征提取与分类方法%Feature extraction and classification method of multi-pose pests using machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文勇; 李明; 陈梅香; 钱建平; 孙传恒; 杜尚丰

    2014-01-01

    Pest identification and classification is time-consuming work that requires expert knowledge for integrated pest management. Automation, including machine vision combined with pattern recognition, has achieved some applications in areas such as fruit sorting, robotic harvesting, and quality detection, etc. Automatic classification and counting of pests using machine vision is still a challenge because of variable and uncertain poses of trapped pests. Therefore, using Pseudaletia separata, Conogethes punctiferalis, Helicoverpa armigera, Agrotis ypsilon with different poses as research objects, this paper presents a novel classification method for multi-pose pests based on color and texture feature groups and using a multi-class support vector machine. 320 images were taken using field samples with an original resolution of 4 288×2 848. The subimages of pests with 640×640 pixel size were obtained from original images for computational efficiency. Color features in RGB and HSV spaces, statistical texture features, and wavelet-based texture features were extracted. Six feature vector groups were constructed using those features. In order to select effective feature parameters of each group, a genetic algorithm was designed to optimize feature vectors based on 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the one-against-one DAGMSVM (acronym as yet undefined) algorithm was applied to classify and recognize the four kinds of target pests and to find the best feature group. 80 images (60 for the training set and 20 for the testing set) were adopted for each species. Parameter numbers were calculated and analyzed after optimization, thus the best parameters were selected for each group. The training time of the SVM model and classification accuracy, which contains false negative and false positive details, were compared between pre-optimization and post-optimization. The results showed that the highest parameter optimization ratio is from the sixth feature group with a dimension

  19. IN VITRO CULTIVATION OF THE ENTOMOGENOUS NEMATODE OVOMERMIS SINENSIS%中华卵索线虫的体外培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国秀; 陈曲侯; 陈果

    2001-01-01

    在研究中华卵索线虫的体外培养方法的同时,对其在不同培养基中的生长发育情况进行了观察。结果表明:以培养基TC-199加20%热灭活胎牛血清的培养效果较为理想,大多数线虫可存活3个月,最大虫体长55.1 mm、宽204.13 μm,其发育程度大致与该种索线虫在宿主粘虫体内寄生8~9天的情况相近。培养期间观察到2次蜕皮:第一次蜕皮在卵内,第二次在培养6~8天之后。口针消失,虫体内滋养物体发育明显,尾部附器已经形成,没有观察到生殖原基的发育。%The insectparasitic nematode, Ovomermis sinensis Chenet al, 1991 has the potential for the biological control of a range of insect pests due to many insect sep ecies are susceptible to this nematode. For example Leucania separata, Helioth is armigera, Prodenia litura, Spodoptera exigua, Plutella xylostella, Pieris rapae, Agrotis ypsilon, Euxoa segetumetc. The insect host invariably dies when the juvenile nematode completes its parasitic development and exits from the host's hemocoel's hemocoel. There is an important significance for studying the mass cultivation of O. sinensis for field trials. This paper describes the techniques of in vitro cultivation of O. sinensis.   Gravid females of O. sinensis collected from sand were washed three times with an antibiotic solution of 200 U penicillin/ml and 200 μg/ml streptomycin/ml per ml solution. Surface washed gravid female were placed in 25 ml culture tubes containing 1~10 ml deionized water, 100 U penicillin/ml, and 100 μg streptomycin /ml for oviposition. Eggs were collected and their surface were sterilized by immersing them for 5~10 min in 0.13%~0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution and rinsing four times with sterile distilled water. Surface sterilized eggs were incubated at 26±1℃ in the culture media. The preparasites which emerged from those eggs were utilized for culture work. The four media were