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Sample records for agronomically important cultivars

  1. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  2. Evaluation of diversity in Bulgarian pepper cultivars by agronomical traits and ISSR markers

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    Tsonev Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about the genetic variation among cultivars of vegetable crops is of vital importance for improvement of plant breeding programmes worldwide. The objectives of this study were to group 19 pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars from the collection of Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgariainto clusters according to their distances as estimated by agronomic traits and 9 di-and tri -nucleotide inter simple sequence repeat polymorphism (ISSR markers and to assess the relationships between them. The phenotypic characterization during 3 consecutive years revealed significant differences among Bulgarian cultivars for the studied 13 phenotypic traits. The biplot analysis of quantitative traits showed that the most strongly correlating traits with the first axis (55.6% of variance were fruit width, fruit weight and pericarp thickness (in the negative direction of the axis, and plant height (PH (in the positive direction. The most discriminative traits, considering the second axis (22.6% of variance were fruit length (FL and to a lesser extent the stem height (StH. The correspondence analysis of the qualitative traits showed that the intensity of the colour of the fruit (before and at maturity, fruit colourbefore maturity and fruit shape in longitudinal section were the most discriminative characteristics for the first two dimensions. The agronomic traits data and 7 dinucleotide ISSR primers were used to estimate the pairwise genetic distances. Higher mean phenotypic distance (0.414 in comparison to the genotypic ones (0.214 among the cultivars was observed, indicating higher phenotypic diversity among them. A highly significant, positive correlation between the agronomic data and ISSR marker-based matrices (r=0.41, p=0.001was detected. This indicates that ISSR distance tended to reflect that of the agronomics ones. However, additional molecular studies and large collection of highly diverse genotypes are needed to reveal

  3. URS Altiva – a new oat cultivar with high agronomic performance

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    Itamar C. Nava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The oat cultivar URS Altiva, developed from the simple cross ‘UFRGS 995090-2 x URS 21’, and released by the Oat Breeding Program of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS in 2015, presents high grain yield, high grain quality, desirable agronomic performance, and partial resistance to crown rust.

  4. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of morphological, resistance, and other agronomically relevant traits in modern spring barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.; Martinez, F.; Mussiraliev, B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Niks, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    A set of 148 modern spring barley cultivars was explored for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes governing traits and nearby marker alleles. Associations of agronomically relevant traits (days to heading, plant height), resistance traits (leaf rust, barley yellow dwarf virus

  5. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

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    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  6. The agronomic traits of foreign cultivars and domestic populations of oilseed poppy

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    Marina Brčić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years, a rising interest for the production of oil poppy (Papaver somniferum L. on bigger areas in the Republic of Croatia has been noticed. The aim of this study was to determine seed yield and other agronomic traits of foreign cultivars and domestic populations of oilseed poppy in the environmental conditions of northwestern Croatia and select the best varieties for this area, considering the obtained results. The research was conducted in 2013 and 2015 at the experimental field of University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture. The research involved four foreign cultivars (Opal, Lazur, Major, and Matis and two domestic populations of oilseed poppy named after locations where they had been collected: Gornji Bogićevci (IND00042 and Beli Manastir (IND00043. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that the examined cultivars and domestic populations of oilseed poppy differed significantly in seed yield, capsule number per plant, seed weight per capsule, seed weight per plant, and thousand seed weight only in the year of 2013. On average, cultivars/populations with the highest yield were Opal (847 kg/ha, Beli Manastir (834 kg/ha, and Major (816 kg/ha. Oil content in poppy seed ranged from 42.5% (Lazur to 46.3% (Opal. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids prevailed in examined cultivars and populations.

  7. Effect of Sowing Date on Some Agronomic Characteristics and Seed Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars

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    A. Ganbari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sowing dates on yield, yield components and some agronomic characteristics of four winter wheat cultivars and also their phenological changes, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Agriculture Research Station of Ardabil (Iran during 2009 growing season. First factor consisted of four wheat cultivars (Azar2, Sabalan, Sardari and Zagros and second factor consisted of four sowing dates (1st, 10th, 20th and 30th of September. The results showed that sowing date had significant effect on the number of spikes, the number of seed per spike, 1000-seed weight, germination percentage, days to spike appearance, days to ripening, growing degree days, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The highest and lowest seed yields of wheat were obtained from sowing date of the September the first (4616 kg/ha and sowing date of September 30th (2197 kg/ha respectively. Delaying planting decreased the number of spikes per m2 and 1000-seed weight. Cultivars had significant effect on all of the traits measured, except leaf number, fertile and non-fertilie tillers. The highest and the lowest seed yields were obtained from Sabalan (4750 kg/ha and Zagros (2757 kg/ha cultivars respectively. Interaction of sowing date and cultivar were significant on all of traits measured, except stem height, the leaf number, the number of spikes, 1000-seed weight and seed yield (P

  8. Genetic characterization of Moroccan and the exotic bread wheat cultivars using functional and random DNA markers linked to the agronomic traits for genomics-assisted improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkrar, Fatima; El-Haddoury, Jamal; Ouabbou, Hassan; Bendaou, Najib; Udupa, Sripada M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most important traits for wheat breeding. The functional marker analysis revealed that 35, 45, and 10 % of the Moroccan cultivars, respectively have the rust resistance genes (Lr34/Yr18/Pm38), dwarfing genes (Rht1b or Rht2b alleles) and the leaf rust resistance gene (Lr68). The marker alleles for genes Lr37/Yr17/Sr38, Sr24 and Yr36 were present only in the exotic cultivars and absent in Moroccan cultivars. 25 % of cultivars had 1BL.1RS translocation. 70 % of the wheat cultivars had Ppo-D1a and Ppo-A1b associated with low polyphenol oxidase activity. 10 % of cultivars showed presence of a random DNA marker allele (175 bp) linked to Hessian fly resistance gene H22. The majority of the Moroccan cultivars were carrying alleles that impart good bread making quality. Neighbor joining (NJ) and principal coordinate analysis based on the marker data revealed a clear differentiation between elite Moroccan and exotic wheat cultivars. The results of this study are useful for selecting suitable parents for making targeted crosses in marker-assisted wheat breeding and enhancing genetic diversity in the wheat cultivars.

  9. Agronomic performance and beer quality assessment of twenty hop cultivars grown in Central Italy

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    Francesco Rossini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hop market and beer industry have always been of secondary relevance in Italy as compared to grape and wine sector. Hence, hop cultivars and the information for growing hops have been generated almost entirely from the major hop production countries. Identifying cultivars that perform well in Mediterranean environments is therefore essential to successfully start hop cultivation and breeding activity in this new growing region. To evaluate the intraspecific diversity of hop in Central Italy, 20 female hop genotypes with different origin were screened during three growing seasons (2013-2015 in an experimental hop yard. Cones yield, plant height and crop phenology were evaluated to determine which cultivars were best suited to the Mediterranean climate. Moreover, given the rising interest for the development of local beers with distinguishing aroma, a sensory analysis was performed and beers flavoured with locally produced and imported cones were compared. A significant diversity among cultivars was found for all parameters investigated. The results indicated that weather condition during flowering and development of cones markedly affected yield and plant height. Cones yield was negatively correlated with thermal time (r=–0.5, P<0.05 to harvest and positively with plant height (r=0.56, P<0.05. Cascade, Hallertauer Magnum, Hersbrucker Spat and Yeoman showed the best adaptability to the Mediterranean growing conditions as they were the top-performing cultivars across the three years. Sensory analysis evidenced the importance of cultivar selection as determining factor for flavouring properties of beers. In general, results showed that the origin of cones strongly affected the mouth feel of beers. More complex and appreciated aroma profiles were identified for beers flavoured with local cones than those hopped with commercial products.

  10. Investigation of the effect of genotype and agronomic conditions on metabolomic profiles of selected strawberry cultivars with different sensitivity to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhatou, Ikram; González-Domínguez, Raúl; Fernández-Recamales, Ángeles

    2016-04-01

    Strawberry is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crops across the world, so that there is a growing need to develop new analytical methodologies for the authentication of variety and origin, as well as the assessment of agricultural and processing practices. In this work, an untargeted metabolomic strategy based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with multivariate statistical techniques was used for the first time to characterize the primary metabolome of different strawberry cultivars and to study metabolite alterations in response to multiple agronomic conditions. For this purpose, we investigated three varieties of strawberries with different sensitivity to environmental stress (Camarosa, Festival and Palomar), cultivated in soilless systems using various electrical conductivities, types of coverage and substrates. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant alterations in primary metabolites between the three strawberry cultivars grown under different crop conditions, including sugars (fructose, glucose), organic acids (malic acid, citric acid) and amino acids (alanine, threonine, aspartic acid), among others. Therefore, it could be concluded that GC-MS based metabolomics is a suitable tool to differentiate strawberry cultivars and characterize metabolomic changes associated with environmental and agronomic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

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    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  12. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

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    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  13. Influence of cultivar and fertilizer approach on curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica). 1. Genetic diversity reflected in agronomic characteristics and phytochemical concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2014-11-26

    The objectives were to investigate if genetic diversity among field-grown traditional and F1 hybrid kale cultivars was reflected in different agronomic characteristics and consequently glucosinolate (GLS) and flavonoid glycoside concentration. This study evaluated how nitrogen and sulfur supply and biomass allocation modified phytochemicals in two experiments with combinations of three cultivars and four N and two S application levels. Results showed less growth, and higher N concentration in the traditional cultivar 'Tiara' was associated with increased indole and total GLSs compared to traditional 'Høj Amager Toftø' and F1 hybrid 'Reflex' cultivars, which exhibited higher yield, lower N concentration, and different biomass allocation. S application increased total GLS concentration, whereas aliphatic GLS percentage decreased when N application increased. Decrease of six 'Reflex' GLSs besides quercetin glycosides and total flavonoid glycosides with increased N indicated higher N responsiveness for 'Reflex'. In conclusion, differences in agronomic characteristics were reflected in diverse phytochemical composition.

  14. Características agronômicas e o estado nutricional de cultivares de girassol irrigado Agronomic characteristics and nutritional status of irrigated sunflower cultivars

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    Leonardo A. de Aquino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o estado nutricional, caracteres agronômicos e a produtividade de cultivares de girassol sob irrigação. Os cultivares Embrapa 122 V-2000, Hélio 250, Hélio 251, Hélio 253, Hélio 358, Hélio 360, IAC Iarama, Dow Agroscience M 734 e MG 02, foram semeados em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O número de folhas por planta no florescimento foi maior nos híbridos Hélio 250, Hélio 251, Hélio 253, Hélio 358, Hélio 360, Dow Agroscience M 734 e MG 02, em relação aos cultivares de polinização aberta Embrapa 122 V-2000 e IAC Iarama. Os teores foliares de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S foram 40,91; 3,51; 35,91; 33,91; 6,23 e 7,88 g kg-1, respectivamente. Os cultivares Embrapa 122 V-2000 e IAC-Iarama apresentaram teor de P na folha índice menor que os demais cultivares. Os teores foliares de Zn, Cu, Fe e o Mn foram 75,15; 24,11; 98,39 e 348,10 mg kg-1, respectivamente. O teor médio de B na folha índice nos híbridos e nas variedades de polinização aberta foi de 119,25 e 140,35 mg kg-1, respectivamente. Os cultivares Hélio 250, Hélio 251, Hélio 253, Hélio 358, Hélio 360, Dow Agroscience M 734 e MG 02 apresentaram maior produtividade que o Embrapa 122 V-2000 e o IAC Iarama.This work aimed to assess nutritional status, agronomic characteristics, and productivity of sunflower cultivars under irrigation. Embrapa 122 V-2000, Hélio 250, Hélio 251, Hélio 253, Hélio 358, Hélio 360, IAC Iarama, and Dow Agroscience M 734 and MG 02 cultivars were sown in randomized block design with four replications. The number of leaves per plant in full bloom was higher in hybrid Hélio 250, Hélio 251, Hélio 253, Hélio 358, Hélio 360 and Dow Agroscience MG 734 and M 02 related to open-pollinated cultivars Embrapa 122 V-2000 and IAC Iarama. Foliar contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S were 40.91, 3.51, 35.91, 33.91, 6.23, and 7.88 g kg-1, respectively. Embrapa 122 V-2000 and IAC-Iarama cultivars showed an average

  15. Resultados agronômicos e qualitativos da nova cultivar de cevada MN 743 Agronomic and qualitative results of the new barley cultivar MN 743

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    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 743, criada pela Cia Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev foi lançada para cultivo no ano de 2004. Originou-se de um cruzamento simples entre as linhagens MN 681 e GIMPEL, realizado em 1992, no campo experimental da antiga Cia Brahma, no município de Encruzilhada do Sul. A cultivar MN 743 é do tipo duas fileiras, possui ciclo precoce e ampla adaptação às condições do sul do Brasil. Das cultivares disponíveis a nível de produção é a que apresenta a maior classificação comercial (grãos de primeira qualidade. Nos anos em que fez parte do ensaio de Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU, sempre apresentou médias competitivas em termos de rendimento corrigido em relação à testemunha de maior área no Brasil, MN 698. Com relação às características qualitativas, apresenta excelente performance no que diz respeito ao teor de extrato e poder diastásico. A cultivar é recomendada para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. Devido a seu ótimo desempenho no aspecto qualidade, visando a indústria cervejeira, a cultivar representa um importante avanço para o melhoramento deste cereal no Brasil, aliando os interesses do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 743, developed by the Cia. Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev was released in 2004. It resulted from a simple cross between lines MN 681 x GIMPEL, made in 1992, in the Brahma's Experimental Field - Encruzilhada do Sul/RS. MN 743, a two-rowed type cultivar has early cicle and is broadly adapted to southern Brazil. Among the hight producing cultivars available, it shows higher kernel plumpness (first quality kernel. Over the years it was included in the VCU (cost and use value trial, the cultivar has repeatedly showed competitive means in adjusted yield, as compared to the control occupying the largest cropped area in Brazil, MN 698. Regarding quality characteristics, it has an excellent performance as friability and diastasic power. The cultivar is recomended for all

  16. Resultados agronômicos e qualitativos da nova cultivar de cevada MN 743 Agronomic and qualitative results of the new barley cultivar MN 743

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    Eduardo Caierão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 743, criada pela Cia Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev foi lançada para cultivo no ano de 2004. Originou-se de um cruzamento simples entre as linhagens MN 681 e GIMPEL, realizado em 1992, no campo experimental da antiga Cia Brahma, no município de Encruzilhada do Sul. A cultivar MN 743 é do tipo duas fileiras, possui ciclo precoce e ampla adaptação às condições do sul do Brasil. Das cultivares disponíveis a nível de produção é a que apresenta a maior classificação comercial (grãos de primeira qualidade. Nos anos em que fez parte do ensaio de Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU, sempre apresentou médias competitivas em termos de rendimento corrigido em relação à testemunha de maior área no Brasil, MN 698. Com relação às características qualitativas, apresenta excelente performance no que diz respeito ao teor de extrato e poder diastásico. A cultivar é recomendada para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. Devido a seu ótimo desempenho no aspecto qualidade, visando a indústria cervejeira, a cultivar representa um importante avanço para o melhoramento deste cereal no Brasil, aliando os interesses do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 743, developed by the Cia. Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev was released in 2004. It resulted from a simple cross between lines MN 681 x GIMPEL, made in 1992, in the Brahma's Experimental Field - Encruzilhada do Sul/RS. MN 743, a two-rowed type cultivar has early cicle and is broadly adapted to southern Brazil. Among the hight producing cultivars available, it shows higher kernel plumpness (first quality kernel. Over the years it was included in the VCU (cost and use value trial, the cultivar has repeatedly showed competitive means in adjusted yield, as compared to the control occupying the largest cropped area in Brazil, MN 698. Regarding quality characteristics, it has an excellent performance as friability and diastasic power. The cultivar is recomended for all

  17. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

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    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  18. Mapping QTLs Controlling Flowering Time and Important Agronomic Traits in Pearl Millet.

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    Kumar, Sushil; Hash, C Tom; Nepolean, T; Satyavathi, C Tara; Singh, Govind; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D; Yadav, Rattan S; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2017-01-01

    Pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a staple crop for the people of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is fast gaining importance as a climate resilient nutricereal. Exploiting the bold seeded, semi-dwarf, and early flowering genotypes in pearl millet is a key breeding strategy to enhance yield, adaptability, and for adequate food in resource-poor zones. Genetic variation for agronomic traits of pearl millet inbreds can be used to dissect complex traits through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. This study was undertaken to map a set of agronomically important traits like flowering time (FT), plant height (PH), panicle length (PL), and grain weight (self and open-pollinated seeds) in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 cross. Excluding grain weight (open pollinated), heritabilities for FT, PH, PL, grain weight (selfed) were in high to medium range. A total of six QTLs for FT were detected on five chromosomes, 13 QTLs for PH on six chromosomes, 11 QTLs for PL on five chromosomes, and 14 QTLs for 1,000-grain weight (TGW) spanning five chromosomes. One major QTL on LG3 was common for FT and PH. Three major QTLs for PL, one each on LG1, LG2, and LG6B were detected. The large effect QTL for TGW (self) on LG6B had a phenotypic variance ( R 2 ) of 62.1%. The R 2 for FT, TGW (self), and PL ranged from 22.3 to 59.4%. A total of 21 digenic interactions were discovered for FT ( R 2 = 18-40%) and PL ( R 2 = 13-19%). The epistatic effects did not reveal any significant QTL × QTL × environment (QQE) interactions. The mapped QTLs for flowering time and other agronomic traits in present experiment can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) breeding programs.

  19. CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÔMICAS DE CULTIVARES DE SORGO (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench SOB TRÊS DOSES DE NITROGÊNIO AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF SORGHUM CULTIVARS AT THREE LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER

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    Susana Queiroz Santos Mello

    2007-09-01

    test was used for comparison of treatment means. The yields of natural matter, with general average 59.31 t.ha-1, were significantly different among sorghum cultivars; but there was no difference caused by nitrogen levels in this trait. The dry matter yield mean (15.17 t.ha-1 did not differ among cultivars or nitrogen levels. As opposed, dry matter and panicle and stalk contents in the natural matter were different among cultivars as well as among N levels. The plant height (with general average 2.39 m and stalk dry matter means were different only among cultivars. BR 700 and CMSXS 762 cultivars showed the best panicle/stalk/leaf ratio and the largest panicle percentage. Increased amounts of nitrogen resulted in increased panicle and decreased stalk percentage.

    KEY-WORDS: Sorghum; nitrogen fertilization; agronomic valuation.

  20. Performance of four European hemp cultivars cultivated under different agronomic experimental conditions in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, LS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available of Fibre Hemp, Publication Agricultural Engineering, 31, University of Helsinki, 2001. 8. H.S. Sankari, Comparison of Bast Fibre Yield and Mechanical Fibre Properties of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L) cultivars, Industrial Crops and Products, 11, 73-84, 2000...

  1. Identification of QTLs for 14 Agronomically Important Traits in Setaria italica Based on SNPs Generated from High-Throughput Sequencing

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    Kai Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is an important crop possessing C4 photosynthesis capability. The S. italica genome was de novo sequenced in 2012, but the sequence lacked high-density genetic maps with agronomic and yield trait linkages. In the present study, we resequenced a foxtail millet population of 439 recombinant inbred lines (RILs and developed high-resolution bin map and high-density SNP markers, which could provide an effective approach for gene identification. A total of 59 QTL for 14 agronomic traits in plants grown under long- and short-day photoperiods were identified. The phenotypic variation explained ranged from 4.9 to 43.94%. In addition, we suggested that there may be segregation distortion on chromosome 6 that is significantly distorted toward Zhang gu. The newly identified QTL will provide a platform for sequence-based research on the S. italica genome, and for molecular marker-assisted breeding.

  2. Identification of QTLs for 14 Agronomically Important Traits in Setaria italica Based on SNPs Generated from High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Guangyu; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhao, Fang; Wei, Wei; Du, Guohua; Feng, Xiaolei; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Feng; Song, Guoliang; Zou, Hongfeng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Shuangdong; Ni, Xuemei; Zhang, Gengyun; Zhao, Zhihai

    2017-05-05

    Foxtail millet ( Setaria italica ) is an important crop possessing C4 photosynthesis capability. The S. italica genome was de novo sequenced in 2012, but the sequence lacked high-density genetic maps with agronomic and yield trait linkages. In the present study, we resequenced a foxtail millet population of 439 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and developed high-resolution bin map and high-density SNP markers, which could provide an effective approach for gene identification. A total of 59 QTL for 14 agronomic traits in plants grown under long- and short-day photoperiods were identified. The phenotypic variation explained ranged from 4.9 to 43.94%. In addition, we suggested that there may be segregation distortion on chromosome 6 that is significantly distorted toward Zhang gu. The newly identified QTL will provide a platform for sequence-based research on the S. italica genome, and for molecular marker-assisted breeding. Copyright © 2017 Zhang et al.

  3. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Ambreen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic diversity indicated by Shannon information index (H = 0.7537 and Nei's expected heterozygosity (I = 0.4432. In Principal Coordinate Analysis, the CartAP accessions were distributed homogeneously in all quadrants indicating their diverse nature. Distance-based Neighbor Joining analysis did not delineate the CartAP accessions in consonance with their geographical origin. Bayesian analysis of population structure of CartAP demonstrated the unstructured nature of the association panel. Kinship analysis at population (Gij and individual level (Fij revealed absence of or weak relatedness between the CartAP accessions. The above parameters established the suitability of CartAP for association mapping. We performed association mapping using phenotypic data for eight traits of agronomic value (viz., seed oil content, oleic acid, linoleic acid, plant height, number of primary branches, number of capitula per plant, 100-seed weight and days to 50% flowering available for two growing seasons (2011–2012 and 2012–2013 through General Linear Model and Mixed Linear Model. Our study identified ninety-six significant marker-trait associations (MTAs; P < 0.05 of which, several MTAs with correlation coefficient (R2 > 10% were consistently represented in both models and in both seasons for traits viz., oil content, oleic acid content, linoleic acid content and number of primary branches. Several MTAs with high R2-values were detected either in a majority or in

  4. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambreen, Heena; Kumar, Shivendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu; Jagannath, Arun; Goel, Shailendra

    2018-01-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP) comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic diversity indicated by Shannon information index ( H = 0.7537) and Nei's expected heterozygosity ( I = 0.4432). In Principal Coordinate Analysis, the CartAP accessions were distributed homogeneously in all quadrants indicating their diverse nature. Distance-based Neighbor Joining analysis did not delineate the CartAP accessions in consonance with their geographical origin. Bayesian analysis of population structure of CartAP demonstrated the unstructured nature of the association panel. Kinship analysis at population ( G ij ) and individual level ( F ij ) revealed absence of or weak relatedness between the CartAP accessions. The above parameters established the suitability of CartAP for association mapping. We performed association mapping using phenotypic data for eight traits of agronomic value ( viz ., seed oil content, oleic acid, linoleic acid, plant height, number of primary branches, number of capitula per plant, 100-seed weight and days to 50% flowering) available for two growing seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013) through General Linear Model and Mixed Linear Model. Our study identified ninety-six significant marker-trait associations (MTAs; P 10% were consistently represented in both models and in both seasons for traits viz ., oil content, oleic acid content, linoleic acid content and number of primary branches. Several MTAs with high R 2 -values were detected either in a majority or in some environments (models and/or seasons). Many MTAs were also

  5. Agronomic response of cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. under different soil moisture conditions in province Granma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitza Meriño Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To objective of evaluate the response of two cultivars of chickpea (Nac-29 and Nac-5 HA under different soil moisture conditions, field research was carried out in productive teaching plot of the University of Granma. Sowing was carried out on November 22, 2014. Two treatments were used: T1 (Control and T2 (varieties of chickpea in water stress with three replicates, distributed in a randomized block design with split plot arrangements (The large plots corresponded to the two moisture conditions and the small plots to varieties. The variables were: length and diameter of pods, number of grains per plant, number of grains per pods, weight of 100 seeds and agricultural yield. The results obtained were statistically processed using the STATISTICA version 8.0 for Windows program and in case of significant differences, a variance analysis was performed using the Tukey Multiple Range test. The results showed that, with the cultivation of the chickpea, better results are obtained when the plants are subjected to water stress conditions.

  6. Cadmium and lead accumulations and agronomic quality of a newly bred pollution-safe cultivar (PSC) of water spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Mu, Yang-Xiu; He, Chun-Tao; Fu, Hui-Ling; Wang, Xue-Song; Gong, Fei-Yue; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Breeding for pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) can reduce pollutant accumulation in crops. However, the PSC breeding would face the risk of nutritional quality reduction, which is usually ignored in conventional breeding programs targeting to increase crop yield or nutritional quality. Thus, the doubt whether the risk would exist has to be clarified for supporting the PSC breeding. In the present study, a newly bred Cd/Pb-PSC of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) and its parents (QLQ with low-Cd/Pb accumulation ability and T308 with high yield) of water spinach were employed to clarify the above-mentioned issue. Yields, and concentrations of Cd, Pb, nitrite, and organic and inorganic nutrients in shoots of the three experimental lines were determined. There were no significant differences in Cd/Pb concentration between the new PSC and QLQ, in nitrite content between the new PSC and its two parents and in yield between the new PSC and T308. It is decisively significant that shoot concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients in the Cd/Pb-PSC were as high as those in one of its parents. It is affirmed that the breeding operations (crossing and consequently continuous selfing) for lowering Cd/Pb accumulation capacity of water spinach would not lower the nutritional values of the obtained Cd/Pb-PSCs from the breeding, which should be a pillar that supports the feasibility to minimize Cd/Pb pollution in vegetables using PSC-breeding method.

  7. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus on relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers, growth parameters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19 in Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Saber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR plus nitrogen and phosphorous chemical fertilizers on relative agronomic efficiency of P and N fertilizers and some agronomic parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2008-2009. Experiment was arranged in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with three levels (0, 25 and 50 kg.ha-1 and sub-plots were considered PGPR at four levels (control, inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria (PFB, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and dual inoculation with PFB and PSB with three replications. Results showed that the application of biofertilizers significantly increased relative agronomic efficiency of N and P fertilizers, spike number, plant height, flag leaf area, grain yield and grain weight of wheat. Application of biofertilizers increased wheat grain yield as much as 46.6% as compared to control. Double inoculation of biofertilizers improved relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers by 58.4 and 76.5% as compared to control, respectively. Integrated treatments showed higher performance compared to separate treatments. Generally, biofertilizers with low levels of P and N fertilizers significantly improved yield components of wheat without any reduction in yield related parameters.

  8. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  9. Agronomic Evaluation and Genetic Variation of Tunisian Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.

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    N. Chtourou-Ghorbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine important agronomic traits were used to assess the genetic diversity of Tunisian tall fescue and to investigate the extent of genotype X environment (GE interaction and its implications for breeding programs. These traits were studied for three consecutive years in thirty-five spontaneous populations and three cultivars. Panicle size contributed to seeds production, while the plant height at harvest and dry matter yield were selected for forage performance. Analysis of variance demonstrated that population attitude depended on the year and environmental conditions. Principal component analysis revealed significant similarities among some spontaneous populations and cultivars. The relationship between environmental conditions and agronomic traits revealed the influence of altitude, soil texture and minimum temperature on forage production, seed yield, and the architecture of plants, respectively. In addition, the local adapted ecotypes originating from Bizerte, Sidi Nsir, and Rass Rajel attained greater agronomic potentialities than control cultivars and were of considerable economic interest for the improvement of Tunisian tall fescue.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifying Candidate Genes Influencing Important Agronomic Traits of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Using SLAF-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongwei; Dai, Zhigang; Yang, Zemao; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Debao; Yang, Xue; Zhang, Liguo; Tang, Qing; Su, Jianguang

    2017-01-01

    Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important cash crop, and its agronomic traits directly affect yield and quality. Molecular studies on flax remain inadequate because relatively few flax genes have been associated with agronomic traits or have been identified as having potential applications. To identify markers and candidate genes that can potentially be used for genetic improvement of crucial agronomic traits, we examined 224 specimens of core flax germplasm; specifically, phenotypic data for key traits, including plant height, technical length, number of branches, number of fruits, and 1000-grain weight were investigated under three environmental conditions before specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was employed to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for these five agronomic traits. Subsequently, the results were used to screen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and candidate genes that exhibited a significant correlation with the important agronomic traits. Our analyses identified a total of 42 SNP loci that showed significant correlations with the five important agronomic flax traits. Next, candidate genes were screened in the 10 kb zone of each of the 42 SNP loci. These SNP loci were then analyzed by a more stringent screening via co-identification using both a general linear model (GLM) and a mixed linear model (MLM) as well as co-occurrences in at least two of the three environments, whereby 15 final candidate genes were obtained. Based on these results, we determined that UGT and PL are candidate genes for plant height, GRAS and XTH are candidate genes for the number of branches, Contig1437 and LU0019C12 are candidate genes for the number of fruits, and PHO1 is a candidate gene for the 1000-seed weight. We propose that the identified SNP loci and corresponding candidate genes might serve as a biological basis for improving crucial agronomic flax traits.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifying Candidate Genes Influencing Important Agronomic Traits of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Using SLAF-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwei Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important cash crop, and its agronomic traits directly affect yield and quality. Molecular studies on flax remain inadequate because relatively few flax genes have been associated with agronomic traits or have been identified as having potential applications. To identify markers and candidate genes that can potentially be used for genetic improvement of crucial agronomic traits, we examined 224 specimens of core flax germplasm; specifically, phenotypic data for key traits, including plant height, technical length, number of branches, number of fruits, and 1000-grain weight were investigated under three environmental conditions before specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq was employed to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS for these five agronomic traits. Subsequently, the results were used to screen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci and candidate genes that exhibited a significant correlation with the important agronomic traits. Our analyses identified a total of 42 SNP loci that showed significant correlations with the five important agronomic flax traits. Next, candidate genes were screened in the 10 kb zone of each of the 42 SNP loci. These SNP loci were then analyzed by a more stringent screening via co-identification using both a general linear model (GLM and a mixed linear model (MLM as well as co-occurrences in at least two of the three environments, whereby 15 final candidate genes were obtained. Based on these results, we determined that UGT and PL are candidate genes for plant height, GRAS and XTH are candidate genes for the number of branches, Contig1437 and LU0019C12 are candidate genes for the number of fruits, and PHO1 is a candidate gene for the 1000-seed weight. We propose that the identified SNP loci and corresponding candidate genes might serve as a biological basis for improving crucial agronomic flax traits.

  12. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

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    Ané Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315 on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16. Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa, implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant.

