WorldWideScience

Sample records for agroterrorism viral agents

  1. Agroterrorism: the risks to the United States food supply and national security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Agroterrorism is a collective term that describes an intentional criminal attack against crops or mankind using viral, bacterial, fungal, or insect-borne agents. Agroterrorism also includes attacks against animals using infectious pathogens such as Burkholderia mallei (glanders), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), viral avian influenza, foot and mouth disease, and several equine encephalitis viruses. Agents that could be used against crops include the causative agents of wheat blast, rice blast, rice brown spot disease, and wheat stem rust. The primary goal of terrorists using agroterrorism is to spread fear and cause massive economic loss. Subsequent goals include causing disease and death to humans and animals. The use of bioterrorism agents is a much more practical approach than using explosives, for example, to achieve those results since many of these biological agents are commonly found naturally in the environment and are difficult to detect with modern technology. The effective use of biological warfare dates back centuries and can still can be employed by terrorist groups, lone wolves, and political and religious groups to cause death and mayhem on a grand scale. PMID:25651140

  2. Agroterrorism targeting livestock: a review with a focus on early detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Knutsson, R.

    2013-01-01

    Agroterrorism targeting livestock can be described as the intentional introduction of an animal disease agent against livestock with the purpose of causing economic damage, disrupting socioeconomic stability of a country, and creating panic and distress. This type of terrorism can be alluring to ter

  3. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  4. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS AGENTS AND WATERBORNE DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus of study by researchers ...

  5. Eight different viral agents in childhood acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Derya; Selimoğlu, Mukadder Ayşe; Otlu, Barış; Sandıkkaya, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) of childhood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of viral agents including astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus, parechovirus, Aichivirus and sapovirus in children with AGE in a pediatric Turkish population. Fecal specimens of 240 children with AGE were investigated by polymerase chain reaction, and viral agents were identified in 131 (54.6%) samples. The distribution of viral agents was as follows: 56 (42.8%) norovirus, 44 (33.6%) rotavirus, 29 (22.1%) enterovirus, 21 (16.0%) adenovirus, 21 (16.0%) parechovirus, 5 (3.8%) sapovirus and 1 (0.8%) Aichivirus. Single and multiple viral agents were detected in 38.8% and 15.8% of patients, respectively. The duration of hospitalization was longer in children with multiple viral agents than in those infected with a single viral agent (p<0.001). While the highest rate of rotavirus infection was detected in winter, the highest rate of norovirus was found in the summer. In conclusion, norovirus and rotavirus are the most frequent causes of childhood AGE in our country. PMID:26613223

  6. Ribozymes:an anti-viral agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asad U.Khan; Shahper N.Khan

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that RNA can act as an enzyme led Thomas Cech to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and led immediately to the next wave of attempts to find an effective RNA-based therapy.The tantalizing idea that RNA enzymes called trans-cleaving ribozymes enables them to act as potential antiviral and powerful tool for functional genomic studies.The efficacy of ribozyme function in a complex intracellular environment is depend-ent on the intracellular fate of the RNA that is being targeted.Recently,ribozymes have been used successfully to inhibit gene expression in a variety of biological systems in vitro and in vivo.Ribozyme has also been used successfully to combat many cases of viral infection,as clinical trial.Despite it needs to be investigated and explored as far as its structural and functional aspects are concern.In view of the significance of ribozyme in modern medicine,we reviewed the recent literature on general approach to control viral infection.

  7. Enfermedad diarréica aguda (EDA) nuevos agentes virales

    OpenAIRE

    Peláez, Dioselina

    2004-01-01

    La EDA es una de las enfermedades más importantes en términos de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial. Cada año ocurren más de un billón de episodios diarreicos en niños menores de 5 años con altos costos hospitalarios y pérdida de la productividad. Agentes bacterianos ( E.coli, Salmonella, Shiguella , toxinas), parasitarios (Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba), virales (Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Astrovirus, Norovirus, Enterovirus ) y otros (intolerancias a ...

  8. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  9. Survival of Viral Biowarfare Agents in Disinfected Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Margaret Wade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting civilian and military water supplies has received more attention since the United States began its war on terror in 2001. Both chlorine and bromine are used by branches of the U.S. military for disinfecting water supplies; however, limited data exists as to the effectiveness of these additives when used against viral biowarfare agents. The present study sought to evaluate the survival of selected viral biothreat agents in disinfected water. Disinfected water samples were spiked with vaccinia virus strain WR and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE virus strain TC-83 each separately to a final concentration of approximately 1×106 PFU/mL, and survival was assessed by plaque assay. Both viruses were inactivated by 1 mg/L free available chlorine (FAC and 2mg/L total bromine within one hour. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that both chlorine and bromine are effective disinfectants against vaccinia virus and VEE strain TC-83 at the concentrations tested.

  10. Actionable Knowledge and Strategic Decision Making for Bio- and Agroterrorism Threats: Building a Collaborative Early Warning Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mårtensson, Per-Åke; Hedström, Lars; Sundelius, Bengt;

    2013-01-01

    commission reports that reflect concerns about non-state actors in asymmetric threats. The intersectoral and international nature of bioterrorism and agroterrorism threats requires collaboration across several sectors including intelligence, police, forensics, customs, and other law enforcement organizations...

  11. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identifie...

  12. Questing for an optimal, universal viral agent for oncolytic virotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Paiva, L R; Ferreira, S C

    2011-01-01

    One of the most promising strategies to treat cancer is attacking it with viruses designed to exploit specific altered pathways. Here, the effects of oncolytic virotherapy on tumors having compact, papillary and disconnected morphologies are investigated through computer simulations of a multiscale model coupling macroscopic reaction diffusion equations for the nutrients with microscopic stochastic rules for the actions of individual cells and viruses. The interaction among viruses and tumor cells involves cell infection, intracellular virus replication and release of new viruses in the tissue after cell lysis. The evolution in time of both viral load and cancer cell population, as well as the probabilities for tumor eradication were evaluated for a range of multiplicities of infection, viral entries and burst sizes. It was found that in immunosuppressed hosts, the antitumor efficacy of a virus is primarily determined by its entry efficiency, its replicative capacity within the tumor, and its ability to sprea...

  13. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Snow Mountain and Norwalk agents of viral gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Madore, H P; Treanor, J J; Pray, K A; Dolin, R

    1986-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for antigen detection and blocking ELISAs for serum antibody rises were developed for the Snow Mountain and Norwalk agents of viral gastroenteritis. The ELISAs were as sensitive as the existing radioimmunoassays and were specific for the Snow Mountain or Norwalk agent. The blocking ELISAs detected the same number of significant rises in antibodies to these agents as did the existing blocking radioimmunoassays.

  14. Natural and genetically engineered viral agents for oncolysis and gene therapy of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Joseph G; Horvath, Joseph C

    2008-12-01

    combination of naturally oncolytic viruses and wild-type viruses rendered oncolytic and harmless by genetic engineering, that will induce complete remissions of human tumors. It may be necessary to co-administer certain chemotherapeutic agents, advanced cancer vaccines, or even immune lymphocytes, and targeted therapeuticals, to ascertain, that remissions induced by the viral agents will remain complete and durable; will co-operate with anti-tumor host immune reactions, and eventually will result in cures of advanced metastatic human cancers. PMID:19104757

  15. Serosurvey for selected viral agents in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Maseko, Nomkhosi; Hofmeyr, Markus; Gerdes, Truuske

    2011-03-01

    One hundred serum samples collected from free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park (KNP) during the 2007 capture season were selected for measurement of antibody levels to several different vector-borne viral agents. These infectious diseases were chosen to compare with an earlier serosurvey that had been conducted in KNP in rhinos during 1987-1997. Positive antibody titers were found against epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) of deer (8%), Bluetongue (BT) (1%), and Rift Valley fever (RVF) (49%). However, none of the 100 animals tested had detected antibody levels to African horse sickness (AHS). These values were in sharp contrast to those measured in the 1987-1997 survey in KNP white rhinos (AHS 60%, EHD 30%, BT 37%, RVF 0%). Vector-borne viral infection prevalence in white rhinos in the same geographical location appears to vary over time and may be important for monitoring presence of pathogens in an ecosystem.

  16. Studies of waterborne agents of viral gastroenteritis. Final report Feb 79-Feb 81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, R.

    1983-07-01

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cubic symmetry, and is morphologically similar to, but antigentically distinct from the previously described Norwalk and Hawaii agents. After an incubation period of 18 to 48 hours, the agent is shed in stools of acutely ill individuals for a period of one to five days. Employing both IEM and RIA, serum antibody rises were observed in 3/3 naturally occurring cases and in 8/9 cases of experimentally-induced illness in normal volunteers (the studies in normal volunteers had been carried out prior to the initiation of studies supported by this grant). IEM and RIA appeared to be equally sensitive for detection of antibody rises, but the RIA was more sensitive than IEM for the detection of SMA in stool specimens. Preliminary attempts to cultivate the agent in vitro were unsuccessful.

  17. Phototherapies: photosensitized inactivation of viral and protozoan infectious agents and potential application in blood banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Matthews, James Lester; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Newman, Joseph T.; Chanh, Tran C.; Marengo-Rowe, Alain J.

    1992-06-01

    More than 10 million units of human blood components are processed annually in the United States. Although donor screening and testing have greatly lowered the risk of transmission of viral and protozoan infectious agents, additional sterilization procedures which also preserve blood component function would be of significant value. Use of UV-A and visible-light-range photosensitizers for sterilization of blood platelets and red blood cells, respectively, is currently being aggressively investigated in laboratory-scale optical-mechanical systems. With successful demonstration of the efficacy and safety of these sterilization techniques, implementation in the blood bank setting will require scale-up to optical-mechanical systems capable of handling approximately 25,000 units daily in 500 - 1,000 blood banks in the United States.

  18. Comparison of Herpes simplex virus plaque development after viral treatment with anti-DNA or antilipid agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W.

    1980-06-01

    The plaque development of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) is slower for viruses treated with two anti-DNA agents: ultraviolet radiation (uv) or n-acetoxy-2-acetyl-aminofluorene. For HSV treated with three antimembrane agents - butylated hydroxytoluene, acridine plus near uv radiation, or ether - the plaque development time is the same as for untreated viruses. These differences hold even for viruses that survived treatment that lowered viability below the 1% level. Gamma ray inactivation of HSV produces no change in plaque development even though this agent is believed to preferentially affect viral DNA.

  19. Genetically Engineered Protein Modules: Development and Applications in Anti-Viral Agent Screening and Cancer Marker Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Payal

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION Genetically Engineered Protein Modules: Development and Applications in Anti-Viral Agent Screening and Cancer Marker Detection byPayal BiswasDoctor of Philosophy Cell Molecular and Developmental Biology Graduate ProgramUniversity of California, Riverside, August 2010Dr. Wilfred Chen, ChairpersonOne of the most critical aspects in drug discovery is the bioactivity screening assay, by which compounds that most effectively inhibit the target are identified. During t...

  20. Actionable knowledge and strategic decision making for bio- and agroterrorism threats: building a collaborative early warning culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Per-Åke; Hedström, Lars; Sundelius, Bengt; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Elbers, Armin; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    Current trends in biosecurity and cybersecurity include (1) the wide availability of technology and specialized knowledge that previously were available only to governments; (2) the global economic recession, which may increase the spread of radical non-state actors; and (3) recent US and EU commission reports that reflect concerns about non-state actors in asymmetric threats. The intersectoral and international nature of bioterrorism and agroterrorism threats requires collaboration across several sectors including intelligence, police, forensics, customs, and other law enforcement organizations who must work together with public and animal health organizations as well as environmental and social science organizations. This requires coordinated decision making among these organizations, based on actionable knowledge and information sharing. The risk of not sharing information among organizations compared to the benefit of sharing information can be considered in an "information sharing risk-benefit analysis" to prevent a terrorism incident from occurring and to build a rapid response capability. In the EU project AniBioThreat, early warning is the main topic in work package 3 (WP 3). A strategy has been generated based on an iterative approach to bring law enforcement agencies and human and animal health institutes together. Workshops and exercises have taken place during the first half of the project, and spin-off activities include new preparedness plans for institutes and the formation of a legal adviser network for decision making. In addition, a seminar on actionable knowledge was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2012, which identified the need to bring various agency cultures together to work on developing a resilient capability to identify early signs of bio- and agroterrorism threats. The seminar concluded that there are a number of challenges in building a collaborative culture, including developing an education program that supports collaboration and shared

  1. Viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Tulius T Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While systemic viral infections are exceptionally common, symptomatic viral infections of the brain parenchyma itself are very rare, but a serious neurologic condition. It is estimated that viral encephalitis occurs at a rate of 1.4 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Geography is a major determinant of encephalitis caused by vector-borne pathogens. A diagnosis of viral encephalitis could be a challenge to the clinician, since almost 70% of viral encephalitis cases are left without an etiologic agent identified. In this review, the most common viral encephalitis will be discussed, with focus on ecology, diagnosis, and clinical management.

  2. Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents responsible for diseases affecting plants of Gaillardia Foug. in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized stunting, color breaking and malformation of flo...

  3. Economic Impacts of Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Agro-terrorism in the United States: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois

    2013-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.

  4. The role of viral agents in aetiopathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgunturk, Rana; Okur, Ilyas; Cirak, Meltem Y; Oguz, Ayse Deniz; Akalin, Nursel; Turet, Sevgi; Tunaoglu, Sedef

    2011-01-01

    The reason why abnormal immune response exists in acute rheumatic fever is not exactly explained. The influence of co-pathogens like certain viruses were mentioned regarding the initiation of the immunological reaction in acute rheumatic fever patients by several authors since 1970. This study was designed to find the role or effect of some viral infections in the development of rheumatic fever. In this study, 47 cases with acute rheumatic fever (acute rheumatic arthritis, acute rheumatic carditis, and chorea), 20 cases with chronic rheumatic fever, 20 cases with streptococcal pharyngitis, and 20 healthy age- and gender-matched control cases were involved. Serological and molecular tests were made including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, rubella virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV group 1), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). HBsAg, rubella IgM and EBV IgM positivity were not seen in any of patients with rheumatic fever. Although antiHBs seropositivity was higher in the control group, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). There was no difference in rubella IgG, HSV IgM seropositivity, either (p > 0.05). EBV DNA was searched by the polymerase chain reaction technique; due to the latent nature of the virus, no significant difference was found between the control group and the other groups (p > 0.05). In this study, no positive correlation could be found to support the synergism theories regarding the streptoccocus infection and viral infections in the development of acute rheumatic fever. Only EBV DNA positivity was found in all acute rheumatic fever cases but not in the control group may lead to further studies with larger series of patients. PMID:20401762

  5. Nanolitre real-time PCR detection of bacterial, parasitic, and viral agents from patients with diarrhoea in Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Goldfarb

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about the microbiology of diarrhoeal disease in Canada's Arctic regions. There are a number of limitations of conventional microbiology testing techniques for diarrhoeal pathogens, and these may be further compromised in the Arctic, given the often long distances for specimen transport. Objective. To develop a novel multiple-target nanolitre real-time reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR platform to simultaneously test diarrhoeal specimens collected from residents of the Qikiqtani (Baffin Island Region of Nunavut, Canada, for a wide range of bacterial, parasitic and viral agents. Study design/methods. Diarrhoeal stool samples submitted for bacterial culture to Qikiqtani General Hospital in Nunavut over an 18-month period were tested with a multiple-target nanolitre real-time PCR panel for major diarrhoeal pathogens including 8 bacterial, 6 viral and 2 parasitic targets. Results. Among 86 stool specimens tested by PCR, a total of 50 pathogens were detected with 1 or more pathogens found in 40 (46.5% stool specimens. The organisms detected comprised 17 Cryptosporidium spp., 5 Clostridium difficile with toxin B, 6 Campylobacter spp., 6 Salmonella spp., 4 astroviruses, 3 noroviruses, 1 rotavirus, 1 Shigella spp. and 1 Giardia spp. The frequency of detection by PCR and bacterial culture was similar for Salmonella spp., but discrepant for Campylobacter spp., as Campylobacter was detected by culture from only 1/86 specimens. Similarly, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in multiple samples by PCR but was not detected by microscopy or enzyme immunoassay. Conclusions. Cryptosporidium spp., Campylobacter spp. and Clostridium difficile may be relatively common but possibly under-recognised pathogens in this region. Further study is needed to determine the regional epidemiology and clinical significance of these organisms. This method appears to be a useful tool for gastrointestinal pathogen research and may also be helpful for clinical

  6. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  7. The Impact of Macrophage Nucleotide Pools on HIV-1 Reverse Transcription, Viral Replication, and the Development of Novel Antiviral Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Gavegnano; Kennedy, Edward M.; Baek Kim; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are ubiquitous and represent a significant viral reservoir for HIV-1. Macrophages are nondividing, terminally differentiated cells, which have a unique cellular microenvironment relative to actively dividing T lymphocytes, all of which can impact HIV-1 infection/replication, design of inhibitors targeting viral replication in these cells, emergence of mutations within the HIV-1 genome, and disease progression. Scarce dNTPs drive rNTP incorporation into the proviral DNA in macropha...

  8. Viral arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Marks, Jonathan L

    2016-04-01

    Acute-onset arthritis is a common clinical problem facing both the general clinician and the rheumatologist. A viral aetiology is though to be responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of acute arthritis with a wide range of causal agents recognised. The epidemiology of acute viral arthritis continues to evolve, with some aetiologies, such as rubella, becoming less common due to vaccination, while some vector-borne viruses have become more widespread. A travel history therefore forms an important part of the assessment of patients presenting with an acute arthritis. Worldwide, parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and the alphaviruses are among the most important causes of virally mediated arthritis. Targeted serological testing may be of value in establishing a diagnosis, and clinicians must also be aware that low-titre autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, can occur in the context of acute viral arthritis. A careful consideration of epidemiological, clinical and serological features is therefore required to guide clinicians in making diagnostic and treatment decisions. While most virally mediated arthritides are self-limiting some warrant the initiation of specific antiviral therapy. PMID:27037381

  9. A comparison of herpes simplex virus plaque development after viral treatment with anti-DNA or antilipid agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Coohill, T P; Babich, M; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W

    1980-01-01

    The plaque development of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) is slower for viruses treated with two anti-DNA agents: ultraviolet radiation (UV) or n-acetoxy-2-acetyl-aminofluorene. For HSV treated with three antimembrane agents--butylated hydroxytoluene, acridine plus near UV radiation, or ether--the plaque development time is the same as for untreated viruses. These differences hold even for viruses that survived treatment that lowered viability below the 1% level. Gamma ray inactivation of H...

  10. Gastroenterite canina - agentes virais nas fezes de cães diarréicos e não diarréicos Canine gastroenteritis - viral agents in feces from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.F. Homem

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 33 amostras de fezes de cães com diarréia (n=25 e sem diarréia (n=8, de variadas idades e raças, de ambos os sexos, a fim de se determinar a ocorrência de agentes virais considerados causadores da gastroenterite no cão, suas possíveis associações e a participação no complexo gastroenterite canina, buscando relacionar a etiologia viral com o histórico de vacinação, além do exame clínico dos animais. Utilizou-se microscopia eletrônica nas 33 amostras fecais e o teste ELISA em 71 amostras para detecção de antígeno de rotavírus e adenovírus. Partículas virais foram detectadas em 75,8% (25/33 do total de amostras diarréicas ou não, examinadas à microscopia eletrônica. Em 44% dos espécimes positivos para vírus (11/25, o vírus-like tipo 1 foi o mais detectado nas amostras fecais, seguido pelo parvovírus (24%. A ocorrência de diarréia com sangue esteve associada a 90,9% dos agentes detectados, variando em freqüência de 25% a 100% dos casos.Fecal samples from both diarrheic (n=25 and non-diarrheic (n=8 dogs of both sexes, with varying ages and breeds, were examined by electronic microscopy (EM in order to determine candidate viral pathogens which would be associated with gastroenteritis, particularly the canine gastroenteritis complex, in an attempt to correlate viral etiology and clinical and vaccination history. In addition to EM, 71 stool samples were tested by ELISA to detect either rotavirus or adenovirus antigens. Viral particles could be visualized by EM in 25 (75.8% of the 33 samples. Type-I virus-like structures and parvoviruses were frequently detected, accounting for 44% and 36% of the virus-positive preparations. Bloody diarrhea was noted in 90.9% of dogs that were excreting viral particles.

  11. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Category A Infectious Pathogens: Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Variola Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita Das

    Full Text Available CDC designated category A infectious agents pose a major risk to national security and require special action for public health preparedness. They include viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF syndrome as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VHF is characterized by hemorrhage and fever with multi-organ failure leading to high morbidity and mortality. Smallpox, a prior scourge, has been eradicated for decades, making it a particularly serious threat if released nefariously in the essentially non-immune world population. Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex detection assay that uses several species-specific PCR primers to generate amplicons from multiple pathogens; these are then targeted in a ligase detection reaction (LDR. The resultant fluorescently-labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array enabling simultaneous identification of the pathogens. The assay was evaluated on 32 different isolates associated with VHF (ebolavirus, marburgvirus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus as well as variola virus and vaccinia virus (the agent of smallpox and its vaccine strain, respectively. The assay was able to detect all viruses tested, including 8 sequences representative of different variola virus strains from the CDC repository. It does not cross react with other emerging zoonoses such as monkeypox virus or cowpox virus, or six flaviviruses tested (St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  12. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature. PMID:15585192

  13. WATERBORNE VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the study of human gastroenteritis, the use of electron microscopy and related techniques has led to the identification of new viral agents which had previously escaped detection by routine cell-culture procedures. Efforts to characterize and further study these agents are cur...

  14. An investigation of the viral pathogenesis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. Lack of evidence for Epstein-Barr virus or human herpesvirus type 6 as the causative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, H C; Peiper, S C; Weiss, L M; Raffeld, M; Jaffe, E S

    1994-02-01

    Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis of Kikuchi and Fujimoto is a well-defined clinicopathologic entity of unknown cause. Both the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) have been suggested as potential etiologic agents. Twenty cases of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease were studied for the presence of EBV DNA and HHV-6 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in situ hybridization in the case of EBV. Cellular DNA from sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymph node tissue was amplified using the PCR technique and oligonucleotide primers to the EBV BamH1 W, lymphocyte-determined membrane antigen, or the EBNA-1 region. These studies were performed in three separate laboratories. In addition, 12 cases were examined by in situ hybridization, eight of which had shown at least one positive PCR signal for EBV. The presence of HHV-6 was assessed by PCR using primers to part of the pZVH14 sequence. Biopsy specimens from eight patients (40%) showed a strong positive signal for EBV in at least one laboratory, while an additional three specimens (15%) showed a weaker positive signal. Five cases studied showed rare positive cells by in situ hybridization, and one case had scattered positive cells. All samples lacked HHV-6 genomic templates. These findings indicate that HHV-6 does not play a role in the pathogenesis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease and do not implicate EBV as a causal agent for Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, since EBV was detected in only a fraction of cases with a low number of positive cells detected by in situ hybridization. Further, some discrepancies were identified in the positive results for EBV in samples studied by multiple laboratories. These results indicate that inconsistent results by PCR may occur with very low levels of viral genomes and that different laboratories perform DNA amplification at different efficiencies. Alternatively, laboratory contamination may give rise to false-positive results. Therefore, a positive result

  15. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHOVÁ, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  16. Nosocomial viral respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graman, P S; Hall, C B

    1989-12-01

    Nosocomial infections with respiratory tract viruses, particularly influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, account for the majority of serious nosocomial viral disease. Chronically ill, immunocompromised, elderly, and very young hosts are especially vulnerable to potentially life-threatening involvement of the lower respiratory tract. Effective preventive strategies are based upon early accurate viral diagnosis and an appreciation of the epidemiology and mechanisms of transmission for each viral agent. Influenza viruses spread via airborne dispersion of small particle aerosols, resulting in explosive outbreaks; control measures emphasize immunization and chemoprophylaxis of susceptible patients and personnel, and isolation of those already infected. Transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, in contrast, seems to require closer contact, with virus passed on hands, fomites, or in large droplets inoculated into the eyes and nose at close range. Strategies for control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus are designed to interrupt hand carriage and inoculation of virus onto mucous membranes.

  17. Low Molecular Weight pDMAEMA-block-pHEMA Block-Copolymers Synthesized via RAFT-Polymerization: Potential Non-Viral Gene Delivery Agents?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Kissel; Christian Pfeiffer; Olga Samsonova; Markus Hellmund; Merkel, Olivia M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate non-viral pDNA carriers based on diblock-copolymers consisting of poly(2-(dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate) (pDMAEMA) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA). Specifically the block-lengths and molecular weights were varied to determine the minimal requirements for transfection. Such vectors should allow better transfection at acceptable toxicity levels and the entire diblock-copolymer should be suitable for renal clearance. For this purpose, a ...

  18. VIRAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    OLENTSOVA Y. A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This project seeks to investigate how the company Gitz can create awareness towards their brand by using viral marketing. To do this we analyze which elements of viral marketing the company can use, to reach their goal. In order to utilize the selected tools of viral marketing best possible, we need to figure out the company’s customer segment and figure out how to reach that segment. This has been done with the use of Henrik Dahl’s Minerva-model that divides the population into f...

  19. Viral pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    More serious infections can result in respiratory failure, liver failure, and heart failure. Sometimes, bacterial infections occur during or just after viral pneumonia, which may lead to more serious forms ...

  20. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis viruses B and C can cause both acute and chronic infections. Chronic hepatitis B and C are serious health problems. They can lead to: Cirrhosis (suh-ROH-suhs) Liver failure Liver cancer Return to top How is viral ...

  1. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001392.htm Pharyngitis - viral To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pharyngitis , or sore throat, is swelling, discomfort, pain, or ...

  2. Viral arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.

  3. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  4. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on Viral marketing, as a part of internet marketing communication i.e. iPromotion. It’s presented as a „niche” in the way of reaching the target group (audience) that rejects traditional forms of promotion. There’s an explanation of differences between various types of viral marketing as well as proposed possibilities of it’s applying into a practice including the rules of campaign execution. The primary data sources, necessary for the solution of investigated issue...

  5. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  6. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two virus types have been clearly shown to have epidemiologic importance in viral gastroenteritis, i.e., rotavirus and Norwalk virus. Four other virus types have been associated with gastroenteritis but their epidemiologic importance is not yet known, i.e., enteric adenovirus, ca...

  7. 1990 Sir Henry Wellcome medal and prize winner. Leukoregulin: a new biotherapeutic cytokine in the search for more effective anti-viral pharmacologic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C H; Hooks, J J; Detrick, B

    1991-04-01

    This investigation examines whether cytokines, as exemplified by leukoregulin, with their immense potential for biorecognition and target cell modulation as a result of their complex three-dimensional structure, have the potential to provide new directions for biotherapy of infectious disease. Leukoregulin is a naturally occurring immunologic cytokine, secreted by stimulated lymphocytes, which increases membrane permeability and drug uptake in tumor but not in normal cells. This study demonstrates that leukoregulin also increases the plasma membrane permeability of cells acutely infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus and that the increase in membrane permeability is accompanied by a 10- to 100-fold increase in the ability of acyclovir to inhibit the release of infectious virus when the cells are treated with leukoregulin 3 hours after infection with the virus. This is the first demonstration that a cytokine, alone or in combination with anti-viral chemotherapy, can effectively inhibit virus replication in human cells following acute virus infection, which indicates that combination immunotherapy and chemotherapy have the potential to completely inhibit the production of infectious virus by acutely infected human cells. PMID:1851546

  8. Study on detection of viral DNA of the agents causing psittacine beak and feather disease and budgerigar fledgling disease in different psittacine species

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Beate

    2009-01-01

    In this study, certain aspects of psittacine beak and feather disease and budgerigar fledgling disease were investigated to gather information about the distribution and the clinical manifestation of the diseases in patients of the “Klinik für Vögel der LMU München”. Furthermore different organ samples were compared for their reliability of routine post mortem PCR-diagnoses of peracute PBFD in young african grey parrots. Regarding intra vitam detection of the aetiological agents of both di...

  9. Low Molecular Weight pDMAEMA-block-pHEMA Block-Copolymers Synthesized via RAFT-Polymerization: Potential Non-Viral Gene Delivery Agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kissel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate non-viral pDNA carriers based on diblock-copolymers consisting of poly(2-(dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA. Specifically the block-lengths and molecular weights were varied to determine the minimal requirements for transfection. Such vectors should allow better transfection at acceptable toxicity levels and the entire diblock-copolymer should be suitable for renal clearance. For this purpose, a library of linear poly(2-(dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate-block-poly(2-hydroxyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA-block-pHEMA copolymers was synthesized via RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization in a molecular weight (Mw range of 17–35.7 kDa and analyzed using 1H and 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, ATR (attenuated total reflectance, GPC (gel permeation chromatography and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry. Copolymers possessing short pDMAEMA-polycation chains were 1.4–9.7 times less toxic in vitro than polyethylenimine (PEI 25 kDa, and complexed DNA into polyplexes of 100–170 nm, favorable for cellular uptake. The DNA-binding affinity and polyplex stability against competing polyanions was comparable with PEI 25 kDa. The zeta-potential of polyplexes of pDMAEMA-grafted copolymers remained positive (+15–30 mV. In comparison with earlier reported low molecular weight homo pDMAEMA vectors, these diblock-copolymers showed enhanced transfection efficacy under in vitro conditions due to their lower cytotoxicity, efficient cellular uptake and DNA packaging. The homo pDMAEMA115 (18.3 kDa self-assembled with DNA into small positively charged polyplexes, but was not able to transfect cells. The grafting of 6 and 57 repeating units of pHEMA (0.8 and 7.4 kDa to pDMAEMA115 increased the transfection efficacy significantly, implying a crucial impact of pHEMA on vector-cell interactions. The intracellular trafficking, in vivo transfection

  10. A new insight into viral proteins as Immunomodulatory therapeutic agents: KSHV vOX2 a homolog of human CD200 as a potent anti-inflammatory protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavinezhad-Moghaddam, Maryam; Amin, Abbas Ali; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Rezaee, Seyed Abdol Rahim

    2016-01-01

    The physiologic function of the immune system is defense against infectious microbes and internal tumour cells, Therefore, need to have precise modulatory mechanisms to maintain the body homeostasis. The mammalian cellular CD200 (OX2)/CD200R interaction is one of such modulatory mechanisms in which myeloid and lymphoid cells are regulated. CD200 and CD200R molecules are membrane proteins that their immunomodulatory effects are able to suppress inflammatory responses, particularly in the privilege sites such as CNS and eyes. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), encodes a wide variety of immunoregulatory proteins which play central roles in modulating inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in favour of virus dissemination. One such protein is a homologue of the, encoded by open reading frame (ORF) K14 and therefore called vOX2. Based on its gene expression profile during the KSHV life cycle, it is hypothesised that vOX2 modulates host inflammatory responses. Moreover, it seems that vOX2 involves in cell adhesion and modulates innate immunity and promotes Th2 immune responses. In this review the activities of mammalian CD200 and KSHV CD200 in cell adhesion and immune system modulation are reviewed in the context of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:27096058

  11. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  12. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  13. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élcio de Souza Leal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  14. Viral metagenomics and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, V; Eloit, M

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of the human blood-associated viral community (also called blood virome) is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. Currently, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) can be considered as under control in high-resource countries. However, other viruses unknown or unsuspected may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. This is particularly relevant considering that a significant proportion of transfused patients are immunocompromised and more frequently subjected to fatal outcomes. Several measures to prevent transfusion transmission of unknown viruses have been implemented including the exclusion of at-risk donors, leukocyte reduction of donor blood, and physicochemical treatment of the different blood components. However, up to now there is no universal method for pathogen inactivation, which would be applicable for all types of blood components and, equally effective for all viral families. In addition, among available inactivation procedures of viral genomes, some of them are recognized to be less effective on non-enveloped viruses, and inadequate to inactivate higher viral titers in plasma pools or derivatives. Given this, there is the need to implement new methodologies for the discovery of unknown viruses that may affect blood transfusion. Viral metagenomics combined with High Throughput Sequencing appears as a promising approach for the identification and global surveillance of new and/or unexpected viruses that could impair blood transfusion safety. PMID:26778104

  15. Viral infections of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. PMID:23642871

  16. Viral diseases and human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Élcio de Souza; Zanotto Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish l...

  17. Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Viral Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2004-01-01

    Hundreds of viruses cause central nervous system (CNS) disease, including meningoencephalitis and postinfectious encephalomyelitis, in humans. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is abnormal in >90% of cases; however, routine CSF studies only rarely lead to identification of a specific etiologic agent. Diagnosis of viral infections of the CNS has been revolutionized by the advent of new molecular diagnostic technologies to amplify viral nucleic acid from CSF, including PCR, nucleic acid sequence-ba...

  18. [Viral superantigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Us, Dürdal

    2016-07-01

    , expression of endogenous SAgs leads to thymic deletion of responding T cells (bearing Vβ6-9+ TCR) due to self-tolerance induction during the fetal life, and protects the host against future exogenous MMTV infections. The SAg of rabies virus is the N protein found in nucleocapsid structure and stimulates Vβ8+TCR-bearing T cells. The SAg-induced polyclonal activation of T cells leads to turn-off the specific immune response, to enhance the immunopathogenesis and facilitates viral transmission from the initial site of infection (the muscle tissue) to the nerve endings. In case of EBV-associated SAg that activates Vβ13+TCR-bearing T cells, it was detected that the SAg activity was not encoded by EBV itself, but instead was due to the transactivation of HERV-K18 by EBV latent membrane proteins, whose env gene encodes the SAg (Sutkowski, et al. 2001). It has been denoted that EBV-induced SAg expression plays a role in the long-term persistence and latency of virus in memory B cells, in the development of autoimmune diseases and in the oncogenesis mechanisms. The proteins which are identified as SAgs of HIV are Nef and gp120. It is believed that, the massive activation of CD4+ T cells (selectively with Vβ-12+, Vβ-5.3+ and Vβ-18+ TCRs) in early stages of infection and clonal deletion, anergy and apoptosis of bystander T cells in the late stages may be due to SAg property of Nef protein, as well as the other mechanisms. However there are some studies indicating that Nef does not act as a SAg (Lapatschek, et al. 2001). HIV gp120 glycoprotein is a B-cell SAg that binds to VH3-expressing B cell receptors and causes polyclonal B cell activation. In addition, binding of gp120 to IgE on the surface of basophiles and mast cells causes activation of those cells, secretion of high level proinflammatory mediators leading to allergic reactions and tissue damage. In a recent study, the depletion (anergy or deletion) of T cell populations bearing Vβ12+, Vβ13+ and Vβ17+ TCR have been

  19. Fish viral infections in northwest of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, A; Lupiani, B; Dopazo, C P; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1990-06-01

    During a three years survey, a total of 149 samples from 20 farms of rainbow trout, salmon and turbot were examined for the presence of virus with the purpose to study the viral infections affecting cultured fish and their incidence in the fishfarms of Northwestern Spain. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was the only viral agent isolated from salmonid fish. Fry and fingerlings of trout showed the highest infection rate (24%). This virus was not detected in broodstock or embryonated eggs, although it was isolated from ovaric and seminal fluids and from juvenile carriers. From 24 samples of salmon analyzed, IPNV was only detected in one sample of juveniles. Examination of turbot led the isolation of a new virus belonging to the reoviridae family, which affected to the ongrowing population. All of the IPNV tested belonged to serotype Sp regardless of the origin of the trout stocks. During the monitorization of imported embryonated eggs, no virus was detected from any of the samples. However, in some case, IPNV was isolated when testing the fry obtained in our laboratory from those samples of imported eggs. Our findings indicate that: i) the analysis of fingerlings increase the probability to detect viral infections allowing us an optimal control of importations, and ii) most of the viral infections of fish take place in the own fish farms. The detection of mixed viral and bacterial infections emphasize the importance of carrying out an integral microbiological analysis to determine the causal agent(s) of fish mortalities.

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  1. Viral genome sequencing bt random priming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most emerging health threats are of zoonotic origin. For the overwhelming majority, their causative agents are viruses which include but are not limited to HIV, Influenza, SARS, Ebola, Dengue, and Hantavirus. Of increasing importance therefore is an understanding of the viral diversity to enable b...

