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Sample records for agrotis ipsilon combined

  1. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J;

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating the...

  2. The Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Plant Extract (Barnoof) on the Nutritional Profile to the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effect of two sub sterilizing doses 100 and 150 Gray (Gy) of gamma irradiation and plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) on Ten day old larvae of F1 generation of Agrotis ipsilon in on their ability to consume, digest and utilize food was studied. Gamma irradiation alone reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the larvae as compared to unirradiated ones. Also, the utilization efficiency was more significantly decreased at dose level 150 Gy than at the dose level 100 Gy and leading to a reduction in weight gain. The effect of plant extract (Barnoof) alone was not significantly difference at the two tested concentration 1.5 and 3 % by the solvent (Petroleum ether) treatment. The combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract (on F1 larvae) were significantly decreased the growth rate of the larvae than the treatment of them alone when compared with the untreated larvae. Also, the combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract were significantly decreased the utilization of food as indicated by determining both efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.) and digested food (E.C.D.) to body matter. (authors)

  3. Mating Competitiveness of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Irradiated as Parental Pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory studied were carried out to evaluate the mating competitiveness of P1 and F1 generations of Agrotis ipsilon when irradiated as full grown pupae with 75 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation. The mating competitiveness values showed that either males or females of P1 or F1 generation were full competitive after treatment with 75 or 150 Gy at all released ratios. Mating competitiveness of both irradiated males and females was also studied to avoid problems concerning mass sexing. The results revealed that confining both sexes together gave an excellent results for population suppression in both P1 and F1 in both tested doses and ratios. The addition of irradiated females to the release ratio make these females encountered in mating with untreated females, and possessed 78% of all matings occurred in parent generation in the two tested doses at 5:5:1 ratio and increased to reach 88% by F1 females 75 Gy while it was reduced to only 31% at 150 Gy, but still act in mating

  4. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants.

  5. Synergistic Effect of the Insect Growth Regulator, Neporex to Gamma Radiation on The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insect growth regulator neporex (cyromazine) was investigated in laboratory against the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon. The compound exhibited growth and development disruption activity and the toxic symptoms of this compound were expressed as larval and pupal mortalities, larval pupal intermediates, low percentage of adult emergence and malformed adults. Different concentrations of neporex ranged from 65 to 6000 ppm were tested for its toxicity. Highest mortality percentage and low growth index were clearly noticed at the concentration of 6000 ppm. Two sub-sterilizing doses of gamma radiation 100 and 150 Gy were also evaluated for their adverse effects on development of the black cutworm. Combined effect of gamma radiation and different concentrations of neporex was studied. This study shows that the insecticidal activity can be maximized if A. ipsilon is exposed to radiation prior treatment with neporex.

  6. Evolution of noctuid pheromone binding proteins: identification of PBP in the black cutworm moth, Agrotis ipsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picimbon, J F; Gadenne, C

    2002-08-01

    Male black cutworm moths (Agrotis ipsilon, Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Noctuidae), which are attracted by a three-component pheromone blend ((Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Z7-12:Ac; (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Z9-14:Ac; (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, Z11-16:Ac), express diverse antennal pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). Two PBP isoforms (Aips-1 and Aips-2) that show 46% identity were cloned from antennal cDNA of male A. ipsilon. The protein Aips-1 displays a high degree of identity (70-95%) with PBPs of other noctuiids, but shows only 42-65% identity with the PBPs of more phylogenetically distant species. The other protein, Aips-2, represents a distinct group of PBP that includes proteins from Sphingidae and Yponomeutidae. These differences observed suggest that each of the two PBPs may be tuned to a specific pheromone ligand. PMID:12110291

  7. Biology and fertility life table of Agrotis ipsilon on artificial diet; Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Agrotis ipsilon em dieta artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, Flavia de Moura Manoel; Fortes, Priscila; Zerio, Neide Graciano; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: flaviam@esalq.usp.br, pfortes@esalq.usp.br, ngzerio@esalq.usp.br, jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Magro, Sandra Regina [Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Fernandopolis, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sandra.magro@gmail.com

    2007-10-15

    The objective of this work was to develop an artificial diet to rear Agrotis ipsilon in laboratory using biological parameters and fertility life table. The artificial diet was prepared with bean, casein, soybean protein, yeast and wheat germ as protein sources. The biological aspects duration and viability of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, life span of adults, preoviposition period, egg laying capacity and fertility life table were evaluated. Six larval instars were observed comprising larval duration of 28,4 days and 93% of viability mean pupal duration of 12,4 days and viability of 96%. The total viability of the life cycle was 72%. The pupae weight was 387 mg for males and 484 mg for females. The sex ratio was 0,46 and the preoviposition period lasted one day and egg laying was 1,806 eggs per female. The net reproductive rate per generation and increase finite rate were 616,9 and 1,14, respectively. Artificial diet is adequate for rearing A. ipsilon in laboratory. (author)

  8. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Leaves Extract of Barnoof Plant on Larval Development of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufngel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiating parental male full grown pupae agrotis ipsilon with the two sub sterile doses 100 and 150 Gray (Gy) followed by treated F1 4th instar larvae with three concentrations of the barnoof plant leaves extract (0,15000 and 30000 ppm) or each of them alone were studied. the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and the barnoof plant extract to F1 larvae had a deleterious effects on average larval duration, average weight of last larval instar, total morality, pupation, adult emergence and survival when compared with the effect of gamma irradiation or plant leaves extract which of them alone. gamma irradiation increased the susceptibility of F1 Larvae descendant from irradiated parental male pupae with 100 and 150 Gy to the barnoof plant leaves extract. A gradual increase in susceptibility was noticed as the dose of radiation increase. the efficiency of gamma irradiation and/or plant leaves extract to inhibit the 4th instar larvae of A-. ipsilon was evaluated. the results showed highly toxic effect to the 4th instar larvae at the two concentrations (15000 and 30000 ppm). on the other hand the dose 150 Gy combined with 30000 ppm of plant extract treatment (Acetone or petroleum ether solvents) had highly effect on the 4th instar larvae as compared with the other treatments

  9. effect of gamma radiation and parasitic nematodes on the black cut-worm agrotis ipsilon(HUFN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) after gamma sterilization with at 0, 75, 100,125, 150,175 and 200 Gy, to identify the dose of gamma irradiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. The studied effects were included the percentage mated males with untreated females, copulation duration to format spermatophores directly in the female bursa copulatrix, number of eggs /female deposited by females mated to irradiated males and egg hatch through three sequential females.The irradiated males with tested doses as well as untreated control were tested for mating successive and starting copulation at the same period of the scotophase. The mating competitiveness calculated from the direct observation in A. ipsilon males emerged from pupae irradiated at doses 75 to 200 Gy was noticed. The effect of substerilizing dose (125Gy) on certain biological aspects and reproduction was studied among parental generation, as well as immature stages were investigated throughout two successive generations. The influence of two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrivae on the insect management was included. Special attention was given to combined effect of F1 progeny of partially sterile males and S. Carpocapsae (All) on A .ipsilon, the combination of tested treatments at all concentrations analyzed for synergistic effect. The parasitisation efficacy of EPNs, the morbidity and mortality induced by normal IJs (i.e., IJs derived from untreated host) and the incubation time taken by normal IJs were compared with these of IJs derived from irradiated host with 125 Gy

  10. Biology and fertility life table of Agrotis ipsilon on artificial diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to develop an artificial diet to rear Agrotis ipsilon in laboratory using biological parameters and fertility life table. The artificial diet was prepared with bean, casein, soybean protein, yeast and wheat germ as protein sources. The biological aspects duration and viability of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, life span of adults, preoviposition period, egg laying capacity and fertility life table were evaluated. Six larval instars were observed comprising larval duration of 28,4 days and 93% of viability mean pupal duration of 12,4 days and viability of 96%. The total viability of the life cycle was 72%. The pupae weight was 387 mg for males and 484 mg for females. The sex ratio was 0,46 and the preoviposition period lasted one day and egg laying was 1,806 eggs per female. The net reproductive rate per generation and increase finite rate were 616,9 and 1,14, respectively. Artificial diet is adequate for rearing A. ipsilon in laboratory. (author)

  11. The Combined Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Plant Extract (Barnoof) on the Nutritional Profile of the black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) II-The effect on the F1 Progeny during the 5 th and 6 th instars larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of two sub-sterilizing doses (100 and 150 Gray) of gamma irradiation to male Full grown pupae of Agrotis ipsilon and Barnoof plant extract, Conyza dioscorides to the resulting larvae of F1 progeny on the consumption and utilization of food during the fifth and sixth instars larvae were studied. In general, plant extract and gamma irradiation each of them alone or in combination reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the F1 larvae as compared to the control. As well, Barnoof treatments decreased significantly the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.), together with the efficiency of conversion of digested food to body substances (E.C.D.) at the two tested concentration (1.5 and 3 %) for the two solvents (Acetone and Petroleum ether) when compared with the untreated ones, Also, the food utilization efficiencies decreased in both irradiation doses leading to a significant reduction in weight gain and growth rate. In addition, it could be noticeable that, food utilization efficiencies for growth and development were lower in F1 larvae resulting from irradiation treatment alone than those resulting from combination treatments. Supplementary the combined effects of gamma irradiation and/or plant extract on the percentage of development per day, the growth and survival indices were considered. Most of the treatments decreased the values of these indices of the F1 progeny, as compare to the control. The reduction in these values was more obvious in combination treatments compared to gamma irradiation or plant extract treatments each of them alone. However, this decrease in the values of the previous indices associated with an increase of assimilation index in most treatments compare to control. However, a significant increase of the assimilation index values was observed at the majority of combination treatment as compare to the control

  12. The Binding Characterization of Cry Insecticidal Proteins to the Brush Border Membrane Vesicles of Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura and Agrotis ipsilon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiong; CAO Guang-chun; ZHANG Li-li; LIANG Ge-mei; GAO Xi-wu; ZHANG Yong-jun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective biological insecticides against certain insect species. However, there are potential risks of the evolved resistance of insects to Cry toxin owing to decreased binding of toxins to target sites in the brush border membranes of the larva midgut. The Cry toxins with different binding sites in the larval midgut have been considered to be a good combination to deploy in delaying resistance evolution. Bioassay results demonstrated that the toxicity of different Cry toxins ranked differently for each species. The toxicity ranking was Cry1Ac>Cry1Ab>Cry2Ab for Helicoverpa armigera, Cry1B>Cry1C>Cry2Ab for Spodoptera exigua, and Cry2Ab>Cry1B>Cry1C for S. litura. Only Cry2Ab was toxic to Agrotis ipsilon. Binding experiments were performed with 125I-Cry1Ab, 125I-Cry1Ac, 125I-Cry1B, 125I-Cry1C, 125I-Cry2Ab and the brush border membranes vesicles (BBMV) from H. armigera, S. exigua, S. litura and A. ipsilon. The binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of H. armigera BBMV (Kd=(45.00±2.01) nmol L-1 and (12.80±0.18) nmol L-1, respectively;Bmax=(54.95±1.79) ng and (55.44±0.91) ng, separately). The binding of Cry1B was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. exigua BBMV (Kd=(23.26±1.66) nmol L-1;Bmax=(65.37±1.87) ng). The binding of 125I-Cry toxins was shown to be non-saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. litura and A. ipsilon BBMV. In contrast, Cry1B and Cry1C showed some combination with the BBMV of S. litura, and a certain amount of Cry2Ab could bind to the BBMV of A. ipsilon. These observations suggest that a future strategy could be devised for the focused combination of specific cry genes in transgenic crops to control target pests, widen the spectrum of insecticide effectiveness and postpone insect resistance evolution.

  13. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Cyantraniliprole on the Development, Fecundity and Nutritional Physiology of the Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Zhengqun; Cui, Kaidi; Zhao, Yunhe; Han, Jingkun; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), several studies were carried out to investigate sublethal effects on development stages, population parameters, feeding indices and nutrient content of A. ipsilon. The result of a bioassay showed that cyantraniliprole had high toxicity against A. ipsilon fourth-instar larvae with an LC50 of 0.354 μg.g−1 using an artificial diet. Compared with controls, sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole at LC5, LC20 and LC40 levels prolonged larval and pupal duration and extended mean generation time and total preovipositional period. In addition, survival rate, reproductive value, intrinsic and finite rates of increase and net reproduction rate declined significantly. Meanwhile, cyantraniliprole had markedly antifeedant effects; decreased the relative growth rate (RGR), the relative consumption rate (RCR), the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD); and increased the approximate digestibility (AD) significantly. This phenomenon contributed to the decrease of nutrient contents, including lipids, protein and carbohydrates, to the point that insufficient energy was available for normal growth. Therefore, sublethal concentrations of cyantraniliprole decreased growth speed and reduced population reproduction of A. ipsilon. This result provides information useful in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for A. ipsilon. PMID:27249654

  14. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Mating Activity And Mating Competitiveness Of The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), after gamma sterilization. The objective was to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. Full grown pupae of the black cutworm from laboratory culture were irradiated at 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy. Results indicated that non-significant differences between untreated and treated groups in moth were observed in copula occurred and time of copulation while significant difference was recorded between the treated males and untreated once in spermatophore formation and percentage of females with sperm in their spermatheca at the last two doses. Low percentages of untreated female moths were mated when they were paired with previously mated males than when paired with virgin males. The sequence in which females were mated to an irradiated male did not affect the transfer of spermatophores. The percentage of eggs hatched was higher from the first mated females as compared to the second and third mated females. There were non-significant effects of 0 or 125 Gy exposures on female mating or time in copula. However, significant low percentages of mating of treated and untreated females were occurred with sequentially provided male moths on days 2, 3, to 5 following the first observed female mating. According to the mating competitiveness measured from direct

  15. Histological Changes in Sex Pheromone Gland of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Females Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pheromone gland of Agrotis ipsilon(Hufn.) untreated adult female is simple closed ring shaped where the glandular epithelium of the abdomen of abdominal fold between the 8th and 9th segment is slightly investigate inside the body cavity. The scent gland as a characteristic tuft of modified scales or hairs which are thin and smooth covering the whole surface of the 9th of the abdominal segment in which the scent gland is located. The histological study of gamma irradiated sex pheromone of the black cut worm female showed that: 1. When 50 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be separated from each other, vacuoles where appeared among them. 2. When 100 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be irregular in shape and some vacuoles were found, the cuticle was also ruptured in some parts. 3. When 150 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium was irregular and vacuoles were obviously found. The cuticle appeared abnormal in some parts and oil drops were decreased

  16. Bioenergetics growth model for the effect of gamma irradiation and plant extract (Barnoof) on the progeny of Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effects of two substerilizing doses of gamma radiation, 100 and 150 Gray (Gy), and/or the plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) in two solvents on certain biological aspects and the energy budget of the Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel). Data revealed that the treatment combination of gamma radiation with the plant extract significantly increased reproduction compared with the control at all treatment levels (doses and concentrations). Most of the treatments increased the values of developmental/day and larval duration in the F1 progeny compared with the progeny from the control treatment, although the percentage survival was decreased in all treatments. These values were more obvious in the combination treatments compared with either gamma radiation or plant extract treatments alone. The coefficient of metabolizable energy (C.M.E.) was not affected by any treatments. No consistent effect on the efficiency of storage of ingested energy [E.S.I.(E.)] and the efficiency of storage of metabolizable energy [E.S.M.(E.)] when the F1 progeny were treated with plant extract alone or with the plant extract combined with the 100 Gy dose of radiation was noted, while they were both significantly increased at all treatment levels when the 150 Gy dose of radiation was combined with the plant extract. The results obtained are discussed in terms of their implications for the best substerilizing dose of radiation on parental male pupae of A. ipsilon. - Highlights: ► The effects of gamma irradiation and/or plant extract on the Black cutworm. ► Then the effects on the F1 generation on certain biological aspects and the energy budget. ► Gamma irradiation combined with the extract in most treatments. ► It is significantly higher than the control of reproduction at all treatments. ► Most of the treatments increased in the values of most parameters. ► The coefficient of metabolizable energy (C.M.E.) not affected at all treatments

  17. Biological and Histological Studies on the F1 Progeny of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Treated with Gamma Irradiation and / or Bacillus Thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full grown male pupae of black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn) were gamma irradiated with two sub sterilizing doses (50 and 100 Gy). the resulting F1 larvae were treated t the fourth instar larvae with six different concentrations (12.5,25,50,100,200 and 400 ppm.) of bacillus thuringiensis aizawai HD-112(Bta). the effect of radiation and / or B.t.on certain biological aspects in addition to histological effects on larval midgut were studied. the obtained results indicated that B.t. or irradiation treatments either alone or combined with each other decreased the number of F1 larvae that reached the adult stage as compared to the control. also the reduction in survived individuals was obvious at dose level 100 Gy than 50 Gy. the larval duration , percent pupation, percent emergence decreased gradually by increasing the concentration of B.t. especially at the combined treatments. as well percentage of adult malformations increased by increasing the irradiation dose or B.t. concentrations at separate or combined treatments. the sex ratio was altered in favor of male at either B.t. and / or irradiation treatments. certain histological changes through transverse section of the midgut tissues of F1 larvae due to irradiation and / or B.t. treatments were detected. the damage of the tissue increased by increasing the dose of irradiation and /or concentration of B.t. the cytoplasmic extrusion appeared as the apical margin of cells as a confluent mass and the muscular layers are broken in some parts, large amount of secretions released in the lumen of the midgut while a few amount were attached to the apical margin of the cells. Much destruction of the midgut took place when the B.t. treatments were combined with gamma irradiation where, large number of epithelial cells became vacuolated and the cytoplasm appeared as confluent masses because of the hydropic analysis of the epithelium

  18. Molecular identification and differential expression of sensory neuron membrane proteins in the antennae of the black cutworm moth Agrotis ipsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shao-Hua; Yang, Ruo-Nan; Guo, Meng-Bo; Wang, Gui-Rong; Wu, Kong-Ming; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2013-04-01

    The insect sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) SNMP1 and SNMP2 are transmembrane domain-containing proteins and are homologs of the vertebrate CD36 transmembrane proteins. It has been suggested that SNMPs play a significant role in insect chemoreception. Previous studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is expressed in the pheromone-sensitive olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), whereas SNMP2 is expressed in the supporting cells. In this study, we identified two full-length SNMP transcripts, AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2, in the black cutworm moth Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel). The qRT-PCR results indicated that the AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2 transcripts were expressed significantly higher in the antennae than in other tissues of both sexes. The expression of AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2 in the antennae from different development stages of both sexes was investigated and was shown to begin to express in the pupae stage from 3days before emergence and then increased dramatically at the day of the emergence, and the high expression levels were maintained during the following 4days after the emergence in both sexes. The mating status had no effect on the expression levels of the AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2 transcripts. Consistent with previous in situ hybridization studies in other Lepidoptera insects, our immunolocalization results at protein level demonstrated that both AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2 were expressed in pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea but with a completely different expression profile. AipsSNMP1 is more uniformed and highly expressed along the membrane of the ORN dendrites, whereas AipsSNMP2 is widely distributed at the bottom of the sensilla trichodea and highly localized in the sensillum lymph. Our studies provide further detailed evidence for the involvement and general functional role of insect SNMPs in the detection of sex pheromones and general odorant molecules. PMID:23454276

  19. Biological and physiological studies on the effect of some botanical oils and gamma irradiation on the Greasy Cut Worm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon ( Lepidoptera-Noctuidae ) is a serious pest for the seedlings of most crops such as cotton, maize, beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, chinese broccoli, chinese cabbage, Chinese spinach, corn, eggplant, flowering white cabbage, green beans, head cabbage, lettuce, mustard cabbage, potato, spinach, sugarcane, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, as well as many other plants. An extensive listing of hosts of the greasy cutworm may be found in (Rings et al. 1975). The extensive and continuous use of synthetic pesticides in control of agricultural pests have created many problems, one of them is the incapability of toxic agents in controlling the target pests at the recommended doses. Therefore, it was of great interest to investigate some alternative methods as substitutes for insecticides in the control of this pest. Among these methods, is the irradiation, plant extracts and oils. Irradiation techniques seem to offer solutions that are desirable in many aspects, contributing that this treatment should eventually prove to be cheaper, safer and more reliable than chemical control. Irradiation shortens life span of insects (Baxter and Blair, 1969), possibly by accelerating senescence (Aly et al., 1996). Irradiation may also cause protein denaturation, which may impair enzyme activity (Ljubenov and Andreev, 1974) and (Tribe and Webb, 1979 a, b, c). According to (Kinipling, 1955), insect exposure to ionizing radiation causes sterilization through induction of dominates lethal mutation in the genetic structure of organisms. This technique to be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including Agrotis ipsilon has been studied

  20. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  1. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  2. Combined and separated effects of gamma irradiation and bifuran plant extract on the dietary profile of the black cutworm, agitators ipsilon (Hun.) 1- treatment of the eight days old larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined and separate effects of two sub sterilizing doses 100 or 150 Gy of gamma irradiation and the plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) on eight days- old larvae of F1 generation of Agrotis ipsilon as to their ability to consume, digest and utilize food were studied. Gamma irradiation alone reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the larvae as compared to non-irradiated ones. Also, the utilization efficiency was decreased more significantly at the dose level 150 Gy than at the dose level 100 Gy leading to a reduction in weight gain. The effect of plant extract (Barnoof) alone was non-significantly different at the two tested concentrations 1.5 or 3 % by the solvent (Petroleum ether) treatment. The combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract on F1 larvae significantly decreased the growth rate of the larvae than when treating them alone as compared to the untreated larvae. Also, the combined effects of gamma radiation and plant extract significantly decreased the utilization of food as indicated by determining both efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.) and digested food (E.C.D.) to body matters

  3. Histological studies of gamma irradiation and/ or bacillus thuringiensis var. berliner on the testes and ovaries of the black cut worm, Agitators Ipsilon (HUFN.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to determine the effects of the sub sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (100 Gy) applied to the full grown pupae as well as two concentrations (50 and 100 ppm) of Bacillus thuringiensis var Berliner (Crycl A) applied to the fourth instar larvae and their combination on the histology of the testis and overies of the adults (male or female) black cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), throughout the first filial (F1) generation. The results indicated that the testes showed many symptoms of retardation in their growth in the form of retardation of spermatogenesis, reduction in sperm bundle numbers, degeneration and liquefaction of sperm bundles which lead to appearance of large vacuoles or retardation in sperm maturation. The data also showed that the follicular epithelial cells in the ovarioles (F, female ovary) appeared abnormal in shape, beside their limited separation from the developing oocytes, which became shrinking, semi absorbed or completely absorbed leaving vacuoles. Otherwise, the oocyte shape became rectangular and the nurse cells were reduced in size or absent in some parts

  4. Phenology and pest status of Agrotis segetum in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Peter; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Insects are strongly dependent on climatic factors, especially temperature. For this reason, changes in insect phenology are predicted to be one of the many effects of climate change. We analysed the effect of climate warming on Agrotis segetum (Denis & Schiffermüller) in Denmark. Agrotis segetum...... trap monitoring. Data from these pheromone traps, for the periods between 1981-1991 and 1997-2009, show a decline in the number of A. segetum individuals during 2000-2009. We used this pheromone trapping data to test the hypothesis that temporal changes in phenology and abundance are correlated...

  5. HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN CHICKPEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cra...

  6. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    OpenAIRE

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...

  7. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eWarrant; Barrie eFrost; Ken eGreen; Henrik eMouritsen; David eDreyer; Andrea eAdden; Kristina eBrauburger; Stanley eHeinze

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...

  8. Duração do desenvolvimento de Mythimna unipuncta, Xestla c-nigrum, Agrotis ipsilon, Heliothis armigera, Peridroma saucia, Spodoptera littoralis (Lep.: Noctuidae) e Pieris brassicae azorensis (Lep.: Piralidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Rui; Oliveira, Luísa; Tavares, João

    1998-01-01

    III Simpósio Fauna e Flora das Ilhas Atlânticas / Symposium Fauna and Flora of the Atlantic Islands, Universidade dos Açores, Ponta Delgada (Açores), 21 - 25 September, 1998. A influência dos factores abióticos sobre o desenvolvimento de espécies de Lepidópteros, nomeadamente no estado larvar, foi e será objecto de numerosos estudos, contribuindo assim para o conhecimento dos seus limites teóricos, duração/velocidade de desenvolvimento e percentagem de mortalidade no estado larvar. A...

  9. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of five noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on São Miguel - Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Michael; Tavares, João; Vieira, Virgílio

    1995-01-01

    The adult flight periods of Agrotis ipsilon (HÜFNAGEL), Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba LINNAEUS, Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER) and Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) were studied between July of 1988 and December of 1989, at Ribeira Grande, Arribanas and Lagoa do Congro on the island of São Miguel, using Pennsylvania blacklight traps. While there was evidence of considerable fluctuations in density, A. ipsilon, A. segetum, P. saucia and X c-nigrum ...

  10. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  11. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWarrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they hibernate over the summer months (referred to as aestivation. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their aestivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear

  12. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that

  13. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some fungal control agents on the greasy cut- worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera- Noctuidae) is widely distributed all over the world, particularly in moderate and subtropical countries of the northern and southern hemispheres (Kononenko ,2003). The greasy cut worm causes damage to vegetables, cucurbitaceous and industrial crops. The greatest damage is caused to cotton, essential-oil cultures, maize, tobacco, sunflower, tomatoes, sugar beet and potato. The pest can strongly harm vegetables, and also damage seedlings of tree species (pine, maple, and nut). This pest has solitary habits. They commonly feed on seedlings at ground level, cutting off the stem and sometimes dragging the plants into their burrows. The continuous use of chemical pesticides against pests, resistance to the action of pesticides had dramatically evolved. Also, the extensive use of these chemicals has given rise to problems such as residual toxicity (pollution) and harmful effects on beneficial insects, which are natural enemies of target or nontarget pest species. Such problems have become a cause of search for safety pesticides including microbial agents as fungi, bacteria and viruses (Rashed, 1993). The use of radiation to induce dominate lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique (SIT) is now as the major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Adult insects, and their different developmental stages, differ in their sensitivity to the induction of dominate lethal mutation. Care has to be taken to identify the appropriate dose of radiation that produces the required level of sterility without impairing the overall fitness of the released insects.(Sawires, 2005). This technique would be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including A. Ipsilon has been studied (EL- kady et al., 1983, EL-Naggar et al., 1984, Abd El -Hamid 2004 and Gabarty, 2008). Entomopathogenic fungi that infect insects have received considerable

  14. Application of Insect Sex Pheromone in the Black Cutworm (Agrotis ipilon ) Forecast%昆虫性信息素在小地老虎预测预报上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅珍

    2012-01-01

    In Shanghai area, black cutworm {Agrotis ipilon) breeds 4~5 generation in a year. The first generation larvae have more serious hazards and is a major pest damaging vegetable seedling. From 2009 to 2011, to further enhance the black cutworm forecasting quality and improve the monitoring technology, we conducted the monitoring and comparison test by using light, sweet with sour and sex pheromone attractants. The results showed that the attractant produced by Ningbo NewCon Inc for trapping black cutworm had higher capture rate, clearer moths peak, higher accuracy, simpler installation and less affection by climate, which could be one of the main methods for forecasting black cutworm.%在上海地区,小地老虎年发生4~5代,以第1代幼虫为害较重,是蔬菜苗期的主要害虫.为进一步提高小地老虎预测预报的质量,完善测报技术,于2009年~2011年开展了灯诱、糖醋诱蛾和性诱监测比较试验.结果表明,采用宁波纽康生物技术有限公司生产的小地老虎诱芯进行监测,诱获虫量多、蛾峰清晰、准确度高,而且操作简便,受气候影响小,宜作为小地老虎测报的主要监测手段.

  15. 苦皮藤素V在粘虫和小地老虎幼虫体内的穿透与代谢%Investigation on the penetration and metabolism of celangulin V in the larvae of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ypsilon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 姬志勤; 吴文君; 魏少鹏

    2015-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱技术研究了苦皮藤素Ⅴ在粘虫Mythimna separata和小地老虎Agrotis ypsilon幼虫中的穿透及代谢。结果表明:苦皮藤素V均不能从粘虫和小地老虎幼虫的体壁穿透到血腔或从血腔穿透到中肠,但很容易从中肠穿透到血腔,且穿透速率无差异;苦皮藤素V在小地老虎幼虫体内的代谢解毒速率远大于其在粘虫幼虫体内的代谢速率,其半衰期分别为5.5和13.1 h。本研究结果表明,苦皮藤素V对粘虫和小地老虎幼虫的选择毒杀作用与药物的穿透能力无关,其在试虫体内的解毒代谢差异才是其对昆虫具有选择作用的机理之一。%Penetration and metabolism of celangulin V in the larvae of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ypsilon were studied using high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that celangulin V can not penetrate into the haemolymph from the body wall or penetrate into the midgut from the haemolymph in both of larvae. Whereas,celangulin V with the same rate of penetration is easily penetrate into the haemolymph from the midgut in the case of both larvae. The metabolic rate of celangulin V in the larvae of A. ypsilon is greater than that in the larvae of M. separata and the half-life of celangulin V was 5. 5 h and 13. 1 h in the larvae of A. ypsilon and M. separata,respectively. The results indicate that the penetration was not involved in the selective toxicity of celangulin V,whereas, detoxification metabolism in the larvae of A. ypsilon and M. separata was one of the mechanisms of this selective toxicity.

  16. Alguns dados sobre a Fauna entomológica da ilha das Flores - Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Virgílio; Tavares, João; Anunciada, Lorete; McNeil, Jeremy

    1990-01-01

    IV Expedição Científica do Departamento de Biologia - Flores 1989 Com este trabalho, realizado em Julho de 1989 nas Flores - a ilha mais ocidental do Arquipélago dos Açores -, acrescentaram-se onze espécies de Lepidópteros à lista referenciada para aquela ilha, pertencendo uma à família Lycaenidae (Lampides boeticus L.), oito a familia Noctuidae (Agrotis ipsilon HFN., Brotolomia meticulosa L., Chrysodeixis chalcites ESPER., Heliothis armigera HBN., Noctua atlantica WARREN, Noctua pronub...

  17. 六种杀虫剂对小地老虎的毒力及对土壤生物安全性评价%Toxicity of six insecticides to black cutworm Agrotis ypsilon (Rottemberg) and safety evaluation to oil organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于伟丽; 杜军辉; 胡延萍; 申瑞平; 慕卫

    2012-01-01

    为筛选出高效安全的土壤处理杀虫剂,室内采用浸叶法比较了3种新杀虫剂与3种已登记的杀虫剂对小地老虎的毒力,同时用人工土壤法和密闭法分别测定了6种药剂对蚯蚓的急性毒性和对土壤呼吸强度的影响。结果显示,溴虫腈、茚虫威和甲维盐对小地老虎3龄幼虫的毒力明显高于3种已登记药剂毒死蜱、辛硫磷和高效氯氟氰菊酯;溴虫腈、茚虫威和甲维盐对蚯蚓的LC50分别为1320.80、1153.42和167.91mg/kg,均低于其它3种药剂,属于低毒级;供试杀虫剂中以溴虫腈对小地老虎和蚯蚓的毒力选择性最高,其毒力选择性比值(蚯蚓LC50/小地老虎LC50)为7115.23;6种药剂对土壤微生物均无危害性。%Leaf-dip, artificial soil and direct absorption methods were used conducted to determine the laboratory toxicity of six insecticides to the black cutworm, Agrotis ypsilon ( Rottemberg), the acute re- sponse to the earthworm, Eisenia foelida and the effects on respiration of soil microorganism, respective- ly. Results showed that the toxicity of chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was significantly higher than that of chlorpyrifos, phoxim and lambadacyhalothrin. The acute response to the earthworm re- suits showed that the LCs0 of chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was 1 320.80, 1 153.42 and 167.91 mg/kg, which belonged to the inferior toxic category. The selective toxicity of chlorfenapyr was the highest among 6 insecticides tested, and its selective toxicity ratio reached 7115.23. These pesti- cides all belong to the lower poisonous pesticide category on soil microbe.