  13. Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

  14. Amount of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Petiole of Some Iranian and Imported Grape Cultivars

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    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is one of the oldest and most important perennial crops in the world. Several native grapevine genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential are still cultivated in Iran. Developing viticulture requires the conservation of autochthonous varieties that have evolved several mechanisms enabling them to cope with the local bioclimatic and edaphic conditions. Nutrition is a key component of vineyard management that has the potential to influence various factors in vine production that includes fruit set and quality. To develop suitable nutrient plant growers need to have an understanding of the factors such as cultivars, rootstocks, soil type, irrigation type and nutrients that they are applying in the vineyard. The uptake of nutrients from the soil depends on different factors namely; their soluble content in it, soil pH, plant growth stage, plant genetics and types of soil and fertilizers. Plant species have a variety of capacities in removing and accumulating elements. Vigorous genotypes are more capable of finding the necessary nutrients from the surrounding soil environment. This indicates that it does not require as much nutrient as poor vigor genotypes. So, for sustainable viticulture, it is important to know the interactive influences of cultivars, soil characters, climatic conditions, and irrigation type on vine productivity. Materials and Methods: To evaluate and compare the amount of macronutrient elements (N, P, K, Mg and Ca and micronutrient elements (B, Zn and Mn in petiole of some Iranian grapevine cultivars including Bidanesefid Qazvin- Peikany Kashmar- Khalili Shiraz-Rasha and four foreign cultivars Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Perlette and Black seedless,This study was carried out as –randomized complete blocks design -with-four replications in the Kahriz Horticulture Research station -.A total of 30 adult leaves per cultivar were

  15. Determining the most important physiological and agronomic traits contributing to maize grain yield through machine learning algorithms: a new avenue in intelligent agriculture.

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    Avat Shekoofa

    Full Text Available Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features.

  16. Sensitivity of promising cherry hybrids and new cultivars to economically important fungal diseases

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    K. Vasileva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. As a result of years of developing the breeding programme for creating novel sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute (FGI, Plovdiv, a reach hybrid fund from first and second hybrid generation is created. Of the selected and propagated hybrids at a more advanced stage of testing are 11 hybrids along with three new cultivars of the FGI Plovdiv ('Kossara', 'Rosalina' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' grafted on three rootstocks were tested for sensitivity to causers of economically important fungal diseases in sweet cherry - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm Arx, shothole blight (Stigmina carpophila (Lev. Ellis and brown rot (Monilinia fructigena (G. Wint Honey. The degree of infestation under field conditions is reported by determining the index of attack on leaves and fruit, using the formula of McKinney. As the most sensitive elites are outlined elite El.17-31 (to cherry leaf spot and elite El.17-136 (to shothole blight. The cultivars 'Kossara' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' exhibit an average resistance to the three diseases, as the values for the index of infestation are lower or similar to those of standard cultivars 'Van' and 'Bing', while 'Rosalina' demonstrated sensitivity to shothole blight and brown rot. Interesting is the elite El.17- 37 demonstrating the least infestation of Blumeriella jaapii - 7.33% and Monilinia fructigena - 6.67%. The same has a set of valuable qualities as late maturing date and very large fruits with excellent sensory profile, making it a potential candidate cultivar.

  17. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Heena Ambreen; Shivendra Kumar; Amar Kumar; Manu Agarwal; Arun Jagannath; Shailendra Goel

    2018-01-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP) comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed sig...

  18. Phenotypic characterization of Ethiopian finger millet accessions (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn, for their agronomically important traits

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    Tesfaye Kassahun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereal finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn is one of the most promising vital crops of Asia and Africa in the face of climate change. It has a capacity to adapt to extreme environmental conditions and can be grown under a wide range of wider agroecology. It is believed to be originated in the highlands of Ethiopia and then disseminated across the globe. It is mainly cultivated as dietary staple food for humans, animal feeds and also used as medicinal crop. Though finger millet is recognized as the most important staple crop, particularly for the poor people in dry and semidry areas, it has been neglected and given little concern in mainstreaming the crop for its improvement research.

  19. Resequencing 50 accessions of cultivated and wild rice yields markers for identifying agronomically important genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Liu, Xin; Ge, Song

    2012-01-01

    Rice is a staple crop that has undergone substantial phenotypic and physiological changes during domestication. Here we resequenced the genomes of 40 cultivated accessions selected from the major groups of rice and 10 accessions of their wild progenitors (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to >15 x...... diversity in cultivated but not wild rice, which represent candidate regions selected during domestication. Some of these variants are associated with important biological features, whereas others have yet to be functionally characterized. The molecular markers we have identified should be valuable...... raw data coverage. We investigated genome-wide variation patterns in rice and obtained 6.5 million high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding sites with missing data in any accession. Using these population SNP data, we identified thousands of genes with significantly lower...

  20. Study of Sowing Date and Seed Priming Effect on Seed Yield, Its Components and Some of Agronomic and Qualitative Properties of Two Spring Canola Cultivars in Hamedan

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    A. Mohagheghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of planting date, cultivar and seed priming on yield, yield components, oil and protein content of seeds of two spring canola cultivars a field experiment was conducted in Bu-Ali Sina University in 2012. The experiment was factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors consisted of sowing dates (14 and 24th March and 3rd April, seed priming treatments (no-primed, primed with water and zinc sulfate solution and two canola cultivars (Hayola401 and RGS003. The evaluated traits were number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000 seeds weight, plant height, oil and protein percentage, yields of seed, oil and biologic and harvest index. The results showed that delay in sowing, except of seed protein percentage, decreased all traits. Seed priming could increase traits of plant height, 1000 seed weight, number of seed per pod, oil percentage and yield and protein percentage in all sowing dates. Seed priming with zinc sulfate solution and water increased the number of pod per plant 16.1 and 10.5 percent, respectively compared to no-primed treatment. The highest seed number per pod was achieved through the priming with water and zinc sulfate solution with an average of 14.3, in the first sowing date for Hayola401 cultivar. Priming with water, especially in the third sowing date increased oil yield by 56 percent in RGS003 cultivar in comparison with its no-primed treatment. Also priming with zinc sulfate and water, increased the harvest index 5.04 and 3.7% respectively compared to no-primed treatment. In general in the case of delay in sowing date in spring rapeseed cultivars especially for RGS003, primed seed preferably with zinc sulfate improves the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the production.

  1. Evaluation of Forage Yield and Important Agronomic Indices of Corn Affected by Intercropping Systems with Peanut and Nitrogen Rates

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    M Nabati nasaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple cropping such as intercropping plays an important role in agriculture because of maximizing beneficial interactions. Intercropping of legumes and cereals is an old practice in tropical agriculture that dates back to ancient civilization. Maize-legume intercrops could substantially increase forage quantity and quality and decrease requirement for protein supplements (Ahmad et al., 2008. Intercropping of cereals and legumes is important for development of sustainable food production systems. This may be due to some of the potential benefits in intercropping systems such as high productivity and profitability, improvement of soil fertility through the additional supply of N by fixation and excretion from the component legume, efficient use of resources, reducing damage caused by pests, diseases and weeds and improvement of forage quality (Ahmad et al., 2008; Fernandez-Aparicio et al., 2007; Lithourgidis et al., 2006. The main advantage of intercropping is more efficient utilization of the available resources and the increased productivity compared with each sole crop of the mixture. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate agronomic characteristics of corn and Land equivalent ratio (LER under intercropping with peanut and different rates of nitrogen. Materials and methods In order to evaluate the forage yield and important agronomic indices of corn (Zea mays L. affected by intercropping systems with peanut and different nitrogen rates, this experiment was performed in the experimental field of agricultural and natural resource research center of Guilan province, Rasht, Iran, during 2013-14 cropping season as a split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Nitrogen rates, including of zero, 100, 200 and 300 kg per hectare as main plot and sole cropping of corn and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., intercropping systems including of intercropping corn and peanut at ratio of 1:1, 2

  2. Importância das interações cultivares x locais e cultivares x anos na avaliação de milho na safrinha

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    Flávia Maria Avelar Gonçalves

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a importância da interação cultivares x locais e cultivares x anos e de identificar entre os híbridos já disponíveis os que sejam mais adaptados e estáveis para o cultivo em safrinha, foram estimados os parâmetros de adaptabilidade e estabilidade a partir de dados obtidos em experimentos de avaliação de cultivares de milho na safrinha, nos anos de 1993, 1994 e 1995. Esses experimentos foram conduzidos nos Estados de São Paulo, Goiás e Paraná. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Constatou-se que a magnitude da variância da interação cultivares com anos dentro de locais foi mais expressiva do que entre locais, o que indica a necessidade de que as avaliações de cultivares na safrinha sejam realizadas num maior número de anos. As cultivares diferiram quanto à adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção de grãos. Os materiais que se destacaram como mais adaptados e estáveis foram o híbrido simples Zeneca 8452, o híbrido triplo C 805 e o híbrido duplo Agromen 2012. Já os híbridos duplos BR 201, Planagri 411, AG 303 e C 125 foram os que mostraram menor adaptação e maior instabilidade.

  3. Agronomic performance and stability of andean common bean lines with white grains in Brazil

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    Helton Santos Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of genotype by environment interaction in Andean common bean lines with white grains, in Central Southern Brazil, to identify lines with high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability, aiming to meet domestic demand and to increase the Brazilian participation in the foreign market of common bean. Nineteen trials with twelve Andean lines were conducted in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in Central Southern Brazil. Grain yield and other agronomic traits were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and of adaptability/stability using Annicchiarico and modified AMMI methods. Significant differences were found between lines for all traits evaluated. Genotype by environment interaction was important for lines with Andean origin and white seed. The utilization of weighted mean of absolute scores and yield with the AMMI results enabled the identification of the most stable and adapted lines. Lines Poroto Alubia, CNFB 16211, Ouro Branco and WAF 160 were stable and adapted, using both methods. CNFB 16211 line presented high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability and therefore this line may be a new cultivar. USWA 70 and WAF 75 lines presented grain size similar to that required by the foreign market and superior to the Brazilian cultivars, besides favorable agronomic traits, and thus these lines may be indicated as new cultivars.

  4. Collection of rice mutants and application studies of their agronomic characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shuxiang; Jin Wei; Luo Qian; Sheng Ping; Huang Rongmin

    1993-01-01

    More than 1600 accessions of rice mutant germplasm have been collected since 1980, and 1142 accessions of mutants have been identified according to their agronomy and pattern characters. A part of mutants were compared with their original cultivars in eight main agronomic characters. The results showed that the agronomic characters of mutants induced by ionizing radiations changed to both positive and negative directions compared with their original cultivars. Only 6.3% mutants varied in single agronomic character, and 91.1% mutants varied in two to six agronomic characters. Tenetic analysis and Cellular observations were carried out for two kinds of early mutants. It showed that early mutants 'Yuan Feng Zao' are controlled by two independent and incomplete dominant genes. For the dwarf, the reduction of the number of longitudinal cell layers causes the stem shorter and the increase of the number of horizontal cell layers causes the stem wall thicker. More than 100 preserved accessions of mutants were supplied to breeding units as parents or for genetic studies. Sixteen cultivars (lines) were bred from the parents which played an important role in raising the output of rice production

  5. Características e desempenho agronômico no Paraná da cultivar de trigo BRS 220 Characteristics and agronomic performance in Paraná State of wheat cultivar BRS 220

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carlos Bassoi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar BRS 220, indicada para todas as regiões tritícolas do Paraná, apresenta elevado potencial de rendimento, ampla adaptação e é dotada de força de glúten que a inclui na classe de trigo pão. É resistente às ferrugens e moderadamente resistente às manchas foliares, à brusone e ao vírus-do-mosaico. É moderadamente suscetível à giberela e ao oídio. Apresenta ciclo de precoce a médio, altura média de planta, boa resistência ao acamamento e moderada tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. É moderadamente tolerante à debulha e suscetível à germinação pré-colheita. Apresentou, nos cinco anos de experimentação, média de rendimento de grãos da ordem de 4.853 kg ha-1, na região 6, 3.794 kg ha-1, na região 7, e 4.039 kg ha-1, na região 8, superando a média das cultivares testemunhas em 5%, 13% e 8%, respectivamente.The cultivar BRS 220, recommended for all wheat growing regions in the Paraná State, has shown a high yield potential, wide adaptation and resistance to the main diseases, presenting a gluten suitable for baking. The cultivar belongs to medium maturity group and presents medium height, high resistance to lodging, moderate tolerance to toxic aluminium, moderate tolerance to natural dehiscence but it is susceptible to preharvest sprouting (PHS. In the experimentation over five years, BRS 220 presented a grain yield average of 4,853 kg ha-1 in the region 6, 3,794 kg ha-1 in the region 7 and 4,039 kg ha-1 in the region 8, surpassing 5%, 13% and 8% the average of the local cultivars, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of low light intensity at three phenological stages in the agronomic and physiological responses of two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Restrepo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of two irradiance levels (100 and 50% natural light at three different growth stages on yield and physiological characteristics of two rice cultivars (Fedearroz 50 and Fedearroz 733. The plants were exposed to low irradiance for 5 days consecutive by using black net cloth (about 50% of normal at the panicle primordium, flowering and grain filling stages. The obtained results showed that the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD readings was higher in rice leaves under low irradiance. The chlorophyll content from the shade treatment apparently remained constant until the grain filling phase, then decreased slightly in the 'F50' rice plants and remarkably in the 'F733' plants. Stomatal conductance (gs was negatively affected by shading, with the effect being more adverse in the 'F733' plants. At the flowering and grain filling phases, grain yield was reduced by the low light treatments by around ~20% in the 'F50' plants. While, in 'F733', they were only affected by shading at the grain filling stage, causing a decrease of around 25%. These results seem to indicate that "F773" may have a better capacity for partitioning dry matter than "F50" in spite of the fact that the gas exchange characteristics were conditioned by low irradiance conditions at the reproductive and ripening phases

  7. Características agronômicas de cultivares de trigo em resposta à época da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura Agronomic characteristics of wheat cultivars in response to the time of nitrogen fertilizer covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de trigo diferem quanto à capacidade de emissão de afilhos, à arquitetura de planta e à duração do ciclo. Estas diferenças podem interferir na determinação da época ideal de aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura para otimizar a performance agronômica da cultura. Este trabalho objetivou identificar os efeitos de época de realização da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura sobre o acúmulo de matéria seca no colmo principal e nos afilhos, o rendimento de grãos e o teor protéico dos grãos de três cultivares de trigo. O experimento foi conduzido a campo, durante o ano agrícola de 2003, no município de Lages, SC. Foram testadas quatro épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura: estádios 3,5, 5,5, 7,5 e emborrachamento da escala de Haun; e três cultivares de trigo, "BRS 179", "Fundacep 36" e "Rubi". O ensaio foi implantado sobre resteva de feijão, em 11/07/2003. A dose total de N utilizada no trabalho foi de 70kg ha-1, sendo 20kg ha-1 aplicados na semeadura e o restante em cobertura, conforme a época definida em cada tratamento. Independentemente das características da cultivar, as aplicações precoces de N, realizadas nos estádios 3,5 e 5,5 da escala de Haun, propiciaram a obtenção dos maiores valores de rendimento de grãos. Quando o nitrogênio foi aplicado nestas épocas, houve maior contribuição percentual dos afilhos ao rendimento e maior número de grãos produzidos por área. A cultivar "Fundacep 36" foi a mais produtiva e também a que externou menor teor de proteína nos grãos, na média das quatro épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura. Não houve efeito da época de aplicação do nitrogênio sobre o teor de proteína nos grãos das cultivares avaliadas.The wheat cultivars differ in terms of tiller emission, plant architecture and growing cycle duration. Such differences may interfere in the ideal period to side-dress N to optimize the crop agronomic performance. This

  8. Agronomic characterization of eighteen cucurbitaceae cultivars used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... Faculty of Sciences and Technology at Abdou Moumouni. University of ..... information on seeds form highlighted lying seeds (ratio less than 1) for all .... ERP- value. -. 0.0926. 0.7146. FLO -. 0.3711. 0.1295. 0.1499. 0.5528.

  9. In Vitro Propagarion and Cryopreservation of Important Grape Cultivars (Vitis Vinifera L. and Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CELEBI TOPRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grape (Vitis vinifera L. is among the most important species that is cultivated almost all around the world. There are over one thousand varieties that are grown for raisin, fresh consumption and wine making purposes. The grape germplasm resources are generally maintained as whole plants under field conditions. The traditional way of germplasm preservation is very risky due to natural uncertainties. In vitro technologies can help producing healthy propagation materials free from viroids, viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, fungi, and nematodes. When combined with cryopreservation technologies in vitro preservation systems can allow safe protection and propagation of valuable Vitis genetic resources. In this study, 12 commercial cultivar and two rootstock materials were tested for the applicability of long term preservation by in vitro clonal propagation and cryopreservation techniques. Axillary shoot tips collected from newly emerging shoots were placed in Magenda boxes containing 30 g/l sucrose on MS medium and cultured in a growth chamber adjusted to 16 h ligth/25o C and 8 h dark/17o C. All grape genotypes tested responded well to this application and produced healthy root and shoots. Shoot explants from these in vitro stocks were subcultured in every three months for one year. Apical dome explants excised from in vitro grape plants were stored in liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation. Genotypes varied in their responses to cryopservation treatment. Five genotypes showed shoot or callus formation. Regenerated shoots continued to grow and produced normal shoots and roots, but no plants could be developed from calli. Flow cytometry analysis of regenerants from continuous subculture and cryopreservation did not show any chromosome number abnormalities. In vitro micropropagation is an excellent choice for a long-term conservation of grape germplasm, which allows access to actively growing plant materials without seasonal restriction. Such cultures are

  10. Nitrogen fixation in different chickpea cultivars as affected by iron application N-15 Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, A M; Soliman, S M; Abdelmonem, M [Soil and Water Dept., Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    With development of new cultivars of winter chickpea, it became important to evaluate the potential of these cultivars to fix nitrogen from air, and the effect of different agronomic factors on this important process. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to screen five cultivars of chickpea for N 2- fixation ability as affected by iron application. These cultivars were Giza 1,2,531 and 88 as compared with L 3 which was developed from the genotype NEC 1055 by irradiation. N 2- fixation was estimated using N-15 technique. Plant materials were collected after 55 days from planing. Plants samples were analysed for total N-15 atom excess. Results show that Giza 88 gave the highest dry matter as well as nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen derived from air (NDFA) ranged from 27 to 50% due to variety difference and iron treatment. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Nitrogen fixation in different chickpea cultivars as affected by iron application N-15 Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Soliman, S.M.; Abdelmonem, M.

    1995-01-01

    With development of new cultivars of winter chickpea, it became important to evaluate the potential of these cultivars to fix nitrogen from air, and the effect of different agronomic factors on this important process. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to screen five cultivars of chickpea for N 2- fixation ability as affected by iron application. These cultivars were Giza 1,2,531 and 88 as compared with L 3 which was developed from the genotype NEC 1055 by irradiation. N 2- fixation was estimated using N-15 technique. Plant materials were collected after 55 days from planing. Plants samples were analysed for total N-15 atom excess. Results show that Giza 88 gave the highest dry matter as well as nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen derived from air (NDFA) ranged from 27 to 50% due to variety difference and iron treatment. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR Markers to Study Genetic Diversity Among Cotton Cultivars in Associated with Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar ABDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing salt-tolerant crops is very important as a significant proportion of cultivated land is salt-affected. Screening and selection of salt tolerant genotypes of cotton using DNA molecular markers not only introduce tolerant cultivars useful for hybridization and breeding programs but also detect DNA regions involved in mechanism of salinity tolerance. To study this, 28 cotton cultivars, including 8 Iranian cotton varieties were grown in pots under greenhouse condition and three salt treatments were imposed with salt solutions (0, 70 and 140 mM NaCl. Eight agronomic traits including root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, chlorophyll and fluorescence index, K+ and Na+ contents in shoot (above ground biomass, and K+/Na+ ratio were measured. Cluster analysis of cultivars based on measured agronomic traits, showed �Cindose� and �Ciacra� as the most tolerant cultivars, and �B-557� and �43347� as the most sensitive cultivars of salt damage. A total of 65 polymorphic DNA fragments were generated at 14 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR loci. Plants of 28 cultivars of cotton grouped into three clusters based on ISSR markers. Regression analysis of markers in relation with traits data showed that 23, 33 and 30 markers associated with the measured traits in three salt treatments respectively. These markers might help breeders in any marker assisted selection program in order to improving cotton cultivars against salt stress.

  13. Productive performance of soybean cultivars grown in different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Belchior Marchetti Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants density in soybean cultivation is an important management practice to achieve high grain yield. In this way, the objective was to evaluate the agronomic traits and grain yield in soybean in different plant densities, in two locations in the south of Minas Gerais. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, arranged in a split plot design, with three replications. Plots were composed of four population densities (300, 400, 500 and 600 thousand plants per hectare and the subplots were composed of six cultivars (‘BMX Força RR’, ‘CD 250 RR’, ‘FMT 08 - 60.346/1’, ‘NA 5909 RR’, ‘TMG 7161 RR’ and ‘V - TOP RR’ grown in Lavras and Inconfidentes, both in Minas Gerais. At the time of harvest was determined the plant height, lodging, insertion of the first pod, harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of grains, number of grains per pod and yield. Regardless of the soybean cultivar, the plant density of up to 600,000 per ha does not affect grain yield, plant height, lodging, harvest index, and number of grains per pod. The cultivars ‘V-TOP RR’ and ‘BMX FORÇA RR’ showed high grain yield and good agronomic traits in Lavras and Incofidentes.

  14. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  15. Farmers\\' Perception Of Improved And Local Cassava Cultivars In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantity of the byproduct of cassava, taste of byproduct, maturity time and disease resistance significantly contributed to farmers' perception of the cassava cultivars. Apart from good agronomic characteristics of disease resistance and early maturity, farmers' perception of cultivars is also tied to food value issues, field ...

  16. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  17. Foliar fertilization of peanuts with cobalt and molybdenum: agronomic characteristics of production and physiological potential of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marani Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a crop, the peanut is becoming increasingly important in Brazil because it is used to renew areas where sugarcane is cultivated. The peanuts are mainly used by the candy industry and their importance has also grown because of the exploitation of oil crops to produce biodiesel. This study aimed to determine the effect of applying different levels Co and Mo foliar fertilizer to two peanut cultivars. The experiment was conducted in cerrado, during the rainy season, and the treatments consisted of applying Mo and Co fertilizer at zero, 400 and 800g.ha–1 to the Runner IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST cultivars. The study found that there were differences in the parameters of the cultivars but there were no changes when the rates of cobalt and molybdenum were increased. The foliar application of cobalt and molybdenum in doses up to 800g.ha–1, during the initial stage of seed formation, does not change the agronomic characteristics of peanuts; Runner IAC 886 is more productive than the IAC Tatu ST cultivar, and seeds with higher molybdenum content do not have more physiological potential.

  18. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Lou

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia, were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP and spike weight (SW. However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single

  19. The importance of bee pollination of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus Cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Hansted

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low fruit set, despite normally-developed flowers, is often a significant contributor to poor yield of the self-fertile sour cherry (Prunus cerasus cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insect, and particularly, bee pollination on the fruit set of this cultivar, in order to provide orchard management information for both Danish ‘Stevnsbaer’ growers and beekeepers. Visits to cherry flowers by honey bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus species and solitary bees, were recorded during the flowering of ‘Stevnsbaer’ in five separate Danish orchards. The results indicate that there is a significantly higher fruit set on open pollinated branches when compared to caged branches, where bees and other pollinating insects where excluded. The results were qualitatively consistent over three different seasons (2007, 2009 and 2010. A period of prolonged cold, humid weather before and during early flowering probably reduced fruit set significantly in 2010 compared to 2009. Regarding the apparent benefits of bee pollination on fruit set and subsequent implications for yield, we recommend placing honeybees in ‘Stevnsbaer’ orchards during flowering to sustain commercially viable production. Another valuable management strategy would be to improve foraging and nesting conditions to support both honey and wild bees in and around the orchards.

  20. Agronomic performance of old soybean variety 'Altona' derived mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodosne, K.G.; Heszky, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    An induced mutation program has been initiated at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding to develop early maturing cultivars with good yielding capacity. Some new mutants have been produced by irradiation of variety Altona with 60 Co gamma rays. Ten years of breeding resulted in two new mutant varieties named 'Noventa' and 'Gate 511'. The present study deals with agronomic performance of these mutants. Registered soybean varieties Altona and 'McCall' as well as Altona derived mutants (Gate 511 and Noventa) have been compared

  1. (Lilium) cultivar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... 2National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing, China. Accepted 6 August, 2012 ... hybrids lily cultivar 'eyeliner' was selected as the materials. By using the ... of sterilization was not ideal which led to higher.

  2. URS Brava – a new oat cultivar with partial resistance to crown rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar URS Brava, obtained from a simple cross between the line ‘UFRGS 995078-2’ and the cultivar ‘URS 21’, shows high grain yield and stability, high grain quality, desirable agronomical traits and partial resistance to crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae.

  3. Combining ability and maternal effects for some agronomic and oil quality traits in safflower ( Carthamus Tinctorius, L. )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Friedt, W.

    1992-01-01

    Combining ability and reciprocal effects for some agronomic and oil quality traits of safflower were studied in a diallel set of 4 parents. The used parents were local cultivar (Giza 1), exotic cultivar (A2sK1) and two induced gamma ray mutants (Mut. 1 and 2). General and specific combining ability and specific combining ability and reciprocal effects showed highly significant variances for most studied characters. Additive genetic variance was more important than non active for flowering date, first branch high, no.of capitula / plant, seed yield/plant, oil content and stearic acid. However, no.of branches/plant, 100-seed weight, palmitic acid, oleic and linoleic acids appeared to be under the control of epi static gene effect. Giza 1 (P 1) was the best general combiner for no.of branches and palmitic acid. Exotic cultivar 'A2sK1' (P 2) was the highest combiner for no.of capitula/plant and stearic acid. Mut.1 (P 3) was the best combiner for early flowering date, 100-seed weight and seed yield/plant. Mut.2 (P 4) was the highest combiner for oil content. 4 tab

  4. Agronomic Use of Basic Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oliveiri de Nobile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern civilization, in recent years, has increased the requirement of products derived from iron and steel, stimulating the growth of the national siderurgical sector and, consequently, the generation of industrial residue called basic slag. In this context, the recycling of residues can contribute to solve problems of the industries that give priority to the excellence of the production with quality. On the other hand, there is a sector of primary production in Brazil, the agriculture, with a great cultivated area in acid ground and with low fertility, being these factors admittedly determinative for vegetal production, under tropical conditions. Thus, there is a scenery of two primary sectors of production, although distinct ones, that present interaction potential, for , on one hand, there is disponibility of a product with similar properties to the liming materials and traditional fertilizers and, on the other hand, a production sector that is highly dependent of these products. And the interaction between these two sectors helps in the preservation of the environment, bringing, thus, a certain sustainability in the production systems of the postmodern civilization that will be the challenge of this new century. Considering the current possibility of recycling these industrial residues in agriculture, three important factors have to be taken into account. The first would be the proper use of the abundant, available and promising industrial residue; the second, in a propitious agricultural environment, acid soil and low fertility; and third, in a responsive and important socio-economic culture, the sugar cane, considering its vast cultivated area. In national literature, few works have dealt with the use of the basic slag and have evaluated the reply of the cultures to its application. Thus, the present work had as its aim to gather information from literature concerning the characterization and production of basic slag in Brazil, as well

  5. A farm-level analysis of economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.M.; Sampath, R.; Riha, S.J.; Wilks, D.S.; Rossiter, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The potential economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming are examined at the farm level. Three models of the relevant climatic, agronomic, and economic processes are developed and linked to address climate change impacts and agricultural adaptability. Several climate warming severity. The results indicate that grain farmers in southern Minnesota can effectively adapt to a gradually changing climate (warmer and either wetter or drier) by adopting later maturing cultivars, changing crop mix, and altering the timing of field operations to take advantage of a longer growing season resulting from climate warming

  6. CD 121 - cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    OpenAIRE

    Marchioro, Volmir Sergio; Franco, Francisco de Assis; Dalla Nora, Tatiane; Schuster, Ivan; Evangelista, Adriel; Lima, Fábio Junior Alcântara de; Polo, Mateus

    2013-01-01

    CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR, SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yield of 3.622 kg ha-1.

  7. CD 121 - Cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR,SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yieldof 3.622 kg ha-1.

  8. QTL Analysis of Major Agronomic Traits in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-shan; ZHANG Zhong-chen; LIU Chun-yan; XIN Da-wei; QIU Hong-mei; SHAN Da-peng; SHAN Cai-yun; HU Guo-hua

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a main crop, and most agronomic traits of soybean are quantitative; therefore, there is very important studying and applying value to locating these traits. A F2:10 RIL population containing 154 lines, derived from the cross between Charleston as female and Dongnong 594 as male parent, were used in this experiment. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 SSR primers, which were screened with the two parents and amplified on the 154 lines. 12 agronomic traits different between the two parents were investigated, and QTLs of all the traits were analyzed using the software Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0. The agronomic traits included quality traits: protein content, oil content, and content of protein and oil; yield traits: pods per plant, seed weight per plant, arnd 100 seeds weight; and other agronomic traits: plant height, days to maturity, branches, nod number in main stem, average leaf length, and average leaf width. The results showed that 68 QTLs in total were found for the 12 agronomic traits. The number of QTLs per trait varied from 3 for the average leaf width to 11 for 100 seeds weight and plant height, and was 5.8 on average. Good accordance was seen in many QTLs between the results of this study and the results obtained by other similar studies; therefore, these QTLs may be valuable for molecular marker assistant selection in soybean. In this study, 68 major QTLs of 12 important traits of soybean were analyzed.