  2. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Muchos de los virus para los cuales existe vacunas también pueden causar encefalitis como: sarampión, paperas, polio, rabia, rubéola, varicela. El virus produce una inflamación del tejido cerebral, la cual puede evolucionar a una destrucción de neuronas, provocar hemorragia y daño cerebral, dando lugar a encefalitis graves, como la encefalitis necrotizante o hemorrágica, con mucho peor pronóstico, produciendo secuelas graves, incluso la muerte. El cuadro clínico, incluye la presencia de cefalea, fiebre y alteración de la conciencia, de rápida progresión. El pronóstico de las encefalitis víricas es variable, algunos casos son leves, con recuperación completa, sin embargo existen casos graves que pueden ocasionar secuelas importantes a nivel cerebral. Es fundamental realizar un diagnóstico lo antes posible, a través de pruebas de laboratorio (bioquímica, PCR, cultivos y de neuroimagen (TAC, RM y ante todo, la instauración de un tratamiento precoz para evitar la evolución del proceso y sus posibles complicaciones. El pronóstico empeora si se retrasa la instauración del tratamiento.

  3. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weynberg, Karen D; Wood-Charlson, Elisha M; Suttle, Curtis A; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals comprise multipartite symbioses where the cnidarian animal is host to an array of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and the viruses that infect them. These viruses are critical elements of the coral holobiont, serving not only as agents of mortality, but also as potential vectors for lateral gene flow, and as elements encoding a variety of auxiliary metabolic functions. Consequently, understanding the functioning and health of the coral holobiont requires detailed knowledge of the associated viral assemblage and its function. Currently, the most tractable way of uncovering viral diversity and function is through metagenomic approaches, which is inherently difficult in corals because of the complex holobiont community, an extracellular mucus layer that all corals secrete, and the variety of sizes and structures of nucleic acids found in viruses. Here we present the first protocol for isolating, purifying and amplifying viral nucleic acids from corals based on mechanical disruption of cells. This method produces at least 50% higher yields of viral nucleic acids, has very low levels of cellular sequence contamination and captures wider viral diversity than previously used chemical-based extraction methods. We demonstrate that our mechanical-based method profiles a greater diversity of DNA and RNA genomes, including virus groups such as Retro-transcribing and ssRNA viruses, which are absent from metagenomes generated via chemical-based methods. In addition, we briefly present (and make publically available) the first paired DNA and RNA viral metagenomes from the coral Acropora tenuis. PMID:24847321

  4. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Dawn Weynberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reef-building corals comprise multipartite symbioses where the cnidarian animal is host to an array of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and the viruses that infect them. These viruses are critical elements of the coral holobiont, serving not only as agents of mortality, but also as potential vectors for lateral gene flow, and as elements encoding a variety of auxiliary metabolic functions. Consequently, understanding the functioning and health of the coral holobiont requires detailed knowledge of the associated viral assemblage and its function. Currently, the most tractable way of uncovering viral diversity and function is through metagenomic approaches, which is inherently difficult in corals because of the complex holobiont community, an extracellular mucus layer that all corals secrete, and the variety of sizes and structures of nucleic acids found in viruses. Here we present the first protocol for isolating, purifying and amplifying viral nucleic acids from corals based on mechanical disruption of cells. This method produces at least 50% higher yields of viral nucleic acids, has very low levels of cellular sequence contamination and captures wider viral diversity than previously used chemical-based extraction methods. We demonstrate that our mechanical-based method profiles a greater diversity of DNA and RNA genomes, including virus groups such as Retro-transcribing and ssRNA viruses, which are absent from metagenomes generated via chemical-based methods. In addition, we briefly present (and make publically available the first paired DNA and RNA viral metagenomes from the coral Acropora tenuis.

  5. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  6. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  7. Effects of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Alireza; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Rygiel, Tomasz P; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Salimi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active ingredient in marijuana, and their derivatives have received remarkable attention in the last two decades because they can affect tumor growth and metastasis. There is a large body of evidence from in vivo and in vitro models showing that cannabinoids and their receptors influence the immune system, viral pathogenesis, and viral replication. The present study reviews current insights into the role of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections. The results reported here indicate that cannabinoids and their receptors have different sequels for viral infection. Although activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors in the majority of viral infections are proper targets for development of safe and effective treatments, caution is required before using pharmaceutical cannabinoids as a treatment agent for patients with viral infections. PMID:26059175

  8. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for

  9. Viral marketing on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTVERÁK, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Thesis provides an overview of viral marketing. It describes the process by which you can be inspired to implement viral campaign. The thesis includes analysis of specific viral Web project. The aim of this thesis is to create a breakdown of the various components of viral marketing, to establish conditions that should be satisfied for the viral marketing to success, suggesting how to use viral marketing on social network Facebook and evaluate the various components of this service for the pr...

  10. Infección viral respiratoria nosocomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. March Rosselló

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones virales nosocomiales han sido objeto de pocos estudios. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es revisar los datos epidemiológicos y terapéuticos publicados sobre los principales agentes virales productores de infección nosocomial respiratoria. De este modo se pretende ampliar el conocimiento sobre el comportamiento de estos agentes en las infecciones nosocomiales y proporcionar información para mejorar la aplicación de las medidas de prevención. De manera pormenorizada se exponen conceptos relativos a los mimivirus, virus herpes simple, virus varicela-zóster, citomegalovirus, virus respiratorio sincitial, virus parainfluenza, virus de la gripe, adenovirus, metapneumovirus y virus del sarampión.

  11. To Go Viral

    CERN Document Server

    Cintron-Arias, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models are validated against empirical data, while examining potential indicators for an online video that went viral. We revisit some concepts of infectious disease modeling (e.g. reproductive number) and we comment on the role of model parameters that interplay in the spread of innovations. The dataset employed here provides strong evidence that the number of online views is governed by exponential growth patterns, explaining a common feature of viral videos.

  12. Human viral gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    During the last 15 years, several different groups of fastidious viruses that are responsible for a large proportion of acute viral gastroenteritis cases have been discovered by the electron microscopic examination of stool specimens. This disease is one of the most prevalent and serious clinical syndromes seen around the world, especially in children. Rotaviruses, in the family Reoviridae, and fastidious fecal adenoviruses account for much of the viral gastroenteritis in infants and young ch...

  13. Viral genome sequencing by random priming methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xinsheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most emerging health threats are of zoonotic origin. For the overwhelming majority, their causative agents are RNA viruses which include but are not limited to HIV, Influenza, SARS, Ebola, Dengue, and Hantavirus. Of increasing importance therefore is a better understanding of global viral diversity to enable better surveillance and prediction of pandemic threats; this will require rapid and flexible methods for complete viral genome sequencing. Results We have adapted the SISPA methodology 123 to genome sequencing of RNA and DNA viruses. We have demonstrated the utility of the method on various types and sources of viruses, obtaining near complete genome sequence of viruses ranging in size from 3,000–15,000 kb with a median depth of coverage of 14.33. We used this technique to generate full viral genome sequence in the presence of host contaminants, using viral preparations from cell culture supernatant, allantoic fluid and fecal matter. Conclusion The method described is of great utility in generating whole genome assemblies for viruses with little or no available sequence information, viruses from greatly divergent families, previously uncharacterized viruses, or to more fully describe mixed viral infections.

  14. Viral-templated Palladium Nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cuixian

    reuse as well as facile product recovery. Reaction condition studies show that the solvent ratio played an important role in the selectivity of the Suzuki reaction, and that a higher water/acetonitrile ratio significantly facilitated the cross-coupling pathway. Meanwhile, in-depth characterizations including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were carried out for these chip-based viral-templated Pd nanocatalysts. In the second approach, catalytically active TMV-templated Pd nanoparticles are encapsulated in readily exploited polymeric microparticle formats. Specifically, small (1˜2 nm), uniform and highly crystalline palladium (Pd) nanoparticles are spontaneously formed along (TMV) biotemplates without external reducing agents. The as-prepared Pd-TMV complexes are integrated into the hybrid poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-based microparticles via replica molding (RM) technique in a simple, robust and highly reproducible manner. The Pd-TMV complex structure was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The hybrid Pd-TMV-PEG microparticles are examined to have high catalytic activity, recyclability and stability through dichromate reduction. Combined these findings represent a significant step toward simple, robust, scalable synthesis and fabrication of efficient biotemplate-supported Pd nanocatalysts in readily deployable polymeric formats with high capacity in a well-controlled manner. These two simple, robust and readily controllable approaches for the fabrication of viral-templated Pd nanocatalysts, in both chip-based and hydrogel-encapsulated formats, can be readily extended to a variety of other nano-bio hybrid material synthesis in other catalytic reaction systems.

  15. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  16. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  17. Viral meningitis and encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppeny, Misti

    2013-09-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, whereas encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchymal brain tissue. The single distinguishing element between the 2 diagnoses is the altered state of consciousness, focal deficits, and seizures found in encephalitis. Consequently meningoencephalitis is a term used when both findings are present in the patient. Viral meningitis is not necessarily reported as it is often underdiagnosed, whereas encephalitis cases are on the increase in various areas of North America. Improved imaging and viral diagnostics, as well as enhanced neurocritical care management, have improved patient outcomes to date.

  18. Viral infections in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D; Vindevogel, H

    2006-07-01

    This review provides a current update on the major viral diseases of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica), based on scientific reports and clinical experience. Paramyxovirus 1, adenovirus, rotavirus, herpesvirus 1, poxvirus and circovirus infections are described according to common clinical signs and target tissues. Since pigeons are sometimes treated as if they were poultry, the review also summarises the common viral infections of poultry for which pigeons are considered resistant. It is hoped that the review will provide a useful reference for veterinarians and others and offer advice on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the major infectious diseases of pigeons.

  19. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). VHS is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Novirhabdoviridae. VHS is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  20. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  1. BIOMARKERS OF VIRAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral and protozoan pathogens associated with raw sludge can cause encephalitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and a number of other diseases. Raw sludge that has been treated to reduce these pathogens can be used for land application according to the regulations spec...

  2. 不同真菌菌剂对烟草病毒病的田间防治效果%Study on the Control Efficacy of Different Fungal Agents against Tobacco Viral Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任加庆; 薛守聪; 李锡宏; 魏小慧; 黄凯; 刘岱松; 孙立广; 赵秀云; 许汝冰

    2015-01-01

    Fungal elicitors could induce plant systemic resistance and resistance against plant virus. The antiviral activities of Fusarium oxysporum, Physalospora piricola,Fusarium graminearum, and soil fungus strains ESF-6, XFPF-6, C1, XFSF-8 and Phytophthorasp.were studied. Fungi were cultured by liquid fermentation, the fermentation broth were collected and sprayed on leaves of tobacco plants. The antiviral effects of the fungi were determined via field experiments. The results showed that all eight fungal agents could control tobacco virus diseases. The controlling efficiency of strain ESF-6 was the highest, 83.8% at the peak of disease incidence. The controlling efficiency of XFPF-6 was 60%, and was stable during the whole tobacco growth period. The controlling efficiency ofF. graminearum andP. piricola were also high, being 64.8% and 73.7%, respectively. Except for strain C1, control efficiency of the other seven fungal agents were all higher than that of moroxydine hyrochloride. These fungi can be used in developing antiviral fungal agents. Based on 18s rRNA sequences of fungi and morphology observation, strain ESF-6 was identified asAspergillus sp., and strain XFSF-8 identified asPenicillium sp.%真菌激发子能诱导植物产生系统抗性,表现出抗植物病毒的作用。对西瓜枯萎菌、苹果轮纹菌、小麦赤霉,以及土壤真菌ESF-6菌株、XFPF-6菌株、C1菌株、XFSF-8菌株、疫霉等8种真菌菌剂的抗病毒活性进行了研究。用不同真菌发酵液喷雾处理田间烟草植株叶片,检测真菌菌剂对烟草病毒病的防治效果。结果表明,8种真菌菌剂对烟草病毒病均有一定的防治效果,其中ESF-6菌剂防效最高,发病高峰期的防效为83.8%。在烟草整个生长期真菌XFPF-6的防效较为稳定,防效稳定在60%以上。小麦赤霉菌,苹果轮纹菌的防效也较高,分别为64.8%,73.7%。除C1菌剂外,其他7种真菌菌剂的防效均高于盐酸吗啉胍,可开

  3. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  4. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  5. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  6. Engineering influenza viral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junwei; Arévalo, Maria T; Zeng, Mingtao

    2013-01-01

    The influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen with a negative-sense, segmented RNA genome. Construction of recombinant influenza viruses in the laboratory was reported starting in the 1980s. Within a short period of time, pioneer researchers had devised methods that made it possible to construct influenza viral vectors from cDNA plasmid systems. Herein, we discuss the evolution of influenza virus reverse genetics, from helper virus-dependent systems, to helper virus-independent 17-plasmid sys...

  7. Structure-Property-Transfection Relationships in Polycation-mediated Non-viral DNA Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Layman, John

    2008-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery agents, such as cationic polyelectrolytes, are attractive replacements to viruses due to the absence of potential immunogenic risk and the ability to tune their macromolecular structure. Although non-viral vectors possess numerous design advantages, several investigators have shown that transfer efficiencies are considerably lower when compared to viral vectors. The work reported in this dissertation aims to fundamentally understand the underlying structure-transfect...

  8. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cristin C W; Olival, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007-2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  9. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  10. NaVirCept - Nucleic Acid-Based Anti-Viral Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccines are generally considered to be the most effective countermeasures to bacterial and viral diseases, however, licensed vaccines against many disease agents are either not available or their efficacies have not been demonstrated. Vaccines are generally agent specific in terms of treatment spectrum and are subject to defeat through natural mutation or through directed efforts. With respect to viral therapeutics, one of the major limitations associated with antiviral drugs is acquired drug resistance caused by antigenic shift or drift. A number of next-generation prophylactic and/or therapeutic measures are on the horizon. Of these, nucleic acid-based drugs are showing great antiviral potential. These drugs elicit long-lasting, broad spectrum protective immune responses, especially to respiratory viral pathogens. The Nucleic Acid-Based Antiviral (NaVirCept) project provides the opportunity to demonstrate the effectiveness of novel medical countermeasures against military-significant endemic and other viral threat agents. This project expands existing DRDC drug delivery capability development, in the form of proprietary liposome intellectual property, by coupling it with leading-edge nucleic acid-based technology to deliver effective medical countermeasures that will protect deployed personnel and the warfighter against a spectrum of viral disease agents. The technology pathway will offer a means to combat emerging viral diseases or modified threat agents such as the bird flu or reconstructed Spanish flu without going down the laborious, time-consuming and expensive paths to develop countermeasures for each new and/or emerging viral disease organism.(author)

  11. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel José

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  12. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  13. Evaluation of the results of acute viral gastroenteritis data in Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Albayrak, Nurhan; Dilek YAĞCI-ÇAĞLAYIK; Ayşe Başak ALTAŞ; Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Ertek, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Astrovirus are responsible for most non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. The incidence of these viral agents in Turkey is not well known. In this study, it was aimed to document the viral etiology of the stool samples which were send to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency (RSNPHA), Virology Reference and Research Laboratory for investigation of viral acute gastroenteritis agents. Method: A total of 147 stool samples from 11 different ...

  14. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  15. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  16. Endolysosomal trafficking of viral G protein-coupled receptor functions in innate immunity and control of viral oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaonan; Cheng, Adam; Zou, Zhongju; Yang, Yih-Sheng; Sumpter, Rhea M; Huang, Chou-Long; Bhagat, Govind; Virgin, Herbert W; Lira, Sergio A; Levine, Beth

    2016-03-15

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades viral oncoproteins and other microbial virulence factors; however, the role of endolysosomal degradation pathways in these processes is unclear. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, and a constitutively active viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) contributes to the pathogenesis of KSHV-induced tumors. We report that a recently discovered autophagy-related protein, Beclin 2, interacts with KSHV GPCR, facilitates its endolysosomal degradation, and inhibits vGPCR-driven oncogenic signaling. Furthermore, monoallelic loss of Becn2 in mice accelerates the progression of vGPCR-induced lesions that resemble human Kaposi's sarcoma. Taken together, these findings indicate that Beclin 2 is a host antiviral molecule that protects against the pathogenic effects of KSHV GPCR by facilitating its endolysosomal degradation. More broadly, our data suggest a role for host endolysosomal trafficking pathways in regulating viral pathogenesis and oncogenic signaling. PMID:26929373

  17. Viral Co-infections are Common and are Associated with Higher Bacterial Burden in Children with C. difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    El Feghaly, Rana E.; Stauber, Jennifer L.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Haslam, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections in children are increasing. In this cohort study, we enrolled 62 children with diarrhea and C. difficile. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect viral agents of gastroenteritis and quantify C. difficile burden. Fifteen (24%) children diagnosed with C. difficile infection had a concomitant viral co-infection. These patients tended to be younger and had a higher C. difficile bacterial burden than children with no viral co-infections (media...

  18. Unbiased Parallel Detection of Viral Pathogens in Clinical Samples by Use of a Metagenomic Approach▿‡

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian; Yang, Fan; Ren, Lili; Xiong, Zhaohui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Yongfeng; Du, Jiang; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Viral infectious diseases represent a major threat to public health and are among the greatest disease burdens worldwide. Rapid and accurate identification of viral agents is crucial for both outbreak control and estimating regional disease burdens. Recently developed metagenomic methods have proven to be powerful tools for simultaneous pathogen detection. Here, we performed a systematic study of the capability of the short-read-based metagenomic approach in the molecular detection of viral p...

  19. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  20. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Cepko, Constance L; Born, Richard T; Beier, Kevin T

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic spread, and extending

  1. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,781 (2013) Number of new ...

  2. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, David N

    2008-08-01

    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively. The number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal central nervous system infections, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with noninfectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis. This article reviews some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus is placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses, which as a group account for most aseptic meningitis cases and many focal infections of the spinal cord.

  3. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  4. PREVALENCE OF DIFFERENT VIRAL MARKERS IN PATIENTS OF ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS IN AND AROUND VISAKHAPATNAM : HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Sree

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis (AVH is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. AIM: The aim of the present study is to study the serological profile of acute viral hepatitis in children and adults admitted in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam and also age and sex distribution of patients suffering from acute viral hepatitis and also comparing the etiological profile by studying serological markers of common viral agents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Samples were collected from 80 individuals with jaundice and other clinical and biochemical evidences of acute viral hepatitis . They were tested for hepatitis surface antigen, HBcIgM, HAVIgM, HEVIgM, Antibodies to HCV by the enzyme - linked immuno sorbent assay. RESULTS: Out of the 80 viral hepatitis cases (47 adults+33 children. In adults 20(42.5% patients presented HBV (26.96% was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV14 (29.8%, HEV+HAV4 (8.5% and HAV 6(12.76%. Co - infections with more than one virus were present in 5cases; HAV - HEV co - infection being the most common. In children 16(48.5% presented with HAV, HAV+HEV11 (33.3%, HEV4 (12.12%, HBV1 (3.03% CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination of adults against hepatitis B is indicated, along with sexual education to decrease the incidence of hepatitis which is found as common etiological agent in adults. The incidence of HAV and HEV in children shows that there is need for improvement in sanitation and food habits.

  5. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kneeland, Rachel E.; Fatemi, S. Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bact...

  6. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infe...

  7. Viral RNAs are unusually compact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaykumar Gopal

    Full Text Available A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly.

  8. Outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedberg, C W; Osterholm, M T

    1993-01-01

    Norwalk virus infection is the epidemiologic prototype for outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne gastroenteritis. Around the world, Norwalk virus and Norwalk-like viruses appear to be major causes of food-borne and waterborne illness. Assessment of the overall significance of viral agents to the epidemiology of food-borne and waterborne illness is hampered by the lack of surveillance throughout much of the world. In areas where food-borne and waterborne illness surveillance is conducted, out...

  9. Aptamers Against Viral Hepatitis: from Rational Design to Practical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui FENG; Kang-hong HU

    2008-01-01

    Aptamers are short nucleic acids or peptides that strongly bind to a protein of interest and functionally inhibit a given target protein at the intracellular level. Besides high affinity and specificity, aptamers have several advantages over traditional antibodies. Hence, they have been broadly selected to develop antiviral agents for therapeutic applications against hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV). This review provides a summary of in vitro selection and characterization of aptamers against viral hepatitis, which is of practical significance in drug discovery.

  10. Viral load of human bocavirus-1 in stools from children with viral diarrhoea in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proenca-Modena, J L; Martinez, M; Amarilla, A A; Espínola, E E; Galeano, M E; Fariña, N; Russomando, G; Aquino, V H; Parra, G I; Arruda, E

    2013-12-01

    Since their discovery, four species of human bocavirus (HBoV) have been described in patients with respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. However, a clear causal association between HBoV-1 and gastroenteritis has not been demonstrated. In this study, we describe the detection and quantification of HBoV-1 in stools from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HBoV-1 genome was detected in 10.6% of stools with frequent association with rotavirus and norovirus. The median of HBoV-1 viral load was 1.88 × 104 genome/ml, lower than previously shown in secretions of patients with respiratory infections, without any obvious association between high viral load and presence of HBoV as single agent. Thus, although HBoV-1 was frequently detected in these patients, there is no clear causal association of this agent with diarrhoea. Indeed, HBoV-1 DNA in stools of patients with gastroenteritis without respiratory symptoms may be a remnant of previous infections or associated with prolonged shedding of virus in the respiratory or digestive tracts.

  11. VirSorter: mining viral signal from microbial genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome, new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter’s prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages. Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in “reverse” to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made

  12. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  13. Viral Carcinogenesis: Factors Inducing DNA Damage and Virus Integration

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    Yan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the causative agents of 10%–15% of human cancers worldwide. The most common outcome for virus-induced reprogramming is genomic instability, including accumulation of mutations, aberrations and DNA damage. Although each virus has its own specific mechanism for promoting carcinogenesis, the majority of DNA oncogenic viruses encode oncogenes that transform infected cells, frequently by targeting p53 and pRB. In addition, integration of viral DNA into the human genome can also play an important role in promoting tumor development for several viruses, including HBV and HPV. Because viral integration requires the breakage of both the viral and the host DNA, the integration rate is believed to be linked to the levels of DNA damage. DNA damage can be caused by both endogenous and exogenous factors, including inflammation induced by either the virus itself or by co-infections with other agents, environmental agents and other factors. Typically, cancer develops years to decades following the initial infection. A better understanding of virus-mediated carcinogenesis, the networking of pathways involved in transformation and the relevant risk factors, particularly in those cases where tumorigenesis proceeds by way of virus integration, will help to suggest prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of virus-mediated cancer.

  14. [Neuropsychiatric sequelae of viral meningitis in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2011-10-10

    Viral meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with only mild symptoms. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from viral meningitis may experience cognitive impairment following the acute course of infection. Larger controlled studies are needed to elucidate the potential neuropsychiatric adverse outcome of viral meningitis.

  15. [Pathology and viral metagenomics, a recent history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Albina, Emmanuel; Eloit, Marc; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Human, animal and plant viral diseases have greatly benefited from recent metagenomics developments. Viral metagenomics is a culture-independent approach used to investigate the complete viral genetic populations of a sample. During the last decade, metagenomics concepts and techniques that were first used by ecologists progressively spread into the scientific field of viral pathology. The sample, which was first for ecologists a fraction of ecosystem, became for pathologists an organism that hosts millions of microbes and viruses. This new approach, providing without a priori high resolution qualitative and quantitative data on the viral diversity, is now revolutionizing the way pathologists decipher viral diseases. This review describes the very last improvements of the high throughput next generation sequencing methods and discusses the applications of viral metagenomics in viral pathology, including discovery of novel viruses, viral surveillance and diagnostic, large-scale molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution.

  16. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  17. DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment: Viral load is insufficient with few exceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Jain

    2009-01-01

    In DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment, viral load is insufficient, and requires other viral markers for treatment of hepatitis B patients as in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, end-stage renal disease on dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients. There are exceptions to this rule:a residual level hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA at 24 wk predicts beneficial outcome and reduced resistance at 1 year. The genotypic viral resistance to antiviral agents and occult HBV infection can be determined by HBV-DNA levels.

  18. Viral gastroenteritis in children: modern concepts of epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Ermolenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 60 original articles and reviews were analyzed in order to study the current state of the epidemiology and prevention of acute intestinal infections (AII of viral etiology in the world. Interest in a problem of viral AII is determined by their widest prevalence and huge costs associated with the elimination of their consequences. There are at least eight families of viruses that are the cause of acute gastroenteritis. The expansion of the ideas on the epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis has made a significant contribution to increasing the availability of modern diagnostic methods. Leading positions in the etiological diagnosis of viral diarrhea belong to the polymerase chain reaction. The structure of the viral AII in Russia is comparable with the average global rate. The most important frequency agents are rotaviruses and noroviruses. The article reflects the current trends in the epidemiology of acute viral diarrheal diseases: particularly dominant circulating serotypes of rotavirus and rare serotypes in various regions; seasonal changes of dominant strains of rotaviruses; increased frequency of norovirus gastroenteritis in the structure of the AII and increase mortality of children from norovirus infection. Presents data on the phylogenetic diversity of noroviruses and features of GI and GII circulation of genotypes. After the introduction of mass vaccination against rotaviruses in developed countries increases the share of astroviral and adenoviral infection in the structure of the AII. High frequency of astroviral infection is noticed in people with immunodeficiency. Much attention in article is paid to the increase in incidence and mortality of noroviruses, rise in detection rate of mixed viral and viral-bacterial associations and often registration of rare viruses and animal viruses in children. Presents data on the effectiveness of vaccination against rotaviruses in different regions of the

  19. ANTI-VIRAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCIRRHETINIC AND GLYCIRRHIZIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zarubaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious human disease. In the course of use of antiviral drugs drug-resistant strains of the virus are formed, resulting in reduced efficiency of the chemotherapy. The review describes the biological activity of glycirrhetinic (GLA and glycirrhizic (GA acids in terms of their use as a therapeutic agent for viral infections. So, these compounds are against a broad spectrum of viruses, including herpes, corona-, alphaand flaviviruses, human immunodeficiency virus, vaccinia virus, poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus. These data indicate that anti-viral effect of these compounds is due to several types of activity — direct antiviral effects, effects on cellular proand anti-viral and immunomodulating pathways, in particular by activation of innate immunity system. GA interferes with early steps of the viral reproductive cycle such as virus binding to its receptor, the absorption of the virus by endocytosis or virus decapsidation in the cytoplasm. This is due to the effect of GA-induced reduction of membrane fluidity. Thus, one mechanism for the antiviral activity of GA is that GA molecule increases the rigidity of cellular and viral membranes after incorporation in there. This results in increasing of energy threshold required for the formation of negative curvature at the fusion zones, as well as difficult lateral migration of the virus-receptor complexes. In addition, glycyrrhizin prevents interaction of viral nucleoprotein with cellular protein HMGB1, which is necessary for the viral life cycle. Glycyrrhizin also inhibits the induction of oxidative stress during influenza infection, exhibiting antioxidant properties, which leads to a reduction of virus-induced production of cytokines/chemokines, without affecting the replication of the virus. A wide spectrum of biological activity and effect on various aspects of the viral pathogenesis substantiate the effect of GA and GLA as a component

  20. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  1. Integrin Activation and Viral Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-dian GAO; Jun-zheng DU; Jian-hua ZHOU; Hui-yun CHANG; Qing-ge XIE

    2008-01-01

    Integrins are members of a ubiquitous membrane receptor family which includes 18 different α subunits and 8 β subunits forming more than 20 α/β heterodimers. Integrins play key functions in vascular endothelial cell and tumour cell adhesion, lymphocyte trafficking, tumor growth and viral infection. Current understanding of the molecular basis of integrins as viral receptors has been achieved through many decades of study into the biology of transmembrane glycoproteins and their interactions with several viruses. This review provides a summary of the current knowledge on the molecular bases of interactions between viruses and integrins, which are of potential practical significance. Inhibition of virus-integrin interactions at the points of virus attachment or entry will provide a novel approach for the therapeutic treatment of viral diseases.

  2. An HIV epidemic model based on viral load dynamics: value in assessing empirical trends in HIV virulence and community viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T Herbeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trends in HIV virulence have been monitored since the start of the AIDS pandemic, as studying HIV virulence informs our understanding of HIV epidemiology and pathogenesis. Here, we model changes in HIV virulence as a strictly evolutionary process, using set point viral load (SPVL as a proxy, to make inferences about empirical SPVL trends from longitudinal HIV cohorts. We develop an agent-based epidemic model based on HIV viral load dynamics. The model contains functions for viral load and transmission, SPVL and disease progression, viral load trajectories in multiple stages of infection, and the heritability of SPVL across transmissions. We find that HIV virulence evolves to an intermediate level that balances infectiousness with longer infected lifespans, resulting in an optimal SPVL∼4.75 log10 viral RNA copies/mL. Adaptive viral evolution may explain observed HIV virulence trends: our model produces SPVL trends with magnitudes that are broadly similar to empirical trends. With regard to variation among studies in empirical SPVL trends, results from our model suggest that variation may be explained by the specific epidemic context, e.g. the mean SPVL of the founding lineage or the age of the epidemic; or improvements in HIV screening and diagnosis that results in sampling biases. We also use our model to examine trends in community viral load, a population-level measure of HIV viral load that is thought to reflect a population's overall transmission potential. We find that community viral load evolves in association with SPVL, in the absence of prevention programs such as antiretroviral therapy, and that the mean community viral load is not necessarily a strong predictor of HIV incidence.

  3. Evaluation of the results of acute viral gastroenteritis data in Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan ALBAYRAK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Astrovirus are responsible for most non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. The incidence of these viral agents in Turkey is not well known. In this study, it was aimed to document the viral etiology of the stool samples which were send to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency (RSNPHA, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory for investigation of viral acute gastroenteritis agents. Method: A total of 147 stool samples from 11 different provinces were send to the Virology Laboratory for Reference and Research of RSNPHA in 2009. Samples were collected from patients admitted because of acute gastroenteritis and from the cases with the signs of illness at different times of the year and sent by the Provincial Health Directorates to our laboratory. The samples were examined in the laboratory using the commercial multiplex real-time PCR kit for norovirus genotype I, norovirus genotype II, rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus. Results: 65 (44.2 % samples were found to be positive at least for one viral agent and 10 (6.8 % samples for more than one viral agent. Norovirus (particularly genotype II infections were detected as the most prevalent viral agent in acute gastroenteritis patients in this period. Rotavirus infections were determined as the second most common infection after norovirus infections. Adenovirus infections have been found to be the least prevalent agent in the laboratory. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that norovirus genotype II has been more commonly responsible for acute diarrhea than the other viral pathogens. The viral agents we have studied should be considered as pathogens that can be seen in all seasons. Viral factors should not be underestimated as the cause of acute gastroenteritis; additionally it should be noted that acute gastroenteritis could be caused by coinfection of viral agents.

  4. Viral lesions of the mouth in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H; Lautenschlager, S

    1997-01-01

    Viral lesions of the mouth in patients with HIV infection are common and these diseases any be a marker for HIV and disease progression. We review the spectrum of oral viral manifestations and discuss treatment modalities. The most common Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced disorder in HIV-infected patients is oral hairy leukoplakia. EBV-related oral B-cell and T-cell lymphoma in AIDS patients has been described repeatedly. Herpes virus type 1 and rarely type 2 may lead to painful and resistant oral ulcers, and systemic treatment with acyclovir, valaciclovir or famciclovir is indicated. In acyclovir-resistant cases foscarnet is the treatment of choice. In recent years it has been documented that Kaposi's sarcoma, which often affects oral mucosa, is probably induced by herpesvirus type 8. Cytomegalovirus was found in 53% of cases with herpesviridae-induced mucosal ulcers as the only ulcerogenic viral agent in AIDS patients. In severe cytomegalovirus infection treatment with ganciclovir is helpful. Viral warts induced by different HPV may occur in the mouth. Several physical treatment modalities are possible in the oral mucosa. In AIDS patients mollusca contagiosa may occur as large and atypical lesions in the face and lips and rarely in the oral cavity. Cryotherapy is a bloodless treatment in such patients. PMID:9031782

  5. [New viral risks in blood transfusion by 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzetto, B; Garraud, O

    2016-02-01

    Viral safety remains a major concern in transfusion of blood products. Over years, the control measures applied to blood products were made more and more sophisticated; however, the number of infectious agents, and notably of viruses, that can be transmitted by transfusion is increasing continuously. The aim of this review paper is to actualize that published in the same journal by the same authors in 2011 with more details on some of actual vs virtual viral threats that were identified recently in the field of blood transfusion. The main subjects that are covered successively concern the transmission via transfusion of hepatitis E virus, the frequency of transfusion transmitted arboviruses, transfusion at the time of the Ebola epidemics in West Africa, the debated role of Marseillevirus (giant viruses infecting amoebae and suspected to infect human blood latently), and, finally, the recent report of the identification in blood donors of a new member of the Flaviviridae family. The addition of these new viral risks to those already identified-partially controlled or not-pleads for the urgent need to move forward to considering inactivation of infectious agents in blood products. PMID:26781857

  6. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  7. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  8. Exploring the viral world through metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-10-01

    Viral metagenomics, or shotgun sequencing of purified viral particles, has revolutionized the field of environmental virology by allowing the exploration of viral communities in a variety of sample types throughout the biosphere. The introduction of viral metagenomics has demonstrated that dominant viruses in environmental communities are not well-represented by the cultured viruses in existing sequence databases. Viral metagenomic studies have provided insights into viral ecology by elucidating the genetic potential, community structure, and biogeography of environmental viruses. In addition, viral metagenomics has expanded current knowledge of virus-host interactions by uncovering genes that may allow viruses to manipulate their hosts in unexpected ways. The intrinsic potential for virus discovery through viral metagenomics can help advance a wide array of disciplines including evolutionary biology, pathogen surveillance, and biotechnology.

  9. Faktor Risiko Non Viral Pada Karsinoma Nasofaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring adalah tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang sampai saat ini penyebabnya belum diketahui, infeksi virus Epstein Barr dilaporkan sebagai faktor dominan terjadinya karsinoma nasofaring tetapi faktor non viral juga berperan untuk timbulnya keganasan nasofaring. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui faktor non viral  yang dapat meningkatkan kejadian karsinoma nasofaring sehingga dapat mencegah dan menghindari faktor-faktor non viral tersebut. Tinjauan Pustaka: Karsinoma nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang penyebabnya berhubungan dengan faktor viral dan non viral diantaranya asap rokok, ikan asin, formaldehid, genetik, asap kayu bakar , debu kayu, infeksi kronik telinga hidung tenggorok, alkohol dan obat tradisional. Kesimpulan: Pembuktian secara klinis dan ilmiah terhadap faktor non viral sebagai penyebab timbulnya karsinoma nasofaring masih belum dapat dijelaskan secara pasti. Faktor non viral merupakan salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat meningkatkan angka kejadian timbulnya keganasan nasofaring Kata kunci: karsinoma nasofaring, faktor risiko, non viral AbstractBackground: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant epithelial nasopharyngeal tumor that until now the cause still unknown, Epstein barr virus infection had reported as predominant occurance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma but non viral factors may also contribute to the onset of the incidence of nasopharyngeal malignancy. Purpose: To find non viral factors that may increase the incidence of nasopharyngel carcinoma in order to prevent and avoid non-viral factors Literature: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that causes nasopharyngeal epithelium associated with viral and non-viral factors such as cigarette smoke, salt fish, formaldehyde, genetic, wood smoke ,wood dust, ear nose throat chronic infections, alcohol, and traditional medicine. Conclusion: Clinically and scientifically proving the non-viral factors as

  10. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  11. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas;

    2016-01-01

    Viral envelope glycoproteins are major targets for antibodies that bind to and inactivate viral particles. The capacity of a viral vaccine to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies is often used as a marker for vaccine efficacy. Yet the number of known neutralization target epitopes is restricted o...