  18. Effects of periplocosides P and E from Periploca sepium on the proteinase activities in the midgut of larvae of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ypsilon ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)%杠柳新苷P和E对东方粘虫和小地老虎幼虫中肠蛋白酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠翠; 高履桐; 师宝君; 温万东; 胡兆农; 吴文君

    2012-01-01

    从杀虫植物杠柳Periploca sepiutm Bunge根皮中分离得到的杠柳新苷P具有很高的杀虫活性,为了探索其杀虫机理,采用经典的昆虫蛋白酶活性测定方法,比较研究了杠柳新苷P和无杀虫活性的杠柳新苷E对东方粘虫Mythimna separata与小地老虎Agrotis ypsilon 6龄幼虫中肠类胰蛋白酶和类胰凝乳蛋白酶活性的影响.结果表明:对东方粘虫弱碱性类胰蛋白酶,杠柳新苷P表现出强激活作用(酶活性为对照的3.43倍),激活时间可长达8h,而杠柳新苷E则无明显激活作用.杠柳新苷P和E对东方粘虫弱碱性类胰蛋白酶活性的影响二者差异显著(P=0.01),杠柳新苷P药后2,4和8h,东方粘虫中肠弱碱性类胰蛋白酶的活性分别是杠柳新苷E药后的15.4,106.8和242.7倍.酶活性测定结果还表明,与东方粘虫相比,小地老虎中肠类胰蛋白酶活性相对较低,且杠柳新苷P的激活作用也较弱,这可能是杠柳新苷P对东方粘虫具杀虫活性,而小地老虎对其不敏感的原因之一;另外,杠柳新苷P和E对试虫中肠类凝乳胰蛋白酶活性均无明显影响.据此推测,杠柳活性成分新苷P对东方粘虫中肠弱碱性类胰蛋白酶的激活作用可能是造成试虫中毒的机理之一.%Periplocoside P, which was isolated from the root bark of the insecticidal plant Periploca sepium Bunge, has strong insecticidal activity. To explore the insecticidal mechanism of periplocoside P, the classical determination methods for insect protease activity were used to compare the different effects on the activities of trypsin-like protease and chymotrypsin-like protease in the midgut of the 6th instar larvae of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ypsilon beween periplocoside P and periplocoside E which has no insecticidal activity. The results showed that periplocoside P displayed strong activation effect on the weakly alkaline trypsin-like protease activity in the midgut of M. separata larvae, which was 3.43 times

  19. Combination Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16468-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yi extracellular Cu/Zn ... 156 4e-37 AF539999_65( AF539999 |pid:none) Mamestra configurata nuc...umiferana defectiv... 155 7e-37 EU597271_1( EU597271 |pid:none) Gossypium hirsutum extracellular C... 155 1e...-36 ( Q07449 ) RecName: Full=Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn... 154 2e-36 AF303045_106( AF303045 |pid:none) Hel...-35 DQ491001_99( DQ491001 |pid:none) Paramecium bursaria chlorella vir... 150 4e-35 EU839994_57( EU839994 |p...id:none) Agrotis ipsilon multiple nucleopo... 150 4e-35 AY533134_1( AY533134 |pid:none) Dictyocaulus viviparus extracell

  1. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are:3H, 14Ca, 32P, 35S, 38Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: 198Au, 134Cs, 131I, 86Rb, 65Zn, 59Fe, 45Ca, 24Na, 22Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs

  2. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiclear DH® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... EndaCof XP® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... Entuss® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone)

  3. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most effective ... periods Treat acne Prevent ovarian cancer Combination birth control pills contain both estrogen and progestin. Some combination ...

  4. Familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000396.htm Familial combined hyperlipidemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial combined hyperlipidemia is a disorder that is passed down ...

  5. COMBINE 2 seminar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Jacobsen, Kim

    1995-01-01

    A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2......A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2...

  6. Modifiable Combining Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Paul; Shafer, Glenn; Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2013-01-01

    Modifiable combining functions are a synthesis of two common approaches to combining evidence. They offer many of the advantages of these approaches and avoid some disadvantages. Because they facilitate the acquisition, representation, explanation, and modification of knowledge about combinations of evidence, they are proposed as a tool for knowledge engineers who build systems that reason under uncertainty, not as a normative theory of evidence.

  7. Combination-Combination Hyperchaos Synchronization of Complex Memristor Oscillator System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jin-E

    2014-01-01

    The combination-combination synchronization scheme is based on combination of multidrive systems and combination of multiresponse systems. In this paper, we investigate combination-combination synchronization of hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator system. Several sufficient conditions are provided to ascertain the combination of two drive hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems to synchronize the combination of two response hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems. Th...

  8. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocodone combination products may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: nausea vomiting ... slowed or irregular breathing chest tightness Hydrocodone combination products may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any ...

  9. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  10. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  11. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) SCID is a group of rare ... prompt treatment and high survival rates. SCID was added in 2010 to the U.S. Department of Health ...

  12. Parser combinators in Scala

    OpenAIRE

    Moors, Adriaan; Piessens, Frank; Odersky, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Parser combinators are well-known in functional programming languages such as Haskell. In this paper, we describe how they are implemented as a library in Scala, a functional object-oriented language. Thanks to Scala's flexible syntax, we are able to closely approximate the EBNF notation supported by dedicated parser generators. For the uninitiated, we first explain the concept of parser combinators by developing a minimal library from scratch. We then turn to a detailed description of the ex...

  13. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term of...... only used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive...

  14. Combinable protein crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    This research topic review aims to summarise research knowledge and observational experience of combinable protein crop production in organic farming systems for the UK. European research on peas, faba beans and lupins is included; considering their role in the rotation, nitrogen fixation, varieties, establishment, weed control, yields, problems experienced and intercropping with cereals.

  15. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...

  16. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  17. Business Combination Accounting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN IOAN SCORŢESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author refers to some aspects looking the business combination accounting methods. In this purpose are presented certain elements that are specific to the acquisition method and pooling of interest method. Thus, the society that is bought is accounted, as any asset, at cost. When the acquisition is done in a single stage, the exchange date will be the acquisition date. In accordance with the acquisition method, the assets are estimated to its fair value; regarding the liabilities, only the existed one at the acquisition date are accounted. In accordance with the pooling of interest method, the identifiable assets and liabilities of the enterprise that is bought are accounted at the account value. Because of this, at the acquisition date the goodwill is no longer possible to appear. In keeping with IFRS 3 “Business combination” only the acquisition method is allowed to account the business combinations.

  18. Combination-Combination Hyperchaos Synchronization of Complex Memristor Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jin-E

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination-combination synchronization scheme is based on combination of multidrive systems and combination of multiresponse systems. In this paper, we investigate combination-combination synchronization of hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator system. Several sufficient conditions are provided to ascertain the combination of two drive hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems to synchronize the combination of two response hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems. These new conditions improve and extend the existing synchronization results for memristive systems. A numerical example is given to show the feasibility of theoretical results.

  19. Through the Combining Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Plasencia, Diego; Berthaut, Florent; Karnik, Abhijit; Subramanian, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Reflective optical combiners like beam splitters and two way mirrors are used in AR to overlap digital contents on the users' hands or bodies. Augmentations are usually unidirectional, either reflecting virtual contents on the user's body (Situated Augmented Reality) or augmenting user's reflections with digital contents (AR mirrors). But many other novel possibilities remain unexplored. For example, users' hands, reflected inside a museum AR cabinet, can allow visitors to interact with the a...

  20. COMBINING MODULES FOR MOVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzi, E; Cheung, V.C.K.; d’Avella, A.; Saltiel, P.; Tresch, M.

    2007-01-01

    We review experiments supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a small number of units of motor output. Using a variety of approaches such as microstimulation of the spinal cord, NMDA iontophoresis, and an examination of natural behaviors in intact and deafferented animals we have provided evidence for a modular organization of the spinal cord. A module is a functional unit in the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing ...

  1. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Combining Affymetrix microarray results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerge RW

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the use of microarray technology becomes more prevalent it is not unusual to find several laboratories employing the same microarray technology to identify genes related to the same condition in the same species. Although the experimental specifics are similar, typically a different list of statistically significant genes result from each data analysis. Results We propose a statistically-based meta-analytic approach to microarray analysis for the purpose of systematically combining results from the different laboratories. This approach provides a more precise view of genes that are significantly related to the condition of interest while simultaneously allowing for differences between laboratories. Of particular interest is the widely used Affymetrix oligonucleotide array, the results of which are naturally suited to a meta-analysis. A simulation model based on the Affymetrix platform is developed to examine the adaptive nature of the meta-analytic approach and to illustrate the usefulness of such an approach in combining microarray results across laboratories. The approach is then applied to real data involving a mouse model for multiple sclerosis. Conclusion The quantitative estimates from the meta-analysis model tend to be closer to the "true" degree of differential expression than any single lab. Meta-analytic methods can systematically combine Affymetrix results from different laboratories to gain a clearer understanding of genes' relationships to specific conditions of interest.

  3. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  4. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...... simulator software and the harvester hardware, and 2) the visual image generation system. Aims of the project have been to promote technology transfer from DMI´s maritime simulator to new application areas, to develop a state-of-the-art pilot training environment, and to utilise the state-of-the-art in...

  5. Combined ac corrector magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual designs have been made for two types of multipole corrector magnets for use in TRIUMF's proposed KAON Booster ring which operates at 50 Hz. The lack of space in the synchrotron lattice makes it attractive to combine dipole, quadrupole and sextupole correctors in the same yoke structure. A conventional constant current density winding design is compared with an alternative magnet with twelve poles and windings distributed in slots and at the pole faces. The problem of induced voltages in the windings is discussed

  6. Combined solar collector

    OpenAIRE

    Voznyak, O.; Shapoval, S.; Pona, O.; Vengryn, I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article was analyzing the efficiency of the combined solar collector for heating buildings. This enhances the efficiency of solar system by increasing the area of the absorption of solar energy. There are describes the results of the research on solar radiation input on a combined solar collector. Проаналізовано ефективність використання комбінованого сонячного колектора для теплопостачання будівель. Він забезпечує підвищення ефективності геліосистеми за рахунок збільшення площі погли...

  7. Studies on combined injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After combined injuries, much more pronounced changes in the protein composition of serum develop than simply after skin wounding or irradiation. A decrease was found in the prealbumin, albumin, α1-globulin and γ-globulin fractions while the α2-globulin and β-globulin fractions increased. If skin wounds were inflicted prior or almost simultaneously to irradiation, the serum protein changes as induced by irradiation become normalized earlier. If skin wounds were inflicted after irradiation they caused very pronounced alteration in the protein picture which develops in a course parallel to the increasing lethality. Only if the skin wounds were inflicted 21 days after irradiation, that they appeared to have nearly no inluence in the form of augmenting protein changes. The γ-globulin content increased considerably after the 14th hay after irradiation. An additional skin wound, however, caused a depression of the γ-globulins; but the values were still significantly higher than normal. (orig.)

  8. Combined Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    At their 2007 Summit in Heiligendamm, G8 leaders called on countries to 'adopt instruments and measures to significantly increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) in the generation of electricity.' As a result, energy, economic, environmental and utility regulators are looking for tools and information to understand the potential of CHP and to identify appropriate policies for their national circumstances. This report forms the first part of the response. It includes answers to policy makers' questions about the potential economic, energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to CHP. It also includes for the first time integrated IEA data on global CHP installations, and analyses the benefits of increased CHP investment in the G8+5 countries. A companion report will be produced later in 2008 to document best practice policy approaches that have been used to expand the use of CHP in a variety of countries.

  9. Boards to combine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The National Research Council's Board on Earth Sciences and the Board on Mineral and Energy Resources were eliminated during the summer by a decision of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, which oversees both bodies, and Frank Press, president of the National Academy of Sciences. The responsibilities of the two boards will be merged into a Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, not yet formed.Raphael Kasper, executive director of the Commission, said that the boards were dissolved for two reasons. “There's been a general trend within the Academy toward bringing together the pure and applied branches of particular sciences.” BES had dealt largely with basic Earth science research, while BMER had addressed questions related to mineral resources, land use, and public policy. The Space Science Board and the Space Applications Board, also under the jurisdiction of the Commission, were combined this fall into a single body (Eos, October 18, p. 961).

  10. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...... February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology......, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both...

  11. LEVANTAMENTO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE Eucalyptus spp. POR MEIO DE ARMADILHA LUMINOSA EM SÃO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garlet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of eucalyptus has become an important economic activity in Brazil. However, with the increase of the plantation areas, some entomological problems tend to increase in the same proportion. The constant monitoring of the insects associated with homogeneous planting systems is very important in order to seek the development of programs for integrated pest management. Thus, the purpose of this study was to perform a survey on the insect populations associated with Eucalyptus spp., in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The collects were carried out by light traps from July 2008 to August 2009 in three-year-old stands with the species: Eucalyptus dunni, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla . The insects collected were analyzed using the faunistic indices, frequency, abundance, diversity, and constancy. The correlation between the pest species identified and the meteorological variables for the period were also performed. We collected 3623 individuals belonging to eight orders (Blattodea, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea and Odonata. Three species and three genus of lepidoptera defoliators considered of economic importance were identified: Automeris illustris, Eupseudosoma sp., Sabulodes sp., Sarsina sp., Thyrinteina arnobia and Agrotis ipsilon as well as the borer Phoracantha semipunctata . Our results show that there are important pest species of Eucalyptus already established in the region therefore some constant monitoring is required so that these species do not cause damage to plantations.

  12. Low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide modify pheromone response thresholds of central but not peripheral olfactory neurons in a pest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Deisig, Nina; Demondion, Elodie; Le Corre, Julie; Robert, Guillaume; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2016-02-10

    Insect pest management relies mainly on neurotoxic insecticides, including neonicotinoids, leaving residues in the environment. There is now evidence that low doses of insecticides can have positive effects on pest insects by enhancing various life traits. Because pest insects often rely on sex pheromones for reproduction, and olfactory synaptic transmission is cholinergic, neonicotinoid residues could modify chemical communication. We recently showed that treatments with different sublethal doses of clothianidin could either enhance or decrease behavioural sex pheromone responses in the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon. We investigated now effects of the behaviourally active clothianidin doses on the sensitivity of the peripheral and central olfactory system. We show with extracellular recordings that both tested clothianidin doses do not influence pheromone responses in olfactory receptor neurons. Similarly, in vivo optical imaging does not reveal any changes in glomerular response intensities to the sex pheromone after clothianidin treatments. The sensitivity of intracellularly recorded antennal lobe output neurons, however, is upregulated by a lethal dose 20 times and downregulated by a dose 10 times lower than the lethal dose 0. This correlates with the changes of behavioural responses after clothianidin treatment and suggests the antennal lobe as neural substrate involved in clothianidin-induced behavioural changes. PMID:26842577

  13. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  14. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther K Rabhi

    Full Text Available In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress.

  15. Combined system for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a coupling technique between a nuclear power plant and a desalination unit is being examined, with full consideration given to the safety aspects. This can be achieved by using a heat pipe waste heat recovery boiler to utilize the energy from the nuclear plant and direct it to the desalination unit. The heat pipe, which is an individual tube fabricated with a capillary wick structure, is evacuated, filled with operating fluid and permanently sealed. Thermal energy applied to either end of the pipe vaporizes the fluid at that end. The vapour travels to the pipe's opposite end, where the thermal energy is removed, condensing the vapour into liquid and giving off the latent heat of condensation. The condensate liquid flows back to the hot end to be evaporated, completing the cycle. The closed loop condensing/evaporating heat pipe cycle is characterized as a double separation boundary between the primary heat source and the secondary fluid, which is an ideal double separation boundary if a combined nuclear desalination system is planned. In the process of testing heat pipe performance, consideration is being given to coupling a gas turbine (as an alternative to a nuclear power plant) to a multi-effect-thermal vapour compression (ME-TVC) unit by a heat pipe waste heat recovery boiler

  16. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  17. Combined approach for gynecomastia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gynecomastia is a deformity of male chest. Treatment of gynecomastia varied from direct surgical excision to other techniques (mainly liposuction) to a combination of both. Skin excision is done according to the grade. In this study, experience of using liposuction adjuvant to surgical excision was described. Patients and methods: Between September 2012 and April 2015, a total of 14 patients were treated with liposuction and surgical excision through a periareolar incision. Preoperative evaluation was done in all cases to exclude any underlying cause of gynecomastia. Results: All fourteen patients were treated bilaterally (28 breast tissues). Their ages ranged between 13 and 33 years. Two patients were classified as grade I, and four as grade IIa, IIb or III, respectively. The first 3 patients showed seroma. Partial superficial epidermolysis of areola occurred in 2 cases. Superficial infection of incision occurred in one case and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: All grades of gynecomastia were managed by the same approach. Skin excision was added to a patient that had severe skin excess with limited activity and bad skin complexion. No cases required another setting or asked for 2nd opinion. PMID:26955509

  18. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. PMID:26343211

  19. CINR difference analysis of optimal combining versus maximal ratio combining

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, J. P.; Zeidler, J R; Rao, B D

    2005-01-01

    The statistical gain differences between two common spatial combining algorithms: optimum combining (OC) and maximal ratio combining (MRC) are analyzed using a gain ratio method. Using the receive carrier-to-interference plus noise ratio (CINR), the gain ratio CINROC/CINRMRC is evaluated in a flat Rayeligh fading communications system with multiple interferers. Exact analytical solutions are derived for the probability density function (PDF) and the average gain ratio with one interferer. Whe...

  20. Decoupled Adapt-then-Combine diffusion networks with adaptive combiners

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Bes, Jesus; Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Silva, Magno T. M.; Azpicueta-Ruiz, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a novel diffusion strategy for adaptive networks called Decoupled Adapt-then-Combine, which keeps a fully local estimate of the solution for the adaptation step. Our strategy, which is specially convenient for heterogeneous networks, is compared with the standard Adapt-then-Combine scheme and theoretically analyzed using energy conservation arguments. Such comparison shows the need of implementing adaptive combiners for both schemes to obtain a good performance in cas...

  1. Tigecycline: Alone or in combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun; Bai, Nan; Liu, Xu; Liang, Beibei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Background The broad spectrum antibiotic tigecyline has promising efficacy against many multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. However, when used clinically, many reports about treatment failures of tigecycline monotherapy indicate that it might not be sufficient to control severe infections. Combination therapy has become an option to treat infection with MDR bacteria because of the distinct advantage in terms of broad coverage, synergistic effect and prevention of drug resistance development. Methods Search terms 'tigecycline', 'GAR-936' and 'glycylcycline' combined with the term 'combination' were applied to retrieve the available in vitro and in vivo studies on tigecycline combination therapy from PubMed database (January 1993-August 2015). Results Colistin-tigecycline was the most studied combination and showed promising efficacy. Other combination regimens, such as tigecycline plus sulbactam, carbapenem or rifampicin, also showed synergistic effects against different bacteria. However, most of the data was from in vitro and animal studies. Only some case reports indicated that tigecycline containing combination therapy had favourable outcomes. Conclusions Although this study could not conclude that combination therapy with tigecycline was superior to monotherapy, when severe infection leaves no other choice, selection of combination drugs according to infection status and in vitro susceptibility testing is recommended. There is a great need for well-designed studies to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of combination therapy compared to tigecyline monotherapy. PMID:26982103

  2. New combination therapies for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, J F; Ohar, J A

    2001-03-01

    Combination products often have useful clinical benefits in asthma. The scientific rationale for combination therapy includes the fact that different agents have complimentary modes of action. Long-acting beta(2)-agonists have effects on airway smooth muscle, and inhaled corticosteroids have potent topical antiinflammatory effect. This combination has been shown to effectively reduce exacerbations and improve symptoms. Substantial clinical trial data provide a rationale for dual-control therapy supported by basic scientific data. Another combined therapy is inhaled steroids plus leukotriene-receptor antagonists, which provides the patient with two effective therapies. Leukotriene-receptor antagonist can also be combined with antihistamines for improved asthma control. Older therapies including theophylline and controlled release albuterol have been effectively added to inhaled corticosteroids, enabling a reduction in the dose of the inhaled steroids. Many other combination therapies are presently being tested. PMID:11224725

  3. Combined method of geodetic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeničnik, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    Graduation thesis deals with combination of observations of terrestrial polar detailed method of surveying and RTK method of GNSS surveying. Every method for itself has advantages and disadvantages. We combine both methods into combined method of geodetic surveying for better results. On a chosen completed range we measured identical detailed points twice, with polar method and RTK method of surveying. We gained couple of coordinates of detailed points and their accuracy values. Positions...

  4. Combining vocational and research training.

    OpenAIRE

    Olde Hartman, T.C.; Poels, P.J.P.; Licht-Strunk, E.; van Weel, C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gap between research and clinical practice can be bridged by strengthening the position of the clinician-researcher with appropriate research training and protected time for research. METHODS: A Dutch program combines vocational training in family medicine with research training. This article describes the scientific output of registrars following this combined program. RESULTS: Forty family physician registrars who undertook the combined program from 2000-2006 produced 138 pu...

  5. Autocontrol technique of combined centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design characteristic of the autocontrol technique of the combined centrifuge is introduced. Digital technique, vary structure control and interface technique, graphical display techniques, digital communication technique as well as electronic technique are applied in the course of research. Automation in the operation of large scale combined centrifuges and the course of combined test has been realized and it can coordinate with other systems of status monitoring, data collecting and centrifugal force-aerodynamic force matched load automatically

  6. New combinations in Odontostemma (Caryophyllaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rabeler, Richard K.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-three new combinations in Odontostemma (Alsineae, Caryophyllaceae) are made to accommodate placement of all currently recognized taxa of Arenaria subg. Odontostemma within the genus Odontostemma.

  7. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  8. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  9. Combining Narrative and Numerical Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sanne; Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Jacobsen, Peter

    Strategic simulation is the combination of narrative and numerical simulation and can be used as a tool to support strategic decision making by providing different scenarios in combination with computer modelling. The core of the combined simulation approach (CSA) is to make it possible for...... decision making in operations and production management by providing new insights into modelling and simulation based on the combined narrative and numerical simulation approach as a tool for strategy making. The research question asks, “How can the CSA be applied in a practical context to support strategy...

  10. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  11. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  12. Combined scleral buckling and phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Pukhraj Rishi; Tarun Sharma(Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba-400005, India); Ekta Rishi; Chaudhary, Soumendra P.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To analyze the outcome of combined scleral buckling and phacoemulsification for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and visually significant cataract. Settings and Design: Retrospective, interventional case series. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of patients with primary rhegmatogenous detachment with or without proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) changes and visually significant cataract who underwent combined scleral buckling and phacoemulsification with or w...

  13. On Combination of Belief Functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, Milan

    Hanoi : Institute of Information Technology, 2001 - (Nguyen, H.; Yamada, K.), s. 364-373 [VJFUZZY'2001. Hanoi (VN), 07.12.2001-08.12.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030803 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : belief functions * Dempster-Shafer theory * contradiction * conflict * combination per elements * minC combination Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Multidimensional Datawarehouse with Combination Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Multidimensional in data warehouse is a compulsion and become the most important for information delivery, without multidimensional Multidimensional in data warehouse is a compulsion and become the most important for information delivery, without multidimensional datawarehouse is incomplete. Multidimensional give ability to analyze business measurement in many different ways. Multidimensional is also synonymous with online analytical processing (OLAP). By using some concepts in datawarehouse like slice-dice,drill down and roll up will increase the ability of multidimensional datawarehouse. The research question and the discussing for this paper are how much deepest the multidimensional ability from each fact table in datawarehouse. By using the statistic combination formula we try to explore the combination that can be yielded from each dimension in hypercubes, the entire of dimensi combination, minimum combination and maximum combination.

  15. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy: Cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared to the other chemotherapeutic preparations discussed today, cyclophosphamide in combination with radiotherapy is a relatively unproblematic substance. Despite the great number of experimental and clinical data, the evaluation does not prove an advantage of the combined therapy with cyclophosphamide and irradiation as against radiotherapy alone in local tumor treatment. This should give occasion to further experimental investigations in adequate models. On the other hand, the practice of combined treatment with irradiation and preparations containing cyclophosphamide should be reconsidered for those cases where local control of a tumor is the principal therapeutic aim. (orig.)

  16. New combinations in African Sapindaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Vollesen, Kaj; Verdcourt, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    Three new combinations are formally made: Allophylus rubifolius (A. Rich.) Engl. var. alnifolius (Baker) Friis & Vollesen, Allophylus rubifolius (A. Rich.) Engl. var. rhusiphyllus (Balf.f.) Froos & Vollesen and Haplocoelum folosum (Hiern) Bullock subsp. mombasense (Bullock) Verdc....

  17. Nonlinear combining of laser beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, Pavel M; Vladimirova, Natalia

    2014-06-15

    We propose to combine multiple laser beams into a single diffraction-limited beam by beam self-focusing (collapse) in a Kerr medium. Beams with total power above critical are first combined in the near field and then propagated in the optical fiber/waveguide with Kerr nonlinearity. Random fluctuations during propagation eventually trigger a strong self-focusing event and produce a diffraction-limited beam carrying the critical power. PMID:24978503

  18. Drug Combinations for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Olliaro, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several attempts have been made to combine drugs for treating visceral leishmaniasis, but only recently have effective drugs become available and combinations been tested systematically. RECENT FINDINGS: Sequential treatments with liposomal amphotericin B followed by miltefosine or paromomycin (as short as 7 days), as well as the concomitant administration of miltefosine and paromomycin (for 10 days) are very effective in India (>95%). Sodium stibogluconate plus paromomycin...

  19. Nonlinear combining of laser beams

    OpenAIRE

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Vladimirova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We propose to combine multiple laser beams into a single diffraction-limited beam by the beam self-focusing (collapse) in the Kerr medium. The beams with the total power above critical are first combined in the near field and then propagated in the optical fiber/waveguide with the Kerr nonlinearity. Random fluctuations during propagation eventually trigger strong self-focusing event and produce diffraction-limited beam carrying the critical power.

  20. Combined sensor noise-immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir A. Shchurov; Alexander V. Shchurov

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents statistical analysis of combined sensor noise-immunity while recording fluctuating tone against underwater dynamic noise background. The experimental data used for the analysis have been collected by a pair of four-component combined sensors centered at two depths, 150 and 300 m in deep water. Expressions for combined sensor signalto-noise ratio (SNR) for cross-spectral levels of signal and noise for both wide and narrow frequency bands have been derived. A combined sensor gain has been introduced in terms of ordinary single-point coherence function between acoustic pressure and particle velocity in acoustic wave. The estimates obtained experimentally evidence that SNR for a combined sensor with multiplicative data processing may exceed SNR for a hydrophone-based sensor by 15 to 16 dB at most for the horizontal channel of the combined sensor, and by 30 dB at most for the vertical channel (when opposite energy flows of signal and noise compensate one another).

  1. New antiretrovirals and new combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlir, D V; Lange, J M

    1998-01-01

    The appearance in the clinic of two to three new antiretroviral agents yearly since 1995 has permitted unprecedented advances in HIV treatment. This remarkable pace of drug development is a testimony to an extraordinary international effort involving scientists, clinicians, governments, community activists and industry dedicated to the rapid and safe development of novel therapies. New drugs present the opportunity to improve HIV therapy. They also create an enormous challenge to the clinician, who must constantly assimilate data on new drugs and incorporate this information into practical management strategies. Combination therapy has proven the most effective approach to treat HIV disease. The profound and sustained viral suppression achievable with combinations such as indinavir (IDV), lamivudine (3TC) and zidovudine (ZDV) have resulted in a dramatic shift in HIV treatment paradigms over the last year. The full potential of combination therapy with available drugs has yet to be realized as only a limited number of the possible combinations incorporating new drugs have been fully tested. Even drugs available for many years may have untapped potential. Didanosine (ddI) and stavudine (d4T), once thought to be contraindicated in combination because of their overlapping peripheral neuropathy toxicity, have proven well tolerated and effective. Combination therapy can increase antiviral suppression, prevent drug resistance, optimize drug exposure and simplify dosing, but it can also result in pharmacologic antagonism, subtherapeutic drug concentrations and unexpected toxicities. Clinical studies have confirmed in vitro studies showing pharmacologic antagonism for the combination of ZDV and d4T. Combining protease inhibitors with each other or with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is complicated by effects both classes of drugs have on drug metabolism and clearance. These observations underline the importance of carefully conducted clinical studies to

  2. Comparing basic GBN with packet reversed packet combining scheme, modified packet combining scheme and the combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packet combining scheme is a simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput than that of basic ARQ protocols but fails to correct errors when errors occur in the same bit locations of erroneous copies. The Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme corrects errors if they occur at the same bit location. Again, packet combining scheme fails to correct double or higher bit errors. A Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme corrects double or higher bit errors. Some previous studies on three schemes namely PRPC, MPC and MPC with PRPC found that they offer higher throughput over basic stop and wait ARQ protocol. As in networks, GBN (Go Back N) protocol is mostly used in this paper. We make a study of the comparison of schemes with GBN. We find that in practical ranges of packet size, window size and bit error rate, the schemes offer higher throughput than that of basic GBN. (author)

  3. SIMULATION OF THE COMBINED METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Levin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attacks have become one of the most dangerous issues in the Internet today. Because of theseattacks, legitimate users can not access the resources they need. In [1] authors proposeda combined method for tracing and blocking the sources of DDoS-attacks. The essence of the method isthat each router marks the network packet that passes through it using a random hash function from theset. At the receiving side this information is stored and used to filter unwanted traffic and traceback thesource of distributed attack. This article describes the simulation and its results of the combined method.

  4. Host range of an NPV and a GV isolated from the common cutworm, Agrotis segetum: pathogenicity within the cutworm complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourner, T.C.; Cory, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The term cutworm covers a range of species with a similar life history that can be very damaging pests on a wide range of crops. Attacks by cutworms are often made up of more than one species; thus, the most cost effective microbial control agent needs to be pathogenic for multiple species within th

  5. The release of a pheromonotropic neuropeptide, PBAN, in the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, exhibits a circadian rhythm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závodská, Radka; von Wowern, G.; Löfstedt, C.; Rosén, W. Q.; Šauman, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 435-440. ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : pheromone biosynthesis activating * neuropeptide (PBAN) * circadian rhythm Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2009

  6. Mortality in hibernating turnip moth larvae, Agrotis segetum, caused by Tolypocladium cylindrosporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Øgaard, Leif

    2000-01-01

    cylindrical conidia (55 × 2 μm) and smaller, ellipsoidal conidia (38 × 28 μm) in slimy heads from flask-shaped phialides with thin necks, which occasionally were bent. Phialides were scarce and never occurred in true verticils. Colonies were pale yellow, cottony on artificial medium, with a characteristic...... infested site the prevalence was 21% in mid-October and by March it had reached 93%. The ability of the fungus to infect insects at low temperatures may be related to a relatively low optimum temperature for growth of 21 °C, which is lower than for the majority of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes. Host range...... studies with 10 insect species indicated that the fungus is probably specific to hibernating cutworms....

  7. Combination of several data sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of combining several uncertain data sources is discussed. Two methods based on subjective Bayesian analysis and on the Shafer-Dempster theory of evidence are proposed. The uncertainty of the resulting estimates is discussed and the methods are applied to some exemplary cases. Some conclusions concerning the methods are given. (orig.)

  8. H gas turbine combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corman, J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System - {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1430 C (2600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

  9. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...

  10. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...

  11. Combined cycle power plant Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding the new directions in constructing combined cycle power plants, in this work an idea of such plant in Skopje with power of 190 MW has been elaborated. This plant will be constructed on the site of the existing TPP 'Energetika', AD ESM. The rates of efficiency for different condition of operation has been estimated. (Author)

  12. A Radix-10 Combinational Multiplier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    reduces the number of partial product precomputations and uses counters to eliminate the need of the decimal equivalent of a 4:2 adder. The results of the implementation show that the combinational decimal multiplier offers a good compromise between latency and area when compared to other decimal multiply...... units and to binary double-precision multipliers....

  13. Chemical and natural stressors combined:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Zenker, Armin; Grimm, Volker;

    2013-01-01

    In addition to natural stressors, populations are increasingly exposed to chemical pollutants released into the environment. We experimentally demonstrate the loss of resilience for Daphnia magna populations that are exposed to a combination of natural and chemical stressors even though effects o...

  14. Towards an operational IDS combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, J.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.; Govind, R.; Stepanek, P.; Lemoine, F.; Altamimi, Z.; Le Bail, K.

    2007-12-01

    The International DORIS Service is in operation since 2003. Over the last four years, five instruments on the SPOT 2-4-5, ENVISAT and the JASON-1 satellites have provided DORIS Doppler data collected from a global network of about 50 stations. The number of Analysis Centers (AC) who have processed the data and have high level experience has progressively risen. Among them, two ACs : IGN/JPL using GYPSY/OASIS software and LEGOS/CLS using GINS/DYNAMO software now provide solutions of station coordinates and EOPs on a routine basis to the IGN and NASA CDDIS data centers. INASAN also processes DORIS data using GYPSY/OASIS software and submitted SINEX files to the ITRF2005 solution. The two newest DORIS analysis centers, include Geoscience Australia (GA) using the NASA GEODYN software and the Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP) using the BERNESE software. The GOP has adapted software not originally designed to process DORIS data. The performance reached by the new analysis centers in orbit and station positions determination is very encouraging. The availability of geodetic solutions from different algorithms and software packages allows us to efficiently contribute to cross-comparison of the solutions and to the improvement of the DORIS technique. The operational combinations of SINEX solutions contributed by the DORIS analysis centers will have to perform at least two functions. The first one is an internal validation of each individual AC time series. The second is a combination of all the AC weekly solutions in order to generate IDS combined products for station coordinates and EOPs. The paper presents the status of each AC processing (strategy, results, organization and future plan) and the combinations of solutions for the period of several years (2002-2006 as an objective). The combinations are realized with the IGN/LAREG CATREF software. Essential to the analysts, the station network event file (discontinuities, poor data span) will be updated and listed. The

  15. Combined Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanov Y.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of gynecomastia could present unique challenges for the plastic surgeon. Achieving a good balance between effectiveness of the selected approach and the satisfactory aesthetic outcome often is a difficult endeavor. Optimal surgical treatment involves a combination of liposuction and direct excision. In the present study the charts of 11 patients treated with suction-assisted liposuction and direct surgical excision were retrospectively reviewed; a special emphasis is placed on the surgical technique. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 11.6 months. No infection, hematoma, nipple-areola complex necrosis and nipple retraction was encountered in this series. The combined surgical treatment of gynecomastia has shown to be a reliable technique in both small and moderate breast enlargement including those with skin excess.