  9. Variation in the volatile terpenoids of two industrially important basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars during plant ontogeny in two different cropping seasons from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit

    2012-02-01

    Two Ocimum basilicum cultivars, 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Saumya', grown in the Kumaon region of western Himalaya were evaluated for their essential oil yield and composition at different stages of plant growth during two distinct cropping seasons (spring-summer and rain-autumn). The highest yield of essential oil was obtained at full bloom stage in both cultivars in both cropping seasons. The essential oils obtained from different stages in two cropping seasons were analysed by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major component of cultivar 'Vikarsudha' was methyl chavicol (84.3-94.3%), while for cultivar 'CIM-Saumya' the main components were methyl chavicol (62.5-77.6%) and linalool (14.4-34.1%). This study clearly indicated that cultivar, cropping season, plant ontogeny and plant part had significant effects on the yield and quality of the essential oil of O. basilicum. Further, the amount of methyl chavicol in the cultivars grown in this region was higher than in cultivars from other parts of India. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. AVALIAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DE ALHO NA REGIÃO DE MOSSORÓ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIANA RAQUEL DE FREITAS HONORATO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rio Grande do Norte state despite having favorable conditions for growing garlic, currently depends on imports of this product to meet its domestic demand. Evaluation of cultivars from of other regions of Brazil was determined in order to verify the agronomic performance under the edaphoclimatic conditions of the Mossoró. region The study consisted of an experiment conducted in the city of Mossoro from June to November/ 2011. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four replications and eleven treatments, cultivars Amarante, Branco Mossoró, Caturra, Chinês Real, Chinês São Joaquim, Cateto Roxo, Gravatá, Gigante do Núcleo, Gigante Lavinia , Gigante Roxo and Hozan. Cultivars Branco Mossoró, Caturra, Cateto Roxo and Gravatá had a greater percentage of plants with bulb and larger diameter bulb, indicating adaptability conditions of Mossoró. Most total yield bulbs was recorded by cultivar Branco Mossoró presented 65.22% and 11.53% distributed in bulb diameter grades 3 (32 to 37 mm and 4 (37 to 42 mm, respectively.

  11. Agronomic performance of rape seed (brassica napus L.) mutant lines under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Shah, S.J.A.; Rehman, K.; Rashid, A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil seed forms of Brassica napus are not well adapted to drought and the warner environments of Pakistan. Induced mutations were, therefore, utilized for improving drought tolerance efficiency of two napus cultivars. Induction of genetic variability, selection of desirable mutants and stabilization of mutants in acceptable agronomic background were carried out during 1988-1991. Fourteen promising mutants each of cv. Pak-cheen and Tower were evaluated for different agronomic characters in separate yield trials, under extremely drought conditions. The results demonstrated that yield potential of some mutants was very high and 9 mutants of cv. Pak-cheen and 8 mutants of cv. Tower significantly (P<0.05) out yield the local commercial cultivar. Eleven mutants in both the trials matured significantly earlier than the check. Nevertheless, more extensive testing of the drought tolerant lines under diversified environs of the country will help confirm these findings. (author)

  12. Durable resistance to net blotch and agronomic performance in some barley mutants [Hordeum vulgare L.; Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds from the net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) susceptible cultivar Thibaut were treated by gamma ray radiation and subsequently evaluated for reaction to the pathogen in the M2-M5 generations. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of putative mutants were compared with Thibaut in two different locations. Genetic variation among some mutant lines/cv Thibaut was estimated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Sixteen mutant lines and their mother cultivar Thibaut were analyzed with 14 EcoR1-Mse1 primer combinations. A total number of 504 AFLP bands were analyzed for each pair mutant/Thibaut. Narrow genetic variation among all genotypes was detected with an average of genetic similarity of 0.96. Cluster analysis with the entire AFLP data divided all genotypes into two major groups. The resistant mutant lines were grouped in one subcluster with 0.98 similarity index. Some resistant mutant lines to net blotch with good agronomic performances were produced [it

  13. A high density genetic map and QTL for agronomic and yield traits in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomei; Dong, Kongjun; Wang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Tianpeng; He, Jihong; Ren, Ruiyu; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xueying; Li, Man; Huang, Mengzhu; Zhang, Zhengsheng; Yang, Tianyu

    2016-05-04

    Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China, has been adopted as a model crop for studying C-4 photosynthesis, stress biology and biofuel traits. Construction of a high density genetic map and identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) lay the foundation for marker-assisted selection for agronomic traits and yield improvement. A total of 10598 SSR markers were developed according to the reference genome sequence of foxtail millet cultivar 'Yugu1'. A total of 1013 SSR markers showing polymorphism between Yugu1 and Longgu7 were used to genotype 167 individuals from a Yugu1 × Longgu7 F2 population, and a high density genetic map was constructed. The genetic map contained 1035 loci and spanned 1318.8 cM with an average distance of 1.27 cM between adjacent markers. Based on agronomic and yield traits identified in 2 years, 29 QTL were identified for 11 traits with combined analysis and single environment analysis. These QTL explained from 7.0 to 14.3 % of phenotypic variation. Favorable QTL alleles for peduncle length originated from Longgu7 whereas favorable alleles for the other traits originated from Yugu1 except for qLMS6.1. New SSR markers, a high density genetic map and QTL identified for agronomic and yield traits lay the ground work for functional gene mapping, map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection in foxtail millet.

  14. Understanding Arsenic Dynamics in Agronomic Systems to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciation and availability, through to mechanisms of uptake by crop plants and potential mitigation strategies. This review makes a case for taking steps to prevent or limit crop uptake of arsenic, wherever possible, and to work toward a long-term solution to the presence of arsenic in agronomic systems. The past two decades have seen important advances in our understanding of how biogeochemical and physiological processes influence human exposure to soil arsenic, and thus must now prompt an informed reconsideration and unification of regulations to protect the quality of agricultural and residential soils. Consumption of staple foods such as rice, beverages such as apple juice, or vegetables grown in historically arsenic-contaminated soils is now recognized as a tangible route of arsenic exposure that, in many cases, is more significant than exposure from drinking water. Understanding the sources of arsenic to crop plants and the factors that influence them is key to reducing exposure now and preventing exposure in future. In addition to the abundant natural sources of arsenic, there are a large number of industrial and agricultural sources of arsenic to the soil; from mining wastes, coal fly

  15. Effects of delaying transplanting on agronomic traits and grain yield of rice under mechanical transplantation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Liu

    Full Text Available A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT. The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT.

  16. Revealing the importance of meristems and roots for the development of hypersensitive responses and full foliar resistance to Phytophthora infestans in the resistant potato cultivar Sarpo Mira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Basile, Alessio; Kandzia, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The defence responses of potato against Phytophthora infestans were studied using the highly resistant Sarpo Mira cultivar. The effects of plant integrity, meristems, and roots on the hypersensitive response (HR), plant resistance, and the regulation of PR genes were analysed. Sarpo Mira shoots a...

  17. Agronomic behaviour of some Cynodon dactylon ecotypes for turfgrass use in the Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viggiani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the expansion of turfgrasses is limited by the lack of suitable species for cultivation in the Mediterranean climate. With this view, Mi.Te.A.Med. (Turfgrass improvement in the Mediterranean climate research project was developed with the main purpose to find out and agronomically characterise native turfgrass species of Southern and Central Italy and to compare them with some commercial cultivars. During the first step of the research, 11 sites from 6 regions of Southern and Central Italy were identified. In these sites 24 ecotypes of Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers. were collected and their habitus, phenology plus some biometric parameters have been determined. During the two years of research both botanic and agronomic characterisation of the collected C. dactylon ecotypes and their comparison with 3 commercial cultivars (Panama, Transcontinental and Yukon was carried out. In the first year the colour loss interval was assessed. In the second year, colour index was measured by an electronic colorimeter, weekly growth rate was measured by a turfmeter, turf quality and ground cover percentage were assessed by visual estimate. Some native accessions showed behaviour similar to commercial cultivars while an ecotype from the Abruzzo region showed better results compared to the commercial cultivars for several quality indices.

  18. Variation of several agronomic and biochemical traits in γ-ray induced mutant soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Kyo Moon; Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Nam Soo; Son, Hi Sup; Rhee, Hae Ik

    1996-01-01

    Two soybean cultivars(Paldalkong and Bangsakong) were irradiated with gamma-ray to reduce seed size, which is an important trait for soybean sprout and the derived mutant soybeans were analyzed in several agronomic and biochemical traits. There were high levels of variations in quantitative traits among the mutants. Several mutant lines showed higher yield and smaller seed than their parents. Qualitative traits such as seed coat color or pubescent color were also changed in a few lines. Biochemical variations were also observed among the mutants. In seed storage protein analysis, many mutant lines showed reduced intensities in β-subunits in 7S globulin than their parents and an additional band in the acidic subunit at 31KDa. Two mutant lines derived from Paldalkong showed an additional band and a shifted band of protease inhibitor by electrophoretic analysis. Variations in isozymes and RAPD were also observed among the mutants. Six isozymes(Adh, Est, Gdh, Idh, Mdh and Pgm) among eleven isozymes showed some variations and six out of ten primers showed polymorphic amplified DNA fragments among the mutants. (author)

  19. Switchgrass cultivar EG1101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-27

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1101 is disclosed. Also disclosed are seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1101, plants of switchgrass EG1101, plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1101 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. Methods are also described for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. Switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1101, methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods are described herein. Hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1101 with another switchgrass cultivar are also described.

  20. Switchgrass cultivar EG1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-20

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1102 is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1102, to the plants of switchgrass EG1102, to plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1102 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. The invention also relates to methods for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1102, to methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1102 with another switchgrass cultivar.

  1. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well......-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark....... Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed...

  2. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  3. Agronomic evaluation and quality characteristics of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr ADJOU

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... known to be essential for human health (Schippers,. 2004). All parts of the .... Agronomic characteristic of three species of Cucurbitaceae cultivated. Species .... those reported in locust bean pulp (Dahouenon-. Ahoussi et al.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL, DIVERSITY AND AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natal, South Africa ... evaluated the agronomic performance of the PGs in comparison with a ..... 1456-2E and TGX 1669 - 19F in Northern and. Southern Guinea and detected low indigenous .... promiscuous soyabeans in moist savanna.

  5. Ex-situ evaluation of morphological, agronomic and qualitative traits of a naturalized population of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill Nyman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusani, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A naturalized population of parsley of the province of Trento, Italy, was evaluated ex-situ for its morphological and agronomic traits in a field trial in which it was compared with three commercial cultivars of the species. The naturalized population belongs to the smooth leaf type for the absence of curling, and differed from the other smooth leaf type accessions for the lower plant height, the smaller length of petiole and the prostrate attitude of the plant, all undesirable characteristics which make the harvest of plants more difficult. The yields of aerial parts and leaves were higher in the commercial cultivars, while the naturalized population had the highest yield and content of essential oil. Due to the high content and yield of essential oil, the naturalized population could be the object of an eventual breeding program aiming to improve the morphologic and agronomic undesirable characteristics.

  6. Distribution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidative Activities of Rice Kernel and Their Relationships with Agronomic Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwani, Amit; Chiang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Shih-Shiung

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of two Japonica rice cultivars, Taikeng no. 16 (medium and slender grain) and Kaohsiung no. 139 (short and round grain), grown under organic and conventional farming were examined. Analyses shows that Kaohsiung no. 139 contains the highest amount of secondary metabolites and continuous farming can increase its production. Results also suggest that phenolic content under different agronomic practices, has not shown significant differences but organically grown rice has proven to be better in higher accumulation of other secondary metabolites (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), flavonoid content, and ferrous chelating capacity). In nutshell, genetic traits and environment have significant effect on phenolic compounds and the least variation reported under agronomic practices. PMID:25506072

  7. Distribution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidative Activities of Rice Kernel and Their Relationships with Agronomic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kesarwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of two Japonica rice cultivars, Taikeng no. 16 (medium and slender grain and Kaohsiung no. 139 (short and round grain, grown under organic and conventional farming were examined. Analyses shows that Kaohsiung no. 139 contains the highest amount of secondary metabolites and continuous farming can increase its production. Results also suggest that phenolic content under different agronomic practices, has not shown significant differences but organically grown rice has proven to be better in higher accumulation of other secondary metabolites (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, flavonoid content, and ferrous chelating capacity. In nutshell, genetic traits and environment have significant effect on phenolic compounds and the least variation reported under agronomic practices.

  8. An Economic Risk Analysis of Weed Suppressive Rice Cultivars in Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the United States, most rice cultivars are not inherently weed-suppressive and require substantial herbicide inputs to achieve agronomic and economic viability. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in...

  9. Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae in plant protection and human health--influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Maria; Klingen, Ingeborg; Birch, Andrew N E; Bones, Atle M; Bruce, Toby J A; Johansen, Tor J; Meadow, Richard; Mølmann, Jørgen; Seljåsen, Randi; Smart, Lesley E; Stewart, Derek

    2011-05-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO(2) are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Divergência genética entre cultivares de gérbera utilizando marcadores RAPD Genetic divergence among cultivars of gerbera using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Kelson Silva Rezende

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available No processo de produção comercial de mudas de gérbera, a cor da flor é uma das principais características morfológicas de interesse agronômico, sendo uma característica importante em programas de melhoramento genético. A utilização de marcadores moleculares pode servir para direcionar cruzamentos, confirmar novos híbridos ou genótipos mutantes e identificar novos genótipos para fins comerciais. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a divergência genética entre seis cultivares de Gerbera jamesonii ('Jaguar Yellow', 'Jaguar Cream', 'Jaguar Lemon', 'Jaguar Salmon Pastel', 'Jaguar Red', 'Jaguar Deep Rose'. A análise de divergência genética entre as cultivares de gérbera foi realizada utilizando-se 21 primers, os quais amplificaram 37 fragmentos polimórficos de DNA, que foram usados para estimar o coeficiente de Jaccard, o qual apresentou uma média de 0,38, variando de 0,28 a 0,56. A estrutura genética entre as cultivares foi estimada pelo UPGMA, revelando dois grupos distintos, a 38% de similaridade genética. A maior similaridade genética encontrada (56% foi entre as cultivares 'Jaguar Yellow' e 'Jaguar Lemon'. Os resultados demonstram que a técnica RAPD oferece uma maneira rápida, relativamente barata e útil para a caracterização da divergência genética entre as diferentes cultivares de Gerbera jamesonii com relação à cor da flor.During the commercial production of gerbera seedlings, flower color is one of the main morphological aspects that have an agronomic interest and becoming an important feature in genetic breeding programs. The use of molecular markers may serve to direct crossings, new hybrids and mutants, besides confirm and identify new genotypes for commercial purposes. In that context, this work aimed to analyze the genetic divergence among six cultivars of Gerbera jamesonii ('Jaguar Yellow', 'Jaguar Cream', 'Jaguar Lemon', 'Jaguar Salmon Pastel', 'Jaguar Red', 'Jaguar Deep Rose'. The

  11. Variation between cut chrysanthemum cultivars in response to suboptimal temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Kularathne, R.J.K.N.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2007-01-01

    To breed for more energy-efficient cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivars it is important to know the variation of the temperature response existing in modern cultivars. In a greenhouse experiment with 25 chrysanthemum cultivars, a significant variation was observed in

  12. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  13. Induction of bacterial blight resistance in elite Indian rice cultivars using gamma-rays and ethyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, P.K.; Gosal, S.S.; Sidhu, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in the world feeding more than 50 percent of the human population. During the last 30 years, induced mutation breeding has played a significant role in rice breeding programmes. Rice mutants with higher yield, greater tolerance to diseases and pests and other agronomic qualities have been released for commercial cultivation in many countries. Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the second important disease in Southeast Asia. In the Basmati field sometime the yield loss is up to 100%. Moreover, there is no resistance source available. In Basmati rice, which is known for its quality and aroma. Induction of bacterial blight resistance in Basmati will help in developing high yielding Basmati type cultivars without compromising the quality

  14. Assessment of Agronomic and Morphological Characteristics of Iranian Spinach Landrace in Esfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    peyman jafari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinach is one of the most important leafy vegetables, rich in calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C and B-carotene, and it is likely to be Iran's origin. More than 30 percent of the area under cultivation of in Iran leafy vegetables, allocated to spinach plant. Spinach is a cool season crop and its cultivation is done in the fall and in early spring. Various regions of Iran, has the vast genetic diversity in relation to the mass of spinach. In a study to evaluate the yield and agronomic traits spinach 121 mass Iran, the masses were divided into six clusters that each cluster has specific morphological and agronomic traits. Leafy vegetables, especially spinach are the main sources of nitrate absorption and about 70 percent of total dietary nitrate intake per person per day is provided by leafy vegetables. Material and Methods: To study the preliminary agronomic and morphological traits and nitrate amounts of 100 Iranian spinach mass are available in GenBank, an investigation was carried out in Agriculture and Education Center Research in Esfahan for two years (2013-2014 by using of five mass dominant cultivars, and two control landrace (Varamin 88 and Varamin prickly seed. The aim of the first year of the study was the primary isolation of superior landraces based on agronomic traits of spinach. At the end of the first year of growth, seed traits, including the type (smooth-prick, the width of the blade, leaf color, wrinkling of leaf area, leaf thickness, the petiole (standing, half-standing and sleeping, petiole length, shape of leaf, the shape of the leaf tip, bolting during plant growth and the number of male and female were determined. A total of 25 landraces selected in the first year of study were compared in the second year using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Studied traits were: yield, dry matter yield, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length and nitrate levels

  15. Efeito de doses reduzidas de oxyfluorfen em cultivares de algodoeiro Effect of reduced oxyfluorfen rates on cotton cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O agronegócio do algodão apresenta-se, no Brasil, como uma atividade de grande importância para a economia nacional, ocupando posição de destaque no processo produtivo do Estado do Mato Grosso. Para que a cultura possa expressar o máximo potencial produtivo, é necessária a adoção de técnicas de manejo e práticas agronômicas, visando o controle das plantas daninhas. A fim de que a lavoura se mantenha limpa e livre de matocompetição, o controle químico é o método mais utilizado. Os herbicidas registrados para algodão devem ser aplicados, quando do estabelecimento da cultura, em jato dirigido. O contato desses produtos, como o oxyfluorfen, nas folhas pode incorrer em fitointoxicação e prejuízos para o produtor. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi mensurar o potencial de danos provocados pelo oxyfluorfen, quando em contato com diferentes cultivares de algodoeiro em estádio inicial de desenvolvimento. Para isso, foram avaliados cinco cultivares, tratados com 90 e 180 g ha-1 do herbicida, aplicado em plantas com 15 e 30 dias de emergência. Quanto às variáveis analisadas (fitointoxicação, altura de planta, número de folhas, massa seca de planta, foi possível observar que não houve diferença entre cultivares e que as plantas menores foram mais afetadas que as mais velhas, havendo aumento dos danos à medida que as doses eram aumentadas.Cotton agribusiness is a very important economic activity in Brazil, occupying a prominent position in the productive process of the state of Mato Grosso. For cotton crop to express its maximum productive potential, it is necessary to adopt handling techniques and agronomic practices seeking the control of weeds. For farming to stay clean and free from weed competition, chemical control is the most frequently used method. The herbicides registered for cotton crop should be applied when the culture is established in driven jet. The contact of products, such as oxyfluorfen, on the leaves may

  16. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  17. Agronomic and morphological performance of sorghum (sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-03-30

    Mar 30, 2013 ... occasional frost limits growth and seed set of un- adapted cultivars (Arkel, 1979) making seed multiplication of un-adapted varieties unsuccessful. Previous studies have shown that sorghum cultivars adapted to high altitude, low rainfall areas. Journal of Applied Biosciences 63: 4720 – 4726. ISSN 1997– ...

  18. Characterization of QTL for unique agronomic traits of new-plant-type rice varieties using introgression lines of IR64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analiza G. Tagle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the yield potential of an elite indica rice cultivar, an introgression (BC3-derived line of IR64, YTH288, was developed using a new-plant-type cultivar, IR66215-44-2-3, as a donor parent. YTH288 has agronomically valuable characteristics such as large panicles, few unproductive tillers, and large leaves inherited from NPT. To identify the genetic basis of these traits, we used 167 F2 plants derived from a cross between IR64 and YTH288 to conduct QTL analysis for five agronomic traits: days to heading (DTH, culm length (CL, flag leaf length (FLL, flag leaf width (FLW, and filled spikelet number per panicle (FSN. Six putative QTL were detected: four on chromosome 4 (for CL, FLL, FLW, and FSN and two on chromosome 2 (for DTH and FLL. All QTL with the IR66215-44-2-3 allele, except that for FLL on chromosome 2, had positive effects on each trait. To confirm the effects of these putative QTL, we developed NILs with the IR64 genetic background by marker-assisted selection. We observed significant differences in several agronomic traits between IR64 and NILs that carried these QTL on chromosomes 2 and 4. Additionally, four IR64-NILs carrying chromosomal segments derived from different NPT varieties on the long arm of chromosome 4 exhibited similar pleiotropic effects for unique agronomic traits. These NILs can be used as research materials for studying each trait and as breeding materials for yield improvement of indica rice cultivars.

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Agronomic effectiveness of novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) uptake and dry matter yield of maize. The relative agronomic effectiveness of DPR partially acidulated with 50% of the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) required for complete acidulation, in increasing P uptake and dry matter yield was 60% and 75%, ...

  20. Disentangling agronomic and economic yield gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Michiel; Morley, Tomas; Jongeneel, Roel; Ittersum, van Martin; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in policy discussions on future agricultural production, both the concept of the yield gap and its determinants are understood differently by economists and agronomists. This study provides a micro-level framework that disentangles and integrates agronomic and economic

  1. Rice varietal screening: Relationship between certain Agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... between September 1994 and June 1996 to study the relationship between iron toxicity and some agronomic parameters, with the objective of improving the method of screening. Twenty eight varieties (treatments) were transplanted, 21 days after sowing, into adjacent iron toxic and non-toxic fields in Korhogo in northern ...

  2. Relationships and variability of agronomic and physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the variability, heritability and correlations among agronomic and physiological characters of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) and to identify their direct and indirect effects on seed yield. Fifty six mungbean accessions were evaluated at Suranaree University of Technology Farm ...

  3. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  4. Genetic divergence of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) group Carioca using morpho-agronomic traits by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Ceolin, Ana Cristina; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Soares Vidigal Filho, Pedro; Vinícius Kvitschal, Marcus; Gonela, Adriana; Alberto Scapim, Carlos

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among the common bean group Carioca by the Tocher method (based on Mahalanobis distance) and graphic dispersion of canonic variables, aiming to identify populations with wide genetic variability. Eighteen genotypes were evaluated in four seasons using a randomized block design with four replications. The mean weight of 100 seeds, in three experiments, and the mean number of pods per plant, in one experiment, were the most important characteristics for the genetic divergence, representing more than 46% of the total variation in the first canonic variable. The first two canonic variables were sufficient to explain about 88.23% of the total variation observed in the average of the four environments. The results showed that CNFC 8008 and CNFC 8009 genotypes presented the best yield averages in all the experiments. While Pérola, Princesa and CNFC 8005 cultivars were the most dissimilar for morpho-agronomic traits. Therefore, the combinations of PérolaxCNFC 8008, CNFC 8005xCNFC 8009, PérolaxCNFC 8009, PrincesaxCNFC 8008 and PrincesaxCNFC 8009 were indicated for interpopulational breeding.

  5. Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonal; Nawaz, Kashif; Parween, Sabiha; Roy, Riti; Sahu, Kamlesh; Kumar Pole, Anil; Khandal, Hitaishi; Srivastava, Rishi; Kumar Parida, Swarup; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2017-02-01

    Cicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  6. Evaluation of Different Triticale (X Triticosecale wittmack Genotypes for Agronomic and Qualitative Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ansari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Genetic variation is essential for the success of breeding programs and is vital to helping the genetic improvement of Triticale. Understanding patterns of genetic diversity in the Triticale and use of its genetic resources on a practical basis may help to establish appropriate procedures for breeding genetic materials. It can be used as a benchmark for classifying parenting lines and favorable heterotic groups in triticale. Triticale (X Triticosecale wittmack has considerable potential either as a grain crop or forage crop, but has received little attention from breeding programs in Iran. Materials and Methods This research was conducted to study the genetic diversity and the performance of triticale cultivars imported from Poland and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT using some agro-morphological traits. Forty one triticale genotypes were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. Agronomic characteristics comprising plant height (cm, length of the last node (cm, flag leaf length (cm, spike length (cm, thousand seed weight (g, the number of spike per m2, seed yield (tha-1, grain number per spike, number of spikelets per spike, harvest index, test weight (kg hectoliter, biological yield (ton ha-1, wet and dry gluten content (% were measured. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS statistical software. The multivariate analysis procedures used to analyze the collected data and to investigate relationships among variables. Mean comparison was conducted using LSD range test (at 5% level. The unweighted neighbour joining (UNJ cluster analysis was carried out using NT-SYS software. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed that genotypes were significantly different in all characters. The measured traits varied in coefficient of genotypic and phenotypic variation. The highest

  7. sativa L.) Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ten rice cultivars from the International Rice Germplasm Centre originating from Bangladesh were analysedfor the~r genetics of resistance to bacterial blight. The test cultivars were selected on the basis of their high level ofresistance to races IV & VI ofXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The mode ofinheri- tance was ...

  8. Characterization of a new GmFAD3A allele in Brazilian CS303TNKCA soybean cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Claudio Costa; Bueno, Rafael Delmond; da Matta, Loreta Buuda; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Scarpelli; Mayrink, Danyelle Barbosa; Piovesan, Newton Deniz; Sediyama, Carlos Sigueyuki; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Cardinal, Andrea J; Dal-Bianco, Maximiller

    2018-05-01

    We molecularly characterized a new mutation in the GmFAD3A gene associated with low linolenic content in the Brazilian soybean cultivar CS303TNKCA and developed a molecular marker to select this mutation. Soybean is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Soybean oil has 13% palmitic acid, 4% stearic acid, 20% oleic acid, 55% linoleic acid and 8% linolenic acid. Breeding programs are developing varieties with high oleic and low polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) to improve the oil oxidative stability and make the varieties more attractive for the soy industry. The main goal of this study was to characterize the low linoleic acid trait in CS303TNKCA cultivar. We sequenced CS303TNKCA GmFAD3A, GmFAD3B and GmFAD3C genes and identified an adenine point deletion in the GmFAD3A exon 5 (delA). This alteration creates a premature stop codon, leading to a truncated protein with just 207 residues that result in a non-functional enzyme. Analysis of enzymatic activity by heterologous expression in yeast support delA as the cause of low linolenic acid content in CS303TNKCA. Thus, we developed a TaqMan genotyping assay to associate delA with low linolenic acid content in segregating populations. Lines homozygous for delA had a linolenic acid content of 3.3 to 4.4%, and the variation at this locus accounted for 50.83 to 73.70% of the phenotypic variation. This molecular marker is a new tool to introgress the low linolenic acid trait into elite soybean cultivars and can be used to combine with high oleic trait markers to produce soybean with enhanced economic value. The advantage of using CS303TNKCA compared to other lines available in the literature is that this cultivar has good agronomic characteristics and is adapted to Brazilian conditions.

  9. Variation among chlorine concentration ratios for native and agronomic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.; Macdonald, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Variation among plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for important radionuclides requires attention because it is a major source of uncertainty in nuclear environmental safety assessments. For agronomic plants, variation among plant species is easy to deal with because there are relatively few species. In natural settings, there are vastly more species and the question becomes how to develop representative statistical distributions of CRs. Chlorine (Cl) is a good element with which to address this problem, because 36 Cl is a key radionuclide in nuclear waste disposal and yet stable Cl is easily measured in the environment. We measured CRs (dry weight basis) for Cl among edible parts of agronomic plants at one site, and found a geometric mean (GM) of 10, a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.9 and a range of 5-66. When the GM was weighted by the relative contributions of the various plants to the human diet, it rose to 16. Among native plants at five sites, each site representative of a specific environment, the GMs were 4.0-13 and the GSDs were 2.9-6.2. The CRs for individual species ranged from 0.8 to 170. However, when weighted by relative contributions of the plants to selected animal diets, the GMs were as high as 50. The conclusions are that: the variation in CR for agronomic plants is a subset of the variation among native or all plants, variation among species (the GSD) can be sixfold, and variation among species is large enough that typical diets of specific animals could expose them to several-fold higher amounts of Cl (or 36 Cl) than expected from generic CR values. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  11. The high-quality genome of Brassica napus cultivar 'ZS11' reveals the introgression history in semi-winter morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengming; Fan, Guangyi; Hu, Qiong; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Mei; Tong, Chaobo; Li, Jiana; Du, Dezhi; Qi, Cunkou; Jiang, Liangcai; Liu, Weiqing; Huang, Shunmou; Chen, Wenbin; Yu, Jingyin; Mei, Desheng; Meng, Jinling; Zeng, Peng; Shi, Jiaqin; Liu, Kede; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xinfa; Long, Yan; Liang, Xinming; Hu, Zhiyong; Huang, Guodong; Dong, Caihua; Zhang, He; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yaolei; Li, Liangwei; Shi, Chengcheng; Wang, Jiahao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Guan, Chunyun; Xu, Xun; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Xin; Chalhoub, Boulos; Hua, Wei; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-11-01

    Allotetraploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an agriculturally important crop. Cultivation and breeding of B. napus by humans has resulted in numerous genetically diverse morphotypes with optimized agronomic traits and ecophysiological adaptation. To further understand the genetic basis of diversification and adaptation, we report a draft genome of an Asian semi-winter oilseed rape cultivar 'ZS11' and its comprehensive genomic comparison with the genomes of the winter-type cultivar 'Darmor-bzh' as well as two progenitors. The integrated BAC-to-BAC and whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategies were effective in the assembly of repetitive regions (especially young long terminal repeats) and resulted in a high-quality genome assembly of B. napus 'ZS11'. Within a short evolutionary period (~6700 years ago), semi-winter-type 'ZS11' and the winter-type 'Darmor-bzh' maintained highly genomic collinearity. Even so, certain genetic differences were also detected in two morphotypes. Relative to 'Darmor-bzh', both two subgenomes of 'ZS11' are closely related to its progenitors, and the 'ZS11' genome harbored several specific segmental homoeologous exchanges (HEs). Furthermore, the semi-winter-type 'ZS11' underwent potential genomic introgressions with B. rapa (A r ). Some of these genetic differences were associated with key agronomic traits. A key gene of A03.FLC3 regulating vernalization-responsive flowering time in 'ZS11' was first experienced HE, and then underwent genomic introgression event with A r , which potentially has led to genetic differences in controlling vernalization in the semi-winter types. Our observations improved our understanding of the genetic diversity of different B. napus morphotypes and the cultivation history of semi-winter oilseed rape in Asia. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Expression patterns of ABA and GA metabolism genes and hormone levels during rice seed development and imbibition: a comparison of dormant and non-dormant rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Fang, Jun; Xu, Fan; Chu, Jinfang; Yan, Cunyu; Schläppi, Michael R; Wang, Youping; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-06-20

    Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait in cereals. Using deep dormant (N22), medium dormant (ZH11), and non-dormant (G46B) rice cultivars, we correlated seed dormancy phenotypes with abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism gene expression profiles and phytohormone levels during seed development and imbibition. A time course analysis of ABA and GA content during seed development showed that N22 had a high ABA level at early and middle seed developmental stages, while at late developmental stage it declined to the level of ZH11; however, its ABA/GA ratio maintained at a high level throughout seed development. By contrast, G46B had the lowest ABA content during seed development though at early developmental stage its ABA level was close to that of ZH11, and its ABA/GA ratio peaked at late developmental stage that was at the same level of ZH11. Compared with N22 and G46B, ZH11 had an even and medium ABA level during seed development and its ABA/GA ratio peaked at the middle developmental stage. Moreover, the seed development time-point having high ABA/GA ratio also had relatively high transcript levels for key genes in ABA and GA metabolism pathways across three cultivars. These indicated that the embryo-imposed dormancy has been induced before the late developmental stage and is determined by ABA/GA ratio. A similar analysis during seed imbibition showed that ABA was synthesized in different degrees for the three cultivars. In addition, water uptake assay for intact mature seeds suggested that water could permeate through husk barrier into seed embryo for all three cultivars; however, all three cultivars showed distinct colors by vanillin-staining indicative of the existence of flavans in their husks, which are dormancy inhibition compounds responsible for the husk-imposed dormancy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Stability of Durum Wheat Genotypes in Some Agronomic Traits Under Bursa Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Aydoğan Çiftçi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the study it is aimed to determine the stabilities of some agronomic traits of 10 different durum wheats over the years in conditions of Bursa. Research was carried out in randomized complete block design with three replications between the years of 2008-2013. Averages of genotypes of agronomic characteristics, Eberhart and Russell’s regression coefficient and deviation from regression, Francis and Kannenberg’s coefficient of variation and environmental variance used as stability parameters. When the results of the study evaluated at the stability analysis, Amb × Çak-30 lines were determined to be stable in most of the agronomic traits. As for grain yield, which is of great importance for the producer, breeding lines of Amb × Çak -26 and Amb × Çak-30 were determined in good harmony at Bursa under different climatic conditions over five years.