  12. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers, conte

  13. Virale commercials: De consument als marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers, conte

  14. STUDY OF PERSISTENT VIRAL INFECTION IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF VIRAL MYOCARDITIS BY PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马睿; 陈曙霞; 刘晶星

    2000-01-01

    ffeStnn6 Objectif Etudier ie r6le de l'infection virale persistante dans ie pethog4de de la myOCardite virale.ANt~ L' ARN viral dens ie my~rde et ie mug et l' alteration potholedque du m~rde ent ate ewilnd per la techniquede PCR adns un mangle de myrmrdite virale chez ies ~ris. Rhaltats L 'ARN viral a ate detects an 3'jour dens ie mug etie myrmrde. An 8'jour, I 'ARN viral an niveau du mug a ate pertiellement dewnu then f lorsque l' alteration pethologiquedu myocarde a atteint un maximum. he 12'jour, L' ARN ...

  15. Treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  16. VIGOR, an annotation program for small viral genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shiliang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decrease in cost for sequencing and improvement in technologies has made it easier and more common for the re-sequencing of large genomes as well as parallel sequencing of small genomes. It is possible to completely sequence a small genome within days and this increases the number of publicly available genomes. Among the types of genomes being rapidly sequenced are those of microbial and viral genomes responsible for infectious diseases. However, accurate gene prediction is a challenge that persists for decoding a newly sequenced genome. Therefore, accurate and efficient gene prediction programs are highly desired for rapid and cost effective surveillance of RNA viruses through full genome sequencing. Results We have developed VIGOR (Viral Genome ORF Reader, a web application tool for gene prediction in influenza virus, rotavirus, rhinovirus and coronavirus subtypes. VIGOR detects protein coding regions based on sequence similarity searches and can accurately detect genome specific features such as frame shifts, overlapping genes, embedded genes, and can predict mature peptides within the context of a single polypeptide open reading frame. Genotyping capability for influenza and rotavirus is built into the program. We compared VIGOR to previously described gene prediction programs, ZCURVE_V, GeneMarkS and FLAN. The specificity and sensitivity of VIGOR are greater than 99% for the RNA viral genomes tested. Conclusions VIGOR is a user friendly web-based genome annotation program for five different viral agents, influenza, rotavirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus and SARS coronavirus. This is the first gene prediction program for rotavirus and rhinovirus for public access. VIGOR is able to accurately predict protein coding genes for the above five viral types and has the capability to assign function to the predicted open reading frames and genotype influenza virus. The prediction software was designed for performing high

  17. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  18. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  19. Problems in diagnosing viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Colloredo Mels, G; Bellati, G; Ideo, G; Oliveri, F; Colombatto, P; Brunetto, M R

    1993-01-01

    The most reliable method of making a specific aetiological diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis would be to identify virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responsible for the killing of virus infected hepatocytes in each patient's liver. Unfortunately, this can not be proposed for routine diagnosis and surrogate tests are required. The detection of virus markers, and even of the virus itself, does not imply that liver damage is caused by virus infection. Indirect markers of the host's antiviral immunoresponse have to be used to confirm more specifically the diagnosis of viral hepatitis. IgM antibodies against viral antigens implicated in the elimination of the virus seem to be suitable alternative candidates. Significant changes in the serum values of viraemia and aminotransferases occur within a few days, while a significant variation in liver histology takes much longer. Only the kinetics of the highly variable parameters can be used for an appropriate study of the relationship between viraemia, antiviral immunoresponse, and liver cell necrosis. Quantitative and dynamic analyses of hepatitis virus markers seem the most suitable and reliable methods of monitoring the patients eligible for antiviral treatment and identifying the most appropriate time to start this. PMID:8314490

  20. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  1. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  2. Extracting viral RNAs from plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Marc R; Andrew White, K

    2007-08-01

    The analysis of viral RNA is a fundamental aspect of plant RNA virus research. Studies that focus on viral RNAs often involve virus infections of plant protoplasts (see UNITS 16D.1-16D.4). Protoplast offer the advantage of simultaneous initiation of infections, which allows for superior temporal and quantitative analyses of viral RNAs. The efficient isolation of intact viral RNA is key to any such investigations. This unit describes two basic protocols for extracting viral RNAs from plant protoplasts. An approach for preparing double-stranded viral RNA from total RNA pools is also provided. The viral RNA prepared by using these techniques can be used for further analyses such as primer extension, reverse transcription-PCR, and northern blotting.

  3. The role of respiratory syncytial virus and other viral pathogens in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B S; Dollete, F R; Yolken, R H

    1982-07-01

    We utilized recently developed enzyme immunoassay techniques to examine the role of selected viruses in the etiology of acute otitis media. Viral pathogens were found in middle ear fluids obtained from 13 (24%) of 53 children with acute otitis media; respiratory syncytial virus accounted for ten of the 13 viral agents identified. In addition, respiratory syncytial viral antigen was found in nasopharyngeal washings obtained from 15 of the 53 children. Seven of these children had RSV identified as the sole middle ear pathogen, whereas six children had otitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae as either the sole middle ear pathogen or in combination with RSV. Similarly, all three children with respiratory infections caused by influenza virus had ear infections caused by bacterial pathogens, either alone or in combination with influenza virus. These findings suggest that, in patients with viral respiratory infection, coexisting acute otitis media may be associated with the recovery of either viruses or bacteria from the middle ear exudates.

  4. Human papillomaviruses activate the ATM DNA damage pathway for viral genome amplification upon differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary A Moody

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPV are the causative agents of cervical cancers. The infectious HPV life cycle is closely linked to the differentiation state of the host epithelia, with viral genome amplification, late gene expression and virion production restricted to suprabasal cells. The E6 and E7 proteins provide an environment conducive to DNA synthesis upon differentiation, but little is known concerning the mechanisms that regulate productive viral genome amplification. Using keratinocytes that stably maintain HPV-31 episomes, and chemical inhibitors, we demonstrate that viral proteins activate the ATM DNA damage response in differentiating cells, as indicated by phosphorylation of CHK2, BRCA1 and NBS1. This activation is necessary for viral genome amplification, as well as for formation of viral replication foci. In contrast, inhibition of ATM kinase activity in undifferentiated keratinocytes had no effect on the stable maintenance of viral genomes. Previous studies have shown that HPVs induce low levels of caspase 3/7 activation upon differentiation and that this is important for cleavage of the E1 replication protein and genome amplification. Our studies demonstrate that caspase cleavage is induced upon differentiation of HPV positive cells through the action of the DNA damage protein kinase CHK2, which may be activated as a result of E7 binding to the ATM kinase. These findings identify a major regulatory mechanism responsible for productive HPV replication in differentiating cells. Our results have potential implications for the development of anti-viral therapies to treat HPV infections.

  5. Suppression of viral infectivity through lethal defection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande-Pérez, Ana; Lázaro, Ester; Lowenstein, Pedro; Domingo, Esteban; Manrubia, Susanna C.

    2005-01-01

    RNA viruses replicate with a very high error rate and give rise to heterogeneous, highly plastic populations able to adapt very rapidly to changing environments. Viral diseases are thus difficult to control because of the appearance of drug-resistant mutants, and it becomes essential to seek mechanisms able to force the extinction of the quasispecies before adaptation emerges. An alternative to the use of conventional drugs consists in increasing the replication error rate through the use of mutagens. Here, we report about persistent infections of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus treated with fluorouracil, where a progressive debilitation of infectivity leading to eventual extinction occurs. The transition to extinction is accompanied by the production of large amounts of RNA, indicating that the replicative ability of the quasispecies is not strongly impaired by the mutagen. By means of experimental and theoretical approaches, we propose that a fraction of the RNA molecules synthesized can behave as a defective subpopulation able to drive the viable class extinct. Our results lead to the identification of two extinction pathways, one at high amounts of mutagen, where the quasispecies completely loses its ability to infect and replicate, and a second one, at lower amounts of mutagen, where replication continues while the infective class gets extinct because of the action of defectors. The results bear on a potential application of increased mutagenesis as an antiviral strategy in that low doses of a mutagenic agent may suffice to drive persistent virus to extinction. PMID:15767582

  6. Viral infection causes rapid sensitization to lipopolysaccharide: central role of IFN-alpha beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nansen, A; Randrup Thomsen, A

    2001-01-01

    LPS is the major active agent in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septic shock. In this report we have studied the influence of concurrent viral infection on the outcome of LPS-induced shock. We find that infection with vesicular stomatitis virus sensitizes mice to LPS at an early time point fol...

  7. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  8. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  9. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. PMID:25742731

  10. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R;

    2001-01-01

    A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...... expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....

  11. Vaccines prepared from translation products of cloned viral genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of recombinant DNA (rDNA) techniques and their application to viruses for vaccine research, there has been an explosion of information about the molecular structure and replication of many viruses. rDNA technology in conjunction with several other emerging technologies, e.g. monoclonal antibodies, solid phase synthesis of peptides and prediction of protein conformation on the basis of amino acid sequence, has provided a powerful battery of techniques that in many cases has allowed the identification of specific sites on the virion surface that elicit neutralizing antibodies. Knowledge of these sites allows one to design a subunit vaccine that utilizes one of the virion proteins or regions of a particular protein in the absence of any other viral proteins or the viral nucleic acid. The advantages of this approach are: that there are no potentially infectious agents contained in the vaccine if the inactivation procedure is incomplete, there is less chance of complications from the vaccine due to nonessential viral components in the vaccine, a purified protein or polypeptide is usually more stable than virus particles during storage, and many times larger quanitities of an antigen can be produced by rDNA techniques than by classical vaccine methods

  12. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  13. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  14. Commercialization of veterinary viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, P H

    2004-12-01

    If vaccines are to reliably prevent disease, they must be developed, produced and quality-controlled according to very strict regulations and procedures. Veterinary viral vaccine registrations are governed by different rules in different countries, but these rules all emphasize that the quality of the raw materials--the cells, eggs, animals or plants that are used in production--need to be carefully controlled. The veterinary vaccine business is also very cost-conscious. Emphasis over the last 5-10 years has therefore been to develop culture systems that minimize labor and sterility problems and thus provide for reliable and cost-effective production. Implementing these often more complex systems in a production environment takes considerable effort, first in scale-up trials and further down the line in convincing production personnel to change their familiar system for something new and possibly untried. To complete scale-up trials successfully, it is absolutely necessary to understand the biochemistry of the cells and the influence of the virus on the cells under scale-up and later production conditions. Once a viral product can be produced on a large scale, it is imperative that the quality of the end-product is controlled in an intelligent way. One needs to know whether the end-product performs in the animal as was intended during its conception in the research and development department. The development of the appropriate tests to demonstrate this plays an important role in the successful development of a vaccine.

  15. Population Dynamics of Viral Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Krista; Li, Dong; Behrens, Manja; Streletzky, Kiril; Olsson, Ulf; Evilevitch, Alex

    We have investigated the population dynamics of viral inactivation in vitrousing time-resolved cryo electron microscopy combined with light and X-ray scattering techniques. Using bacteriophage λ as a model system for pressurized double-stranded DNA viruses, we found that virions incubated with their cell receptor eject their genome in a stochastic triggering process. The triggering of DNA ejection occurs in a non synchronized manner after the receptor addition, resulting in an exponential decay of the number of genome-filled viruses with time. We have explored the characteristic time constant of this triggering process at different temperatures, salt conditions, and packaged genome lengths. Furthermore, using the temperature dependence we determined an activation energy for DNA ejections. The dependences of the time constant and activation energy on internal DNA pressure, affected by salt conditions and encapsidated genome length, suggest that the triggering process is directly dependent on the conformational state of the encapsidated DNA. The results of this work provide insight into how the in vivo kinetics of the spread of viral infection are influenced by intra- and extra cellular environmental conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1252522.

  16. Viral Advertising: Branding Effects from Consumers’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01

    Viral advertising is popular for its high viral transmission results online. Its increased impacts on the social media users have been noticed by the author. At the same time, viewers’ negative attitudes toward traditional advertisements become obvious which can be regarded as the phenomenon of advertisement avoidance. It arouses author’s interests to know how the viral advertising reduces the viewers’ negative emotions and its performances in branding online. This paper is going to look into...

  17. Consumers’ attitude towards viral marketing in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kiani Irshad ZERNIGAH; Kamran SOHAIL

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of technology has opened many costeffective avenues for marketers to promote their products. One of the emerging techniques of products promotion through the use of technology is viral marketing that is becoming a popular direct marketing tool for marketers across the world. Therefore, marketers should understand factors that result in increased acceptance of viral marketing by consumers. The present research was conducted to investigate consumers’ attitude towards viral...

  18. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  19. Exploring Text Virality in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Guerini, Marco; Ozbal, Gozde

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to shed some light on the concept of virality - especially in social networks - and to provide new insights on its structure. We argue that: (a) virality is a phenomenon strictly connected to the nature of the content being spread, rather than to the influencers who spread it, (b) virality is a phenomenon with many facets, i.e. under this generic term several different effects of persuasive communication are comprised and they only partially overlap. To give ground to our claims, we provide initial experiments in a machine learning framework to show how various aspects of virality can be independently predicted according to content features.

  20. Virucidal agents in the eve of manorapid synergy®

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, AS

    2007-01-01

    Virucidal agents are chemical substances that attack and inactivate viral particles outside the cell (virions). In general this is accomplished by damaging their protein shells (capsid) or the substance penetrates the core itself, where it destroys the genetic material. Damage to the virion structure is also possible. These agents are used not only for traditional surface disinfection or sterilization of blood, blood products, and other medicinal products as well as in antiviral chemotherapy....

  1. Virucidal agents in the eve of manorapid synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, Angel S

    2007-01-01

    Virucidal agents are chemical substances that attack and inactivate viral particles outside the cell (virions). In general this is accomplished by damaging their protein shells (capsid) or the substance penetrates the core itself, where it destroys the genetic material. Damage to the virion structure is also possible. These agents are used not only for traditional surface disinfection or sterilization of blood, blood products, and other medicinal products as well as in antiviral chemotherapy....

  2. STUDY OF PERSISTENT VIRAL INFECTION IN AN ANIMALMODEL OF VIRAL MYOCARDITIS BY PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the role of persistent viral infection in the mechanism of viral myocarditis. Methods A mice model of CVB3m viral myocarditis was made and the viral RNA in mice myocardium and whole blood sample was tested by using polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) technique. The pathological changes in mice myocardium were determined. Results On day 3, the viral gene in whole blood and myocardium was found, which partly became negative on day 8, but the change of myocardial pathology became obvious. Although the blood specimens were tested negatively on day 12, the viral gene in mice myocardium remained positive within 120d. Conclusion This study indicates that persistent viral infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis.

  3. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  4. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  5. Viral bronchiolitis for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2011-04-01

    Viral bronchiolitis is common, and about 98-99% of infants are managed in the home. Because about 95% of infants < 2 years old are infected with respiratory syncytial virus, however, bronchiolitis is the commonest reason for admission to hospital in the first 6 months of life. It is usually a self-limiting condition lasting around a week in previously well children. About 1% of infants are admitted to hospital, and about 10% of hospitalised infants will require admission to the intensive care unit. Respiratory syncytial virus is isolated from about 70% of infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis. The emphasis of hospital treatment is to ensure adequate hydration and oxygenation. Other than supplemental oxygen, little in the way of pharmacological treatment has been demonstrated to alter the course of the illness or the risk of wheezing in the months following bronchiolitis.

  6. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saidi

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sera from children 1 - 6 years of age, representative of a large serum collection, were tested for the prevalence of antibodies against different viruses. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibodies were found in 68% for measles; 61 % for rubella; 75'% for influenza A2/Hong Kong/68, 16% for influenza B/Md./59, 0% for group A arboviruses, 10% for group B arboviruses, 3% for phlebotomus fever group and 4% for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (C-CHF group of arboviruses Poliomyelitis-neutralizing antibodies for type 1, 2 and 3 were 90%; 85% and 84%~ respectively. Antibody to EH virus was detected in 84% of the sera by immuno-fluorescence. None of the sera were positive for hepatitis-B antigen or antibody by immuno-precipitation test. The prevalence of some viral antibodies found in this survey are compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  7. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  8. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  9. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  10. Viral Innovation, Sustainability, and Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    Enterprises strive to be economically sustainable. In doing so, they either contribute to or detract from environmental and social sustainability. Sustainability is hence multi-dimensional with formulations that include the familiar triple-bottom-line and BEST models. Any assessment regimen...... be facilitated by substantial sustainability-driven innovation with innovation being broadly-construed. As commonly perceived, the word “innovation” often implies high-velocity change. Adding enterprise-wide emphasis on innovation alongside appropriately tuned and attuned human capital to this velocity yields...... what is henceforth called “viral innovation”. Evidence of growing global emphasis on environmental and social sustainability is provided by the United Nations Global Compact (http://www.unglobalcompact.org/), the Pearl Initiative in the Middle East (http...

  11. Molecular Mechanism and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Hung Su

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is a wound-healing response to various chronic stimuli, including viral hepatitis B or C infection. Activated myofibroblasts, predominantly derived from the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, regulate the balance between matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors to maintain extracellular matrix homeostasis. Transforming growth factor-β and platelet-derived growth factor are classic profibrogenic signals that activate HSC proliferation. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines coordinate macrophages, T cells, NK/NKT cells, and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in complex fibrogenic and regression processes. In addition, fibrogenesis involves angiogenesis, metabolic reprogramming, autophagy, microRNA, and epigenetic regulations. Hepatic inflammation is the driving force behind liver fibrosis; however, host single nucleotide polymorphisms and viral factors, including the genotype, viral load, viral mutation, and viral proteins, have been associated with fibrosis progression. Eliminating the underlying etiology is the most crucial antifibrotic therapy. Growing evidence has indicated that persistent viral suppression with antiviral therapy can result in fibrosis regression, reduced liver disease progression, decreased hepatocellular carcinoma, and improved chances of survival. Preclinical studies and clinical trials are currently examining several investigational agents that target key fibrogenic pathways; the results are promising and shed light on this debilitating illness.

  12. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  13. DNA-AuNP networks on cell membranes as a protective barrier to inhibit viral attachment, entry and budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Mei; Zheng, Lin Ling; Yang, Xiao Xi; Wan, Xiao Yan; Wu, Wen Bi; Zhen, Shu Jun; Li, Yuan Fang; Luo, Ling Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections have caused numerous diseases and deaths worldwide. Due to the emergence of new viruses and frequent virus variation, conventional antiviral strategies that directly target viral or cellular proteins are limited because of the specificity, drug resistance and rapid clearance from the human body. Therefore, developing safe and potent antiviral agents with activity against viral infection at multiple points in the viral life cycle remains a major challenge. In this report, we propose a new modality to inhibit viral infection by fabricating DNA conjugated gold nanoparticle (DNA-AuNP) networks on cell membranes as a protective barrier. The DNA-AuNPs networks were found, via a plaque formation assay and viral titers, to have potent antiviral ability and protect host cells from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Confocal immunofluorescence image analysis showed 80 ± 3.8% of viral attachment, 91.1 ± 0.9% of viral entry and 87.9 ± 2.8% of viral budding were inhibited by the DNA-AuNP networks, which were further confirmed by real-time fluorescence imaging of the RSV infection process. The antiviral activity of the networks may be attributed to steric effects, the disruption of membrane glycoproteins and limited fusion of cell membrane bilayers, all of which play important roles in viral infection. Therefore, our results suggest that the DNA-AuNP networks have not only prophylactic effects to inhibit virus attachment and entry, but also therapeutic effects to inhibit viral budding and cell-to-cell spread. More importantly, this proof-of-principle study provides a pathway for the development of a universal, broad-spectrum antiviral therapy.

  14. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  15. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment.

  16. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. PMID:27534590

  17. Virally encoded chemokines and chemokine receptors in the role of viral infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter J; Lüttichau, Hans R; Schwartz, Thue W;

    2003-01-01

    Large DNA viruses such as pox- and in particular herpesviruses are notorious in their ability to evade the immune system and to be maintained in the general population. Based on the accumulated knowledge reviewed in this study it is evident that important mechanisms of these actions are the acqui......Large DNA viruses such as pox- and in particular herpesviruses are notorious in their ability to evade the immune system and to be maintained in the general population. Based on the accumulated knowledge reviewed in this study it is evident that important mechanisms of these actions...... are the acquisition and modification of host-encoded chemokines and chemokine receptors. The described viral molecules leave nothing to chance and have thoroughly and efficiently corrupted the host immune system. Through this process viruses have identified key molecules in antiviral responses by their inhibition...... for antiviral therapies have been provided by UL33, UL78 and in particular ORF74 and the chances are that many more will follow. In HHV8 vMIP-2 and the chemokine-binding proteins potent anti-inflammatory agents have been provided. These have already had their potential demonstrated in animal models and may...

  18. Current viral infections and epidemics of flaviviridae; lots of grief but also some hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Kossida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviridae is a family of RNA viruses that includes numerous important human and animal pathogens. Recent studies on subgenomic flaviviridae replicons have revealed that the non-structural (NS proteins, which are encoded by the C-terminal part of the polyprotein, play a crucial role in viral RNA replication. Accordingly, these proteins are assumed to form replication complexes in conjunction with genomic RNA and possibly with other cellular factors. One the most important non-structural enzymes that plays a key role in the life cycle of flaviviridae viruses is the viral helicase. Sequence alignments of the viral helicases from this family identified several conserved sequence motifs that are important for biological functions. Herein, an effort is made to summarize the current epidemics associated with the flaviviridae family worldwide, the potential of helicase enzymes as a promising pharmacological target and the use of nucleoside analogs as simple, efficient and rather versatile antiviral agents.

  19. Dynamical implications of Viral Tiling Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSawy, K M; Taormina, A; Twarock, R; Vaughan, L

    2008-05-21

    The Caspar-Klug classification of viruses whose protein shell, called viral capsid, exhibits icosahedral symmetry, has recently been extended to incorporate viruses whose capsid proteins are exclusively organised in pentamers. The approach, named 'Viral Tiling Theory', is inspired by the theory of quasicrystals, where aperiodic Penrose tilings enjoy 5-fold and 10-fold local symmetries. This paper analyses the extent to which this classification approach informs dynamical properties of the viral capsids, in particular the pattern of Raman active modes of vibrations, which can be observed experimentally. PMID:18353372

  20. [Pediatrics. New treatment options for viral bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, I; Hafen, G

    2013-01-16

    The combination of nebulized epinephrine and high dose dexamethasone, or nebulized hypertonic saline, are promising new therapeutic strategies for viral bronchiolitis in the young infant. However, further research is needed before a general recommendation can be given.

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  4. Viral fitness: definitions, measurement, and current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Viral fitness is an active area of research, with recent work involving an expanded number of human, non-human vertebrate, invertebrate, plant, and bacterial viruses. Many publications deal with RNA viruses associated with major disease emergence events, such as HIV-1, influenza virus, and Dengue virus. Study topics include drug resistance, immune escape, viral emergence, host jumps, mutation effects, quasispecies diversity, and mathematical models of viral fitness. Important recent trends include increasing use of in vivo systems to assess vertebrate virus fitness, and a broadening of research beyond replicative fitness to also investigate transmission fitness and epidemiologic fitness. This is essential for a more integrated understanding of overall viral fitness, with implications for disease management in the future.

  5. Viruses, anti-viral therapy, and viral vaccines in children with immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalfy, Mohsen S; Nugent, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) might be preceded by silent or overt viral infections. Similarly, anti-viral drugs and viral vaccines could also trigger ITP and might play a central role in its pathogenesis. The seasonal nature of childhood ITP suggests that viral infections might initiate immune responses that increase the predisposition and occurrence of ITP. Active cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus should be considered in differential diagnosis when thrombocytopenia is associated with lymphadenopathy, especially with splenomegaly. This review will focus on the specific association of ITP in association with viral disease and vaccinations, and will discuss the effectiveness of current therapies in light of our current understanding of viral-associated ITP. PMID:27312173

  6. A Rapid Method for Viral Particle Detection in Viral-Induced Gastroenteritis: A TEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, M. John; Barrish, James P.; Hayes, Elizabeth S.; Leer, Laurie C.; Estes, Mary K.; Cubitt, W. D.

    1995-10-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis is a common cause of hospitalization in the pediatric population. The most frequent cause of gastroenteritis is viral in origin. The purpose of this study was to compare a rapid modified negative-staining TEM method with the conventional pseudoreplica technique in detection of viral particles in fecal samples from children with viral gastroenteritis. The modified negative-staining method resulted in a significantly higher (2.5 ± 0.5, p = 0.02) viral rating score than that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique (1.7 ± 0.4). In addition, the preparation time for the negative-staining method was approximately one fifth that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique. Rapid diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis may be made by ultrastructural detection of viral particles in fecal samples using the negative staining technique.

  7. Viral vectors for vascular gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Lukas; Preis, Meir; Weisz, Anat; Koren, Belly; Lewis, Basil S; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2002-01-01

    Vascular gene therapy is the focus of multiple experimental and clinical research efforts. While several genes with therapeutic potential have been identified, the best method of gene delivery is unknown. Viral vectors have the capacity to transfer genes at high efficiency rates. Several viral-based vectors have been used in experimental vascular gene therapy for in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer. Adenoviral-based vectors are being used for the induction of angiogenesis in phase 1 and 2 clini...

  8. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  10. Persistence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Is Determined by a Cellular Cofactor of a Viral Autoprotease

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, T.; Müller, A.; König, M; Thiel, H.-J.; Tautz, N.

    2005-01-01

    Polyprotein processing control is a crucial step in the life cycle of positive-strand RNA viruses. Recently, a vital autoprotease generating an essential viral replication factor was identified in such a virus, namely, the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus. Surprisingly, the activity of this protease, which resides in nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), diminishes early after infection, resulting in the limitation of viral RNA replication. Here, we describe that a cellular chaperone termed Ji...

  11. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with viral meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Tomoko; Harada, Tamaki; Sakai, Kanaki; Takeji, Masanobu; Takahara, Ken; Uzu, Takashi; Yamauchi, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    A 53-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for a high fever. He suffered a change in personality, memory loss and disorientation as well. The findings of cerebrospinal fluid showed monocytosis, but the titers of glucose, C1 and ADA were all normal. Although there was no bacterium in the CSF, the patient's electroencephalography finding was abnormal. We diagnosed his condition as viral meningoencephalitis and started treatment with antiviral agents. Blood chemistry showed serum sodium of 130 mEq/l and plasma osmolarity was reduced to 272 mOsm/kg, while urine osmolarity was high at 353 mOsm/kg. Two potential causes of hyponatremia in this patient were the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). Physical findings revealed a contracted extracellular fluid volume, strongly suggesting the presence of CSWS. The massive urine sodium loss overcoming sodium intake supported this diagnosis. After treatment with vigorous sodium and volume replacement for over 4 weeks, hyponatremia as well as meningoencephalitis were improved without any complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on CSWS in a patient with viral meningoencephalitis.

  12. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  13. Viral Metagenomics: MetaView Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C; Smith, J

    2007-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to design and develop a tool for analysis of raw sequence read data from viral metagenomics experiments. The tool should compare read sequences of known viral nucleic acid sequence data and enable a user to attempt to determine, with some degree of confidence, what virus groups may be present in the sample. This project was conducted in two phases. In phase 1 we surveyed the literature and examined existing metagenomics tools to educate ourselves and to more precisely define the problem of analyzing raw read data from viral metagenomic experiments. In phase 2 we devised an approach and built a prototype code and database. This code takes viral metagenomic read data in fasta format as input and accesses all complete viral genomes from Kpath for sequence comparison. The system executes at the UNIX command line, producing output that is stored in an Oracle relational database. We provide here a description of the approach we came up with for handling un-assembled, short read data sets from viral metagenomics experiments. We include a discussion of the current MetaView code capabilities and additional functionality that we believe should be added, should additional funding be acquired to continue the work.

  14. Bioinformatics tools for analysing viral genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, R J; Gu, Q; Hughes, J; Maabar, M; Modha, S; Vattipally, S B; Wilkie, G S; Davison, A J

    2016-04-01

    The field of viral genomics and bioinformatics is experiencing a strong resurgence due to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology, which enables the rapid and cost-effective sequencing and subsequent assembly of large numbers of viral genomes. In addition, the unprecedented power of HTS technologies has enabled the analysis of intra-host viral diversity and quasispecies dynamics in relation to important biological questions on viral transmission, vaccine resistance and host jumping. HTS also enables the rapid identification of both known and potentially new viruses from field and clinical samples, thus adding new tools to the fields of viral discovery and metagenomics. Bioinformatics has been central to the rise of HTS applications because new algorithms and software tools are continually needed to process and analyse the large, complex datasets generated in this rapidly evolving area. In this paper, the authors give a brief overview of the main bioinformatics tools available for viral genomic research, with a particular emphasis on HTS technologies and their main applications. They summarise the major steps in various HTS analyses, starting with quality control of raw reads and encompassing activities ranging from consensus and de novo genome assembly to variant calling and metagenomics, as well as RNA sequencing.

  15. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytawan Thanunchai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs are a subset of nonhematopoietic adult stem cells, readily isolated from various tissues and easily culture-expanded ex vivo. Intensive studies of the immune modulation and tissue regeneration over the past few years have demonstrated the great potential of MSCs for the prevention and treatment of steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD, immune-related disorders, and viral diseases. In immunocompromised individuals, the immunomodulatory activities of MSCs have raised safety concerns regarding the greater risk of primary viral infection and viral reactivation, which is a major cause of mortality after allogeneic transplantation. Moreover, high susceptibilities of MSCs to viral infections in vitro could reflect the destructive outcomes that might impair the clinical efficacy of MSCs infusion. However, the interplay between MSCs and virus is like a double-edge sword, and it also provides beneficial effects such as allowing the proliferation and function of antiviral specific effector cells instead of suppressing them, serving as an ideal tool for study of viral pathogenesis, and protecting hosts against viral challenge by using the antimicrobial activity. Here, we therefore review favorable and unfavorable consequences of MSCs and virus interaction with the highlight of safety and efficacy for applying MSCs as cell therapy.

  16. Evaluation of viral shellfish depuration in a semi-professional tank

    OpenAIRE

    Pommepuy, Monique; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Le Mennec, Cecile; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Madec, Yvon; Monier, Martial; Brest, Goulven; Le Guyader, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    Depuration processes try to eliminate microorganisms using seawater to allow living, filter-feeding shellfish to naturally purge themselves from agents they accumulated from the environment. Until now the only parameter to evaluate depuration was the decrease in E. coli counts. Studies have shown that viruses can persist in the environment longer than E. coli and that shellfish meeting the endstandard (< 230 E.colil /100g) have been involved in viral outbreaks. Starting in February 2000, the ...

  17. Tailored delivery of analgesic ziconotide across a blood brain barrier model using viral nanocontainers

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Anand; Alison O’Neil; Emily Lin; Trevor Douglas; Mandë Holford

    2015-01-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is often an insurmountable obstacle for a large number of candidate drugs, including peptides, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents. Devising an adroit delivery method to cross the BBB is essential to unlocking widespread application of peptide therapeutics. Presented here is an engineered nanocontainer for delivering peptidic drugs across the BBB encapsulating the analgesic marine snail peptide ziconotide (Prialt®). We developed a bi-functional viral nanocon...

  18. Stampidine prevents mortality in an experimental mouse model of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by lassa virus

    OpenAIRE

    Tibbles Heather E; Vassilev Alexei O; Petkevich Alexander S; Uckun Fatih M; Titov Leonid

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The potential use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare (BW) is a growing concern. Lassa virus, a member of the Arenavirus class of Hemorrhagic fever (HF) viruses has emerged as a worldwide concern among public health officials. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the antiviral activity spectrum of stampidine, a novel nucleoside analog with potent anti-viral activity against the immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1, HIV-2, and FIV, by examining ...

  19. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal;

    2016-01-01

    concentrations of the ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect the susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). During exposure to sublethal algal concentrations, the fish increased production of mucus on their gills. When fish were exposed to the algae...... on the experimental setup. We concluded that depending on the local exposure conditions, sublethal concentrations of P. parvum could affect susceptibility of fish to infectious agents such as VHSV....

  20. Evaluation on Anti-hepatitis Viral Activity of Vitis vinifer L

    OpenAIRE

    Long Ma; Haibo Li; Jun Zhao; Tao Liu

    2010-01-01

    Suosuo grape (Vitis vinifer L) is traditionally used as a therapeutic agent for measles and hepatitis by the ethnic Uighurs. This work aimed to investigate the anti-HBV effect of total triterpene (VTT), total flavonoids (VTF) and total polysaccharides (VTP) from Suosuo grape, and their synergistic effects were also tested. The viral antigens of cellular secretion, HBsAg and HBeAg, were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The quantity of HBV-DNA released in the supernatant ...

  1. Comparing viral metagenomics methods using a highly multiplexed human viral pathogens reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Mee, Edward T; Collot-Teixeira, Sophie; Anderson, Rob; Schepelmann, Silke; Minor, Philip D; Delwart, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Unbiased metagenomic sequencing holds significant potential as a diagnostic tool for the simultaneous detection of any previously genetically described viral nucleic acids in clinical samples. Viral genome sequences can also inform on likely phenotypes including drug susceptibility or neutralization serotypes. In this study, different variables of the laboratory methods often used to generate viral metagenomics libraries were compared for their abilities to detect multiple viruses and generate full genome coverage. A biological reagent consisting of 25 different human RNA and DNA viral pathogens was used to estimate the effect of filtration and nuclease digestion, DNA/RNA extraction methods, pre-amplification and the use of different library preparation kits on the detection of viral nucleic acids. Filtration and nuclease treatment led to slight decreases in the percentage of viral sequence reads and number of viruses detected. For nucleic acid extractions silica spin columns improved viral sequence recovery relative to magnetic beads and Trizol extraction. Pre-amplification using random RT-PCR while generating more viral sequence reads resulted in detection of fewer viruses, more overlapping sequences, and lower genome coverage. The ScriptSeq library preparation method retrieved more viruses and a greater fraction of their genomes than the TruSeq and Nextera methods. Viral metagenomics sequencing was able to simultaneously detect up to 22 different viruses in the biological reagent analyzed including all those detected by qPCR. Further optimization will be required for the detection of viruses in biologically more complex samples such as tissues, blood, or feces.

  2. DNA vaccines for viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Donnelly

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA plasmids encoding foreign proteins may be used as immunogens by direct intramuscular injection alone, or with various adjuvants and excipients, or by delivery of DNA-coated gold particles to the epidermis through biolistic immunization. Antibody, helper T lymphocyte, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses have been induced in laboratory and domesticated animals by these methods. In a number of animal models, immune responses induced by DNA vaccination have been shown to be protective against challenge with various infectious agents. Immunization by injection of plasmids encoding foreign proteins has been used successfully as a research tool. This review summarizes the types of DNA vaccine vectors in common use, the immune responses and protective responses that have been obtained in animal models, the safety considerations pertinent to the evaluation of DNA vaccines in humans and the very limited information that is available from early clinical studies.

  3. Understanding of viral assembly through characterization of virus like nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyutin, Andrey

    Virus like nanoparticles (VNPs) are a versatile platform for the development of novel materials that can be used in clinical applications or to study fundamental aspects of viral self-assembly and biophysics. In this work I summarize my progress on three VNP based studies. (1) We perform small angle X-ray scattering, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) combined with single particle reconstruction, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize structure and properties of VNPs containing gold coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs). These 11 nm NPs can be functionalized with HS-PEG-COOH ligand and maintain native protein structure and excellent magnetic properties, making them suitable for use as contrast agents in MRI. (2) Light scattering and cryo-EM and tomography are applied to study the assembly mechanism of BMV capsids around gold NPs. A novel mechanism of assembly is observed that, upon initiation of assembly, proceeds through an intermediary aggregation step of proteins and NPs, followed by protein annealing, and a release of assembled VNPs. This mechanism could have biological relevance to native virus assembly, as it exemplifies the versatility and robustness of the BMV protein, its ability to rescue assembly even in an aggregated state, as derived from the need to assemble in a variety of hosts and conditions. (3) The effects of crowding conditions, as mimicked by PEG6000 and Ficoll 70, on the assembly of empty capsids of BMV and structure of native BMV virions are investigated by light scattering, cryo-EM, and single particle reconstruction. Native virions display reduction in overall size, dependent on crowding agent concentration; whereas the assembly of empty capsids is greatly accelerated in crowded conditions at a range of ionic strengths. This work further displays the need for in vivo methods to study viral properties, as in vitro experiments miss the complexities of the cell.