  16. Pattern Recognition by Combined Invariants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaohong; ZHAO Rongchun

    2001-01-01

    A feature-based recognition of objectsor patterns independent of their position, size, orien-tation and other variations has been the goal of muchrecent research. The existing approaches to invarianttwo-dimensional pattern recognition are useless whenpattern is blurred. In this paper, we present a novelpattern recognition system which can solve the prob-lem by using combined invariants as image features.The classification technique we choose for our systemis weighted normalized cross correlation. The mean ofthe intraclass standard deviations of the kth featureover the total number of prototypes for each class isused as a weighting factor during the classification pro-cess to improve recognition accuracy. The feasibilityof our pattern recognition system and the invarianceof the combined features with respect to translation,scaling, rotation and blurring are approved by numer-ical experiments on head images.

  17. Several Notes on Belief Combination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, Milan

    Brest : ENSIETA, 2010, s. 1-5. [Workshop on the Theory of Belief Functions. Brest (FR), 01.04.2010-02.04.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : belief functions * Dempster-Shafer theory * combination of belief functions * conflict Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ensieta.fr/ belief 2010

  18. Combined catalytic converter and afterburner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T.T.-H.

    1994-11-30

    This patent describes the combined use of a catalytic converter and afterburner. An afterburner chamber and a catalyst matrix are disposed in series within a casing. A combustible premixed charge is ignited in the afterburner chamber before it enters the catalyst matrix. This invention overcomes the problem encountered in previous designs of some of the premixed charge passing unreacted through the device unless a very long afterburner chamber is used. (UK)

  19. Polymer conjugates for combination chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Etrych, Tomáš; Kostková, Hana; Šírová, Milada; Říhová, Blanka; Ulbrich, Karel

    Salt Lake City : University of Utah, 2010. s. 57-58. [Symposium on Biomedical Polymers for Drug Delivery. 26.03.2010-27.03.2010, Salt Lake City] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505; GA AV ČR IAA400500806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer * combination chemotherapy * doxorubicin Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  20. Forecast combinations for intermittent demand

    OpenAIRE

    Fotios PETROPOULOS; Kourentzes, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent demand is characterised by infrequent demand arrivals, where many periods have zero demand, coupled with varied demand sizes. The dual source of variation renders forecasting for intermittent demand a very challenging task. Many researchers have focused on the development of specialised methods for intermittent demand. However, apart from a case study on hierarchical forecasting, the effects of combining, which is a standard practice for regular demand, have not been investigated...

  1. Combined Approach for Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Many image segmentation techniques have been developed over the past two decades for segmenting the images, which help for object recognition, occlusion boundary estimation within motion or stereo systems, image compression, image editing. In this, there is a combined approach for segmenting the image. By using histogram equalization to the input image, from which it gives contrast enhancement output image .After that by applying median filtering,which will remove noise from contrast output i...

  2. Combining Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jack M

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with depression, anxiety disorders, and other psychiatric disorders are treated with combinations of psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication. Whether this is better than monotherapy is an empirical question that requires much more extensive research than is currently available. When medications were first introduced to treat psychiatric illnesses, some psychopharmacologists insisted that it heralded a new area of "biological psychiatry" that would ultimately render psychotherapy obsolete. Psychodynamic theorists and practitioners, on the other hand, argued that psychopharmacology offered only a superficial approach to treatment. Fortunately, these battles are now largely supplanted by the belief that whatever treatment offers the patient the best outcome should be employed, regardless of the therapist's theoretical outlook. This should motivate more extensive study of the value of combination treatment. So far, the few studies that have been done suggest that the combination of psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication may be superior for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, but most of these studies have small sample sizes and involve only short-term psychotherapy. An examination of the neuroscience of mood and anxiety disorders and of the mechanism of action of psychodynamic psychotherapy and of antidepressant medication suggests several routes by which the two treatment modalities could be synergistic: stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis; epigenetic regulation of gene expression; dendritic remodeling; enhanced prefrontal cortical control of limbic system activity; and action at specific neurohormonal and neurotransmitter targets. The evidence for each of these mechanisms is reviewed with an eye toward potential experiments that might be relevant to them. PMID:27200462

  3. Imagining a Stata / Python Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, James

    2012-01-01

    There are occasions when a task is difficult in Stata, but fairly easy in a more general programming language. Python is a popular language for a range of uses. It is easy to use, has many high ]quality packages, and programs can be written relatively quickly. Is there any advantage in combining Stata and Python within a single interface? Stata already offers support for user-written programs, which allow extensive control over calculations, but somewhat less control over graphics. Also, except for specifying output, the user has minimal programmatic control over the user interface. Python can be used in a way that allows more control over the interface and graphics, and in so doing provide a roundabout method for satisfying some user requests (e.g., transparency levels in graphics and the ability to clear the results window). My talk will explore these ideas, present a possible method for combining Stata and Python, and give examples to demonstrate how this combination might be useful.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions combined pituitary hormone deficiency combined pituitary hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a condition that causes ...

  5. Tevatron combined top quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We summarize the top-quark mass measurements from the CDF and D0 experiments at Fermilab. We combine published Run I (1992-1996) measurements with the most precise published and preliminary Run II (2001-2012) measurements using a data set corresponding to up to 8.7 fb-1 of pp-bar collisions. Taking uncertainty correlations into account, and adding in quadrature the statistical and systematic uncertainties, the resulting preliminary Tevatron average mass of the top quark is mt = 173.20 ± 0.87 GeV/c2. (authors)

  6. Strategies for combinational cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The countless pre-clinical studies and many clinical trials that have applied tumor antigen-based therapies for the cancer treatment, and although the necessary tumor-specific immune response may be elicited in tumor-bearing hosts, this was not sufficient for the positive therapeutic outcome since there are multiple mechanisms that tumors develop to escape immune surveillance. The tumor-mediated inhibitory mechanisms involve co-inhibitory receptor-ligand interactions, such as PD-1/ PD-L1, secretion of inhibitory molecules, such as TGFb, and recruitment of suppressive cells, such as regulatory T cells (Treg), myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), etc. Therefore, we hypothesized that successful cancer immunotherapy requires not only induction and enhancement of effector immune response but also simultaneous targeting of suppressor arm of immune system, thus in addition to enhancing antigen-specific immunity using vaccines or radiation therapy, one should also target tumor-mediated immune suppression to improve the overall efficacy of therapy. We developed multiple strategies to target various tumor-mediated immune inhibitory mechanisms that can enhance anti-tumor immunity and restructure tumor microenvironment to allow effector cells generated due to vaccination or radiation therapy to function potently. We evaluated the immune and therapeutic efficacy of multiple combinational therapies, including blocking and agonist antibodies to co-inhibitory/co-stimulatory molecules, such as PD-1, PD-L1, OX40, CTLA-4, GITR, inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies to inhibitory cytokines/molecules, such as IL-10, TGFb, IDO, and small molecules for selective inhibition of Tregs. In addition to evaluation of anti-tumor efficacy we are also investigated cellular and molecular mechanisms of action for these agents when combined with vaccine or radiation therapy and exploring the interactions between compounds within combinational therapies in animal tumor models. We are

  7. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  8. Combined trauma in peaceful time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaika V.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article epidemiological features of combined trauma (CT, characteristic for the industrial region were summarized. 486 cases of CT were analyzed for the period from 2010 to 2012. Male patients dominated. 267 (54.9% patients were the age from 25 to 44 years. Most often the damage occurred in 2 anatomic regions (AR - 224 (46.1%, 3 AR - 177 (36.4% and 4 or more - 85 (17.5%. Trau¬matic brain injury - 94.2%, skeletal trauma - 70.6%, the trauma of the chest and abdomen - 68.4% and 35.7%, respectively prevailed. Injury of the abdominal cavity as a dominant one - 148 (30.5% occupied the first place. In 17 (3.5% cases it was impossible to establish the dominant damage. Mortality rate was directly dependent on the type of the trauma and patient's age. Maximum values were found in the combined brain injury and that of abdominal organs - 28.6%, as well as in the group of patients older than 60 years - 35.1%. From 2010 to 2012 the overall mortality decreased by 3.5%.

  9. Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.

  10. Combined Corex/DRI technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickenschild, A.J.; Reufer, F. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Dusseldorf (Germany); Eberle, A.; Siuka, D. [Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau, Linz (Austria)

    1996-08-01

    A feasible steelmaking alternative, the Corex/direct reduction/electric arc furnace combination, provides an economic route for the production of high quality steel products. This combination is a major step into a new generation of iron and steel mills. These mills are based on the production of liquid steel using noncoking coal and comply with the increasing demands of environmental protection. The favorable production costs are based on: Utilization of Corex and DRI/HBI plants; Production of hot metal equal to blast furnace quality; Use of low cost raw materials such as noncoking coal and lump ore; Use of process gas as reducing agent for DRI/HBI production; and Use of electric arc furnace with high hot metal input as the steelmaking process. The high flexibility of the process permits the adjustment of production in accordance with the strategy of the steel mills. New but proven technologies and applications of the latest state of art steelmaking process, e.g., Corex, in conjunction with DRI production as basic raw material for an electric arc furnace, will insure high quality, high availability, optimized energy generation at high efficiency rates, and high product quality for steelmaking.

  11. TOLERABILITY OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Malchikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare tolerability of various antihypertensive combinations in patients with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. 140 patients with HT with history of non-effective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in 4 groups, 35 patients in each. Patients of group A received indapamide retard/perindopril; group B - indapamide retard/amlodipine; group C – amlodipine/lisinopril; group D – amlodipine/bisoprolol. Therapy duration was 12 weeks.Results. 28 (20% patients dropped out of the study. All antihypertensive combinations significantly decreased blood pressure level. Patients of group A did not stop therapy because of adverse events. 6 (17,1% dropped out of the study because of ineffective therapy in maximal doses and therapy rejection. Palpitation was a reason of drug withdrawal in 3 (8,6% of 8 (22,9% dropped patients of group B. Low limb edema was a reason of drug withdrawal in 4 (11,4% of 8 (22,9% dropped patients of group D. Cough was a reason of drug withdrawal in 4 (11,4% of 5 dropped patients of group C. Dose reduction was needed in some patients of all groups because of hypotension.Conclusion. The adverse events were observed in 25% of patients during 12 weeks of therapy. The patients received indapamide retard/amlodipine and amlodipine/bisoprolol had the highest rate of drug withdrawal because of adverse events. Low limb edema, cough and palpitation were the most frequent adverse events needed therapy withdrawal.

  12. TOLERABILITY OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Malchikova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare tolerability of various antihypertensive combinations in patients with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. 140 patients with HT with history of non-effective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in 4 groups, 35 patients in each. Patients of group A received indapamide retard/perindopril; group B - indapamide retard/amlodipine; group C – amlodipine/lisinopril; group D – amlodipine/bisoprolol. Therapy duration was 12 weeks.Results. 28 (20% patients dropped out of the study. All antihypertensive combinations significantly decreased blood pressure level. Patients of group A did not stop therapy because of adverse events. 6 (17,1% dropped out of the study because of ineffective therapy in maximal doses and therapy rejection. Palpitation was a reason of drug withdrawal in 3 (8,6% of 8 (22,9% dropped patients of group B. Low limb edema was a reason of drug withdrawal in 4 (11,4% of 8 (22,9% dropped patients of group D. Cough was a reason of drug withdrawal in 4 (11,4% of 5 dropped patients of group C. Dose reduction was needed in some patients of all groups because of hypotension.Conclusion. The adverse events were observed in 25% of patients during 12 weeks of therapy. The patients received indapamide retard/amlodipine and amlodipine/bisoprolol had the highest rate of drug withdrawal because of adverse events. Low limb edema, cough and palpitation were the most frequent adverse events needed therapy withdrawal.

  13. 7 CFR 4280.193 - Combined funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... In addition to the requirements specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, the combined... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combined funding. 4280.193 Section 4280.193... Efficiency Improvements Program Section D. Combined Funding § 4280.193 Combined funding. The requirements...

  14. Combining Renewable Energy With Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    There are various possibilities for incorporating biomass into coal-fuelled processes and a number of these are already being deployed commercially. Others are the focus of ongoing research and development. Biomass materials can vary widely, although the present report concentrates mainly on the use of woody biomass in the form of forest residues. Potentially, large amounts are available in some parts of the world. However, not all forested regions are very productive, and the degree of commercial exploitation varies considerably between individual countries. The level of wastage associated with timber production and associated downstream processing is frequently high and considerable quantities of potentially useful materials are often discarded. Overall, forest residues are a largely underexploited resource. Combining the use of biomass with coal can be beneficial, particularly from an environmental standpoint, although any such process may have its limitations or drawbacks. Each coal type and biomass feedstock has different characteristics although by combining the two, it may be possible to capitalise on the advantages of each, and minimise their individual disadvantages. An effective way is via cogasification, and useful operating experience has been achieved in a number of large-scale coal-fuelled gasification and IGCC plants. Cogasification can be the starting point for producing a range of products that include synthetic natural gas, chemicals, fertilisers and liquid transport fuels. It also has the potential to form the basis of systems that combine coal and biomass use with other renewable energy technologies to create clean, efficient energy-production systems. Thus, various hybrid energy concepts, some based on coal/biomass cogasification, have been proposed or are in the process of being developed or trialled. Some propose to add yet another element of renewable energy to the system, generally by incorporating electricity generated by intermittent

  15. Combined Shape and Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman

    Shape and topology optimization seeks to compute the optimal shape and topology of a structure such that one or more properties, for example stiffness, balance or volume, are improved. The goal of the thesis is to develop a method for shape and topology optimization which uses the Deformable...... Simplicial Complex (DSC) method. Consequently, we present a novel method which combines current shape and topology optimization methods. This method represents the surface of the structure explicitly and discretizes the structure into non-overlapping elements, i.e. a simplicial complex. An explicit surface...... representation usually limits the optimization to minor shape changes. However, the DSC method uses a single explicit representation and still allows for large shape and topology changes. It does so by constantly applying a set of mesh operations during deformations of the structure. Using an explicit instead of...

  16. Combining activity and economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    “hot” concepts in Danish long-term care is (everyday-) rehabilitation of the frail elderly, which several municipalities have tried out in pilot projects and otherwise introduced over the last couple of years. The paper draws upon qualitative interviews with administrative leaders and local politicians...... in three Danish municipalities and discusses their understandings and expectations of the concept. A lot of the interviewees in the study, especially those from administration, refer to rehabilitation as a very promising concept within the field of elderly care. Rehabilitation is thereby presented as....... The paper provides a discourse analysis of the interviewees’ accounts, that shows how discourses on activity and economic efficiency have been combined in the Danish context....

  17. Combined PET/MRI scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlyer, David; Woody, Craig L.; Rooney, William; Vaska, Paul; Stoll, Sean; Pratte, Jean-Francois; O'Connor, Paul

    2007-10-23

    A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

  18. Severe combined immune deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinico-demographic features and laboratory parameters of children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, the Aga Khan University, Karachi, from July 2006 to July 2011. Methodology: Thirteen infants who were discharged with a diagnosis of SCID were inducted in the study. Their clinicodemographic features and laboratory parameters were determined. Descriptive statistics has been used for computing frequency and percentage. Results: The median age at diagnosis was five months; 5 infants presented within 3 months of life. Three-fourth (77%) were males. Most of the infants were severely malnourished (85%) at the time of presentation. More than two-thirds (69%) were products of consanguineous marriages. All subjects had severe lymphopenia (absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ranging between 170 – 2280) and low T and B lymphocyte counts. Conclusion: SCID should be considered in infants presenting with severe and recurrent infections. Low ALC (< 2500/mm3), is a reliable diagnostic feature of SCID. These infants should be promptly referred to a facility where stem cell transplant can be done. (author)

  19. [Keratoplasty combined with cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraine, M; Gueudry, J; Retout, A; Genevois, O

    2012-09-01

    Corneal pathologies leading to keratoplasty are often associated with cataract and combined surgery is therefore mandatory. Triple procedure with penetrating keratoplasty and concurrent cataract extraction followed by intra ocular lens (IOL) implantation is usually the preferential choice because visual rehabilitation is theoretically more rapid. Surgeons have to be aware of surgical conditions during open-sky surgery because vitreous pressure is not counterbalanced by anterior chamber pressure. Today, many surgeons prefer non-simultaneous procedures with cataract surgery performed months after grafting because of the improvement in spherical refractive error. More recently, new triple procedures, Descemet's stripping automated keratoplasty and concurrent cataract surgery have gained popularity, especially in patients with Fuchs dystrophy associated with cataract. Surgery starts with phacoemulsification, followed by endothelium exchange through a 3 to 5 mm incision. Advantages against classic triple procedure are quick visual rehabilitation, fewer induced refractive errors, minimal postoperative discomfort and corneal integrity. Surgeons have to consider an eventual postoperative hyperopic shift secondary to corneal lenticule shape when choosing adequate intraocular lens. PMID:22921023

  20. Combined chemotherapy of malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controlled study of 226 age-matched patients with histologically proven grade 3 and 4 supratentorial gliomas with maximum feasible tumour resection, postoperative Karnofsky performance over 50 and minimum survival of 8 weeks compares the results of supportive care (45 cases), high-dose irradiation of 40 to 66 Gy (59 cases), COMP protocol (CCNU, procarbazine, vincristine, methotrexate, prednisone in 15 day cycles-42 cases) and simultaneous irradiation and COMP chemotherapy (80 cases including 30 survivors). Median recurrent-free intervals in the treatment groups (7 to 11.7 months) were significantly longer than after supportive care (4.4 months). Median survival with supportive care (6.7 months) was significantly shorter than after radiation or COMP treatment (11.7 and 12.3 months) and 14.9 to over 19.9 months with combined treatment, where the two-year survival rates were 33 and 67% (for survivors), and the 3-year survival rates 13 to 30%. Toxic side effects of multimodality treatment were more frequent than after chemotherapy. In addition to space-occupying intracranial cysts often simulating tumour recurrence (12%) and rare radiation necrosis, about 15% of long-term survivors developed progressive intellectual dysfunction with brain atrophy, in the absence of tumour regrowth. Despite some promising results of multimodality approaches towards the management of malignant supratentorial gliomas, the overall results are unsatisfactory and need further optimization. (Author)

  1. Radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Christopher C; Cowan, Morton J

    2010-02-01

    Inherited defects in components of the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair mechanism produce a T-B-NK+ severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) characterized by heightened sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Patients with the radiosensitive form of SCID may also have increased short- and long-term sensitivity to the alkylator-based chemotherapy regimens that are traditionally used for conditioning before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Known causes of radiosensitive SCID include deficiencies of Artemis, DNA ligase IV, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, and Cernunnos-XLF, all of which have been treated with HCT. Because of these patients' sensitivity to certain forms of chemotherapy, the approach to donor selection and the type of conditioning regimen used for a patient with radiosensitive SCID requires careful consideration. Significantly more research needs to be done to determine the long-term outcomes of patients with radiosensitive SCID after HCT and to discover novel nontoxic approaches to HCT that might benefit those patients with intrinsic radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity as well as potentially all patients undergoing an HCT. PMID:20113890

  2. Avaliação da infestação de insetos-praga associados à batata (Solanum tuberosum L. sob efeito de nutrientes nitrogenados e potássicos e teores acumulados de aminoácidos livres nas cultivares Achat e Monalisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of insect-pest infestation associated to potato (Solanum tuberosum L. under effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and the accumulated amount of free aminoacids in Achat and Monalisa cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurence of insect-pests on potato plants influenced by dosages of nitrogen and potassium accumulated in plant organs. A total of 169 plants of the Achat and Monalisa cultivars were evaluated to determine the presence-absence of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon Hüfnagel, 1767. The experiment was carried out and executed at the Universidade Federal Fluminense, and the delineation was complete randomized block design, with four replication and nine treatments, using three fertilization level (0; 75 and 150 Kg/ha with N-urea + KCl. The aminoacid levels were adjusted by the Leucine standard-curve (µg/l, using the Ninhydrin method, at 570 nm. The results showed that the tubercles of Monalisa accumulated high free aminoacid levels with 7,95% in the treatment N1K2 and 7,75% in the N2K1.These treatments, induced the infestation by D. speciosa larvae in 27,03%, when the aminoacid level was 2,01 ± 0,58% (X ± EP, with probability of 0,0196

  3. Efficient Web Services Policy Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Harman, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale Web security systems usually involve cooperation between domains with non-identical policies. The network management and Web communication software used by the different organizations presents a stumbling block. Many of the tools used by the various divisions do not have the ability to communicate network management data with each other. At best, this means that manual human intervention into the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints is required. Developing practical, sound, and automated ways to compose policies to bridge these differences is a long-standing problem. One of the key subtleties is the need to deal with inconsistencies and defaults where one organization proposes a rule on a particular feature, and another has a different rule or expresses no rule. A general approach is to assign priorities to rules and observe the rules with the highest priorities when there are conflicts. The present methods have inherent inefficiency, which heavily restrict their practical applications. A new, efficient algorithm combines policies utilized for Web services. The method is based on an algorithm that allows an automatic and scalable composition of security policies between multiple organizations. It is based on defeasible policy composition, a promising approach for finding conflicts and resolving priorities between rules. In the general case, policy negotiation is an intractable problem. A promising method, suggested in the literature, is when policies are represented in defeasible logic, and composition is based on rules for non-monotonic inference. In this system, policy writers construct metapolicies describing both the policy that they wish to enforce and annotations describing their composition preferences. These annotations can indicate whether certain policy assertions are required by the policy writer or, if not, under what circumstances the policy writer is willing to compromise and allow other assertions to take

  4. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  5. Combining Individual Psychodynamics with Structural Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melito, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Presents integrative framework for combining central aspects of individual psychodynamics with structural family therapy in meaningful way. Explains how framework derives from developmental perspective. Presents case example to illustrate combined approach and demonstrate its utility. (Author/NB)

  6. Unsupervised document clustering by weighted combination

    OpenAIRE

    González Pellicer, Edgar; Turmo Borras, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This report proposes a novel unsupervised document clustering approach based on weighted combination of individual clusterings. Two non-weighted combination methods are adapted to work in a weighted fashion: a graph based method and a probability based one. The performance of the weighted approach is evaluated on real-world collections, and compared to that of individual clustering and non-weighted combination. The results of this evaluation confirm that graph based weighted combination consi...

  7. 19 CFR 191.93 - Combined applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combined applications. 191.93 Section 191.93... § 191.93 Combined applications. An applicant for the procedures provided for in §§ 191.91 and 191.92 of... application package (see also § 191.195 of this part regarding combined applications for certification in...

  8. 12 CFR 602.16 - Combining requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining requests. 602.16 Section 602.16 Banks....16 Combining requests. You may not avoid paying fees by filing multiple requests at the same time... of requests to avoid fees, we will combine the requests and charge accordingly. We will assume...

  9. 38 CFR 3.323 - Combined ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined ratings. 3.323... Combined ratings. (a) Compensation—(1) Same type of service. When there are two or more service-connected compensable disabilities a combined evaluation will be made following the tables and rules prescribed in...

  10. 10 CFR 50.31 - Combining applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining applications. 50.31 Section 50.31 Energy NUCLEAR..., Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals; Form; Contents; Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.31 Combining applications. An applicant may combine in one his several applications for different kinds of licenses...

  11. 40 CFR 1506.4 - Combining documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combining documents. 1506.4 Section 1506.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.4 Combining documents. Any environmental document in compliance with NEPA may be combined with any...

  12. 10 CFR 50.52 - Combining licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining licenses. 50.52 Section 50.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance, Limitations, and Conditions of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.52 Combining licenses. The Commission may combine in...

  13. IVS Combination Center at BKG - Recent Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; Lösler, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to the routine rapid combination, the IVS Combination Center at BKG is working on various other projects based on VLBI combination. The generation of a quarterly solution (long term combination of VLBI sessions) is one of the main projects. This solution includes the computation of a VTRF and the analysis of station coordinates and velocities. Mainly the changes in station position and station motion caused by recent significant earthquakes are being investigated. Results of all projects are published on the Combination Center's Web site, including features to perform Web-based data analysis.

  14. Laser driver beam combination for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the estimated parameters of fast ignition,the requirements for laser-beam power intensity and energy are used to analyze the possibility of realizing fast ignition by coherent combination and non-coherent combination. The practical distorted wavefront is considered to analyze the far-field focal spot. Non-coherent combination needs more beams for energy requirement and to limit angle drifting in ±2 μrad through improving laser driver's stability. Coherent combination is beneficial for achieving smaller focal spot and higher power intensity, simultaneously reducing the requirement of energy, but single beam wavefront correction can not improve the power intensity in this method, which leads to combined wavefront correction of the total clear aperture with complex monitoring and control methods. Based on the requirement of parameters and wavefront correction capability, non-coherent beam combination is easier to achieve for fast ignition, however, coherent beam combination has the potential for extensive application. (authors)

  15. Binocular combination of second-order stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  16. Binocular combination of second-order stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Zhou

    Full Text Available Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated and second-order (contrast modulated stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements.

  17. COMBINED DAMAGE FRACTURE CRITERIA FOR PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xinhua; Chen Chuanyao; Hu Yuantai; Wang Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical and electrical damages are introduced to study the fracture mechanics of piezoelectric ceramics in this paper. Two kinds of piezoelectric fracture criteria are established using the method of least squares combined with a damage analysis of the well-known piezoelectric fracture experiments of Park and Sun's. One is based on a linear combination of the mechanical and electrical damages and the other on their nonlinear combination. When the combined damage D is up to its critical value Dc, piezoelectric fracture occurs. It is found from the qualitative comparison of the numerical results with the experimental data that the nonlinearly combined damage fracture criterion can give a better prediction of piezoelectric fracture. And it is concluded from the nonlinearly combined damage fracture criterion that a negative electric field impedes fracture whereas the effect of a positive electric field on fracture depends on its magnitude.

  18. Strategy application, observability, and the choice combinator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha)

    2004-03-01

    In many strategic systems, the choice combinator provides a powerful mechanism for controlling the application of rules and strategies to terms. The ability of the choice combinator to exercise control over rewriting is based on the premise that the success and failure of strategy application can be observed. In this paper we present a higher-order strategic framework with the ability to dynamically construct strategies containing the choice combinator. To this framework, a combinator called hide is introduced that prevents the successful application of a strategy from being observed by the choice combinator. We then explore the impact of this new combinator on a real-world problem involving a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine.

  19. Forecast Combination Under Heavy-Tailed Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Cheng; Sicong Wang; Yuhong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Forecast combination has been proven to be a very important technique to obtain accurate predictions for various applications in economics, finance, marketing and many other areas. In many applications, forecast errors exhibit heavy-tailed behaviors for various reasons. Unfortunately, to our knowledge, little has been done to obtain reliable forecast combinations for such situations. The familiar forecast combination methods, such as simple average, least squares regression or those based on ...

  20. New combination solution for RS positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, Y. S.; Kur'yanova, A. N.; Lytvyn, S. O.

    2006-10-01

    Main Astronomical Observatory of the NAS of Ukraine is involved in the work of a redetermination of the ICRF, that was initiated by the IVS. We have carried out several combination runs based on individual catalogues provided by 8 IVS Analysis Centers and have selected the final version RSC(GAO UA)05 C 03. In comparison with the ICRF and other combined catalogues, orientation parameters and uncertainty of this new combined catalogue are given.

  1. Combination Clustering Analysis Method and its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bang-Chun Wen; Li-Yuan Dong; Qin-Liang Li; Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    The traditional clustering analysis method can not automatically determine the optimal clustering number. In this study, we provided a new clustering analysis method which is combination clustering analysis method to solve this problem. Through analyzed 25 kinds of automobile data samples by combination clustering analysis method, the correctness of the analysis result was verified. It showed that combination clustering analysis method could objectively determine the number of clustering firs...

  2. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on...

  3. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations

    OpenAIRE

    B G Jayasheel

    2010-01-01

    The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benef...

  4. Combined DSEK and Transconjunctival Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here three patients who underwent combined Descemet’s stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy for bullous keratopathy and posterior segment pathology. A surgical technique and case histories are described. Anatomic and visual outcomes of combined Descemet’s stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and vitrectomy were excellent. Our experience provides technical guidelines and limitations. The combined minimally invasive techniques allow for rapid anatomical recovery and return of function and visual acuity in a single sitting.

  5. Current update on combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximin, Suresh; Ganeshan, Dhakshina Moorthy; Shanbhogue, Alampady K; Dighe, Manjiri K; Yeh, Matthew M; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Bhargava, Puneet; Lalwani, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma is a rare but unique primary hepatic tumor with characteristic histology and tumor biology. Recent development in genetics and molecular biology support the fact that combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma is closely linked with cholangiocarcinoma, rather than hepatocellular carcinoma. Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma tends to present with an more aggressive behavior and a poorer prognosis than either hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. An accurate preoperative diagnosis and aggressive treatment planning can play crucial roles in appropriate patient management. PMID:26937426

  6. Failures in power-combining arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Rutledge, David B.; Cheng, Nai-Shuo; York, Robert A.; Weikle, Robert M., II; De Lisio, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    We derive a simple formula for the change in output when a device fails in a power-combining structure with identical matched devices. The loss is written in terms of the scattering coefficient of the failed device and reflection coefficient of an input port in the combining network. We apply this formula to several power combiners, including arrays in free space and enclosed waveguide structures. Our simulations indicate the output power degrades gracefully as devices fail, which is in agree...

  7. On Combining Forecasts: Some Extensions and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony E. Bopp

    1985-01-01

    This paper is about the motivation, methodology, and evaluation of combining the forecasts from two or more different models in a "combined" forecast. Granger and Newbold (Granger, C., P. Newbold. 1977. Forecasting Economic Time Series. Academic Press, New York.) have presented this method as one whereby an "optimal" forecast can be obtained. Makridakis and Winkler (1966) and Winkler and Makridakis (Winkler, R., S. Makridakis. 1983. The combination of forecasts: some empirical results. J. Roy...

  8. Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.

  9. Simplified ways to combine the correlated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PPP was found by Peele in the combination of some correlated quantities. For resolving PPP in practice, two alternative ways for data combination are suggested and have been used in the secondary neutron energy spectrum evaluations for Cr, Fe, Ni and Pb

  10. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven;

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during ne...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.313 - Combination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combination systems. 3285.313 Section 3285.313 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... systems. Support systems that combine both load-bearing capacity and uplift resistance must also be...

  12. Combining Neural Networks for Skin Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Doukim, Chelsia Amy; Chekima, Ali; Omatu, Sigeru

    2011-01-01

    Two types of combining strategies were evaluated namely combining skin features and combining skin classifiers. Several combining rules were applied where the outputs of the skin classifiers are combined using binary operators such as the AND and the OR operators, "Voting", "Sum of Weights" and a new neural network. Three chrominance components from the YCbCr colour space that gave the highest correct detection on their single feature MLP were selected as the combining parameters. A major issue in designing a MLP neural network is to determine the optimal number of hidden units given a set of training patterns. Therefore, a "coarse to fine search" method to find the number of neurons in the hidden layer is proposed. The strategy of combining Cb/Cr and Cr features improved the correct detection by 3.01% compared to the best single feature MLP given by Cb-Cr. The strategy of combining the outputs of three skin classifiers using the "Sum of Weights" rule further improved the correct detection by 4.38% compared t...

  13. A linear combination of modified Bessel functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A linear combination of modified Bessel functions is defined, discussed briefly, and tabulated. This combination was found to recur in the analysis of various heat transfer problems and in the analysis of the thermal behavior of living tissue when modeled by cylindrical shells.

  14. 27 CFR 6.93 - Combination packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combination packaging. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.93 Combination packaging. The act by an industry member of packaging and distributing distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages in...

  15. Dynamic Bayesian Combination of Multiple Imperfect Classifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Edwin; Psorakis, Ioannis; Smith, Arfon

    2012-01-01

    Classifier combination methods need to make best use of the outputs of multiple, imperfect classifiers to enable higher accuracy classifications. In many situations, such as when human decisions need to be combined, the base decisions can vary enormously in reliability. A Bayesian approach to such uncertain combination allows us to infer the differences in performance between individuals and to incorporate any available prior knowledge about their abilities when training data is sparse. In this paper we explore Bayesian classifier combination, using the computationally efficient framework of variational Bayesian inference. We apply the approach to real data from a large citizen science project, Galaxy Zoo Supernovae, and show that our method far outperforms other established approaches to imperfect decision combination. We go on to analyse the putative community structure of the decision makers, based on their inferred decision making strategies, and show that natural groupings are formed. Finally we present ...