  14. Agronomic characters and lodging resistance of plant height mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonggui; Wu Yuejin; Liu Binmei; Xu Xue; Zhang Lili; Wang Min

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen plant height mutants of Nipponbare were used to study the effect of plant height on the agronomic characters and lodging resistance. The results indicated that the plant height was positively correlated with spike length, third internode length, height of gravity center, fresh weight of main stem, dry weight of main stem, thousand-grain weight, grain-yield per plant and biological yield, and the second internode length. Meanwhile, plant height played an important role in lodging resistance, it was significantly positively correlated with lodging index and negatively correlated with bending moment and culm type index. The correlation between agronomic characters and lodging resistance showed that several agronomic characters had strong impact on the lodging resistance, such as spike length, height of gravity center, basal internode length ( first and second internode), fresh and dry weight of main stem, dry weight of basal internode, seed setting, thousand-grain weight, grain-weight per plant and biological yield. (authors)

  15. The Effect of Different Storage Temperatures on the Agronomic Characteristics and Yield of Two Varieties of Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H Jalali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. is an autotetraploid (2n=4x=24 species and a key member of the Solanaceae family. Physiological age is usually be determined from potato tuber initiation and afterwards. Potato seed tubers physiological preparedness for growth is an important factor in determining the productive potential of the seed potatoes. Physiological age is considered as an internal biological clock that usually covers all aspects of the production while chronological age is determined only by the length of harvest and planting time (Gregory, 1985. In most cases, the current practice for storing potato tubers is to wound-heal seed-tubers at 10-15º C during the initial l0 days of storage (Curing and then reduce and maintain the temperature at a holding level of 4 ° C until planting while the technique of physiological aging of seed tubers, was not only one tuber storage temperature (4°C and then transferred to a higher temperature (similar natural germination conditions, but different thermal treatments during storage conditions is used in order to increase the physiological age. Some researchers argue that thermal storage is essential to obtain quantitative and qualitative performance which its value is higher than 250 GDD. The physiological age of seed tubers 900-600 GDD in some studies to increase performance by 90 percent and was associated uniformity producing tubers..In temperate regions with spring planting date, the short growing season and high summer temperature is considered as limiting factor for potato production. For this purpose the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different storage temperatures on the physiological age of seed and its effect on yield and earliness of two potato cultivars. Materials and Methods The Effects of six different thermal treatments storage in a three-month period, including two treatments of 440 degree- day (T1 and T2, two treatments of 880 degree-day (T3 and T4

  16. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MORA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93% confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003, vegetative growth (2000-2003 and alternate bearing differed signifi cantly among cultivars. Olive selection in intensively managed planting at the southern part of the Atacama Desert depends on matching specifi c cultivars to sites on which they perform the best.

  17. Embriogénesis somática y producción de callo embriogénico friable de dos cultivares de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Ochoa

    2012-07-01

    agronomic improvement of the crop. The genetic transformation of cassava was developed 15 years ago by producing friable embryogenic callus (FEC from somatic embryos as target tissue for transformation. In the present work we evaluated the induction of somatic embryos by using three different synthetic auxins and the production of FEC from both SG107-35 and BRA685 cassava cultivars; both are resistant to cassava bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, the most important bacterial disease affecting the crop. Our results showed that in both cultivars gave rise to somatic embryos in media containing Picloram at a concentration of 12 mg/l being more efficient than using 2,4-D or Dicamba. Additionally the cultivar BRA685 produced regenerative FEC giving rise to plants through somatic embryogenesis. However compared to the model cultivar 60444, FEC production was greatly lower. This work shows new efforts to increase the number of transformable cultivars of cassava and take advantage of the enormous genetic variability of the crop

  18. Evaluation of a miniaturized NIR spectrometer for cultivar identification: The case of barley, chickpea and sorghum in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Worku, Tigist

    2018-01-01

    Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated. Predictive multiclass models of 24 barley cultivars, 19 chickpea cultivars and 10 sorghum cultivars delivered an accuracy of 89%, 96% and 87% on hold-out sample. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) algorithms consistently outperformed other algorithms. Several cultivars, believed to be widely adopted in Ethiopia, were identified with perfect accuracy. These results advance the discussion on cultivar identification survey methods by demonstrating that miniaturized NIR spectrometers represent a low-cost, rapid and viable tool. We further discuss the potential utility of the method for adoption surveys, field-scale agronomic studies, socio-economic impact assessments and value chain quality control. Finally, we provide a free tool for R to easily carry out crop cultivar identification and measure uncertainty based on spectral data.

  19. Comparative Agronomic Performance and Reaction to Fusarium wilt of Lens culinaris × L. orientalis and L. culinaris × L. ervoides derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. Wild Lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. In the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris inter-sub-specific (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and interspecific (L. ervoides derivatives, also discussed its probable basis of occurrence. The F3, F4, and F5 inter sub-specific and interspecific populations of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30, respectively revealed a substantial range of variation for majority of agro-morphological traits as reflected by the range, mean and coefficient of variation. A high level of fruitful heterosis was also observed in F3 and F4 progeny for important traits of interest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV was higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV in all generations for several quantitative characters. The results showed high heritability estimates for majority of traits in conjunction with low to high genetic advance in F3 and F4 generations. Further, F5 progeny of ILL10829 × ILWL30, manifested resistant disease reaction for fifteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs against (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Vasd. Srin. Gord.. The multilocation agronomic evaluation of both crosses showed better results for earliness, desirable seed yield and Fusarium wilt resistance under two agro-ecological regions of north-western India. These better performing recombinants of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30 can be advanced for further genetic improvement and developing high yielding disease resistant cultivars of lentil.

  20. Século XXI: nova cultivar de goiabeira de dupla finalidade XXI Century: new cultivar of guava tree to double purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendes Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. é uma espécie que vem se tornando de grande importância em diversas regiões do Brasil, principalmente no Estado de São Paulo, maior produtor nacional. Desde 1985, a UNESP/FCAV, Câmpus de Jaboticabal, vem desenvolvendo um programa de melhoramento genético da goiabeira, com o objetivo de obter plantas com boas características agronômicas e com frutos que possam ser destinados tanto à industrialização quanto ao consumo na forma de fruta fresca. Partindo-se de 219 plantas, oriundas de diversos cruzamentos, e após dez anos de avaliação, chegou-se à cultivar Século XXI, cujas principais características são: planta muito produtiva com ciclo precoce (130 dias da floração à colheita, frutos grandes, com polpa espessa, róseo-avermelhada, ótimo sabor e com poucas e pequenas sementes.The guava tree (Psidium guajava, L. is a species that is coming into being of great importance in several areas of Brazil, mainly in State of São Paulo, its biggest national producer. Since 1985, the UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal Campus comes developing a program of breeding of guava tree, with the objective of obtaining plants with good agronomic characteristics and fruits that can be destined for industrialization and consumption as fresh fruit. From 219 plants originating from several crossing, and after ten years of evaluation, it has been obtained the XXI Century cultivar, which main characteristics are: a very productive plant with precocious cycle (130 days from the blossom to the harvest, big fruits with thick pulp, rosy-red, great flavor and with little and small seeds.

  1. Molecular characterisation of radish cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Michelly Cruz

    Full Text Available The radish has been gaining importance in the Brazilian market due to its use as a green manure and cover crop, and also due to its potential for the production of biodiesel, however there are only two registered cultivars, which are morphologically very similar. Determination of genetic purity is a prerequisite in marketing seeds as it ensures uniformity of the crop and is important in breeding programs. The aim of this work therefore was to evaluate the similarity and genotype patterns which permit differentiation of the commercial radish cultivars IPR 116 and CATI AL-1000. In order to do this, isoenzyme electrophoretic patterns were analysed in dry seeds, soaked seeds, seedling leaves and young leaves; the isoenzymes used being: superoxide dismutase, catalase, esterase, glutamate-oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Thirty-seven RAPD primers and 10 ISSR primers in leaves of the CATI AL-1000 and IPR-116 cultivars were analysed. Among the isoenzymes under study, the most polymorphic were glutamate oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase, esterase and superoxide dismutase, with the superoxide dismutase system giving the best characterisation for all stages of development. The catalase isoenzyme system did not make it possible to differentiate between cultivars at any stage of development, and isocitrate lyase was not revealed by the protocol used. In analysis of the markers, 27 RAPD primers and eight ISSR primers showed polymorphism. The results indicate that it is possible to determine reliable descriptors based on isoenzymes at different stages of development of the radish and with the use of RAPD and ISSR primers.

  2. Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Mondragon, M. G.; Calderon de la Barca, A. M.; Duran-Prado, A.; Campos-Reyes, L. C.; Oliart-Ros, R. M.; Ortega-Garcia, J.; Medina-Juarez, L. A.; Angulo, O.

    2009-07-01

    Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Diaz, NC-2 and Florunner) were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash), amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Diaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha). Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm. The main sterol present was A- sitosterol (approx. 65%). Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications. (Author) 40 refs.

  3. Glutenin composition, quality characteristics, and agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT Eleven cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum L. var. durum Desf.) ... Gluten strength was measured by the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation test. ... Significant genotypic differences were observed for grain yield, 1000 kernel weight, protein content, ... (Af Crop Sci J 2002 Vol 10 No 2 pp173-182).

  4. Agronomic and seed quality traits dissected by genome-wide association mapping in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eKörber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. % as well as require high experimental effort due to their quantitative inheritance and the importance of genotype*environment interaction. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 Brassica napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P-value 100 and a sequence identity of > 70 % to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations.

  5. Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Agronomic Iodine Biofortification: A SWOT-AHP Analysis in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olum, Solomon; Gellynck, Xavier; Okello, Collins; Webale, Dominic; Odongo, Walter; Ongeng, Duncan

    2018-01-01

    Agronomic biofortification (i.e., the application of fertilizer to elevate micronutrient concentrations in staple crops) is a recent strategy recommended for controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs). However, its success inevitably depends on stakeholders’ appreciation and acceptance of it. By taking Northern Uganda as a case, this study aimed to capture and compare the perceptions of seven key stakeholder groups with respect to agronomic iodine biofortification. Therefore, we employed a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis in combination with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Findings show that stakeholders (n = 56) are generally positive about agronomic iodine biofortification in Uganda, as its strengths and opportunities outweighed weaknesses and threats. Cultural acceptance and effectiveness are considered the most important strengths while the high IDD prevalence rate and the availability of iodine deficient soils are key opportunities for further developing agronomic iodine biofortification. Environmental concerns about synthetic fertilizers as well as the time needed to supply iodine were considered crucial weaknesses. The limited use of fertilizer in Uganda was the main threat. While this study provides insight into important issues and priorities for iodine biofortification technology in Uganda, including differences in stakeholder views, the application of the SWOT-AHP method will guide future researchers and health planners conducting stakeholder analysis in similar domains. PMID:29587370

  6. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Agronomic Iodine Biofortification: A SWOT-AHP Analysis in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olum, Solomon; Gellynck, Xavier; Okello, Collins; Webale, Dominic; Odongo, Walter; Ongeng, Duncan; De Steur, Hans

    2018-03-24

    Agronomic biofortification (i.e., the application of fertilizer to elevate micronutrient concentrations in staple crops) is a recent strategy recommended for controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs). However, its success inevitably depends on stakeholders' appreciation and acceptance of it. By taking Northern Uganda as a case, this study aimed to capture and compare the perceptions of seven key stakeholder groups with respect to agronomic iodine biofortification. Therefore, we employed a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis in combination with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Findings show that stakeholders ( n = 56) are generally positive about agronomic iodine biofortification in Uganda, as its strengths and opportunities outweighed weaknesses and threats. Cultural acceptance and effectiveness are considered the most important strengths while the high IDD prevalence rate and the availability of iodine deficient soils are key opportunities for further developing agronomic iodine biofortification. Environmental concerns about synthetic fertilizers as well as the time needed to supply iodine were considered crucial weaknesses. The limited use of fertilizer in Uganda was the main threat. While this study provides insight into important issues and priorities for iodine biofortification technology in Uganda, including differences in stakeholder views, the application of the SWOT-AHP method will guide future researchers and health planners conducting stakeholder analysis in similar domains.

  7. Canonical correlations between agronomic traits and seed physiological quality in segregating soybean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E M; Silva, F M; Val, B H P; Pizolato Neto, A; Mauro, A O; Martins, C C; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2017-04-13

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between agronomic traits and physiological traits of seeds in segregating soybean populations by canonical correlation analysis. Seven populations and two commercial cultivars in three generations were used: F 3 plants and F 4 seeds; F 4 plants and F 5 seeds, and F 4 seeds and plants. The following agronomic traits (group I) were evaluated: number of days to maturity, plant height at maturity, insertion height of first pod, number of pods, grain yield, and oil content. The physiological quality of seeds (group II) was evaluated using germination, accelerated aging, emergence, and emergence rate index tests. The results showed that agronomic traits and physiological traits of seeds are not independent. Intergroup associations were established by the first canonical pair for the generation of F 3 plants and F 4 seeds, especially between more productive plants with a larger pod number and high oil content and seeds with a high germination percentage and emergence rate. For the generation of F 4 plants and F 5 seeds, the first canonical pair indicated an association between reduced maturity cycle, seeds with a high emergence percentage and a high percentage of normal seedlings after accelerated aging. According to the second canonical pair, more productive and taller plants were associated with seed vigor. For the generation of F 4 seeds and plants, the associations established by the first canonical pair occurred between seed vigor and more productive plants with high oil content and reduced maturity cycle, and those established by the second canonical pair between seeds of high physiological quality and tall plants.

  8. (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars to soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl11

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... resistance of melon cultivars to three important soil-borne plant pathogens found worldwide. Key words: Melon ... use of cultivars resistant to plant diseases is one of the ..... emerging disease of melons worldwide. Plant Dis.

  9. Allelic Variations at Four Major Maturity E Genes and Transcriptional Abundance of the E1 Gene Are Associated with Flowering Time and Maturity of Soybean Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqiang; Chen, Xin; Ren, Haixiang; Yang, Jiayin; Cheng, Wen; Zong, Chunmei; Gu, Heping; Qiu, Hongmei; Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Xingzheng; Cui, Tingting; Xia, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    The time to flowering and maturity are ecologically and agronomically important traits for soybean landrace and cultivar adaptation. As a typical short-day crop, long day conditions in the high-latitude regions require soybean cultivars with photoperiod insensitivity that can mature before frost. Although the molecular basis of four major E loci (E1 to E4) have been deciphered, it is not quite clear whether, or to what degree, genetic variation and the expression level of the four E genes are associated with the time to flowering and maturity of soybean cultivars. In this study, we genotyped 180 cultivars at E1 to E4 genes, meanwhile, the time to flowering and maturity of those cultivars were investigated at six geographic locations in China from 2011 to 2012 and further confirmed in 2013. The percentages of recessive alleles at E1, E2, E3 and E4 loci were 38.34%, 84.45%, 36.33%, and 7.20%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that allelic variations at each of four loci had a significant effect on flowering time as well as maturity. We classified the 180 cultivars into eight genotypic groups based on allelic variations of the four major E loci. The genetic group of e1-nf representing dysfunctional alleles at the E1 locus flowered earliest in all the geographic locations. In contrast, cultivars in the E1E2E3E4 group originated from the southern areas flowered very late or did not flower before frost at high latitude locations. The transcriptional abundance of functional E1 gene was significantly associated with flowering time. However, the ranges of time to flowering and maturity were quite large within some genotypic groups, implying the presence of some other unknown genetic factors that are involved in control of flowering time or maturity. Known genes (e.g. E3 and E4) and other unknown factors may function, at least partially, through regulation of the expression of the E1 gene. PMID:24830458

  10. Genetic divergence in sesame based on morphological and agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Helena Castro Arriel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of diversity in germplasm collections is important for both plant breeders and germplasmcurators to optimize the use of the variability available. Diversity can be estimated by different genetic markers. The purposeof this study was to estimate the genetic divergence of 30 morphological and agronomic traits in 108 sesame genotypes bymultivariate analysis. The Cole-Rodgers index was used to establish the dissimilarity matrices. The principal componentanalysis identified the traits that contributed most to the divergence and the genotypes were clustered by Tocher’s optimization.Despite the narrow genetic basis, the markers were efficient to characterize the genotypes and identify the most similar groupsor duplicate and divergent genotypes. Greatest variation was found for the traits number of capsules per plant and grain yield.

  11. Physical mapping in highly heterozygous genomes: a physical contig map of the Pinot Noir grapevine cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurman Irena

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown today are those selected centuries ago, even though grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. Grapevine has therefore not benefited from the advances in modern plant breeding nor more recently from those in molecular genetics and genomics: genes controlling important agronomic traits are practically unknown. A physical map is essential to positionally clone such genes and instrumental in a genome sequencing project. Results We report on the first whole genome physical map of grapevine built using high information content fingerprinting of 49,104 BAC clones from the cultivar Pinot Noir. Pinot Noir, as most grape varieties, is highly heterozygous at the sequence level. This resulted in the two allelic haplotypes sometimes assembling into separate contigs that had to be accommodated in the map framework or in local expansions of contig maps. We performed computer simulations to assess the effects of increasing levels of sequence heterozygosity on BAC fingerprint assembly and showed that the experimental assembly results are in full agreement with the theoretical expectations, given the heterozygosity levels reported for grape. The map is anchored to a dense linkage map consisting of 994 markers. 436 contigs are anchored to the genetic map, covering 342 of the 475 Mb that make up the grape haploid genome. Conclusions We have developed a resource that makes it possible to access the grapevine genome, opening the way to a new era both in grape genetics and breeding and in wine making. The effects of heterozygosity on the assembly have been analyzed and characterized by using several complementary approaches which could be easily transferred to the study of other genomes which present the same features.

  12. Development of iron and zinc enriched mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars with agronomic traits in consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition in India, particularly among women, children and adolescents is an emergency that needs immediate attention in this fast growing and developing country. Micronutrient deficiencies are threatening public health in India more and more. Deficiencies of micronutrients drastically affect

  13. Effect of irrigation, intercrop and cultivar on agronomic and nutritional characteristics of quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of three irrigation regimes and three intercrop treatments on emergence, plant height, seed yield, protein and mineral concentration of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties. The experiment was carried out using a strip plot, randomized co...

  14. Development of iron and zinc enriched mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars with agronomic traits in consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition in India, particularly among women, children and adolescents is an emergency that needs immediate attention in this fast growing and developing country. Micronutrient deficiencies are threatening public health in India more and more. Deficiencies of micronutrients drastically affect growth, metabolism and reproductive phase in humans as it does in plants and animals. Cereal and pulse based Indian diets are qualitatively deficient in micronutrients such as iron, calcium, vitamin ...

  15. Agronomic performance of onion hybrids in Baraúna, in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Leandro Costa Nunes

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte, the significant planting of onions is relatively recent, with producers seeking alternative ways to reduce losses. As a result, it was aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of onion hybrids in the town of Baraúna in the semi-arid region of Rio Grande do Norte. The experimental design was of randomised blocks with six replications. Treatments consisted of eight hybrids (Cronus F1, Predilata F1, Serena F1, Fortaleza F1, Mata Hari, Luana, Lambada, Don Victor and a control cultivar (IPA 11. The following were evaluated: average plant height; average number of leaves; diameter of the pseudostem; productivity; average bulb weight; rate of survival; leaf-waxiness; cultivar cycle; commercial classification of the bulbs. The Serena F1 and Mata Hari cultivars are recommended for the northeast semi-arid region due to high productivity, early cycle and better bulb classification. The use of these cultivars may help, in the short term, to change cultivation of the onion in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

  16. Main agronomic traits and resistance to rice blast of space-induced mutant lines of Zhong-er-ruan-zhan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wuming; Wang Hui; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Qiyun; Zhu Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    The main agronomic traits and resistance to rice blast of 34 space-induced lines from an elite rice cultivar, Zhong-er-ruan-zhan were evaluated at their SP 4 . The resistance to blast of the mutant lines had been tested by two blast isolates previously. It was found that the mutant lines showed significant difference in plant height, effective panicles, panicle length and grains per panicle etc. from their parent. The range of variation in 1000-grain weight the largest, followed by the seed-setting rate, and that of effective panicles was the least among all the traits. Except for the line Z34, 33 mutant lines had broader resistance spectra than the wild-type based on the test with 38 different blast isolates, and all the 33 lines were also resistant to the panicle blast in the field. The result confirmed that selection for resistant to blast in lower generations was reliable. Taking account of agronomic traits and blast resistance, promising lines with resistance to blast and good agronomic characters could be selected from those mutant lines. Therefore, the elite rice germplasm with enhanced disease resistance can be produced. (authors)

  17. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  18. Agronomic performance of new open pollinated experimental lines of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) evaluated under organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Moehring, Jens; Zikeli, Sabine; Fleck, Michael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2018-01-01

    In order to develop new open pollinating cultivars of broccoli for organic farming, two experiments were conducted during fall 2015 and spring 2016. This study was aimed at comparing the agronomic performance of eleven new open pollinating breeding lines of broccoli to introduce new lines and to test their seasonal suitability for organic farming. Field experiments were carried out at the organic research station Kleinhohenheim of the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart-Germany). Different agronomic traits total biomass fresh weight, head fresh weight, head diameter, hollow-stem, fresh weight harvest index and marketable yield were assessed together with commercial control cultivars. The data from both experiments were analyzed using a two-stage mixed model approach. In our study, genotype, growing season and their interaction had significant effects on most traits. Plants belonging to the fall growing season had bigger sizes in comparison to spring with significantly (pbroccoli heads. The low average minimum temperatures during the spring growing season lead to low biomass fresh weight but high fresh weight harvest index. Testing the seasonal suitability of all open pollinating lines showed that the considered fall season was better for broccoli production. However, the change in yield between the fall and the spring growing season was not significant for "Line 701" and "CHE-MIC". Considering the expression of different agronomic traits, "CHE-GRE-G", "Calinaro" and "CAN-SPB" performed the best in the fall growing season, and "CHE-GRE-G", "CHE-GRE-A", "CHE-BAL-A" and "CHE-MIC" and "Line 701" were best in the spring growing season, specifically due to the highest marketable yield and proportion of marketable heads.

  19. Agronomic performance of new open pollinated experimental lines of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica evaluated under organic farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Sahamishirazi

    Full Text Available In order to develop new open pollinating cultivars of broccoli for organic farming, two experiments were conducted during fall 2015 and spring 2016. This study was aimed at comparing the agronomic performance of eleven new open pollinating breeding lines of broccoli to introduce new lines and to test their seasonal suitability for organic farming. Field experiments were carried out at the organic research station Kleinhohenheim of the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart-Germany. Different agronomic traits total biomass fresh weight, head fresh weight, head diameter, hollow-stem, fresh weight harvest index and marketable yield were assessed together with commercial control cultivars. The data from both experiments were analyzed using a two-stage mixed model approach. In our study, genotype, growing season and their interaction had significant effects on most traits. Plants belonging to the fall growing season had bigger sizes in comparison to spring with significantly (p< 0.0001 higher biomass fresh weight. Some experimental lines had significant lower head fresh weight in spring in comparison to the fall season. The high temperature during the harvest period for the spring season affected the yield negatively through decreasing the firmness of broccoli heads. The low average minimum temperatures during the spring growing season lead to low biomass fresh weight but high fresh weight harvest index. Testing the seasonal suitability of all open pollinating lines showed that the considered fall season was better for broccoli production. However, the change in yield between the fall and the spring growing season was not significant for "Line 701" and "CHE-MIC". Considering the expression of different agronomic traits, "CHE-GRE-G", "Calinaro" and "CAN-SPB" performed the best in the fall growing season, and "CHE-GRE-G", "CHE-GRE-A", "CHE-BAL-A" and "CHE-MIC" and "Line 701" were best in the spring growing season, specifically due to the highest marketable

  20. Agronomic Evaluation of Bunching Onion in the Colombian Cundiboyacense High Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. Galeano Mendoza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L. is a strategic crop for Colombia due to its economic relevance within fresh and processed food markets, and therefore, there is a demand for high yielding genotypes adapted to specific regions. For this reason, after carrying out a clonal selection process including 62 genotypes, ten of these, including a regional control, were evaluated for six different traits in Boyacá (Colombia during 2012 and 2013. These traits were grouped into agronomic, yield, and processing categories. In general, these showed significant differences (p≤0.01 for genotypes, location, and genotypes × location interaction. Compared with the regional control and based on the multienvironmental analysis the genotypes Clone 30 and Clone 38 were the most promising new cultivars identified in this study. These two clones showed comparative advantages on earliness and yield, and they moreover showed some level of resistance to downy mildew and root rot, the most limiting diseases for Boyacá’s bunch onion farmers. Therefore, Clone 30 and Clone 38 were registered as new bunching onion cultivars for the Cundiboyacense High Plateau region under the names Corpoica Aquitania-1 and Corpoica Tota-1, respectively. Finally, further approaches and initiatives on bunching onion breeding are discussed.

  1. Variations and Transmission of QTL Alleles for Yield and Fiber Qualities in Upland Cotton Cultivars Developed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

  2. Traditional versus modern apple cultivars – a comparison of juice composition

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolska-Iwanek Justyna; Gąstoł Maciej; Adamska Agnieszka; Krośniak Mirosław; Zagrodzki Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Apples are rich in components that are important for human health, such as polyphenols, organic acids and microelements, but their chemical composition varies with different apple cultivars. We aimed to find out if there is any superiority in traditionally grown apple cultivars in terms of their fruits’ bioactive components content. Juice from two traditionally grown apple cultivars, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’, was compared to eight popular apple cultivars, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagold Decosta...

  3. Genetic studies on two soybean cultivars irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Demerdash, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of gamma irradiation was used in two Egyptian soybean cultivars; Giza-22 and Giza-82, to induce genetic variability with doses of 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Some agronomic characters were tested in M1 and M2 generations single plants. Oil and protein contents were measured from the resulted mutants of the two soybean cultivars at M2 generation. Some genetic parameters were estimated on the mean values of M2 generation. The results showed significant differences induced by gamma ray doses in all studied characters, particularly for 200 Gy in M1 generation. Gamma irradiation increased the genetic variability in M2 generation, which helped in selecting some high yielding mutants and some mutants with high oil and protein contents from the two cultivars. The estimated coefficients of phenotypic variance as well as coefficient of genotypic variance were high for seeds weight/plant, pod weight/plant, number of seeds/plant, number of pods/plant and number of nods/plant which showed better scope in genetic improvement. Heritability in the broad sense was high in most of the studied characters. The expected genetic advance (G.A) from selection was high for number of seeds, for number of pods, for pods weight and for mature plant height

  4. UTILIZACION DE ISOENZIMAS DE EXTRACTOS DE HOJAS EN LA CARACTERIZACION DE CULTIVARES DE DURAZNERO (Prunus persica (L Batsch THE USE OF ISOZYME LEAF EXTRACTS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PEACH CULTIVARS (Prunus persica L Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ABEL ALTUBE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L Batsch se hace por medio de la descripción de caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos codificados por organizaciones internacionales, los cuales están fuertemente influenciados por el ambiente. Se han buscado métodos alternativos de caracterización y las isoenzimas han sido utilizadas por su independencia de las condiciones del ambiente, además de identificar individuos en etapas tempranas de su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar cultivares de duraznero mediante el análisis isoenzimático de catecol oxidasas, fosfatasas ácidas, esterazas y peroxidazos en extractos de hojas. Los cultivares de duraznero analizados presentaron bajo polimorfismo isoenzimático, las esterazas caracterizaron diez cultivares, las catecol oxidasas un cultivar agrupándose el resto en cinco modelos, las fosfatasas ácidas caracterizaron dos cultivares agrupándose los otros en siete modelos y las peroxidazos formaron tres grupos. Ello puede explicarse ya que el duraznero es una especie autofértil y presenta una base genética muy reducida. Los evidentes límites discriminatorios de este tipo de análisis hacen que su aporte sea sólo complementario a los métodos de los caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos.Characterization of peach cultivars (Prunus persica (L Batsh was made by description of agronomical and morphological characters codified from international organizations, which are strongly affected by environmental conditions. Alternative methods of characterization have been searched, and isoenzymes have been used as independent of environmental conditions in addition to identify some individuals in early stages of development. The goal of this study is the peach cultivars characterization by isoenzymatic analysis of catecol oxidases, acid phosphatases, esterases and peroxidases within the leaf extracts. The peach cultivars analyzed have showed low isoenzymatic

  5. Field performance of maize (Zea mays L. cultivars under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in 2014 at the Research Farm of the University of Tabriz, Iran. The experiment was arranged as split plot on the basis of randomized complete block with three replicates to assess the effects of four irrigation intervals (irrigations after 60, 80, 100 and 120 mm evaporation on physiological and agronomical traits of three cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.; ‘SC704’, ‘NS640’, ‘DC303’: late, mid and early maturing, respectively. Irrigation intervals and maize cultivars were assigned to the main and sub-plots, respectively. Leaf temperature of all maize cultivars significantly increased, but chlorophyll content index, maximum efficiency of photosystem II, number of grains per plant, 1000 grain mass, plant biomass, grain yield and harvest index significantly decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Late maturing cultivar (‘SC704’ was superior in all studied traits, followed by mid (‘NS640’ and early (‘DC303’ maturing cultivars. It was concluded that water limitation can potentially reduce performance of maize cultivars in the field, but the extent of this reduction depends on genotype and severity of stress.