  4. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    polishing by Karl Habel (a superb senior virologist who left the National Institutes of Health and came to Scripps), and the gifted postdoctoral fellows who joined my laboratory over four decades form the log of my scientific voyage. The strong friendships and collaborations developed with other young but growing experimentalists like Bernie Fields and Abner Notkins are the fabric of the tale I will weave and were pivotal in the establishment of viral pathogenesis as a discipline.

  5. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    polishing by Karl Habel (a superb senior virologist who left the National Institutes of Health and came to Scripps), and the gifted postdoctoral fellows who joined my laboratory over four decades form the log of my scientific voyage. The strong friendships and collaborations developed with other young but growing experimentalists like Bernie Fields and Abner Notkins are the fabric of the tale I will weave and were pivotal in the establishment of viral pathogenesis as a discipline. PMID:26514062

  6. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  7. Mechanism of action and application of virocids in health care-associated viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Shahbaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are important causes of acute and chronic diseases in humans. Newer viruses are still being discovered. Apart from frequently causing infections in the general community, many types of viruses are significant nosocomial pathogens that with emerging viruses has become a real issue in medical field. There are specific treatments, vaccine and physical barrier to fight some of these infections. Health care-associated viral infections are an important source of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The method of sterilization or disinfection depends on the intended use of the medical devices (comprising critical, semicritical and noncritical items and failure to perform proper sterilization or disinfection of these items may leads to introduction of viruses, resulting in infection. Disinfection is an essential way in reducing or disruption of transmission of viruses by environmental surfaces, instruments and hands which achieves by chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, respectively. This review discusses about chemical agents with virocids properties (e.g. alcohols, chlorine compounds, formaldehyde, phenolic compounds, glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, iodophor, ammonium compounds quaternary, bigunides and so on., mechanisms of action and their applications in health care-associated viral infection control. As well as, we described an overview for hierarchy of viruses in challenge with disinfantans, effective agents on viral inactivation, i.e.targect viruses, viral stability or survival duration time in enviromental surfaces and hands. We explained disinfection of surfaces, challenges in emerging viral pathogens inactivation, viral resistance to chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. Because, there are laboratory studies and clinical evidences for some viruses which viral resistance to biocide or failure to perform proper disinfection can lead to infection outbreaks. Also, we described virucidal

  8. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  9. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  10. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  11. Bacterial coinfections in children with viral wheezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, P; Jartti, T; Virkki, R; Vuorinen, T; Leinonen, M; Peltola, V; Ruohola, A; Ruuskanen, O

    2006-07-01

    Bacterial coinfections occur in respiratory viral infections, but the attack rates and the clinical profile are not clear. The aim of this study was to determine bacterial coinfections in children hospitalized for acute expiratory wheezing with defined viral etiology. A total of 220 children aged 3 months to 16 years were investigated. The viral etiology of wheezing was confirmed by viral culture, antigen detection, serologic investigation, and/or PCR. Specific antibodies to common respiratory bacteria were measured from acute and convalescent serum samples. All children were examined clinically for acute otitis media, and subgroups of children were examined radiologically for sinusitis and pneumonia. Rhinovirus (32%), respiratory syncytial virus (31%), and enteroviruses (31%) were the most common causative viruses. Serologic evidence of bacterial coinfection was found in 18% of the children. Streptococcus pneumoniae (8%) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5%) were the most common causative bacteria. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 44% of the children. Chest radiographs showed alveolar infiltrates in 10%, and paranasal radiographs and clinical signs showed sinusitis in 17% of the older children studied. Leukocyte counts and serum C-reactive protein levels were low in a great majority of patients. Viral lower respiratory tract infection in children is often associated with bacterial-type upper respiratory tract infections. However, coexisting bacterial lower respiratory tract infections that induce systemic inflammatory response are seldom detected.

  12. Pancreatic involvement in chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiki Katakura; Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi; Kiyoe Hashizume; Chiaki Okuse; Noriaki Okuse; Kohji Nishikawa; Michihiro Suzuki; Shiro Iino; Fumio Itoh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic disorders in the course of chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the serum pancreatic enzyme levels and imaging findings in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Serum amylase (t-Amy), salivary amylase (s-Amy), pancreatic amylase (p-Amy) and serum lipase levels were higher in hepatitis patients in comparison to control subjects. However, in asymptomatic viral carriers, only the serum t-Amy levels were higher than those of the controls. The levels of each enzyme rose with the progression of liver disease in patients with hepatitis B or C; whereas the levels of each enzyme within the same clinical stage of the disease did not differ between patients diagnosed with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Imaging findings demonstrated chronic pancreatitis in only 1 out of 202 patients (0.5%).CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum levels of pancreatic enzymes increase with the progression of liver disease in patients diagnosed with viral hepatitis. Pancreatic disease, asymptomatic in most cases, may represent an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic viral hepatitis.

  13. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  14. Final Technical Report: Viral Infection of Subsurface Microorganisms and Metal/Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Bender, Kelly S.; Li, Yusong

    2013-09-28

    Microbially mediated metabolisms have been identified as a significant factor either directly or indirectly impacting the fate and transport of heavy metal/radionuclide contaminants. To date microorganisms have been isolated from contaminated environments. Examination of annotated finished genome sequences of many of these subsurface isolates from DOE sites, revealed evidence of prior viral infection. To date the role that viruses play influencing microbial mortality and the resulting community structure which directly influences biogeochemical cycling in soils and sedimentary environments remains poorly understood. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the role of viral infection of subsurface bacteria and the formation of contaminant-bearing viral particles. This objective was approached by examining the following working hypotheses: (i) subsurface microorganisms are susceptible to viral infections by the indigenous subsurface viral community, and (ii) viral surfaces will adsorb heavy metals and radionuclides. Our results have addressed basic research needed to accomplish the BER Long Term Measure to provide sufficient scientific understanding such that DOE sites would be able to incorporate coupled physical, chemical and biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation or natural attenuation and long-term stewardship by establishing viral-microbial relationships on the subsequent fate and transport of heavy metals and radionuclides. Here we demonstrated that viruses play a significant role in microbial mortality and community structure in terrestrial subsurface sedimentary systems. The production of viral-like particles within subsurface sediments in response to biostimulation with dissolved organic carbon and a terminal electron acceptor resulted in the production of viral-like particles. Organic carbon alone did not result in significant viral production and required the addition of a terminal electron acceptor

  15. Viral detection by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    We applied a high-throughput sequencing platform, Ion PGM, for viral detection in fecal samples from adult cows collected in Hokkaido, Japan. Random RT-PCR was performed to amplify RNA extracted from 0.25 ml of fecal specimens (N = 8), and more than 5 μg of cDNA was synthesized. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing using the 318 v2 semiconductor chip of these eight samples yielded 57-580 K (average: 270 K, after data analysis) reads in a single run. As a result, viral genome sequences were detected in each specimen. In addition to bacteriophage, mammal- and insect-derived viruses, partial genome sequences of plant, algal, and protozoal viruses were detected. Thus, this metagenomic analysis of fecal specimens could be useful to comprehensively understand viral populations of the intestine and food sources in animals. PMID:25287501

  16. Viral detection by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    We applied a high-throughput sequencing platform, Ion PGM, for viral detection in fecal samples from adult cows collected in Hokkaido, Japan. Random RT-PCR was performed to amplify RNA extracted from 0.25 ml of fecal specimens (N = 8), and more than 5 μg of cDNA was synthesized. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing using the 318 v2 semiconductor chip of these eight samples yielded 57-580 K (average: 270 K, after data analysis) reads in a single run. As a result, viral genome sequences were detected in each specimen. In addition to bacteriophage, mammal- and insect-derived viruses, partial genome sequences of plant, algal, and protozoal viruses were detected. Thus, this metagenomic analysis of fecal specimens could be useful to comprehensively understand viral populations of the intestine and food sources in animals.

  17. [Treatment for viral hepatitis in institutionalized individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Jadranka

    2009-12-01

    The presence and spread of viral hepatitis infection in the prison population is much higher than in the general population. Prisoners represent a combination of several high risk subpopulations and are therefore generally considered a high risk category. When outside the prison system, members of these high risk groups are generally not available for education, prevention and therapy. While within the prison system, they are available for systematic and continuing monitoring and therapy. This includes testing of their HBV, HCV and HIV status. Due to the high incidence of viral hepatitis in the prison population and based on the results of a study from 2007, we established the Prison System Viral Hepatitis Counseling Center. The Center operates within the internal ward of the Prison Hospital. Currently, 42 patients are treated for chronic hepatitis C. The Center's Plan and Operating Program and treatment results are presented. PMID:20198905

  18. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  19. [Viral hepatitis: from A to G viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios R, R

    1996-01-01

    Great advances has been achieved in the last 10 years in the study of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. The enigma of non-A non-B viral hepatitis was disclosed when C virus was identified and later when E virus was isolated. New viruses has been searched to explain non-A to non-E viral hepatitis, being reported recently G virus. Epidemiology and clinical aspects has been reviewed identifying unusual clinical forms: choletasic and relapsing hepatitis in HAV infection; escape mutants B virus hepatitis in HVB infection; and the silent evolution to chronicity in more than 70% of cases in HVC infection. Diagnostic techniques has been developed to asses serum antibodies and the virus itself. It is important to quantitate the viral particles in the serum before treatment. PCR technique has been used with good results. A and E virus do not remain in the host and permanent inmunity is obtained after infection is resolved. 10% of B and 80% of C viral hepatitis goes to chronicity. So far, the only drug used to treat chronic viral B, D and C hepatitis is interferon alfa, obtaining good response en 40%. Combinations with Rivabirin and increasing the dose, frequency and duration of interferon treatment are in study. lt is a recomendation to treat acute HCV infection with Interferon alfa to prevent chronicity. Vaccines against A and B virus are used, being included in childhood vaccination programs. No HVC vaccine has developed probably to constant virus mutancy. New chalenges are present in this field and in the identification of new hepatitis viruses. PMID:12165788

  20. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  1. The agents of natural genome editing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guenther Witzany

    2011-01-01

    The DNA serves as a stable information storage medium and every protein which is needed by the cell is produced from this blueprint via an RNA intermediate code. More recently it was found that an abundance of various RNA elements cooperate in a variety of steps and substeps as regulatory and catalytic units with multiple competencies to act on RNA transcripts. Natural genome editing on one side is the competent agent*driven generation and integration of meaningful DNA nucleotide sequences into pre-existing genomic content arrangements, and the ability to (re-)combine and (re-)regulate them according to context-dependent (i.e. adaptational) purposes of the host organism. Natural genome editing on the other side designates the integration of all RNA activities acting on RNA transcripts without altering DNA-encoded genes. If we take the genetic code seriously as a natural code, there must be agents that are competent to act on this code because no natural code codes itself as no natural language speaks itself. As code editing agents,viral and subviral agents have been suggested because there are several indicators that demonstrate viruses competent in both RNA and DNA natural genome editing.

  2. Temporary divergence paralysis in viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Stef L M; Gan, Ivan M

    2008-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman who reported diplopia and headache was found to have comitant esotropia at distance fixation and normal alignment at reading distance (divergence paralysis). Eye movement, including abduction, was normal as was the rest of the neurologic examination. Brain MRI was normal. Lumbar puncture showed an elevated opening pressure and a cerebrospinal fluid formula consistent with viral meningitis. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and analgesics and with a temporary prism to alleviate diplopia. Within 3 weeks, she had fully recovered. This is the first report of divergence palsy in viral meningitis.

  3. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    Honey bees are important insects for human welfare, due to pollination as well as honey production. Viral diseases strongly impact honey bee health, especially since the spread of varroa mites. This dissertation deals with the interactions between honey bees, viruses and varroa mites. A new tool...... was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies under...

  4. Nanostructures for the Inhibition of Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Barras, Alexandre; Khanal, Manakamana; Pagneux, Quentin; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    Multivalent interactions are omnipresent in biology and confer biological systems with dramatically enhanced affinities towards different receptors. Such multivalent binding interactions have lately been considered for the development of new therapeutic strategies against bacterial and viral infections. Multivalent polymers, dendrimers, and liposomes have successfully targeted pathogenic interactions. While a high synthetic effort was often needed for the development of such therapeutics, the integration of multiple ligands onto nanostructures turned to be a viable alternative. Particles modified with multiple ligands have the additional advantage of creating a high local concentration of binding molecules. This review article will summarize the different nanoparticle-based approaches currently available for the treatment of viral infections.

  5. ViralORFeome: an integrated database to generate a versatile collection of viral ORFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, J; Tafforeau, L; Lucas-Hourani, M; Navratil, V; Meyniel, L; Achaz, G; Guironnet-Paquet, A; Aublin-Gex, A; Caignard, G; Cassonnet, P; Chaboud, A; Chantier, T; Deloire, A; Demeret, C; Le Breton, M; Neveu, G; Jacotot, L; Vaglio, P; Delmotte, S; Gautier, C; Combet, C; Deleage, G; Favre, M; Tangy, F; Jacob, Y; Andre, P; Lotteau, V; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Vidalain, P O

    2010-01-01

    Large collections of protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) established in a versatile recombination-based cloning system have been instrumental to study protein functions in high-throughput assays. Such 'ORFeome' resources have been developed for several organisms but in virology, plasmid collections covering a significant fraction of the virosphere are still needed. In this perspective, we present ViralORFeome 1.0 (http://www.viralorfeome.com), an open-access database and management system that provides an integrated set of bioinformatic tools to clone viral ORFs in the Gateway(R) system. ViralORFeome provides a convenient interface to navigate through virus genome sequences, to design ORF-specific cloning primers, to validate the sequence of generated constructs and to browse established collections of virus ORFs. Most importantly, ViralORFeome has been designed to manage all possible variants or mutants of a given ORF so that the cloning procedure can be applied to any emerging virus strain. A subset of plasmid constructs generated with ViralORFeome platform has been tested with success for heterologous protein expression in different expression systems at proteome scale. ViralORFeome should provide our community with a framework to establish a large collection of virus ORF clones, an instrumental resource to determine functions, activities and binding partners of viral proteins.

  6. Mutagenic Effects of Ribavirin on Hepatitis E Virus—Viral Extinction versus Selection of Fitness-Enhancing Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Daniel; Walter, Stephanie; Brown, Richard J. P.; Steinmann, Eike

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an important agent of viral hepatitis worldwide, can cause severe courses of infection in pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. To date, HEV infections can only be treated with ribavirin (RBV). Major drawbacks of this therapy are that RBV is not approved for administration to pregnant women and that the virus can acquire mutations, which render the intra-host population less sensitive or even resistant to RBV. One of the proposed modes of action of RBV is a direct mutagenic effect on viral genomes, inducing mismatches and subsequent nucleotide substitutions. These transition events can drive the already error-prone viral replication beyond an error threshold, causing viral population extinction. In contrast, the expanded heterogeneous viral population can facilitate selection of mutant viruses with enhanced replication fitness. Emergence of these mutant viruses can lead to therapeutic failure. Consequently, the onset of RBV treatment in chronically HEV-infected individuals can result in two divergent outcomes: viral extinction versus selection of fitness-enhanced viruses. Following an overview of RNA viruses treated with RBV in clinics and a summary of the different antiviral modes of action of this drug, we focus on the mutagenic effect of RBV on HEV intrahost populations, and how HEV is able to overcome lethal mutagenesis. PMID:27754363

  7. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  8. Immunosuppression associated with novel chemotherapy agents and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Vicki A

    2014-11-15

    The introduction of novel agents to the therapeutic armamentarium for oncologic, rheumatologic, and neurologic disorders has resulted in major clinical advances. These agents impact immune function, resulting in a discrete spectrum of infectious complications. Purine analogues and alemtuzumab alter cell-mediated immunity, resulting in opportunistic viral/fungal infections. Herpes zoster incidence increases with bortezomib. Hepatitis B reactivation may occur with rituximab. Cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy have occurred following monoclonal antibody therapy. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy is complicated by tuberculosis reactivation and fungal infections. We summarize the impact of these therapies on pathogenesis and spectrum of infection complicating their usage. PMID:25352632

  9. Using a Pan-Viral Microarray Assay (Virochip) to Screen Clinical Samples for Viral Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice C Chen; Miller, Steve A.; Joseph L DeRisi; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of viral causes of many infectious diseases is difficult due to the inherent sequence diversity of viruses as well as the ongoing emergence of novel viral pathogens, such as SARS coronavirus and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, that are not detectable by traditional methods. To address these challenges, we have previously developed and validated a pan-viral microarray platform called the Virochip with the capacity to detect all known viruses as well as novel variants on the b...

  10. Tissue interactions of avian viral attachment proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can infect a wide range of hosts; varying from bacteria and plants to animals and humans. While many viral infections may pass unnoticed, some are of major importance due to their implications on health and welfare of plants, animals and/or humans. In particular, viruses that can infect avia

  11. History and Global Burden of Viral Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Hubert E

    2016-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1989, 5 hepatotropic viruses have been discovered that are the major causes of viral hepatitides worldwide: hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis delta virus and hepatitis E virus. Their epidemiology and pathogenesis have been studied in great detail. Furthermore, the structure and genetic organization of their DNA or RNA genome including the viral life cycle have been elucidated and have been successfully translated into important clinical applications, such as the specific diagnosis, therapy and prevention of the associated liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of acute and chronic viral hepatitis A-E shows distinct geographic differences. The global burden of disease (prevalence, incidence, death, disability-adjusted life years) has been analyzed in seminal studies that show that the worldwide prevalence of hepatitis A-E has significantly decreased between 1990 and 2013. During the same time, the incidence of HBV-related liver cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, also decreased or increased slightly, the incidence of the HCV-related liver cirrhosis remained stable and the incidence of HCV-related HCC showed a major increase. During the coming years, we expect to improve our ability to prevent and effectively treat viral hepatitis A-E, resulting in the control of these global infections and the elimination of their associated morbidities and mortalities. PMID:27170381

  12. Viral infections in asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Koichiro; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    Airway viral infections are associated with the pathogenesis of asthma and COPD. It has been argued that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infancy is a probable causal factor in the development of pediatric asthma. RSV infections tend to induce Th2-biased immune responses in the host airways. RSV infection, atopy, and low pulmonary function in neonates may work synergistically toward the development of pediatric asthma. Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a representative virus associated with the exacerbation of asthma in both children and adults. Viral infections trigger innate immune responses including granulocytic inflammation and worsen the underlying inflammation due to asthma and COPD. The innate immune responses involve type-I and -III interferon (IFN) production, which plays an important role in anti-viral responses, and the airway epithelia of asthmatics reportedly exhibit defects in the virus-induced IFN responses, which renders these individuals more susceptible to viral infection. A similarly impaired IFN response is seen in COPD, and several investigators propose that latent adenoviral infection may be involved in COPD development. Persistent RSV infections were detected in a sub-population of patients with COPD and were associated with the accelerated decline of lung function. The virus-induced upregulation of co-inhibitory molecules in the airway epithelium partly accounts for the persistent infections. Experimental animal models for virus-asthma/COPD interactions have shed light on the underlying immune mechanisms and are expected to help develop novel approaches to treat respiratory diseases.

  13. Global issues related to enteric viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Desselberger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral gastroenteritis is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with high annual mortality, particularly in children of developing countries. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses are the main causes. Accurate diagnoses are possible by recently developed molecular techniques. In many setups, zoonotic transmission is an important epidemiological factor. Treatment consists of rehydration and is otherwise symptomatic. The worldwide introduction of universal rotavirus vaccin...

  14. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  15. Meta-analyses on viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the meta-analyses of interventions for viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the interventions assessed are described in small trials with unclear bias control. Other interventions are supported by large, high-quality trials. Although attempts have been made to adjust...

  16. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. PMID:24018033

  17. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  18. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  19. The Role of Phlebovirus Glycoproteins in Viral Entry, Assembly and Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Martin; Plegge, Teresa; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic agents like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) as well as viruses that do not cause disease in humans, like Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). Phleboviruses and other bunyaviruses use their envelope proteins, Gn and Gc, for entry into target cells and for assembly of progeny particles in infected cells. Thus, binding of Gn and Gc to cell surface factors promotes viral attachment and uptake into cells and exposure to endosomal low pH induces Gc-driven fusion of the viral and the vesicle membranes. Moreover, Gn and Gc facilitate virion incorporation of the viral genome via their intracellular domains and Gn and Gc interactions allow the formation of a highly ordered glycoprotein lattice on the virion surface. Studies conducted in the last decade provided important insights into the configuration of phlebovirus Gn and Gc proteins in the viral membrane, the cellular factors used by phleboviruses for entry and the mechanisms employed by phlebovirus Gc proteins for membrane fusion. Here, we will review our knowledge on the glycoprotein biogenesis and the role of Gn and Gc proteins in the phlebovirus replication cycle. PMID:27455305

  20. The Role of Phlebovirus Glycoproteins in Viral Entry, Assembly and Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Spiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic agents like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV as well as viruses that do not cause disease in humans, like Uukuniemi virus (UUKV. Phleboviruses and other bunyaviruses use their envelope proteins, Gn and Gc, for entry into target cells and for assembly of progeny particles in infected cells. Thus, binding of Gn and Gc to cell surface factors promotes viral attachment and uptake into cells and exposure to endosomal low pH induces Gc-driven fusion of the viral and the vesicle membranes. Moreover, Gn and Gc facilitate virion incorporation of the viral genome via their intracellular domains and Gn and Gc interactions allow the formation of a highly ordered glycoprotein lattice on the virion surface. Studies conducted in the last decade provided important insights into the configuration of phlebovirus Gn and Gc proteins in the viral membrane, the cellular factors used by phleboviruses for entry and the mechanisms employed by phlebovirus Gc proteins for membrane fusion. Here, we will review our knowledge on the glycoprotein biogenesis and the role of Gn and Gc proteins in the phlebovirus replication cycle.

  1. Exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens among Soay sheep (Ovis aries) of the St Kilda archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A L; Nussey, D H; Lloyd-Smith, J O; Longbottom, D; Maley, M; Pemberton, J M; Pilkington, J G; Prager, K C; Smith, L; Watt, K A; Wilson, K; McNEILLY, T N; Brülisauer, F

    2016-07-01

    We assessed evidence of exposure to viruses and bacteria in an unmanaged and long-isolated population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting Hirta, in the St Kilda archipelago, 65 km west of Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The sheep harbour many metazoan and protozoan parasites but their exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens is unknown. We tested for herpes viral DNA in leucocytes and found that 21 of 42 tested sheep were infected with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). We also tested 750 plasma samples collected between 1997 and 2010 for evidence of exposure to seven other viral and bacterial agents common in domestic Scottish sheep. We found evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp., with overall seroprevalence of 6·5%. However, serological evidence indicated that the population had not been exposed to border disease, parainfluenza, maedi-visna, or orf viruses, nor to Chlamydia abortus. Some sheep tested positive for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) but, in the absence of retrospective faecal samples, the presence of this infection could not be confirmed. The roles of importation, the pathogen-host interaction, nematode co-infection and local transmission warrant future investigation, to elucidate the transmission ecology and fitness effects of the few viral and bacterial pathogens on Hirta. PMID:26829883

  2. In vitro evaluation of marine-microorganism extracts for anti-viral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhara-Bell Jarred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral-induced infectious diseases represent a major health threat and their control remains an unachieved goal, due in part to the limited availability of effective anti-viral drugs and measures. The use of natural products in drug manufacturing is an ancient and well-established practice. Marine organisms are known producers of pharmacological and anti-viral agents. In this study, a total of 20 extracts from marine microorganisms were evaluated for their antiviral activity. These extracts were tested against two mammalian viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, using Vero cells as the cell culture system, and two marine virus counterparts, channel catfish virus (CCV and snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV, in their respective cell cultures (CCO and EPC. Evaluation of these extracts demonstrated that some possess antiviral potential. In sum, extracts 162M(4, 258M(1, 298M(4, 313(2, 331M(2, 367M(1 and 397(1 appear to be effective broad-spectrum antivirals with potential uses as prophylactic agents to prevent infection, as evident by their highly inhibitive effects against both virus types. Extract 313(2 shows the most potential in that it showed significantly high inhibition across all tested viruses. The samples tested in this study were crude extracts; therefore the development of antiviral application of the few potential extracts is dependent on future studies focused on the isolation of the active elements contained in these extracts.

  3. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  4. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  5. Emerging complexities of APOBEC3G action on immunity and viral fitness during HIV infection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monajemi Mahdis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The enzyme APOBEC3G (A3G mutates the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV genome by converting deoxycytidine (dC to deoxyuridine (dU on minus strand viral DNA during reverse transcription. A3G restricts viral propagation by degrading or incapacitating the coding ability of the HIV genome. Thus, this enzyme has been perceived as an innate immune barrier to viral replication whilst adaptive immunity responses escalate to effective levels. The discovery of A3G less than a decade ago led to the promise of new anti-viral therapies based on manipulation of its cellular expression and/or activity. The rationale for therapeutic approaches has been solidified by demonstration of the effectiveness of A3G in diminishing viral replication in cell culture systems of HIV infection, reports of its mutational footprint in virions from patients, and recognition of its unusually robust enzymatic potential in biochemical studies in vitro. Despite its effectiveness in various experimental systems, numerous recent studies have shown that the ability of A3G to combat HIV in the physiological setting is severely limited. In fact, it has become apparent that its mutational activity may actually enhance viral fitness by accelerating HIV evolution towards the evasion of both anti-viral drugs and the immune system. This body of work suggests that the role of A3G in HIV infection is more complex than heretofore appreciated and supports the hypothesis that HIV has evolved to exploit the action of this host factor. Here we present an overview of recent data that bring to light historical overestimation of A3G’s standing as a strictly anti-viral agent. We discuss the limitations of experimental systems used to assess its activities as well as caveats in data interpretation.

  6. Type I IFN Signaling Is Dispensable during Secondary Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Martin P; Flynn, Claudia T; Whitton, J Lindsay

    2016-08-01

    Innate immune responses in general, and type I interferons (T1IFNs) in particular, play an important and often essential role during primary viral infections, by directly combatting the virus and by maximizing the primary adaptive immune response. Several studies have suggested that T1IFNs also contribute very substantially to the secondary (recall) response; they are thought (i) to be required to drive the early attrition of memory T cells, (ii) to support the subsequent expansion of surviving virus-specific memory cells, and (iii) to assist in the suppression and clearance of the infectious agent. However, many of these observations were predicated upon models in which T1IFN signaling was interrupted prior to a primary immune response, raising the possibility that the resulting memory cells might be intrinsically abnormal. We have directly addressed this by using an inducible-Cre model system in which the host remains genetically-intact during the primary response to infection, and in which T1IFN signaling can be effectively ablated prior to secondary viral challenge. We report that, in stark contrast to primary infection, T1IFN signaling is not required during the recall response. IFNαβR-deficient memory CD8+ and CD4+ memory T cells undergo attrition and expansion with kinetics that are indistinguishable from those of receptor-sufficient cells. Moreover, even in the absence of functional T1IFN signaling, the host's immune capacity to rapidly suppress, and then to eradicate, a secondary infection remains intact. Thus, this study shows that T1IFN signaling is dispensable during the recall response to a virus infection. Moreover, two broader implications may be drawn. First, a T cell's requirement for a cytokine is highly dependent on the cell's maturation / differentiation status. Consequently, second, these data underscore the importance of evaluating a gene's impact by modulating its expression or function in a temporally-controllable manner. PMID:27580079

  7. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. II. Morphological reactions and distribution of viral antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, H B

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus on fetal bovine tissues as well as the tissue-localization of viral antigen are described. Four bovine fetuses, 120-165 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Lymphoid tissues were studied by light and electron microscopy. The infection induced precocious development of the secondary lymphoid organs. Characteristic changes were seen in postcapillary venules, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte ...

  8. Modeling viral evolutionary dynamics after telaprevir-based treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L Haseltine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV, the combination of the direct-acting antiviral agent telaprevir, pegylated-interferon alfa (Peg-IFN, and ribavirin (RBV significantly increases the chances of sustained virologic response (SVR over treatment with Peg-IFN and RBV alone. If patients do not achieve SVR with telaprevir-based treatment, their viral population is often significantly enriched with telaprevir-resistant variants at the end of treatment. We sought to quantify the evolutionary dynamics of these post-treatment resistant variant populations. Previous estimates of these dynamics were limited by analyzing only population sequence data (20% sensitivity, qualitative resistance information from 388 patients enrolled in Phase 3 clinical studies. Here we add clonal sequence analysis (5% sensitivity, quantitative for a subset of these patients. We developed a computational model which integrates both the qualitative and quantitative sequence data, and which forms a framework for future analyses of drug resistance. The model was qualified by showing that deep-sequence data (1% sensitivity from a subset of these patients are consistent with model predictions. When determining the median time for viral populations to revert to 20% resistance in these patients, the model predicts 8.3 (95% CI: 7.6, 8.4 months versus 10.7 (9.9, 12.8 months estimated using solely population sequence data for genotype 1a, and 1.0 (0.0, 1.4 months versus 0.9 (0.0, 2.7 months for genotype 1b. For each individual patient, the time to revert to 20% resistance predicted by the model was typically comparable to or faster than that estimated using solely population sequence data. Furthermore, the model predicts a median of 11.0 and 2.1 months after treatment failure for viral populations to revert to 99% wild-type in patients with HCV genotypes 1a or 1b, respectively. Our modeling approach provides a framework for projecting accurate, quantitative assessment of

  9. Viral perturbations of host networks reflect disease etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C; Calderwood, Michael A; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Decaprio, James A; Cusick, Michael E; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

  10. Viral perturbations of host networks reflect disease etiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Gulbahce

    Full Text Available Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases, are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases, either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and human papillomavirus (HPV, we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia.

  11. Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P.; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; DeCaprio, James A.; Cusick, Michael E.; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E.; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

  12. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  13. Comparative Viral Metagenomics of Environmental Samples from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Soo; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of metagenomics into the field of virology has facilitated the exploration of viral communities in various natural habitats. Understanding the viral ecology of a variety of sample types throughout the biosphere is important per se, but it also has potential applications in clinical and diagnostic virology. However, the procedures used by viral metagenomics may produce technical errors, such as amplification bias, while public viral databases are very limited, which may hamper...

  14. Patterns and ecological drivers of ocean viral communities

    OpenAIRE

    Brum, Jennifer R.; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Roux, Simon; Doulcier, Guilhem; Acinas, Silvia G; Alberti, Adriana; Chaffron, Samuel; Cruaud, Corinne; de Vargas, Colomban; Gasol, Josep M; Gorsky, Gabriel; Gregory, Ann C.; Guidi, Lionel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Viruses influence ecosystems by modulating microbial population size, diversity, metabolic outputs, and gene flow. Here, we use quantitative double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viral-fraction metagenomes (viromes) and whole viral community morphological data sets from 43 Tara Oceans expedition samples to assess viral community patterns and structure in the upper ocean. Protein cluster cataloging defined pelagic upper-ocean viral community pan and core gene sets and suggested that this sequence space ...

  15. Toward Information Diffusion Model for Viral Marketing in Business

    OpenAIRE

    Lulwah AlSuwaidan; Mourad Ykhlef

    2016-01-01

    Current obstacles in the study of social media marketing include dealing with massive data and real-time updates have motivated to contribute solutions that can be adopted for viral marketing. Since information diffusion and social networks are the core of viral marketing, this article aims to investigate the constellation of diffusion methods for viral marketing. Studies on diffusion methods for viral marketing have applied different computational methods, but a systematic investigation of t...

  16. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  17. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  18. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  19. History and Current Status of Development and Use of Viral Insecticides in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulian Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of insect viruses as biological control agents started in the early 1960s in China. To date, more than 32 viruses have been used to control insect pests in agriculture, forestry, pastures, and domestic gardens in China. In 2014, 57 products from 11 viruses were authorized as commercial viral insecticides by the Ministry of Agriculture of China. Approximately 1600 tons of viral insecticidal formulations have been produced annually in recent years, accounting for about 0.2% of the total insecticide output of China. The development and use of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus, Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus, Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus, and Periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus are discussed as case studies. Additionally, some baculoviruses have been genetically modified to improve their killing rate, infectivity, and ultraviolet resistance. In this context, the biosafety assessment of a genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus is discussed.

  20. Viral Hepatitis and Diabetes: Clinical Implications of Diabetes Prevention Through Hepatitis Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Ou, Horng-Yih; Lin, James; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chiu, Ken C

    2016-10-01

    Viral hepatitis has been posited to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis through vaccination has the potential to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes. We have shown that successful hepatitis B vaccination reduces the risk of diabetes by 33 %. Although diabetes can be prevented by behavior modification and pharmaceutical agents, these require significant personal commitment and cost. In contrast, diabetes prevention through hepatitis B vaccination would require little personal commitment and relatively low cost. In this review, we discuss hepatitis viruses A, B, and C and their interaction with diabetes; explore the potential underlying mechanisms and potential for hepatitis vaccination to reduce diabetes; and estimate the medical expense savings that would result from such an intervention. Given the projected increase of diabetes prevalence in the developing regions, where hepatitis B is endemic, exploration of such an intervention is very timely. PMID:27620495

  1. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  2. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Gastroenteritis in Hajj pilgrimage

    KAUST Repository

    Padron Regalado, Eriko

    2014-05-01

    Hajj is the annual gathering of Islam practitioners in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. During the event, gastrointestinal infections are usually experienced and outbreaks have always been a concern; nevertheless, a deep and integrative study of the etiological agents has never been carried out. Here, I describe for the first time the epidemiology of pathogenic enteric viruses during Hajj 2011, 2012 and 2013. The focus of this study was the common enteric viruses Astrovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus and Adenovirus. An enzyme Immunoassay established their presence in 14.9%, 15.0% and 6.6% of the reported cases of acute diarrhea for 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. For the three years of study, Astrovirus accounted for the majority of the viral infections. To our knowledge, this is the first time an epidemiological study depicts Astrovirus as the main viral agent of gastroenteritis in a mass gathering event. Hajj is rich in strains of Astrovirus, Norovirus and Rotavirus. A first screening by RT-PCR resulted in ten different genotypes. Strains HAstV 2, HAstV 1 and HAstV 5 were identified for Astrovirus. GI.6, GII.3, GII.4 and GII.1 were described for Norovirus and G1P[8], G4P[8] and G3P[8] were found for Rotavirus. The majority of the Astrovirus isolates could not be genotyped suggesting the presence of a new variant(s). Cases like this encourage the use of metagenomics (and nextgeneration sequencing) as a state-of-the-art technology in clinical diagnosis. A sample containing Adenovirus particles is being used to standardize a process for detection directly from stool samples and results will be obtained in the near future. The overall findings of the present study support the concept of Hajj as a unique mass gathering event that potentiates the transmission of infectious diseases. The finding of Norovirus GII.4 Sydney, a variant originated from Australia, suggests that Hajj is a receptor of infectious diseases worldwide. This work is part of the Hajj project, a collaborative

  4. Good Friends, Bad News - Affect and Virality in Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Arvidsson, Adam; Nielsen, Finn Årup;

    2011-01-01

    The link between affect, defined as the capacity for sentimental arousal on the part of a message, and virality, defined as the probability that it be sent along, is of significant theoretical and practical importance, e.g. for viral marketing. The basic measure of virality in Twitter is the prob...

  5. Cyclodextrins in non-viral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wing-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are naturally occurring cyclic oligosaccharides. They consist of (α-1,4)-linked glucose units, and possess a basket-shaped topology with an "inner-outer" amphiphilic character. Over the years, substantial efforts have been undertaken to investigate the possible use of CDs in drug delivery and controlled drug release, yet the potential of CDs in gene delivery has received comparatively less discussion in the literature. In this article, we will first discuss the properties of CDs for gene delivery, followed by a synopsis of the use of CDs in development and modification of non-viral gene carriers. Finally, areas that are noteworthy in CD-based gene delivery will be highlighted for future research. Due to the application prospects of CDs, it is anticipated that CDs will continue to emerge as an important tool for vector development, and will play significant roles in facilitating non-viral gene delivery in the forthcoming decades. PMID:24103652

  6. Zoonotic Viral Deseases and Virus Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel

    Viruses are the most abundant organisms on earth and are ubiquitous in all environments where life is present. They are capable of infecting all cellular forms of life, sometimes causing disease in the infected host. This thesis is broadly divided into two main sections with three projects...... representing work on viruses that are transmitted between humans and animals, and 3 three projects describing the search for (novel) viruses or a viral association in human diseases with no known cause. Common for all projects was the need for employing a range of different molecular tools examples...... program of wildlife, and with the purpose of preventing the next disease emerging from these animals. Numerous viruses were detected of which many were novel variants, thus reaffirming the notion that attention should be focused at these animals. Near-complete viral genome sequencing was performed...