  16. Full Band Millimeter-Wave Power-Combining Amplifier Using a Lossy Power-Combining Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Guiting; Zhang, Yunhua; Zhao, Xuan; She, Yuchen

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a millimeter-wave broadband power-combining amplifier using a novel lossy waveguide-based power combiner. The lossy combiner has a performance of broadband low-loss combining symmetrically and has properties of good match and high isolation at and between ports, because lossy planar lines are embedded in the lossy combiner and even-mode excitations are weakened. The measured results show that the lossy combiners has a loss of about 0.14 dB and achieves reflection and isolation of about—15 dB in 26.5-40 GHz. And then, using the lossy combiner, a compact lossy waveguide-based four-way-combining network is fabricated. The lossy network has a measured loss of about 0.25 dB and achieves good improvements of match and isolation in the full Ka-band. The improvements can enhance stability of amplifying units when the lossy combining network used in multi-way power-combining amplifier. Using the lossy combining network, a solid-state power-combining amplifier is developed, and corresponding experimental results show that output power is more than 30 dBm and combining efficiency is more than 80 % in the full Ka-band.

  17. [Combination treatment of hypertension in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špinar, Jindřich; Vítovec, Jiří; Špinarová, Lenka; Bendová, Miroslava

    2015-05-01

    We present an overview of the present views on combination treatment and on fixed combinations in the treatment of hypertension according to guidelines of ESH/ESC and ČSH from 2013. The most frequently recommended dual combinations include a blocker of the renin-angiotensin system (ACEI or sartan) and a calcium channel blocker, and further a blocker of the renin-angiotensin system and a diuretic and a calcium channel blocker and a diuretic. In 2014 a fixed-dose combination of an ACE inhibitor (perindopril), a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) and an diuretic (indapamide) appeared on the Czech market. Within the PIANIST study including 4 731 insufficiently controlled hypertensives, a fixed-dose triple combination of perindopril, amlodipine and indapamide led to a decrease in blood pressure by 28.3/13.8 mm Hg and to a sufficient control of hypertension in 92 % of patients. The advantage of fixed combinations primarily consists in greater compliance of patients and thereby in a better control of hypertension. About 1/3 of hypertensives need a triple combination for a satisfactory blood pressure control. PMID:26075856

  18. Fused combiners for photonic crystal bers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny

    The work presented in this Ph.D. thesis focuses on the fabrication of fused combiners for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers. The main focus of the Ph.D. project was to further develop the fused pump combiners for airclad photonic crystal bers (PCFs), and implement a signal feed-through in...... tapered fiber bundle approach and was tested up to 2.5 kW of combined output power. Two components for the field of astrophotonics have also been developed. The first was a fused fiber bundle, designed to be placed in the focal plane of a telescope. By measuring the spectral content out of the individual...

  19. Memristive Perceptron for Combinational Logic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of the memristor depends upon the past history of the input current or voltage; so it can function as synapse in neural networks. In this paper, a novel perceptron combined with the memristor is proposed to implement the combinational logic classification. The relationship between the memristive conductance change and the synapse weight update is deduced, and the memristive perceptron model and its synaptic weight update rule are explored. The feasibility of the novel memristive perceptron for implementing the combinational logic classification (NAND, NOR, XOR, and NXOR is confirmed by MATLAB simulation.

  20. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  1. Improving GDP measurement: a forecast combination perspective

    OpenAIRE

    S. Boragan Aruoba; Francis X. Diebold; Jeremy Nalewaik; Frank Schorfheide; Dongho Song

    2011-01-01

    Two often-divergent U.S. GDP estimates are available, a widely-used expenditure-side version GDPE, and a much less widely-used income-side version GDI . The authors propose and explore a "forecast combination" approach to combining them. They then put the theory to work, producing a superior combined estimate of GDP growth for the U.S., GDPC. The authors compare GDPC to GDPE and GDPI , with particular attention to behavior over the business cycle. They discuss several variations and extensions.

  2. Combined Direct and Indirect CT Venography (Combined CTV) in Detecting Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wan-Yin; Wang, Li-Wei; Wang, Shao-Juan; Yin, Xin-Dao; Gu, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined direct and indirect CT venography (combined CTV) in the detection of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT). The institutional review board approved the study protocol, and patients or qualifying family members provided informed consent. A total of 96 consecutive patients undergoing combined CTV were prospectively enrolled. A combined examination with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) plus duplex ultrasonograp...

  3. Reduced Order Projective and Hybrid Projective Combination-Combination Synchronization of Four Chaotic Josephson Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Ojo; Njah, A. N.; O. I. Olusola; Omeike, M. O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the reduced order projective and hybrid projective combination-combination synchronization of four chaotic Josephson junctions consisting of two third order Josephson junctions as the drives and two second order chaotic Josephson junctions as the response systems via active backstepping technique. The investigation confirms the achievement of reduced order projective and hybrid projective combination-combination synchronization among four chaotic Josephson junctions vi...

  4. All-fiber 7x1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Maack, Martin D.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an all-fiber 7x1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining. This is a potential key component for reaching several kW of stabile laser output power. The combiner couples the output from 7 single-mode (SM) fiber lasers into a single multi-mode (MM) fiber. The input signal...

  5. All Polar Bear Critical Habitat Combined

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This layer shows all categories of polar bear critical habitat combined into one overall polygon. This polygon includes the following critical habitat types: 1)...

  6. Combined Tc-99m sesta MIBI scin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas Abdel Ghany Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Accurate localization of adenomas should be obtained prior to surgery for minimal invasive surgical procedure. In this study, combined ultrasonography and Tc-99m MIBI improved localization of parathyroid adenomas.

  7. Combination Classes and "Hora de comunicacion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Dee L.

    1989-01-01

    Ways to combine small classes of higher education students studying Spanish at various levels are described, including judicious use of language laboratories, staggering of the different level groups, and rotation of activities geared toward students' individual proficiency levels. (CB)

  8. Methodology for combining dynamic responses. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures in accordance with Appendix A of 10 CFR 50, GDC 2, call for an appropriate combination of the effects of the accident loads and loads caused by natural phenomena (such as earthquakes) to be reflected in the design bases of safety equipment. This requirement of interaction of loads has been implemented in various ways both within the NRC and the Nuclear Industry. An NRR Working Group constituted to examine load combination methodologies developed recommendations which were published in September 1978 as NUREG-0484, (PB-287 432). Revision 1 of NUREG-0484 extends the conclusions of the original NUREG-0484 on the use of SRSS methodology for the combination of SSE and LOCA responses beyond RCPB to any other ASME Section III, Class 1, 2, or 3 affected system, component or support, and provides criteria for the combination of dynamic responses other than SSE and LOCA

  9. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  10. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  11. Current update on combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Maximin

    2014-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma tends to present with an more aggressive behavior and a poorer prognosis than either hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. An accurate preoperative diagnosis and aggressive treatment planning can play crucial roles in appropriate patient management.

  12. 78 FR 13050 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Docket Numbers:...

  13. Combined Preconditioning with Applications in Reservoir Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Falgout, Robert; Wu, Shuhong; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Jinchao; Zhang, Chen-Song; Zhang, Shiquan; Zikatanov, Ludmil

    2012-01-01

    We develop a simple algorithmic framework to solve large-scale linear systems. At its core, the framework relies on two components: (1) a norm-convergent iterative method and (2) a preconditioner. The resulting preconditioner, which we refer to as a combined preconditioner, is much more robust and efficient than the iterative method and preconditioner when used in Krylov subspace methods. We prove that the combined preconditioner is positive definite and show estimates on the condition number of the preconditioned system. We combine an algebraic multigrid method and an incomplete factorization preconditioner to test the proposed framework on problems in petroleum reservoir simulation. Our numerical experiments demonstrate noticeable speed-up when we compare our combined method with the standalone algebraic multigrid method or the incomplete factorization preconditioner.

  14. Ameliorative Effects of Herbal Combinations in Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant P. Visavadiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Withania somnifera, Asparagus racemosus, and Chlorophytum borivilianum and seeds of Sesamum indicum are ayurvedic medicinal plants used in India to treat several ailments. Our previous studies indicated that these plants possess hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential. The present study was aimed at investigating the composite effects of these plants on hypercholesterolemic rats. Three different combinations (5 gm%, given for four weeks used in this study effectively reduced plasma and hepatic lipid profiles and increased fecal excretion of cholesterol, neutral sterol, and bile acid along with increasing the hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity and bile acid content in hypercholesterolemic rats. Further, all three combinations also improved the hepatic antioxidant status (catalase, SOD, and ascorbic acid levels and plasma total antioxidant capacity with reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Overall, combination I had the maximum effect on hypercholesterolemic rats followed by combinations II and III due to varying concentrations of the different classes of phytocomponents.

  15. Results from ATLAS Calorimeter Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrade, F

    2007-01-01

    Beam tests of combinations of ATLAS calorimeters have been performed both for the barrel and end cap parts. During a combined test beam in summer 2004 a slice of the ATLAS barrel detector - including all detector sub systems from the inner tracker, the calorimetry to the muon system - was exposed to particle beams (electrons, pions, photons, muons) with different energies (1GeV to 350GeV). The aim was to study the combined performance of the different detector sub systems in ATLAS-like conditions. We will present the electronics calibration scheme of the electromagnetic calorimeter and its implementation. The following studies on the combined testbeam data have been performed and will be presented: performance of the electromagnetic calorimetry down to very low energies (> GeV), photon reconstruction including converted photons and position measurements using the very precise ATLAS tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. These measurements have been compared to Monte Carlo simulations showing the good de...

  16. Target recognition based on modified combination rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Tianlu; Que Peiwen

    2006-01-01

    Evidence theory is widely used in the field of target recognition. The invalidation problem of this theory when dealing with highly conflict evidences is a research hotspot. Several alternatives of the combination rule are analyzed and compared. A new combination approach is proposed. Calculate the reliabilities of evidence sources using existing evidences. Construct reliabilities judge matrixes and get the weights of each evidence source. Weight average all inputted evidences. Combine processed evidences with D-S combination rule repeatedly to identify a target. The application in multi-sensor target recognition as well as the comparison with typical alternatives all validated that this approach can dispose highly conflict evidences efficiently and get reasonable recognition results rapidly.

  17. Retinoid plus antimicrobial combination treatments for acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feneran A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ashley N Feneran1, William S Kaufman2, Tushar S Dabade1, Steven R Feldman1,3,41Department of Dermatology, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USA; 3Department of Pathology, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Public Health Sciences, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USABackground: Acne vulgaris is a chronic disease with several pathogenic factors. Multiple medications are typically used that can lead to nonadherence and treatment failure. Combination medications target multiple pathways of acne formation and may offer therapeutic benefit.Purpose: To explore the efficacy and tolerability of combination retinoid plus antimicrobial treatments in acne vulgaris.Methods: A PubMed and Google search was conducted for combination therapies of clindamycin and tretinoin, with secondary analysis of related citations and references. Similar searches were completed for the combination medications of benzoyl peroxide plus clindamycin or erythromycin, and for the combination therapy of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide.Results: Combination clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel was found to be more efficacious than monotherapy of either drug or its vehicle for acne, including inflammatory acne, and has a greater onset of action than either drug alone. Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel was well-tolerated, and adherence to its use exceeded that of using both medications in separate formulations. Benzoyl peroxide-containing combination medications with clindamycin or erythromycin were both more effective in the treatment of acne than either drug alone. Both medications were well-tolerated, with dry skin being the most common adverse effect.Conclusions: Combination medications have superior efficacy and adherence, and

  18. Dechlorination by combined electrochemical reduction and oxidation*

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, Yan-qing; Wu, Zu-cheng; Tan, Tian-en

    2005-01-01

    Chlorophenols are typical priority pollutants listed by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). The removal of chlorophenol could be carried out by a combination of electrochemical reduction and oxidation method. Results showed that it was feasible to degrade contaminants containing chlorine atoms by electrochemical reduction to form phenol, which was further degraded on the anode by electrochemical oxidation. Chlorophenol removal rate was more than 90% by the combined electrochemical r...

  19. Combining Theories with Shared Set Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghilardi, Silvio; Sebastiani, Roberto; Wies, Thomas; Piskac, Ruzica; Kuncak, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in software verification, we explore automated reasoning about the non-disjoint combination of theories of infinitely many finite structures, where the theories share set variables and set operations. We prove a combination theorem and apply it to show the decidability of the satisfiability problem for a class of formulas obtained by applying propositional connectives to formulas belonging to: 1) Boolean Algebra with Presburger Arithmetic (with quantifiers over sets ...

  20. Proximal Row Carpectomy Combined with Wrist Hemiarthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Culp, Randall W.; Bachoura, Abdo; Gelman, Scott E.; Jacoby, Sidney M.

    2012-01-01

    Proximal row carpectomy (PRC) combined with distal radius hemiarthroplasty is a relatively novel procedure that rivals total wrist arthrodesis and offers a new surgical treatment option for select patients with painful, end-stage wrist disease. We present our early experience with this procedure. A retrospective chart review was conducted for nonrheumatoid patients diagnosed with wrist arthritis and subsequently treated with wrist hemiarthroplasty combined with PRC. The minimum follow-up dura...

  1. Control Flow Analysis for SF Combinator Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Programs that transform other programs often require access to the internal structure of the program to be transformed. This is at odds with the usual extensional view of functional programming, as embodied by the lambda calculus and SK combinator calculus. The recently-developed SF combinator calculus offers an alternative, intensional model of computation that may serve as a foundation for developing principled languages in which to express intensional computation, including program transfo...

  2. Design of Combined Antenna with Multiple Polarizations

    OpenAIRE

    Zineb Berkat; Noureddine Boukli Hacene; Abdellatif Berkat

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a design of new combined antenna, mixing both linear and circular polarizations, new antenna have to be able to cover several frequency bandwidths, including various radiation properties. From the different researches of antenna with various geometries, and regarding the complexity to combine in a single radiating element several types of polarizations. It is extremely important that the development of antenna used in Wireless Systems. The proposed antenna is simulat...

  3. A Shrinkage Estimator for Combination of Bioassays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xiong; D.G. Chen; Zhen-hai Yang

    2007-01-01

    A shrinkage estimator and a maximum likelihood estimator are proposed in this paper for combination of bioassays. The shrinkage estimator is obtained in closed form which incorporates prior information just on the common log relative potency after the homogeneity test for combination of bioassays is accepted. It is a practical improvement over other estimators which require iterative procedure to obtain the estimator for the relative potency. A real data is also used to show the superiorities for the newly-proposed procedures.

  4. Combining ability in bhindi [ Abelmoschus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Balakrishnan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability was estimated for six diverse okra genotypes or varieties by diallel analysis. The combininganalysis revealed that Arka Anamika was found to be a good general combiner for fruit number, fruit weight and fruit length.KL9 showed high gca for days to first flowering, internode number and fruit weight. In this study, it was observed thatpresence of overdominance for most of the yield contributing traits

  5. Automatic Synthesis of Multilevel Combinational Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders C.; Madsen, Jan; Madsen, J.R.; Pallisgaard, H

    This paper describes a system for the synthesis of multilevel combinational logic, transforming functional description into mask layout. The system includes a logic synthesis part, partly consisting of tools developed at Eindhoven University of Technology, which has been interfaced to the layout...... synthesis part in the CATOE-system, developed at the DesignCenter of Electronics Institute. The various steps in the transformation are presented together with a complete design example, implementing a multi-output combinational decoder function....

  6. Noun Phrase Recognition by System Combination

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Erik F. Tjong Kim

    2000-01-01

    The performance of machine learning algorithms can be improved by combining the output of different systems. In this paper we apply this idea to the recognition of noun phrases.We generate different classifiers by using different representations of the data. By combining the results with voting techniques described in (Van Halteren et.al. 1998) we manage to improve the best reported performances on standard data sets for base noun phrases and arbitrary noun phrases.

  7. Combined Preconditioning with Applications in Reservoir Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaozhe; Wu, Shuhong; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Jinchao; Zhang, Chen-Song; Zhang, Shiquan; Zikatanov, Ludmil

    2012-01-01

    We develop a simple algorithmic framework to solve large-scale symmetric positive definite linear systems. At its core, the framework relies on two components: (1) a norm-convergent iterative method (i.e. smoother) and (2) a preconditioner. The resulting preconditioner, which we refer to as a combined preconditioner, is much more robust and efficient than the iterative method and preconditioner when used in Krylov subspace methods. We prove that the combined preconditioner is positive definit...

  8. New Combinations :Taking Schumpeter's concept serious

    OpenAIRE

    Hanappi, Hardy; Hanappi-Egger, Edeltraud

    2004-01-01

    Schumpeter’s idea that innovations can be described as new combinations often is understood as a mere metaphor and slight generalization of what he considers as the characterizing feature of entrepreneurship. The main argument of this paper is that more and deeper issues are involved in the concept of new combinations than is commonly understood. Moreover, a proper understanding of these issues would not only enhance our knowledge about observed innovation processes in economic life, it might...

  9. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Forecast Combination under Heavy-Tailed Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecast combination has been proven to be a very important technique to obtain accurate predictions for various applications in economics, finance, marketing and many other areas. In many applications, forecast errors exhibit heavy-tailed behaviors for various reasons. Unfortunately, to our knowledge, little has been done to obtain reliable forecast combinations for such situations. The familiar forecast combination methods, such as simple average, least squares regression or those based on the variance-covariance of the forecasts, may perform very poorly due to the fact that outliers tend to occur, and they make these methods have unstable weights, leading to un-robust forecasts. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose two nonparametric forecast combination methods. One is specially proposed for the situations in which the forecast errors are strongly believed to have heavy tails that can be modeled by a scaled Student’s t-distribution; the other is designed for relatively more general situations when there is a lack of strong or consistent evidence on the tail behaviors of the forecast errors due to a shortage of data and/or an evolving data-generating process. Adaptive risk bounds of both methods are developed. They show that the resulting combined forecasts yield near optimal mean forecast errors relative to the candidate forecasts. Simulations and a real example demonstrate their superior performance in that they indeed tend to have significantly smaller prediction errors than the previous combination methods in the presence of forecast outliers.

  11. Tailoring a Combination Preerythrocytic Malaria Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauza, Karolis; Atcheson, Erwan; Malinauskas, Tomas; Blagborough, Andrew M; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    The leading malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, based on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP), will likely be the first publicly adopted malaria vaccine. However, this and other subunit vaccines, such as virus-vectored thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP), provide only intermediate to low levels of protection. In this study, the Plasmodium berghei homologues of antigens CSP and TRAP are combined. TRAP is delivered using adenovirus- and vaccinia virus-based vectors in a prime-boost regime. Initially, CSP is also delivered using these viral vectors; however, a reduction of anti-CSP antibodies is seen when combined with virus-vectored TRAP, and the combination is no more protective than either subunit vaccine alone. Using an adenovirus-CSP prime, protein-CSP boost regime, however, increases anti-CSP antibody titers by an order of magnitude, which is maintained when combined with virus-vectored TRAP. This combination regime using protein CSP provided 100% protection in C57BL/6 mice compared to no protection using virus-vectored TRAP alone and 40% protection using adenovirus-CSP prime and protein-CSP boost alone. This suggests that a combination of CSP and TRAP subunit vaccines could enhance protection against malaria. PMID:26667840

  12. Exact analysis of Packet Reversed Packet Combining Scheme and Modified Packet Combining Scheme; and a combined scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme for the detection and correction of errors at the receiver. Although it permits a higher throughput when compared to other basic ARQ protocols, packet combining (PC) scheme fails to correct errors when errors occur in the same bit locations of copies. In a previous work, a scheme known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme that will correct errors which occur at the same bit location of erroneous copies, was studied however PRPC does not handle a situation where a packet has more than 1 error bit. The Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme that can correct double or higher bit errors was studied elsewhere. Both PRPC and MPC schemes are believed to offer higher throughput in previous studies, however neither adequate investigation nor exact analysis was done to substantiate this claim of higher throughput. In this work, an exact analysis of both PRPC and MPC is carried out and the results reported. A combined protocol (PRPC and MPC) is proposed and the analysis shows that it is capable of offering even higher throughput and better error correction capability at high bit error rate (BER) and larger packet size. (author)

  13. Combined precut in difficult biliary cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Espinel-Díez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: precut sphincterotomy refers to a variety of endoscopic techniques that are used in order to access the bile duct when conventional methods of cannulation have failed. There are not significant data (such as efficacy, safety about the use of different techniques of precutting at the same session. We have described our experience with combined precut sphincterotomy (CPS and we have compared our results to the use of an isolated precut. Patients and methods: we have performed 247 precuts of a total of 2.390 ERCPs. Patients were distributed according to the type of precut practiced: Needle-knife, transpancreatic and combined precut sphincterotomies. "Combined precut" consisted in performing first a transpancreatic sphincterotomy and, if the access was not achieved, then performing a needle-knife sphincterotomy in the same session. The data about safety and efficacy were prospectively collected. The complications were defined according to the consensus criteria. Results: we performed precutting techniques in 247 patients. Needle-knife, transpancreatic, and combined precuts were performed in 125 (6.9%, 74 (4.1% and 48 (2.6% patients, respectively. Bile duct cannulation was successful in 48 patients (100% in the group of combined precut, 121 patients (96.8% in the transpancreatic group, and 67 patients (90.5% in the needle-knife group (p = 0.03. There were not differences in complications rates between the three groups. There was no pancreatitis in the combined precut group. The complications were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusions: combined precut sphincterotomy seems to be a safe and successful technique in those cases of difficult bile duct cannulation.

  14. A cost-minimization analysis of combination therapy in hypertension: fixed-dose vs extemporary combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bellone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease management and prevention represent the leading cost driver in Italian healthcare expenditure. In order to reach the target blood pressure, a large majority of patients require simultaneous administration of multiple antihypertensive agents.OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of the use of fixed dose combinations of antihypertensive agents, compared to the extemporary combination of the same principles.METHODS: A cost minimization analysis was conducted to determine the pharmaceutical daily cost of five fixed dose combinations (olmesartan 20 mg + amlodipine 5 mg, perindopril 5 mg + amlodipine 5 mg, enalapril 20 mg + lercanidipine 10 mg, felodipine 5 mg + ramipril 5 mg, and delapril 30 mg + manidipine 10 mg compared with extemporary combination of the same principles in the perspective of the Italian NHS. Daily acquisition costs are estimated based on current Italian prices and tariffs.RESULTS: In three cases the use of fixed‑dose combination instead of extemporary combination induces a lower daily cost. Fixed combination treatment with delapril 30 mg + manidipine 10 mg induces greater cost savings for the National Health System (95,47 €/pts/year, as compared to free drugs combination therapy.CONCLUSIONS: Compared with free drug combinations, fixed‑dose combinations of antihypertensive agents are associated with lower daily National Health Service acquisition costs.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v14i4.886

  15. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  16. Combinations of coal tar with polyurethanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riberi, B. (Bayer A.G., Leverkusen (Germany, F.R.))

    1977-01-01

    Coatings based on polyurethanes have gained world-wide reputation in shipbuilding. Apart from light-fast and weatherproof coating varnishes, systems for corrosion protection and tar combinations are increasingly used. The fast hardening of polyurethane/coal tar combinations makes it possible to apply several layers in one day. The NCO/ON reaction takes place also at temperatures near the freezing point, so that this coating material can be used throughout the year. The special tars available for combination with synthetic resins are suitable also for polyurethane/coal tar combinations. Their service life is sufficiently long even without pretreatment of the tar. Polyurethane/coal tar combinations can be used in outside-current systems. Their behaviour is excellent in tests with a potential of up to -1250 mV (Cu/CuSO/sub 4/). Using polyisocyanate prepolymers, one-component varnishes harden with air moisture and with a high stability on storage. Using liquid polyisocyanates and low-viscosity tars, solvent-free coatings are obtained.

  17. Supersonic Flow Control Using Combined Energy Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Azarova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drag force control via energy deposition in an oncoming flow is a wide area of interest in aerospace sciences. Recently, investigations on the effect of combining energy sources have been conducted. The possibility of coupling microwave (MW discharges or MW and laser energy deposition is discussed. In the present work, the flow details accompanying the interaction of a combined energy release and an aerodynamic body in a supersonic flow are considered numerically on the base of the Euler equations. Comparison with non-combined energy deposition is analyzed. The effect of introducing the internal part to the energy release on the drag force reduction is examined. The flows for blunt cylinder, hemisphere-cylinder and pointed body are considered for a wide class of the combined energy source characteristics. Freestream Mach number is varied from 1.89 to 3.45. Complicated unsteady vortex structures caused by the Richtmyer–Meshkov instabilities are shown to be the reason for the reduction in drag. The unsteady double vortex mechanism of the frontal drag force reduction and mechanism of the constantly acting vortices at the steady flow are described. Suppression of shear layer instability and large scaled flow pulsations as the result of the combined energy release effect is established. Complex conservative difference schemes are used in the simulations.

  18. New mammography screen-film combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodak, Kyokko, Agfa-Gevaert, and Siemens (available only in Europe) have introduced mammography screens faster than Kodak's Min R screen. Dupont (Microvision), Fuji (MiMa), and Konica (CM) have introduced single-emulsion mammography films faster than Kodak OM. The authors combined these five screens with the four films to make 20 test object images. One set of films was processed for 90 seconds, the second set for 3 minutes. A 4.5-cm-thick CIRS breast phantom tested the imaging characteristics of the screen-film combinations. Mean glandular doses ranged from 72 mrad for Min R/OM processed for 90 seconds to 28 mrad for Min R med or Afga S screens combined with Dupont or Konica film and processed for 3 minutes

  19. Combined microstructure x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayers are man-made microstructures which vary in depth and are now of sufficient quality to be used as x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet optics. Gratings are man-made in plane microstructures which have been used as optic elements for most of this century. Joining of these two optical microstructures to form combined microstructure optical microstructures to form combined microstructure optical elements has the potential for greatly enhancing both the throughput and the resolution attainable in these spectral ranges. The characteristics of these new optic elements will be presented and compared to experiment with emphasis on the unique properties of these combined microstructures. These results reported are general in nature and not limited to the soft x-ray or extreme ultraviolet spectral domains and also apply to neutrons. 19 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Weak Gravitational Lensing Systematics from Image Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Charles; Goodsall, Timothy; Hirata, Christopher M; Fucik, Jason; Rhodes, Jason; Seshadri, Suresh; Smith, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Extremely accurate shape measurements of galaxy images are needed to probe dark energy properties with weak gravitational lensing surveys. To increase survey area with a fixed observing time and pixel count, images from surveys such as the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) or Euclid will necessarily be undersampled and therefore distorted by aliasing. Oversampled, unaliased images can be obtained by combining multiple, dithered exposures of the same source with a suitable reconstruction algorithm. Any such reconstruction must minimally distort the reconstructed images for weak lensing analyses to be unbiased. In this paper, we use the IMage COMbination (IMCOM) algorithm of Rowe, Hirata, and Rhodes to investigate the effect of image combination on shape measurements (size and ellipticity). We simulate dithered images of sources with varying amounts of ellipticity and undersampling, reconstruct oversampled output images from them using IMCOM, and measure shape distortions in the output. Our simulati...

  1. A Dynamic Elimination-Combining Stack Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Nissan, Gal; Suissa, Adi

    2011-01-01

    Two key synchronization paradigms for the construction of scalable concurrent data-structures are software combining and elimination. Elimination-based concurrent data-structures allow operations with reverse semantics (such as push and pop stack operations) to "collide" and exchange values without having to access a central location. Software combining, on the other hand, is effective when colliding operations have identical semantics: when a pair of threads performing operations with identical semantics collide, the task of performing the combined set of operations is delegated to one of the threads and the other thread waits for its operation(s) to be performed. Applying this mechanism iteratively can reduce memory contention and increase throughput. The most highly scalable prior concurrent stack algorithm is the elimination-backoff stack. The elimination-backoff stack provides high parallelism for symmetric workloads in which the numbers of push and pop operations are roughly equal, but its performance d...

  2. Mixture dynamics: Combination therapy in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Johan; Gibbons, Francis D; Peletier, Lambertus A

    2016-06-10

    In recent years combination therapies have become increasingly popular in most therapeutic areas. We present a qualitative and quantitative approach and elucidate some of the challenges and solutions to a more optimal therapy. For tumor growth this involves the study of semi-mechanistic cell-growth/kill models with multiple sites of action. We introduce such models and analyze their dynamic properties using simulations and mathematical analysis. This is done for two specific case studies, one involving a single compound and one a combination of two compounds. We generalize the notion of Tumor Static Concentration to cases when two compounds are involved and develop a graphical method for determining the optimal combination of the two compounds, using ideas akin to those used in studies employing isobolograms. In studying the dynamics of the second case study we focus, not only on the different concentrations, but also on the different dosing regimens and pharmacokinetics of the two compounds. PMID:27050307

  3. OT-Combiners Via Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harnik, Danny; Ishai, Yuval; Kushilevitz, Eyal;

    2008-01-01

    use of Ω(kn) noisy bits. Better amortized generation of OTs. We show that, following an initial “seed” of O(k) OTs, each additional OT can be generated by only computing and communicating a constant number of outputs of a cryptographic hash function. This improves over a protocol of Ishai et al......An OT-combiner implements a secure oblivious transfer (OT) protocol using oracle access to n OT-candidates of which at most t may be faulty. We introduce a new general approach for combining OTs by making a simple and modular use of protocols for secure computation. Specifically, we obtain an OT......, in a network consisting of a single OT-channel. Our approach applies both to the “semi-honest” and the “malicious” models of secure computation, yielding the corresponding types of OT-combiners. Instantiating our general approach with secure computation protocols from the literature, we conceptually...

  4. Spinal hemangioblastoma combined with pilocytic astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Qing; Wang, Xiang; Zhong, Nan-Zhe; Li, Yi-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The combination of vascular anomalies with gliomas is rarely seen in the CNS, and is defined as "angioglioma". However, the definition, category, and histopathogenesis of angiogliomas remain controversial. Here, we present an unusual case of spinal hemangioblastoma (HB) combined with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). Spinal MRI revealed lesions extending from T9 to T12 segments, in a "sandwich-like" fashion. After resection of the tumor, histopathologic study confirmed the diagnosis of HB as well as PA. A comprehensive review of the literature was further conducted. We describe a case of spinal HB combined with PA, in addition we discuss the clinicopathological relationship between HB and PA under these conditions, which may facilitate the understanding of the histogenesis of an angioglioma and guide its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26166599

  5. Efficient power combiner for THz radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide Seidfaraji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most dangerous explosive materials, both toxic and radioactive, contain nitrogen salts with resonant absorption lines in the frequency range 0.3-10 THz. Therefore, there has been growing interest in remotely detecting such materials by observing the spectrum of reflected signals when the suspicious material is interrogated by THz radiation. Practical portable THz sources available today generate only 20–40 mW output power. This power level is too low to interrogate suspicious material from a safe distance, especially if the material is concealed. Hence, there is a need for sources that can provide greater power in the THz spectrum. Generating and extracting high output power from THz sources is complicated and inefficient. The efficiency of vacuum electronic microwave sources is very low when scaled to the THz range and THz sources based on scaling down semiconductor laser sources have low efficiency as well, resulting in the well known “THz gap.” The reason for such low efficiencies for both source types is material losses in the THz band. In this article an efficient power combiner is described that is based on scaling to higher frequencies a microwave combiner that increases the output power in the THz range of interest in simulation studies. The proposed power combiner not only combines the THz power output from several sources, but can also form a Gaussian wavebeam output. A minimum conversion efficiency of 89% with cophased inputs in a lossy copper power combiner and maximum efficiency of 100% in a Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC-made power combiner were achieved in simulations. Also, it is shown that the TE01 output mode is a reasonable option for THz applications due to the fact that conductive loss decreases for this mode as frequency increases.

  6. Optimizing neurotrophic factor combinations for neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deister, C.; Schmidt, C. E.

    2006-06-01

    Most neurotrophic factors are members of one of three families: the neurotrophins, the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor family ligands (GFLs) and the neuropoietic cytokines. Each family activates distinct but overlapping cellular pathways. Several studies have shown additive or synergistic interactions between neurotrophic factors from different families, though generally only a single combination has been studied. Because of possible interactions between the neurotrophic factors, the optimum concentration of a factor in a mixture may differ from the optimum when applied individually. Additionally, the effect of combinations of neurotrophic factors from each of the three families on neurite extension is unclear. This study examines the effects of several combinations of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), the GFL glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and the neuropoietic cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on neurite outgrowth from young rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants. The combination of 50 ng ml-1 NGF and 10 ng ml-1 of each GDNF and CNTF induced the highest level of neurite outgrowth at a 752 ± 53% increase over untreated DRGs and increased the longest neurite length to 2031 ± 97 µm compared to 916 ± 64 µm for untreated DRGs. The optimum concentrations of the three factors applied in combination corresponded to the optimum concentration of each factor when applied individually. These results indicate that the efficacy of future therapies for nerve repair would be enhanced by the controlled release of a combination of neurotrophins, GFLs and neuropoietic cytokines at higher concentrations than used in previous conduit designs.