  6. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cytogenetic, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F3 generations of a wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica intergeneric cross. Their agronomic traits were evaluated in the field and their meiotic behaviors and chromosome composition were analyzed by cytogenetic and GISH (genomic in situ ...

  8. Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and physiological parameters and profitability of some rapid metabolic class clones of rubber tree ( Hevea brasiliensis ) in southwestern Côte d'Ivoire.

  9. Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) were evaluated on research stations and in farmers\\' fields in Ghana from 1995 to 1996.

  10. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and their maternal parents. ... doubled haploid; genetic analysis; gene interaction; agronomic traits; seed ..... Han J. Q. and Liu H. L. 1993 Principal component analysis for main.

  11. agronomic qualities of genetic pyramids of common bean developed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    DEVELOPED FOR MULTIPLE-DISEASE-RESISTANCE. D. OKII , P. ... Agronomic traits were highly heritable (0.6), except number of pods per plant (< 0.3). Backcrossing generated ... crop varieties, to protect them from new emerging pathogen.

  12. Integrating Agronomic Principles with Management Experience in Introductory Agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorst, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Explains the use of a cropping systems project to teach agronomic principles and crop management techniques, and to enhance communication skills. Provides a sample progress report instructions sheet which was used for the project. (Author/RT)

  13. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

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    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  14. Effects of Site and Cultivar on Consumer Acceptance of Pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, John M; Merhaut, Donald J; Jia, Zhenyu; Arpaia, Mary Lu; Mauk, Peggy A; Preece, John E

    2018-05-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit in many cultures. The fruit and juice have risen in popularity as it was discovered that pomegranate has relatively high antioxidant activity compared to most other fruits. In this study, six cultivars were utilized to determine consumer acceptance compared to the industry standard, 'Wonderful,' which comprises 90% to 95% of commercial production in the United States. Fruit were sourced from 2 cultivar field trials, one in inland Riverside, California, and one in coastal Ventura County, California. Cultivars selected for the study included 'Eversweet,' 'Green Globe,' 'Haku Botan,' 'Loffani,' 'Phoenicia,' 'Wonderful,' and 'cv. 857,' an heirloom cultivar from Ventura County, CA, U.S.A. Pomegranate arils were subject to sensory evaluation by 87 untrained consumer panelists in late 2016. Panelists were given pomegranate arils and asked to score the samples using a 9-point Hedonic scale for the following fruit quality traits: aril color, sweetness, tartness, seed hardness, bitterness, and overall desirability. There were significant differences among cultivars for all traits assessed by the sensory panelists. There were differences in acceptance among consumers for 'Wonderful' depending on if it was grown on the coast versus inland, and consumers preferred inland- versus coastal-grown 'Wonderful.' 'Wonderful' pomegranate was associated with cultivars that consumers scored low on desirability for bitterness. Cultivars that scored well in overall desirability compared with 'Wonderful' were 'cv. 857,' 'Eversweet,' 'Green Globe,' and 'Phoenicia.' Consumer sensory panels are important to determine scientifically which cultivars are desired by the public. These panels allowed for the determination of which pomegranate cultivars are liked or disliked by consumers and why. If the pomegranate growers know the most desirable cultivars for consumers, they are more likely to adopt and plant them, thus potentially increasing the

  15. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  16. Identification of differentially expressed genes between developing seeds of different soybean cultivars

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    Rongshuang Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of protein and oil and a primary feedstock for biodiesel production. Research on soybean seed composition and yield has revealed that protein, oil and yield are controlled quantitatively and quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for each of these traits. However, very limited information is available regarding the genetic mechanisms controlling seed composition and yield. To help address this deficiency, we used Affymetrix Soybean GeneChips® to identify genes that are differentially expressed between developing seeds of the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars, which differ in seed weight, yield, protein content and oil content. A total of 700 probe sets were found to be expressed at significantly different (defined as having an adjusted p-value below or equal to 0.05 and an at least 2-fold difference levels between the two cultivars at one or more of the three developmental stages and in at least one of the two years assayed. Comparison of data from soybeans collected in two different years revealed that 97 probe sets were expressed at significantly different levels in both years. Functional annotations were assigned to 78% of these 97 probe sets based on the SoyBase Affymetrix™ GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array Annotation. Genes involved in receptor binding/activity and protein binding are overrepresented among the group of 97 probe sets that were differentially expressed in both years assayed. Probe sets involved in growth/development, signal transduction, transcription, defense/stress response and protein and lipid metabolism were also identified among the 97 probe sets and their possible implications in the regulation of agronomic traits are discussed. As the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars differ with respect to seed size, yield, protein content and lipid content, some of the differentially expressed probe sets identified in this study may thus play important roles in controlling these traits

  17. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

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    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  18. LC-MS phenolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis as an approach for the characterization of extra virgin olive oils of four rare Tunisian cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Kelebek, Hasim; Ammar, Sonda; Abichou, Mounir; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-08-15

    In this work, the phenolic composition of four rare cultivars grown under the same agronomical and environmental conditions was studied. This is to test the effects of cultivars and ripening index essentially on phenolic composition in olive oils as well as tocopherols composition, organoleptic profiling and oxidative properties. Furthermore, some agronomical traits were determined in which a general increase in the size of the fruit and oil contents were recorded for all cultivars. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). A total of 13 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were determined. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were observed among cultivars and also among sampling times. On the contrary to the agronomical traits, a general decrease (pphenolic compounds was observed during maturation. Likewise, a decrease in tocopherols concentrations and oxidative properties was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Agronomic Trait Variations and Ploidy Differentiation of Kiwiberries in Northwest China: Implication for Breeding

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    Ying Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyploid plants often have higher biomass and superior crop qualities. Breeders therefore search for crop germplasm with higher ploidy levels; however, whether higher ploidy levels are associated with better performance remains unclear. Actinidia arguta and related species, whose commercialized fruit are referred to as kiwiberries, harbor a series of ploidy races in nature, offering an opportunity to determine the link between ploidy levels and agronomic traits. In the present study, we determined the ploidy levels of A. arguta var. arguta, A. arguta var. giraldii, and A. melanandra in 16 natural populations using flow cytometry, and examined 31 trait variations in fruits, leaves and flowers by field observations, microscopic examination and laboratory analyses. Our results showed that octaploid and decaploid A. arguta var. giraldii had larger dimension of leaves than tetraploid A. arguta var. arguta and A. melanandra, but their fruits were significantly smaller. In addition, A. arguta var. giraldii (8x and 10x had higher contents of nutrients such as ascorbic acid and amino acids; however, some important agronomic traits, including the content of total sugar and total acid, were significantly lower in the octaploids and decaploids. Moreover, octaploids and decaploids did not result in greater ecological adaptability for the challenging environments and climates. In conclusion, the differentiation of ecological adaptability and traits among natural kiwiberries' cytotypes suggested that higher ploidy levels are not inevitably advantageous in plants. The findings of A. arguta and related taxa in geographical distribution and agronomic trait variations will facilitate their germplasm domestication.

  20. Breeders’ work after cultivar development - the stage of recommendation

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    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new cultivars is the ultimate goal of breeding programs and is the result of many years of hard work and dedication of breeders and their teams. An important part of the process, often neglected by geneticists, is the stage from recommendation to the production of breeder seed (post-breeding. This paper discusses the role of the breeder in the recommendation, registration, protection and marketing of new cultivars. The breeder’s active participation in all phases of post-breeding is fundamental to ensure that the cultivar reaches farmers quickly and can provide the benefits expected by society

  1. Performance of super hybrid rice cultivars grown under no-tillage and direct seeding

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    Min Huang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Good progress has been made in the super hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. breeding in China. However, rice yield not only depends on the genetic characteristics but also on the agronomic practices. No-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS is a simplified cultivation technology that greatly simplifies both land preparation and crop establishment. Aiming to determine the grain yield performance of super hybrid rice under NTDS and to identify critical factors that determine grain yield, field experiments were conducted in Nanxian, Hunan Province, China in 2009 and 2010. Two super hybrid cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 1, were grown under conventional tillage and transplanting (CTTP and NTDS. Grain yield, yield components, biomass production, crop growth rate and biomass accumulation during sowing to heading (HD and HD to maturity were measured for each cultivar. There was no difference in grain yield under NTDS and CTTP. However, grain yield differed with cultivar and year. Y-liangyou 1 produced 4 % higher grain yield than Liangyoupeijiu in 2009, whereas in 2010 both cultivars yielded similarly. Grain yields of both cultivars were higher in 2009 than in 2010. Higher grain yield of Y-liangyou 1 in 2009 was associated with higher spikelet filling (spikelet filling percentage and grain weight, which resulted from higher biomass production. Crop growth rate after HD was critical for biomass production by the super hybrid rice. We suggest that increasing the crop growth rate after HD is an effective approach to increase grain yield of super hybrid rice under NTDS.

  2. Biochemical and physiological characterization of three rice cultivars under different daytime temperature conditions

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    Alefsi David Sanchez-Reinoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress due to high daytime temperatures is one of the main limiting factors in rice (Oryza sativa L. yield in Colombia. Thus, the objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of three different daytime temperatures (25, 35, and 40 °C on the physiological responses of three Colombian rice cultivars (F60, F733, and F473, thereby contributing to the knowledge of rice acclimation mechanisms. For 10 d, eight plants of each of the three cultivars were subjected daily to 5 h periods of 35 and 40 °C. The control treatment corresponded to normal growth conditions (25 °C. Thermal stress was assessed based on a series of physiological and biochemical parameters. The 35 °C treatment produced photosynthetic and respiratory differences in all three cultivars. At 40 °C, 'F60' displayed the lowest photosynthetic rate and the highest respiratory rate. Although this cultivar experienced particularly strong electrolyte leakage and changes in proline when subjected to the high-temperature treatments, similar trends were observed in 'F733' and 'F473'. At 40 °C, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA was lower in 'F473' than in the other cultivars. These results may explain the poor agronomic performance of 'F60' in the field under daytime heat stress. The methodologies employed in the present work may be useful in Colombian rice breeding programs, particularly for the selection of heat-tolerant breeding stocks.

  3. RESPOSTA DE DUAS CULTIVARES DE ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS EM CONVIVÊNCIA COM Brachiaria brizantha

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    Abdias Alves De Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate to the sowing time of the Brachiaria brizantha forage intercrop with two upland rice cultivars on the agronomics characteristics of both species. It was used randomized blocks in experimental design arranged in factorial scheme 2x2+4, with four replicates. The first factor was constituted by the upland rice cultivars (BRS Primavera e BRSMG Curinga and the second factor by two sowing times of B. brizantha forage (simultaneous sowing between rice and forage and sowing of the forage in the flowering of the rice. The additional treatments consisted of the sole crops upland rice cultivars and B. brizantha forage for each sowing time. In rice was evaluated the height of the plants, bedding, difficulty of the harvest, the number of panicles per area, grain per panicles, percentage of full and empty grains, 100-grain mass and grain yield. In the B. brizantha forage was evaluated the height of the tillers, the total dry mass and the rate of cultural growth. It was observed that the B. brizantha forage interfered in the productivity components of both upland rice cultivars and difficult significantly the harvest of the rice. The upland rice cultivars showed small competitive capacity with the B. brizantha forage when the establishment of the forage occurred simultaneously to the rice. However, to the measure that the sowing was occurred with the established rice already, the B. brizantha forage had his growth suppressed.

  4. Grain yield of soybean cultivars using different densities and sowing dates in a high-altitude region of south Brazil

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    Vitor Spader

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the performance of soybean cultivars at different sowing dates and plant densities. Two experiments were carried out at FAPA (Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária [Agrarian Foundation for Agricultural and Cattle Research], located at 25?33’ S latitude, 51?29’ W longitude and with 1.100 meters of altitude in Guarapuava, PR [Paraná], Brazil, in two agricultural harvests (2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The experimental design was in randomized blocks and split plots, in which the sowing dates (10/20, 11/18 and 12/10 were allocated by plot, the densities (250, 350 and 450 thousand plants ha-1 by subplot and the cultivars (BMX Energia, BMX Apolo, BMX Ativa, FPS Júpiter, V_Top, NS 6631, TMG 7161 and BRS Tordilha by sub-subplot. The agronomic characteristics, grain yield and yield components were evaluated. Sowing dates and plant densities affected the agronomic characteristics, grain yield and yield components of soybean. The best sowing dates for lodging-tolerant cultivars are 10/20 and 11/18, and the best densities are 350 and 450 thousand plants ha-1, while lodging-susceptible cultivars respond best for sowing dates of 11/18 and 12/10 and densities from 250 to 350 thousand plants ha-1.

  5. A Chromosome Segment Substitution Library of Weedy Rice for Genetic Dissection of Complex Agronomic and Domestication Traits.

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    Prasanta K Subudhi

    Full Text Available Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs are a powerful alternative for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL, analyzing gene interactions, and providing starting materials for map-based cloning projects. We report the development and characterization of a CSSL library of a U.S. weedy rice accession 'PSRR-1' with genome-wide coverage in an adapted rice cultivar 'Bengal' background. The majority of the CSSLs carried a single defined weedy rice segment with an average introgression segment of 2.8 % of the donor genome. QTL mapping results for several agronomic and domestication traits from the CSSL population were compared with those obtained from two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations involving the same weedy rice accession. There was congruence of major effect QTLs between both types of populations, but new and additional QTLs were detected in the CSSL population. Although, three major effect QTLs for plant height were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, and 8 in the CSSL population, the latter two escaped detection in both RIL populations. Since this was observed for many traits, epistasis may play a major role for the phenotypic variation observed in weedy rice. High levels of shattering and seed dormancy in weedy rice might result from an accumulation of many small effect QTLs. Several CSSLs with desirable agronomic traits (e.g. longer panicles, longer grains, and higher seed weight identified in this study could be useful for rice breeding. Since weedy rice is a reservoir of genes for many weedy and agronomic attributes, the CSSL library will serve as a valuable resource to discover latent genetic diversity for improving crop productivity and understanding the plant domestication process through cloning and characterization of the underlying genes.

  6. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

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    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  7. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

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    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  8. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Junli; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi

    2006-11-01

    Large areas of contaminated land are being used for agricultural production in some countries due to the high demand for food. To minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain through consumption of agricultural products, we propose the concept of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), i.e. cultivars whose edible parts accumulate a specific pollutant at a level low enough for safe consumption, even when grown in contaminated soil. We tested the feasibility of the PSC concept by growing 43 cultivars of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., including 20 normal and 23 hybrid cultivars) under a high (75.69-77.55 mg kg(-1)) and a low (1.75-1.85 mg kg(-1)) cadmium (Cd) exposure. These pot experiments took place in the spring and summer of 2004. At the low level of Cd exposure, 30 out of the 43 tested cultivars were found to be Cd-PSCs. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated (price grain is genotype-dependent and that the selection of PSCs is possible, at least at a certain level of soil contamination. No Cd-PSCs were found under the high level of Cd exposure. Yield was enhanced in some cultivars and depressed in others in response to elevated soil Cd, indicating that farmers cannot rely on yield depression as an indicator of toxicity of the grains. It is therefore important and feasible to screen for PSCs and to establish PSC breeding programs to effectively and efficiently reduce the risk of human exposure to soil pollutants, such as Cd, through crop consumption.

  9. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Although elevated ground-level O 3 has a species–specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O 3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O 3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O 3 -tolerant (YD6) and the O 3 -sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O 3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O 3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O 3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O 3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - Highlights: • We investigated the soil biota in two rice cultivars in presence of elevated O 3 . • The contrasting responses of soil biota were found between two rice cultivars. • Some keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution. • The crop cultivar is important in determining soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - The crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3

  11. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was

  12. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, de T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in

  13. Effect of Different Nitrogen Levels on Phenology, Growth Indices and Yield of two Lentil Cultivars under Rainfed Conditions in Mashhad

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    M Bannayan Aval

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lentil (Lens Culinarris Medik. is an important pulse crop in Iran and is usually grown in rainfed areas. The average lentil yield in Iran is 1195 and 476 Kg.ha-1 in irrigated and rainfed farms, respectively. Low productivity occurs due to different factors. One of these factors is poor agronomic management practices that applied by the farmers, e.g. Limitation or inappropriate fertilizer distribution. Plant development occurs in a number of consecutive phases. These phases can be affected by temperature, moisture, photoperiod, cultivar and other factors. The amount of available nitrogen affects the distribution of assimilates between vegetative and reproductive organs and phenological stages of growth. Therefore, analysis of growth indices and its effective factors can be used as a suitable tool in evaluating the yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen levels on phenology and growth indices of two lentil cultivars in rainfed conditions of Mashhad. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted as split plot layout based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growth season 2016. Nitrogen fertilizer as urea (in three levels i.e. 0, 40 and 80 kg.ha-1 and cultivar (in two levels i.e. Birjand and Robat were in main plots and sub plots, respectively. To determine the leaf area and dry matter, sampling was done every two weeks during the growing season. Phenological stages timing for each plot were determined based on 50% of emergence, 50% of flowering, 50% of maturity. Final yield was estimated from three square meter from each plot. Data were analyzed with the SAS software; the means were compared with Duncan's multiple range tests at the 5% level of probability. The graphs were prepared by SigmaPlot software. Results and Discussion The results showed that the effect of urea fertilizer was

  14. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

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    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  15. Genetic variation and correlation of agronomic traits in meadow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehm clones

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    Araújo Marcelo Renato Alves de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meadow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehm. is a recently introduced pasture grass in western Canada. Its leafy production and rapid regrowth have made it a major grass species for pasturing beef animals in this region. As relatively little breeding work has been done on this species, there is little information on its breeding behaviour. The main objective of this study was to estimate total genetic variability, broad-sense heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlations. Forty-four meadow bromegrass clones were evaluated for agronomic characters. Genetic variation for dry matter yield, seed yield, fertility index, harvest index, plant height, plant spread, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, was significant. Broad-sense heritability estimates exceeded 50% for all characters. Heritability estimates were at least 3.5 times greater than their standard errors. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between all possible characters were measured. There was general agreement in both sign and magnitude between genetic and phenotypic correlations. Correlations between the different characters demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously improve seed and forage yield. Based on the results, it appears that the development of higher yielding cultivars with higher crude protein, and lower acid and neutral detergent fibers concentration should be possible.

  16. Agronomic, Energetic and Environmental Aspects of Biomass Energy Crops Suitable for Italian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore L. Cosentino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The review, after a short introduction on the tendencies of the European Community Policy on biomasses, describes the agronomic, energy potential and environmental aspects of biomass crops for energy in relation to the research activity carried out in Italy on this topic, differentiating crops on the basis of the main energy use: biodiesel and bioethanol (which refers to “first generation biofuel”, heat and electricity. Currently, many of the crops for potential energy purposes are food crops (wheat, barley, corn, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, grain sorghum, sugar beet and their production may be used as biofuel source (bioethanol and biodiesel since their crop management aspects are well known and consequently they are immediately applicable. Other species that could be used, highly productive in biomass, such as herbaceous perennial crops (Arundo donax, Miscanthus spp., cardoon, annual crops (sweet sorghum, short rotation woody crops (SRF have been carefully considered in Italy, but they still exhibit critical aspects related to propagation technique, low-input response, harvest and storage technique, cultivars and mechanization. Crops for food, however, often have negative energetic indices and environmental impacts (carbon sequestration, Life Cycle Assessment, consequent to their low productivity. Conversely, crops which are more productive in biomass, show both a more favourable energy balance and environmental impact.

  17. Agronomic, Energetic and Environmental Aspects of Biomass Energy Crops Suitable for Italian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina M. D’Agosta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The review, after a short introduction on the tendencies of the European Community Policy on biomasses, describes the agronomic, energy potential and environmental aspects of biomass crops for energy in relation to the research activity carried out in Italy on this topic, differentiating crops on the basis of the main energy use: biodiesel and bioethanol (which refers to “first generation biofuel”, heat and electricity. Currently, many of the crops for potential energy purposes are food crops (wheat, barley, corn, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, grain sorghum, sugar beet and their production may be used as biofuel source (bioethanol and biodiesel since their crop management aspects are well known and consequently they are immediately applicable. Other species that could be used, highly productive in biomass, such as herbaceous perennial crops (Arundo donax, Miscanthus spp., cardoon, annual crops (sweet sorghum, short rotation woody crops (SRF have been carefully considered in Italy, but they still exhibit critical aspects related to propagation technique, low-input response, harvest and storage technique, cultivars and mechanization. Crops for food, however, often have negative energetic indices and environmental impacts (carbon sequestration, Life Cycle Assessment, consequent to their low productivity. Conversely, crops which are more productive in biomass, show both a more favourable energy balance and environmental impact.

  18. Common bean genotypes for agronomic and market-related traits in VCU trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernando Chiorato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU trials are undertaken when evaluating improved common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. lines, and knowledge of agronomic and market-related traits and disease reaction is instrumental in making cultivar recommendations. This study evaluates the yield, cooking time, grain color and reaction to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli and Curtobacterium wilt (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens of 25 common bean genotypes derived from the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Seventeen VCU trials were carried out in the rainy season, dry season and winter season from 2009 to 2011 in the state of São Paulo. Analyses of grain color and cooking time were initiated 60 days after harvest, and disease reaction analyses were performed in the laboratory under controlled conditions. In terms of yield, no genotype superior to the controls was observed for any of the seasons under consideration. Grains from the dry season exhibited better color, while the rainy season led to the shortest cooking times. The following genotypes BRS Esteio, BRS Esplendor and IAC Imperador were resistant to anthracnose, Fusarium wilt and Curtobacterium wilt and, in general, genotypes with lighter-colored grains were more susceptible to anthracnose and Fusarium wilt.

  19. Agronomic performance and soil chemical attributes in a banana tree orchard fertigated with humic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Magalhães de Melo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertigation with humic substances products has been adopted in commercial banana tree plantations. However, there are few studies on the procedure to confirm its technical feasibility. This study aimed at assessing the effects of fertigation with humic substances on the chemical attributes of a Dystric Densic Xantic Ferralsol cultivated with the 'BRS Princesa' banana tree cultivar and on the agronomic performance of the orchard. The experiment was conducted using a randomized blocks design, with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of a monthly application of humic substances doses based on the commercially recommended reference dose for the banana plantation (12.09 kg ha-1 cycle-1. The doses used were equivalent to percentages of the reference dose (100 %, 150 %, 200 %, 250 % and 300 %, in addition to the control. No significant effects of the fertigation with humic substances that could justify the use of the product at the doses assessed were observed on the soil chemical attributes, banana growth and yield.

  20. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Koeijer, de, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in the transition towards more sustainable production systems. Agronomic efficiency measures the technical performance. If it could be improved, environmental damage could be reduced while, at the sam...

  1. Combining ability for maize grain yield and other agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons with the objective to evaluate the combining ability for maize grain yield and other agronomic characters in 10 open pollinated maize varieties, which have been selected for high yield and stress ...

  2. Agronomic potential of mineral concentrate from processed manure as fertiliser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Hoeksma, P.; Schröder, J.J.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Geel, van W.C.A.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Holshof, G.; Klop, G.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Processing of manure intends to increase the use efficiency of nutrients. A concentrated solution of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) (‘mineral concentrate’) is one of the possible products resulting from manure processing. A study is carried out in the Netherlands to determine the agronomic and

  3. Agronomic Performance and Bread Making Quality of Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty bread wheat lines selected on the basis of their average grain protein content and yield were evaluated for six agronomic and eight baking quality traits associated with bread-making quality. All the lines were grown in randomly complete block design at two locations in Eastern Oromia, Ethiopia; namely, Haramaya ...

  4. Farmers Agronomic Practice in Management of the Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed farmers' awareness of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) disease and their agronomic and disease management practices in the Efutu municipality, Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (KEEA), and Mfantseman districts which are leading tomato producing centres in the Central Region of Ghana.

  5. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely ...

  6. Screening of Gladiolus germplasm for agronomic performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic performance and resistance of Gladiolus germplasm against corm rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. gladioli (L. Masey) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans. Among the 23 Gladiolus varieties tested, Glad Red exhibited the highest spike length of 55 ...

  7. Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our understanding of some phenolic compounds in the last few decades has greatly improved. However, their biological, ecological and agronomical significance in the rhizosphere of most symbiotic legumes is much less clear. Further understanding of these biomolecules will increase our knowledge of their contribution in ...

  8. Correlation between agronomic and stem borer resistant traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... Resistant traits had negative correlations with most agronomic traits including grain yield. (GY). .... on a scale of 1-9 with 1 = clean plant without leaf defoliation and 9 .... Negative signs indicate direction of relationship. Table 3 ...

  9. agronomic performance of introduced banana varieties in lowlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of FHIA hybrids in lowlands of Rwanda. Completely ... L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer la performance agronomique de FHIA hybride ..... major Musa types present in Asia and the.

  10. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  11. Effects of fall and spring seeding date and other agronomic factors on infestations of root maggots, Delia spp. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Stevenson, F C

    2006-10-01

    Several agronomic benefits can result from fall seeding of canola (Brassica spp.), but extensive research data are lacking on the potential impact of this practice on infestations of root maggots (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), which are major pests of the crop in western Canada. Field experiments making up 13 location by year combinations were conducted in central Alberta, Canada, from 1998 to 2001 to determine the effect of fall versus spring seeding of canola on root maggot damage. Depending on the experiment, interactions with seeding rate, seed treatment, timing of weed removal, and canola species (cultivar) also were investigated. Root maggot damage declined with an increase in seeding rate for plots seeded in May but not in fall or April. Susceptibility to infestation was greater for plants of Brassica rapa L. than Brassica napus L., but seed treatment had no effect on damage by these pests. Combined analysis using data from all experiment by location by year combinations indicated that seeding date had no significant effect on root maggot damage. The extended emergence of Delia spp. adults, which spans the appearance of crop stages vulnerable to oviposition regardless of seeding date, prevented reduced root maggot attack. Covariance analysis demonstrated the importance of increasing seeding rate for reducing root maggot infestations, a practice that can be especially beneficial for May-seeded canola when growing conditions limit the ability of plants to compensate for root maggot damage. Results determined with the small plot studies described here should be validated in larger plots or on a commercial field scale, but both the combined and covariance analyses indicate that seeding canola in fall does not predispose plants to greater damage by larval root maggots than seeding in spring.

  12. QTL mapping of combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits in rice backcross recombinant inbred lines and hybrid crosses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combining ability effects are very effective genetic parameters in deciding the next phase of breeding programs. Although some breeding strategies on the basis of evaluating combining ability have been utilized extensively in hybrid breeding, little is known about the genetic basis of combining ability. Combining ability is a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes. With the advent and development of molecular markers, it is feasible to evaluate the genetic bases of combining ability and heterosis of elite rice hybrids through QTL analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we first developed a QTL-mapping method for dissecting combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits. With three testcross populations and a BCRIL population in rice, biometric and QTL analyses were conducted for ten agronomic traits. The significance of general combining ability and special combining ability for most of the traits indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive effects on expression levels. A large number of additive effect QTLs associated with performance per se of BCRIL and general combining ability, and dominant effect QTLs associated with special combining ability and heterosis were identified for the ten traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combining ability of agronomic traits could be analyzed by the QTL mapping method. The characteristics revealed by the QTLs for combining ability of agronomic traits were similar with those by multitudinous QTLs for agronomic traits with performance per se of BCRIL. Several QTLs (1-6 in this study were identified for each trait for combining ability. It demonstrated that some of the QTLs were pleiotropic or linked tightly with each other. The identification of QTLs responsible for combining ability and heterosis in the present study provides valuable information for dissecting genetic basis of combining ability.

  13. Properties of biochar derived from wood and high-nutrient biomasses with the aim of agronomic and environmental benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimena R Domingues

    Full Text Available Biochar production and use are part of the modern agenda to recycle wastes, and to retain nutrients, pollutants, and heavy metals in the soil and to offset some greenhouse gas emissions. Biochars from wood (eucalyptus sawdust, pine bark, sugarcane bagasse, and substances rich in nutrients (coffee husk, chicken manure produced at 350, 450 and 750°C were characterized to identify agronomic and environmental benefits, which may enhance soil quality. Biochars derived from wood and sugarcane have greater potential for improving C storage in tropical soils due to a higher aromatic character, high C concentration, low H/C ratio, and FTIR spectra features as compared to nutrient-rich biochars. The high ash content associated with alkaline chemical species such as KHCO3 and CaCO3, verified by XRD analysis, made chicken manure and coffee husk biochars potential liming agents for remediating acidic soils. High Ca and K contents in chicken manure and coffee husk biomass can significantly replace conventional sources of K (mostly imported in Brazil and Ca, suggesting a high agronomic value for these biochars. High-ash biochars, such as chicken manure and coffee husk, produced at low-temperatures (350 and 450°C exhibited high CEC values, which can be considered as a potential applicable material to increase nutrient retention in soil. Therefore, the agronomic value of the biochars in this study is predominantly regulated by the nutrient richness of the biomass, but an increase in pyrolysis temperature to 750°C can strongly decrease the adsorptive capacities of chicken manure and coffee husk biochars. A diagram of the agronomic potential and environmental benefits is presented, along with some guidelines to relate biochar properties with potential agronomic and environmental uses. Based on biochar properties, research needs are identified and directions for future trials are delineated.