  7. Polymerase Chain Reaction on a Viral Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Smith, James; Pacheco-Gómez, Raúl; Little, Haydn A; Hicks, Matthew R; Sandhu, Sandeep; Steinke, Nadja; Smith, David J; Rodger, Alison; Goodchild, Sarah A; Lukaszewski, Roman A; Tucker, James H R; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2015-12-18

    The field of synthetic biology includes studies that aim to develop new materials and devices from biomolecules. In recent years, much work has been carried out using a range of biomolecular chassis including α-helical coiled coils, β-sheet amyloids and even viral particles. In this work, we show how hybrid bionanoparticles can be produced from a viral M13 bacteriophage scaffold through conjugation with DNA primers that can template a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This unprecedented example of a PCR on a virus particle has been studied by flow aligned linear dichroism spectroscopy, which gives information on the structure of the product as well as a new protototype methodology for DNA detection. We propose that this demonstration of PCR on the surface of a bionanoparticle is a useful addition to ways in which hybrid assemblies may be constructed using synthetic biology.

  8. Nanostructures for the Inhibition of Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multivalent interactions are omnipresent in biology and confer biological systems with dramatically enhanced affinities towards different receptors. Such multivalent binding interactions have lately been considered for the development of new therapeutic strategies against bacterial and viral infections. Multivalent polymers, dendrimers, and liposomes have successfully targeted pathogenic interactions. While a high synthetic effort was often needed for the development of such therapeutics, the integration of multiple ligands onto nanostructures turned to be a viable alternative. Particles modified with multiple ligands have the additional advantage of creating a high local concentration of binding molecules. This review article will summarize the different nanoparticle-based approaches currently available for the treatment of viral infections.

  9. Lytic to temperate switching of viral communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, B.; Silveira, C. B.; Bailey, B. A.; Barott, K.; Cantu, V. A.; Cobián-Güemes, A. G.; Coutinho, F. H.; Dinsdale, E. A.; Felts, B.; Furby, K. A.; George, E. E.; Green, K. T.; Gregoracci, G. B.; Haas, A. F.; Haggerty, J. M.; Hester, E. R.; Hisakawa, N.; Kelly, L. W.; Lim, Y. W.; Little, M.; Luque, A.; McDole-Somera, T.; McNair, K.; de Oliveira, L. S.; Quistad, S. D.; Robinett, N. L.; Sala, E.; Salamon, P.; Sanchez, S. E.; Sandin, S.; Silva, G. G. Z.; Smith, J.; Sullivan, C.; Thompson, C.; Vermeij, M. J. A.; Youle, M.; Young, C.; Zgliczynski, B.; Brainard, R.; Edwards, R. A.; Nulton, J.; Thompson, F.; Rohwer, F.

    2016-03-01

    Microbial viruses can control host abundances via density-dependent lytic predator-prey dynamics. Less clear is how temperate viruses, which coexist and replicate with their host, influence microbial communities. Here we show that virus-like particles are relatively less abundant at high host densities. This suggests suppressed lysis where established models predict lytic dynamics are favoured. Meta-analysis of published viral and microbial densities showed that this trend was widespread in diverse ecosystems ranging from soil to freshwater to human lungs. Experimental manipulations showed viral densities more consistent with temperate than lytic life cycles at increasing microbial abundance. An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes showed a relative increase in the abundance of hallmark genes encoded by temperate viruses with increased microbial abundance. Based on these four lines of evidence, we propose the Piggyback-the-Winner model wherein temperate dynamics become increasingly important in ecosystems with high microbial densities; thus ‘more microbes, fewer viruses’.

  10. Multiplexing Short Primers for Viral Family PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Hiddessen, A L; Hara, C A; Williams, P L; Wagner, M; Colston, B W

    2008-06-26

    We describe a Multiplex Primer Prediction (MPP) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets for large, diverse, and unalignable sets of target sequences. The MPP algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. We applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly large number of primers ({approx}3700 18-mers or {approx}2000 10-mers) to generate amplicons from all sequenced viruses. We then designed primer sets separately for each viral family, and for several diverse species such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments of influenza A virus, Norwalk virus, and HIV-1.

  11. Potential Pitfalls in Estimating Viral Load Heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Gabriel E; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    In HIV patients, the set-point viral load (SPVL) is the most widely used predictor of disease severity. Yet SPVL varies over several orders of magnitude between patients. The heritability of SPVL quantifies how much of the variation in SPVL is due to transmissible viral genetics. There is currently no clear consensus on the value of SPVL heritability, as multiple studies have reported apparently discrepant estimates. Here we illustrate that the discrepancies in estimates are most likely due to differences in the estimation methods, rather than the study populations. Importantly, phylogenetic estimates run the risk of being strongly confounded by unrealistic model assumptions. Care must be taken when interpreting and comparing the different estimates to each other.

  12. Viral respiratory infections : Diagnosis and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Rotzén Östlund, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background. Respiratory viral infections are common causes of human morbidity and mortality in children as well as in adults. Adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been recognized for many years. During recent years two main events have influenced both the diagnosis and our knowledge of respiratory virus epidemiology: (1) Five new viruses have been described; (2) the use of molecular methods for the diagnosis of respirato...

  13. International viral marketing campaign planning and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Sormunen, Vilja

    2009-01-01

    Objective of the Study The objective of this study was to explore international viral marketing campaign (IVMC) planning and evaluation in order to help marketers develop better campaigns. The motivation for the study came primarily from a research gap in existing literature. This thesis set out to answer three research questions that deal with campaign planning, localization and evaluation. Research Method This thesis represents a qualitative single-case study. Semi-structured th...

  14. Faces of contemporary literature: the viral poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Roberto do Prado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at discussing an aspect of contemporary literature, the viral poetry in Brazilian fanpages on Facebook, in perspective from a lyrical demand of literary modernity: the need for concentration of poetic language and critical exercise. In addition, we discuss some reasons for the resistance that still can be felt by literature teachers and researchers, with focus on the problem of value.

  15. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    OpenAIRE

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-01-01

    Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC), Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into de...

  16. Genetic vaccination against acute viral disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fleeton, Marina N

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of recombinant vaccines based on the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expression system. Immunisation of mice with recombinant virus particles, a layered DNA/RNA plasmid vector, and recombinant self-replicating RNA were carried out and the protective effect of these recombinant vaccines against viral challenge were examined. The construction of a full-length infectious clone formed the basis for the SFV expression system which has previous...

  17. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  18. Using an agent-based model to analyze the dynamic communication network of the immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doolittle John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune system behaves like a complex, dynamic network with interacting elements including leukocytes, cytokines, and chemokines. While the immune system is broadly distributed, leukocytes must communicate effectively to respond to a pathological challenge. The Basic Immune Simulator 2010 contains agents representing leukocytes and tissue cells, signals representing cytokines, chemokines, and pathogens, and virtual spaces representing organ tissue, lymphoid tissue, and blood. Agents interact dynamically in the compartments in response to infection of the virtual tissue. Agent behavior is imposed by logical rules derived from the scientific literature. The model captured the agent-to-agent contact history, and from this the network topology and the interactions resulting in successful versus failed viral clearance were identified. This model served to integrate existing knowledge and allowed us to examine the immune response from a novel perspective directed at exploiting complex dynamics, ultimately for the design of therapeutic interventions. Results Analyzing the evolution of agent-agent interactions at incremental time points from identical initial conditions revealed novel features of immune communication associated with successful and failed outcomes. There were fewer contacts between agents for simulations ending in viral elimination (win versus persistent infection (loss, due to the removal of infected agents. However, early cellular interactions preceded successful clearance of infection. Specifically, more Dendritic Agent interactions with TCell and BCell Agents, and more BCell Agent interactions with TCell Agents early in the simulation were associated with the immune win outcome. The Dendritic Agents greatly influenced the outcome, confirming them as hub agents of the immune network. In addition, unexpectedly high frequencies of Dendritic Agent-self interactions occurred in the lymphoid compartment late in the

  19. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  20. Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Töpfer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.

  1. Endogenous viral elements in algal genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; YU Jun; WU Shuangxiu; LIU Tao; SUN Jing; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong; WANG Xumin

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are host-genomic fragments originated from viral genomes. They have been found universally in animal and plant genomes. Here we carried out a systematic screening and analy-sis of EVEs in algal genomes and found that EVEs commonly exist in algal genomes. We classified the EVE fragments into three categories according to the length of EVE fragments. Due to the probability of sequence similarity by chance, we ignored the potential function of medium-length EVE fragments. However, long-length EVE fragments probably had capability to encode protein domains or even entire proteins, and some short-length EVE fragments had high similarity with host's siRNA sequences and possibly served functions of small RNAs. Therefore, short and long EVE fragments might provide regulomic and proteomic novelty to the host's metabolism and adaptation. We also found several EVE fragments shared by more than 3 algal genomes. By phylogenetic analysis of the shared EVEs and their corresponding species, we found that the integration of viral fragments into host genomes was an ancient event, possibly before the divergence of Chlorophytes and Ochrophytes. Our findings show that there is a frequent genetic flow from viruses to algal genomes. Moreover, study on algal EVEs shed light on the virus-host interaction in large timescale and could also help us understand the balance of marine ecosystems.

  2. Viral hepatitis and liver cancer on the Island of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, R L; Paulino, Y C; Bordallo, R

    2013-01-01

    Patient records from the Guam Cancer Registry were compared with patients listed in a health department viral hepatitis case registry and the numbers of liver cancer and viral hepatitis cases were compared by ethnicity. Hepatitis C was the form of viral hepatitis most common among liver cancer cases on Guam (63.3% of viral hepatitis-associated liver cancer cases). Since viral hepatitis is an important cause of liver cancer, studies such as the present one may provide the information necessary to establish programs (screening of populations at risk and infant vaccination in the case of hepatitis B, for example) that may lessen the impact of liver cancer in the future.

  3. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  4. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  5. Viral etiology of encephalitis in children in southern Vietnam: results of a one-year prospective descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tan Le

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis is an important and severe disease in children in Vietnam. However, little is known about the etiology while such knowledge is essential for optimal prevention and treatment. To identify viral causes of encephalitis, in 2004 we conducted a one-year descriptive study at Children's Hospital Number One, a referral hospital for children in southern Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh City. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children less than 16 years of age presenting with acute encephalitis of presumed viral etiology were enrolled. Diagnostic efforts included viral culture, serology and real time (RT-PCRs. A confirmed or probable viral causative agent was established in 41% of 194 enrolled patients. The most commonly diagnosed causative agent was Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 50, 26%, followed by enteroviruses (n = 18, 9.3%, dengue virus (n = 9, 4.6%, herpes simplex virus (n = 1, cytomegalovirus (n = 1 and influenza A virus (n = 1. Fifty-seven (29% children died acutely. Fatal outcome was independently associated with patient age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS on admission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute encephalitis in children in southern Vietnam is associated with high mortality. Although the etiology remains unknown in a majority of the patients, the result from the present study may be useful for future design of treatment and prevention strategies of the disease. The recognition of GCS and age as predictive factors may be helpful for clinicians in managing the patient.

  6. Viral Etiology of Encephalitis in Children in Southern Vietnam: Results of a One-Year Prospective Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Le Van; Qui, Phan Tu; Ha, Do Quang; Hue, Nguyen Bach; Bao, Lam Quoi; Cam, Bach Van; Khanh, Truong Huu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Vinh Chau, Nguyen Van; Tram, Tran Tan; Hien, Vo Minh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Schultsz, Constance; Farrar, Jeremy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; de Jong, Menno D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute encephalitis is an important and severe disease in children in Vietnam. However, little is known about the etiology while such knowledge is essential for optimal prevention and treatment. To identify viral causes of encephalitis, in 2004 we conducted a one-year descriptive study at Children's Hospital Number One, a referral hospital for children in southern Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh City. Methodology/Principal Findings Children less than 16 years of age presenting with acute encephalitis of presumed viral etiology were enrolled. Diagnostic efforts included viral culture, serology and real time (RT)-PCRs. A confirmed or probable viral causative agent was established in 41% of 194 enrolled patients. The most commonly diagnosed causative agent was Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 50, 26%), followed by enteroviruses (n = 18, 9.3%), dengue virus (n = 9, 4.6%), herpes simplex virus (n = 1), cytomegalovirus (n = 1) and influenza A virus (n = 1). Fifty-seven (29%) children died acutely. Fatal outcome was independently associated with patient age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission. Conclusions/Significance Acute encephalitis in children in southern Vietnam is associated with high mortality. Although the etiology remains unknown in a majority of the patients, the result from the present study may be useful for future design of treatment and prevention strategies of the disease. The recognition of GCS and age as predictive factors may be helpful for clinicians in managing the patient. PMID:21049060

  7. Viral Vectors for in Vivo Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, E.; Dufour, N.; Déglon, N.

    The transfer of DNA into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell (gene transfer) is a central theme of modern biology. The transfer is said to be somatic when it refers to non-germline organs of a developed individual, and germline when it concerns gametes or the fertilised egg of an animal, with the aim of transmitting the relevant genetic modification to its descendents [1]. The efficient introduction of genetic material into a somatic or germline cell and the control of its expression over time have led to major advances in understanding how genes work in vivo, i.e., in living organisms (functional genomics), but also to the development of innovative therapeutic methods (gene therapy). The efficiency of gene transfer is conditioned by the vehicle used, called the vector. Desirable features for a vector are as follows: Easy to produce high titer stocks of the vector in a reproducible way. Absence of toxicity related to transduction (transfer of genetic material into the target cell, and its expression there) and no immune reaction of the organism against the vector and/or therapeutic protein. Stability in the expression of the relevant gene over time, and the possibility of regulation, e.g., to control expression of the therapeutic protein on the physiological level, or to end expression at the end of treatment. Transduction of quiescent cells should be as efficient as transduction of dividing cells. Vectors currently used fall into two categories: non-viral and viral vectors. In non-viral vectors, the DNA is complexed with polymers, lipids, or cationic detergents (described in Chap. 3). These vectors have a low risk of toxicity and immune reaction. However, they are less efficient in vivo than viral vectors when it comes to the number of cells transduced and long-term transgene expression. (Naked DNA transfer or electroporation is rather inefficient in the organism. This type of gene transfer will not be discussed here, and the interested reader is referred to the

  8. Some viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle during the summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, dairy cattle with respiratory system problems that were brought to a private slaughterhouse in Burdur province were investigated for viral and bacterial infections present in the summer season. The blood samples were collected from 56 animals. The samples were tested for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3 and bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3 by ELISA. Bacteriological cultivation was carried out from lung samples taken after cutting the same animals. The seropositivity rates which were determined for 5 viruses in cattle (BoHV- 1, BVDV, BRSV, BPIV-3 and BAV-3 were 7.14%, 50%, 94.64%, 94.64% and 82.14% respectively. The presence of antibodies against the viruses was as follows; 5.36% of cattle had antibodies against only one virus, 14.29% against two, 30.36% against three, 44.64% against four and 5.36% against five viruses. A total of 36 bacterial agents were isolated from 30 out of 56 lung samples. From the lung samples, only one bacterium was isolated from 39.3% (22/56 samples, and more than one bacterium from 14.3% (8/56. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were detected as the most often isolated agents. Compared to bacteria, the rates of viral infections associated with Escherichia coli (BRSV+BPIV-3+BAV- 3+Escherichia coli; 8.92% and BRSV+BPIV-3+Escherichia coli; 5.35% were higher. As a consequence, it was thought that primary agents which were the viruses and bacteria may have attended as secondary factors in respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle.

  9. Mathematical analysis of multiscale models for hepatitis C virus dynamics under therapy with direct-acting antiviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Libin; Perelson, Alan S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a world-wide public health problem. Therapy with interferon and ribavirin leads to viral elimination in less than 50% of treated patients. New treatment options aiming at a higher cure rate are focused on direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), which directly interfere with different steps in the HCV life cycle. In this paper, we describe and analyze a recently developed multiscale model that predicts HCV dynamics under therapy with DAAs. The model includes both intracellular viral RNA replication and extracellular viral infection. We calculate the steady states of the model and perform a detailed stability analysis. With certain assumptions we obtain analytical approximations of the viral load decline after treatment initiation. One approximation agrees well with the prediction of the model, and can conveniently be used to fit patient data and estimate parameter values. We also discuss other possible ways to incorporate intracellular viral dynamics into the multiscale model.

  10. Ocean plankton. Patterns and ecological drivers of ocean viral communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jennifer R; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Roux, Simon; Doulcier, Guilhem; Acinas, Silvia G; Alberti, Adriana; Chaffron, Samuel; Cruaud, Corinne; de Vargas, Colomban; Gasol, Josep M; Gorsky, Gabriel; Gregory, Ann C; Guidi, Lionel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stéphane; Poulos, Bonnie T; Schwenck, Sarah M; Speich, Sabrina; Dimier, Celine; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Bork, Peer; Bowler, Chris; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2015-05-22

    Viruses influence ecosystems by modulating microbial population size, diversity, metabolic outputs, and gene flow. Here, we use quantitative double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viral-fraction metagenomes (viromes) and whole viral community morphological data sets from 43 Tara Oceans expedition samples to assess viral community patterns and structure in the upper ocean. Protein cluster cataloging defined pelagic upper-ocean viral community pan and core gene sets and suggested that this sequence space is well-sampled. Analyses of viral protein clusters, populations, and morphology revealed biogeographic patterns whereby viral communities were passively transported on oceanic currents and locally structured by environmental conditions that affect host community structure. Together, these investigations establish a global ocean dsDNA viromic data set with analyses supporting the seed-bank hypothesis to explain how oceanic viral communities maintain high local diversity. PMID:25999515

  11. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  12. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Perino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV (genus Orthopoxvirus, the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D, constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/- resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.

  13. The need to accessorize: Molecular roles of HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 accessory proteins in the viral life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaneesh eAnupam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL and multiple neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases while HTLV-2 disease association remains elusive, with few infected individuals displaying neurodegenerative diseases similar to HTLV-1. The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. Of these proteins, HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 are encoded by the open reading frame (ORF II of the pX region. Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo. Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. Recently, several reports have implicated p30 and p28 in multiple cellular processes, which provide novel insight into HTLV spread and survival and ultimately pathogenesis. In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis.

  14. The need to accessorize: molecular roles of HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 accessory proteins in the viral life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupam, Rajaneesh; Doueiri, Rami; Green, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Extensive studies of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia and multiple neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases while HTLV-2 disease association remains elusive, with few infected individuals displaying neurodegenerative diseases similar to HTLV-1. The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro, and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. Of these proteins, HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 are encoded by the open reading frame II of the pX region. Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo. Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. Recently, several reports have implicated p30 and p28 in multiple cellular processes, which provide novel insight into HTLV spread and survival and ultimately pathogenesis. In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis. PMID:24062732

  15. Unprecedented evidence for high viral abundance and lytic activity in coral reef waters of the South Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme P. Payet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite nutrient-depleted conditions, coral reef waters harbor abundant and diverse microbes; as major agents of microbial mortality, viruses are likely to influence microbial processes in these ecosystems. However, little is known about marine viruses in these rapidly changing ecosystems. Here we examined spatial and short-term temporal variability in marine viral abundance and viral lytic activity across various reef habitats surrounding Moorea Island (French Polynesia in the South Pacific. Water samples were collected along 4 regional cross-reef transects and during a time-series in Opunohu Bay. Results revealed high viral abundance (range: 5.6 x 106 – 3.6 x 107 viruses ml-1 and lytic viral production (range: 1.5 x 109 – 9.2 x 1010 viruses l-1 d-1. Flow cytometry revealed that viral assemblages were composed of three subsets that each displayed distinct spatiotemporal relationships with nutrient concentrations and autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial abundances. The results highlight dynamic shifts in viral community structure and imply that each of these three subsets is ecologically important and likely to infect distinct microbial hosts in reef waters. Based on viral-reduction approach, we estimate that lytic viruses were responsible for the removal of ca. 24% to 367% of bacterial standing stock d-1 and the release of ca. 1.1 to 62 µg of organic carbon l-1 d-1 in reef waters. Overall, this work demonstrates the highly dynamic distribution of viruses and their critical roles in controlling microbial mortality and nutrient cycling in coral reef water ecosystems.

  16. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  17. Computational Approaches to Viral Evolution and Rational Vaccine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2006-10-01

    Viral pandemics, including HIV, are a major health concern across the world. Experimental techniques available today have uncovered a great wealth of information about how these viruses infect, grow, and cause disease; as well as how our body attempts to defend itself against them. Nevertheless, due to the high variability and fast evolution of many of these viruses, the traditional method of developing vaccines by presenting a heuristically chosen strain to the body fails and an effective intervention strategy still eludes us. A large amount of carefully curated genomic data on a number of these viruses are now available, often annotated with disease and immunological context. The availability of parallel computers has now made it possible to carry out a systematic analysis of this data within an evolutionary framework. I will describe, as an example, how computations on such data has allowed us to understand the origins and diversification of HIV, the causative agent of AIDS. On the practical side, computations on the same data is now being used to inform choice or defign of optimal vaccine strains.

  18. New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garten Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3% ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

  19. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS. PMID:23118041

  20. Viral meningitis epidemics and a single, recent, recombinant and anthroponotic origin of swine vesicular disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions r...... stating that SVDV originated through co-infection, recombination, and a single anthroponotic event, during large viral meningitis epidemics around 1960/1961 involving the ancestral serotypes. The exact geographical origin of SVDV may remain untestable due to historical aspects....

  1. Arming viruses in multi-mechanistic oncolytic viral therapy: current research and future developments, with emphasis on poxviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Padma Sampath, Steve H ThorneDepartment of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: The field of oncolytic virology has made great strides in recent years. However, one key finding has been that the use of viral agents that replicate selectively in tumors is usually insufficient to achieve anything beyond small and transient responses. Instead, like most cancer therapies, oncolytic viruses are most effective in combination with...

  2. Prevalence of Norwalk-Like Virus Infections in Cases of Viral Gastroenteritis among Children in Osaka City, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hideyuki; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2003-01-01

    Surveillance of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) infections in cases of pediatric gastroenteritis between April 1996 and March 2000 showed that NLVs were an important causative agent in viral gastroenteritis cases among children between November and January in those years. The predominant type of NLV was closely related to Lordsdale virus in genogroup 2. During the 1999-2000 season, Arg320-like strains, which may be genetic recombinants, suddenly appeared and spread.

  3. Prevalence of Norwalk-like virus infections in cases of viral gastroenteritis among children in Osaka City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hideyuki; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2003-04-01

    Surveillance of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) infections in cases of pediatric gastroenteritis between April 1996 and March 2000 showed that NLVs were an important causative agent in viral gastroenteritis cases among children between November and January in those years. The predominant type of NLV was closely related to Lordsdale virus in genogroup 2. During the 1999-2000 season, Arg320-like strains, which may be genetic recombinants, suddenly appeared and spread. PMID:12682179

  4. Prevalence of Norwalk-like virus infections in cases of viral gastroenteritis among children in Osaka City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hideyuki; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2003-04-01

    Surveillance of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) infections in cases of pediatric gastroenteritis between April 1996 and March 2000 showed that NLVs were an important causative agent in viral gastroenteritis cases among children between November and January in those years. The predominant type of NLV was closely related to Lordsdale virus in genogroup 2. During the 1999-2000 season, Arg320-like strains, which may be genetic recombinants, suddenly appeared and spread.

  5. Underreporting of viral encephalitis and viral meningitis, Ireland, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tara A; O'Lorcain, Piaras; Moran, Joanne; Garvey, Patricia; McKeown, Paul; Connell, Jeff; Cotter, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) and viral meningitis (VM) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the Republic of Ireland since 1981. Laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. To determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ireland during 2005-2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: Hospital In-patient Enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through Health Intelligence Ireland, laboratory confirmations from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, and events from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting surveillance system. We found that the national surveillance system underestimates the incidence of these diseases in Ireland with a 10-fold higher VE hospitalization rate and 3-fold higher VM hospitalization rate than the reporting rate. Herpesviruses were responsible for most specified VE and enteroviruses for most specified VM from all 3 sources. Recommendations from this study have been implemented to improve the surveillance of these diseases in Ireland.

  6. Viral immunity. Transkingdom control of viral infection and immunity in the mammalian intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Julie K; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-01-15

    Viruses that infect the intestine include major human pathogens (retroviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses) that constitute a serious public health problem worldwide. These viral pathogens are members of a large, complex viral community inhabiting the intestine termed "the enteric virome." Enteric viruses have intimate functional and genetic relationships with both the host and other microbial constituents that inhabit the intestine, such as the bacterial microbiota, their associated phages, helminthes, and fungi, which together constitute the microbiome. Emerging data indicate that enteric viruses regulate, and are in turn regulated by, these other microbes through a series of processes termed "transkingdom interactions." This represents a changing paradigm in intestinal immunity to viral infection. Here we review recent advances in the field and propose new ways in which to conceptualize this important area.

  7. A practical approach to a viral detection pipeline using existing viral and non-viral sequence resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkari, Kavitha; Shpungin, Joseph; Thompson, John Ryan

    2014-01-01

    For public health safety, vaccines and other pharmaceutical products as well as the raw materials used in their manufacture need to be tested for adventitious virus contamination. The current standard of practice is to develop culture-based or polymerase chain reaction assays for the types of viruses one might expect based upon the source of reagents used. High-throughput sequencing technology is well-suited for building an unbiased strategy for the purpose of adventitious virus detection. We have developed an approach to automate curation of publically available nucleotide sequences, and have practically balanced the desire to capture all viral diversity while simultaneously reducing the use of partial viral sequences that represent the largest source of false positive results. In addition, we describe an effective workflow for virus detection that can process sequence data from all currently available High-throughput sequencing technologies and produce a report that summarizes the weight of sequence data in support of each detected virus. PMID:25475634

  8. Phylodynamic analysis of a viral infection network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiichiro eShiino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections by sexual and droplet transmission routes typically spread through a complex host-to-host contact network. Clarifying the transmission network and epidemiological parameters affecting the variations and dynamics of a specific pathogen is a major issue in the control of infectious diseases. However, conventional methods such as interview and/or classical phylogenetic analysis of viral gene sequences have inherent limitations and often fail to detect infectious clusters and transmission connections. Recent improvements in computational environments now permit the analysis of large datasets. In addition, novel analytical methods have been developed that serve to infer the evolutionary dynamics of virus genetic diversity using sample date information and sequence data. This type of framework, termed phylodynamics, helps connect some of the missing links on viral transmission networks, which are often hard to detect by conventional methods of epidemiology. With sufficient number of sequences available, one can use this new inference method to estimate theoretical epidemiological parameters such as temporal distributions of the primary infection, fluctuation of the pathogen population size, basic reproductive number, and the mean time span of disease infectiousness. Transmission networks estimated by this framework often have the properties of a scale-free network, which are characteristic of infectious and social communication processes. Network analysis based on phylodynamics has alluded to various suggestions concerning the infection dynamics associated with a given community and/or risk behavior. In this review, I will summarize the current methods available for identifying the transmission network using phylogeny, and present an argument on the possibilities of applying the scale-free properties to these existing frameworks.

  9. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available. PMID:12757257

  10. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...... at the expense of the involved fish farm owners. The fact that financial support for the eradication of VHS and IHN may be made available from the European Union may enhance the efforts towards further eradication of the disease in Europe. The finding of a VHS virus (VHSV)-like virus in the marine environment...

  11. Lymphocyte subpopulation in acute viral hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, U; Sehgal, S.; Pal, S. R.; Dhall, K; Singh, S.; Datta, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of peripheral blood lymphocytes were performed in 41 patients with acute viral hepatitis, in grade III-IV coma; 16 patients were in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were significant reductions in absolute lymphocyte count and T cell number in patients who succumbed to the disease, when compared with those who survived. B cell counts were similar in the two groups and migration inhibition test with BCG antigen was normal. It is postulated that a decrease in the number of cells i...

  12. Do buzz ao marketing viral : um estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Viveiros, Nuno Filipe Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Gestão de Empresas/MBA. Com o crescente ênfase do marketing viral e das redes sociais na divulgação de produtos, serviços e marcas, o seu estudo torna-se pertinente para o desenvolvimento de campanhas mais eficazes e eficientes. Esta tese apresenta um estudo centralizado sobre o impacto que um país tem na criação de buzz de modo a tornar as campanhas de marketing, virais. Estudando e analisando três países (dois desenvolvidos e um em desenvolvimento), com o objet...

  13. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Virus-specific proteins were examined in cultured cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. By using antisera obtained from virus-infected animals, three major virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 (115K), 80K, and 55K were observed. Minor proteins of 45,000 and 38,000 daltons were also noted. Tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the 115K and the 80K polypeptides were structurally related. The 55K protein was glycosylated and appeared not to be related to the ...

  14. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  15. Viral inactivation in hemotherapy: systematic review on inactivators with action on nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marial Sobral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the photoinactivators used in hemotherapy, with action on viral genomes. The SciELO, Science Direct, PubMed and Lilacs databases were searched for articles. The inclusion criterion was that these should be articles on inactivators with action on genetic material that had been published between 2000 and 2010. The key words used in identifying such articles were "hemovigilance", "viral inactivation", "photodynamics", "chemoprevention" and "transfusion safety". Twenty-four articles on viral photoinactivation were found with the main photoinactivators covered being: methylene blue, amotosalen HCl, S-303 frangible anchor linker effector (FRALE, riboflavin and inactin. The results showed that methylene blue has currently been studied least, because it diminishes coagulation factors and fibrinogen. Riboflavin has been studied most because it is a photoinactivator of endogenous origin and has few collateral effects. Amotosalen HCl is effective for platelets and is also used on plasma, but may cause changes both to plasma and to platelets, although these are not significant for hemostasis. S-303 FRALE may lead to neoantigens in erythrocytes and is less indicated for red-cell treatment; in such cases, PEN 110 is recommended. Thus, none of the methods for pathogen reduction is effective for all classes of agents and for all blood components, but despite the high cost, these photoinactivators may diminish the risk of blood-transmitted diseases.

  16. Hybrid nonviral/viral vector systems for improved piggyBac DNA transposon in vivo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Ashley L; Singh, Brajesh K; Sinn, Patrick L

    2015-04-01

    The DNA transposon piggyBac is a potential therapeutic agent for multiple genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Recombinant piggyBac transposon and transposase are typically codelivered by plasmid transfection; however, plasmid delivery is inefficient in somatic cells in vivo and is a barrier to the therapeutic application of transposon-based vector systems. Here, we investigate the potential for hybrid piggyBac/viral vectors to transduce cells and support transposase-mediated genomic integration of the transposon. We tested both adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) as transposon delivery vehicles. An Ad vector expressing hyperactive insect piggyBac transposase (iPB7) was codelivered. We show transposase-dependent transposition activity and mapped integrations in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo from each viral vector platform. We also demonstrate efficient and persistent transgene expression following nasal delivery of piggyBac/viral vectors to mice. Furthermore, using piggyBac/Ad expressing Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR), we show persistent correction of chloride current in well-differentiated primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells derived from CF patients. Combining the emerging technologies of DNA transposon-based vectors with well-studied adenoviral and AAV delivery provides new tools for in vivo gene transfer and presents an exciting opportunity to increase the delivery efficiency for therapeutic genes such as CFTR. PMID:25557623

  17. Temporary protection of rainbow trout gill epithelial cells from infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussinee, L; Pham, P H; Russell, S; Tubbs, L; Tafalla, C; Bols, N C; Dixon, B; Lumsden, J S

    2016-09-01

    The branchial epithelium is not only a primary route of entry for viral pathogens, but is also a site of viral replication and subsequent shedding may also occur from the gill epithelium. This study investigated the potential of agents known to stimulate innate immunity to protect rainbow trout epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) from infection with VHSV IVb. RTgill-W1 cells were pretreated with poly I:C, FuGENE(®) HD + poly I:C, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + poly I:C or heat-killed VHSV IVb and then infected with VHSV IVb 4 days later. Cytopathic effect (CPE) was determined at 2, 3, 4, 7 and 11 days post-infection. Virus in cells and supernatant was detected using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All of the treatments delayed the onset of CPE (per cent of monolayer destruction), compared with untreated controls; however, killed VHSV or poly I:C combined with LPS was the most effective. Similarly, the detection of viral RNA in the supernatant was delayed, and the quantity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by all treatments with the exception of LPS alone (4 days). Unlike many of the other treatments, pretreatment of RTgill-W1 with heat-killed VHSV did not upregulate interferon 1, 2 or MX 1 gene expression. PMID:26850791

  18. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  19. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise......Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... that have to be avoided in the endeavor. This chapter presents some of the pitfalls for enculturating interactive systems and presents strategies on how to avoid these pitfalls in relation to the standard development process of Embodied Conversational Agents....

  20. Broad surveys of DNA viral diversity obtained through viral metagenomics of mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Fei Fan Ng

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes.

  1. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  2. APOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolution of viruses and their hosts has reached a fragile and dynamic equilibrium that allows viral persistence, replication and transmission. In response, infected hosts have developed strategies of defense that counteract the deleterious effects of viral infections. In particular, single-strand DNA editing by Apolipoprotein B Editing Catalytic subunits proteins 3 (APOBEC3s is a well-conserved mechanism of mammalian innate immunity that mutates and inactivates viral genomes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of APOBEC3 editing during viral replication, the viral strategies that prevent APOBEC3 activity and the consequences of APOBEC3 modulation on viral fitness and host genome integrity. Understanding the mechanisms involved reveals new prospects for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Inhibitor-Based Therapeutics for Treatment of Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Viral hepatitis remains a significant worldwide threat, in spite of the availability of several successful therapeutic and vaccination strategies. Complications associated with acute and chronic infections, such as liver failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, are the cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Given the significant burden on the healthcare system caused by viral hepatitis, it is essential that novel, more effective therapeutics be developed. The present review attempts to summarize the current treatments against viral hepatitis, and provides an outline for upcoming, promising new therapeutics. Development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of the viral life cycles and viral effectors in molecular detail. As such, this review also discusses virally-encoded effectors, found to be essential for virus survival and replication in the host milieu, which may be utilized as potential candidates for development of alternative therapies in the future. PMID:27777893

  4. Viral Evasion and Manipulation of Host RNA Quality Control Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, J Robert

    2016-08-15

    Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to maximize the functional and coding capacities of their genetic material. Individual viral RNAs are often used as substrates for both replication and translation and can contain multiple, sometimes overlapping open reading frames. Further, viral RNAs engage in a wide variety of interactions with both host and viral proteins to modify the activities of important cellular factors and direct their own trafficking, packaging, localization, stability, and translation. However, adaptations increasing the information density of small viral genomes can have unintended consequences. In particular, viral RNAs have developed features that mark them as potential targets of host RNA quality control pathways. This minireview focuses on ways in which viral RNAs run afoul of the cellular mRNA quality control and decay machinery, as well as on strategies developed by viruses to circumvent or exploit cellular mRNA surveillance. PMID:27226372

  5. Studying the immune response to human viral infections using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Michelle F; Sullivan, Con; Kim, Carol H

    2014-09-01

    Humans and viruses have a long co-evolutionary history. Viral illnesses have and will continue to shape human history: from smallpox, to influenza, to HIV, and beyond. Animal models of human viral illnesses are needed in order to generate safe and effective antiviral medicines, adjuvant therapies, and vaccines. These animal models must support the replication of human viruses, recapitulate aspects of human viral illnesses, and respond with conserved immune signaling cascades. The zebrafish is perhaps the simplest, most commonly used laboratory model organism in which innate and/or adaptive immunity can be studied. Herein, we will discuss the current zebrafish models of human viral illnesses and the insights they have provided. We will highlight advantages of early life stage zebrafish and the importance of innate immunity in human viral illnesses. We will also discuss viral characteristics to consider before infecting zebrafish with human viruses as well as predict other human viruses that may be able to infect zebrafish.