  7. RF torch discharge combined with conventional burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the combined flame-rf-plasma reactor and experimental examination of this reactor are presented. For the determination of the temperature in different parts of the combined burner plasma the methods of emission spectroscopy were used. The temperatures measured in the conventional burner reach the maximum temperature 1900 K but in the burner with the superimposed rf discharge the neutral gas temperature substantially increased up to 2600 K but also the plasma volume increases substantially. Consequently, the resident time of reactants in the reaction zone increases

  8. Next ICRF: Single global solution versus combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Malkin, Zinovy

    2007-09-01

    Two approaches to generate the ICRF-2 are compared. The first approach, which has been used for the creation of the current ICRF realization, implies computation of the radio source positions in a single analysis center making use of the most advanced models, software and analysis strategy. However, the latter cannot guarantee that the reference frame is free of systematic errors. The second approach is based on combination of several CRF realizations after investigation and accounting for their stochastic and systematic errors. This procedure is intended to mitigate the systematic errors and improve the precision of the final combined solution. In this presentation, the advantages and shortcomings of both the approaches are discussed.

  9. FAST CORRELATION ATTACKS ON BLUETOOTH COMBINER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Weiju; Feng Dengguo

    2006-01-01

    A simple fast correlation attack is used to analysis the security of Bluetooth combiner in this paper.This attack solves the tradeoff between the length of the keystream and the computing complexity needed to recover the secret key. We give the computing complexities of the attack algorithm according to different lengths of the known keystream. The result is less time-consuming than before. It is also shown that the security of the modified Bluetooth combiner by Hermelin and Nyberg is not significantly enhanced.

  10. Maximisation of Combined Cycle Power Plant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kotowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts for increasing the efficiency of a modern combined cycle power plant. Improvement of gas turbine performance indicators as well as recovering heat from the air cooling the gas turbine’s flow system enable reaching gross electrical efficiencies of around 65%. Analyses for a wide range of compressor pressure ratios were performed. Operating characteristics were developed for the analysed combined cycle plant, for different types of open air cooling arrangements of the gas turbine’s expander: convective, transpiration and film.

  11. Combining seismology and spectropolarimetry of hot stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, Coralie; Mathis, Stéphane; Degroote, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Asteroseismology and spectropolarimetry have allowed us to progress significantly in our understanding of the physics of hot stars over the last decade. It is now possible to combine these two techniques to learn even more information about hot stars and constrain their models. While only a few magnetic pulsating hot stars are known as of today and have been studied with both seismology and spectropolarimetry, new opportunities - in particular Kepler2 and BRITE - are emerging and will allow us to rapidly obtain new combined results.

  12. Harnessing computational power: Distributed combinator evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much interest has been generated by the notion of combinator graph reduction as a mechanism for the implementation of functional languages. An effort is currently in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory, in collaboration with Yale University, to develop a testbed distributed implementation of a functional language based on this concept. The overall goal is to facilitate the exploitation of implicit parallelism; within this framework, the authors intend to use this testbed to evaluate the utility of strategies for combinator graph reduction in a distributed computing system

  13. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  14. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  15. Diagnostic system for combine cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed the Diagnostic System for Combined Cycle Power Plant which enables inexperienced operators as well as experienced operators to cope with abnormal conditions of Combined Cycle Power Plant. The features of this system are the Estimate of Emergency Level for Operation and the Prediction of Subsequent Abnormality, adding to the Diagnosis of Cause and the Operation Guidance. Moreover in this system, Diagnosis of Cause was improved by using our original method and support screens can be displayed for educational means in normal condition as well. (Authors)

  16. Combined treatment for complex intracranial aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex aneurysms often cannot be completely excluded by a single approaches. Today successful treatment of these lesions requires a combination between microsurgical and endovascular techniques. Planning of combined treatment require a very good understanding of aneurysm anatomy and a close collaboration between neurosurgeon and neuroendovascular interventionist. Endovascular coiling can usually be used as early treatment for a partially aneurysm occlusion including the ruptured area and followed by definitive clipping. On the other hand microsurgical clipping also can be used as first treatment for complex aneurysm neck reconstruction, allowing successful secondary placement of coils inside the remnant aneurysm sac

  17. NICI: combining coronagraphy, ADI, and SDI

    CERN Document Server

    Artigau, Etienne; Wahhaj, Zahed; Hartung, Markus; Hayward, Thomas L; Close, Laird M; Chun, Mark R; Liu, Michael C; Trancho, Gelys; Rigaut, Francois; Toomeye, Douglas W; Ftaclas, Christ

    2008-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) is a high-contrast AO imager at the Gemini South telescope. The camera includes a coronagraphic mask and dual channel imaging for Spectral Differential Imaging (SDI). The instrument can also be used in a fixed Cassegrain Rotator mode for Angular Differential Imaging (ADI). While coronagraphy, SDI, and ADI have been applied before in direct imaging searches for exoplanets. NICI represents the first time that these 3 techniques can be combined. We present preliminary NICI commissioning data using these techniques and show that combining SDI and ADI results in significant gains.

  18. Equivalence Checking of Hierarchical Combinational Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Hulgaard, Henrik; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method for verifying that two hierarchical combinational circuits implement the same Boolean functions. The key new feature of the method is its ability to exploit the modularity of circuits to reuse results obtained from one part of the circuits in other parts. We demonstrate...... our method on large adder and multiplier circuits....

  19. Combined Matrices of Matrices in Special Classes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    Novi Sad: Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, 2010. s. 11-11. [ALA 2010. Applied Linear Algebra. 24.05.2010-28.05.2010, Novi Sad] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : combined matrix * positive definite matrix * M-matrix * tridiagonal matrix * complementary basic matrix * Cauchy matrix * totally positive matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Combinational Services for NGN based IPTV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikóczy, E.; Schumann, S.; Stokking, H.M.; Deventer, M.O. van; Niamut, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the general concept of combinational/blended services for IP-based Television (IPTV) services in next generation networks towards its service oriented architecture concept (SOA). Besides introducing general approaches of service reusability (SOA concepts), the service enables (e

  1. Successive combination jet algorithm for hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, S D; Ellis, Stephen D.; Soper, Davision E.

    1993-01-01

    Jet finding algorithms, as they are used in $e^+ e^-$ and hadron collisions, are reviewed and compared. It is suggested that a successive combination style algorithm, similar to that used in $e^+ e^-$ physics, might be useful also in hadron collisions, where cone style algorithms have been used previously.

  2. Combination of scoring schemes for protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schomburg Dietmar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docking algorithms are developed to predict in which orientation two proteins are likely to bind under natural conditions. The currently used methods usually consist of a sampling step followed by a scoring step. We developed a weighted geometric correlation based on optimised atom specific weighting factors and combined them with our previously published amino acid specific scoring and with a comprehensive SVM-based scoring function. Results The scoring with the atom specific weighting factors yields better results than the amino acid specific scoring. In combination with SVM-based scoring functions the percentage of complexes for which a near native structure can be predicted within the top 100 ranks increased from 14% with the geometric scoring to 54% with the combination of all scoring functions. Especially for the enzyme-inhibitor complexes the results of the ranking are excellent. For half of these complexes a near-native structure can be predicted within the first 10 proposed structures and for more than 86% of all enzyme-inhibitor complexes within the first 50 predicted structures. Conclusion We were able to develop a combination of different scoring schemes which considers a series of previously described and some new scoring criteria yielding a remarkable improvement of prediction quality.

  3. Combined infrared and freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The drying of the combined infrared (IR) and freeze-drying of food materials has been shown to be very rapid compared to regular freeze drying (FD). The resulting tissue structure of products processed with sequential infrared and freeze drying (SIRFD) tends to have higher crispness than those proce...

  4. Theories to be combined and contrasted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Tonnesen, Pia Beck; Weng, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    for Tidlig Matematikindsats Til Marginalgrupper). The paper tells the story of how networking strategies have informed the design of TMTM: one strategy is combining elements from the two paradigms; another strategy is contrasting elements from the paradigms. The two constructs ‘the six stages...

  5. Sentence Combining and the Learning Disabled Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Norma; Safran, Stephen P.

    Theory and research indicated that sentence-combining exercises (SCE's) might be effective for improving the writing of learning disabled (LD) pupils. Seven college seniors in special education were trained to implement SCE's naturalistically in tutoring 13 LD pupils in grades 1-6 over a 10 week period, with a control group of 8 seniors tutoring…

  6. Investigations on combined injuries, 29th communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the crucial practical importance of combined injuries, investigations of the efficacy of the radioprotective agent aminopropylamino-ethylthiophosphate (WR 2721) were performed on mice which were whole-body X-irradiated and stressed with a second trauma either as an open wound or as burn wounds on the skin. In cases of sole whole-body irradiation, probit analyses of our data yielded the dose reduction factors (DRF) of 2.42 (NMRI-Hannover) and 2.12 (NMRI-Kisslegg). In case of a combination of an open skin wound (SW) with irradiation in mice of the Hannover breed the following dose reduction factors have been obtained: for irradiation + SW 10 min p.r. the DRF 2.22, for irradiation + SW 2 d p.r. the DRF 2.30, and for irradiation + SW 8 d p.r. the DRF 2.29. In cases of combined injuries with two burn wounds (BW) as second trauma in mice of the Kisslegg breed yielded: the DRF 2.01 for irradiation + BW 10 min p.r., and the DRF 1.91 for irradiation + BW 2 d p.r. The protective effect of WR 2721 is apparently similar in the various groups with combined injuries as compared to the animals exposed to whole-body irradiation only. The mechanisms of action of the sulphur-containing radioprotective agents are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Combination of radiation injuries: pathogenesis, clinic, therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern notions on combined radiation injuries (CRI) are presented. Characteristic of injurious factors of nuclear explosion and common regularities of the CRI origination is given. The data on the CRI clinical peculiarities, diagnostics and treatment, principles of medical assistance for the injured on the stages of medical evacuation and recommendations on rehabilitation are presented

  8. Combined Heat and Power and Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this IEA Information Paper is to help policy makers and other stakeholders understand the challenges facing the incorporation of high efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) into greenhouse gas (GHG) Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) -- and to propose options for overcoming them.

  9. Prevalence of Combined Reading and Arithmetic Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Evelien; Spyer, Ginny; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Sonneville, Leo

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of combined reading and arithmetic disabilities in 799 Dutch schoolchildren using standardized school achievement tests. Scores of arithmetic, word recognition, reading comprehension, and spelling of children in fourth and fifth grade were used. The main interest involved the co-occurrence of word recognition and…

  10. A combined Richter's and de Garengeot's hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau D. Le

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Combined de Garengeot's and Richter's hernias are rare, represent a significant diagnostic challenge, and should be repaired urgently to prevent ischemic bowel, or limit contamination if ischemia is already present. Use of computed tomography will likely lead to increased pre-operative diagnosis of this rare entity.

  11. Hybrid Laser Would Combine Power With Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Donald L., Jr

    1986-01-01

    Efficient laser system constructed by using two semiconductor lasers to pump neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) device. Hybrid concept allows digital transmission at data rates of several megabits per second with reasonably sized optical aperture of 20 cm. Beams from two GaAs lasers efficiently coupled for pumping Nd:YAG crystal. Combination of lasers exploits best features of each.

  12. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.; Magrini, S.M.; Santarelli, M.T.

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a glob...

  13. Choosing a combined oral contraceptive pill

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Mary; Black, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The combined oral contraceptive pill is an effective contraceptive method which can also offer other benefits. However, other contraceptive options should be discussed. If the pill is the chosen method, prescribe a pill with the lowest effective dose of oestrogen and progestogen.

  14. How Not to Combine RC4 States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Jha, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, an attractive design paradigm has emerged, that aims to produce new stream cipher designs, by combining one or more independently produced RC4 states. The ciphers so produced turn out to be faster than RC4 on any software platform, mainly because the average number...

  15. 76 FR 67719 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the.... Eastern time on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More...

  16. 78 FR 26635 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... party to the proceeding. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating...

  17. 78 FR 24403 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... comment date. ] The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to...

  18. 78 FR 70034 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...'s eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is...

  19. 78 FR 41049 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has... the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. Any person... party to the proceeding. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to...

  20. 78 FR 16666 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information...

  1. 77 FR 14772 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling...

  2. 78 FR 45520 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has...:00 p.m. Eastern time on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged....

  3. 78 FR 59664 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing requirements,...

  4. 78 FR 17650 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...'s eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is...

  5. 78 FR 20906 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to...

  6. 77 FR 67355 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the.... The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing...

  7. 78 FR 20908 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...:00 p.m. Eastern time on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged....

  8. 78 FR 70033 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing requirements,...

  9. 78 FR 59663 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...: 5 p.m. ET 9/30/13. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the..., but intervention is necessary to become a party to the proceeding. eFiling is encouraged....

  10. 75 FR 1767 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... the Web site that enables subscribers to receive e-mail notification when a document is added to a... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings December 23, 2009. Take notice that the... Commission encourages electronic submission of protests in lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at...

  11. 77 FR 77071 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed...

  12. 78 FR 56685 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  13. 75 FR 1768 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... receive e-mail notification when a document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings December 22, 2009. Take notice that the... will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor must create and validate an...

  14. 77 FR 14358 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... the specified comment date. ] The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed...

  15. 77 FR 33205 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings May 30, 2012. Take notice that the Commission has...:00 p.m. Eastern time on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged....

  16. 78 FR 68050 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to...

  17. 78 FR 20905 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has... accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  18. 78 FR 39722 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...: 20130614-5149. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 6/26/13. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary.... Protests may be considered, but intervention is necessary to become a party to the proceeding. eFiling...

  19. 77 FR 56197 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has... party to the proceeding. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating...

  20. 77 FR 71409 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...:00 p.m. Eastern time on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged....

  1. 78 FR 18969 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...'s eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is...

  2. 76 FR 46788 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor must create and validate an eRegistration account using the...

  3. 78 FR 38023 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...: 20130614-5149. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 6/26/13. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary.... Protests may be considered, but intervention is necessary to become a party to the proceeding. eFiling...

  4. 78 FR 23244 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... necessary to become a party to the proceeding. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More...

  5. 78 FR 41052 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has... Due: 5 p.m. ET 7/15/13. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on... be considered, but intervention is necessary to become a party to the proceeding. eFiling...

  6. 77 FR 10489 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged....

  7. 78 FR 25071 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing requirements,...

  8. 78 FR 20901 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... proceeding. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to...

  9. 77 FR 71412 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed...

  10. 77 FR 69448 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed...

  11. 78 FR 26636 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has... Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is...

  12. 75 FR 66749 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any FERC Online service, please e-mail... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings October 21, 2010. Take notice that the Commission... electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact...

  13. 75 FR 1764 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... link on the Web site that enables subscribers to receive e-mail notification when a document is added... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings January 4, 2010. Take notice that the Commission... service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for...

  14. 77 FR 42299 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  15. 77 FR 71408 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is...

  16. 76 FR 40345 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... receive e-mail notification when a document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor must create and validate an...

  17. 77 FR 74655 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to...

  18. 75 FR 17136 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings March 24, 2010. Take notice that the Commission... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor must create and validate an eRegistration account using the...

  19. 78 FR 42515 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the.... Eastern time on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More...

  20. 78 FR 38022 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... date. ] The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to...

  1. 78 FR 70298 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed...

  2. 78 FR 68047 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... Number: 20131101-5150. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 11/13/13. The filings are accessible in the Commission's e.... Protests may be considered, but intervention is necessary to become a party to the proceeding. eFiling...

  3. 78 FR 10616 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing requirements,...

  4. 78 FR 30914 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  5. 75 FR 28797 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings May 13, 2010. Take notice that the Commission has... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor must create and validate an eRegistration account using the...

  6. 78 FR 45921 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. Any person... party to the proceeding. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to...

  7. 76 FR 61353 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing requirements,...

  8. 75 FR 65468 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... receive e-mail notification when a document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings October 18, 2010. Take notice that the Commission... Baseline eTariff Filing to be effective 8/13/2010. Filed Date: 10/18/2010. Accession Number:...

  9. 78 FR 50053 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has.... Description: ACA Compliance Filing--eTariff Viewer Correction to be effective 10/1/2013. Filed Date: 8/5/13... in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  10. 78 FR 76291 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...: 5 p.m. ET 12/16/13. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on.... Protests may be considered, but intervention is necessary to become a party to the proceeding. eFiling...

  11. 77 FR 70426 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the...:00 p.m. Eastern time on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged....

  12. 78 FR 25260 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings April 23, 2013. Take notice that the Commission... accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  13. 77 FR 58984 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is...

  14. 75 FR 17139 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... link on the Web site that enables subscribers to receive e-mail notification when a document is added... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings March 18, 2010. Take notice that the Commission... service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for...

  15. 78 FR 716 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission received the... are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing requirements,...

  16. 75 FR 61730 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings September 21, 2010. Take notice that the... filing per 154.203: Cotton Valley--Baseline eTariff Filing to be effective 9/21/2010. Filed Date: 09/21... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or...

  17. 78 FR 39725 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  18. 75 FR 53285 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... subscribers to receive e-mail notification when a document is added to a subscribed dockets(s). For assistance... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings August 19, 2010. Take notice that the Commission... will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor must create and validate an...

  19. 75 FR 65469 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... receive e-mail notification when a document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings October 14, 2010. Take notice that the Commission... will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor must create and validate an...

  20. 75 FR 17138 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any FERC Online service, please e-mail... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings March 26, 2010. Take notice that the Commission... electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact...

  1. 76 FR 61352 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the....m. Eastern time on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged....

  2. 75 FR 61728 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... link on the Web site that enables subscribers to receive e-mail notification when a document is added... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings September 28, 2010. Take notice that the... service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for...

  3. 78 FR 39723 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has... on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed...

  4. 77 FR 41397 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling...

  5. 77 FR 66826 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... on the specified comment date. The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed...

  6. 77 FR 74654 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  7. 78 FR 29750 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  8. LU's Combined Acupuncture Techniques for Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-fang; CHEN Chen; NI Zhi-zhen; ZHONG Chen; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    @@ Diarrhea refers to frequent discharge of loose, even watery stool. In clinic, we used the famous acupuncturist LU Shou-yan's combined acupuncture techniques of along-against, lifting-thrusting and quickslow reinforcing and reducing to treat diarrhea. Now it is reported as follows.

  9. Isolepis tenella, a New Combination in Cyperaceae

    OpenAIRE

    A. Muthama Muasya; Simpson, D.; SMETS, E.

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of a monograph on Isolepis (Cyperaceae) in 2002, further data on the genus have been collected, necessitating additional nomenclatural change. Isolepis is a predominantly southern hemisphere genus with high species diversity in South Africa and Australia. A new combination is made here: Isolepis tenella (L.f.) Muasya & D. A. Simpson, transferring an aberrant annual previously named Cyperus tenellus.

  10. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2.6% of the population in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In order to achieve disease control, combinations of systemic treatments are sometimes needed for variable time periods. However, no evidence-based guidelines...

  11. Combined PET/MR imaging in neurology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Littrup; Ladefoged, Claes Nøhr; Beyer, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Combined PET/MR systems have now become available for clinical use. Given the lack of integrated standard transmission (TX) sources in these systems, attenuation and scatter correction (AC) must be performed using the available MR-images. Since bone tissue cannot easily be accounted for duri...

  12. [Combination treatment in pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Mordechai R

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a marked improvement in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to the development of targeted therapies. There are now several treatment options available--oral, inhaled, and those delivered by subcutaneous or intravenous methods. These treatments have greatly improved patient survival, which in the past was 2.5 years on average. Efficient treatment choice generally proceeds from oral therapies--PDE-5 inhibitors (sildenafil) and endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan or ambrisentan)--to inhaled prostanoids (iloprost) or subcutaneous (treprostinil). Intravenous prostacyclins are used in treating the more severe cases. The different pathways of action of each class of drugs allow a synergistic effect of combination therapy similar to malignancy or patients in congestive heart failure. The updated treatment algorithm includes combinations of therapies that target different pathways. This article will review the literature regarding combination therapy for the treatment of PAH. Combining PAH therapies that target different pathways is now a well-established treatment option, based on numerous international clinical trials, and offers new hope to patients suffering from this severe disease. PMID:22164922

  13. A combined value of the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combine measurements of the Hubble constant in M100, M96, NGC 5253 and IC 4182 including the correction due to the metallicity dependence of the period-luminosity relation of Cepheids, as determined by Beaulieu et al. and Sasselov et al. We pay special attention to error correlations

  14. Combined Direct and Indirect CT Venography (Combined CTV) in Detecting Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wan-Yin; Wang, Li-Wei; Wang, Shao-Juan; Yin, Xin-Dao; Gu, Jian-Ping

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined direct and indirect CT venography (combined CTV) in the detection of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT). The institutional review board approved the study protocol, and patients or qualifying family members provided informed consent. A total of 96 consecutive patients undergoing combined CTV were prospectively enrolled. A combined examination with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) plus duplex ultrasonography (US) was used as the criterion standard. Three observers were blinded to clinical, DSA, and US results, and they independently analyzed all combined CTV datasets. Interobserver agreement was expressed in terms of the Cohen k value for categorical variables. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of combined CTV in the detection of LEDVT were determined by using patient- and location-based evaluations. Of the 96 patients, DSA plus US revealed LEDVT in 125 segmental veins in 63 patients. Patient-based evaluation with combined CTV yielded an accuracy of 96.9% to 97.9%, a sensitivity of 95.2% to 96.8%, a specificity of 100% to 100%, a PPV of 100% to 100%, and an NPV of 91.7% to 94.3% in the detection of LEDVT. Location-based evaluation yielded similar results. Through combined direct and indirect CTV, patients obtained a combined CT angiogram on the diseased limb and an indirect CT angiogram on the opposite side. The image quality of combined CTV was superior to an indirect venogram. Combined CTV shows promising diagnostic accuracy in the detection of LEDVT with 3-dimensional modeling of the lower limb venous system. PMID:26986113

  15. Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing

  16. PHARMACOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG COMBINATIONS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Tarlovskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To pursue pharmacoeconomic analysis of two drug combinations of ACE inhibitor (enalapril and diuretic.Material and methods. Patients with arterial hypertension degree 2 and diabetes mellitus type 2 without ischemic heart disease (n=56 were included into the study. Blood pressure (BP dynamics and cost/effectiveness ratio were evaluated.Results. In group A (fixed combination of original enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide 61% of patients achieved target BP level with initial dose, and the rest 39% of patients – with double dose. In group B (non-fixed combination of generic enalapril/indapamide 60% of patients achieved the target BP with initial dose of drugs, 33% - with double dose of ACE inhibitor, and 7% - with additional amlodipine administration. In patients of group A systolic BP (SBP reduction was 45.82±1.23 mm Hg by the 12th week vs. 40.0±0.81 mm Hg in patients of group B; diastolic BP (DBP reduction was 22.47±1.05 mm Hg and 18.76±0.70 mm Hg, respectively, by the 12th week of treatment. In the first month of treatment costs of target BP achievement was 298.62 rubles per patient in group A, and 299.50 rubles – in group B; by the 12th week of treatment – 629.45 and 631.22 rubles, respectively. Costs of SBP and DBP reduction by 1 mm Hg during 12 weeks of therapy were 13 and 27 rubles per patient, respectively, in group A, and 16 and 34 rubles per patient, respectively, in group B.Conclusion. The original fixed combination (enalapril+hydrochlorothiazide proved to be more clinically effective and more cost effective in the treatment of hypertensive patients in comparison with the non-fixed combination of generic drugs (enalapril+indapamide.

  17. Combination N-Way Power Divider/Combiner and Noninvasive Reflected Power Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An N-way RF/microwave power divider/combiner utilizes one input and N outputs, or conversely N inputs and one output to divide (or combine) RF/microwave power while...

  18. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  19. Dechlorination by combined electrochemical reduction and oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Yan-qing; WU Zu-cheng; TAN Tian-en

    2005-01-01

    Chlorophenols are typical priority pollutants listed by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). The removal of chlorophenol could be carried out by a combination of electrochemical reduction and oxidation method. Results showed that it was feasible to degrade contaminants containing chlorine atoms by electrochemical reduction to form phenol, which was further degraded on the anode by electrochemical oxidation. Chlorophenol removal rate was more than 90% by the combined electrochemical reduction and oxidation at current of 6 mA and pH 6. The hydrogen atom is a powerful reducing agent that reductively dechlorinates chlorophenols. The instantaneous current efficiency was calculated and the results indicated that cathodic reduction was the main contributor to the degradation of chlorophenol.

  20. Combined interventional therapies of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Qian; Gan-Sheng Feng; Thomas Vogl

    2003-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonmalignancies in the world, responsible for an estimated one million deaths annually. It has a poor prognosis due to its rapid infiltrating growth and complicating liver cirrhosis.Surgical resection, liver transplantation and cryosurgery are considered the best curative options, achieving a high rate of complete response, especially in patients with small HCC and good residual liver function. In nonsurgery, regional interventional therapies have led to a major breakthrough in the management of unresectable HCC, which include transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave coagulation therapy (MCT), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), etc. As a result of the technical development of locoregional approaches for HCC during the recent decades,the range of combined interventional therapies has been continuously extended. Most combined multimodal interventional therapies reveal their enormous advantages as compared with any single therapeutic regimen alone,and play more important roles in treating unresectable HCC.

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Tiwari,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC can replace the heat recovery steam generator and the steam turbine of the conventionalcombined cycle plant. The exhaust energy of the topping gas turbine of existing combine cycle is sent to gas-air heat exchange, which heats the air in the secondary gas turbine cycle. In 1980’s the ABC was proposed as an alternative for the conventional steam bottoming cycle. In spite of the cost of reducing hardware installations it could achieve a thermal efficiency of 80%. The complete thermodynamic analysis of the system has been performed by using specially designed programme, enabling the variation of main independent variables. The result shows the gain in net work output as well as efficiency of combined cycle is 35% to 68%.

  2. [Surgical controversy. Combined surgery in one procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamard, P

    2005-06-01

    Combined surgery (phacoemulsification and penetrating or nonpenetrating filtering surgery) has the advantage of treating two distinct disorders in a single operation, with the objective of improving visual acuity and controlling ocular hypertension. In addition, it improves patient comfort and compliance to treatment. It lowers intraocular pressure more than simple lens surgery and the same as surgery carried out in two steps, notably with nonpenetrating filtering surgery, whereas the incidence of complications is lower. Our personal experience with 35 patients, operated on for phacoemulsification and deep sclerectomy with external trabeculectomy in the same operation confirms that this combined surgery in a single operation is effective in controlling ocular pressure in glaucoma subjects (mean reduction in tension, 23%), with few complications. PMID:16208242

  3. [Switching and combining strategies of antidepressant medications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpeaud, Thomas; Moliere, Fanny; Bubrovszky, Maxime; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Allaïli, Najib; Bation, Rémy; Nieto, Isabel; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Saba, Ghassen; Bellivier, Frank; Bennabi, Djamila; Holtzmann, Jérôme; Camus, Vincent; Courtet, Philippe; Courvoisier, Pierre; d'Amato, Thierry; Doumy, Olivier; Garnier, Marion; Bougerol, Thierry; Lançon, Christophe; Haffen, Emmanuel; Leboyer, Marion; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Vaiva, Guillaume; El-Hage, Wissam; Aouizerate, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Switching antidepressant medication may be helpful in depressed patients having no benefit from the initial antidepressant treatment. Before considering switching strategy, the initial antidepressant treatment should produce no therapeutic effect after at least 4 weeks of administration at adequate dosage. Choosing an antidepressant of pharmacologically distinct profile fails to consistently demonstrate a significant superiority in terms of effectiveness over the switching to another antidepressant within the same pharmacological class. Augmenting SSRI/SNRIs with mirtazapine/mianserin has become the most recommended strategy of antidepressant combinations. Augmenting SSRI with tricyclic drugs is now a less recommended strategy of antidepressant combinations given the increased risk for the occurrence of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions and adverse effects. PMID:26995511

  4. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. To this end, we use a Halo Model framework complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD), and we work in full-sky. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions, as the Gaussian part of the covariance can in fact become subdominant in certain configurations. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias, and demonstrating interesting mathematical properties. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeable better constraints, in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales....

  5. Wideband unbalanced waveguide power dividers and combiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Matthew; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2016-05-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to waveguide dividers and waveguide combiners for application in radar systems, wireless communications, etc. Waveguide dividers-combiners can be manufactured in accordance with custom dimensions, as well as in accordance with waveguide standards such that the input and output ports are of a defined dimension and have a common impedance. Various embodiments are presented which can incorporate one or more septum(s), one or more pairs of septums, an iris, an input matching region, a notch located on the input waveguide arm, waveguide arms having stepped transformer regions, etc. The various divider configurations presented herein can be utilized in high fractional bandwidth applications, e.g., a fractional bandwidth of about 30%, and RF applications in the Ka frequency band (e.g., 26.5-40 GHz).

  6. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    While previous research has mostly focused on either knowledge stocks or knowledge flows, our study is among the first to integrate these perspectives in order to shed light on the complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC). This...... study investigates intra-functional as well as cross-functional complementarity effects from the perspective of the knowledge recipient and tests their impact on the benefit created for MNC units. Based on a comprehensive sample of 324 relationships between MNC units, we find that both types of...... complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross-functional combinations....

  7. Analysis of fractals with combined partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedovich, T. G.; Tokarev, M. V.

    2016-03-01

    The space—time properties in the general theory of relativity, as well as the discreteness and non-Archimedean property of space in the quantum theory of gravitation, are discussed. It is emphasized that the properties of bodies in non-Archimedean spaces coincide with the properties of the field of P-adic numbers and fractals. It is suggested that parton showers, used for describing interactions between particles and nuclei at high energies, have a fractal structure. A mechanism of fractal formation with combined partition is considered. The modified SePaC method is offered for the analysis of such fractals. The BC, PaC, and SePaC methods for determining a fractal dimension and other fractal characteristics (numbers of levels and values of a base of forming a fractal) are considered. It is found that the SePaC method has advantages for the analysis of fractals with combined partition.

  8. Combined Spinal Epdiural Anaesthesia: Single Space Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairat Mohd, Shigufta Qazi, Showkat Hussain

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of single space combined spinal epidural (CSE block was carried out in 30 patients forlower extremity orthopaedic surgery. Hyperbaric bupivacaine (0.5% was used for subarachanoidblock and (0.25% isobaric bupivacaine was given through epidural catheter for “top-up” doses tofacilitate surgery and for postoperative analgesia. Operative conditions were described as excellentin 73.33% patients, good in 23.33% patients and fair 3.33% patients. Similarly post operativeanalgesia was excellent in 70%, good in 26.66% and fair in 3.33% cases. Intra operative complicationslike hypotension < 80mm Hg occurred in 3.33% patients and < 90 mmHg in 10% patients. No postspinal headache or neurological complications were seen. CSE anaesthesia appears to combine thereliability of spinal and the flexibility of epidural block while their drawbacks are minimized.

  9. Combining chemotherapy with radiation in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the most important global health problems. Over the last years introduction of mammography screening and increased efficacy of adjuvant therapies resulted in the reduction of mortality in this malignancy. A proportion of patients with breast cancer has indications for adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, however optimal schedules of combining these two modalities remain controversial. In clinical practice typically chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used sequentially, but this strategy is not supported by the results of large clinical trials. There is theoretical rationale for the concomitant use of both modalities, but increased cardiotoxicity and skin reactions of anthracycline-based regimens do not allow for this strategy. Further investigations are essential to determine the safety of taxane-based schedules combined with radiotherapy, particularly with regard to pneumotoxicity. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy with the use of selected schemes may be considered in patients with locally advanced cancer, but this strategy still should be verified in large randomized studies. (author)

  10. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  11. Combining data in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive testing of some components requires quite often the use of several methods such as X-ray, ultrasonics, Eddy Currents. But the efficiency of a NDT method is highly dependent on the fact that the detectability of flaws in a specimen relies on the choice of the best method. Moreover a lot of inspection issues could benefit from the use of more than one test method, as each NDT method has its own physical properties and technological limits. Some questions still remain: how to combine data, at what level and for what functionality. Simple monomethod processes are well-known now. They include techniques like reconstruction which belongs to the so-called ill-posed problems in the field of mathematics. For NDT data processing, it has the ability to estimate real data from distorted ones coming from a probe. But, up to now there has been very few approaches for computer aided combination of results from different advanced techniques. This report presents the various mathematical fields involved towards that goal (statistical decision theory which allows the use of multiple hypothesis, non-linear decision theory for its capability to classify and to discriminate, graph theory to find the optimal path in an hypothesis graph and also fuzzy logic, multiple resolution analysis, artificial intelligence,...) and which combinations of methods are useful. Some images will illustrate this topic in which EDF is involved, and will explain what are the major goals of this work. Combining is not only an improvement of 3D visualisation which would allow to display simultaneously CAD or NDT data for example, but it consists in exploiting multisensor data collected via a variety of sophisticated techniques and presenting this information to the operator without overloading the operator/system capacities in order to reduce the uncertainty and to resolve the ambiguity inherent to mono method inspection. (author). 7 figs., 35 refs

  12. Synthetic biology and microdevices: a powerful combination

    OpenAIRE

    Venken, Lyn; Marchal, Kathleen; Vanderleyden, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments demonstrate that the combination of microbiology with micro-and nanoelectronics is a successful approach to develop new miniaturized sensing devices and other technologies. In the last decade, there has been a shift from the optimization of the abiotic components, for example, the chip, to the improvement of the processing capabilities of cells through genetic engineering. The synthetic biology approach will not only give rise to systems with new functionalities, but will ...