  14. Desempenho de cultivares de alface no Estado do Acre Performance of lettuce cultivars in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. da S. Lédo

    2000-11-01

    lisa, apresentando folhas de tamanho uniforme e bem arranjadas. Entre as de folha crespa solta destacaram-se as cultivares. Verônica e Marisa. A cultivar Lucy Brown do tipo americana (crisp head também foi bastante produtiva.Due to the environmental conditions verified in the state of Acre, characterized by the occurrence of high temperatures and precipitation, cultivars traditionally used by the producers present low yield and poor quality. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the behavior of the new lettuce cultivars available in the market, in terms of agronomic characteristics and yield, in the climatic and soil conditions of Rio Branco. Two trials were accomplished in the Embrapa Acre experimental farm, in a dark red claysoil, of loamy texture. The first from May to July 1996 (dry season and the second from December 1996 to February 1997 (rainy season. The cultivars Babá de Verão, Brisa, Carolina AG-576, Elisa, Lucy Brown, Marisa AG-216, Piracicaba 65, Regina 71, Tainá, Simpson, Vanessa and Verônica were evaluated. 'Regina 71' and 'Elisa' were only included on the dry season trial. The experimental design was a randomized block, with three replications. During the dry season, the cultivars Simpson, Lucy Brown and Regina 71 presented the largest average weights (373; 362 and 341 g, respectively and commercial yields (49.8; 48.3 and 45.5 t/ha, respectively. In general, the cultivars with smooth leaves with or without head presented larger nematoid (Meloidogyne javanica attack index, when compared to the curly type ones. In the rainy season trials, the cultivars Marisa AG-216, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Brisa, Tainá and Piracicaba-65 presented the greatest average weights and commercial yields. However, the obtained averages were very inferior to that verified in the trials of the dry period, varying from 164 to 198 g for average weight, and from 21.9 to 25.9 t/ha for commercial yield. Of those cultivars tested on the dry season, Regina 71 (butter head

  15. Caracterização molecular de cultivares de cebola com marcadores microssatélites Molecular characterization of onion cultivars using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2010-01-01

    SSR loci. The 40 alleles of the 13 SSR loci were enough to distinguish all 44 onion cultivars. The highest number of common alleles was observed between Yellow Granex and Henry's Special PRR cultivars, and the lowest was observed between the Baia Periforme Super Precoce and Excel cultivars. The seven main groups of onion cultivars identified in the dendrogram were in agreement with the known genetic genealogy and with the agronomic type of the analyzed cultivars. The selected SSR loci are adequate for breeding programs and for protection of the cultivars of the species.

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  17. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  18. Phenological cycle and physicochemical characteristics of avocado cultivars in subtropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Cristina Zaro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Avocado has a great potential as a commercial crop in southern Brazil, for its high productivity, rusticity, and multiple uses. Its high oil content can be explored for biodiesel production with advantages over other crops. This study comprised six avocado cultivars-Geada, Fortuna, Fuerte, Margarida, Primavera and Quintal-belonging to the Agronomic Institute of Paraná (IAPAR collection, from Londrina, Brazil (23° 23′ S, 50° 11′ W. Analysis of fruit growth (length and diameter allowed the classification of the cultivars into groups showing early, midseason, and late maturation, which were harvested in March/April, May/June, and July/August, respectively. The fruits were analyzed to assess their pulp, peel, and seed proportions, and their levels of oil (pulp and starch (seed. Results showed these six cultivars are good alternatives for oil extraction. Fuerte stands out as the most adequate for biodiesel production from pulp and seed due to its higher yield of oil and starch. The fruit cycle diversity of these cultivars might allow combining them for prolonged fruit production, both for fresh fruit marketing and biodiesel supply, as well as possibly using fruit pulp for oil extraction and seed starch for alcohol production.

  19. Avaliação de herbicidas para dois cultivares de mandioca Selectivity of herbicide alternatives for two cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F Biffe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É importante avaliar a tolerância de variedade de mandioca a novas alternativas de controle químico, com o intuito de ampliar as opções disponíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência, para duas importantes variedades de mandioca cultivadas no Estado do Paraná. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g i.a. ha-1 avaliadas foram: diuron (400 e 800, metribuzin (360 e 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1.920 e as misturas ametryn + clomazone (1.350+1.900, ametryn+trifluralin (1.500+1.350, isoxaflutole+metribuzin (60+320, isoxaflutole+diuron (60+400, combinados com uso de uma testemunha dupla adjacente a cada tratamento. Os cultivares utilizados neste trabalho foram Fécula Branca e Fibra. Apenas o herbicida S-metolachlor, para ambos os cultivares, e metribuzin (360 g i.a. ha-1, para o cultivar Fibra, não provocaram injúrias. Atrazine provocou redução de estande para o cultivar Fécula Branca aos 60 DAP, mas não foi detectada redução na altura de plantas. Tanto atrazine (para os dois cultivares quanto diuron na dose de 800 g i.a. ha-1 (para o cultivar Fécula Branca afetaram a produtividade de raízes. Dessa forma, atrazine foi considerado não seletivo para ambos os cultivares, e a maior dose de diuron foi também considerada não seletiva para o cultivar Fécula Branca. Há diferenças de tolerância entre os cultivares, sendo o Fibra, de modo geral, mais tolerante aos herbicidas avaliados.It is important to evaluate the tolerance of cassava varieties under new weed chemical control alternatives. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides, applied at pre-emergence, for two important cassava varieties grown in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The herbicides and respective doses (g a.i. ha-1 were: diuron (400 and 800, metribuzin (360 and 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1,920 and mixtures ametryn+clomazone (1

  20. Influence of Cultivar on the Postharvest Hardening of Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siadjeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cultivar on the postharvest hardening of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was assessed. 32 cultivars of D. dumetorum tubers were planted in April 2014, harvested at physiological maturity, and stored under prevailing tropical ambient conditions (19–28°C, 60–85% RH for 0, 5, 14, 21, and 28 days. Samples were evaluated for cooked hardness. Results showed that one cultivar, Ibo sweet 3, was not affected by the hardening phenomenon. The remaining 31 were all subject to the hardening phenomenon at different degree. Cooked hardness increased more rapidly in cultivars with many roots on the tuber surface compared to cultivars with few roots on the tuber surface. When both the characteristics flesh colour and number of roots on tuber surface were associated, cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and many roots increased more rapidly than in cultivars with white flesh and many roots, whereas cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and few roots increased more slowly than in cultivars with white flesh and few roots. Accessions collected in high altitude increased more rapidly compared to accessions collected in low altitude. The cultivar Ibo sweet 3 identified in this study could provide important information for breeding program of D. dumetorum against postharvest hardening phenomenon.

  1. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    ‚€Ã‚¢ How will these crops affect fertilizer use and water quality? • What kind of water management is needed to maintain a productive crop? The answers to these questions will help supporting institutions across the state to improve land assessment and agronomic management practices for biomass production. In the last decade, energy supply has become a worldwide problem. Bioenergy crops could supply energy in the future. Bioenergy crops are plants, usually perennial grasses and trees, that produce a lot of biomass that can be converted into energy. Bioenergy crops can be grown for two energy markets: power generation, such as heat and electricity, or liquid fuel, such as cellulosic ethanol. These resources could reduce petroleum dependency and greenhouse gas production. Woody plants and herbaceous warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass, giant miscanthus,energy cane, and high yielding sorghums, could be major sources of biomass in Mississippi.

  2. Agronomic performance of new cream to yellow-orange sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market production to contribute to food security and rural income generation. ..... of the experiments, it was not cost effective to harvest each cultivar at the optimal ..... evaluated across varying ecographic conditions in Peru. Crop. Science 45: ...

  3. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  4. Relationships and variability of agronomic and physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... 1School of Crop Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural Technology, ... Seed yield was significantly and positively correlated with pods per plant, clusters ... Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is an important.

  5. An integrated crop model and GIS decision support system for assisting agronomic decision making under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, M D M; Nedumaran, S; Singh, Piara; S, Chukka; Irshad, Mohammad A; Bantilan, M C S

    2015-07-15

    The semi-arid tropical (SAT) regions of India are suffering from low productivity which may be further aggravated by anticipated climate change. The present study analyzes the spatial variability of climate change impacts on groundnut yields in the Anantapur district of India and examines the relative contribution of adaptation strategies. For this purpose, a web based decision support tool that integrates crop simulation model and Geographical Information System (GIS) was developed to assist agronomic decision making and this tool can be scalable to any location and crop. The climate change projections of five global climate models (GCMs) relative to the 1980-2010 baseline for Anantapur district indicates an increase in rainfall activity to the tune of 10.6 to 25% during Mid-century period (2040-69) with RCP 8.5. The GCMs also predict warming exceeding 1.4 to 2.4°C by 2069 in the study region. The spatial crop responses to the projected climate indicate a decrease in groundnut yields with four GCMs (MPI-ESM-MR, MIROC5, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES) and a contrasting 6.3% increase with the GCM, GFDL-ESM2M. The simulation studies using CROPGRO-Peanut model reveals that groundnut yields can be increased on average by 1.0%, 5.0%, 14.4%, and 20.2%, by adopting adaptation options of heat tolerance, drought tolerant cultivars, supplemental irrigation and a combination of drought tolerance cultivar and supplemental irrigation respectively. The spatial patterns of relative benefits of adaptation options were geographically different and the greatest benefits can be achieved by adopting new cultivars having drought tolerance and with the application of one supplemental irrigation at 60days after sowing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microrganismos associados a frutos de diferentes cultivares de noz Pecan Microorganisms associated with fruits of different cultivars of Pecan nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Izumi Terabe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do comportamento natural da nogueira Pecan às principais doenças é de suma importância para o estabelecimento do planejamento da implantação da cultura. O controle fitossanitário e tratos culturais devem ser realizados de modo a não comprometerem a qualidade do produto final, as amêndoas. Foram avaliadas nozes produzidas na safra de 2005 e oriundas de Uraí-PR, pelas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker, para identificar e quantificar os microrganismos associados à amêndoas e cascas dos frutos, bem como observar diferenças entre organismos colonizadores das cultivares. Os frutos foram avaliados na pós-colheita, aos trinta dias de armazenamento em ambiente, através da metodologia do papel de filtro, sendo submetidos ou não à assepsia superficial. O fungo Cladosporium caryigenum, promotor da rancificação das amêndoas foi observado, em amêndoas e cascas, nas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker; Fusarium sp., foi encontrado em porcentuais elevados, tanto em amêndoas quanto em cascas das três cultivares estudadas; Cephalothecium roseum, causador do mofo róseo em amêndoas, na cultivar Frotscher. Aspergillus sp. e Penicillium sp., causadores de emboloramento e produtores de aflotoxinas foram observados em porcentuais representativos, em amêndoas da cultivar Frotscher e em amêndoas e cascas das cultivares Frotscher, Burkett e Moneymaker, respectivamente. Os maiores porcentuais de perda do rendimento foram observados na cultivar Burkett, por causa da incidência de Colletotrichum sp., causador da antracnose em amêndoas, que acarreta escurecimento e deterioração do produto final, levando-o ao descarte.The knowledgement of the natural behavior of the main diseases of Pecan nut is of utmost importance for the stablishment of an implantation plan for that culture. The phytosanitary control and cultural treatments should be performed in order not to change the quality of the final product. Nuts harvest

  7. Agronomic behavior of gladiolus in organic substrates with wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Dourado Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the technical feasibility of effluent reuse and recycling of organic substrates in the production of gladiolus. We adopted a completely randomized design in a split-plot, and the plots three qualities water (river water with Hoagland’s solution; treated effluent in stabilization pond; treated effluent in stabilization pond and disinfected and the subplots organic substrates (pine bark, coir, bagasse, repeated five times. Were characterized physico-chemical water and each substrate, the beginning and end of two growing seasons. The variables evaluated were: number of tillers, plant height, total production; flower stem length, number of flowers, time to first harvest, total cycle time, fresh and dry mass of the area. The reuse of effluent resulted in agronomic performance equal or superior to that obtained by the use of nutrient solution and the substrate base bagasse promoted agronomic performance inferior to the other substrates evaluated.

  8. Land and agronomic potential for biofuel production in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    von Maltitz, Graham; van der Merwe, Marna

    2017-01-01

    The Southern African region, from a purely biophysical perspective, has huge potential for biofuel production, especially in Mozambique and Zambia. Although many of the soils are sandy and acidic, with careful management and correct fertilization, they should be highly productive. We suggest that sugarcane is the crop most easily mobilized for biofuel. A number of other crops, such as sweet sorghum, cassava, and tropical sugar beet, have good potential but will need further agronomic and proc...

  9. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, white mustard (Brassica alba, Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata, Asian mustard (B. juncea, oilseed rape (B. napus, black mustard (B. nigra, rapeseed (B. rapa, white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis, ball mustard (Neslia paniculata, treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum, hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale, Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale, smooth mustard (S. erysimoides and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  10. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Khatun, Amina; Liu, Lei; Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-21

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ), white mustard ( Brassica alba ), Ethiopian mustard ( B. carinata ), Asian mustard ( B. juncea ), oilseed rape ( B. napus ), black mustard ( B. nigra ), rapeseed ( B. rapa ), white ball mustard ( Calepina irregularis ), ball mustard ( Neslia paniculata ), treacle mustard ( Erysimum repandum ), hedge mustard ( Sisymbrium officinale ), Asian hedge mustard ( S. orientale ), smooth mustard ( S. erysimoides ) and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  11. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  12. Assessment of Cultivar Distinctness in Alfalfa: A Comparison of Genotyping-by-Sequencing, Simple-Sequence Repeat Marker, and Morphophysiological Observations

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    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultivar registration agencies typically require morphophysiological trait-based distinctness of candidate cultivars. This requirement is difficult to achieve for cultivars of major perennial forages because of their genetic structure and ever-increasing number of registered material, leading to possible rejection of agronomically valuable cultivars. This study aimed to explore the value of molecular markers applied to replicated bulked plants (three bulks of 100 independent plants each per cultivar to assess alfalfa ( L. subsp. cultivar distinctness. We compared genotyping-by-sequencing information based on 2902 polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers (>30 reads per DNA sample with morphophysiological information based on 11 traits and with simple-sequence repeat (SSR marker information from 41 polymorphic markers for their ability to distinguish 11 alfalfa landraces representative of the germplasm from northern Italy. Three molecular criteria, one based on cultivar differences for individual SSR bands and two based on overall SNP marker variation assessed either by statistically significant cultivar differences on principal component axes or discriminant analysis, distinctly outperformed the morphophysiological criterion. Combining the morphophysiological criterion with either molecular marker method increased discrimination among cultivars, since morphophysiological diversity was unrelated to SSR marker-based diversity ( = 0.04 and poorly related to SNP marker-based diversity ( = 0.23, < 0.15. The criterion based on statistically significant SNP allele frequency differences was less discriminating than morphophysiological variation. Marker-based distinctness, which can be assessed at low cost and without interactions with testing conditions, could validly substitute for (or complement morphophysiological distinctness in alfalfa cultivar registration schemes. It also has interest in sui generis registration systems aimed at

  13. Evaluation of Effect of Gamma Rays Irradiation for Increasing of Variation in Germination and Agronomic Traits in Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

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    R. Momeni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of genetic diversity is one of primary and basic goals of plant breeding programs. Induction of mutation is a method to increase genetic diversity that can be used in accommodate with selection, recombination and or combination of them in plant breeding. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different doses of gamma rays (500, 700, 900, 1100 and 1300 Gry on primary growth characters, such as: rate and percentage of germination, the length of rootlet and stemlet in M1 generation, and on agronomic characters such as: plant height, number of lateral branches, number of pods on main and lateral stem, length of pods and weigth of 1000-seed in M2 generation for two varieties of oilseed rape (Brassica napus, PF and Zarfam. Results of lab experiments showed that for both varieties, the germination percentage, the length of rootlet and the length of stemlet were significantly decreased by mutagen in compare with the control. While germination rate was only significantly affected by mutagen in PF. The estimation of "F" showed that there was significant difference between the variance of treatments for the germination rate and germination percentage in PF cultivar and for germination rate and stemlet length in Zarfam cultivar. In fact, increasing of gamma doses causes considerable enhancement in variance of treatment in compare with the control. The maximum relative coefficient of variation was related to 1300 Gry for germination rate of PF. In M2, all traits of study except number of pods on main stem was decreased by different doses of Gamma rays in PF cultivar. In opposition to other traits, Pods on main stem in PF cultivar was increased in different doses of gamma ray in compare with the control. But in Zarfam cultivar, only 1000-seed weight was significantly affected by Gamma rays.

  14. Genetic variability in Brazilian wheat cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers

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    Ivan Schuster

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most important food staples in the south of Brazil. Understanding genetic variability among the assortment of Brazilian wheat is important for breeding. The aim of this work was to molecularly characterize the thirty-six wheat cultivars recommended for various regions of Brazil, and to assess mutual genetic distances, through the use of microsatellite markers. Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM delineated all 36 of the samples, revealing a total of 74 simple sequence repeat (SSR alleles, i.e. an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC value calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.20 to 0.79, with a mean of 0.49. Genetic distances among the 36 cultivars ranged from 0.10 (between cultivars Ocepar 18 and BRS 207 to 0.88 (between cultivars CD 101 and Fudancep 46, the mean distance being 0.48. Twelve groups were obtained by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA, and thirteen through the Tocher method. Both methods produced similar clusters, with one to thirteen cultivars per group. The results indicate that these tools may be used to protect intellectual property and for breeding and selection programs.

  15. Response of Agronomic Traits of Wheat and Barley to Sources and Different Rates of Selenium in Rainfed Condition

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    N. A Sajedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Environmental stresses affect growth, metabolism and crops yield. Drought is an important stress and it decreases crop productivity. Drought stress symptoms vary, depending on intensity and duration of drought and growth stage of the plant. The first response of plant to drought stress is producing the active oxygen species (ROS in cell that these cause injury to membranes and proteins. Selenium (Se application could have beneficial effect on growth and stress tolerance of plants by increasing their activity of antioxidants and reduce the reactive oxygen species over production. Selenium is essential for growth and activities of human and animals. Absorption and accumulation of selenium in plant depend on chemical compound and concentration of selenium in soil. Recent studies have demonstrated that Se increases resistance and antioxidant capacity of plants to various stress. It is reported that selenium application in barley plant no changes the amounts of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide under water deficit stress. The current paper studies the response of agronomic traits of wheat and barley to sources and different rates of selenium in rain fed condition. Materials and Methods In order to investigate response of agronomic traits of wheat and barley to sources and different rates of selenium in rainfed condition, an experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, during 2014-2015. Experimental factors were included selenium sources at two levels, Sodium selenate and Selenite, Selenium rates at three levels of zero, 18 and 36 g ha-1 and two crop plants of wheat and barley. The wheat rain fed seed Azar 2 cultivar and Barley cultivar Abidar were hand planted at 15 cm spacing in 6 m rows, with one meter borders between the plots. Foliar application of Se was performed at rate of 18 and 36 g ha-1 at appearance

  16. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  17. Genetic diversity and structure in a collection of tulip cultivars assessed by SNP markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, N.; Shahin, A.; Bijman, P.J.J.; Liu, J.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Arens, P.

    2013-01-01

    Although tulip is one of the most important bulbous crops worldwide, the genetic background of most cultivars is unclear at present. The purposes of this study are to investigate genetic diversity and to identify the genetic structure and relationships among tulip cultivars. A total of 236

  18. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  19. Differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi among three coffee cultivars in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligia Lebrón; Jean D. Lodge; Paul. Bayman

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is important for growth of coffee (Coffea arabica), but differences among coffee cultivars in response to mycorrhizal interactions have not been studied. We compared arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) extraradical hyphae in the soil and diversity of AM fungi among three coffee cultivars, Caturra, Pacas, and Borbon, at three farms in...

  20. Identification of apple cultivars on the basis of simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G S; Zhang, Y G; Tao, R; Fang, J G; Dai, H Y

    2014-09-12

    DNA markers are useful tools that play an important role in plant cultivar identification. They are usually based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and include simple sequence repeats (SSRs), inter-simple sequence repeats, and random amplified polymorphic DNA. However, DNA markers were not used effectively in the complete identification of plant cultivars because of the lack of known DNA fingerprints. Recently, a novel approach called the cultivar identification diagram (CID) strategy was developed to facilitate the use of DNA markers for separate plant individuals. The CID was designed whereby a polymorphic maker was generated from each PCR that directly allowed for cultivar sample separation at each step. Therefore, it could be used to identify cultivars and varieties easily with fewer primers. In this study, 60 apple cultivars, including a few main cultivars in fields and varieties from descendants (Fuji x Telamon) were examined. Of the 20 pairs of SSR primers screened, 8 pairs gave reproducible, polymorphic DNA amplification patterns. The banding patterns obtained from these 8 primers were used to construct a CID map. Each cultivar or variety in this study was distinguished from the others completely, indicating that this method can be used for efficient cultivar identification. The result contributed to studies on germplasm resources and the seedling industry in fruit trees.

  1. Evaluation of Local Wheat Cultivars Susceptibility to infection with Black Stem Rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batta, Y.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the susceptibility of seven local wheat cultivars from Palestine to infection with black stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Two techniques of disease inoculation were applied during bioassays: global inoculation of entire wheat plants with urediospores and localized inoculation with urediospores and localized inoculation with urediospores on wheat leaf-pieces incubated under humid conditions. Susceptibility of tested cultivars was evaluated according to disease scale based on number and size of typical unredial pustules that appeared after inoculation on entire plants or leaf pieces. Results obtained on bioassay of susceptibility and disease rating on entire plants indicated that Anbar, Kamata and Hetiya safra cultivars were the least susceptible to P. g. tritici infection, whereas Debiya beda cultivar was the most susceptible. The other tested cultivars such as Nab-El-Jama, sawda and Senf 870 were moderately susceptible. On leaf-pieces, Anbar and Kamatat were the least susceptible cultivars, whereas Debiya beda and Nab-El-Jamal were the most susceptible cultivars. The other tested cultivars such as Debiya swada, Senf 870 and Hetiya safra were moderately susceptible. Significant reductions were obtained for the size of unredial postules formed on leaf-pieces when inoculated in an unwounded state compared to the wounded indicating the importance of wounds during inoculation. The global results indicated the possibility of using above method of disease inoculating, scaling and rating for evaluation of wheat cultivars susceptibility for the eventual use in breeding program for resistant varieties in Palestine. (author)

  2. Carrot Cultivar Evaluation: Soilless Media vs. Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Derek R.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Nine cultivars of carrots were grown in a growth chamber. Each cultivar was grown both in hydroponic and soil-less media root-zone for sixty days. Three 30L tubs were used for each root-zone treatment. Three cultivars were planted in each tub, initially at 180 plants m-2 then thinned to 90 plants m-2 on day 45.

  3. Global value of GM rice: a review of expected agronomic and consumer benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demont, Matty; Stein, Alexander J

    2013-06-25

    Unlike the other major crops, no genetically modified (GM) varieties of rice have been commercialized at a large scale. Within the next 2-3 years new transgenic rice varieties could be ready for regulatory approval and subsequent commercialization, though. Given the importance of rice as staple crop for many of the world's poorest people, this will have implications for the alleviation of poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Thus, policy-makers need to be aware of the potential benefits of GM rice. We provide an overview of the literature and discuss the evidence on expected agronomic and consumer benefits of genetically engineered rice. We find that while GM rice with improved agronomic traits could deliver benefits similar to already commercialized biotechnology crops, expected benefits of consumer traits could be higher by an order of magnitude. By aggregating the expected annual benefits, we estimate the global value of GM rice to be US$64 billion per year. This is only an indicative value, as more GM varieties will become available in future. Nevertheless, such a figure can help guide policy-makers when deciding on the approval or funding of biotechnology crops and it may also raise awareness among consumers about what is at stake for their societies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  5. BRS 374 – Wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 374 is a wheat cultivar developed by Embrapa. It resulted from a cross between the F1 generation of PF 88618/Coker80.33 and Frontana/Karl. BRS 374 belongs to the soft wheat class, has a low plant height, a high potential grain yield, andwhite flour.

  6. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    . Results showed that in France it was mainly syrphids that control aphid populations. The choice of flowers Families to include in flower strip is important. You have to avoid choosing the same plant family as the one of the crop you want to protect because you would risk to attract pests and diseases in the field. In fact, it's important to choose the optimal diversity of plant Family and not the greatest diversity.

  7. The Application of Soil-Agroclimatic Index for Assessing the Agronomic Potential of Arable Lands in the Forest-Steppe Zone of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, D. S.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Shishkonakova, E. A.; Vil'chevskaya, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    An assessment of the agronomic potential of arable lands in the forest-steppe zone of Russia (by the example of separate soil-agronomic districts) on the basis of the soil-agroclimatic index developed under the supervision of I.I. Karmanov is considered. The agricultural areas (64) separated on the territory of Russia and characterizing soil-agroclimatic conditions for cultivation of major and accompanying crops are differentiated into soil-agronomic districts (SADs) with due account for the administrative division of the country. A large diversity of agroclimatic and agronomical conditions creates the prerequisites for the inclusion of administrative regions into different SADs. The SADs concept implies a detailed analysis of information on the soil properties, geomorphic conditions, and farming conditions. The agronomic potential for major crops in the key SADs in the forest-steppe zone of the East European Plain (Voronezh and Penza oblasts) is high, though it is 25-30% lower than that in the North Caucasus (for winter wheat, sugar beet, sunflower, and spring barley) and in Kaliningrad oblast (for oats). In Western Siberia (Tyumen, Omsk, and Novosibirsk oblasts) and Eastern Siberia (Krasnoyarsk region and Irkutsk oblast), the agronomic potential of spring crops (wheat, barley, and oats) is only utilized by 35-45% in comparison with their European analogues. In the Far East with its monsoon climate and soil conditions (meadow podbels, brown forest soils), the crops characteristic of the European forest-steppe (soybean, rice, sugar beet) and the Trans-Ural forest-steppe (spring wheat) are cultivated. Their biological potential is utilized by only 50-60% in comparison with the European analogues. The materials of this study give us information on the degree of correspondence between the soilagroclimatic potential of the territory and the biological potential of cultivated crops. This is important in the context of improving the natural-agricultural zoning of Russia

  8. Assessment of Genetic Parameters of Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat using Generation Means Analysis under water-limited Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dorrani-Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat is the oldest and most important cultivated crop in the world and has fundamental role in human food security. Drought is one of the most common environmental stresses that affect growth and development of plants. Most parts of Iran’s cultivation land are located in arid and semiarid regions and because of water deficiency, plant stress appear and wheat performance reduces severely in these regions. In such circumstances, the production of drought tolerant varieties has special importance. Understand the genetic basis of yield and yield related traits is necessary in breeding programs. One of the best approaches to determine genetic parameters is generation means analysis method, due to it allows breeders to predict epistasis. In order to estimate genetic parameters and evaluation of gene action controlling agronomic traits in bread wheat under moisture stress, F4 families derived from cross between Roushan and Kavir along with F2, F3 and parents, were evaluated under moisture stress. Materials and Methods Field experiment was carried out in research field of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, during growing season of year 2013-2014 using Augmented design with 5 known check cultivars (Roushan, Falat, Mahdavi, Karchia and Shahpasand. Stress treatment was cut off irrigation at heading stage. Grain yield and some agronomic traits were measured. Generation means analysis method was used to determine genetic parameters including additive effect (d, dominance effect (h, additive × additive [i], and dominance × dominance effect [l] were evaluated for different traits. Generation means analysis was carried out using equation 1. Y= m+α[d]+β[h]+α2[i]+2αβ[j]+β2[l] (1 Broad and narrow sense heritability of evaluated traits were estimated according to equation 2 and 3. Results and Discussion The study revealed a complex genetic control for studied traits. Genetic variation in F2, F3 and F4 was more than parents. Five

  9. Eficiência produtiva de cultivares de arroz com divergência fenotípica Production efficiency of rice cultivars with phenotypic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber M. Guimarães

    2008-10-01

    supplementary irrigation, the upland rice cultivars CIRAD L(-141, Guarani, Caiapó, and Maravilha presented higher grain harvest indexes and lower spikelet sterility than the lowland cultivars BR IRGA 409 and Metica 1. It was concluded that the highest biomass yield of the lowland rice cultivars did not have an effect upon the grain yield. The upland cultivar CIRAD L(-141, with high leaf area, panicles with high grain number and average performance of the agronomic components evaluated, such as harvest index, grain weight, tiller fertility, tillering, spikelet sterility and growth index, yielded 12.5% higher than Guarani, the second best cultivar. The increase in grain harvest index and weight of grain and the reduction in spikelet sterility, due to their high correlation with grain yield, are considered high priority in the upland rice breeding programs for higher yields.

  10. Effects of site and cultivar on consumer acceptance of pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit in many cultures. The fruit and 17 juice have risen in popularity as it was recently discovered that pomegranate has relatively high 18 antioxidant activity compared to most other fruits. In this study, six cultivars were utilized to 19 determin...

  11. Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

  12. Maize cultivar performance under diverse organic production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize cultivar performance can vary widely among different production systems. The need for high-performing hybrids for organic systems with wide adaptation to various macroenvironments is becoming increasingly important. The goal of this study was to characterize inbred lines developed by distinc...

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of rice cultivars from various origins using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity is of paramount importance for the success of any plant breeding program. An experiment was conducted to assess the extent of genetic diversity and similarity of 24 rice cultivars from various origins using 29 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 144 alleles were detected at the 29 SSR primer ...

  14. Características agronômicas de cultivares de melancia nas condições do cerrado de Roraima, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgley Soares da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of twelve watermelon cultivars produced under the edaphoclimatic conditions of the cerrado of Roraima. The experiment was developed at the Embrapa Roraima Experimental Water Field. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The treatments consisted of the cultivars: Combat, Conquista, Verena, Congo, Magnum, Electra, Santa Amelia, Explore, Emperor, Crimson Select Plus, Charleston Gray Super and Omaru Yamato. The productive, seed and fruit quality characteristics were evaluated. It was concluded that the edaphoclimatic conditions of the cerrado of Roraima favor the productive and qualitative characteristics of the fruits of the watermelon cultivars analyzed. The highest productivity was found in the Crimson Select Plus cultivar, with a mean of 67848.25 kg ha-1 . The characteristics of seeds vary according to the cultivars, with the largest quantities found in 'Santa Amélia' and 'Explore' and greater mass in 'Charleston Gray Super'. Regarding fruit quality, there is no difference in soluble solids content among cultivars; however, the values found are relatively high (> 10 ºBrix. Crimson Select Plus, Santa Amélia and Explore cultivars present high potential for cultivation in the soil and climate conditions of cerrado de Roraima-Brazil. With the information obtained in this study, it allows the exploration of new cultivars, more productive and of superior quality, when compared to those currently cultivated in the region. New studies related to the subject must contemplate the acceptance of the consumer market for the cultivars with the greatest productive potential obtained.