  6. Viral mimicry of the complement system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John Bernet; Jayati Mullick; Akhilesh K Singh; Arvind Sahu

    2003-04-01

    The complement system is a potent innate immune mechanism consisting of cascades of proteins which are designed to fight against and annul intrusion of all the foreign pathogens. Although viruses are smaller in size and have relatively simple structure, they are not immune to complement attack. Thus, activation of the complement system can lead to neutralization of cell-free viruses, phagocytosis of C3b-coated viral particles, lysis of virus-infected cells, and generation of inflammatory and specific immune responses. However, to combat host responses and succeed as pathogens, viruses not only have developed/adopted mechanisms to control complement, but also have turned these interactions to their own advantage. Important examples include poxviruses, herpesviruses, retroviruses, paramyxoviruses and picornaviruses. In this review, we provide information on the various complement evasion strategies that viruses have developed to thwart the complement attack of the host. A special emphasis is given on the interactions between the viral proteins that are involved in molecular mimicry and the complement system.

  7. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Katzourakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

  8. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James; Kurath, Gael; Batts, William

    2007-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is considered to be one of the most important viral pathogens of finfish and is listed as reportable by many nations and international organizations (Office International des Epizooties 2006). Prior to 1988, VHSV was thought to be limited to Europe (Wolf 1988; Smail 1999). Subsequently, it was shown that the virus is endemic among many marine and anadromous fish species in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005). Genetic analysis reveals that isolates of VHSV can be divided into four genotypes that generally correlate with geographic location with the North American isolates generally falling into VHSV Genotype IV (Snow et al. 2004). In 2005-2006, reports from the Great Lakes region indicated that wild fish had experienced disease or, in some cases, very large die-offs from VHSV (Elsayed et al. 2006, Lumsden et al. 2007). The new strain from the Great Lakes, now identified as VHSV Genotype IVb, appears most closely related to isolates of VHSV from mortalities that occurred during 2000-2004 in rivers and near-shore areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada (Gagne et al. 2007). The type IVb isolate found in the Great Lakes region is the only strain outside of Europe that has been associated with significant mortality in freshwater species.

  9. [Interferon : antiviral mechanisms and viral escape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, Lucile; Gongora, Céline; Mechti, Nadir

    2003-02-01

    15 % of human cancers have virus origin, meaning that viruses are the second cause of cancers after tabagism. The knowledge of antiviral mechanisms is essential for treatment and prevention of infection evolution towards cancers. Interferons (IFNs) are a large family of multifunctional cytokines. They are involved in regulation of cell growth and modulation of immune response. But, all these functions seem to converge toward the most important of them : the antiviral activity. IFN secretion is the first event induced by viral infection, and will act on specific receptors on neighbour cells and prevent their infection by inducing numbers of antiviral genes. Although few of them are well known like the PKR, the 2-5OAS/RNase L pathway and the Mx proteins, many others need extensive studies to understand the wide range of IFN effect. Viruses have evolved to circumvent the IFN antiviral activity, and are able not only to divert the cellular machinery but also to lure the antiviral mechanisms of the host cell. The purpose of this review is to describe the many antiviral pathways and proteins induced by IFNs and to summarize the strategies of viral escape. PMID:12660132

  10. Control Measures for Human Respiratory Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lesley; Waterer, Grant

    2016-08-01

    New viral respiratory pathogens are emerging with increasing frequency and have potentially devastating impacts on the population worldwide. Recent examples of newly emerged threats include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Experiences with these pathogens have shown up major deficiencies in how we deal globally with emerging pathogens and taught us salient lessons in what needs to be addressed for future pandemics. This article reviews the lessons learnt from past experience and current knowledge on the range of measures required to limit the impact of emerging respiratory infections from public health responses down to individual patient management. Key areas of interest are surveillance programs, political limitations on our ability to respond quickly enough to emerging threats, media management, public information dissemination, infection control, prophylaxis, and individual patient management. Respiratory physicians have a crucial role to play in many of these areas and need to be aware of how to respond as new viral pathogens emerge. PMID:27486741

  11. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  12. El agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  13. Bio-mathematical models of viral dynamics to tailor antiviral therapy in chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maurizia Rossana Brunetto; Piero Colombatto; Ferruccio Bonino

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of the dynamics of viral infections by mathematical equations has been applied successfully to the study of viral infections during antiviral therapy. Standard models applied to viral hepatitis describe the viral load decline in the first 2-4 wk of antiviral therapy, but do not adequately simulate the dynamics of viral infection for the following period. The hypothesis of a constant clearance rate of the infected cells provides an unrealistic estimation of the time necessary to reach the control or the clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV)/ hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To overcome the problem, we have developed a new multiphasic model in which the immune system activity is modulated by a negative feedback caused by the infected cells reduction, and alanine aminotransferase kinetics serve as a surrogate marker of infected-cell clearance. By this approach, we can compute the dynamics of infected cells during the whole treatment course, and find a good correlation between the number of infected cells at the end of therapy and the long-term virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The new model successfully describes the HBV infection dynamics far beyond the third month of antiviral therapy under the assumption that the sum of infected and non-infected cells remains roughly constant during therapy, and both target and infected cells concur in the hepatocyte turnover. In clinical practice, these new models will allow the development of simulators of treatment response that will be used as an "automatic pilot" for tailoring antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B as well as chronic hepatitis C patients.

  14. Bio-mathematical models of viral dynamics to tailor antiviral therapy in chronic viral hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana; Colombatto, Piero; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of the dynamics of viral infections by mathematical equations has been applied successfully to the study of viral infections during antiviral therapy. Standard models applied to viral hepatitis describe the viral load decline in the first 2-4 wk of antiviral therapy, but do not adequately simulate the dynamics of viral infection for the following period. The hypothesis of a constant clearance rate of the infected cells provides an unrealistic estimation of the time necessary to reach the control or the clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To overcome the problem, we have developed a new multiphasic model in which the immune system activity is modulated by a negative feedback caused by the infected cells reduction, and alanine aminotransferase kinetics serve as a surrogate marker of infected-cell clearance. By this approach, we can compute the dynamics of infected cells during the whole treatment course, and find a good correlation between the number of infected cells at the end of therapy and the long-term virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The new model successfully describes the HBV infection dynamics far beyond the third month of antiviral therapy under the assumption that the sum of infected and non-infected cells remains roughly constant during therapy, and both target and infected cells concur in the hepatocyte turnover. In clinical practice, these new models will allow the development of simulators of treatment response that will be used as an “automatic pilot” for tailoring antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B as well as chronic hepatitis C patients. PMID:19195054

  15. Viral spreading of daily information in online social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Hatano, Naomichi

    2012-01-01

    We explain a possible mechanism of an information spreading on a network which spreads extremely far from a seed node, namely the viral spreading. On the basis of a model of the information spreading in an online social network, in which the dynamics is expressed as a random multiplicative process of the spreading rates, we will show that the correlation between the spreading rates enhances the chance of the viral spreading, shifting the tipping point at which the spreading goes viral.

  16. Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Natali Gulbahce; Han Yan; Amélie Dricot; Megha Padi; Danielle Byrdsong; Rachel Franchi; Deok-Sun Lee; Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen; Mar, Jessica C.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Amy Baldwin; Bo Zhao; Balaji Santhanam; Pascal Braun; Nicolas Simonis

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Many “virally implicated human diseases” - diseases for which there is scientific consensus of viral involvement - are associated with genetic alterations in particular disease susceptibility genes. We proposed and demonstrated that for two human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus, topological proximity should exist between host targets of viruses and genes associated with virally implicated diseases on host interactome networks (local impact hypothesis). For ...

  17. Sensitive detection of viral transcripts in human tumor transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Eric Schelhorn

    Full Text Available In excess of 12% of human cancer incidents have a viral cofactor. Epidemiological studies of idiopathic human cancers indicate that additional tumor viruses remain to be discovered. Recent advances in sequencing technology have enabled systematic screenings of human tumor transcriptomes for viral transcripts. However, technical problems such as low abundances of viral transcripts in large volumes of sequencing data, viral sequence divergence, and homology between viral and human factors significantly confound identification of tumor viruses. We have developed a novel computational approach for detecting viral transcripts in human cancers that takes the aforementioned confounding factors into account and is applicable to a wide variety of viruses and tumors. We apply the approach to conducting the first systematic search for viruses in neuroblastoma, the most common cancer in infancy. The diverse clinical progression of this disease as well as related epidemiological and virological findings are highly suggestive of a pathogenic cofactor. However, a viral etiology of neuroblastoma is currently contested. We mapped 14 transcriptomes of neuroblastoma as well as positive and negative controls to the human and all known viral genomes in order to detect both known and unknown viruses. Analysis of controls, comparisons with related methods, and statistical estimates demonstrate the high sensitivity of our approach. Detailed investigation of putative viral transcripts within neuroblastoma samples did not provide evidence for the existence of any known human viruses. Likewise, de-novo assembly and analysis of chimeric transcripts did not result in expression signatures associated with novel human pathogens. While confounding factors such as sample dilution or viral clearance in progressed tumors may mask viral cofactors in the data, in principle, this is rendered less likely by the high sensitivity of our approach and the number of biological replicates

  18. Fatal case of acute gastroenteritis with multiple viral coinfections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Julien; Morel-Baccard, Christine; Michard-Lenoir, Anne-Pascale; Germi, Raphaële; Pothier, Pierre; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Morand, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    We report a fatal case of acute gastroenteritis in a child with autism spectrum disorder. Multiple viral coinfections were detected by PCR in the patient's stool and digestive biopsy specimens. As viral detection is not necessarily associated with symptomatic disease, a semi-quantitative approach using cycle treshold values was proposed for the clinical interpretation of PCR. We discuss whether concomitant viral infections could be a risk factor for severe outcome in gastroenteritis cases. Individual risk factors are also addressed. PMID:26655270

  19. Internet-induced marketing techniques: Critical factors of viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Woerndl, M; Papagiannidis, S; Bourlakis, M. A.; Li, F

    2008-01-01

    The rapid diffusion of the Internet and the emergence of various social constructs facilitated by Internet technologies are changing the drivers that define how marketing techniques are developed and refined. This paper identifies critical factors for viral marketing, an Internet-based ‘word-of-mouth’ marketing technique. Based on existing knowledge, five types of viral marketing factors that may critically influence the success of viral marketing campaigns are identified. These factors are t...

  20. Viral Hepatitis A to E in South Mediterranean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaa M. Kamal; Mahmoud, Sara; Hafez, Tamer; EL-Fouly, Runia

    2010-01-01

    Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in healt...

  1. Experimental and Natural Infections of Goats with Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus: Evidence for Ticks as Viral Vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Jiao

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, the causative agent for the fatal life-threatening infectious disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS, was first identified in the central and eastern regions of China. Although the viral RNA was detected in free-living and parasitic ticks, the vector for SFTSV remains unsettled.Firstly, an experimental infection study in goats was conducted in a bio-safety level-2 (BSL-2 facility to investigate virus transmission between animals. The results showed that infected animals did not shed virus to the outside through respiratory or digestive tract route, and the control animals did not get infected. Then, a natural infection study was carried out in the SFTSV endemic region. A cohort of naïve goats was used as sentinel animals in the study site. A variety of daily samples including goat sera, ticks and mosquitoes were collected for viral RNA and antibody (from serum only detection, and virus isolation. We detected viral RNA from free-living and parasitic ticks rather than mosquitoes, and from goats after ticks' infestation. We also observed sero-conversion in all members of the animal cohort subsequently. The S segment sequences of the two recovered viral isolates from one infected goat and its parasitic ticks showed a 100% homology at the nucleic acid level.In our natural infection study, close contact between goats does not appear to transmit SFTSV, however, the naïve animals were infected after ticks' infestation and two viral isolates derived from an infected goat and its parasitic ticks shared 100% of sequence identity. These data demonstrate that the etiologic agent for goat cohort's natural infection comes from environmental factors. Of these, ticks, especially the predominant species Haemaphysalis longicornis, probably act as vector for this pathogen. The findings in this study may help local health authorities formulate and focus preventive measures to contain

  2. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  3. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  4. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David

    2002-01-01

    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  5. Viral loads of cerebrospinal fluid in infants with enterovirus meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Hisashi; Ioi, Hiroaki; Ishii, Chiako; Hasegawa, Yuka; Amaha, Masahiro; Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Takekuma, Kouji; Hoshika, Akinori; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    For a better understanding of the role of the viral load, free radicals, and cytokines in viral meningitis, we surveyed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from patients below 1 year of age who showed positive for enterovirus. In their first examinations interleukin (IL)-6 and free radicals increased whereas pleocytosis was rarely observed. IL-6 decreased within the short period. Viral loads and free radicals increased simultaneously. IL-6 and free radicals of CSF are helpful for diagnosis and treatment of viral meningitis at an early stage.

  6. HIV, Aging, and Viral Coinfections: Taking the Long View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Tamar H; Lo Re, Vincent; Justice, Amy C

    2016-10-01

    Viral suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with combination antiviral therapy (cART) has led to increasing longevity but has not enabled a complete return to health among aging HIV-infected individuals (HIV+). Viral coinfections are prevalent in the HIV+ host and are implicated in cancer, liver disease, and accelerated aging. We must move beyond a simplistic notion of HIV becoming a "chronic controllable illness" and develop an understanding of how viral suppression alters the natural history of HIV infection, especially at the intersection of HIV with other common viral coinfections in the context of an altered, aging immune system.

  7. Extracellular vesicles are the Trojan horses of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles have recently emerged as a novel mode of viral propagation exploited by both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. In particular non-enveloped viruses utilize the hosts' production of extracellular vesicles to exit from cells non-lytically and to hide and manipulate the immune system. Moreover, challenging the long held idea that viruses behave as independent genetic units, extracellular vesicles enable multiple viral particles and genomes to collectively traffic in and out of cells, which can promote genetic cooperativity among viral quasispecies and enhance the fitness of the overall viral population. PMID:27232382

  8. Toward Information Diffusion Model for Viral Marketing in Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulwah AlSuwaidan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Current obstacles in the study of social media marketing include dealing with massive data and real-time updates have motivated to contribute solutions that can be adopted for viral marketing. Since information diffusion and social networks are the core of viral marketing, this article aims to investigate the constellation of diffusion methods for viral marketing. Studies on diffusion methods for viral marketing have applied different computational methods, but a systematic investigation of these methods has limited. Most of the literature have focused on achieving objectives such as influence maxi-mization or community detection. Therefore, this article aims to conduct an in-depth review of works related to diffusion for viral marketing. Viral marketing has applied to business-to-consumer transactions but has seen limited adoption in business-to-business transactions. The literature review reveals a lack of new diffusion methods, especially in dynamic and large-scale networks. It also offers insights into applying various mining methods for viral marketing. It discusses some of the challenges, limitations, and future research directions of information diffusion for viral marketing. The article also introduces a viral marketing informa-tion diffusion model. The proposed model attempts to solve the dynamicity and large-scale data of social networks by adopting incremental clustering and a stochastic differential equation for business-to-business transactions.

  9. Molecular detection of viral causes of encephalitis and meningitis in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Michelle; Hull, Rene; Wang, Heng; Nattanmai, Seela; Glasheen, Bernadette; Fusco, Heather; Dzigua, Lela; Markey, Katie; Tavakoli, Norma P

    2011-12-01

    The etiology of encephalitis and meningitis, serious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), in most cases remains unknown. The importance of establishing a diagnosis however, becomes even more important as advances are made in effective therapy. Molecular methods of detection, in particular, PCR, are being used routinely and have established a place in the arsenal of tools for diagnosis of CNS infections. In this study a viral etiological agent was detected by PCR in 340 of the total 2,357 specimens from patients who exhibited symptoms of encephalitis or meningitis. The detection rate increased from 8.9% during the first year of the study to 14.8% during the second year of the study with improved methodology and an expanded panel of viral agents. Methods were enhanced by developing real-time PCR assays (some multiplexed), using increased automation, superior nucleic acid extraction, and reverse transcription (RT) methods, and incorporation of an internal extraction control. Additionally, adenovirus and human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) were added to the original panel of 10 viruses that included enteroviruses, herpesviruses, and arboviruses. The most common viruses detected were enteroviruses (129; 5.5%), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (85; 3.6%), herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) 1 and 2 (67; 2.8%), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) (44; 1.9%).

  10. Stampidine prevents mortality in an experimental mouse model of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by lassa virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbles Heather E

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare (BW is a growing concern. Lassa virus, a member of the Arenavirus class of Hemorrhagic fever (HF viruses has emerged as a worldwide concern among public health officials. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the antiviral activity spectrum of stampidine, a novel nucleoside analog with potent anti-viral activity against the immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1, HIV-2, and FIV, by examining its effects on survival of mice challenged with Lassa virus. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of Stampidine in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the Josiah strain of Lassa virus. Mice were treated either with vehicle or nontoxic doses of stampidine administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to, and 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results The probability of survival following the Lassa challenge was significantly improved for stampidine treated mice (Kaplan Meier, Chi-squared = 11.7, df = 2, Log-Rank p-value = 0.003. Conclusion Therefore, stampidine shows clinical potential as a new agent for treatment of viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by Lassa virus.

  11. Stampidine prevents mortality in an experimental mouse model of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by lassa virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckun, Fatih M; Petkevich, Alexander S; Vassilev, Alexei O; Tibbles, Heather E; Titov, Leonid

    2004-01-01

    Background The potential use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare (BW) is a growing concern. Lassa virus, a member of the Arenavirus class of Hemorrhagic fever (HF) viruses has emerged as a worldwide concern among public health officials. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the antiviral activity spectrum of stampidine, a novel nucleoside analog with potent anti-viral activity against the immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1, HIV-2, and FIV, by examining its effects on survival of mice challenged with Lassa virus. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of Stampidine in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the Josiah strain of Lassa virus. Mice were treated either with vehicle or nontoxic doses of stampidine administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to, and 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results The probability of survival following the Lassa challenge was significantly improved for stampidine treated mice (Kaplan Meier, Chi-squared = 11.7, df = 2, Log-Rank p-value = 0.003). Conclusion Therefore, stampidine shows clinical potential as a new agent for treatment of viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by Lassa virus. PMID:14720304

  12. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  13. Agents of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    at large, it emphasises universities as key change agents and providers in new learning, including tools such as project based and problem oriented learning (PBL) as well as information and communication technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society...

  14. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  15. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  16. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  17. HTLV Tax: a fascinating multifunctional co-regulator of viral and cellular pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eCurrer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 has been identified as the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. The virus infects between 15 and 20 million people worldwide of which approximately 2 to 5% develop ATL. The past 35 years of research have yielded significant insight into the pathogenesis of HTLV-1, including the molecular characterization of Tax, the viral transactivator and oncoprotein. In spite of these efforts, the mechanisms of oncogenesis of this pleiotropic protein remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, we illustrate the multiple oncogenic roles of Tax by summarizing a recent body of literature that refines our understanding of cellular transformation. A focused range of topics are discussed in this review including Tax-mediated regulation of the viral promoter and other cellular pathways, particularly the connection of the NF-κB pathway to both post-translational modifications of Tax and sub-cellular localization. Specifically, recent research on polyubiquitination of Tax as it relates to the activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK complex is highlighted. Regulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage responses due to Tax are also discussed, including Tax interaction with minichromosome maintenance proteins and the role of Tax in chromatin remodeling. The recent identification of HTLV-3 has amplified the importance of the characterization of emerging viral pathogens. The challenge of the molecular determination of pathogenicity and malignant disease of this virus lies in the comparison of the viral transactivators of HTLV-1, -2, and -3 in terms of transformation and immortalization. Consequently, differences between the three proteins are currently being studied to determine what factors are required for the differences in tumorogenesis.

  18. The incidence of sporadic viral hepatitis in North India:a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subrat Kumar; Radha Kanta Ratho; Yogesh Kumar Chawla; India

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) among the major etiological agents is responsible for both sporadic and epidemic outbreaks. The epidemic outbreak is water-borne whereas the sporadic outbreak is possibly through contact. Various diagnostic tools at times fail to pinpoint the cause of viral hepatitis. This study was carried out to evaluate the utility of ELISA and nRT-PCR (nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) for the diagnosis of sporadic and acute viral hepatitis (AVH) caused by HEV in an endemic situation in North India. METHODS:Serum samples were collected from all the affected and suspected persons and subjected to serological detection of HAV IgM, HBsAg, HCV antibody and HEV IgM. The samples that were positive for HEV IgM were further processed for the detection of HEV RNA by nRT-PCR. RESULTS:A total of 843 samples were collected from 685 patients with AVH, 70 patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), 53 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), 11 patients with antituberculosis therapy (ATT)-induced jaundice, and 24 pregnant women. The percentage of positivity for anti-HEV IgM was 58.3% in the pregnant women, 41.4% in the paients with FHF, 38.6% in the patients with AVH, 9.4% in the patients with CLD and 18.2% in the patients with ATT induced jaundice. 9.4%of HBsAg carriers were positive for anti-HEV IgM. Males outnumbered females (62.8% vs. 37.1%). Furthermore, the rates of fulminant and acute outbreaks of hepatitis with HEV RNA positivity were 41.4% and 9.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION:Serological and molecular analysis should be combined for the diagnosis of viral infections, especially in endemic areas.

  19. SARS transmission pattern in Singapore reassessed by viral sequence variation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological investigations of infectious disease are mainly dependent on indirect contact information and only occasionally assisted by characterization of pathogen sequence variation from clinical isolates. Direct sequence analysis of the pathogen, particularly at a population level, is generally thought to be too cumbersome, technically difficult, and expensive. We present here a novel application of mass spectrometry (MS-based technology in characterizing viral sequence variations that overcomes these problems, and we apply it retrospectively to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS outbreak in Singapore. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The success rate of the MS-based analysis for detecting SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV sequence variations was determined to be 95% with 75 copies of viral RNA per reaction, which is sufficient to directly analyze both clinical and cultured samples. Analysis of 13 SARS-CoV isolates from the different stages of the Singapore outbreak identified nine sequence variations that could define the molecular relationship between them and pointed to a new, previously unidentified, primary route of introduction of SARS-CoV into the Singapore population. Our direct determination of viral sequence variation from a clinical sample also clarified an unresolved epidemiological link regarding the acquisition of SARS in a German patient. We were also able to detect heterogeneous viral sequences in primary lung tissues, suggesting a possible coevolution of quasispecies of virus within a single host. CONCLUSION: This study has further demonstrated the importance of improving clinical and epidemiological studies of pathogen transmission through the use of genetic analysis and has revealed the MS-based analysis to be a sensitive and accurate method for characterizing SARS-CoV genetic variations in clinical samples. We suggest that this approach should be used routinely during outbreaks of a wide variety of agents, in order

  20. Acute viral gastroenteritis in children hospitalized in Iksan, Korea during December 2010 - June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Whoan So

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Viral etiology is common in cases of children with acute diarrhea, and antibiotic therapy is usually not required. Therefore, it is important to determine the distribution of common viruses among children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Methods: We included 186 children who suffered from acute diarrhea and were hospitalized at the Wonkwang University Hospital Pediatric ward from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 in this study. Stool samples were collected and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (multiplex RT-PCR was used to simultaneously determine the viral etiology such as rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, or adenovirus.&lt;br&gt; Results: Causative viruses were detected in 72 of the 186 cases (38.7%. The mean age of the viruspositive cases was 1 year and 9 months (range, 1 month to 11 years. Rotavirus was detected in 50/186 (26.9%; norovirus, in 18/186 (9.7%; and astrovirus, in 3/186 cases (1.6%. Adenovirus was not detected in any of the cases. Proportions of norovirus genogroups I and II were 21.1% and 78.9%, respectively. Four of the 51 rotavirus-positive cases (7.8% had received rotavirus vaccination at least once. The mean duration of diarrhea was 2.8 days (range, 1 to 10 days and vomiting occurred in 39 of the 72 cases (54.2%.&lt;br&gt; Conclusion: Viral etiology was confirmed in about one-third of the children with acute diarrhea, and the most common viral agent was rotavirus, followed by norovirus.

  1. Nano-sized calcium phosphate (CaP) carriers for non-viral gene deilvery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Nanostructured calcium phosphates (NanoCaPs): comprehensive review. ► Non viral gene delivery mechanisms: detailed mechanisms are outlined. ► Barriers to non-viral gene delivery: detailed barriers are discussed. - Abstract: Gene therapy has garnered much interest due to the potential for curing multiple inherited and/or increases in the acquired diseases. As a result, there has been intense activity from multiple research groups for developing effective delivery methods and carriers, which is a critical step in advancing gene delivery technologies. In order for the carriers to effectively deliver the genetic payloads, multiple extracellular and intracellular barriers need to be overcome. Although overcoming these challenges to improve the effectiveness is critical, the development of safe gene delivery agents is even more vital to assure its use in clinical applications. The development of safe and effective strategies has therefore been a major challenge impeding gene therapy progress. In this regard, calcium phosphate (CaP) based nano-particles has been considered as one of the candidate non-viral gene delivery vehicles, but has been plagued by inconsistent and low transfection efficiencies limiting its progress. There has been major research effort to improve the consistency and effectiveness of CaP based vectors. Currently, it is therefore thought that by controlling the various synthesis factors such as Ca/P ratio, mode of mixing, and type of calcium phosphate phase, such variability and inefficiency could be modulated. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current research activity in the development of CaP based ceramic and polymer-ceramic hybrid systems for non-viral gene delivery. Preliminary transfection results of hydroxyapatite (HA or NanoCaPs), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and brushite phases are also compared to assess the effect of various CaP phases, and correspondingly, changes in the dissolution

  2. [Microbiological diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STI): Part 1. Non-viral STI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M Angélica T

    2009-12-01

    Non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STI) are an important cause of physical, psychological and social distress, have severe consequences for women's reproductive health and may be transmitted to the newborn child. These infections are also risk factors for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other STI, and for premature labor. In the last years we have observed a gradual decrease in the national incidence of gonorrhea. The implementation of a screening program in our country for Chlamydia trachomatis is necessary, since up to 80% of infections in women are asymptomatic. Due to medical, psychosocial and legal reasons, laboratory diagnosis of STI has to be certain. This offers a great challenge to laboratories. Since etiological agents are susceptible to environmental conditions, present a high adaptation to their human host and have particular physiological characteristics, their laboratory diagnosis is more difficult than diagnosis of conventional microorganisms. Otherwise, the diagnostic techniques currently available for non-viral STI are characterized by their excellent sensitivity and specificity, which result of great interest given the curable nature of these infections. Clinical specimens obtained for diagnosis of STI and other genital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis or Candidiasis represent a large proportion of specimens processed by clinical laboratories. Thus, the creation of norms and quality control guidelines for laboratories which diagnose these infections, and also the epidemiologic and genetic surveillance of circulating sex transmitted microorganisms should be considered a priority in our country. The objective of this study is to review current literature on accurate diagnostic procedures especially for three non-viral STI agents: C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:20098788

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles as gene delivery agents: enhanced transfection in the presence of oscillating magnet arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBain, S C; Keramane, A; Dobson, J [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7QB (United Kingdom); Griesenbach, U; Xenariou, S; Alton, E W F W [Department of Gene Therapy, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Manresa Road, London SW3 6LR (United Kingdom); Batich, C D [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: bea22@keele.ac.uk

    2008-10-08

    Magnetic nanoparticle-based gene transfection has been shown to be effective in combination with both viral vectors and with non-viral agents. In these systems, therapeutic or reporter genes are attached to magnetic nanoparticles which are then focused to the target site/cells via high-field/high-gradient magnets. The technique has been shown to be efficient and rapid for in vitro transfection and compares well with cationic lipid-based reagents, producing good overall transfection levels with lower doses and shorter transfection times. In spite of its potential advantages (particularly for in vivo targeting), the overall transfection levels do not generally exceed those of other non-viral agents. In order to improve the overall transfection levels while maintaining the advantages inherent in this technique, we have developed a novel, oscillating magnet array system which adds lateral motion to the particle/gene complex in order to promote transfection. Experimental results indicate that the system significantly enhances overall in vitro transfection levels in human airway epithelial cells compared to both static field techniques (p<0.005) and the cationic lipids (p<0.001) tested. In addition, it has the previously demonstrated advantages of magnetofection-rapid transfection times and requiring lower levels of DNA than cationic lipid-based transfection agents. This method shows potential for non-viral gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. ViralFusionSeq: accurately discover viral integration events and reconstruct fusion transcripts at single-base resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing-Woei; Wan, Raymond; Yu, Chi-Shing; CO, Ngai Na; Wong, Nathalie; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Insertional mutagenesis from virus infection is an important pathogenic risk for the development of cancer. Despite the advent of high-throughput sequencing, discovery of viral integration sites and expressed viral fusion events are still limited. Here, we present ViralFusionSeq (VFS), which combines soft-clipping information, read-pair analysis and targeted de novo assembly to discover and annotate viral–human fusions. VFS was used in an RNA-Seq experiment, simulated DNA-Seq experim...

  5. Online program ‘vipcal’ for calculating lytic viral production and lysogenic cells based on a viral reduction approach

    OpenAIRE

    Luef, Birgit; Luef, Franz; Peduzzi, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Assessing viral production (VP) requires robust methodological settings combined with precise mathematical calculations. This contribution improves and standardizes mathematical calculations of VP and the assessment of the proportion of lysogenic cells in a sample. We present an online tool ‘Viral Production Calculator’ (vipcal, http://www.univie.ac.at/nuhag-php/vipcal) that calculates lytic production and the percentage of lysogenic cells based on data obtained from a viral reduction approac...

  6. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  7. Function of ubiquitin (Ub) specific protease 15 (USP15) in HIV-1 replication and viral protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyeon, Dohun; Timani, Khalid Amine; Gulraiz, Fahad; He, Johnny J; Park, In-Woo

    2016-09-01

    HIV-1 Nef is necessary and may be sufficient for HIV-1-associated AIDS pathogenicity, in that knockout of Nef alone can protect HIV-infected patients from AIDS. We therefore investigated the feasibility of physical knockout of Nef, using the host ubiquitin proteasome system in HIV-1-infected cells. Our co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that Nef interacted with ubiquitin specific protease 15 (USP15), and that USP15, which is known to stabilize cellular proteins, degraded Nef. Nef could also cause decay of USP15, although Nef-mediated degradation of USP15 was weaker than USP15-mediated Nef degradation. Direct interaction between Nef and USP15 was essential for the observed reciprocal decay of the proteins. Further, USP15 degraded not only Nef but also HIV-1 structural protein, Gag, thereby substantially inhibiting HIV-1 replication. However, Gag did not degrade USP15, indicating that the Nef and USP15 complex, in distinction to other viral proteins, play an integral role in coordinating viral protein degradation and hence HIV-1 replication. Moreover, Nef and USP15 globally suppressed ubiquitylation of cellular proteins, indicating that these proteins are major determinants for the stability of cellular as well as viral proteins. Taken together, these data indicate that Nef and USP15 are vital in regulating degradation of viral and cellular proteins and thus HIV-1 replication, and specific degradation of viral, not cellular proteins, by USP15 points to USP15 as a candidate therapeutic agent to combat AIDS by eliminating viral proteins from the infected cells via USP15-mediated proteosomal degradation. PMID:27460547

  8. Vaccines in the prevention of viral pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, R F

    1995-12-01

    Vaccines to control respiratory virus infections have been limited to inactivated whole virus or split virus product of influenza. Over the last few years, advances in the understanding of immunity to and importance of these infections has led to the development of newer, more immunogenic inactivated influenza vaccines and to the exploration of live attenuated influenza vaccines. In parallel, both inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus have been undergoing evaluation. More effective or new vaccines could reduce morbidity, reduce the frequency of hospitalization, and decrease the death rate. Since viral respiratory disease would be decreased in frequency, vaccines could reduce the use of antibiotics, and by so doing, preserve the usefulness of our currently available antibiotics.

  9. Viral IRES RNA structures and ribosome interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2008-06-01

    In eukaryotes, protein synthesis initiates primarily by a mechanism that requires a modified nucleotide 'cap' on the mRNA and also proteins that recruit and position the ribosome. Many pathogenic viruses use an alternative, cap-independent mechanism that substitutes RNA structure for the cap and many proteins. The RNAs driving this process are called internal ribosome-entry sites (IRESs) and some are able to bind the ribosome directly using a specific 3D RNA structure. Recent structures of IRES RNAs and IRES-ribosome complexes are revealing the structural basis of viral IRES' 'hijacking' of the protein-making machinery. It now seems that there are fundamental differences in the 3D structures used by different IRESs, although there are some common features in how they interact with ribosomes. PMID:18468443

  10. Annotation of selection strengths in viral genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCauley, Stephen; de Groot, Saskia; Mailund, Thomas;

    2007-01-01

    - and intergenomic regions. The presence of multiple coding regions complicates the concept of Ka/Ks ratio, and thus begs for an alternative approach when investigating selection strengths. Building on the paper by McCauley & Hein (2006), we develop a method for annotating a viral genome coding in overlapping...... may thus achieve an annotation both of coding regions as well as selection strengths, allowing us to investigate different selection patterns and hypotheses. Results: We illustrate our method by applying it to a multiple alignment of four HIV2 sequences, as well as four Hepatitis B sequences. We...... obtain an annotation of the coding regions, as well as a posterior probability for each site of the strength of selection acting on it. From this we may deduce the average posterior selection acting on the different genes. Whilst we are encouraged to see in HIV2, that the known to be conserved genes gag...

  11. Confirmed viral meningitis with normal CSF findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Naghum; Desjobert, Edouard; Lumley, Janine; Webster, Daniel; Jacobs, Michael

    2014-07-17

    An 18-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening headache, photophobia feverishness and vomiting. Three weeks previously she had returned to the UK from a trip to Peru. At presentation, she had clinical signs of meningism. On admission, blood tests showed a mild lymphopenia, with a normal C reactive protein and white cell count. Chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy was normal. CSF protein and glucose were in the normal range. MRI of the head and cerebral angiography were also normal. Subsequent molecular testing of CSF detected enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The patient's clinical syndrome correlated with her virological diagnosis and no other cause of her symptoms was found. Her symptoms were self-limiting and improved with supportive management. This case illustrates an important example of viral central nervous system infection presenting clinically as meningitis but with normal CSF microscopy.

  12. Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, M

    1996-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658

  13. Viral gastrointestinal syndrome in our environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patić A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral gastrointestinal syndrome is a cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Infection is spread through contact with an infected person, as well as through contaminated food and water. A lethal outcome is possible in infants and young children due to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The study included 141 patients with gastroenteritis from Vojvodina. Real-Time PCR method in stool samples was used to determine the presence of rota-, noro-, and astrovirus nucleic acid. Out of 141 patients with gastroenteritis, 60.3% were confirmed to have one of the three viruses. Rotavirus was significantly more common in children up to 3 years of age (43.3%. Norovirus was more frequently detected in patients older than 20 (50%. These infections started in collectives. Astrovirus was detected in four patients (2.8%. The results confirm the necessity to implement PCR in routine diagnostics for the proper treatment of patients.

  14. Branching Dynamics of Viral Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking or Marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real Viral Marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris Branching Process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping-point" and can...