  13. Endurance performance: genes or gene combinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Gallego, Félix; Santiago Dorrego, Catalina; González-Freire, Marta; Muniesa Ferrero, Carlos Alberto; Fernández del Valle, María; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita; Foster, Carl; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the possible association between variants of the genes encoding for the angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE) and alpha-actinin-3 ( ACTN3) (both individually and combined) and several endurance phenotypic traits, e.g., peak power output (PPO), ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation threshold (RCT), among others, in professional road cyclists and sedentary controls (n = 46 each). We applied an ANCOVA test using the aforementioned phenotype traits as dependent variables, ACE a...

  14. Combining ability of white grain popcorn populations

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Scapim; Ronald José Barth Pinto; Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior; Freddy Mora; Thatiana Silva Dandolini

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to indicate the best improvement strategy and select parents to begin animprovement program of white grain popcorn based on the combining ability and heterosis of eight populations selected inexperiments in the northwestern region of Paraná. The traits plant and ear height, grain yield and popping expansion wereevaluated. The base populations, the F1 and five controls were evaluated in Maringá, state of Paraná, over the course of twoyears. Heterosis for poppi...

  15. Bupropion-warfarin combination: A serious complication

    OpenAIRE

    Bavle, Amar D.; Akshay S Phatak

    2013-01-01

    Depressive illness and thromboembolic disorders are both highly prevalent. Warfarin is frequently combined with an antidepressant drug, the choice of which depends mainly on the risk of a hemorrhagic complication. Patients requiring the warfarin are often in the older age group, where the newer antidepressants with a better safety profile are preferred over tricyclic antidepressants. We report herein, a patient who was on bupropion for depression, when he developed deep vein thrombosis high-r...

  16. Combination prediction method of chaotic time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO DongHua; RUAN Jiong; CAI ZhiJie

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose an approach of combination prediction of chaotic time series. The method is based on the adding-weight one-rank local-region method of chaotic time series. The method allows us to define an interval containing a future value with a given probability, which is obtained by studying the prediction error distribution. Its effectiveness is shown with data generated by Logistic map.

  17. Combined Tc-99m sesta MIBI scin

    OpenAIRE

    Enas Abdel Ghany Ibrahim; Momena Essam Elsadawy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of combined high resolution ultrasonography and technetium Tc-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) parathyroid scintigraphy in preoperative detection and localization of parathyroid adenoma, for better operative outcome. Patients and methods: 40 patients were included in this study, 25 of them were females and 15 were males, with age ranging between 31 and 75 (mean 46 ± 15). All patients presented with some of symptoms of hyperparathyroidism with venous blood ...

  18. Combination Treatment of Invasive Fungal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab K Mukherjee; Sheehan, Daniel J.; Hitchcock, Christopher A.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2005-01-01

    The persistence of high morbidity and mortality from systemic fungal infections despite the availability of novel antifungals points to the need for effective treatment strategies. Treatment of invasive fungal infections is often hampered by drug toxicity, tolerability, and specificity issues, and added complications often arise due to the lack of diagnostic tests and to treatment complexities. Combination therapy has been suggested as a possible approach to improve treatment outcome. In this...

  19. Convex linear combination processes for compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon Shone, John

    2005-01-01

    Aitchison and Bacon-Shone (1999) considered convex linear combinations of compositions. In other words, they investigated compositions of compositions, where the mixing composition follows a logistic Normal distribution (or a perturbation process) and the compositions being mixed follow a logistic Normal distribution. In this paper, I investigate the extension to situations where the mixing composition varies with a number of dimensions. Examples would be where the mixing pr...

  20. Eternality Study On Greek's Combined-Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on INS/O/O16program concerning IAEA Initial Training On Health And Environment Impacts Of The Different Energy Sources For Electricity Generation in Indonesia Using Simpacts Program, Externality Study of Power Generation Plant is a part of the Comparative Assessment. One of the power generation plants is combined-cycle Plant, and Gresik combined-cycle Plant have been chosen in this study. Those plants are major electricity contributor for eastern part of Java province and a predominant energy source in industrialized -area in this province. The objective of this study is to assess the environmental burdens, physical impacts and damage cost to human health resulting from pollutant released into the biosphere, and provide the data requirements as input data for the externality study of combined-cycle plant. The data requirements are average annual wind speed, effective chimney height, specified emission of gas fired plants, receptor density (population density in local area) and meteorology data for Gresik is assumed to be the same as that of Jepara. The estimated externality cost will be considered as an additional cost into society cost. By using the Simpacts module to generate-damagecost, result of the externality cost for Gresik combined-cycle is 1.32 mills/kWh. This damage cost dominated by long-term mortality case for adult due to nitrate pollutant (58 %) and followed by chronic bronchitis case for adult due to particulate material pollutant (18 %), long-term mortality case for adult due to particulate material pollutant (9 %) and restricted activity day for adult due to nitrate (6 %). This result will be basically useful for making Comparative Study of Electricity Generation in Indonesia

  1. SNS Heterojunctions With New Combinations Of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P.; Hunt, Brian D.; Foote, Marc C.

    1992-01-01

    New combinations of materials proposed for superconductor/normal-metal/superconductor (SNS) heterojunctions in low-temperature electronic devices such as fast switches, magnetometers, and mixers. Epitaxial heterojunctions formed between high-temperature superconductors and either oxide semiconductors or metals. Concept offers alternative to other three-layer heterojunction concepts; physical principles of operation permit SNS devices to have thicker barrier layers and fabricated more easily.

  2. A Nonstandard Modification of Dempster Combination Rule

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramosil, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2002), s. 1-12. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030803 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : belief functions * Dempster combination rule * nonstandard ordering over the unit interval * nonstandard probability measures Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2002 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/135443

  3. Unrewarded Object Combinations in Captive Parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Auersperg, Alice Marie Isabel; Oswald, Natalie; Domanegg, Markus; Gajdon, Gyula Koppany; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In primates, complex object combinations during play are often regarded as precursors of functional behavior. Here we investigate combinatory behaviors during unrewarded object manipulation in seven parrot species, including kea, African grey parrots and Goffin cockatoos, three species previously used as model species for technical problem solving. We further examine a habitually tool using species, the black palm cockatoo. Moreover, we incorporate three neotropical species, the yellow- and t...

  4. Combining Search Engines for Comparative Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Tabb, David

    2012-01-01

    Many proteomics laboratories have found spectral counting to be an ideal way to recognize biomarkers that differentiate cohorts of samples. This approach assumes that proteins that differ in quantity between samples will generate different numbers of identifiable tandem mass spectra. Increasingly, researchers are employing multiple search engines to maximize the identifications generated from data collections. This talk evaluates four strategies to combine information from multiple search eng...

  5. Antimalarial drug resistance and combination chemotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    White, N.

    1999-01-01

    Antimarial drug resistance develops when spontaneously occurring parasite mutants with reduced susceptibility are selected, and are then transmitted. Drugs for which a single point mutation confers a marked reduction in susceptibility are particularly vulnerable. Low clearance and a shallow concentration-effect relationship increase the chance of selection. Use of combinations of antimalarials that do not share the same resistance mechanisms will reduce the chance of selection because the cha...

  6. Transient Stability Improvement via Combined Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ebrahimean Baydokhty; Mostafa Eidiani; Mahdi Ghamati; Mohsen Ebrahimean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a combined method is used to improving transient stability. In power systems, the maximum use of existing capacities along with the increased powers transferred through the transition lines make transient stability studies even more important. When the fault occurs, the kinetic energy of system is increased, and if the system kinetic energy exceeds a certain amount, system instability will occur. Generator tripping is one of the most effective methods for improving stability ...

  7. Combination of irradiation and thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the technology and methods of food preservation have searched for ever better and less destructive methods and procedures which prolong the shelf-life of the primary products so that they do not undergo degradation processes. New non-traditional methods of preservation, as well as the procedures based on scientifically controlled combination of two or more preservation methods give increasingly higher chances for the improvement of the quality of canned products. Such combinations should reduce the intensity of the adverse effects of separately applied preservation methods. The aim is to achieve synergic or additive effects of the decisive factors, which would ensure microbiological adequacy and storage stability of canned foods, including maximum retention of their nutritional and sensory characteristics. If the published scientific papers dealing with non-traditional methods of food preservation and application of combination of preservation methods are evaluated, it can be seen that there is no work which provides an analysis of this problem. The use of ionizing radiation can reduce the number of microorganisms on foods and doses of up to 10 kGy are not considered to present any toxicological risks. However results have not been satisfactory mainly due to the interaction of ionizing radiation with the components of the irradiated foods. It is desirable to reduce the side effects of radiosterilizing doses by reducing the dose and using another method to complete the processing. Special attention is paid particularly to the use of combinations of heat and irradiation, since this is suitable mainly for the preservation of meat products but can also be applied to vegetables and other products. (author)

  8. Synergistic drug combinations improve therapeutic selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lehàr, Joseph; Krueger, Andrew S.; Avery, William; Heilbut, Adrian M; Johansen, Lisa M.; Price, E. Roydon; Rickles, Richard J.; Short, Glenn F; Staunton, Jane E.; jin, xiaowei; Lee, Margaret S.; Zimmermann, Grant R; Borisy, Alexis A.

    2009-01-01

    Prevailing drug discovery approaches focus on compounds with molecular selectivity, inhibiting disease-relevant targets over others in vitro. However in vivo, many such agents are not therapeutically selective, either because of undesirable activity at effective doses or because the biological system responds to compensate. In theory, drug combinations should permit increased control of such complex biology, but there is a common concern that therapeutic synergy will generally be mirrored by ...

  9. Trimodal combination therapy for maxillary sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of trimodal combination therapy (radiotherapy, intra-arterial chemotherapy, antrotomy) for the treatment of primary maxillary sinus carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1977 and 1996, 110 patients with maxillary squamous cell carcinoma were treated with trimodal combination therapy at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital. All tumors were classified according to the 1997 UICC TNM staging system. Eighty percent of patients had T3 or T4 tumors. The T3 and T4 tumors were also classified into three groups according to their location, as visualized using computed tomography: the posterior-lateral (P) group, the medial (M) group, and the upper (U) group. Eight patients received additional radiotherapy, and 37 patients underwent a second surgical procedure, in addition to the trimodal combination therapy. Results: The 5-year cause-specific survival and local control rates were 71% and 65%, respectively. The 5-year local control rate was 80% for the T1+2 tumors, 64% for the T3 tumors, and 52% for the T4 tumors (p=0.06). Patients in the P+M group who received a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) dosage of more than 3500 mg had a better 5-year local control rate than patients who received a 5-FU dosage of less than 3500 mg (p=0.01). No improvement in the local control rate after a second surgical procedure or additional irradiation treatment was observed in any of the groups. Conclusion: Trimodal combination therapy provides good local control, with the final outcome depending on the T stage of the tumor and the dosage of 5-FU

  10. Combined XRF and PIXE analysis of flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques were used for the determination of trace and minor elements in two different samples of flour purchased at the local market. The significance of some of the elements found in the samples is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition. It is also shown that XRF can be a useful complementary technique for PIXE analysis of flour

  11. SWISSMETRO: Combined Propulsion with Levitation and Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Cassat, A.; Espanet, C.

    2004-01-01

    Swissmetro is a MAGLEV Project between the main cities of Switzerland, designed for a speed up to 500 [km/h] in two tunnels under partial vacuum. Two propulsion variants are considered: - the short stators of the linear homopolar motors are fixed with the tunnel tracks; - the stator of the motors is on board of the vehicles. The levitation, the guidance and the transfer of energy are independent. The authors investigate the possibilities to combine the propulsion with the levitation and the g...

  12. Novel approach for phacoemulsification during combined phacovitrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ewais, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Wael Ahmed Ewais, Ashraf Abdel Maqsoud Nossair, Lamia Samy Ali Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgeon’s superior sitting position during temporal clear corneal incision (TCCI) phacoemulsification, with a 90° working angle, during combined phacovitrectomy. Methods: Prospective interventional case series were performed on 65 eyes of 63 patients. TCCI phacoemulsification was done...

  13. Novel approach for phacoemulsification during combined phacovitrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ewais WA; Nossair AAM; Ali LS

    2015-01-01

    Wael Ahmed Ewais, Ashraf Abdel Maqsoud Nossair, Lamia Samy Ali Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgeon’s superior sitting position during temporal clear corneal incision (TCCI) phacoemulsification, with a 90° working angle, during combined phacovitrectomy. Methods: Prospective interventional case series were performed on 65 eyes of 63 patients. TCCI phacoemulsification was done in all ...

  14. 虫草菌感染地老虎幼虫的研究%Research on Agrotis larvae infected by"insect herb"fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵恒; 屈新兰

    2000-01-01

    本文报道了两种虫草菌在室内接种感染地老虎幼虫的结果.不同种性的虫草菌,对虫体感染要求的条件存在较大差别.代寄主虫被感染后能否形成菌核,当视虫草菌和昆虫体同步生长的吻合程度.

  15. Combined effects, ionizing radiation plus other agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear from cell studies, and confirmed in a general way by animal sudies, that radiation produces effects that are interactive with those due to other physical agents, chemicals of various types, and viruses. Our understanding is limited, however, in respect to the mechanisms of action in cells and, accordingly, even less penetrating in respect to our comprehension of effects in animals. Thus, the conclusion follows at this time, that we are unable to predict responses in humans due to combined action because of our incomplete understanding of individual and combined responses of radiation and other agents in experimental systems. The study of possible public health hazards due to the combined effects of radiation plus other agents is one that should be coverged upon simultaneously by the laboratory investigator and the epidemiologist-public health specialist. What is clear is the likelihood that agents biologically active in their own right may interact. Indeed, an important and significant guiding principle can be extracted from current knowledge. Relative to induced cellular changes, agents that register lesions in the genetic substance of a cell are likely to produce interactive effects. Such effects may become expressed in individual cells, in tissues, or in whole organisms

  16. The effect of prosody on conceptual combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-08-01

    Research into people's comprehension of novel noun-noun phrases has long neglected the possible influences of prosody during meaning construction. At the same time, work in conceptual combination has disagreed about whether different classes of interpretation emerge from single or multiple processes; for example, whether people use distinct mechanisms when they interpret octopus apartment as property-based (e.g., an apartment with eight rooms) or relation-based (e.g., an apartment where an octopus lives). In two studies, we manipulate the prosodic emphasis patterns of novel noun-noun combinations (placing stress on the modifier noun, the head noun, or dual stress on both nouns) and ask participants to generate an interpretation for the novel phrase. Results show that people are faster to generate property-based interpretations when dual emphasis stresses both nouns equally, with prosody having little effect on the speed of relation-based interpretations. These findings highlight a role for prosody during meaning construction and underline important differences between relation- and property-based interpretations that are difficult to reconcile with unitary process views of conceptual combination. PMID:21564245

  17. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  18. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikkonen, Kari; Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1) and F(2) generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars. PMID:20614034

  19. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B G Jayasheel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy and/or a reduced incidence of adverse effects. Additional advantages of FDCs are potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently, simpler logistics of distribution and reduced development of resistance in the case of antimicrobials. Above all, FDC therapy reduces pill burden and improves medication compliance. Although, FDCs seem to be ideal under certain pre-defined circumstances, if a dosing adjustment is warranted, there may not be an FDC available in the most appropriate strength for the patient and if an adverse drug reaction occurs from using an FDC, it may be difficult to identify the active ingredient responsible for causing the reaction. Appendix VI of Schedule Y (Drugs & Cosmetics Rules 1945, India states the requirements for marketing approval of various types of FDCs. The same is further elaborated in this article to provide a detailed guidance including the clinical trial requirements. However, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic field makes it difficult to develop a standard guidance document.

  20. The 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    The ATLAS CTB Team, .

    2004-01-01

    In the year 2004, ATLAS has been involved in a huge combined test beam (CTB) effort in H8. A complete slice of the barrel detector and of the Muon End-cap has been tested, with the following clear goals: pre-commission the final elements and study the detector performance in a realistic combined data taking. Thanks to this experience, a lot of expertise in the operations has been acquired and much data (~ 4.6 TB of data, ~ 90 million events on castor) has been collected and is already under analysis. The CTB has been characterized by different phases with an incremental presence of sub-detectors modules and associated DAQ infrastructure, as well as incremental improvement of analysis tools for prompt data certification. The physics goals of the CTB have been defined in consultation with the physics coordinator, all the sub-detector representatives and the combined performance group representative. With all these indications, a detailed run plan day-by-day schedule was defined before the CTB start and was foll...

  1. Reports from the Combined Performance Working Groups

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Haywood

    The main goal of the Combined Performance Groups is to study the detector performance for physics, as well as to monitor the effect of changes to the detector layout and the evolution of the software. The groups combine the expertise available in several different subdetectors. In addition, they are responsible for developing combined reconstruction algorithms and are involved in the calibration of energy scales and optimising resolutions. For the Workshop, the four groups made a real effort to compare the reconstruction in Athena (the "New" C++ software framework) and Atrecon (the "Old" software used for the TDR studies). b-tagging Working Group: Over the last few months, the description of the Inner Detector in the simulation has become more realistic, following the evolution of the detector design. This has caused the amount of material in the simulation to increase and the Pixel B-layer has been moved to a larger radius to allow for a wider beam-pipe. Nevertheless, the good performance of the b-tagging (...

  2. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  3. Combined effects of radiation and trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, Otfried

    Injuries, caused by both whole-body irradiation and wounds or burns, have been relatively little studied. Possibly because many investigators think that these injuries are just modified radiation-induced diseases for which the same treatment principles are valid. Other authors had the impression that, for instance, the radiation burn trauma is a new kind of disease which differs significantly from either radiation syndrome alone or from burn disease. There are many experimental data on animals which suggest that the pathology of combined injuries differs significantly from that of radiation-induced disease or of thermal or mechanical traumas. Wounds or burns which, in general, do not cause septicaemia could become entrance ports for bacteria when animals are exposed to whole-body irradiation. Thrombocytopenia is the reason for hemorrhages in wounds. The susceptibility to shock is increased considerably in combined injuries and the formation of callus in the bone fractures is significantly delayed. The healing of wounds and burns in the initial phase of the radiation syndrome does not always differ from healing in the non-irradiated organism. However, a few days or weeks later very serious wound infections and hemorrhages can occur. The additional injuries almost always worsen the development and prognosis of radiation-induced disease. The recommended treatment for combined injuries will differ in many respects from the treatment of wounds and burns or the radiation syndrome.

  4. Rational Combinations of Targeted Agents in AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithviraj Bose

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite modest improvements in survival over the last several decades, the treatment of AML continues to present a formidable challenge. Most patients are elderly, and these individuals, as well as those with secondary, therapy-related, or relapsed/refractory AML, are particularly difficult to treat, owing to both aggressive disease biology and the high toxicity of current chemotherapeutic regimens. It has become increasingly apparent in recent years that coordinated interruption of cooperative survival signaling pathways in malignant cells is necessary for optimal therapeutic results. The modest efficacy of monotherapy with both cytotoxic and targeted agents in AML testifies to this. As the complex biology of AML continues to be elucidated, many “synthetic lethal” strategies involving rational combinations of targeted agents have been developed. Unfortunately, relatively few of these have been tested clinically, although there is growing interest in this area. In this article, the preclinical and, where available, clinical data on some of the most promising rational combinations of targeted agents in AML are summarized. While new molecules should continue to be combined with conventional genotoxic drugs of proven efficacy, there is perhaps a need to rethink traditional philosophies of clinical trial development and regulatory approval with a focus on mechanism-based, synergistic strategies.

  5. Fixed Dose Combination for TB treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, a third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. The disease is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths each year and over 8 million were developing active diseases. Moreover, according to WHO (2000, tuberculosis deaths are estimated to increase to 35 million between 2000-2020. The majority of tuberculosis patients worldwide are still treated with single drugs, or with 2-drug fixed-dose combinations (FDCs. To improve tuberculosis treatment, 2- and 3-drug FDCs were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as part of the DOTS strategy. Since 1999 a 4-drug FDC was included on the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Today, FDCs are important tools to further improve the quality of care for people with TB, and accelerate DOTS expansion to reach the global TB control targets. Fixed dose combination TB drugs could simplifies both treatment and management of drug supply, and may prevent the emergence of drug resistance .Prevention of drug resistance is just one of the potential benefits of the use of FDCs. FDCs simplify administration of drugs by reducing the number of pills a patient takes each day and decreasing the risk of incorrect prescriptions. Most tuberculosis patients need only take 3–4 FDCs tablets per day during the intensive phase of treatment, instead of the 15–16 tablets per day that is common with single-drug formulations It is much simpler to explain to patients that they need to take four tablets of the same type and colour, rather than a mixture of tablets of different shapes, colours and sizes. Also, the chance of taking an incomplete combination of drugs is eliminated, since the four essential drugs are combined into one tablet. FDCs are also simpler for care-givers as they minimize the risk of confusion. Finally, drug procurement, in all its components (stock management, shipping, distribution, is simplified by FDCs. Adverse reactions to drugs are not more

  6. Genetics Home Reference: ZAP70-related severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZAP70-related severe combined immunodeficiency ZAP70-related severe combined immunodeficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Open All Close All Description ZAP70 -related severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disorder that damages ...

  7. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal ...

  8. Combining disparate data for decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Combining information of disparate types from multiple data or model sources is a fundamental task in decision making theory. Procedures for combining and utilizing quantitative data with uncertainties are well-developed in several approaches, but methods for including qualitative and semi-quantitative data are much less so. Possibility theory offers an approach to treating all three data types in an objective and repeatable way. In decision making, biases are frequently present in several forms, including those arising from data quality, data spatial and temporal distribution, and the analyst's knowledge and beliefs as to which data or models are most important. The latter bias is particularly evident in the case of qualitative data and there are numerous examples of analysts feeling that a qualitative dataset is more relevant than a quantified one. Possibility theory and fuzzy logic now provide fairly general rules for quantifying qualitative and semi-quantitative data in ways that are repeatable and minimally biased. Once a set of quantified data and/or model layers is obtained, there are several methods of combining them to obtain insight useful in decision making. These include: various combinations of layers using formal fuzzy logic (for example, layer A and (layer B or layer C) but not layer D); connecting the layers with varying influence links in a Fuzzy Cognitive Map; and using the set of layers for the universe of discourse for agent based model simulations. One example of logical combinations that have proven useful is the definition of possible habitat for valley fever fungus (Coccidioides sp.) using variables such as soil type, altitude, aspect, moisture and temperature. A second example is the delineation of the lithology and possible mineralization of several areas beneath basin fill in southern Arizona. A Fuzzy Cognitive Map example is the impacts of development and operation of a hypothetical mine in an area adjacent to a city. In this model

  9. A cost-minimization analysis of combination therapy in hypertension: fixed-dose vs extemporary combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Bellone; Pierluigi Sbarra

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease management and prevention represent the leading cost driver in Italian healthcare expenditure. In order to reach the target blood pressure, a large majority of patients require simultaneous administration of multiple antihypertensive agents.OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of the use of fixed dose combinations of antihypertensive agents, compared to the extemporary combination of the same principles.METHODS: A cost minimization analysis was conducted...

  10. Systemic therapy and synergies by combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörns, Marcus-Alexander

    2013-01-01

    After years of therapeutic nihilism due to the inefficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib was the first agent to demonstrate a significant improvement in the survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, survival benefits on sorafenib treatment remain modest in clinical practice and developing more effective systemic therapies is challenging. No other targeted agent or regimen has proven efficacy to improve survival in a phase III trial in the first- or second-line setting, and no standard treatment option currently exists outside of clinical trials for patients with acquired resistance or intolerance to sorafenib. In contrast to other malignancies, no oncogene addiction has been identified in hepatocarcinogenesis thus far, which may explain why currently tested agents do not achieve sustained partial or complete response in the majority of patients. Several agents with mainly antiangiogenic properties are currently in phase II and III development, including brivanib, ramucirumab, everolimus, tivantinib and resminostat. In addition, the role of molecularly targeted therapy (MTT) in earlier stages of the disease in combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or in the adjuvant setting after potentially curative approaches is under investigation. The identification of the key driver mutations and the assessment of relevant targets for specific subpopulations of patients according to their biomarker-based profile will hopefully lead to a more personalized medicine. This article attempts to provide a concise overview on recent developments of MTT in the phase II-III setting in advanced HCC with an additional focus on synergistic combinations and combined treatment approaches. PMID:23797131

  11. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  12. The Argo NOC: Combining TDM and GALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasapaki, Evangelia; Sparsø, Jens

    2015-01-01

    a static schedule. This requires some form of global synchrony across the platform. At the same time it is generally accepted that a large chip should employ some form of globally-asynchronous locally-synchronous (GALS) organization. By using asynchronous routers and by rethinking the...... microarchitecture of the network interfaces we have managed to combine TDM and GALS and obtain a very hardware-efficient implementation of the NOC. The paper gives a brief overview of the Argo NOC and focuses on two important issues: how to safely bring the NOC out of reset and timing analysis of the network of...

  13. Crew system dynamics - Combining humans and automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Mary

    1989-01-01

    Some of the human factor issues involved in effectively combining human and automated systems are examined with particular reference to spaceflights. The concepts of the crew system and crew systems dynamics are defined, and the present status of crew systems is summarized. The possibilities and potential problems aasociated with the use of automated systems are discussed, as are unique capabilities and possible errors introduced by human participants. It is emphasized that the true integration of human and automated systems must allow for the characteristics of both.

  14. Targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of radiotherapy critically depends on the activation of intrinsic cell death programs in cancer cells. This implies that evasion of cell death, a hallmark of human cancers, can contribute to radioresistance. Therefore, novel strategies to reactivate cell death programs in cancer cells are required in order to overcome resistance to radiotherapy. Since Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are expressed at high levels in multiple cancers and block cell death induction at a central point, therapeutic targeting of IAP proteins represents a promising approach to potentiate the efficacy of radiotherapy. The current review discusses the concept of targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

  15. A Combined Preconditioning Strategy for Nonsymmetric Systems

    KAUST Repository

    de Dios, B. Ayuso

    2014-01-01

    We present and analyze a class of nonsymmetric preconditioners within a normal (weighted least-squares) matrix form for use in GMRES to solve nonsymmetric matrix problems that typically arise in finite element discretizations. An example of the additive Schwarz method applied to nonsymmetric but definite matrices is presented for which the abstract assumptions are verified. A variable preconditioner, combining the original nonsymmetric one and a weighted least-squares version of it, is shown to be convergent and provides a viable strategy for using nonsymmetric preconditioners in practice. Numerical results are included to assess the theory and the performance of the proposed preconditioners.

  16. Analysis of combining ability in soybean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Dilermando Perecin; Antonio Orlando Di Mauro; Eduardo Antonio Gavioli

    2006-01-01

    Eight soybean cultivars (Doko, Bossier, Ocepar-4, BR-15, FT-Cometa, Savana, Paraná and Cristalina) werecrossed in a diallel design. Plants of the F1 generation and their parents were evaluated under short-day conditions for thedetermination of the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability. The estimated GCA and SCA values were significantfor the evaluated traits except for the “total cycle”. Highest GCA effects for the traits “days to flowering”, “plant height”,“insertion height”, “n...

  17. A Hybrid Combining Hard and Soft Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Adam A.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Morin, Stephen A.; Ilievski, Filip; Whitesides, George McClelland

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript describes a hybrid robotic system combining hard and soft sub-systems. This hybrid comprises a wheeled robot (an iRobot Create©; hard) and a four-legged quadruped (soft). It is capable (using a simple, wireless control system) of rapid locomotion over flat terrain (using the wheeled hard robot), and of gripping and retrieval of an object (using the soft robot). The utility of this system is demonstrated by performing a mission requiring the capabilities of both components: ret...

  18. Combined cycle plant controls retrofit case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comanche Power Station, Public Service of Oklahoma's combined cycle generating facility, underwent a controls and operator panel retrofit at the end of 1988. The plant consists of two gas turbines, two heat recovery boilers and a steam turbine along with three generators. This paper examines the extent to which the original goals and specifications were met. Costs, operating principles and modifications since the original installation are discussed. Operating procedures are compared with the original system. The future of the plant is discussed and the impact on the power system grid is analyzed

  19. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:20804314

  20. Anticancer Efficacy of Polyphenols and Their Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, found abundantly in plants, display many anticarcinogenic properties including their inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inflammation as well as inducing apoptosis. In addition, they can modulate immune system response and protect normal cells against free radicals damage. Most investigations on anticancer mechanisms of polyphenols were conducted with individual compounds. However, several studies, including ours, have indicated that anti-cancer efficacy and scope of action can be further enhanced by combining them synergistically with chemically similar or different compounds. While most studies investigated the anti-cancer effects of combinations of two or three compounds, we used more comprehensive mixtures of specific polyphenols and mixtures of polyphenols with vitamins, amino acids and other micronutrients. The mixture containing quercetin, curcumin, green tea, cruciferex, and resveratrol (PB demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Fanconi anemia head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 secretion, cell migration and invasion through Matrigel. PB was found effective in inhibition of fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and melanoma A2058 cell proliferation, MMP-2 and -9 expression, invasion through Matrigel and inducing apoptosis, important parameters for cancer prevention. A combination of polyphenols (quercetin and green tea extract with vitamin C, amino acids and other micronutrients (EPQ demonstrated significant suppression of ovarian cancer ES-2 xenograft tumor growth and suppression of ovarian tumor growth and lung metastasis from IP injection of ovarian cancer A-2780 cells. The EPQ mixture without quercetin (NM also has shown potent anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro in a few dozen cancer cell lines by inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis, MMP-2 and -9 secretion, invasion

  1. Investigations on combined injuries. Pt. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of a bacterial invasion by pseudomonas, e. coli, proteus, citrobacter and gaffkya via an open skin wound was investigated in combined injured mice (infliction of a skin wound and irradiations). Suspensions of different bacterial strains were applied on the wound and then the lethality was determined. Besides of apathogenic (citrobacter, proteus, gaffkya) and high pathogenic bacteria (e. coli and pseudomonas) an e. coli strain of the O-Group 81 was found that seems to induce a decrease of lethality even after sublethal whole body irradiation. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RKD

  2. COMBINED FIELD ION AND SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, T; Hashizurne, T.; Kamiya, I.; Hasegawa, Y.; Sakai, A; Kobayashi, A.; Matsui, J.; Takahashi, S; Kono, E.; Watanabe, H.

    1987-01-01

    Realizing the importance of characterizing a STM probe tip on an atomic scale, we have constructed a new instrument which combines a field ion microscope and scanning tunneling microscope. A complete STM set-up, which is similar to the one developed by Demuth, is mounted on an 8" O.D. flange and a FIM set-up is mounted on a 10" O.D. flange. FI images of the STM probe tip are observed using a 2" O.D. chevron channelplate-image intensifier screen assembly with liquid nitrogen cooling. A field n...

  3. A Bayesian Framework for Combining Valuation Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Kenton K

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining more accurate equity value estimates is the starting point for stock selection, value-based indexing in a noisy market, and beating benchmark indices through tactical style rotation. Unfortunately, discounted cash flow, method of comparables, and fundamental analysis typically yield discrepant valuation estimates. Moreover, the valuation estimates typically disagree with market price. Can one form a superior valuation estimate by averaging over the individual estimates, including market price? This article suggests a Bayesian framework for combining two or more estimates into a superior valuation estimate. The framework justifies the common practice of averaging over several estimates to arrive at a final point estimate.

  4. Combined method for parallel manipulator configuration design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Configuration design is an essential, creative and decision-making step in parallel manipulator design process, in which modeling and assembly are iterative and trivial. Combined approach with automatic parametric modeling and automatic assembly is proposed for parallel manipulator configuration design. The design process and key techniques, such as configuration design, configuration verification, poses calculation of all parts in parallel manipulator, virtual assembly and etc., are discussed and demonstrated by an example. A software package is developed for parallel manipulator configuration design based on the proposed method with Visual C+ + and UG/OPEN on Unigraphics.

  5. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy...