  15. A new Job's tear cultivar ''Hatohikari''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.; Chiba, I.; Kato, M.; Okuyama, Y.; Sugawara, S.; Tanosaki, S.; Shindo, K.; Ishikura, N.; Seki, K.; Endo, T.; Shibata, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new Job's tear cultivar ''Hatohikari'', developed at the Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Morioka, Japan was registered as Norin No.2 Job's tear and released by Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in 1995. ''Hatohikari'' is a progeny from a gamma-ray radiated mutant of ''Okayama-zairai'' in 1980. ''Okayama-zairai'' shows high yield and good quality. However, its demerits are late maturity and long plant height. The major agronomic characteristics of the new cultivar ''Hatohikari'' are as follows: The maturity is earlier than that of ''Okayama0zairai'', yielding ability is 38% higher than that of ''Okayama-zairai , the plant height is 30 cm shorter than that of ''Okayama-zairai'' and it is suitable for combine harvest. ''Hatohikari'' has large seeds with good quality for tea processing. Shattering is easy, and resistance to leaf blight is medium. ''Hatohikari'' is adaptable to middle mountain regions in chugoku district of Japan. This cultivar has been recommended in Hiroshima prefecture since 1995

  16. Structural and Temporal Variation in Genetic Diversity of European Spring Two-Row Barley Cultivars and Association Mapping of Quantitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tondelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred sixteen barley ( L. cultivars were selected to represent the diversity and history of European spring two-row barley breeding and to search for alleles controlling agronomic traits by association genetics. The germplasm was genotyped with 7864 gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism markers and corresponding field trial trait data relating to growth and straw strength were obtained at multiple European sites. Analysis of the marker data by statistical population genetics approaches revealed two important trends in the genetic diversity of European two-row spring barley, namely, i directional selection for approximately 14% of total genetic variation of the population in the last approximately 50 yr and ii highly uneven genomic distribution of genetic diversity. Association analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic data identified multiple loci affecting the traits investigated, some of which co-map with selected regions. Collectively, these data show that the genetic makeup of European two-row spring barley is evolving under breeder selection, with signs of extinction of diversity in some genomic regions, suggesting that “breeding the best with the best” is leading towards fixation of some breeder targets. Nevertheless, modern germplasm also retains many regions of high diversity, suggesting that site-specific genetic approaches for allele identification and crop improvement such as association genetics are likely to be successful.

  17. MN 716: nova cultivar de cevada com estabilidade de produção e qualidade cervejeira Production stability and brewing quality of Barley MN 716

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 716, lançada em 2004, é uma das cultivares recomendadas para cultivo com maior estabilidade de produção. Nos anos em que participou do ensaio para determinação de seu valor de cultivo e uso, apresentou excelente produtividade de grãos, com média superior a 3.000 kg ha-1, e desempenho equilibrado quanto à qualidade, com destaque para seu teor de beta-glucanas e índice enzimático. A cultivar constitui um avanço do melhoramento desse cereal no Brasil, aliando características de interesse do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 716, released in 2004, is one of the most recomended cultivars, for its high stability. In the years that it was included in the agronomic and use value trial, the cultivar MN 716 showed high yield average, exceeding 3,000 kg ha-1, as well as excellent qualitative performance, mainly in relation to beta-glucans and enzyme index. The cultivar is a breeding achievement for this cereal in Brazil, and serves the interests of both producers and industrial sector.

  18. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize ( Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  19. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize (Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  20. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato ( Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue culture techniques have opened a new frontier in agricultural science by addressing food security and agricultural production issues. A study was conducted to compare growth and yield characteristics between the tissue culture regenerated and conventionally propagated sweet potato cultivars. Five locally adapted ...

  1. Agronomic performance of introduced banana varieties in lowlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of Rwandan banana cultivars are low-yielding and susceptible to pests and diseases. High yielding and pest/disease resistant varieties have been obtained in advanced breeding centers recently. Introduction, evaluation and adoption of such varieties by local producers may be one of the options to boost yields.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative parameters in Acorn squash cultivar in the conditions of the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šlosár

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The species Cucurbita pepo includes several types of squashes; in Slovak Republic, well-known and oftenly grown squash types are patisson, zucchini, spaghetti squash, oil pumpkin etc. Several interesting squash types of Cucurbita pepo are grown abroad, including Acorn squash which is well-known mainly in USA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the important quantitative (yield per hectare, average fruit weight and qualitative (total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity, total soluble solids yield parameters of Acorn squash fruits in comparison with patisson which is typical squash type of Cucurbita pepo in Slovak Republic. The field trial was realised in Košice-Šaca in 2016. Within experiment, four cultivars of Acorn type pumpkin were tested (Thelma Sanders; Jet Set; Table Gold; Cream of The Crop. The patisson 'Orfeus' was used as a comparative cultivar for evaluation of individual parameters of Acorn type pumpkin cultivars. Matured pumpkin fruits were harvested on the 7th September 2016. From aspect of yield quantity, Acorn cultivars are appeared as very interesting squash type with good yield potential for growing. The highest yield of squash fruits was found in the cultivar 'Cream of The Crop' (17.8 t.ha-1. In mentioned Acorn cultivar, the yield was higher about 87.4% compared to the tested patisson cultivar 'Orfeus' (9.5 t.ha-1. On the contrary, the average weight of squash fruits was reached in patisson cultivar 'Orfeus' (780.7 g. The qualitative parameters of fruits were expressively influenced by squash cultivar. The content of total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total soluble solids was markedly higher in all Acorn cultivars, compared to the patisson cultivar 'Orfeus'. The highest content of total carotenoids (26.74 mg.kg-1 fresh weight and ascorbic acid (238.79 mg.kg-1 f. w. was found in the squash cultivar 'Table Gold'. The highest content of total soluble solids was determined in the cultivar 'Jet Set' (3.8

  3. Study of Morphological, Phenological and Variation of Fruit Traits During Berry Growth Phases of QzlouzumGrapevine Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Doulati Baneh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Before a new vineyard construction, in addition to collecting detailed data on climate, soil and planting area, some other considerations like selection and understanding the principles of quality and quantity in terms of agronomic traits and physiological characteristics of the product should be made. Among grape varieties grown in anorchard, some self-fertile and male sterile cultivars (female physiological are present. Without suitable pollinating, varieties in the vineyard, is not accessible for semi-fertile or sterile ones with high quality and quantity and will notbe sufficient.Therefore the identification of sterile varieties, the best pollinizers and fruit growth and phenological stages is essential. Qzlouzum is one of commercial seeded cultivars in West Azerbaijan province whichis suitable for storage and delivering to domestic and foreign markets forout of season because of nice red color and thick skin and late ripening.These favorable properties for sale with high prices is also one of the otherbenefits that have led to the interest of the farmers every year to increase the acreage of the cultivation. Preliminary studies showed that Qzlouzum cultivar is a physiological female and needs cross pollination for fruitset. This study aimed to investigate the complete botanical characteristics, flower sexuality, pollen germination and determine the phenological stages (especially fruit growth stages. Materials and methods: Based on grape descriptor, morphological characters of 10 vines of Qzlouzum grape cultivar at different stages from bud break to dormancy was studied in Horticultural Research Station in 1390 in Urmia(Kahriz. To calculate the growing degree days (GDD, daily temperature above 10 ° C was obtained from the meteorological station of Agriculture faculty in Kahriz-Urmia. Pollen germination rate was tested in both liquid and solid growth medium. In order to study the changes in a number of qualitative and

  4. Cytomorphological characterization of tea cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, H.; Khalil, I.H.; Shah, S.M.A.; Khanzada, T.Z.; Abbasi, F.M; Ahmad, H.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cytomorphological characterization was performed on tea cultivars, three each of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica species. For plant morphological study, one and a half year old healthy shoots were obtained from the selected mother bushes of the six tea cultivars. The field experiment conducted in randomized complete block design having four replications was aimed at evaluating plant height, number of leaves plant-l, number of branches plant-l, number of flowers plant-1, fresh and dry leaf weight plant-I. The data indicated significant difference between the two species with narrow leaved cultivars having increased plant height, number of leaves and branches plant-I than the broad leaved cultivars, but less number of flowers plant-l, fresh and dry leaf weight. Karyotype analysis indicated that both the groups are diploid with 2n = 30. On the basis of chromosome morphology, C. assamica had larger chromosomes (3-10.5 mu m) as compared to C. sinensis (3.9-8 mu m). C. assamica has relatively advanced features as compared to C. sinensis. However, both the groups possessed mostly median to sub-median centromeres with no secondary constrictions which possibly indicates that little or no evolutionary changes have taken place in tea and that the karyotype is still at a primitive stage, with C. sinensis being more primitive than C. assamica. Our results suggest that both the groups are different from each other in morphological as well as cytological attributes and could therefore generate more germplasm if the two species could be involved in tea breeding programs. (author)

  5. Genetic Markers Analyses and Bioinformatic Approaches to Distinguish Between Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The genetic diversity of 22 olive tree cultivars (Olea europaea L.) sampled from different Mediterranean countries was assessed using 5 SNP markers (FAD2.1; FAD2.3; CALC; SOD and ANTHO3) located in four different genes. The genotyping analysis of the 22 cultivars with 5 SNP loci revealed 11 alleles (average 2.2 per allele). The dendrogram based on cultivar genotypes revealed three clusters consistent with the cultivars classification. Besides, the results obtained with the five SNPs were compared to those obtained with the SSR markers using bioinformatic analyses and by computing a cophenetic correlation coefficient, indicating the usefulness of the UPGMA method for clustering plant genotypes. Based on principal coordinate analysis using a similarity matrix, the first two coordinates, revealed 54.94 % of the total variance. This work provides a more comprehensive explanation of the diversity available in Tunisia olive cultivars, and an important contribution for olive breeding and olive oil authenticity.

  6. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  7. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Goto-Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  8. Agronomic viability of New Zealand spinach and kale intercropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecílio, Arthur B; Bianco, Matheus S; Tardivo, Caroline F; Pugina, Gabriel C M

    2017-01-01

    The intercropping is a production system that aims to provide increased yield with less environmental impact, due to greater efficiency in the use of natural resources and inputs involved in the production process. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the agronomic viability of kale and New Zealand spinach intercropping as a function of the spinach transplanting time. (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting of the kale). The total yield (TY) and yield per harvest (YH) of the kale in intercropping did not differ from those obtained in monoculture. The spinach TY was influenced by the transplanting time, the earlier the transplanting, the higher the TY. The spinach YH was not influenced by the transplanting time, but rather by the cultivation system. In intercropping, the spinach YH was 13.5% lower than in monoculture. The intercropping was agronomically feasible, since the land use efficiency index, which was not influenced by the transplanting time, had an average value of 1.71, indicating that the intercropping produced 71% more kale and spinach than the same area in monoculture. Competitiveness coefficient, aggressiveness and yield loss values showed that kale is the dominating species and spinach is the dominated.

  9. Physiological and agronomical responses of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation with different plastic films was evaluated during 2012 and 2013 seasons in South of Minas Gerais State. Agronomical and physiological measurements were done on eight years old grapevines, grafted onto ‘1103 Paulsen’ rootstock cultivated under uncovered conditions, covered with transparent and with diffuse plastic films. Both plastic covers induced the highest shoot growth rate and specific leaf area. The diffuse plastic induced greater differences on leaf area, pruning weight and leaf chlorophyll content as compared to uncovered vines. Grapevines under diffuse plastic also had the lowest rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Leaf starch, glucose and fructose contents were not affected by treatment, but leaf sucrose was reduced by transparent plastic. The leaf and stem water potential were higher under diffuse plastic. In 2013, grapevines under diffuse plastic showed the highest yields mainly due to decreased rot incidence and increased cluster weight. Furthermore, berries under diffuse plastic showed the highest anthocyanins concentration. The use of diffuse plastic induces more agronomical benefits to produce Syrah grape under protected cultivation.

  10. Genomewide Association Studies for 50 Agronomic Traits in Peanut Using the ‘Reference Set’ Comprising 300 Genotypes from 48 Countries of the Semi-Arid Tropics of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V. Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S.; Khan, Aamir W.; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H. L.; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A.; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the ‘reference set’ of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15–20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (pvalue >2.1×10–6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81–90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  11. Screening of marigold (Tagetes erecta L. cultivars for drought stress based on vegetative and physiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Younis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is an important genotypic character to be exploited for the plant cultivar selection under water deficit conditions. In the recent study, we examined the response of two marigold cultivars (Inca and Bonanza under different regimes of drought stress. The aim was to determine the best performing cultivar under water/drought stress. Three irrigation treatments include; 4 days (T1, 6 days (T2 and 8 days (T3 in comparison to control 1 day (T0 interval were imposed. Response characters under study were morphological, physiological and anatomical. Complete Randomized Design (CRD with four replications in two factorial arrangements was followed for experiment layout. The results revealed that increasing water stress adversely affect plant height, in both cultivars. Both cultivars showed a decreasing trend to the number of flowers under water stress. Total chlorophyll contents including a, b were also showed reduction under prolonged drought treatment in both cultivars from (2.7 mg g-1 FW to (1 mg g-1 FW. Overall, the performance of cultivar (cv. Inca was satisfactory under water stress regimes. These results are helpful for selecting drought tolerant marigold cultivars in water scarce areas.   

  12. Estratégias para o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares de mangueira para o semiárido brasileiro Mango strategies to develop new varieties to the Brazilian tropical semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das principais fruteiras comerciais no Semiárido brasileiro, sendo que a cultivar Tommy Atkins ocupa 85% da área total cultivada com a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego de estratégias para reduzir o período juvenil e as trabalhosas polinizações manuais em mangueira, de forma a acelerar o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares da espécie para o Semiárido brasileiro. Foram identificadas plantas isoladas das cultivares Haden e Espada dentro de plantios comerciais da cultivar Tommy Atkins, numa fazenda exportadora de manga, em Petrolina-PE. Mudas das progênies foram transplantadas com seis meses de idade para o campo. O manejo para a indução floral foi realizado com poda, controle da irrigação e aplicação de Paclobutrazol e nitrato de potássio. O DNA extraído das progênies e parentais foi submetido a análises com marcadores microssatélites publicados para Mangifera indica L. O manejo combinado foi eficiente para induzir a floração e a frutificação em, aproximadamente, 70% das progênies após dois anos e meio de transplantio. Dos 94 indivíduos analisados com três microssatélites, 83% foram identificados como híbridos entre 'Haden' x 'T. Atkins'. Dos 401 indivíduos analisados com um microssatélite, 10% foram identificados como híbridos entre 'Espada' x 'T. Atkins'. A estratégia adotada foi eficiente para reduzir o período juvenil e evitar os trabalhosos cruzamentos manuais em mangueira, sendo que o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares da espécie para a região pode ser concluído com oito a dez anos, incluindo as rigorosas avaliações agronômicas.Mango is one of the most important fruit crop in the Brazilian Semi-Arid region. The cultivar Tommy Atkins has been grown in 85% of total area dedicated to this crop. The goal of this research was to evaluate strategies to reduce the juvenile period and to replace the laborious hand pollinization in order to accelerate the development

  13. Integrating Historic Agronomic and Policy Lessons with New Technologies to Drive Farmer Decisions for Farm and Climate: The Case of Inland Pacific Northwestern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate-friendly best management practices for mitigating and adapting to climate change (cfBMPs include changes in crop rotation, soil management and resource use. Determined largely by precipitation gradients, specific agroecological systems in the inland Pacific Northwestern U.S. (iPNW feature different practices across the region. Historically, these farming systems have been economically productive, but at the cost of high soil erosion rates and organic matter depletion, making them win-lose situations. Agronomic, sociological, political and economic drivers all influence cropping system innovations. Integrated, holistic conservation systems also need to be identified to address climate change by integrating cfBMPs that provide win-win benefits for farmer and environment. We conclude that systems featuring short-term improvements in farm economics, market diversification, resource efficiency and soil health will be most readily adopted by farmers, thereby simultaneously addressing longer term challenges including climate change. Specific “win-win scenarios” are designed for different iPNW production zones delineated by water availability. The cfBMPs include reduced tillage and residue management, organic carbon (C recycling, precision nitrogen (N management and crop rotation diversification and intensification. Current plant breeding technologies have provided new cultivars of canola and pea that can diversify system agronomics and markets. These agronomic improvements require associated shifts in prescriptive, precision N and weed management. The integrated cfBMP systems we describe have the potential for reducing system-wide greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by increasing soil C storage, N use efficiency (NUE and by production of biofuels. Novel systems, even if they are economically competitive, can come with increased financial risk to producers, necessitating government support (e.g., subsidized crop insurance to promote adoption

  14. Magnitude differences in agronomic, chemical, nutritional, and structural features among different varieties of forage corn grown on dry land and irrigated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Abeysekara, Samen; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-03-11

    In this study, eight varieties of corn forage grown in semiarid western Canada (including Pioneer P2501, Pioneer P39m26, Pioneer P7443, Hyland HL3085, Hyland HLBaxxos, Hyland HLR219, Hyland HLSR22, and Pickseed Silex BT) were selected to explore the effect of irrigation implementation in comparison with nonirrigation on (1) agronomic characteristics, (2) basic chemical profiles explored by using a near-infrared reflectance (NIR) system, and (3) protein and carbohydrate internal structural parameters revealed by using an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) system. Also, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on spectroscopic data for clarification of differences in molecular structural makeup among the varieties. The results showed that irrigation treatment significantly increased (P forages. Significant interactions of irrigation treatment and corn variety were observed on most agronomic characteristics (DM yield, T/ha, days to tasseling, days to silking) and crude fiber (CF) and ether extract (EE) contents as well as some spectral data such as cellulosic compounds (CELC) peak intensity, peak ratios of CHO third peak to CELC, α-helix to β-sheet, and CHO third peak to amide I. Additionally, the spectral ratios of chemical functional groups that related to structural and nonstructural carbohydrates and protein polymers in forages did not remain constant over corn varieties cultivated with and without water treatment. Moreover, different cultivars had different growth, structure, and nutrition performances in this study. Although significant differences could be found in peak intensities, PCA results indicated some structural similarities existed between two treated corn forages with the exception of HL3085 and HLBaxxos. In conclusion, irrigation and corn variety had interaction effects on agronomic, chemical, nutritional, and structural features. Further study on the optimum level of irrigation for corn forage

  15. Genetic divergence among Brazilian turmeric germplasm using morpho-agronomical descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Sigrist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is a vegetatively-propagated crop which is used as a natural dye in the food industryand also presents many biological active compounds. Turmeric conventional breeding is difficult and often limited to germplasmselection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among turmeric accessions available in Brazil using sevenmorpho-agronomical descriptors. Overall genetic divergence was low, although some divergent genotypes were identified. Fourmain groups of genotypes were identified and could be further used in breeding programs. Canonical variable analysis suggestedthat some descriptors were more important to discriminate accessions and also that one of the descriptors could be discarded. Theresults provided useful insights for better management of the germplasm collection, optimizing conservational and breeding efforts.

  16. The agronomic science of spatial and temporal water management:How much, when and where

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agronomic sciences are those that are applied to soil and water management and crop production, including soil, water and plant sciences and related disciplines. The science of spatial and temporal water management includes many agronomic science factors, including soil physics, biophysics, plan...

  17. Seed Size And Physiological Quality Of Three Cultivars Of Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cesar Lopes Filho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important crops, both in the national context and worldwide. Being that, its fiber, constitutes an important raw material for the textile industry. The process of improving cottonseeds, favoured cultivars with smaller seeds. The goal of this work was to evaluate three cultivars of cottonseeds with different sizes through vigour tests. The work was developed in the seeds laboratory and the post-harvest Laboratory of plant products of the Instituto Federal Goiano – Campus Rio Verde. Cottonseeds of 3 cultivars were used (FiberMax 913 GLT, FiberMax 910 and DeltaPine 1648 B2RF, obtained in the crop of 2014 in the city of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with eight replications of 50 seeds. Determinations of moisture content and weight of a hundred seeds, germination test and germination velocity index, emergency test, and emergency speed index, electrical conductivity and accelerated aging were conducted. The dimensions of the size of the seeds (length, width and thickness were also determined, with the aid of digital caliper, and the weight of the seeds, with the aid of a balance of precision of resolution 0, 001g. The data was subjected to analysis of variance and the averages compared to the Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no clear relationship between the size of the seed and its physiological performance in assessed cultivars/batches, making it necessary more studies that can prove that type of association.

  18. Quality Parameters of Six Cultivars of Blueberry Using Computer Vision

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    Silvia Matiacevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blueberries are considered an important source of health benefits. This work studied six blueberry cultivars: “Duke,” “Brigitta”, “Elliott”, “Centurion”, “Star,” and “Jewel”, measuring quality parameters such as °Brix, pH, moisture content using standard techniques and shape, color, and fungal presence obtained by computer vision. The storage conditions were time (0–21 days, temperature (4 and 15°C, and relative humidity (75 and 90%. Results. Significant differences (P<0.05 were detected between fresh cultivars in pH, °Brix, shape, and color. However, the main parameters which changed depending on storage conditions, increasing at higher temperature, were color (from blue to red and fungal presence (from 0 to 15%, both detected using computer vision, which is important to determine a shelf life of 14 days for all cultivars. Similar behavior during storage was obtained for all cultivars. Conclusion. Computer vision proved to be a reliable and simple method to objectively determine blueberry decay during storage that can be used as an alternative approach to currently used subjective measurements.

  19. Influence of Agronomic and Climatic Factors on Fusarium Infestation and Mycotoxin Contamination of Cereals in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoft, A.; Torp, M.; Clasen, P.-E.; Løes, A.-K.; Kristoffersen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002–2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained 10–30% of the variation in Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Significantly lower Fusarium infestation and concentrations of important mycotoxins were found in the organic cereals. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) constitute the main risk for human and animal health in Norwegian cereals. The impacts of various agronomic and climatic factors on DON and HT-2 as well as on their main producers F. graminearum and F. langsethiae and on total Fusarium were tested by multivariate statistics. Crop rotation with non-cereals was found to reduce all investigated characteristics significantly – mycotoxin concentrations as well as various Fusarium infestations. No use of mineral fertilisers and herbicides was also found to decrease F. graminearum, whereas lodged fields increased the occurrence of this species. No use of herbicides was also found to decrease F. langsethiae, but for this species the occurrence was lower in lodged fields. Total Fusarium infestation was decreased with no use of fungicides or mineral fertilisers, and with crop rotation, as well as by using herbicides and increased by lodged fields. Clay and to some extent silty soils seemed to reduce F. graminearum in comparison with sandy soils. Concerning climate factors, low temperature before grain harvest was found to increase DON; and high air humidity before harvest to increase HT-2. F. graminearum was negatively correlated with precipitation in July but correlated with air humidity before harvest. F. langsethiae was correlated with temperature in July. Total Fusarium increased with increasing precipitation in July. Organic cereal

  20. Produção comercial de cultivares de alface em Bananeiras Marketable production of lettuce cultivars in Bananeiras, Brazil

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    Djail Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Um aspecto importante na escolha de cultivares para uma determinada condição ambiental é a determinação da produção comercial, que indica o potencial de produção por área. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção comercial de cultivares de alface nas condições de solo e clima de Bananeiras, Paraíba, durante a estação chuvosa. Foram avaliadas oito cultivares (Cindy, Elba, Grand Rapids, Kaesar, Mimosa, Sabrina, Summer Green e Verônica, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As parcelas tinham 27 plantas, espaçadas de 30 cm entre fileiras e entre linhas. Aos 51 dias após o transplante, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto à massa fresca total e comercial, massa seca de folhas, número de folhas, diâmetro da planta, índice comercial e produção comercial. Os maiores valores de massa fresca total e comercial, de diâmetro da planta e produção comercial foram verificados para a cultivar Kaesar. Quanto à massa seca, 'Kaesar' e 'Elba' apresentaram os valores mais elevados. Os maiores números de folha foram obtidos com 'Mimosa', 'Elba', 'Sabrina' e 'Summer Green'. As cultivares Grand Rapids, Verônica e Kaesar mostraram-se mais suscetíveis à septoriose, principalmente nas folhas mais velhas. Considerando-se os resultados e a preferência dos consumidores, 'Kaesar' e 'Summer Green' foram as mais promissoras para introdução e testes em áreas de produção comercial de alface.An important issue when choosing cultivars for specific environmental conditions is to estimate the marketable production, which indicates the potential production per area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the marketable production of lettuce cultivars under the soil and climatic conditions of Bananeiras, Paraíba, Brazil, during the rainy season. The experiment was carried out as a complete randomized blocks design with eight cultivars (Cindy, Elba, Grand Rapids, Kaesar, Mimosa, Sabrina

  1. Determining the Pollinizer for Pecan Cultivars

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    Fereidoon Ajamgard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the best pollinizer for five selected pecan cultivars in southwest of Iran at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center in 2014-2015. The cultivars included: 'GraTex', '10J', 'Wichita 6J', 'GraKing', 'Choctaw' as pollinated cultivars (♀ and 'GraTex', 'Peruque', 'Comanche 4M', '10J', 'Wichita 6J', 'Mohawk', 'Mahan', 'Stuart 2J', '3J', 'Stuart 4J', 'GraKing', 'Choctaw', 'Apache', '6M', 'Wichita 7J' and 'Comanche 5M.' as pollinizer cultivars (♂. In the first step, a pollination chart of cultivars was determined in two years. The pollination chart of cultivars showed that all the cultivars investigated during this study were dichogamous and also protogynous except for the 'Peruque'. ‘GraKing’ had the longest duration of shedding pollen. Pollination chart showed that 'Peruque', ‘GraKing’, and 'Stuart 2J' had flowering overlap with the selected cultivars. Pollen germination test showed that the germination ability was different among the cultivars. It was 45% for 'GraKing' and 35% for 'Peruque', which were both recommended as pollinizers in this study. '6M', 'GraTex' and 'Stuart 4J' cultivars had the highest pollen germination percentage of 65%, 60% and 60%, respectively. The results of controlled pollinationtest showed that different pollen sources had no significant effect on nuts per cluster but self-pollinated all of the cultivars significantly reduced fruit set in first and second years. Based on the present research, pollination in pecan orchard was necessary for adequate yield. Also, 'Peruque', 'GraKing' and 'Stuart 2J' were the best pollinizers for five selected cultivars in southwest of Iran.

  2. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

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    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  3. Agronomic evaluation of guano sources by means of isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Arrillaga, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Many soils of the tropics and subtropics under continuous cultivation are very infertile, thus poor yields are obtained and little crop residues remain to protect the soils from degrading erosion. External nutrient inputs in the form of chemical fertilizers, organic materials and other nutrients sources are essential for developing sustainable agricultural production systems. As chemical fertilizers are costly for developing countries with insufficient foreign currency for their purchase and their supplies are limited and irregular for small landholders, alternative nutrient sources must be sought and evaluated for use in dominant agricultural production systems. Locally available organic materials of different origin are potential sources of nutrients. One such source with high agronomic potential is guano. The present study was carried out to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of two guano materials of different origin (Zaire and Peru) as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus as compared to chemical fertilizers (ammonium sulfate and triple superphosphate) using isotopic ( 15 N and 32 P) techniques. Using the classical method of comparing dry matter weight and P uptake, no significant differences among the tested guano sources were found. The use of the isotopic techniques allowed a quantitative assessment of the N and P supply to crops. Both guano materials were found to be good sources of N but in contrast were poor sources of phosphorus. In addition, from the agronomic evaluation, it was found that the guano of Zaire and the ammonium sulfate were N sources of equivalent efficiency and the guano of Peru even slightly better than the ammonium sulfate. As expected, P in the single superphosphate was as available to the P in the triple superphosphate. However, the substitution ratios for the guano sources were relatively high. Thus, 1 kg P as single superphosphate was equivalent to 9.5 kg P as guano from Zaire or 12.5 kg P as guano from Peru. Further field trials in

  4. Molecular analysis of commercial date palm cultivars in Lybia using ISSR and SRAP PCR-based markers

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    Khalifa Noha S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular structure of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. despite its importance as invaluable drought tolerant crop. Intervarietal variation and cultivar identification are crucial for breeding and gene bank conservation of this plant worldwide. In this work, two PCR based marker systems (ISSR and SRAP were applied on top quality eight commercial cultivars in Libya (Umfetity, Bekrary, Alhamraya, Sufeer Genab, Alsaeedy Show, Farag Barameel, Majhool Alheelo and Alkhadraya. DNA variations were explored using eleven ISSR and nine combinations of SRAP markers. All markers used generated polymorphic bands among the different cultivars that can be used as molecular markers for their differentiation. The genetic distance between cultivars was also estimated from banding patterns. Our results indicate that ISSR and SRAP systems can efficiently identify and differentiate between the selected cultivars. This work can be used as a model to establish a road map for all date palm cultivars worldwide.

  5. Agronomic performance of common bean in straw mulch systems and topdressing nitrogen rates in no-tillage

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    Tatiana Pagan Loeiro da Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn no-tillage systems, straw coverage on soil surface is the key to success, and the choice of crops for rotation is crucial to achieve the sustainability and quality that conservation agriculture requires. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of the common bean cultivar IAC Formoso sown in succession to three straw mulch systems (corn alone, corn/Urochloa ruziziensisintercrop and U. ruziziensisalone and topdress nitrogen rates (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1N, at the four-leaf stage, three years after the implementation of no-tillage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block split plot design, with three replications. Common bean highest yields were achieved in succession to U. ruziziensisalone and intercropped with corn. The corn/U. ruziziensisintercrop provided both straw and seed production, allowing for quality no-tillage. Topdressed nitrogen influenced the common bean yield when in succession to corn alone, U. ruziziensisalone and corn/U. ruziziensisintercrop in no-tillage.