  15. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  16. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  17. Pregnancy outcomes associated with viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, K L B; Jhaveri, R; Gandhi, M; James, A H; Swamy, G K

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) to pregnancy-related complications including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm birth (PTB), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and cholestasis. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for all pregnancy-related discharges, pregnancy complications and viral hepatitis from 1995 to 2005. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between HBV, HCV, HBV + HCV and pregnancy-related complications including GDM, PTB, IUGR, pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage, cholestasis and caesarean delivery. Model covariates included maternal age, race, insurance status, substance use and medical complications including liver complication, hypertension, HIV, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and sexually transmitted infections. Of 297 664 pregnant women data available for analysis, 1446 had a coded diagnosis of HBV, HCV or both. High-risk behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol and substance use were higher in women with either HBV or HCV. Women with HBV had an increased risk for PTB (aOR 1.65, CI [1.3, 2.0]) but a decreased risk for caesarean delivery (aOR 0.686, CI [0.53, 0.88]). Individuals with HCV had an increased risk for GDM (aOR 1.6, CI [1.0, 2.6]). Individuals with both HBV and HCV co-infection had an increased risk for antepartum haemorrhage (aOR 2.82, CI [1.1, 7.2]). There was no association of viral hepatitis with IUGR or pre-eclampsia. Women with hepatitis have an increased risk for complications during pregnancy. Research to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of counselling patients about potential risks for adverse outcomes is warranted. PMID:21692952

  18. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections in pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. Viral STIs occur as surface infection and then gradually infect immunologically protected sites. Therefore, these are asymptomatic, hidden and hence underdiagnosed, persistent and difficult to treat. HSV, HPV, HBV, HIV and CMV (cytomegalovirus are the common ones. Most of these are transmitted during intrapartum period. Proper screening, identification and treatment offered during prenatal period may help in preventing their complications. Twenty five percent of women with a history of genital herpes have an outbreak at some point during the last month of pregnancy. Acyclovir is the accepted efficacious and safe therapy for HSV in pregnancy. Globally, HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Neonatal transmission can occur in the absence of clinically evident lesions. HPV 6 or 11 may lead to Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JORRP. TCA, liquid nitrogen, laser ablation or electrocautery can be used to treat external genital HPV lesions at any time during pregnancy. Cesarean section is recommended only if the lesions are obstructing the birth canal. Mother to child transmission (MTCT in HIV accounts for 15-30% during pregnancy and delivery, and a further 5-20% of transmission occurs through breastfeeding. HBV infection during pregnancy does not alter the natural course of the disease. In women who are seropositive for both HBsAg and HBeAg, vertical transmission is approximately 90%. Pregnancy is not a contraindication for HBV vaccination. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common intrauterine infection. Cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID is the most severe form of congenital CMV infection. Treatment is supportive.

  19. Rastreio virológico de carnívoros errantes e caracterização genética viral

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, Ricardo Constante

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária ABSTRACT - Virological survey in stray carnivores and viral genetic characterisation - Free-roaming stray or feral dogs and cats living in urban areas can be responsible for the spread and maintenance of several infectious diseases. To investigate the presence of viral agents and the genomic diversity of canine and feline coronavirus (CCoV, FCoV) in Lisbon’s Municipal kennel, a virological survey was conducted which include...

  20. Neurotropismo viral, el caso del virus de rabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Castellanos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El virus de rabia (VR, por su alto neurotropismo se considera como el modelo biológico ideal para el estudio de las encefalitis virales. Adicionalmente, a pesar de la gran cantidad de investigaciones que se han desarrollado en el tema, aun sigue siendo una enfermedad letal cuando el agente llega hasta el sistema nervioso central. Los virus animales requieren de una célula huésped para lograr su replicación. Se considera que la primera molécula de la célula huésped con la que se une un virus (un “receptor” viral, es la responsable de la entrada y es quien define el tropismo del virus. Una definición más actual de tales receptores virales, implica que son una molécula de la superficie celular que participa no solo en la unión del patógeno sino en la promoción de la infección (1.

    Con el objetivo de desarrollar una estrategia farmacológica racional, nuestro grupo de investigación se ha comprometido con el estudio de los eventos celulares y moleculares que podrían explicar el neurotropismo del VR y su patogenia. Nuestros trabajos han sido desarrollados en un sistema de cultivo original, consistente en cultivos de neuronas sensoriales adultas (2. Usando este modelo biológico se ha confirmado la participación del receptor de acetilcolina en la infección, pues el tratamiento tanto con agonistas (3 como con antagonistas nicotínicos, (4 produjo una disminución significativa en el número de neuronas infectadas. La evidencia parece indicar que entre los muchos subtipos de receptores nicotínicos (5, solo algunos de ellos serían los responsables de la interacción entre el virus y las neuronas.

    A partir del hallazgo realizado por Thoulouze y colaboradores (6 de que la molécula de adhesión celular neural (NCAM

  1. Respiratory viral infection predisposing for bacterial disease : a concise review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hament, JM; Kimpen, JLL; Fleer, A; Wolfs, TFW

    1999-01-01

    Although bacterial superinfection in viral respiratory disease is a clinically well documented phenomenon, the pathogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Recent studies have revealed some of the mechanisms involved. Physical damage to respiratory cells as a result of viral infection may lead

  2. Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nelson; Martin C W Chan; Wong, Bonnie; Choi, K.W.; Sin, Winnie; Lui, Grace; Chan, Paul K.S.; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Cockram, C.S.; Sung, Joseph J Y; Leung, Wai K

    2007-01-01

    Fecal viral concentrations of 40 patients infected with norovirus genogroup GII.4 correlated with diarrhea duration and frequency of vomiting. Higher viral concentration and older age were independently associated with prolonged diarrhea (>4 days). These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.

  3. Fecal Viral Load and Norovirus-associated Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin C W Chan; Sung, Joseph J Y; Lam, Rebecca K. Y.; Chan, Paul K.S.; Nelson L S Lee; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Leung, Wai K

    2006-01-01

    We report the median cDNA viral load of norovirus genogroup II is >100-fold higher than that of genogroup I in the fecal specimens of patients with norovirus-associated gastroenteritis. We speculate that increased cDNA viral load accounts for the higher transmissibility of genogroup II strains through the fecal-oral route.

  4. A Strong Case for Viral Genetic Factors in HIV Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Herbeck

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV infections show great variation in the rate of progression to disease, and the role of viral genetic factors in this variation had remained poorly characterized until recently. Now a series of four studies [1–4] published within a year has filled this important gap and has demonstrated a robust effect of the viral genotype on HIV virulence.

  5. Internet-induced marketing techniques: Critical factors of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerndl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid diffusion of the Internet and the emergence of various social constructs facilitated by Internet technologies are changing the drivers that define how marketing techniques are developed and refined. This paper identifies critical factors for viral marketing, an Internet-based ‘word-of-mouth’ marketing technique. Based on existing knowledge, five types of viral marketing factors that may critically influence the success of viral marketing campaigns are identified. These factors are the overall structure of the campaign, the characteristics of the product or service, the content of the message, the characteristics of the diffusion and, the peer-to-peer information conduit. The paper discusses three examples of viral marketing campaigns and identifies the specific factors in each case that influence its success. The paper concludes with a viral marketing typology differentiating between viral marketing communications, unintended viral marketing and commercial viral marketing. This is still a rapidly evolving area and further research is clearly needed to monitor new developments and make sense of the radical changes these developments bring to the market.

  6. Depth-Related Gradients of Viral Activity in Lake Pavin

    OpenAIRE

    Colombet, J.; T. Sime-Ngando; Cauchie, H. M.; Fonty, G; L. Hoffmann; Demeure, G.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution vertical sampling and determination of viral and prokaryotic parameters in a deep volcanic lake shows that in the absence of thermal stratification but within light, oxygen, and chlorophyll gradients, host availability empirically is prevalent over the physical and chemical environments and favors lytic over lysogenic “viral life cycles.”

  7. The Hunger Games Viral Marketing Campaign : A Study of Viral Marketing and Fan Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Ilar, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines Lionsgate’s viral marketing campaign for The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012) and the marketing teams’ use of new marketing techniques and the online fan base. The essay also asks the question to what extent the fans’ participation in Lionsgate’s marketing campaign can be called fan labor. The study is based on a film industrial perspective and academic literature that deals with film marketing, the film industry, fandom and digital labor. The material used for the analysis ...

  8. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  9. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  10. Viral metagenomics analysis demonstrates the diversity of viral flora in piglet diarrhoeic faeces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Ren, Yupeng; Song, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the diversity of viral flora, we used metagenomics to study the viral communities in a pooled faecal sample of 27 diarrhoeic piglets from intensive commercial farms in China. The 15 distinct mammalian viruses identified in the pooled diarrhoeic sample were, in order of abundance of nucleic acid sequence, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), sapovirus, porcine bocavirus-4 (PBoV-4), sapelovirus, torovirus, coronavirus, PBoV-2, stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (poSCV), astrovirus (AstV), kobuvirus, posavirus-1, porcine enterovirus-9 (PEV-9), porcine circovirus-like (po-circo-like) virus, picobirnavirus (PBV) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2). The prevalence rate of each virus was verified from diarrhoeic and healthy piglets by PCR assay. A mean of 5.5 different viruses were shed in diarrhoeic piglets, and one piglet was in fact co-infected with 11 different viruses. By contrast, healthy piglets shed a mean of 3.2 different viruses. Compared with samples from healthy piglets, the co-infection of PEDV and PBoV had a high prevalence rate in diarrhoea samples, suggesting a correlation with the appearance of diarrhoea in piglets. Furthermore, we report here for the first time the presence of several recently described viruses in China, and the identification of novel genotypes. Therefore, our investigation results provide an unbiased survey of viral communities and prevalence in faecal samples of piglets.

  11. Viral metagenomics analysis demonstrates the diversity of viral flora in piglet diarrhoeic faeces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Ren, Yupeng; Song, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the diversity of viral flora, we used metagenomics to study the viral communities in a pooled faecal sample of 27 diarrhoeic piglets from intensive commercial farms in China. The 15 distinct mammalian viruses identified in the pooled diarrhoeic sample were, in order of abundance of nucleic acid sequence, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), sapovirus, porcine bocavirus-4 (PBoV-4), sapelovirus, torovirus, coronavirus, PBoV-2, stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (poSCV), astrovirus (AstV), kobuvirus, posavirus-1, porcine enterovirus-9 (PEV-9), porcine circovirus-like (po-circo-like) virus, picobirnavirus (PBV) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2). The prevalence rate of each virus was verified from diarrhoeic and healthy piglets by PCR assay. A mean of 5.5 different viruses were shed in diarrhoeic piglets, and one piglet was in fact co-infected with 11 different viruses. By contrast, healthy piglets shed a mean of 3.2 different viruses. Compared with samples from healthy piglets, the co-infection of PEDV and PBoV had a high prevalence rate in diarrhoea samples, suggesting a correlation with the appearance of diarrhoea in piglets. Furthermore, we report here for the first time the presence of several recently described viruses in China, and the identification of novel genotypes. Therefore, our investigation results provide an unbiased survey of viral communities and prevalence in faecal samples of piglets. PMID:24718833

  12. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  13. Prevalence and severity of acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis during pregnancy: A prospective study from north india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniwal M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to find out the prevalence and severity of acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis during pregnancy in North India. The study was conducted on 97 consecutive pregnant patients in third trimester with acute viral hepatitis (AVH or fulminant hepatic failure (FHF. The patients were evaluated on the basis of history, examination, liver function profile and serological markers for hepatitis A,B,C and E viruses. Hepatitis E virus (HEV was the causative agent in 47.4% of the cases of viral hepatitis and 52.6% were caused by non-E viruses(HAV-5.2%,HBV-7.2%,HCV-0%,non A-E 47.4%. HEV was responsible for 36.2% of the cases of AVH and 75% of the cases of FHF. The mortality was 24.7% (24/97. All of them had FHF. Eighteen of 24 cases (75% who expired were HEV positive. The mortality rate was 39.1% in HEV group and 11.7% in non HEV group. Majority of patients (87.5% who expired had died undelivered. Hepatitis E was the commonest etiological agent in those who had fulminant disease during pregnancy and was associated with high mortality rate.

  14. Viral-bacterial interactions in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Tal; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2012-12-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a polymicrobial disease, which usually occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI). While respiratory viruses alone may cause viral AOM, they increase the risk of bacterial middle ear infection and worsen clinical outcomes of bacterial AOM. URI viruses alter Eustachian tube (ET) function via decreased mucociliary action, altered mucus secretion and increased expression of inflammatory mediators among other mechanisms. Transient reduction in protective functions of the ET allows colonizing bacteria of the nasopharynx to ascend into the middle ear and cause AOM. Advances in research help us to better understand the host responses to viral URI, the mechanisms of viral-bacterial interactions in the nasopharynx and the development of AOM. In this review, we present current knowledge regarding viral-bacterial interactions in the pathogenesis and clinical course of AOM. We focus on the common respiratory viruses and their established role in AOM.

  15. RNAi, a new therapeutic strategy against viral infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fischer L. TAN; James Q. YIN

    2004-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an adaptive defense mechanism triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). It is a powerful reverse genetic tool that has been widely employed to silence gene expression in mammalian and human cells.RNAi-based gene therapies, especially in viral diseases have become more and more interesting and promising. Recently,small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used to protect host from viral infection, inhibit the expression of viral antigen and accessory genes, control the transcription and replication of viral genome, hinder the assembly of viral particles, and display influences in virus-host interactions. In this review, we attempt to present recent progresses of this breakthrough technology in the above fields and summarize the possibilities of siRNA-based drugs.

  16. SAM : Semantic Agent Model for SWRL rule-based agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience SemanticWeb technologies are part of multi-agent engineering, especially regarding knowledge base support. Recent advances in the field of logic for the semantic web enable a new range of applications. Among them, programming agents based on semantic rules is a promising field. In this paper we present a semantic agent model that allows SWRL programming of agents. Our approach, based on the extended finite state machine concept, results in a three layers architecture...

  17. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Dawn Weynberg; Elisha Marie Wood-Charslon; Curtis eSuttle; Madeleine JH van Oppen

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals comprise multipartite symbioses where the cnidarian animal is host to an array of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and the viruses that infect them. These viruses are critical elements of the coral holobiont, serving not only as agents of mortality, but also as potential vectors for lateral gene flow, and as elements encoding a variety of auxiliary metabolic functions. Consequently, understanding the functioning and health of the coral holobiont requires detailed kno...

  18. The N-Terminal of Aquareovirus NS80 Is Required for Interacting with Viral Proteins and Viral Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Reovirus replication and assembly occurs within viral inclusion bodies that formed in specific intracellular compartments of cytoplasm in infected cells. Previous study indicated that aquareovirus NS80 is able to form inclusion bodies, and also can retain viral proteins within its inclusions. To better understand how NS80 performed in viral replication and assembly, the functional regions of NS80 associated with other viral proteins in aquareovirus replication were investigated in this study. Deletion mutational analysis and rotavirus NSP5-based protein association platform were used to detect association regions. Immunofluorescence images indicated that different N-terminal regions of NS80 could associate with viral proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 and NS38. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the interaction between VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 with different regions covering the N-terminal amino acid (aa, 1-471 of NS80, respectively. Moreover, removal of NS80 N-terminal sequences required for interaction with proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 not only prevented the capacity of NS80 to support viral replication in NS80 shRNA-based replication complementation assays, but also inhibited the expression of aquareovirus proteins, suggesting that N-terminal regions of NS80 are necessary for viral replication. These results provided a foundational basis for further understanding the role of NS80 in viral replication and assembly during aquareovirus infection.

  19. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; REDDY, P; Flath, C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  20. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  1. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  2. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  3. Viral kinetics of Enterovirus 71 in human habdomyosarcoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Lu; Ya-Qing He; Li-Na Yi; Hong Zan; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Ming-Liang He

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To characterise the viral kinetics of enterovirus 71 (EV71). METHODS: In this study, human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells were infected with EV71 at different multiplicity of infection (MOI). After infection, the cytopathic effect (CPE) was monitored and recorded using a phase contrast microscope associated with a CCD camera at different time points post viral infection (0, 6, 12, 24 h post infection). Cell growth and viability were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in both EV71 infected and mock infected cells at each time point. EV71 replication kinetics in RD cells was determined by measuring the total intracellular viral RNA with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Also, the intracellular and extracellular virion RNA was isolated and quantified at different time points to analyze the viral package and secretion. The expression of viral protein was determined by analyze the levels of viral structure protein VP1 with Western blotting. RESULTS: EV71 infection induced a significant CPE as early as 6 h post infection (p.i.) in both RD cells infected with high ratio of virus (MOI 10) and low ratio of virus (MOI 1). In EV71 infected cells, the cell growth was inhibited and the number of viable cells was rapidly decreased in the later phase of infection. EV71 virions were uncoated immediately after entry. The intracellular viral RNA began to increase at as early as 3 h p.i. and the exponential increase was found between 3 h to 6 h p.i. in both infected groups. For viral structure protein synthesis, results from western-blot showed that intracellular viral protein VP1 could not be detected until 6 h p.i. in the cells infected at either MOI 1 or MOI 10; and reached the peak at 9 h p.i. in the cells infected with EV71 at both MOI 1 and MOI 10. Simultaneously, the viral package and secretion were also actively processed as the virus underwent rapid replication. The viral package kinetics

  4. Mediating Performance Through Virtual Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Giannachi, Gabriella; Gillies, Marco; Kaye, Nick; Swapp, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the process of creation of virtual agents used in a virtual reality performance. The performance aimed to investigate how drama and performance could inform the creation of virtual agents and also how virtual reality could raise questions for drama and performance. The virtual agents were based on the performance of 2 actors. This paper describes the process of preparing the actors, capturing their performances and transferring them to the virtual agents. A second set of a...

  5. Clinical disease severity of respiratory viral co-infection versus single viral infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Asner

    Full Text Available Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections.We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS. A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses.Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS (mean difference (MD -0.20 days, 95% CI -0.94, 0.53, p = 0.59, or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p = 0.09 were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001 with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p = 0.04.No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation.

  6. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  7. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  8. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning agents to slots on a line, where only one agent can be served at a slot and each agent prefers to be served as close as possible to his target. Our focus is on aggregate gap minimizing methods, i.e., those that minimize the total gap between targets and assigned...

  9. Daphne Genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. Water-Soluble Extracts Act on Enterovirus 71 by Inhibiting Viral Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wen Chang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dried flowers of Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (Thymelaeaceae are a Chinese herbal medicine used as an abortifacient with purgative, diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the activity of this medicine against enteroviral infections has not been investigated. The water-extract of dried buds of D. genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (DGFW was examined against various strains of enterovirus 71 (EV71 by neutralization assay, and its initial mode of action was characterized by time-of-addition assay followed by attachment and penetration assays. Pretreatment of DGFW with virus abolished viral replication, indicating that DGFW inhibits EV71 by targeting the virus. GFW exerts its anti-EV71 effects by inhibiting viral entry without producing cytotoxic side effects and thus provides a potential agent for antiviral chemotherapeutics.

  10. Expression and In Silico Analysis of the Recombinant Bovine Papillomavirus E6 Protein as a Model for Viral Oncoproteins Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mazzuchelli-de-Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins.

  11. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in fresh colostrum: a modification of the virus neutralization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekovic, Tomislav; Mihaljevic, Zeljko; Jungic, Andreja; Lemo, Nina; Lojkic, Ivana; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    To eliminate cytotoxic effects of colostrum on cells, a modified virus neutralization test (VNT) for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in colostrum was developed. The new test was compared to the World Organization for Animal Health-recommended VNT and the results evaluated. The agreement of the new test compared to the standard VNT was determined to be 98%, whereas sensitivity and specificity of the modified VNT compared to the standard VNT were 100%. Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antibodies were detected in 42 sera samples and 38 colostrum samples. The antibody titers in serum and colostrum showed a high correlation (n = 56, r = 0.9719, P < 0.001). The modified virus neutralization technique described herein succeeds in eliminating cytotoxic effects and can be readily applied for the detection of specific antibodies against other infectious agents in colostrum. PMID:23417081

  12. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  13. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  14. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  15. Effect of oligonucleotide primers in determining viral variability within hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Andrés

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variability in viral populations is usually estimated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR based methods in which the relative abundance of each amplicon is assumed to be proportional to the frequency of the corresponding template in the initial sample. Although bias in template-to-product ratios has been described before, its relevance in describing viral genetic variability at the intrapatient level has not been fully assessed yet. Results To investigate the role of oligonucleotide design in estimating viral variability within hosts, genetic diversity in hepatitis C virus (HCV populations from eight infected patients was characterised by two parallel PCR amplifications performed with two slightly different sets of primers, followed by cloning and sequencing (mean = 89 cloned sequences per patient. Population genetics analyses of viral populations recovered by pairs of amplifications revealed that in seven patients statistically significant differences were detected between populations sampled with different set of primers. Conclusions Genetic variability analyses demonstrates that PCR selection due to the choice of primers, differing in their degeneracy degree at some nucleotide positions, can eclipse totally or partially viral variants, hence yielding significant different estimates of viral variability within a single patient and therefore eventually producing quite different qualitative and quantitative descriptions of viral populations within each host.

  16. Markers of viral hepatitis in hemophiliacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sero prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and anti-HCV IgG was determined in 100 persons with Hemophilia (PWH), registered with Hemophilia Patient Welfare Society (HPWS), Lahore Zone, Pakistan. The study shows that 4% were positive for HBsAg. However, there was a high level of anti-HCV sero positivity (56%) in our PWH, including many patients in younger age groups. When compared with figures from PWH in other regions of Asia like 23% in Western India, 33% in Sri Lanka and 15% of those in Iran, this figure is one of the highest. This rate is a reflection of the same rising trend in our population that is now exceeding 10%. The practice of unscreened blood/blood-products transfusions in the backdrop of high prevalence of HCV in our population is responsible for high figures seen in PWH. The need is to increase awareness amongst the patients, health care workers and policy makers about the transfusion associated viral infections in a group of patients who already had a hereditary disorder of severe nature. (author)

  17. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  18. An Interesting Case of Viral Pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Kelly Marie; de Almeida, Claudia Lace; Kam, April Jacqueline

    2016-05-01

    A previously healthy 14-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with a 3-day history of upper respiratory symptoms and 2 syncopal episodes. She was initially febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic; the initial electrocardiogram showed diffuse T-wave inversions and right atrial enlargement. There was no pericardial effusion on bedside and formal echocardiography; the latter, however, revealed a hyperechogenic pericardium. A viral swab was positive for influenza B. Treatment with intravenous rehydration and ibuprofen was started with good response. The patient went home 24 hours later with the diagnosis of mild pericarditis and syncope likely secondary to dehydration impaired diastolic filling.The incidence of acute pericarditis in previously healthy children is unknown. There are no known case reports of influenza B-associated pericarditis in the pediatric population. There is little high quality evidence to guide the diagnosis and management of pericarditis in children. However, limited data suggest that the typically described presentation of chest pain, pericardial rub, pericardial effusion, and electrocardiogram changes occurs in children. The pediatric population seems to respond well to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26181497

  19. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  20. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. Results We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. Conclusions We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  1. Lipid-lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented.

  2. Advances in antithrombotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Ranjan; Das, Saibal Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Thrombosis is the condition where an imbalance in the homeostatic mechanism results in unwanted intravascular thrombus formation. Imbalances in this highly regulated process of coagulation and anticoagulation can lead to a variety of pathophysiological conditions leading to stroke, pulmonary heart attack and other serious conditions. In the western world, thromboembolic diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Remarkable progress has occurred over the last decade in the development of antithrombotic drugs, which can be classified into 3 major categories - Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets and thrombolytics. Increased understanding of the pathobiology of thrombotic and vascular disorders has helped researchers to target novel pathways involving the coagulation, thrombolytic, fibrinolytic and integrin systems. Traditionally aspirin and unfractionated heparin was used for myocardial infarction. Newer antiplatelet agents such as, clopidogrel, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, low molecular weight heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors and several improved thrombolytic agents have been introduced for clinical use. This review will discuss different important drugs, which have been launched in recent years and also some new targets pursued by different companies. PMID:17630943

  3. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  4. User cooperation, virality and gaming in a social mobile network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, C; Blazovics, L; Charaf, H;

    2012-01-01

    Social networks and mobile systems are both rapidly developing areas nowadays. In this chapter, we will introduce Gedda-Headz, a novel social mobile gaming concept that brings these two areas together. Gedda-Headz is a social mobile network that mainly focuses on multiplayer mobile gaming. First we......, as virality is very important in social networks, we will describe the viral elements of Gedda-Headz. We will also introduce the Gedda-Headz spreader, a novel method to spread the word about the network, increasing the virality further....

  5. Viral gastroenteritis in children: modern concepts of epidemiology and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. Ermolenko; Yu. V. Lobzin; N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    More than 60 original articles and reviews were analyzed in order to study the current state of the epidemiology and prevention of acute intestinal infections (AII) of viral etiology in the world. Interest in a problem of viral AII is determined by their widest prevalence and huge costs associated with the elimination of their consequences. There are at least eight families of viruses that are the cause of acute gastroenteritis. The expansion of the ideas on the epidemiology of viral gastroen...

  6. MicroRNAs and their role in viral infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Junjie; YAO Xue; CHEN Qimin; GENG Yunqi; QIAO Wentao

    2007-01-01

    Recently,a class of about 22 nucleotides (nt)small RNA has been discovered in many eukaryotes,termed microRNAs (miRNAs),which have a variety of functions.Many recent findings have demonstrated that viruses can also encode their own miRNAs.Meanwhile,other findings reveal a relationship between host miRNA and viral infection.These findings suggest a tight relationship between host and viral infection via miRNA pathway.This article introduces the miRNAs encoded by viruses and reviews the advances of the interaction of the mammalian host miRNAs and viral infection.

  7. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  8. How Can Viral Dynamics Models Inform Endpoint Measures in Clinical Trials of Therapies for Acute Viral Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available Acute viral infections pose many practical challenges for the accurate assessment of the impact of novel therapies on viral growth and decay. Using the example of influenza A, we illustrate how the measurement of infection-related quantities that determine the dynamics of viral load within the human host, can inform investigators on the course and severity of infection and the efficacy of a novel treatment. We estimated the values of key infection-related quantities that determine the course of natural infection from viral load data, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The data were placebo group viral load measurements collected during volunteer challenge studies, conducted by Roche, as part of the oseltamivir trials. We calculated the values of the quantities for each patient and the correlations between the quantities, symptom severity and body temperature. The greatest variation among individuals occurred in the viral load peak and area under the viral load curve. Total symptom severity correlated positively with the basic reproductive number. The most sensitive endpoint for therapeutic trials with the goal to cure patients is the duration of infection. We suggest laboratory experiments to obtain more precise estimates of virological quantities that can supplement clinical endpoint measurements.

  9. Assessing viral taxonomic composition in benthic marine ecosystems: reliability and efficiency of different bioinformatic tools for viral metagenomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangherlini, M; Dell'Anno, A; Zeigler Allen, L; Riccioni, G; Corinaldesi, C

    2016-01-01

    In benthic deep-sea ecosystems, which represent the largest biome on Earth, viruses have a recognised key ecological role, but their diversity is still largely unknown. Identifying the taxonomic composition of viruses is crucial for understanding virus-host interactions, their role in food web functioning and evolutionary processes. Here, we compared the performance of various bioinformatic tools (BLAST, MG-RAST, NBC, VMGAP, MetaVir, VIROME) for analysing the viral taxonomic composition in simulated viromes and viral metagenomes from different benthic deep-sea ecosystems. The analyses of simulated viromes indicate that all the BLAST tools, followed by MetaVir and VMGAP, are more reliable in the affiliation of viral sequences and strains. When analysing the environmental viromes, tBLASTx, MetaVir, VMGAP and VIROME showed a similar efficiency of sequence annotation; however, MetaVir and tBLASTx identified a higher number of viral strains. These latter tools also identified a wider range of viral families than the others, providing a wider view of viral taxonomic diversity in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Our findings highlight strengths and weaknesses of available bioinformatic tools for investigating the taxonomic diversity of viruses in benthic ecosystems in order to improve our comprehension of viral diversity in the oceans and its relationships with host diversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:27329207

  10. Retrospective Evaluation of Low-pH Viral Inactivation and Viral Filtration Data from a Multiple Company Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, John; Clark, Mike; Liu, Shengjiang; Pieracci, John; Gervais, Thomas R; Wilson, Eileen; Galperina, Olga; Li, Xinfang; Roush, David; Zoeller, Konstantin; Brough, Helene; Simpson-Platre, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Considerable resources are spent within the biopharmaceutical industry to perform viral clearance studies, which are conducted for widely used unit operations that are known to have robust and effective retrovirus clearance capability. The collaborative analysis from the members of the BioPhorum Development Group Viral Clearance Working Team considers two common virus reduction steps in biopharmaceutical processes: low-pH viral inactivation and viral filtration. Analysis included eight parameters for viral inactivation and nine for viral filtration. The extensive data set presented in this paper provides the industry with a reference point for establishing robust processes in addition to other protocols available in the literature (e.g., ASTM Std. E2888-12 for low-pH inactivation). In addition, it identifies points of weakness in the existing data set and instructs the design and interpretation of future studies. Included is an abundance of data that would have been difficult to generate individually but collectively will help support modular viral clearance claims.

  11. Assessing viral taxonomic composition in benthic marine ecosystems: reliability and efficiency of different bioinformatic tools for viral metagenomic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangherlini, M.; Dell’Anno, A.; Zeigler Allen, L.; Riccioni, G.; Corinaldesi, C.

    2016-01-01

    In benthic deep-sea ecosystems, which represent the largest biome on Earth, viruses have a recognised key ecological role, but their diversity is still largely unknown. Identifying the taxonomic composition of viruses is crucial for understanding virus-host interactions, their role in food web functioning and evolutionary processes. Here, we compared the performance of various bioinformatic tools (BLAST, MG-RAST, NBC, VMGAP, MetaVir, VIROME) for analysing the viral taxonomic composition in simulated viromes and viral metagenomes from different benthic deep-sea ecosystems. The analyses of simulated viromes indicate that all the BLAST tools, followed by MetaVir and VMGAP, are more reliable in the affiliation of viral sequences and strains. When analysing the environmental viromes, tBLASTx, MetaVir, VMGAP and VIROME showed a similar efficiency of sequence annotation; however, MetaVir and tBLASTx identified a higher number of viral strains. These latter tools also identified a wider range of viral families than the others, providing a wider view of viral taxonomic diversity in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Our findings highlight strengths and weaknesses of available bioinformatic tools for investigating the taxonomic diversity of viruses in benthic ecosystems in order to improve our comprehension of viral diversity in the oceans and its relationships with host diversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:27329207

  12. Regulación de la traducción de mRNAs virales: efecto de proteasas virales

    OpenAIRE

    Moral López, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Molecular Success of viral infection relays on the viral ability to overcome host antiviral response at the same time that their mRNAs hijack components of the translation machinery including ribosomes. Some viruses have developed the ability to bypass cellular antiviral response and optimize viral protein synthesis by inhibiting host translation. In the case of pic...

  13. Changing haematological parameters in dengue viral infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Dengue Fever is the most common arboviral disease in the world, and presents cyclically in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The four serotypes of dengue virus, 1, 2, 3, and 4, form an antigenic subgroup of the flaviviruses (Group B arboviruses). Transmission to humans of any of these serotypes initiates a spectrum of host responses, from in apparent to severe and sometimes lethal infections. Complete Blood count (CBC) is an important part of the diagnostic workup of patients. Comparison of various finding in CBC including peripheral smear can help the physician in better management of the patient. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on a series of suspected patients of Dengue viral infection reporting in Ittefaq Hospital (Trust). All were investigated for serological markers of acute infection. Results Out of 341 acute cases 166 (48.7%) were confirmed by IgM against Dengue virus. IgG anti-dengue was used on 200 suspected re-infected patients. Seventy-one (39.5%) were positive and 118 (59%) were negative. Among 245 confirmed dengue fever patients 43 (17.6%) were considered having dengue hemorrhagic fever on the basis of lab and clinical findings. Raised haematocrit, Leukopenia with relative Lymphocytosis and presence atypical lymphocytes along with plasmacytoid cells was consistent finding at presentation in both the patterns of disease, i.e., Dengue Haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue fever (DF). Conclusion: Changes in relative percentage of cells appear with improvement in the symptoms and recovery from the disease. These findings indicate that in the course of the disease, there are major shifts within cellular component of blood. (author)

  14. An Epstein-Barr virus mutant produces immunogenic defective particles devoid of viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sophia; Feederle, Regina; Gärtner, Kathrin; Fuchs, Walter; Granzow, Harald; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) from hepatitis B and human papillomaviruses have been successfully used as preventative vaccines against these infectious agents. These VLPs consist of a self-associating capsid polymer formed from a single structure protein and are devoid of viral DNA. Since virions from herpesviruses consist of a large number of molecules of viral and cellular origin, generating VLPs from a subset of these would be a particularly arduous task. Therefore, we have adopted an alternative strategy that consists of producing DNA-free defective virus particles in a cell line infected by a herpesvirus mutant incapable of packaging DNA. We previously reported that an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mutant devoid of the terminal repeats (ΔTR) that act as packaging signals in herpesviruses produces substantial amounts of VLPs and of light particles (LPs). However, ΔTR virions retained some infectious genomes, and although these mutants had lost their transforming abilities, this poses potential concerns for clinical applications. Therefore, we have constructed a series of mutants that lack proteins involved in maturation and assessed their ability to produce viral DNA-free VLP/LPs. Some of the introduced mutations were deleterious for capsid maturation and virus production. However, deletion of BFLF1/BFRF1A or of BBRF1 resulted in the production of DNA-free VLPs/LPs. The ΔBFLF1/BFRF1A viruses elicited a potent CD4(+) T-cell response that was indistinguishable from the one obtained with wild-type controls. In summary, the defective particles produced by the ΔBFLF1/BFRF1A mutant fulfill the criteria of efficacy and safety expected from a preventative vaccine. PMID:23236073

  15. Translation Inhibition of Capped and Uncapped Viral RNAs Mediated by Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, Jorge M; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases that remove specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin (S/R) loop of the large rRNA and arrest protein synthesis at the translocation step. In addition to their enzymatic activity, RIPs have been reputed to be potent antiviral agents against many plant, animal, and human viruses. We recently showed that pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), an RIP from pokeweed, inhibits translation in cell extracts by binding to the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA and viral RNAs and depurinating these RNAs at multiple sites downstream of the cap structure. In this study, we examined the activity of three different RIPs against capped and uncapped viral RNAs. PAP, Mirabilis expansa RIP (ME1), and the Saponaria officinalis RIP (saporin) depurinated the capped Tobacco mosaic virus and Brome mosaic virus RNAs, but did not depurinate the uncapped luciferase RNA, indicating that other type I RIPs besides PAP can distinguish between capped and uncapped RNAs. We did not detect depurination of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs at multiple sites by PAP or ME1. Because AMV RNAs are capped, these results indicate that recognition of the cap structure alone is not sufficient for depurination of the RNA at multiple sites throughout its sequence. Furthermore, PAP did not cause detectable depurination of uncapped RNAs from Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV), and uncapped RNA containing poliovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES). However, in vitro translation experiments showed that PAP inhibited translation of AMV, TBSV, SPMV RNAs, and poliovirus IRES dependent translation. These results demonstrate that PAP does not depurinate every capped RNA and that PAP can inhibit translation of uncapped viral RNAs in vitro without causing detectable depurination at multiple sites. Thus, the cap structure is not the only determinant for inhibition of translation by PAP. PMID:18942981

  16. Viral metagenomics applied to blood donors and recipients at high risk for blood-borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Virginie; Laperche, Syria; Cheval, Justine; Muth, Erika; Dubois, Myriam; Boizeau, Laure; Hébert, Charles; Lionnet, François; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Eloit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterisation of human-associated viral communities is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to be able to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. In high-resource countries, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) is currently considered to be under control. However, other unknown or unsuspected viruses may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. To investigate this, the virome of plasma from individuals at high risk for parenterally and sexually transmitted infections was analysed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). Materials and methods Purified nucleic acids from two pools of 50 samples from recipients of multiple transfusions, and three pools containing seven plasma samples from either HBV−, HCV− or HIV-infected blood donors, were submitted to HTS. Results Sequences from resident anelloviruses and HPgV were evidenced in all pools. HBV and HCV sequences were detected in pools containing 3.8×103 IU/mL of HBV-DNA and 1.7×105 IU/mL of HCV-RNA, respectively, whereas no HIV sequence was found in a pool of 150 copies/mL of HIV-RNA. This suggests a lack of sensitivity in HTS performance in detecting low levels of virus. In addition, this study identified other issues, including laboratory contaminants and the uncertainty of taxonomic assignment of short sequence. No sequence suggestive of a new viral species was identified. Discussion This study did not identify any new blood-borne virus in high-risk individuals. However, rare and/or viruses present at very low titre could have escaped our protocol. Our results demonstrate the positive contribution of HTS in the detection of viral sequences in blood donations. PMID:27136432

  17. Viral vectors for cystic fibrosis gene therapy: What does the future hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Griesenbach

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Uta Griesenbach1, Makoto Inoue2, Mamoru Hasegawa2, Eric WFW Alton11Department of Gene Therapy, Imperial College London, UK; The UK Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy Consortium; 2DNAVEC Corporation, Tsukuba, JapanAbstract: Gene transfer to the airway epithelium has been more difficult than originally anticipated, largely because of significant extra- and intracellular barriers in the lung. In general, viral vectors are more adapted to overcoming these barriers than nonviral gene transfer agents and are, therefore, more efficient in transferring genes into recipient cells. Viral vectors derived from adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and Sendai virus, which all have a natural tropism for the airway epithelium, have been evaluated for cystic fibrosis (CF gene therapy. Although these vectors transduce airway epithelial cells efficiently, gene expression is transient and repeated administration is inefficient. They are, therefore, unlikely to be suitable for CF gene therapy. More recently, lentiviruses (LV have been assessed for lung gene transfer. In contrast to retroviruses, they transduce nondividing cells and randomly integrate into the genome. However, LVs do not have a natural tropism for the lung, and a significant amount of effort has been put into pseudotyping these vectors with proteins suitable for airway gene transfer. Several studies have shown that LV-mediated transduction leads to persistent gene expression (for the lifetime of the animal in the airways and, importantly, repeated administration is feasible. Thus, appropriately pseudotyped LV vectors are promising candidates for CF gene therapy. Here, we will review preclinical and clinical research related to viral CF gene therapy.Keywords: cystic fibrosis, gene therapy, adenovirus, AAV, lentivirus, Sendai virus

  18. VirusMINT: a viral protein interaction database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Ceol, Arnaud; Peluso, Daniele; Nardozza, Aurelio; Panni, Simona; Sacco, Francesca; Tinti, Michele; Smolyar, Alex; Castagnoli, Luisa; Vidal, Marc; Cusick, Michael E.; Cesareni, Gianni

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the consequences on host physiology induced by viral infection requires complete understanding of the perturbations caused by virus proteins on the cellular protein interaction network. The VirusMINT database (http://mint.bio.uniroma2.it/virusmint/) aims at collecting all protein interactions between viral and human proteins reported in the literature. VirusMINT currently stores over 5000 interactions involving more than 490 unique viral proteins from more than 110 different viral strains. The whole data set can be easily queried through the search pages and the results can be displayed with a graphical viewer. The curation effort has focused on manuscripts reporting interactions between human proteins and proteins encoded by some of the most medically relevant viruses: papilloma viruses, human immunodeficiency virus 1, Epstein–Barr virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes viruses and Simian virus 40. PMID:18974184

  19. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  20. Conditions for viral influence spreading through correlated multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yanqing; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up ``new ideas''. Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through ``viral'' influence spreading producing cascades of followers fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the raise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the raise of Facebook.com to the detriment of Myspace.com. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex correlated graph with hidden ``influence links''. Analytical solutions predict percolation phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of...