  6. Emissions trading and horticulture. An efficient combination?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a qualitative analysis of the efficiency of the combination greenhouse culture and emissions trading in the Netherlands are presented. It is concluded that participation of the horticulture in the European emissions trading system (ETS) will have several advantages over the present policy. Reduction costs will decrease while more options for reduction will be available, and cost of transactions are limited. Participation also offers better guarantees to realize policy targets than the present policy in which sanctions for not fulfilling the targets are unclear

  7. Object Descriptor Combining Color and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Object descriptor has become one of the key factors for a robust and accurate tracker. In this paper, we propose an object descriptor combining color information and motion detection. A tracked object can be described by its hue histogram excluding the background pixels around the tracked object for restraining the disturbing of complex background environments. During the tracking process, we model the object descriptor by Gaussian Mixture Model for adapting the appearance variation of the tracked object. Tracking experiments in the frame of particle filter show that our proposed object descriptor can effectively improve the robustness and accuracy of object tracking under the situations of complex environments and appearance variations.

  8. Combination of behavioural and cognitive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonida Rotvejn Pajič

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive - behavioral approach in the treatment of behavioral disorders, emotional disorders and learning difficulties is not limited to a single theoretical principle or technique, but integrates different techniques. The variants techniques are derived from theoretical and empirical findings in different domains of developmental psychology (self-control, social cognition, memory, metacognitive and attritional processes. The aim of the article is to present some basic cognitive and behavioral techniques that are individually adapted during therapy and mutually complete each other. A practical case of combining techniques is presented.

  9. Supra-Bayesian Combination of Probability Distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sečkárová, Vladimíra

    Veszprém : University of Pannonia, 2010, s. 112-117. ISBN 978-615-5044-00-7. [11th International PhD Workshop on Systems and Control. Veszprém (HU), 01.09.2010-03.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Supra-Bayesian approach * sharing of probabilistic information * Bayesian decision making Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/seckarova-supra-bayesian combination of probability distributions.pdf

  10. Combined cannabinoid therapy via an oromucosal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Extensive basic science research has identified the potential therapeutic benefits of active compounds extracted from the Cannabis sativa L. plant (the cannabinoids). It is recognized that a significant proportion of patients suffering with the debilitating symptoms of pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis or other conditions smoke cannabis despite the legal implications and stigma associated with this controlled substance. GW Pharmaceuticals have developed Sativex (GW- 1,000-02), a combined cannabinoid medicine that delivers and maintains therapeutic levels of two principal cannabinoids, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), via an oromucosal pump spray, that aims to minimize psychotropic side effects. Sativex has proved to be well tolerated and successfully self-administered and self-titrated in both healthy volunteers and patient cohorts. Clinical assessment of this combined cannabinoid medicine has demonstrated efficacy in patients with intractable pain (chronic neuropathic pain, pain due to brachial plexus nerve injury, allodynic peripheral neuropathic pain and advanced cancer pain), rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis (bladder problems, spasticity and central pain), with no significant intoxication-like symptoms, tolerance or withdrawal syndrome. PMID:16969427

  11. Combined treatment in carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souhami, L.; Rabinowits, M.

    1988-08-01

    From October 1982 to August 1984, 30 previously untreated patients with biopsy-proven carcinoma of the nasopharynx, stage III (26.5%) and stage IV (73.5%), received combined radiotherapy (6,000 to 7,000 cGy over a period of 7 to 7.5 weeks) and chemotherapy (mitomycin-C 10 mg/M2, IV; 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/M2, IV; and methotrexate 30 mg/M2, IV) concomitantly. There were 20 males and 10 females, with a median age of 40 years. Minimal follow-up duration was 24 months. Actuarial overall survival rate at 48 months was 49%. Complete local response was achieved in 75% of the patients, with 31% of the cases failing distantly. The complication rate was high and included severe mucositis, xerostomia, and septicemia (fatal in two cases). Despite high local disease control, survival rate did not increase. A randomized trial is urgently needed to establish whether or not combined treatment is of value in advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx.

  12. FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

    1999-12-01

    A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

  13. Combined treatment in carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From October 1982 to August 1984, 30 previously untreated patients with biopsy-proven carcinoma of the nasopharynx, stage III (26.5%) and stage IV (73.5%), received combined radiotherapy (6,000 to 7,000 cGy over a period of 7 to 7.5 weeks) and chemotherapy (mitomycin-C 10 mg/M2, IV; 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/M2, IV; and methotrexate 30 mg/M2, IV) concomitantly. There were 20 males and 10 females, with a median age of 40 years. Minimal follow-up duration was 24 months. Actuarial overall survival rate at 48 months was 49%. Complete local response was achieved in 75% of the patients, with 31% of the cases failing distantly. The complication rate was high and included severe mucositis, xerostomia, and septicemia (fatal in two cases). Despite high local disease control, survival rate did not increase. A randomized trial is urgently needed to establish whether or not combined treatment is of value in advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx

  14. Combined experiment Phase 2 data characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Simms, D.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s ``Combined Experiment`` has yielded a large quantity of experimental data on the operation of a downwind horizontal axis wind turbine under field conditions. To fully utilize this valuable resource and identify particular episodes of interest, a number of databases were created that characterize individual data events and rotational cycles over a wide range of parameters. Each of the 59 five-minute data episodes collected during Phase 11 of the Combined Experiment have been characterized by the mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation of all data channels, except the blade surface pressures. Inflow condition, aerodynamic force coefficient, and minimum leading edge pressure coefficient databases have also been established, characterizing each of nearly 21,000 blade rotational cycles. In addition, a number of tools have been developed for searching these databases for particular episodes of interest. Due to their extensive size, only a portion of the episode characterization databases are included in an appendix, and examples of the cycle characterization databases are given. The search tools are discussed and the FORTRAN or C code for each is included in appendices.

  15. Seventy years of combination (Raman) scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of the combination scattering of light (the Raman effect) is discussed briefly in historical perspective. Landsberg and Mandel'shtam in Moscow observed spectral lines of the new phenomenon for the first time in crystals on February 21, 1928, and published their results on July 13, 1928, while Raman and Krishnan, in Calcutta, observed similar lines in a number of liquids on February 28, 1928, and published their results on April 21, 1928. Landsberg and Mandel'shtam gave the right interpretation of the new phenomenon in their first publication. The reason for the delay of this publication is explained. A brief note is given on the fate of the discovery and of the people who made it. Raman is the only one who was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1930. The list of the 1930 Nobel Prize nominees in physics is presented. Developments in the field of combination scattering are discussed and the role of the phenomenon in applied research and science illustrated. (from the history of physics)

  16. Combined constellations GPS and Galileo systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszewski, Jacek

    As for the users of satellite navigation systems the actual slogan is GPS and Galileo the advantages and disadvantages of different combined constellations of these systems must be taken into account. The distributions (in per cent) of the numbers of satellites visible by the observer at different latitudes situated in open and restricted (urban canyon) area for different masking elevation angles (Hmin) for two combined constellations GPS + Galileo systems (I - 29 GPS satellites + 27 Galileo satellites, II - 29 GPS + 30 Galileo) are presented in this paper. In addition to it the detailed distributions for the observer at latitudes 50-60° for other constellations & elevation angles are demonstrated. For the first constellation the difference between the number of GPS satellites visible by the observer above horizon (Hmin = 0°) at latitudes 50-60° and the number of Galileo satellites visible by the same observer at the same time can be equal each number between plus 7 and minus 7. This fact must be taken into account in the production and the determination of the number of channel of GPS-Galileo integrated receivers.

  17. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy: pulmonary side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic chemotherapy and lung irradiation have very similar effects on lung tissue. Several mechanisms are involved, mainly: - cytotoxic effects on lung cells (type II pneumocytes, capillary endothelial cells, and connective tissue); - enhancement of infection; - hypersensitivity and auto-immune phenomena. Acute pneumonitis of chronic lung sclerosis develops which may or may not be compatible with life, depending on the lung volume involved and the clinical course. These effects are dose dependent for radiotherapy, and for most of the chemotherapeutic drugs. In some cases however, the dose-effect relationship is not clear, especially with some drugs such as methotrexate, and sometimes with radiotherapy even when it can be assumed that there is no mistake in dose calculation. It must be stressed that we still lack basic knowledge on the pharmacokinetics and actual concentration of drugs in lung tissue. Additive or supra-additive effects are likely when chemotherapy is combined with lung irradiation, but current relevant data does not allow any firm conclusions to be drawn on the quantitative changes resulting from the association. Prevention of lung complications is however possible if the tolerance doses and the optimal distribution of each agent with time are respected. Combined lung irradiation and bleomycin administration must be avoided

  18. Combining Search Engines for Comparative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, David

    2012-01-01

    Many proteomics laboratories have found spectral counting to be an ideal way to recognize biomarkers that differentiate cohorts of samples. This approach assumes that proteins that differ in quantity between samples will generate different numbers of identifiable tandem mass spectra. Increasingly, researchers are employing multiple search engines to maximize the identifications generated from data collections. This talk evaluates four strategies to combine information from multiple search engines in comparative proteomics. The “Count Sum” model pools the spectra across search engines. The “Vote Counting” model combines the judgments from each search engine by protein. Two other models employ parametric and non-parametric analyses of protein-specific p-values from different search engines. We evaluated the four strategies in two different data sets. The ABRF iPRG 2009 study generated five LC-MS/MS analyses of “red” E. coli and five analyses of “yellow” E. coli. NCI CPTAC Study 6 generated five concentrations of Sigma UPS1 spiked into a yeast background. All data were identified with X!Tandem, Sequest, MyriMatch, and TagRecon. For both sample types, “Vote Counting” appeared to manage the diverse identification sets most effectively, yielding heightened discrimination as more search engines were added.

  19. Transient Stability Improvement via Combined Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahimean Baydokhty

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a combined method is used to improving transient stability. In power systems, the maximum use of existing capacities along with the increased powers transferred through the transition lines make transient stability studies even more important. When the fault occurs, the kinetic energy of system is increased, and if the system kinetic energy exceeds a certain amount, system instability will occur. Generator tripping is one of the most effective methods for improving stability in case of serious faults. In this method tripped a number of units of a certain power plant unit for stabilizing the system. In fact, by removing the generator decrease the kinetic energy of the system so that stability can be achieved. In generator tripping, for the above-mentioned, it should reach stability by tripping the least generator possible. Due to its thermal limitations, fixed place of resistor bank and possibility of back swing, the braking resistor is less efficient than generator tripping. In combined method, system stability against severe turbulence is reached through minimization tripping of generator units. In this method, we first decrease intensity of fault by applying braking resistor, and then, for the purpose of improving transient stability, it try to reduce kinetic energy by removing the least possible amount of producing the desired units at the right time.Simulations on 9-bus or 3-generator system were conducted, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  20. Combining rhinoplasty with septal perforation repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T; Magdy, Emad A

    2006-11-01

    A combined septal perforation repair and rhinoplasty was performed in 80 patients presenting with septal perforations (size 1 to 5 cm) and external nasal deformities. The external rhinoplasty approach was used for all cases and the perforation was repaired using bilateral intranasal mucosal advancement flaps with a connective tissue interposition graft in between. Complete closure of the perforation was achieved in 90% of perforations of size up to 3.5 cm and in only 70% of perforations that were larger than 3.5 cm. Cosmetically, 95% were very satisfied with their aesthetic result. The external rhinoplasty approach proved to be very helpful in the process of septal perforation repair especially in large and posteriorly located perforations and in cases where the caudal septal cartilage was previously resected. Our results show that septal perforation repair can be safely combined with rhinoplasty and that some of the routine rhinoplasty maneuvers, such as medial osteotomies and dorsal lowering, could even facilitate the process of septal perforation repair. PMID:17131270

  1. NASA thesaurus combined file postings statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus Combined File Postings Statistics is published semiannually (January and July). This alphabetical listing of postable subject terms contained in the NASA Thesaurus is used to display the number of postings (documents) indexed by each subject term from 1968 to date. The postings totals per item are separated by announcement of other media into STAR, IAA, COSMIC, and OTHER, columnar entries covering the NASA document collection (1968 to date). This is a cumulative publication, and except for special cases, no reference is needed to previous issuances. Retention of the January 1992 issue could be helpful for book information. With the July 1992 issue, NALNET book statistics have been replaced by COSMIC statistics for NASA funded software. File postings statistics for the Alternate Data Base covering NASA collection from 1962 through 1967 were published on a one-time basis in September 1975. Subject terms for the Alternate Data Base are derived from the subject Authority List, reprinted 1985, which is available upon request. The distribution of 19,697,748 postings among the 17,446 NASA Thesaurus terms is tabulated on the last page of the NASA Thesaurus Combined File Postings Statistics.

  2. Irradiation in combined treatments and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation combined with other processes can contribute to insuring food safety to consumers and controlling severe losses during transportation and commercialisation. We have demonstrated that using in synergy with other treatments; a lower dose could be used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria and permit a better protection of the sensorial quality and to prolong the shelf life of foods. Results indicated that some bacteria are more sensitive to irradiation under modified atmosphere (MAP) and the presence of active compound can increase the bacterial radiosensitivity by more than 4 times under air and by more than 10 times under MAP. Mild heat treatment or addition of natural antimicrobial compounds before irradiation treatment has also permitted an increase of Bacillus cereus radiosensitization. An increase of the bacterial radiosensitization of 1.5 and 1.56 was respectively observed. The effectiveness of the use of edible coating containing natural antimicrobial compounds, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) or mild treatment before irradiation treatment was demonstrated in order to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus growth or B. cereus spore germination, to increase the bacterial sensitivity to irradiation, to reduce the water loss and to extend the shelf life of the food when stored at 4 deg C. Also, the use of edible coating previously crosslinked by irradiation have permitted a better control of the active compounds release. Studies of combined treatments were used in ready to eat vegetables, fruits and meat products. (author)

  3. JTRF2014: Status of the Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Chin, Toshio; Gross, Richard; Heflin, Michael; Parker, Jay; Wu, Xiaoping

    2015-04-01

    A Kalman filter and smoother, KALREF, will be used to determine the JTRF2014, a combined terrestrial reference frame (TRF) obtained by analyzing the input SINEX files submitted by the IDS, IGS, ILRS, and IVS for the computation of ITRF2014. KALREF allows the TRF to be determined by combining on a weekly basis time series of station positions and Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs) along with local ties at co-located sites. In the JTRF2014 the temporal evolution of the station positions is formulated by accounting for linear and seasonal terms (annual and semi-annual periodic modes). The station position noise processes are characterized by non-zero variances whose values are derived by analysing station displacements induced by temporal changes of planetary fluid masses (atmosphere, oceans and continental surface water). The JTRF2014 frame will be delivered as a time series of weekly SINEX files containing the filtered and smoothed station positions and EOPs observed from the early 80s through the end of 2014 and predictions of station positions afterwards. Datum specification (origin, scale and orientation) of the resulting frame will be discussed.

  4. Combination TLD/TED task progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy initiated the study of track detectors based on a polymer known as CR-39 through its program entitled Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Evaluation and Upgrade. The task evaluating CR-39 for neutron dosimetry was named the Combination TLD/TED Task denoting the use of thermoluminescence and track etch detectors in a combined system. The initial efforts originating in the late 1970s and early 1980s were conducted by Dick Griffith of Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the assistance of Luigi Tomassino of ENEA in Italy on summer assignment to LLNL. The usefulness of CR-39 in neutron detection had been discovered previously but was inconsistent in its response and difficult to read accurately when processed by chemical etching. The first major improvement Griffith and Tomassino made to the process was to use electrochemical etching after a short chemical etch. This vastly enhanced the size of the tracks and improved their readout enormously. With the larger tracks, through-the-microscope manual track counting was no longer necessary. Off-the-shelf biological colony counters were able to read the image from the microscope through a TV camera and count the tracks with ease

  5. Combined Occupational and Residential Exposures (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most complete coverage of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields has been reached in studies of childhood cancer. In studies of adults, disregarded exposure is a more relevant issue and the potential impact on study results is not well known. As a rule, one environment at a time, residential or occupational, has been examined. Disregarded exposure results in misclassification of overall exposure, but there will always be a specificity of 100%. Subjects without exposure either at home or at work, will all be classified as unexposed. The influence of disregarded exposure on study results depends on the relationships between the focused and the disregarded exposure, and on the relationships between the two exposures and disease outcome. Simulations indicate that relative risks based on occupational exposure only are close to estimates based on combined data. A more precise assessment of either exposure can be more important than combining residential and occupational exposure. In risk assessments, on the other hand, it is misleading if, for example, only residential exposure is considered, since the prevalence of exposure from other environments is far from marginal. (author)

  6. 38 CFR 4.25 - Combined ratings table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined ratings table. 4... RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.25 Combined ratings table. Table I, Combined Ratings... order of their severity, beginning with the greatest disability and then combined with use of table I...

  7. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy... Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a specified... criteria are met under § 52.103(g) or allowing operation during an interim period under the...

  8. 10 CFR 52.105 - Transfer of combined license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of combined license. 52.105 Section 52.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.105 Transfer of combined license. A combined license may be transferred...

  9. 10 CFR 52.103 - Operation under a combined license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the combined license will be processed as a request for action in accordance with 10 CFR 2.206. The... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation under a combined license. 52.103 Section 52.103... POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.103 Operation under a combined license. (a) The licensee...

  10. 10 CFR 52.109 - Continuation of combined license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of combined license. 52.109 Section 52.109... POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.109 Continuation of combined license. Each combined license for a... applicable to the facility in accordance with the NRC's regulations and the provisions of the...

  11. Induced variability for combining ability in Sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two potential varieties of sorghum were mutagenised by using MMS. F1 seeds were produced by crossing M1 or M2 plants of the two varieties as males with the ruling male sterile line 296A as female. The mutant cross F1s were grown in the field along with control F1s. The variability in the M- derived F1 populations was higher. This was accompanied by an increase in mean yield. Dependent upon the genotypes treated with MMS, there was a greater increase in variability for grain yield or a greater increase in variability for days to flowering. The mutagen seems to have induced variability for combining ability of the two varieties of sorghum, the nature of induced variability depending upon the genotype of the variety. (author)

  12. Combining GLP-1 receptor agonists with insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, T

    2013-01-01

    , compared with insulin, the antihyperglycaemic efficacy of GLP-1RAs is limited. The combination of a GLP-1RA and insulin might thus be highly effective for optimal glucose control, ameliorating the adverse effects typically associated with insulin. Data from clinical studies support the therapeutic......-dependent manner, thus conferring glycaemic control with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia. GLP-1RAs also promote weight loss, and have beneficial effects on markers of β cell function, lipid levels, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk markers. However, the durability of their effectiveness is unknown and......Due to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the emergent trend towards diagnosis in younger patients and the progressive nature of this disease, many more patients than before now require insulin to maintain glycaemic control. However, there is a degree of inertia among...

  13. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Katharina; De Sanctis, Gianluca; Kohler, Jochen;

    2015-01-01

    assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment. In two related papers we show how engineering and data-driven modelling can be combined by developing generic risk models that are calibrated to statistical data on observed fire events. The focus of the present paper is on the calibration procedure. A......Two general approaches may be followed for the development of a fire risk model: statistical models based on observed fire losses can support simple cost-benefit studies but are usually not detailed enough for engineering decision-making. Engineering models, on the other hand, require many...... framework is developed that is able to deal with data collection in non-homogeneous portfolios of buildings. Also incomplete data sets containing only little information on each fire event can be used for model calibration. To illustrate the capabilities of the proposed framework, it is applied to the...

  14. VIZGR: Combining Data on a Visual Level

    CERN Document Server

    Hienert, Daniel; Schaer, Philipp; Mathiak, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to connect data on the visualization level. In general, visualizations are a dead end, when it comes to reusability. Yet, users prefer to work with visualizations as evidenced by WYSIWYG editors. To enable users to work with their data in a way that is intuitive to them, we have created Vizgr. Vizgr.com offers basic visualization methods, like graphs, tag clouds, maps and time lines. But unlike normal data visualizations, these can be re-used, connected to each other and to web sites. We offer a simple opportunity to combine diverse data structures, such as geo-locations and networks, with each other by a mouse click. In an evaluation, we found that over 85 % of the participants were able to use and understand this technology without any training or explicit instructions.

  15. Combining sulfate electrowinning with chloride leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, A. W.; Sudderth, R. B.; Olafson, S. M.

    1991-08-01

    Although the chloride leaching of copper sulfide concentrates has proved highly efficient, electrowinning from chloride solutions presents many difficulties, notably in cell design and the handling of the powder product. Sulfate electrowinning,on the other hand, continues to improve and has played a significant part in the widespread adoption of the solvent extraction-electrowinning process for copper recovery from low-grade ores. It has been found that the two steps can be combined by introducing a novel solvent extraction process after chloride leaching. This article presents the results of laboratory tests to prove the feasibility of this approach and discusses how it can be integrated into a commercially viable flow sheet.

  16. Analysis of combining ability in soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilermando Perecin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight soybean cultivars (Doko, Bossier, Ocepar-4, BR-15, FT-Cometa, Savana, Paraná and Cristalina werecrossed in a diallel design. Plants of the F1 generation and their parents were evaluated under short-day conditions for thedetermination of the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability. The estimated GCA and SCA values were significantfor the evaluated traits except for the “total cycle”. Highest GCA effects for the traits “days to flowering”, “plant height”,“insertion height”, “number of branches” and “total cycle” were estimated for the cultivars Doko, Cristalina and Savana.The variability observed in the trait “days to flowering” can, for the most part, be explained by additive effects.

  17. Combined scanning electrochemical-atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, J V; Unwin, P R

    2000-01-15

    A combined scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM)-atomic force microscope (AFM) is described. The instrument permits the first simultaneous topographical and electrochemical measurements at surfaces, under fluid, with high spatial resolution. Simple probe tips suitable for SECM-AFM, have been fabricated by coating flattened and etched Pt microwires with insulating, electrophoretically deposited paint. The flattened portion of the probe provides a flexible cantilever (force sensor), while the coating insulates the probe such that only the tip end (electrode) is exposed to the solution. The SECM-AFM technique is illustrated with simultaneous electrochemical-probe deflection approach curves, simultaneous topographical and electrochemical imaging studies of track-etched polycarbonate ultrafiltration membranes, and etching studies of crystal surfaces. PMID:10658320

  18. Combining ability of white grain popcorn populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scapim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to indicate the best improvement strategy and select parents to begin animprovement program of white grain popcorn based on the combining ability and heterosis of eight populations selected inexperiments in the northwestern region of Paraná. The traits plant and ear height, grain yield and popping expansion wereevaluated. The base populations, the F1 and five controls were evaluated in Maringá, state of Paraná, over the course of twoyears. Heterosis for popping expansion was very low and the best improvement strategy is to raise the values of poppingexpansion up to commercial levels through intrapopulation improvement of the populations BRS Angela and SC 002. Intenseselection must be applied to reduce plant and ear height; interpopulation selection must not be initiated at this moment.

  19. Improved particle swarm optimization combined with chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a novel optimization technique, chaos has gained much attention and some applications during the past decade. For a given energy or cost function, by following chaotic ergodic orbits, a chaotic dynamic system may eventually reach the global optimum or its good approximation with high probability. To enhance the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is an evolutionary computation technique through individual improvement plus population cooperation and competition, hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed by incorporating chaos. Firstly, adaptive inertia weight factor (AIWF) is introduced in PSO to efficiently balance the exploration and exploitation abilities. Secondly, PSO with AIWF and chaos are hybridized to form a chaotic PSO (CPSO), which reasonably combines the population-based evolutionary searching ability of PSO and chaotic searching behavior. Simulation results and comparisons with the standard PSO and several meta-heuristics show that the CPSO can effectively enhance the searching efficiency and greatly improve the searching quality

  20. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  1. Combining solid biomass combustion and stirling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemers, W.; Senkel, N. [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], e-mail: werner.siemers@cutec.de

    2012-11-01

    Decentralised electricity production in combination with and based on biomass still finds some difficulties in real applications. One concept favoured in a recent project is the connection of a wood chip furmace with a Stirling engine. Because the direct exposure of the Stirling head causes numerous problems, the solution is sought in designing an indirect heat transfer system. The main challenge is the temperature level, which should be reached for high electrical efficiencies. Temperatures above 1000 deg C at the biomass combustion side are needed for an efficient heat transfer at some 850 deg C at the Stirling engine in theory. Measurements on both installations have been conducted and analyzed. After this, the design phase is started. However, no final choice on the design has been taken.

  2. Rethinking Robot Vision - Combining Shape and Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Schlemmer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Equipping autonomous robots with vision sensors provides a multitude of advantages by simultaneously bringing up difficulties with regard to different illumination conditions. Furthermore, especially with service robots, the objects to be handled must somehow be learned for a later manipulation. In this paper we summarise work on combining two different vision sensors, namely a laser range scanner and a monocular colour camera, for shape-capturing, detecting and tracking of objects in cluttered scenes without the need of intermediate user interaction. The use of different sensor types provides the advantage of separating the shape and the appearance of the object and therefore overcome the problem with changing illumination conditions. We describe the framework and its components of visual shape-capturing, fast 3D object detection and robust tracking as well as examples that show the feasibility of this approach.

  3. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, C H; Cheung, Y C; Ng, S H; Lin, C Y; Chan, S C; Ng, K K

    2004-12-01

    Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (HCC-CC) is a rare primary liver tumour. We report a carrier of both HBV and HCV presenting with intermittent abdominal pain, fever, chillness and elevated á-fetoprotein (AFP) of 1197 ng/ml. Computed tomography showed an irregular hypodense mass in the left lateral segment of the liver with vague contrast enhancement and multiple regional lymphadenopathy. Hepatic angiogram showed that the mass was hypovascular and the left portal vein was occluded with a tapered end. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of the liver yielded HCC-CC. We suggest that HCC-CC should be considered in hypovascular liver tumours with striking elevation of serum AFP and multiple regional lymphadenopathy. PMID:15646418

  4. Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma: Controversies to be addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Du, Juan; Zhu, Cheng-Pei; Huang, Han-Chun; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Liang-Cai; Wan, Xue-Shuai; Zhang, Hao-Hai; Miao, Ruo-Yu; Sang, Xin-Ting; Zhao, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) accounts for 0.4%-14.2% of primary liver cancer cases and possesses pathological features of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Since this disease was first described and classified in 1949, the classification of CHC has continuously evolved. The latest definition and classification of CHC by the World Health Organization is based on the speculation that CHC arises from hepatic progenitor cells. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the common origin of different components of CHC. Furthermore, the definition of CHC subtypes is still ambiguous and the identification of CHC subtype when a single tumor contains many components has remained unresolved. In addition, there is no summary on the newly recognized histopathology features or the contribution of CHC components to prognosis and outcome of this disease. Here we provide a review of the current literature to address these questions. PMID:27182157

  5. Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbar, M., E-mail: msabbar@phys.ethz.ch; Heuser, S.; Boge, R.; Lucchini, M.; Cirelli, C.; Keller, U. [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gallmann, L. [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    Here we present a successful combination of an attosecond beamline with a COLTRIMS apparatus, which we refer to as AttoCOLTRIMS. The setup provides either single attosecond pulses or attosecond pulse trains for extreme ultraviolet-infrared pump-probe experiments. We achieve full attosecond stability by using an active interferometer stabilization. The capability of the setup is demonstrated by means of two measurements, which lie at the heart of the COLTRIMS detector: firstly, we resolve the rotating electric field vector of an elliptically polarized few-cycle infrared laser field by attosecond streaking exploiting the access to the 3D momentum space of the charged particles. Secondly, we show streaking measurements on different atomic species obtained simultaneously in a single measurement making use of the advantage of measuring ions and electrons in coincidence. Both of these studies demonstrate the potential of the AttoCOLTRIMS for attosecond science.

  6. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    In the area of knowledge management and knowledge governance, previous research has mostly focused on either knowledge stocks or knowledge flows of firms or organizational units. Contrary to this work, our study is among the first to integrate these two perspectives in order to shed light on the...... complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC). We investigate intra-functional as well as cross-functional complementarity effects from the perspective of the knowledge recipient. We test the impact of stocks on flows on the benefit that is created...... for MNC units. Based on a comprehensive sample of 324 relationships between MNC units we find that both types of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross...

  7. Combined cooling, heating and power: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.W.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2006-09-15

    Combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems, including various technologies, provide an alternative for the world to meet and solve energy-related problems, such as energy shortages, energy supply security, emission control, the economy and conservation of energy, etc. In the first part of this paper, the definition and benefits of CCHP systems are clarified; then the characteristics of CCHP technologies-especially technical performances-are presented, as well as the status of utilization and developments. In the third part, diverse CCHP configurations of existing technologies are presented, particularly four typical systems of various size ranges. The worldwide status quo of CCHP development is briefly introduced by dividing the world into four main sections: the US, Europe, Asia and the Pacific and rest of the world. It is concluded that, within decades, promising CCHP technologies can flourish with the cooperative efforts of governments, energy-related enterprises and professional associations. (author)

  8. Development and operation of spoil overcast combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H.

    1985-11-01

    Technological variants are described for operating overburden boom spreaders in brown coal surface mines in the GDR, Soviet Union and Hungary. A variety of spreader types with boom lengths up to 225 m and a maximum spoil haulage capacity of 18,000 m/sup 3//h is being built by TAKRAF of the GDR. Overburden removal by bucket wheel excavators combined with boom spreaders is more economic than employing belt conveyor systems transporting spoil in a semicircle around the surface mine. Boom spreaders are used in surface mines with an overburden thickness up to 60 m. Equipment configuration and technological mining and spoil overcast procedures in a deep surface mine are outlined. 11 references.

  9. Asymmetric Beam Combination for Optical Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Monnier, J D

    2001-01-01

    Optical interferometers increasingly use single-mode fibers as spatial filters to convert varying wavefront distortion into intensity fluctuations which can be monitored for accurate calibration of fringe amplitudes. Here I propose using an asymmetric coupler to allow the photometric intensities of each telescope beam to be measured at the same time as the fringe visibility, but without the need for dedicated photometric outputs, which reduce the light throughput in the interferometric channels. In the read-noise limited case often encountered in the infrared, I show that a 53% improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for the visibility amplitude measurement is achievable, when compared to a balanced coupler setup with 50% photometric taps (e.g., the FLUOR experiment). In the Poisson-noise limit appropriate for visible light, the improvement is reduced to only ~8%. This scheme also reduces the cost and complexity of the beam combination since fewer components and detectors are required, and can be extended to mor...

  10. Combined therapy for diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Al Rashaed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic macular edema (DME is the main cause of visual impairment in diabetic patients. Macular edema within 1 disk diameter of the fovea is present in 9% of the diabetic population. The management of DME is complex and often multiple treatment approaches are needed. This review demonstrates the benefits of intravitreal triamcinolone, bevacizumab and ranibizumab as adjunctive therapy to macular laser treatment in DME. The published results indicate that intravitreal injections of these agents may have a beneficial effect on macular thickness and visual acuity, independent of the type of macular edema that is present. Therefore, pharmacotherapy could complement focal/grid laser photocoagulation in the management of DME. For this review, we performed a literature search and summarized recent findings regarding combined therapy for DME.

  11. Combination of fractionated photon radiation and BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the relatively low normal brain dose, BNCT allows additional photon radiation sufficient to maintain a total normal brain dose below the tolerance limit. We started a new protocol with a combination of fractionated, extended local photon radiation, and BPA- and BSH-mediated BNCT. In this protocol, newly diagnosed glioblastoma were treated with BPA (250 mg/kg) - and BSH (100 mg/kg) - mediated BNCT followed by fractionated photon radiation. The BNCT dose for the normal brain was restricted to less than 13 GyEq. The fractionated photon radiation at a dose of 30/15 fr or 30.6 Gy/17 fr was planned to irradiate a T2 high-intensity area of post-BNCT MRI. So far, 6 patients have been treated by this protocol. The clinical course, dose distribution, tumor response, and adverse events will be discussed herein. (author)

  12. Combining multiple decisions: applications to bioinformatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-class classification is one of the fundamental tasks in bioinformatics and typically arises in cancer diagnosis studies by gene expression profiling. This article reviews two recent approaches to multi-class classification by combining multiple binary classifiers, which are formulated based on a unified framework of error-correcting output coding (ECOC). The first approach is to construct a multi-class classifier in which each binary classifier to be aggregated has a weight value to be optimally tuned based on the observed data. In the second approach, misclassification of each binary classifier is formulated as a bit inversion error with a probabilistic model by making an analogy to the context of information transmission theory. Experimental studies using various real-world datasets including cancer classification problems reveal that both of the new methods are superior or comparable to other multi-class classification methods

  13. Combining human and machine processes (CHAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Sudit, David; Hirsch, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Machine Reasoning and Intelligence is usually done in a vacuum, without consultation of the ultimate decision-maker. The late consideration of the human cognitive process causes some major problems in the use of automated systems to provide reliable and actionable information that users can trust and depend to make the best Course-of-Action (COA). On the other hand, if automated systems are created exclusively based on human cognition, then there is a danger of developing systems that don't push the barrier of technology and are mainly done for the comfort level of selected subject matter experts (SMEs). Our approach to combining human and machine processes (CHAMP) is based on the notion of developing optimal strategies for where, when, how, and which human intelligence should be injected within a machine reasoning and intelligence process. This combination is based on the criteria of improving the quality of the output of the automated process while maintaining the required computational efficiency for a COA to be actuated in timely fashion. This research addresses the following problem areas: • Providing consistency within a mission: Injection of human reasoning and intelligence within the reliability and temporal needs of a mission to attain situational awareness, impact assessment, and COA development. • Supporting the incorporation of data that is uncertain, incomplete, imprecise and contradictory (UIIC): Development of mathematical models to suggest the insertion of a cognitive process within a machine reasoning and intelligent system so as to minimize UIIC concerns. • Developing systems that include humans in the loop whose performance can be analyzed and understood to provide feedback to the sensors.