  1. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  2. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence......, our critical examination offers understandings about how mathematics teachers are part of the larger cultural politics of schooling and education....

  3. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Rathee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values and used as medicines and tonics by humans for ages. In modern terms, they can be considered as functional foods which can provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients. There are monographs that cover the medicinal and healing properties of some individual traditional mushrooms. There has been a recent upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a health food which is rich in protein but also as a source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value which include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunopotentiating and hypocholesterolemic agents. However the mechanisms of the various health benefits of mushrooms to humans still require intensive investigation, especially given the emergence of new evidence of their health benefits. In the present paper the medicinal potential of mushrooms is being discussed.

  4. Newer Hemostatic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The mainstay of treatment of inherited coagulation disorders is based on the infusion of the deficient clotting factor, when available. Significant advances have been made over the past two decades in the production and availability of factor replacement products. In spite of such progression, several issue are still unsolved, the most important being the need for frequent factor concentrate infusions and the development of inhibitory alloantibodies. To overcome these important limitations, several newer hemostatic agents with an extended half-life are at an advanced stage of clinical development. After a brief overview of hemostasis, this narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on the most promising novel products for hemostasis. The current status of gene therapy for hemophilia, the only therapeutic option to definitively cure this inherited bleeding disorder, is also concisely discussed. PMID:25893779

  5. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  6. Hepatocytes as Immunological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological agents in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314

  7. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  8. Emotions and social currency as a basis for viral success

    OpenAIRE

    Rantalankila, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to find an updated understanding on what factors and components make online content go viral, especially online video advertisements. The emphasis of the study is on emotions and social currency as they have been found to have a constitutive effect on the viral success of online content. The theoretical framework is based on previous literature about advertising, social media and the role of emotions in online success. The data was collected by conducting tw...

  9. Advances of Studies on the Viral Proteins of PRRSV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao; Zongxi; Shi; Zhihai; Lin; Zhemin; Jiao; Peirong; Zhang; Guihong

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome( PRRS) is one of viral diseases with severe reproductive obstacle of pregnant sows and respiratory tract symptoms and higher mortality of piglets as characteristics,which is caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus( PRRSV). PRRS has brought great threats to swine industry in the world. The advances of studies on the viral proteins of PRRSV were reviewed from the genome,non-structural proteins and structural proteins of PRRSV.

  10. Getting IN on Viral RNA Condensation and Virion Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Eric O

    2016-08-25

    The retroviral enzyme integrase plays an essential role in the virus replication cycle by catalyzing the covalent insertion of newly synthesized viral DNA into the host cell chromosome early after infection. Now, Kessl et al. report a second function of integrase: binding to the viral RNA genome in virion particles late in the virus replication cycle to promote particle maturation. PMID:27565339

  11. Viral marketing in the context of commercial communications

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse viral marketing in the context of commercial communications. The first part describes the changing environment of commercial communications and focuses on new trends such as guerrilla marketing, event marketing, product placement and use of high-tech. Also, the social media emerged, such as social networks, blogs, multimedia sharing platforms etc. The second chapter deals with the viral marketing theory, its inception and main advantages and disadvantage...

  12. Coral mucus is a hot spot for viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Kim, Hanh; Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvier, Corinne; Doan-Nhu, Hai; Nguyen-Ngoc, Lam; Nguyen-Thanh, Thuy; Tran-Quang, Huy; Brune, Justine

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing suspicion that viral communities play a pivotal role in maintaining coral health, yet their main ecological traits still remain poorly characterized. In this study, we examined the seasonal distribution and reproduction pathways of viruses inhabiting the mucus of the scleractinians Fungia repanda and Acropora formosa collected in Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam) during an 11-month survey. The strong coupling between epibiotic viral and bacterial abundance suggested that phages are ...

  13. Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Europe, 1995–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lopman, Ben; Reacher, Mark; van Duijnhoven, Yvonne; Hanon, François-Xavier; Brown, David; Koopmans, Marion

    2003-01-01

    To gain understanding of surveillance and epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, we compiled data from 10 surveillance systems in the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network. Established surveillance systems found Norovirus to be responsible for >85% (N=3,714) of all nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis reported from 1995 to 2000. However, the absolute number and population-based rates of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks differed markedly among European surveillance system...

  14. Online video consumption practices: Studying Finnish viral video mavens

    OpenAIRE

    Tammisto, Noora

    2015-01-01

    Online videos are being actively and in increasing amount consumed by modern day consumers, who benefit from an almost unlimited choice of online videos available. Moreover, online videos are not confined by time and place, allowing them to reach geographically dispersed audiences quickly. The fast diffusion of online content occasionally creates shooting stars of online video - viral videos. In viral marketing, like in online video advertising, consumers are harnessed as the distributional f...

  15. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses...

  16. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-15

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.  Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/15/2010.

  17. Impact of xynthia tempest on viral contamination of shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzki, Marco; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Noyer, Mathilde; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2012-05-01

    Viral contamination in oyster and mussel samples was evaluated after a massive storm with hurricane wind named "Xynthia tempest" destroyed a number of sewage treatment plants in an area harboring many shellfish farms. Although up to 90% of samples were found to be contaminated 2 days after the disaster, detected viral concentrations were low. A 1-month follow-up showed a rapid decrease in the number of positive samples, even for norovirus. PMID:22344664

  18. VirusTAP: Viral Genome-Targeted Assembly Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Akifumi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology provides a comprehensive means with which to identify potential pathogens from clinical specimens, simple and user-friendly bioinformatics pipelines are expected to obtain the entire viral genome sequence, subsequently providing traceability, based on extensive molecular phylogenetic analyses. We have developed a web-based integrated NGS analysis tool for the viral genome (virus genome-targeted assembly pipeline: VirusTAP), which includes e...

  19. Emerging viral diseases in Latin-American dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Diana S. Vargas; Agustín Góngora-Orjuela; Jairo Jaime Correa

    2012-01-01

    This paper was aimed at updating readers regarding some recently discovered viral diseases or new viral variants affecting dairy-cattle production, with special reference to Latin-America A growing human population’s high demand for milk and its derivatives around the world may lead to as hort-term shortage, thereby increasing human malnutrition indices in many countries Progress must thus be made in epidemiology, diagnosis and monitoring to limit the dairy industry’s financial losses ca...

  20. Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Cattle in Indonesia and its Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2011-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an ubiquitous, easily transmitted virus with worldwide distribution. The majority of postnatal infections with BVDV are nonclinical, with biphasic temperature elevation and leucopenia followed by a spesific immune response measurable by serum neutralisation test. The infection can be diagnosed serologically or virologically and the disease is recognized by clinical signs and pathological lesions. Diseas...

  1. Cell-free translation of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Torborg, L L; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA was translated in a reticulocyte cell-free protein synthesizing system. The purified, 8.2-kilobase, virus-specific RNA species was unable to serve an an efficient message unless it was denatured immediately before translation. In this case, several polypeptides, ranging in molecular weight from 50,000 to 150,000 and most of which were immunoprecipitated by bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antiserum, were synthesized in vitro. When polyribosomes were used to...

  2. Viral Diversity Threshold for Adaptive Immunity in Prokaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel D Weinberger; Wolf, Yuri I.; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Gilmore, Michael S.; Eugene V Koonin

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria and archaea face continual onslaughts of rapidly diversifying viruses and plasmids. Many prokaryotes maintain adaptive immune systems known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated genes (Cas). CRISPR-Cas systems are genomic sensors that serially acquire viral and plasmid DNA fragments (spacers) that are utilized to target and cleave matching viral and plasmid DNA in subsequent genomic invasions, offering critical immunologi...

  3. Histórico das hepatites virais History of viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ferraz da Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A história das hepatites virais remonta milhares de anos e é fascinante. Quando o ser humano sofreu pela primeira vez a invasão do seu organismo por tais agentes, iniciou-se um ciclo natural e repetitivo capaz de infectar bilhões de seres humanos, dizimar e sequelar milhares de vida. MÉTODOS: Este artigo rever informações científicas disponíveis sobre o histórico das hepatites virais. Todas as informações foram obtidas através de extensa revisão bibliográfica, compreendendo artigos originais e de revisão e consultas na rede internet. RESULTADOS: Existem relatos de surtos de icterícia epidêmica na China há mais de 5.000 anos e na Babilônia, há mais de 2.500 anos. A história catastrófica das grandes epidemias ou pandemias ictéricas são conhecidas e geralmente estão associadas às grandes guerras. Na guerra da Secessão Americana, 40 mil casos ocorreram entre militares da União. Em 1885, um surto de icterícia catarral acometeu 191 trabalhadores do estaleiro de Bremen (Alemanha após vacinação contra varíola. Em 1942, 28.585 soldados contraíram hepatite após inoculação da vacina contra a febre amarela. O número de casos de hepatite durante a Segunda Grande Guerra foi estimado em 16 milhões. Somente no século XX, foram identificados os principais agentes causadores das hepatites virais. O vírus da hepatite B foi o primeiro a ser descoberto. CONCLUSÕES: Neste artigo, a revisão da história das grandes epidemias ocasionadas pelos vírus das hepatites e a descoberta desses agentes revelam singulares peculiaridades, citando como exemplo, a descoberta acidental ou por acaso dos vírus da hepatite B e D.INTRODUCTION: The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives

  4. KSHV Targeted Therapy: An Update on Inhibitors of Viral Lytic Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Coen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman’s disease. Since the discovery of KSHV 20 years ago, there is still no standard treatment and the management of virus-associated malignancies remains toxic and incompletely efficacious. As the majority of tumor cells are latently infected with KSHV, currently marketed antivirals that target the virus lytic cycle have shown inconsistent results in clinic. Nevertheless, lytic replication plays a major role in disease progression and virus dissemination. Case reports and retrospective studies have pointed out the benefit of antiviral therapy in the treatment and prevention of KSHV-associated diseases. As a consequence, potent and selective antivirals are needed. This review focuses on the anti-KSHV activity, mode of action and current status of antiviral drugs targeting KSHV lytic cycle. Among these drugs, different subclasses of viral DNA polymerase inhibitors and compounds that do not target the viral DNA polymerase are being discussed. We also cover molecules that target cellular kinases, as well as the potential of new drug targets and animal models for antiviral testing.

  5. Viral vaccines and their manufacturing cell substrates: New trends and designs in modern vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana F; Soares, Hugo R; Guerreiro, Miguel R; Alves, Paula M; Coroadinha, Ana S

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions in global health. The worldwide vaccination programs significantly reduced the number of deaths caused by infectious agents. A successful example was the eradication of smallpox in 1979 after two centuries of vaccination campaigns. Since the first variolation administrations until today, the knowledge on immunology has increased substantially. This knowledge combined with the introduction of cell culture and DNA recombinant technologies revolutionized vaccine design. This review will focus on vaccines against human viral pathogens, recent developments on vaccine design and cell substrates used for their manufacture. While the production of attenuated and inactivated vaccines requires the use of the respective permissible cell substrates, the production of recombinant antigens, virus-like particles, vectored vaccines and chimeric vaccines requires the use - and often the development - of specific cell lines. Indeed, the development of novel modern viral vaccine designs combined with, the stringent safety requirements for manufacture, and the better understanding on animal cell metabolism and physiology are increasing the awareness on the importance of cell line development and engineering areas. A new era of modern vaccinology is arriving, offering an extensive toolbox to materialize novel and creative ideas in vaccine design and its manufacture.

  6. Viral gastroenteritis associated with genogroup II norovirus among U.S. military personnel in Turkey, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F Ahmed

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates that multiple NoV genotypes belonging to genogroup II contributed to an acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a US military facility in Turkey that was associated with significant negative operational impact. Norovirus (NoV is an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis among military populations. We describe the genotypes of NoV outbreak occurred at a United States military facility in Turkey. Stool samples were collected from 37 out of 97 patients presenting to the clinic on base with acute gastroenteritis and evaluated for bacterial and viral pathogens. NoV genogroup II (GII was identified by RT-PCR in 43% (16/37 stool samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a 260 base pair fragment of the NoV capsid gene from ten stool samples indicated the circulation of multiple and rare genotypes of GII NoV during the outbreak. We detected four GII.8 isolates, three GII.15, two GII.9 and a sole GII.10 NoV. Viral sequences could be grouped into four clusters, three of which have not been previously reported in Turkey. The fact that current NoV outbreak was caused by rare genotypes highlights the importance of norovirus strain typing. While NoV genogroup II is recognized as causative agent of outbreak, circulation of current genotypes has been rarely observed in large number of outbreaks.

  7. Engineered measles virus Edmonston strain used as a novel oncolytic viral system against human hepatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary, malignant pediatric liver tumor in children. The treatment results for affected children have markedly improved in recent decades. However, the prognosis for high-risk patients who have extrahepatic extensions, invasion of the large hepatic veins, distant metastases and very high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels remains poor. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. An attenuated strain of measles virus, derived from the Edmonston vaccine lineage, was genetically engineered to produce carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We investigated the antitumor potential of this novel viral agent against human HB both in vitro and in vivo. Infection of the Hep2G and HUH6 HB cell lines, at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) ranging from 0.01 to 1, resulted in a significant cytopathic effect consisting of extensive syncytia formation and massive cell death at 72–96 h after infection. Both of the HB lines overexpressed the measles virus receptor CD46 and supported robust viral replication, which correlated with CEA production. The efficacy of this approach in vivo was examined in murine Hep2G xenograft models. Flow cytometry assays indicated an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Intratumoral administration of MV-CEA resulted in statistically significant delay of tumor growth and prolongation of survival. The engineered measles virus Edmonston strain MV-CEA has potent therapeutic efficacy against HB cell lines and xenografts. Trackable measles virus derivatives merit further exploration in HB treatment

  8. Viral vaccines and their manufacturing cell substrates: New trends and designs in modern vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana F; Soares, Hugo R; Guerreiro, Miguel R; Alves, Paula M; Coroadinha, Ana S

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions in global health. The worldwide vaccination programs significantly reduced the number of deaths caused by infectious agents. A successful example was the eradication of smallpox in 1979 after two centuries of vaccination campaigns. Since the first variolation administrations until today, the knowledge on immunology has increased substantially. This knowledge combined with the introduction of cell culture and DNA recombinant technologies revolutionized vaccine design. This review will focus on vaccines against human viral pathogens, recent developments on vaccine design and cell substrates used for their manufacture. While the production of attenuated and inactivated vaccines requires the use of the respective permissible cell substrates, the production of recombinant antigens, virus-like particles, vectored vaccines and chimeric vaccines requires the use - and often the development - of specific cell lines. Indeed, the development of novel modern viral vaccine designs combined with, the stringent safety requirements for manufacture, and the better understanding on animal cell metabolism and physiology are increasing the awareness on the importance of cell line development and engineering areas. A new era of modern vaccinology is arriving, offering an extensive toolbox to materialize novel and creative ideas in vaccine design and its manufacture. PMID:26212697

  9. Virtual screening of the inhibitors targeting at the viral protein 40 of Ebola virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Karthick; N.Nagasundaram; C.George Priya Doss; Chiranjib Chakraborty; R.Siva; Aiping Lu; Ge Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The Ebola virus is highly pathogenic and destructive to humans and other primates.The Ebola virus encodes viral protein 40 (VP40),which is highly expressed and regulates the assembly and release of viral particles in the host cell.Because VP40 plays a prominent role in the life cycle of the Ebola virus,it is considered as a key target for antiviral treatment.However,there is currently no FDA-approved drug for treating Ebola virus infection,resulting in an urgent need to develop effective antiviral inhibitors that display good safety profiles in a short duration.Methods:This study aimed to screen the effective lead candidate against Ebola infection.First,the lead molecules were filtered based on the docking score.Second,Lipinski rule of five and the other drug likeliness properties are predicted to assess the safety profile of the lead candidates.Finally,molecular dynamics simulations was performed to validate the lead compound.Results:Our results revealed that emodin-8-beta-D-glucoside from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD) represents an active lead candidate that targets the Ebola virus by inhibiting the activity of VP40,and displays good pharmacokinetic properties.Conclusion:This report will considerably assist in the development of the competitive and robust antiviral agents against Ebola infection.

  10. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infected and noninfected cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B

    2013-02-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic.

  11. Viral Advertising: the Relationship between Emotional Content and Ad Forwarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Madhoushi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While traditional marketing communication is a kind of marketer-to-consumer communication, viral advertising is consumer-to-consumer communication. Advertisers believe that their messages will be viewed favourably if they have been recommended by a friend or social network’s member. This research aimed to examine the characteristics of viral advertisement. Strategy of the research was experimental. Students of the University of Mazandaran were selected as population of the research. Cluster sampling was applied to select the research sample. Then, the selected sample was equally divided into test and control groups. Four viral and four non-viral ads of unfamiliar brands were shown for test and control group respectively. The data was collected through questionare. Reliablity of the questionare was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and parametric tests including Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one sample T-test, two independent samples T-test and Spearman correlation. The results indicate that there is positive and significant difference between the emotional content of viral ads and non-viral ads. There is positive and significant correlation between emotional content and ad forwarding intention.

  12. Long-Term Care Facilities: A Cornucopia of Viral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsey, Ann R.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Formica, Maria A.; Andolina, Gloria G.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Leka, Lynette L.; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency and types of respiratory viruses circulating in Boston long-term care facilities (LTCFs) during a 3-year period. Design Observational. Setting Thirty-three Boston-area LTCFs over a 3-year period. Participants Residents of long-term care who had previously participated in a trial of vitamin E supplementation and had paired serum samples available for viral analysis. Measurements Viral antibody titers to eight respiratory viruses (influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus serotype three (PIV-3), PIV-2, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and coronaviruses 229E and OC43) were measured using enzyme immunoassay at baseline and 53 weeks. Infection was defined as a more than quadrupling of viral titers. Clinical data on respiratory illnesses were collected throughout the study period. Results A total of 617 persons were enrolled in the trial. Of these, 382 (62%) had sera available for viral analysis. A total of 204 viral infections were documented in 157 subjects. Serological responses to all eight viruses were documented, with hMPV (12.8%) and coronavirus 229E (10.5%) being the most common and PIV-2 (2.4%) the least common. The occurrence of bronchitis (P = .007), pneumonia (P = .02), and any lower respiratory tract infection (P = .002) was significantly associated with having a viral diagnosis. Conclusion A wide range of respiratory viruses cocirculates in LTCFs and contributes to respiratory illness morbidity in these populations. PMID:18557966

  13. Coral Mucus Is a Hot Spot for Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Kim, Hanh; Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvier, Corinne; Doan-Nhu, Hai; Nguyen-Ngoc, Lam; Nguyen-Thanh, Thuy; Tran-Quang, Huy; Brune, Justine

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing suspicion that viral communities play a pivotal role in maintaining coral health, yet their main ecological traits still remain poorly characterized. In this study, we examined the seasonal distribution and reproduction pathways of viruses inhabiting the mucus of the scleractinians Fungia repanda and Acropora formosa collected in Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam) during an 11-month survey. The strong coupling between epibiotic viral and bacterial abundance suggested that phages are dominant among coral-associated viral communities. Mucosal viruses also exhibited significant differences in their main features between the two coral species and were also remarkably contrasted with their planktonic counterparts. For example, their abundance (inferred from epifluorescence counts), lytic production rates (KCN incubations), and the proportion of lysogenic cells (mitomycin C inductions) were, respectively, 2.6-, 9.5-, and 2.2-fold higher in mucus than in the surrounding water. Both lytic and lysogenic indicators were tightly coupled with temperature and salinity, suggesting that the life strategy of viral epibionts is strongly dependent upon environmental circumstances. Finally, our results suggest that coral mucus may represent a highly favorable habitat for viral proliferation, promoting the development of both temperate and virulent phages. Here, we discuss how such an optimized viral arsenal could be crucial for coral viability by presumably forging complex links with both symbiotic and adjacent nonsymbiotic microorganisms. PMID:26092456

  14. An overview of viral oncology in Italy - report from the Pavia meeting on solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfetti Vittorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on some of the research activities currently ongoing in Italy as outlined at the “Viruses and solid tumors” meeting jointly organized by the Oncology Sections of IRCCS Policlinico “San Matteo” (Pavia and IRCCS National Cancer Institute (Aviano, held in Pavia, Italy, on October 2011. Experts from the various disciplines involved in the study of the complex relationships between solid tumors and viruses met to discuss recent developments in the field and to report their personal contributions to the specified topics. Secondary end point was to establish a multidisciplinary work group specifically devoted to solid tumors and infectious agents, aimed to identify areas of common interest, promoting and establishing collaborative projects and programs, and to coordinate clinical and research activities. The group, which will be named IVOG (Italian Viral Oncology Group, will operate under the patronage of the various scientific societies of interest.

  15. Viral Response to Specifically Targeted Antiviral Therapy for Hepatitis C and the Implications for Treatment Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis L Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hepatitis C virus (HCV antiviral therapy is characterized by long duration, a multitude of side effects, difficult administration and suboptimal success; clearly, alternatives are needed. Collectively, specifically targeted antiviral therapy for HCV (STAT-C molecules achieve rapid viral suppression and very high rapid virological response rates, and improve sustained virological response rates. The attrition rate of agents within this class has been high due to various toxicities. Regardless, several STAT-C molecules are poised to become the standard of care for HCV treatment in the foreseeable future. Optimism must be tempered with concerns related to the rapid development of drug resistance with resulting HCV rebound. Strategies including induction dosing with interferon and ribavirin, use of combination high-potency STAT-C molecules and an intensive emphasis on adherence to HCV antiviral therapy will be critical to the success of this promising advance in HCV therapy.

  16. Tailored delivery of analgesic ziconotide across a blood brain barrier model using viral nanocontainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Prachi; O'Neil, Alison; Lin, Emily; Douglas, Trevor; Holford, Mandë

    2015-08-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is often an insurmountable obstacle for a large number of candidate drugs, including peptides, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents. Devising an adroit delivery method to cross the BBB is essential to unlocking widespread application of peptide therapeutics. Presented here is an engineered nanocontainer for delivering peptidic drugs across the BBB encapsulating the analgesic marine snail peptide ziconotide (Prialt®). We developed a bi-functional viral nanocontainer based on the Salmonella typhimurium bacteriophage P22 capsid, genetically incorporating ziconotide in the interior cavity, and chemically attaching cell penetrating HIV-Tat peptide on the exterior of the capsid. Virus like particles (VLPs) of P22 containing ziconotide were successfully transported in several BBB models of rat and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) using a recyclable noncytotoxic endocytic pathway. This work demonstrates proof in principle for developing a possible alternative to intrathecal injection of ziconotide using a tunable VLP drug delivery nanocontainer to cross the BBB.

  17. Bacterial and viral pathogens detected in sea turtles stranded along the coast of Tuscany, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Cersini, A; Mancusi, C; Guarducci, M; Di Guardo, G; Terracciano, G

    2016-03-15

    During 2014, six loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta and one green turtle, Chelonia mydas, found stranded on the Tuscany coast of Italy, were examined for the presence of specific bacterial and viral agents, along with their role as carriers of fish and human pathogens. Thirteen different species of bacteria, 10 Gram negative and 3 Gram positive, were identified. Among them, two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and one strain of Lactococcus garviae were recovered and confirmed by specific PCR protocols. No trh and tdh genes were detected in V. parahaemolyticus. The first isolation of L. garviae and the first detection of Betanodavirus in sea turtles indicate the possibility for sea turtles to act as carriers of fish pathogens. Furthermore, the isolation of two strains of V. parahaemolyticus highlights the possible role of these animals in human pathogens' diffusion.

  18. Substituted 3-Benzylcoumarins as Allosteric MEK1 Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation as Antiviral Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find novel antiviral agents, a series of allosteric MEK1 inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Based on docking results, multiple optimizations were made on the coumarin scaffold. Some of the derivatives showed excellent MEK1 binding affinity in the appropriate enzymatic assays and displayed obvious inhibitory effects on the ERK pathway in a cellular assay. These compounds also significantly inhibited virus (EV71 replication in HEK293 and RD cells. Several compounds showed potential as agents for the treatment of viral infective diseases, with the most potent compound 18 showing an IC50 value of 54.57 nM in the MEK1 binding assay.

  19. Detection, prevalence, and transmission of avian hematozoa in waterfowl at the Arctic/sub-Arctic interface: co-infections, viral interactions, and sources of variation

    OpenAIRE

    Meixell, Brandt W.; Arnold, Todd W; Lindberg, Mark S.; Matthew M. Smith; Jonathan A Runstadler; Andrew M Ramey

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of avian hematozoa at high latitudes is still not well understood, particularly in sub-Arctic and Arctic habitats, where information is limited regarding seasonality and range of transmission, co-infection dynamics with parasitic and viral agents, and possible fitness consequences of infection. Such information is important as climate warming may lead to northward expansion of hematozoa with unknown consequences to northern-breeding avian taxa, particularly populat...

  20. Viral Genomics and Evolution in Subseafloor Diffuse Flow Viral Communities in the Main Endeavour Hydrothermal Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. E.; Baross, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    In the dynamic environment of hydrothermal vents, transduction may play a crucial role in microbial evolution. Metagenomic analysis of diffuse flow viral communities may elucidate the nature and extent of transduction in these ancient ecosystems.

  1. Stability of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2007-01-01

    Stability is perhaps the most desired feature in the systems that we design. It is important for us to be able to predict the response of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to various environmental conditions prior to its actual deployment. The Chli-DeWilde agent stability measure views a MAS as a discrete time Markov chain with a potentially unknown transition probabilities. A MAS is considered to be stable when its state, a stochastic process, has converged to an equilibrium distribution. We investigate an extension of their agent stability definition to include MASs with evolutionary dynamics, focusing on evolving agent populations. Additionally, using our extended agent stability measure, we construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability. An example system, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail to investigate the stability of an evolving agent population through simulations. The results are consistent with the original Chli-DeWilde measure.

  2. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  3. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  4. A murine model of coxsackievirus A16 infection for anti-viral evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingwei; Shi, Jinping; Huang, Xulin; Liu, Fei; Cai, Yicun; Lan, Ke; Huang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common infectious disease in children. CA16 infection may lead to severe nervous system damage and even death in humans. However, study of the pathogenesis of CA16 infection and development of vaccines and anti-viral agents are hindered partly by the lack of an appropriate small animal model. In the present study, we developed and characterized a murine model of CA16 infection. We show that neonatal mice are susceptible to CA16 infection via intraperitoneal inoculation. One-day-old mice infected with 2×10(6)TCID50 of CA16/SZ05 strain consistently exhibited clinical signs, including reduced mobility, and limb weakness and paralysis. About 57% of the mice died within 14days after infection. Significant damage in the brainstem, limb muscles and intestines of the infected mice in the moribund state was observed by histological examination, and the presence of CA16 in neurons of the brainstem was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining with a CA16-specific polyclonal antibody, strongly suggesting the involvement of the central nervous system in CA16 infection. Analysis of virus titers in various organs/tissues collected at 3, 6 and 9days post-infection, showed that skeletal muscle was the major site of virus replication at the early stage of infection, while the virus mainly accumulated in the brain at the late stage. In addition, susceptibility of mice to CA16 infection was found to be age dependent. Moreover, different CA16 strains could exhibit varied virulence in vivo. Importantly, we demonstrated that post-exposure treatment with an anti-CA16 monoclonal antibody fully protected mice against lethal CA16 infection. Collectively, these results indicate the successful development of a CA16 infection mouse model for anti-viral evaluation. PMID:24583030

  5. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  6. Mobile Agents for Digital Signage

    OpenAIRE

    SATOH, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an agent-based framework for building and operating context-aware multimedia content on digital signage in public/private spaces. It enables active and multimedia content to be composed from mobile agents, which can travel from computer to computer and provide multimedia content for advertising or user-assistant services to users. The framework automatically deploys their agents at computers near to their current positions to provide advertising o...

  7. An agent for ecological deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    2010-01-01

    An agent architecture supports the two forms of deliberation used by human agents. Cartesian, constructivist rationalism leads to game theory, decision theory and logical models. Ecological rationalism leads to deliberative actions that are derived from agents’ prior interactions and are not designed; i.e., they are strictly emergent. This paper aims to address the scant attention paid by the agent community to the predominant form of deliberation used by mankind.

  8. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  9. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  10. Agent factory: towards social robots

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, G. M. P.; Duffy, Brian R.; Collier, Rem; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Donoghue, Ruadhan

    1999-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present the Social Robot Architecture, which integrates the key elements of agent-hood and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. This architecture seamlessly integrates, real world robots, multi-agent development tools, and VRML visualisation tools into a coherent whole. Using these elements, we deliver a development environment, which facilitates rapid prototyping of soci...

  11. Impact of Word-of-Mouth Marketing and Viral Marketing on Continuous and Discontinuous Technological Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Staroveský, Přemysl

    2008-01-01

    The thesis summarizes existing mathematical models for discontinuous innovation diffusion and differences vs. continuous innovation. It describes and analyzes what the difference between WOM marketing and viral is. It evaluates existing mathematical models for information spreading through viral marketing and analyze why successful viral marketing remains rare case. Analyze which marketing messages do spread virally and depict major reasons why.

  12. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  13. Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce: Designing Trading Agents and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Poutré, J.A.; Sadeh, N.M.; Janson, S.

    2006-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce, AMEC VII 2005, held in Utrecht, Netherlands in July 2005, as part of AAMAS 2005, and the third Workshop on Trading Agent Design and Analysis, TADA 2005, held in Edi

  14. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  15. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  16. The Role of Viral Mutation in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ming WANG; Lin LIU

    2008-01-01

    The quasispecies nature of hepatitis B and C virus (HBV, HCV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis, immune escape and drug resistance during chronic infection. Although there is still a lack of effective treatment for hepatitis C, a series of nucleoside analogs (NA) have been developed for the treatment of hepatitis B. NA resistant HBV mutants can accumulate during prolonged therapy and lead to the failure of anti-HBV therapy. Switching to other sensitive NAs can inhibit the emerged resistant mutants. Therefore, understanding the evolution of viral quasispecies under drug pressure is crucial for the establishment of antiviral strategy and the monitoring of antiviral process. Immune response and escape are complicated process, during which both host and virus factors may play their roles. Further understanding of the interaction and interrelationship between host and these viruses may lead to optimized prevention, diagnosis and treatment for chronic hepatitis.

  17. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  18. Challenges of studying viral aerosol metagenomics and communities in comparison with bacterial and fungal aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussin, Aaron J; Marr, Linsey C; Bibby, Kyle J

    2014-08-01

    Despite the obvious importance of viral transmission and ecology to medicine, epidemiology, ecology, agriculture, and microbiology, the study of viral bioaerosols and community structure has remained a vastly underexplored area, due to both unresolved technical challenges and unrecognized importance. High-throughput, culture-independent techniques such as viral metagenomics are beginning to revolutionize the study of viral ecology. With recent developments in viral metagenomics, characterization of viral bioaerosol communities provides an opportunity for high-impact future research. However, there remain significant challenges for the study of viral bioaerosols compared with viruses in other matrices, such as water, the human gut, and soil. Collecting enough biomass is essential for successful metagenomic analysis, but this is a challenge with viral bioaerosols. Herein, we provide a perspective on the importance of studying viral bioaerosols, the challenges of studying viral community structure, and the potential opportunities for improvements in methods to study viruses in indoor and outdoor air.

  19. Viral etiology of acute respiratory infection in Gansu Province, China, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs are the leading cause of children and their leading killer. ARIs are responsible for at least six percent of the world's disability and death. Viruses are one of the most common agents causing ARIs. Few studies on the viral etiology and clinical characteristics of ARIs have been performed in the northwest region of China, including Gansu Province. METHODS: Clinical and demographic information and throat swabs were collected from 279 patients from January 1st to December 30st, 2011. Multiplex RT-PCR was performed to detect 16 respiratory viral pathogens. RESULTS: 279 patients were admitted for ARIs. The patients aged from 1 month to 12 years, with the median age of 2 years. Of which, 105 (37.6% were positive for at least one pathogen. A total of 136 respiratory viral pathogens were identified from the 105 patients. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was the most frequently detected pathogen (26.5%, 36/136, followed by parainfluenza virus (PIV 1-3 (22.1%, 30/136, human rhinovirus (HRV (21.3%, 29/136, human coronavirus (CoV (10.3%, 14/136 and human adenovirus (HAdV (9.6%, 13/136. Influenza A (Flu A, human metapneumovirus (hMPV and human bocavirus (BoCA were found 4.4%, 3.7% and 2.2%, respectively. Influenza B (Flu B and seasonal influenza A H1N1(sH1N1 were not detected. Single-infections were detected in 30.5% (85/279 of cases. RSV was the most common pathogens in patients under 1 year and showed seasonal variation with peaks during winter and spring. CONCLUSIONS: This paper presents data on the epidemiology of viral pathogens associated with ARIs among children in Gansu Province, China. RSV is most frequently detected in our study. The findings could serve as a reference for local CDC in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ARIs.

  20. Viral infection drives tissue fibrosis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea P. Malizia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by loss of alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. In this study we utilised a microarray-based differential gene expression analysis strategy to identify molecular drivers of EBV associated with lung fibrosis. A549 cells and an alveolar epithelial cell line infected with EBV (VAAK were used to identify genes whose expression was altered by EBV reactivation. EBV reactivation by TGFbeta1 drives alterations in expression of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. Cell invasion, EMT correlated transcripts expression, GSK-3b and c-Jun activation were altered in response to non-canonical Wnt pathway regulation. The role of EBV in promoting fibrosis can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signalling. Activation of non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of tissue fibrosis. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.