  14. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  15. Novel approach for phacoemulsification during combined phacovitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewais WA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wael Ahmed Ewais, Ashraf Abdel Maqsoud Nossair, Lamia Samy Ali Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgeon’s superior sitting position during temporal clear corneal incision (TCCI phacoemulsification, with a 90° working angle, during combined phacovitrectomy. Methods: Prospective interventional case series were performed on 65 eyes of 63 patients. TCCI phacoemulsification was done in all cases (whether right or left eyes, while the surgeon was sitting superiorly to the operating table. Outcome measures included: Shift in sitting position, keratometric astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism, posterior capsule integrity, and intraocular lens centration. Results: Phacoemulsification was performed completely in all cases (100%. Shift in position to temporal sitting position happened in two cases (3%. The keratometric astigmatism showed mean changes of 1.09 D (0.25–3.75 D to 0.84 D (0.00–3.25 D at 1 month, which remained stable at 6 months; 0.84 D (0.16–3.21 D. The surgically induced astigmatism was 0.25 DC (-0.50 to 1.0 DC at 1 month, which stayed stable at 6 months; 0.25 D (-0.63 D to 0.98 D. Posterior capsular rupture occurred in one case (the second case (1.5%. The intraocular lens was centered in all cases (100%. Conclusion: Superior sitting TCCI phacoemulsification, with a wide working angle, during combined phacovitrectomy proved safe and easy, without the burden of changing and disrupting the operative setting. The anatomical and optical outcomes were acceptable. Keywords: clear corneal incisions, temporal nasal horizontal superior, surgically induced astigmatism, keratometric astigmatism, superior sitting position, working angle

  16. Combination and interpretation of observables in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virey Jean-Marc

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard cosmological model has deep theoretical foundations but need the introduction of two major unknown components, dark matter and dark energy, to be in agreement with various observations. Dark matter describes a non-relativistic collisionless fluid of (non baryonic matter which amount to 25% of the total density of the universe. Dark energy is a new kind of fluid not of matter type, representing 70% of the total density which should explain the recent acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Alternatively, one can reject this idea of adding one or two new components but argue that the equations used to make the interpretation should be modified consmological scales. Instead of dark matter one can invoke a failure of Newton's laws. Instead of dark energy, two approaches are proposed : general relativity (in term of the Einstein equation should be modified, or the cosmological principle which fixes the metric used for cosmology should be abandonned. One of the main objective of the community is to find the path of the relevant interpretations thanks to the next generation of experiments which should provide large statistics of observationnal data. Unfortunately, cosmological in formations are difficult to pin down directly fromt he measurements, and it is mandatory to combine the various observables to get the cosmological parameters. This is not problematic from the statistical point of view, but assumptions and approximations made for the analysis may bias our interprettion of the data. Consequently, a strong attention should be paied to the statistical methods used to make parameters estimation and for model testing. After a review of the basics of cosmology where the cosmological parameters are introduced, we discuss the various cosmological probes and their associated observables used to extract cosmological informations. We present the results obtained from several statistical analyses combining data of diferent nature but

  17. Comparison between combination chemotherapy and total body irradiation plus combination chemotherapy in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-nine untreated patients with either lymphocytic or nodular mixed/nodular histiocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, stage II-IV, were randomized to treatment with total body irradiation (TBI), 100 rads in 10 fractions over 12 days, plus combination chemotherapy with either cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone (CVP) or cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisone (C-MOPP) or to treatment with combination chemotherapy (CVP or C-MOPP) alone. Remission rate and duration were comparable for both treatment groups; thus the use of both treatment modalities ab initio provides no therapeutic advantage

  18. Combining the Observations from Different GNSS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dach, R.; Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Bock, H.; Jäggi, A.; Meindl, M.; Ostini, L.; Thaller, D.; Steinbach, A.; Beutler, G.; Steigenberger, P.

    2009-12-01

    For a very long time GPS has clearly dominated the use of GNSS measurements for scientific purposes. This picture is changing: we are moving from a GPS-only to a multi-GNSS world. This is, e.g., reflected by changing the meaning of the abbreviation IGS in March 2005 from International GPS to GNSS Service. The current situation can be described as follows: GPS has the leading role in the GNSS because it has provided a very stable satellite constellation over many years. Some of the currently active GPS satellites are nearly 15 years old. These old satellites are expected to be decommissioned within the next years. On the other hand, due to the increasing number of active GLONASS satellites and the improved density of multi-GNSS tracking stations in the IGS network, the quality of the GLONASS orbits has drastically improved during the last years. The European Galileo system is under development: currently two test satellites (GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B) are in orbit. The IOV (in-orbit-validation phase) will start soon. Also the first test satellites for the Chinese Compass system are in space. For the maximum benefit the observations of these GNSS will be processed in a combined multi-GNSS analysis in future. CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Physikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the IGS and has started in May 2003 with a rigorous combined processing of GPS and GLONASS measurements for the final, rapid, and even ultra-rapid product lines. All contributions from CODE to the IGS are in fact multi-GNSS products -- the only exception is the satellite and receiver clock

  19. Combining hypoxic methods for peak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Gregoire P; Roels, B; Schmitt, L; Woorons, X; Richalet, J P

    2010-01-01

    . There is clear evidence that intense exercise at high altitude stimulates to a greater extent muscle adaptations for both aerobic and anaerobic exercises and limits the decrease in power. So although IHT induces no increase in VO(2max) due to the low 'altitude dose', improvement in athletic performance is likely to happen with high-intensity exercise (i.e. above the ventilatory threshold) due to an increase in mitochondrial efficiency and pH/lactate regulation. We propose a new combination of hypoxic method (which we suggest naming Living High-Training Low and High, interspersed; LHTLHi) combining LHTL (five nights at 3000 m and two nights at sea level) with training at sea level except for a few (2.3 per week) IHT sessions of supra-threshold training. This review also provides a rationale on how to combine the different hypoxic methods and suggests advances in both their implementation and their periodization during the yearly training programme of athletes competing in endurance, glycolytic or intermittent sports. PMID:20020784

  20. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  1. Efficient combination rule of Dezert-Smarandache theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) is a useful method for dealing with uncertainty problems. It is more efficient in combining conflicting evidence. Therefore, it has been successfully applied in data fusion and object recognition. However, there exist shortcomings in its combination rule. An efficient combination rule is presented, that is, the evidence's conflicting probability is distributed to every proposition based on remaining the focal elements of conflict. Experiments show that the new combination rule improves the reliability and rationality of the combination results. Although evidences conflict another one highly, good combination results are also obtained.

  2. Efficient Generation and Selection of Combined Features for Improved Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Shono, Ahmad N.

    2014-05-01

    This study contributes a methodology and associated toolkit developed to allow users to experiment with the use of combined features in classification problems. Methods are provided for efficiently generating combined features from an original feature set, for efficiently selecting the most discriminating of these generated combined features, and for efficiently performing a preliminary comparison of the classification results when using the original features exclusively against the results when using the selected combined features. The potential benefit of considering combined features in classification problems is demonstrated by applying the developed methodology and toolkit to three sample data sets where the discovery of combined features containing new discriminating information led to improved classification results.

  3. Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market in terms of fuel consumption and energy conversion. Given that the transmission and distribution monopolistic activities are very similar to the natural gas transportation through pipelines, economic regulation related to the natural gas network should be coherent with the transmission counterpart. This paper shows the application of the main wheeling charge methods, such as MW/gas-mile, invested related asset cost (IRAC) and Aumman-Shapley allocation, to both transmission and gas network. Stead-state equations are developed to adequate the various pricing methods. Some examples clarify the results, in terms of investments for thermal generation plants and end consumers, when combined pricing methods are used for transmission and gas networks. The paper also shows that the synergies between gas and electricity industry should be adequately considered, otherwise wrong economic signals are sent to the market players. (author)

  4. Combining forecast weights: Why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.

  5. Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir: A promising combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Aldo; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects 3% of the world population. It represents the main cause of chronic liver disease and is responsible for extra-hepatic complications, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. HCV includes 7 genotypes differing in the nucleotide sequence variability, the geographic distribution, the rates of viral clearance, the risk of progression to liver fibrosis and to hepatocellular carcinoma, and the response to therapy. Last years have seen remarkable advances in the field of HCV infection with the approval of direct antiviral agents (DAAs) targeting key viral proteins involved in the HCV replication. Several oral regimens combining DAAs from different families have been developed and these regimens showed increased and sustained virological response rates to above 90% reducing the treatment duration to 12 wk or less. In particular, sofosbuvir, a nucleotide analogue nonstructural (NS)5B polymerase inhibitor, and velpatasvir, a NS5A inhibitor, have been tested in two phase 3 trials, the ASTRAL-2 (against HCV genotype 2) and the ASTRAL-3 (against HCV genotype 3), demonstrating to be effective, safe, and well tolerated in patients who were 18 years of age or older and had at least a 6-mo history of HCV infection with a compensated liver disease. PMID:27429714

  6. Combined perturbation bounds: Ⅱ. Polar decompositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen LI; Wei-wei SUN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the perturbation bounds for the polar decomposition A= QH where Q is unitary and H is Hermitian. The optimal (asymptotic) bounds obtained in previous works for the unitary factor, the Hermitian factor and singular values of A are σ2r||△Q||2F ≤ ||△A||2F,1/2||△H||2F ≤ ||△A||2F and ||△∑||2F ≤ ||△A||2F, respectively, where ∑ = diag(σ1, σ2,..., σr, 0,..., 0) is the singular value matrix of A and σr denotes the smallest nonzero singular value. Here we present some new combined (asymptotic)perturbation bounds σ2r ||△Q||2F+1/2||△H||2F≤ ||△A||2F and σ2r||△Q||2F+||△∑ ||2F ≤||△A||2F which are optimal for each factor. Some corresponding absolute perturbation bounds are also given.

  7. Zoely: a new combined oral contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ▼Zoely is the second estradiol-containing oral contraceptive formulated as an 'extended regimen' (pill-free interval contraceptive Qlaira, it is a monophasic preparation.1,2 It is postulated that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing synthetic estradiol, which is structurally identical to endogenous oestrogen,3 are potentially safer and better tolerated than those containing ethinylestradiol, the synthetic oestrogen most commonly used in COCs.4 The progestogen in Zoely is nomegestrol acetate, which is structurally related to progesterone,5 in contrast to the majority of progestogens in COCs that are derived from 19-nortestosterone6 and associated with androgenic effects.7 It is suggested that nomegestrol acetate, with its greater specificity for progesterone receptors, may minimise the potential for androgenic, oestrogenic and glucocorticoid effects.7 The company considers Zoely an option for women "who want a contraceptive with hormones similar to her own", and claims that it has a high level of contraceptive efficacy, produces shorter, lighter periods compared with a 21-day regimen of drospirenone 3mg/ethinylestradiol 30µg (Yasmin) and that most women report no negative impact on weight and skin.8 Here we review the effectiveness and place of Zoely. PMID:25104773

  8. COMBINING CLASSIFIERS FOR CREDIT RISK PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhekisipho TWALA

    2009-01-01

    Credit risk prediction models seek to predict quality factors such as whether an individual will default (bad applicant) on a loan or not (good applicant). This can be treated as a kind of machine learning (ML) problem. Recently, the use of ML algorithms has proven to be of great practical value in solving a variety of risk problems including credit risk prediction. One of the most active areas of recent research in ML has been the use of ensemble (combining) classifiers. Research indicates that ensemble individual classifiers lead to a significant improvement in classification performance by having them vote for the most popular class. This paper explores the predicted behaviour of five classifiers for different types of noise in terms of credit risk prediction accuracy, and how could such accuracy be improved by using pairs of classifier ensembles. Benchmarking results on five credit datasets and comparison with the performance of each individual classifier on predictive accuracy at various attribute noise levels are presented. The experimental evaluation shows that the ensemble of classifiers technique has the potential to improve prediction accuracy.

  9. Pixel-Tilecal-MDT Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Di Girolamo

    A test with many expectations When an additional week of running (from September 11th to 18th) was allocated for the test-beam, it was decided to give priority to a combined run with the participation of the Pixel, Tilecal and MDT sub-detectors. The integration of these three sub-detectors was possible as they all use the baseline (DAQ-1/EF based) DAQ for test beams (as reported in a previous e-news). The tests and the addition of a common trigger and busy were organized in a short timescale by experts from the three sub-detectors and DAQ/EF. The expectations were many; both looking for problems and finding solutions. The setup The setup, shown in the figure, consisted of the Pixel telescope normally used during the sub-detector tests, two Tilecal barrel modules, two Tilecal extended barrel modules, and six MDT barrel chambers. This fully occupied a length of some 30 meters in the H8 line of the SPS North Area. Each sub-detector used their own specialized front-end electronics. The data collected by modu...

  10. API and ISO standards can be combined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that oil field equipment and product manufacturers can maintain a competitive advantage and minimize costs by integrating American Petroleum Institute (API) licensing programs with International Standards Organization (ISO) 9001 standards under one quality system. A combined quality system approach can position a company for quality system certification under ISO 9001 while maintaining API specifications. Furthermore, only one quality system manual is needed for API licensing and ISO certification, avoiding duplication of effort. The benefits of a documented quality program include the flowing: Job descriptions and personnel qualification requirements are documented; The improved documentation allows direct tracing of specific production activities; Laboratory test methods and calibration of test equipment follow accepted standards for more reliable and reproducible test data; Quality control becomes proactive, not reactive, through internal process controls previously not implemented; Employee attitudes improve through appreciation for the overall goals of the company; Ambiguous quality issues, such as documenting special customer requirements, are easily resolved; and The company image improves with customers, particularly for those that require API Specification Q1 or ISO 9001 compliance or those having their own quality performance standards

  11. Status of the Combined Cycle Engine Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Dave; Slater, John; Dippold, Vance

    2009-01-01

    Status for the past year is provided of the turbine-based Combined-Cycle Engine (CCE) Rig for the hypersonic project. As part of the first stage propulsion of a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle concept, this engine rig is designed with a common inlet that supplies flow to a turbine engine and a dual-mode ramjet / scramjet engine in an over/under configuration. At Mach 4 the inlet has variable geometry to switch the airflow from the turbine to the ramjet / scramjet engine. This process is known as inlet mode-transition. In addition to investigating inlet aspects of mode transition, the rig will allow testing of turbine and scramjet systems later in the test series. Fully closing the splitter cowl "cocoons" the turbine engine and increases airflow to the scramjet duct. The CCE Rig will be a testbed to investigate integrated propulsion system and controls technology objectives. Four phases of testing are planned to 1) characterize the dual inlet database, 2) collect inlet dynamics using system identification techniques, 3) implement an inlet control to demonstrate mode-transition scenarios and 4) demonstrate integrated inlet/turbine engine operation through mode-transition. Status of the test planning and preparation activities is summarized with background on the inlet design and small-scale testing, analytical CFD predictions and some details of the large-scale hardware. The final stages of fabrication are underway.

  12. Combined treatment of uveal melanoma liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasiuniene B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uveal melanoma (UM is the most prevalent intraocular malignant tumor in the Western world. The prognosis of survival in the presence of metastatic disease is 2-7 months, depending on the treatment applied. This article presents a case of metastatic UM with successful complex treatment of liver metastases. A 49-year old female, underwent removal of the right eyeball in 1996 due to a histologically confirmed uveal melanoma. After 11 years, CT revealed a mass in the left kidney and multiple metastases in the liver. After left nephrectomy, 6 chemotherapy courses with dacarbazine were performed. The increasing liver metastases were observed. Additional 4 intraarterial (i/a chemotherapy courses were administered using cisplatin, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, and interferon alfa. After few courses increase in CTC Grade 4 liver transaminases was seen. A partial response was observed, and in December 2008 the patient underwent surgery removing all liver metastases by 7 wedge or atypical resections. All margins were tumor-free. 21 months after liver resections and 14 years since diagnosis, the patient is alive without evidence of disease. Successful treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma was due to a timely application of a combination of several treatment methods and good prognostic factors of the patient.

  13. Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-04-30

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  14. Combined Electricity and Heat Generations using SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to its native characteristics, the application area of the Small and Medium sized Reactors (SMR) can be easily expanded to a non-electricity field such as a sea water desalination and a district heating. SMRs have beneficial advantages of a reactor safety and economics by an easy implementation of advanced design concepts and technology. SMART, a small sized integral type PWR with a rated thermal power of 330 MWt is one of the advanced SMR. The SMART adopts a sensible mixture of new innovative design features and proven technologies aimed at achieving highly enhanced safety and improved economics. Design features contributing to a safety enhancement are basically inherent safety improving features and passive safety features. Fundamental thermal-hydraulic experiments were carried out during the design concept development to assure the fundamental behavior of the major concepts of the SMART systems. A possibility of the combined electricity and heat generations using SMART are evaluated in this study. The conceptual configuration of the cogeneration system is suggested and the transport pipelines using the hot water or the steam are discussed. A heat balance calculation is performed for the quantitative evaluation of cogeneration with the backpressure turbine

  15. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerenser, Robert J.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1983-01-01

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application.

  16. Combination microwave ovens: an innovative design strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinga, Wayne R; Eke, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the sensitivity of microwave oven heating and cooking performance to load volume, load placement and load properties has been a long-standing challenge for microwave and microwave-convection oven designers. Conventional design problem and solution methods are reviewed to provide greater insight into the challenge and optimum operation of a microwave oven after which a new strategy is introduced. In this methodology, a special load isolating and energy modulating device called a transducer-exciter is used containing an iris, a launch box, a phase, amplitude and frequency modulator and a coupling plate designed to provide spatially distributed coupling to the oven. This system, when applied to a combined microwave-convection oven, gives astounding performance improvements to all kinds of baked and roasted foods including sensitive items such as cakes and pastries, with the only compromise being a reasonable reduction in the maximum available microwave power. Large and small metal utensils can be used in the oven with minimal or no performance penalty on energy uniformity and cooking results. Cooking times are greatly reduced from those in conventional ovens while maintaining excellent cooking performance. PMID:24432587

  17. Combined use of ECT and psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Merk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT,despite a significant psychopharmacological development and introduction of modern drugs in recent years, is still an important, biological treatment of proven, high clinical efficacy. In the management algorithms it is still considered as a method of choice in treatment of drug-resistant patients. No wider use of ECTmay in part result from fears of potential interactions with pharmacotherapy, or need to interrupt the current treatment. The issue of potential impact of pharmacotherapy on many procedure parameters, including mostly seizure threshold and therefore indirectly clinical effect, is still up-to-date. Systematic studies have revised the existing theories about restrictions in the administration of medications during ECT treatment. Nowadays more often not only the safety of such procedure, but also possibility of synergistic therapeutic effect of ECT and psychopharmacology is highlighted. The authors present previous reports on combined use of pharmacotherapy and ECT, safety or potential risks associated with this treatment and proposals of scientific bodies in this regard. Interpretative limitations of conducted research, including especially case reports or observations of small groups, which requires further studies involving more numerous patient populations is noteworthy.

  18. Phyloclimatic modeling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesson, C; Culham, A

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the impact of past climates on plant diversification by tracking the "footprint" of climate change on a phylogenetic tree. Diversity within the cosmopolitan carnivorous plant genus Drosera (Droseraceae) is focused within Mediterranean climate regions. We explore whether this diversity is temporally linked to Mediterranean-type climatic shifts of the mid-Miocene and whether climate preferences are conservative over phylogenetic timescales. Phyloclimatic modeling combines environmental niche (bioclimatic) modeling with phylogenetics in order to study evolutionary patterns in relation to climate change. We present the largest and most complete such example to date using Drosera. The bioclimatic models of extant species demonstrate clear phylogenetic patterns; this is particularly evident for the tuberous sundews from southwestern Australia (subgenus Ergaleium). We employ a method for establishing confidence intervals of node ages on a phylogeny using replicates from a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. This chronogram shows that many clades, including subgenus Ergaleium and section Bryastrum, diversified during the establishment of the Mediterranean-type climate. Ancestral reconstructions of bioclimatic models demonstrate a pattern of preference for this climate type within these groups. Ancestral bioclimatic models are projected into palaeo-climate reconstructions for the time periods indicated by the chronogram. We present two such examples that each generate plausible estimates of ancestral lineage distribution, which are similar to their current distributions. This is the first study to attempt bioclimatic projections on evolutionary time scales. The sundews appear to have diversified in response to local climate development. Some groups are specialized for Mediterranean climates, others show wide-ranging generalism. This demonstrates that Phyloclimatic modeling could be repeated for other plant groups and is fundamental to the understanding of

  19. Combined treatment of the hypopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1978 through 1984, 120 patients with hypopharyngeal carcinomas were treated cooperatively by the University Hospitals of Erlangen, 114 out of these patients were men and 6 women. 96 patients (80%) suffered from cervical lymph node metastases, 91 (76%) were already in UICC stage IV. There were two cases with stage I, eight cases (7%) with stage II, and 19 cases (16%) with stage III. Among the 116 patients treated by causal therapy, 70 (60%) reached complete remission (CR), 34 (29.5%) partial remission (PR), and 12 (10.5%) were non-responders (NC, P). The cumulative survival at five years was 14% in 120 patients and 24% in 70 patients after CR. None of the patients with PR or NC survived more than two years. 111 patients were irradiated. Group 1: radiotherapy alone (41 patients), group 2: surgery and radiotherapy (47 patients), group 3: chemotherapy and radiotherapy (19 patients). The medium treatment period was 76, 107, and 141 days, respectively. The cumulative survival at five years was 3% in group 1, 28% in group 2, the survival at three years in group 3 was 14%. The results of postoperative radiotherapy, amounting to 36%, were better than the rate of 20% achieved by preoperative radiotherapy and surgery. A survival at five years of 46% was obtained after transoral microlaryngoscopic laser resection and postoperative irradiation, which was therefore superior to conventional operation techniques combined with radiotherapy (16%). Moreover, better functional and cosmetic results were achieved with this method. The prognosis is unfavorably influenced by a high stage, lymph node manifestations, and dedifferentiated tumor histology. (orig.)

  20. Combined hostile fire and optics detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännlund, Carl; Tidström, Jonas; Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars

    2013-10-01

    Snipers and other optically guided weapon systems are serious threats in military operations. We have studied a SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) camera-based system with capability to detect and locate snipers both before and after shot over a large field-of-view. The high frame rate SWIR-camera allows resolution of the temporal profile of muzzle flashes which is the infrared signature associated with the ejection of the bullet from the rifle. The capability to detect and discriminate sniper muzzle flashes with this system has been verified by FOI in earlier studies. In this work we have extended the system by adding a laser channel for optics detection. A laser diode with slit-shaped beam profile is scanned over the camera field-of-view to detect retro reflection from optical sights. The optics detection system has been tested at various distances up to 1.15 km showing the feasibility to detect rifle scopes in full daylight. The high speed camera gives the possibility to discriminate false alarms by analyzing the temporal data. The intensity variation, caused by atmospheric turbulence, enables discrimination of small sights from larger reflectors due to aperture averaging, although the targets only cover a single pixel. It is shown that optics detection can be integrated in combination with muzzle flash detection by adding a scanning rectangular laser slit. The overall optics detection capability by continuous surveillance of a relatively large field-of-view looks promising. This type of multifunctional system may become an important tool to detect snipers before and after shot.

  1. [Combined premedication at adenectomy in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishunin, Iu V; Kamanin, E I; Erokhov, S A; Nikiforov, A V; Bannova, I A

    2003-01-01

    Adenoid vegetation is a frequent pathology in children, and adenotomy (AT) is the only method of its treatment. The problem of anesthesia at AT has always remained an acute one: the risk of general anesthesia exceeds manifold the risk of intervention itself. At the same time, the local anesthesia is not always an method, therefore, the authors put the goal to improve it through potentiating. A total of 180 children, aged 3 to 14, were divided into several groups; anesthesia at AT was implemented according to the below described methods and with regard for the age-related doses of preparations: Group 1--a 2% lydocain solution administered endonasally (e/n); Group 2--lydocain plus diazepam solution administered e/n; Group 3--same preparations and 50% metamizol solution administered e/n; Group 4--lydocain, metamizol e/n, and diazepam administered transbuccally, i.e. chewing gum; Group 5--a 4% articain solution and metamizol e/n plus diazepam administered transbuccally; Group 6--the same technique after a preliminary administration of lydocain; Group 7--clonidine, administered transbuccally, was added. The adequacy of anesthesia was evaluated by using the parameters of the vegetative nervous system and hemodynamics. It was demonstrated that the administration of lydocain alone leads to a sharp activation of the sympathoadrenal system; metamizol and diazepam, especially when administered transbuccally, contribute to an enhanced efficiency of anesthesia, while the endonasal administration of articain and metamizol, after a preliminary introduction of lydocain, combined with the transbuccal administration of diazepam and clonidine is the most optimal variant, however, this method can not be acknowledged as an ideal one and needs further improvement. PMID:12696459

  2. Combined SRCT & FXCT - The next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Acres, R. G.; Winnett, A.; Wang, F.

    2016-03-01

    One of the goals in developing synchrotron radiation x-ray computed tomography (SRCT) for biomedical specimens, is allowing particular tissues and cell types to be marked in the images. This is equivalent to the staining in histology, which enables researchers to visualise and measure tissue structure and biochemical processes within the specimen. Some progress in this direction for SRCT is being made, using a variety of contrast agents that alter the natural x-ray attenuation of the marked tissue [1]. However there are limits to the usefulness of these attenuation altering techniques. Often high concentrations of potentially disruptive chemicals are required with reduced compatibility for in-vivo studies. Another image highlighting technique which might prove more sensitive is x-ray fluorescence imaging. In this case usually endogenous elemental markers are visualised. We would like to develop a lower resolution, but wider field of view means of three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging compatible with SRCT. We have previously proposed a technique in which x-ray fluorescence CT (FXCT) and SRCT data can be collected simultaneously [2]. This work resulted in proof of concept modelling, and a simple experiment test system. We show data here which demonstrate a two-dimensional (2-D) reconstruction of an iodine fluorescence map from a phantom. Measurements were performed with a fixed beam modulating mask using the Imaging and Medical beam line (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. Fluorescence data was obtained during a CT scan using a single point detector, while transmission data was simultaneously collected using an area detector. A maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (MLEM) iterative algorithm was used to reconstruct the fluorescence map. We report on technique development and now believe compressive sensing (CS) imaging techniques suit SRCT and may overcome the issues encountered so far in combining SRCT and FXCT.

  3. Treatment of premature ejaculation: a new combined approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Kurkar

    2015-01-01

    Causes of PE differ considerably. In this paper, we compared the outcomes of two single treatment lines together with a combination of both. The combination therapy was more effective than either line alone.

  4. FORCASCOMB: MATLAB function to combine forecasts of various models

    OpenAIRE

    Shapour Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    The code combines forecasts of various models based on minimization variance of combined forecast. This algorithm uses a logic similar to portfolio optimization. In Hendry and Clements(1998, p. 229) this method titled as Variance-Covariance method.

  5. Early Treatment Benefits Infants with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 31, 2014 Early treatment benefits infants with severe combined immunodeficiency NIH-funded study identifies factors contributing to ... a highly effective treatment for infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a group of rare, life-threatening ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions X-linked SCID X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Open All Close All Description X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disorder of the ...

  7. Infliximab, azathioprine, or combination therapy for Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombel, Jean Frédéric; Sandborn, William J; Reinisch, Walter;

    2010-01-01

    The comparative efficacy and safety of infliximab and azathioprine therapy alone or in combination for Crohn's disease are unknown.......The comparative efficacy and safety of infliximab and azathioprine therapy alone or in combination for Crohn's disease are unknown....

  8. Optimized Combination of Residue Hydrodesulfurization and Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Junwu

    2003-01-01

    @@1 Introduction Combination of residue hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and resi-due fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) is a unique technologyfor processing high-sulfur residue. This paper discusses theoptimized combination of these two processes.

  9. Specific features of combined generation of electric power, heat, and cold by combined-cycle plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Rogova, A. A.; Tideman, P. A.

    2015-03-01

    Trigeneration systems based on the combined-cycle plants of condensation type and the combined-cycle plants of cogeneration type of several possible structures for the simultaneous generation of heat and cold are developed. Two types of their operational modes are considered: trigeneration complexes with separate and simultaneous generation of heat and cold. In the first case, two assemblies (thermotransformers) of different types are used for generation of heat and cold, one of which is designed to generate heat and the second to generate cold. In the second case, the heat and cold are generated simultaneously in one thermotransformer. In the article, the results of thermodynamic analysis and calculations of technical and economic efficiency of the developed trigeneration systems are presented.

  10. Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed.

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A COMBINATION OF CINNULIN WITH PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetvicka Vaclav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for an optimal combination of natural immunomodulators led us to study the biological effects of the combination of a cinnamon extract Cinnulin PF and probiotic LactoSpore. We found that this combination has strong synergetic effects on phagocytosis and on regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels. In addition, the Cinnulin/LastoSpore combination also reduced intestinal damage in mouse model of colitis.

  12. Implementing combined assurance: insights from multiple case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Loic Decaux; Gerrit Sarens

    2015-01-01

    Purpose –This purpose of this paper is to investigate how to implement a combined assurance program. Design/methodology/approach –This paper uses qualitative data obtained through semi-structured interviews with six multinationals at different stages of combined assurance implementation maturity. Findings -The paper finds that organizations are still learning through combined assurance implementation because no organization seems to have attained a mature combined assurance program. Neverthel...

  13. Combined cycle plants: models and in situ reliability test

    OpenAIRE

    Agüero, Jorge Luis; Beroqui, Mario César; Molina Milyus, Roberto D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents models of Boiler and Steam Turbine of combined cycle plants that can be used with any type of Gas Turbine models for grid dynamics studies. These models were obtained through a review of characteristics of large steam turbine and heat recovery boilers that define the behavior of combined cycle plants. Also is presented a Gas Turbine model of a combined cycle plant that was validated by tests developed and applied to evaluate reliability of combined cycle plants that are be...

  14. Combining information from independent sources through confidence distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kesar; Xie, Minge; Strawderman, William E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops new methodology, together with related theories, for combining information from independent studies through confidence distributions. A formal definition of a confidence distribution and its asymptotic counterpart (i.e., asymptotic confidence distribution) are given and illustrated in the context of combining information. Two general combination methods are developed: the first along the lines of combining p-values, with some notable differences in regard to optimality of ...

  15. Combining Ability for Germination Traits in Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    A.K.M. Aminul Islam; Nurina Anuar; Zahira Yaakob; Jaharah A. Ghani; Mohamad Osman

    2013-01-01

    Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F 1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P 1 and P 2 were the best general combiner for most o...

  16. Combining ability of wheat parents in two generations

    OpenAIRE

    Elesandro Bornhofen; Giovani Benin; Gilvani Matei; Cristiano Lemes da Silva; Eduardo Beche; Eduardo Stefani Pagliosa; Thaís Raquel Hagemann; Cilas Pinnow

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study were to estimate the general ability and specific combining ability in ten wheat genotypes in two generations (F1 and F2) to indicate parents and hybrid combinations that are promising to achieve new favorable combinations. Ten wheat genotypes were hybridized in a complete diallel, without reciprocals, totaling 45 hybrid combinations. F1 hybrids and the F2 populations and parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates in spaced plant. The...

  17. Reliability analysis of rc containment structures under combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and load combination design criteria for reinforced concrete containment structures under combined loads. The probability based reliability analysis method is briefly described. For load combination design criteria, derivations of the load factors for accidental pressure due to a design basis accident and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) for three target limit state probabilities are presented

  18. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  19. Coherent beam combining of high powerfiber lasers: Progress and prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ZeJin; ZHOU; Pu; XU; XiaoJun; WANG; XiaoLin; MA; YanXing

    2013-01-01

    The recent research progress of coherent beam combining of high power fiber lasers is reviewed. Key technologies like coherently combinable fiber laser, phase control of multiple beams and beam tilling are specially analyzed. Prospects for single coherently combinable high power fiber amplifier, beam tilling and target-in-the-loop control for propagation in real atmosphere are presented.

  20. Radix-16 Combined Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    Division and square root, based on the digitrecurrence algorithm, can be implemented in a combined unit. Several implementations of combined division/square root units have been presented mostly for radices 2 and 4. Here, we present a combined radix-16 unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 res...