  6. Yellow berry, protein and agronomic characteristics in bread wheat under different conditions of nitrogen and irrigation in northwest mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, F.R.; Wong, B.R.; Chavez, P.I.T.; Alviles, A.; Salazar, S.M.; Martinez, M.E.R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and number of irrigations on the YB disorder of wheat cultivar Tarachi, as well as its relationship with protein content, and the agronomic characteristics. The experiment was conducted in northwestern Mexico, during the fall-winter season, 2009-2010. Three levels of nitrogen (75, 150 or 250 kg ha-1) and three levels of irrigation (3, 4 or 5 irrigations) were studied. Increasing the nitrogen rate decreased the YB content, the thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight; and increased the protein content and the number of grains per spike. The number of irrigations did not affect the number of grains per spike. However, increasing the number of irrigations increased the YB content, the thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight; on the other hand, the protein content decreased. A negative correlation between protein content and percentage of YB was presented. It was concluded that the presence of the disorder YB in bread wheat, Tarachi, is due to a low nitrogen rate in the soil and an increase in number of irrigations. (author)

  7. Unraveling the genetic structure of Brazilian commercial sugarcane cultivars through microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manechini, João Ricardo Vieira; da Costa, Juliana Borges; Pereira, Bruna Turcatto; Carlini-Garcia, Luciana Aparecida; Xavier, Mauro Alexandre; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Pinto, Luciana Rossini

    2018-01-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry plays an important role in the worldwide supply of sugar and ethanol. Investigation into the genetic structure of current commercial cultivars and comparisons to the main ancestor species allow sugarcane breeding programs to better manage crosses and germplasm banks as well as to promote its rational use. In the present study, the genetic structure of a group of Brazilian cultivars currently grown by commercial producers was assessed through microsatellite markers and contrasted with a group of basic germplasm mainly composed of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum accessions. A total of 285 alleles was obtained by a set of 12 SSRs primer pairs that taken together were able to efficiently distinguish and capture the genetic variability of sugarcane commercial cultivars and basic germplasm accessions allowing its application in a fast and cost-effective way for routine cultivar identification and management of sugarcane germplasm banks. Allelic distribution revealed that 97.6% of the cultivar alleles were found in the basic germplasm while 42% of the basic germplasm alleles were absent in cultivars. Of the absent alleles, 3% was exclusive to S. officinarum, 33% to S. spontaneum and 19% to other species/exotic hybrids. We found strong genetic differentiation between the Brazilian commercial cultivars and the two main species (S. officinarum: [Formula: see text] = 0.211 and S. spontaneum: [Formula: see text] = 0.216, Pcommercial cultivars. Average dissimilarity within cultivars was 1.2 and 1.4 times lower than that within S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Genetic divergence found between cultivars and S. spontaneum accessions has practical applications for energy cane breeding programs as the choice of more divergent parents will maximize the frequency of transgressive individuals in the progeny.

  8. Resistance of canola cultivars affect life table parameters of Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae

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    Mollashahi Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A life table can be used as an important and appropriate tool to evaluate the susceptibility or resistance level of different host plant cultivars to insect pests. In the current study, we determined the suitability or inferiority of five different canola cultivars (Hayula420, Hayula401, Hayula50, Hayula60, RGS to Nysius cymoides, under laboratory conditions. Data were analysed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Nysius cymoides which fed on Hayula420 had the longest nymphal period, while those which fed on Hayula50 had the shortest nymphal period. Developmental times (sum of incubation and nymphal periods was longest for those which fe d on Hayula420 and the shortest for those which fed on Hayula50. The adult pre-oviposition period (APOP, total pre-oviposition period (TPOP, mean fecundity, and adult longevity of adults reared on different canola cultivars showed significant differences. The highest and lowest net reproductive rates (R0 were obtained for those which fed on Hayula420 (11.40 offspring per individual and Hayula401 (5.47 offspring per individual, respectively. The highest value (0.0395 d-1 for the intrinsic rate of increase (r was obtained for those which fed on Hayula 60 cultivar and the lowest value (0.0261 d-1 for those which fed on Hayula401 cultivar. The shortest and longest mean generation times (T were obtained for those which fed on RGS and H401 cultivars, respectively. The lowest and highest values of life expectancy (exj were obtained for those which fed on RGS and Hayula420 cultivars, respectively. The results showed that Hayula401 and RGS were not susceptible cultivars to N. cymoides. These cultivars showed higher resistance to N. cymoides, while Hayula60, Hayula420, and Hayula50 were found to be suitable cultivars but with lower resistance to N. cymoides, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of the chemical and nutritional characteristics of almonds (Prunus dulcis (Mill). D.A. Webb) as influenced by harvest time and cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summo, Carmine; Palasciano, Marino; De Angelis, Davide; Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2018-04-30

    Several authors studied the effect of harvest time on chemical and nutritional composition of almonds, but the results are partly conflicting, probably due to differences in the cultivars considered and to different agronomic and climatic conditions in the growing areas. In this paper the influence of harvest time and cultivar on the chemical and nutritional composition of almonds (Prunus dulcis (Mill). D.A. Webb) was evaluated. Ten cultivars were considered, grown in the same orchard and subjected to the same agronomical regime. Almonds were collected at two different harvest times: i) when the fruits were unripe, but already edible, and showed green and moist hull, and ii) when the fruits were ripe, with dry brown hull. The analyses of proximate composition, fatty acid profile, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were carried out. Lipid content increased (palmonds. Genotype strongly influenced fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds. The changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity suggest that the synthesis of antioxidants occur also in the last stage of ripening. Unripe almonds, a valuable niche product, showed interesting nutritional value. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate

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    O.M. Yamashita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal

  11. Cosmeceutical Properties of Two Cultivars of Red Raspberry Grown under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papaioanou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant selection, input, and field management are proven strategies that produce high yields of crops bearing selected desirable characteristics for the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industry. This study reports on the effect of substrate and light on selected quantitative and qualitative bioactive properties of two cultivars of Rubus idaeus L (‘Ruvi’ and ‘Cayuga’. Our results demonstrated that the quantitative and qualitative fruit characteristics (yield, fruit dimensions, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids contents, plant growth, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and total antioxidant capacity, are significantly affected by genotype, light intensity, and substrate type. Fruits from ‘Ruvi’ plants cultivated under low light conditions, on soil/peat substrate exhibited high levels of antioxidant capacity, phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and high inhibitory potency towards the skin-regulating enzymes tyrosinase and elastase. Extract derived from these fruits was formulated into a topical skin care cream. This cream exhibited excellent compatibility and stability characteristics. Our research concluded that quantity and quality of Rubus idaeus L. fruits could be efficiently managed through conventional agronomic practices. Our project determined the optimal agronomic management practices to produce desirable characteristics and maximize bioactive content that determine the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical quality of the red raspberry.

  12. Metabolite profiling of leek (Allium porrum L) cultivars by (1) H NMR and HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Tuula H; Jukarainen, Niko; Soininen, Pasi; Auriola, Seppo O K; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J

    2014-01-01

    Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) is consumed as a vegetable throughout the world. However, little is known about the metabolites of leek cultivars, especially those with potentially important beneficial properties for human health. We provide new information for the overall metabolite composition of several leek cultivars grown in Europe by using HPLC-MS and (1) H NMR. The use of a novel CTLS/NMR (constrained total-line-shape nuclear magnetic resonance) approach was found to be capable of reliable quantification, even with overlapping metabolite signals in the (1) H NMR of plant metabolites. Additionally, a new application for leek flavonoids was optimised for HPLC-MS. The total concentration of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, kestose/nystose and sucrose) and nine amino acids varied by fourfold in leek juice from different cultivars, while the total concentrations of four organic acids were similar in all cultivars. All the quantified flavonols were kaempferol derivatives or quercetin derivatives and threefold differences in flavonol concentrations were detected between cultivars. In this study, various phytochemical profiles were determined for several leek cultivars by (1) H NMR spectroscopy with CTLS combined with HPLC-MS. The wide variation in bioactive compounds among commercial leek cultivars offers promising opportunities for breeders to raise the levels of important biochemical compounds in leek breeding lines, and also provides some objective measure for quality assurance for the leek industry. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Obtention of microtubers and minitubers as pre basic seed in tree Peruvian potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Tapia y Figueroa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In potato (Solanum tuberosum L. seed certification programs, the use of in vitro plants, microtubers and minitubers as pre-basic seed are of great importance, especially in countries such as Peru, where there is a need to eradicate the informal production of the seed to promote new plantations. The present work had as objective to obtain of microtubers and minitubers as pre-basic seed in three Peruvian potato cultivars. When comparing the effect of both factors (method and cultivar in the number of seeds per plant it was possible to state that with the exception of the cultivar 'Capiro', no differences were found between both methods of seed production for the rest of the cultivars. This result is very important since it shows that it is possible to use both methods of pre-basic seed production for cultivars 'Canchan' and 'Papa3'. In the cultivar 'Capiro' a greater number of minitubers was achieved per plant, but its low fresh mass, which could prevent its use as a basic seed. Other studies are required to adjust the culture conditions to achieve better results in this cultivar.   Keywords: certified seed, genotype, in vitro techniques

  14. The agronomic characters of a high protein rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harn, C.; Won, J.L.; Choi, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    Mutant lines (M 5 -M 9 ) of macro-phenotypic traits from several varieties were screened for the protein content. Mutant 398 (M 9 ) is one of the high protein mutants selected from Hokwang. Three years' tests revealed that it has a high protein line under any condition of cultivation. Except for early maturity and short culmness, other agronomic and yield characters were similar to the original variety. There was no difference between the mutant 398 and its mother variety in grain shape and weight, and also the size and protein content of the embryo. The high protein content of the mutant is attributable to the increase of protein in the endosperm. About 150 normal-looking or a few days-earlier-maturing selections were made from Jinheung variety in the M 3 and screened for protein. Promising lines in terms of the plant type, yield and protein were obtained. (author)

  15. Agronomical and phytochemical evaluation of Stevia rebaudiana genotypes

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    Vouillamoz, José F.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The agronomical potential and the phytochemical variability of 18 genotypes of the Paraguayan plant Stevia rebaudiana have been investigated in Switzerland in order identify the best genotype for local cultivation. Over a two years period, yields in dry leaves ranged from 10 to 170 g m-2, with a percentage of leaves ranging from 53 to 75 %. HPLC analyses showed a notable variability in phytochemical composition, with stevioside content ranging from 0.3 to 7.9 % w/w and rebaudioside A from 0.3 to 6.5 % w/w. Cultivation of S. rebaudiana in Switzerland is feasible. With a density of 10 plants per m2, the potential yields of dry matter are approximately 1-2 t ha-1. The most productive genotypes (Pharmasaat, Hem Zaden, Stepa and Mediplant 3 and 11 will be submitted to the industry for organoleptic evaluation.

  16. Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Jivanti): Botanical, Agronomical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Biotechnological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sudipta Kumar; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Anuradha, Maniyam

    2017-06-19

    Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin. However, most biological studies on L. reticulata are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are yet to be identified in order to base the traditional uses of L. reticulata on evidence-based data. At present, L. reticulata is a threatened endangered plant because of overexploitation, unscientific harvesting, and habitat loss. The increased demand from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and veterinary industries has prompted its large-scale propagation. However, its commercial cultivation is hampered because of the non-availability of genuine planting material and the lack of knowledge about its agronomical practices. In this regard, micropropagation techniques will be useful to obtain true-to-type L. reticulata planting materials from an elite germplasm to meet the current demand. Adopting other biotechnological approaches such as synthetic seed technology, cryopreservation, cell culture, and genetic transformation can help conservation as well as increased metabolite production from L. reticulata. The present review summarizes scientific information on the botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects of L

  17. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  18. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of 27 cultivars of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Luo, Liyong; Li, Hongjun; Liu, Ruihai

    2017-08-01

    Tea, rich in phytochemicals, has been suggested to have human health benefits. The phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 27 tea cultivars were determined. Wide ranges of variation were found in analyzed cultivars for the contents of water-soluble phenolics (121.6-223.7 mg/g dry weight (DW)), total catechins (TC) (90.5-177.2 mg/g DW), antioxidant activities (PSC values 627.3-2332.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW, ORAC values (1865.1-3489.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW), CAA values (37.7-134.3 μmol of QE/g DW without PBS wash and 25.3-75.4 μmol of QE/g DW with PBS wash) and antiproliferative activity (53.0-90.8% at the concentration of 400 μg/mL extracts). The PSC, ORAC and CAA values were significantly correlated with phenolics, epicatechin gallate (ECG), CC and TC. Knowledge of specific differences among tea cultivars is important for breeding tea cultivars and gives sights to its potential application to promote health.

  19. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

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    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  20. Common bean cultivars response to lime surface application under no tillage systemResposta de cultivares de feijoeiro comum à calagem superficial em semeadura direta

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    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil acidity in no tillage system, if not in high situations, can be neutralized by lime surface application, improving mineral nutrition and crop yield. Aiming to evaluate the agronomic performance of common bean cultivars, to surface lime application, in no tillage system, an experiment was conducted in Oxisol, Botucatu Municipal District, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was a complete randomized block in split plot with four replications, where the plots were formed by common bean cultivars (Carioca, IAC Carioca Eté, Pérola, IAPAR 81 e Campeão 2 and subplots consisted of surface application of dolomitic limestone (zero, 1.8 t ha-1, 3.6 t ha-1 and 5.4 t ha-1. The surface lime application on the soil occurred in October 2002 and subsequently the sequence millet (spring – beans (summer – oat (autumn-winter were planted under rainfed conditions. Bean cultivars sowing were done on December 17, 2003. It can be concluded that there is influence of cultivars and limestone surface application under no tillage, where IAPAR 81 showed better grain yield with the increase of lime rates, obtaining values of 2,025 kg ha-1 without the lime application to 2,655 kg ha-1 with 5.4 t ha-1 lime rate, obtaining 31% yield increase. A acidez do solo no sistema de semeadura direta, caso não se encontre em situações elevadas, pode ser resolvida com aplicação superficial de calcário, melhorando a nutrição mineral e a produtividade das culturas. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de feijoeiro, em razão da aplicação superficial de calcário, em semeadura direta, foi realizado um experimento num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em Botucatu (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições, onde as parcelas foram formadas por cultivares de feijão comum (Carioca, IAC Carioca Eté, Pérola, IAPAR 81 e Campeão 2 e as subparcelas constitu

  1. PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES AND AGRONOMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF BARBADOS ALOE (ALOE VERA (L. BURM. F. - A REVIEW.

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    Barbara De Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe and America.In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems.

  2. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  3. Zinc fertilization in cowpea cultivars

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    Francisco de Brito Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants, due to its role as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor in a large number of enzymes. The element is necessary for the synthesis of tryptophan, which is a precursor of indoleacetic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two cowpea cultivars fertilized with four doses of Zn (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg of Zn ha-1 regarding dry grain yield (PGS, in addition to quantifying leaf and grain Zn content and grain crude protein. The experiment was conducted in the town of Brejo, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A 4 x 2 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Response functions were adjusted by calculating the Zn doses which provided a maximum technical efficiency for each genotype. The tested cultivars of cowpea showed no great difference regarding Zn demand applied to the soil, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 kg of Zn ha-1 for BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, respectively. Concerning Zn use efficiency, BRS Guariba was more responsive than was BRS Tumucumaque, i.e. the same dose of Zn produced 70 kg grain and 2.1 kg crude protein per hectare.

  4. Developing native Vaccinium crops and cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium species have long been harvested from the wild. Breeding and cultivar development, however, did not begin until about 1911 in New Jersey with efforts to commercially cultivate northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Cultivar development spread to cranberry (V. macrocarpon) and ...

  5. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  6. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  7. Genetic identification and characterization of Armenian grapevine cultivars

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    Nebish Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Armenia is an important area of crop origins including grapes. The objectives of this study were the molecular characterization of 38 Armenian grape genotypes and the detection of the genetic relationships between the accessions. In total, 164 alleles were obtained at 18 SSRs loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 15 with a mean number of 9.17 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.514 (VVIN73 to 0.90 (VVS2 and the observed heterozygosity from 0.417 (VVIV37 to 0.947 (VVMD7 and VMC1B11. In our research the highest values of polymorphic information content (PIC were obtained using markers VVS2, VRZAG62 and VRZAG79, while the least informative ones were VVIN73 and VVIB01. A high level of gene diversity was observed between ancient and new bred cultivars. Higher values were recorded for the new grape varieties, (He = 0.792 and lower values for ancient cultivars (He = 0.739. The mean number of alleles (MNA for all loci per population ranged from 7.39 in ancient to 8,00 in new crosses. A clear separation was observed for the groups of ancient aboriginal cultivars, Vitis vinifera L.xVitis vinifera L. and Vitis vinifera L. x Vitis amurensis Rupr .crosses, which were bred in Armenia and seedless cultivars. Very close relationships with high similarity were determined for 5 pairs of cultivars. Two cases of possible homonymy were also detected. Our results are the basis for future MAS selection and target breeding.

  8. Induction of mutagenized tomato populations for investigation on agronomic traits and mutant phenotyping

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    Rafiul Amin Laskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for tomato production increased tremendously due to its diverse utility in raw, cooked and processed form of food. This necessitates the continued supply of highly nutritious and better yielding improved cultivars to the producers, considering the rapid changing agro-climatic condition. In this study, induced mutant tomato populations of widely recommended tomato genotype Arka Vikas (Sel-22 were generated using chemical mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS, hydrazine hydrates (HZ and their combined treatments. In the in vitro study, a gradual reduction in germination percentage and seedling height occurred with the increasing concentrations of mutagens. Combination of EMS and HZ caused maximum biological inhibition followed by EMS and HZ treatments alone in M1 generation. The rate of survival and fertility in M1 plants of tomato was found highly affected due to mutagenic treatment, in which sensitivity toward combined treatment was found highest followed by EMS and HZ. Inspection on induced phenotypic variations in individual plants of M2 population resulted in identification and isolation of wide range of mutants with altered phenotypes. Highest mutation frequency was resulted by combined mutagens followed by the EMS and HZ treatment. Agronomic trait analyses showed intra and inter treatment variations in three quantitative traits (Plant height, fertile branch per plant and fruits per plant of M2 mutagenized population. Assessment on rate of mutant recovery in M2 population showed highest mutant recovery is possible with combination treatments and then 0.02% HZ followed by 0.02% EMS. In the present study, phenotyping of the mutants revealed that vegetative organs (‘plant size’, ‘plant habit’ and ‘leaf morphology’ was the most sensitive category (69.33% to which most of the mutant belongs, followed by ‘fruit color and size’ (20.27% and ‘germination’ (9.79%. Comparative investigation on number of mutants and

  9. QTL underlying some agronomic traits in barley detected by SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jibin; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Li, Chengdao; Liu, Lipan; Wang, Qifei; Du, Binbin; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-07-07

    Increasing the yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a main breeding goal in developing barley cultivars. A high density genetic linkage map containing 1894 SNP and 68 SSR markers covering 1375.8 cM was constructed and used for mapping quantitative traits. A late-generation double haploid population (DH) derived from the Huaai 11 × Huadamai 6 cross was used to identify QTLs and QTL × environment interactions for ten traits affecting grain yield including length of main spike (MSL), spikelet number on main spike (SMS), spikelet number per plant (SLP), grain number per plant (GP), grain weight per plant (GWP), grain number per spike (GS), thousand grain weight (TGW), grain weight per spike (GWS), spike density (SPD) and spike number per plant (SP). In single environment analysis using composite interval mapping (CIM), a total of 221 QTLs underlying the ten traits were detected in five consecutive years (2009-2013). The QTLs detected in each year were 50, 48, 41, 41 and 41 for the year 2009 to 2013. The QTLs associated with these traits were generally clustered on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H. In multi-environment analysis, a total of 111 significant QTLs including 18 for MSL, 16 for SMS, 15 for SPD, 5 for SP, 4 for SLP, 14 for TGW, 5 for GP, 11 for GS, 8 for GWP, and 15 for GWS were detected in the five years. Most QTLs showed significant QTL × environment interactions (QEI), nine QTLs (qIMSL3-1, qIMSL4-1, qIMSL4-2, qIMSL6-1, qISMS7-1, qISPD2-7, qISPD7-1, qITGW3-1 and qIGWS4-3) were detected with minimal QEI effects and stable in different years. Among 111 QTLs,71 (63.40 %) QTLs were detected in both single and multiple environments. Three main QTL cluster regions associated with the 10 agronomic traits on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H were detected. The QTLs for SMS, SLP, GP and GWP were located in the region near Vrs1 on chromosome 2H. The QTLs underlying SMS, SPD and SLP were clustered on chromosome 4H. On the terminal of chromosome 7H, there was a QTL

  10. A new avenue for classification and prediction of olive cultivars using supervised and unsupervised algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H Beiki

    Full Text Available Various methods have been used to identify cultivares of olive trees; herein we used different bioinformatics algorithms to propose new tools to classify 10 cultivares of olive based on RAPD and ISSR genetic markers datasets generated from PCR reactions. Five RAPD markers (OPA0a21, OPD16a, OP01a1, OPD16a1 and OPA0a8 and five ISSR markers (UBC841a4, UBC868a7, UBC841a14, U12BC807a and UBC810a13 selected as the most important markers by all attribute weighting models. K-Medoids unsupervised clustering run on SVM dataset was fully able to cluster each olive cultivar to the right classes. All trees (176 induced by decision tree models generated meaningful trees and UBC841a4 attribute clearly distinguished between foreign and domestic olive cultivars with 100% accuracy. Predictive machine learning algorithms (SVM and Naïve Bayes were also able to predict the right class of olive cultivares with 100% accuracy. For the first time, our results showed data mining techniques can be effectively used to distinguish between plant cultivares and proposed machine learning based systems in this study can predict new olive cultivars with the best possible accuracy.

  11. Metabolic phenotyping of various tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars and understanding of their intrinsic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyang-Gi; Lee, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Kyeong Hwan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Park, Jun Seong; Hong, Young-Shick

    2017-10-15

    Recently, we selected three tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivars that are rich in taste, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3″Me) and then cultivated them through asexual propagation by cutting in the same region. In the present study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR)-based metabolomics was applied to characterize the metabotype and to understand the metabolic mechanism of these tea cultivars including wild type tea. Of the tea leaf metabolite variations, reverse associations of amino acid metabolism with catechin compound metabolism were found in the rich-taste, and EGCG- and EGCG3″Me-rich tea cultivars. Indeed, the metabolism of individual catechin compounds in the EGCG3″Me-rich cultivar differed from those of other tea cultivars. The current study highlights the distinct metabolism of various tea cultivars newly selected for cultivation and the important role of metabolomics in understanding the metabolic mechanism. Thus, comprehensive metabotyping is a useful method to assess and then develop a new plant cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

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    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEED STORAGE PROTEINS IN SOME IRANIAN DATE PALM CULTIVARS USING SDS-PAGE

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    Sayed Mohammad Reza Khoshroo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is most adapted tree to grow in desert areas. It has always been looked on as a key source of stability, survival and evolution of the oasis agro-system since it constitutes the basic features of the ecological pyramid in desert regions. Determining genetic variability and cultivars identification in date palm are two major important factors in breeding programs, characterization of germplasm, and conservation purposes. The genetic variation of seed proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE for 9 cultivars in Shahdad region in Iran. A total of 16 alternative protein bands with different mobility rates were identified within a molecular weight range of 11 KDa to 350 KDa. Then, electrophorogram for each cultivar was scored, and Jaccard‘s Similarity Index was calculated. Relying on UPGMA and NJ methods, genetic diversity of cultivars was evaluated by constructing the dendrogram for protein bands. Moreover, genetic distance was calculated for all of the cultivars.  It is concluded that seed storage protein profiles could be useful markers in genetic diversity studies and classification of cultivars. The cultivars from Shahdad were well separated from each other. This might have been done due to their unique genetic build-up. The cluster analysis displayed five major classes. In order to precise this assumption, data were computed to perform a PCA. Cluster analysis and PCA demonstrated their validity in establishing genetic diversity. When PCA was studied, the previously described results about Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram were also visualized.

  14. Cell wall alterations in the leaves of fusariosis-resistant and susceptible pineapple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Viégas Aquije, Glória Maria; Zorzal, Poliana Belisário; Buss, David Shaun; Ventura, José Aires; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Fusariosis, caused by the fungus Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. ananas (Syn. F. guttiforme), is one of the main phytosanitary threats to pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus). Identification of plant cell responses to pathogens is important in understanding the plant-pathogen relationship and establishing strategies to improve and select resistant cultivars. Studies of the structural properties and phenolic content of cell walls in resistant (Vitoria) and susceptible (Perola) pineapple cultivars, related to resistance to the fungus, were performed. The non-chlorophyll base of physiologically mature leaves was inoculated with a conidia suspension. Analyses were performed post-inoculation by light, atomic force, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and measurement of cell wall-bound phenolic compounds. Non-inoculated leaves were used as controls to define the constitutive tissue characteristics. Analyses indicated that morphological differences, such as cell wall thickness, cicatrization process and lignification, were related to resistance to the pathogen. Atomic force microscopy indicated a considerable difference in the mechanical properties of the resistant and susceptible cultivars, with more structural integrity, associated with higher levels of cell wall-bound phenolics, found in the resistant cultivar. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were shown to be the major phenolics bound to the cell walls and were found in higher amounts in the resistant cultivar. Leaves of the resistant cultivar had reduced fungal penetration and a faster and more effective cicatrization response compared to the susceptible cultivar.

  15. Glucosinolates, Carotenoids, and Vitamins E and K Variation from Selected Kale and Collard Cultivars

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    Moo Jung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates, carotenoids, and fat-soluble vitamins E and K contents were analyzed from various kale and collard cultivars at mature stage. We found a significant difference in these phytonutrients among cultivars. Among kale cultivars, “Beira” and “Olympic Red” were the highest in the total glucosinolate and “Toscano” kale was the highest in total carotenoid content. “Scarlet” kale was highest in tocopherols. For collard, total glucosinolate was the highest in “Top Bunch” while carotenoids were the highest in “Green Glaze.” An accession PI261597 was the highest in phylloquinone. In addition to the total content of each phytonutrient class, their composition differed among cultivars, indicating that each cultivar may have differential regulatory mechanisms for biosynthesis of these phytonutrients. Our result indicates that cultivar selection may play an important role in consumption of kale and collard with greater nutritional benefit. Therefore, the result of this study will provide a more thorough profile of essential and nonessential phytonutrients of kale and collard cultivars for consumers’ choice and for future research on nutritional value of these crops.

  16. Genetic Relationships Among Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Native to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Bakir, Melike; Ulas, Mehmet; Sakar, Zeynep Mujde

    2016-08-01

    Olive is a widely cultivated, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and economically important fruit species used as both olive oil and table olive consumption. In Turkey, more than 50 olive cultivars have been authorized for commercial plantations, representing the developmental base for the olive industry. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic relationships among the most widely grown 27 olive cultivars in Turkey, using microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers. Nine well-known foreign olive cultivars from different countries are also included in the study to compare the Turkish cultivars. To determine genetic relationship and diversity, 10 SSR loci (DCA3, DCA9, DCA15, DCA18, UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO24, UDO28) were used. Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the UPGMA method for cluster analysis were performed using the software NTSYSpc. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranging from 4 (UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, DCA15) to 12 (DCA9) presenting high polymorphism. There were no identical cultivars. High similarity was shown by cultivars Maviand Adana topağı (0.754). The most genetically divergent cultivars, Domat-Meski (0.240) and Domat-NizipYağlık (0.245), were also identified.

  17. Nutritional composition of new Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Díaz, NC-2 and Florunner were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash, amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Díaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha. Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm.The main sterol present was βsitosterol (approx. 65%. Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications.

    Se estudio el rendimiento agrícola y composición química (proteína, grasa, carbohidratos, fibra y cenizas, perfil de amino ácidos, digestibilidad, perfil de ácidos grasos, contenido de tocoferol y de esteroles de seis variedades de cacahuate (Arachis hypogaea L. Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81B, Ranferi Díaz, NC-2 y Florunner. Los resultados mostraron que el mayor rendimiento se logró en las variedades Ranferi Díaz y Col-61-Gto (6.3 Ton/ha. El contenido de proteína fue de 23.5 a 26.6% y el contenido de grasa en un intervalo de 49.8 a 53.4%. La digestibilidad promedio de las seis variedades fue de 86%. El contenido de lisina y treonina en la proteína de todas las variedades fue suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos del humano. La composición del aceite

  18. Caracterização molecular de cultivares de pessegueiro e nectarineira com microssatélites Molecular characterization of peach and nectarine cultivars though microsatellites markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na certificação de mudas de plantas frutíferas, a identificação genética é importante em todas as etapas do processo de produção. Em pessegueiro, a identificação de genótipos baseada somente em características morfofenológicas deixa dúvidas quanto à verdadeira identidade de algumas cultivares. Marcadores moleculares de microssatélies foram utilizados objetivando a caracterização molecular de 8 cultivares de nectarineira e 28 de pessegueiro. Para a análise, foram utilizados 13 incializadores de microssatélites (primers, sendo que todos foram marcadores produzindo polimorfismo suficiente para identificar 32 das 36 cultivares analisadas. A maior similaridade genética verificada nas cultivares para consumo in natura foi entre Coral e Planalto (0,94 e entre Della Nona e Marfim (0,90, enquanto, para os pessegueiros para indústria, foi de 0,93 entre Jubileu e Capdeboscq e de 0,92 entre Jade e Esmeralda. Os marcadores de microssatélites permitiram separar em grupos distintos as nectarineiras e os pessegueiros de consumo in natura dos de indústria, havendo uma elevada concordância entre os dados genealógicos das cultivares e os dados gerados pelos microssatélites, confirmando a grande utilidade da técnica para a caracterização genética.Genetic identification of fruit tree plants is important in all phases of the production process. On peach the genotypes identification based only on the morphologic and phenologic characteristics leaves doubts on the true identity of some cultivars. Microsatellite markers were used aiming at the molecular characterization of eight nectarine and 28 peach cultivars. Thirteen microsatellite primers were used and all of them generated enough polimorfism that may identify 32 out of 36 of the analysed cultivars. The greatest genetic similarity was found between the fresh market 'Coral' and 'Planalto'(0,94 and between the 'Della Nona' and 'Marfim' cultivars (0,90, whereas for caning peaches the

  19. Differences in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi among Three Coffee Cultivars in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Lebrón, Ligia; Lodge, D. Jean; Bayman, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is important for growth of coffee (Coffea arabica), but differences among coffee cultivars in response to mycorrhizal interactions have not been studied. We compared arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) extraradical hyphae in the soil and diversity of AM fungi among three coffee cultivars, Caturra, Pacas, and Borbón, at three farms in Puerto Rico. Caturra had significantly lower total extraradical AM hyphal length than Pacas and Borbón at all locations. P content did not differ a...

  20. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiencies for soybeans and maize cultivated in different agronomic zones: A case study of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, E M; Cuchietti, A; Cabrol, D; González, A D

    2018-06-01

    Of all human activities, agriculture has one of the highest environmental impacts, particularly related to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, energy use and land use change. Soybean and maize are two of the most commercialized agricultural commodities worldwide. Argentina contributes significantly to this trade, being the third major producer of soybeans, the first exporter of soymeal and soybean oil, and the third exporter of maize. Despite the economic importance of these crops and the products derived, there are very few studies regarding GHG emissions, energy use and efficiencies associated to Argentinean soybean and maize production. Therefore, the aim of this work is to determine the carbon and energy footprint, as well as the carbon and energy efficiencies, of soybeans and maize produced in Argentina, by analyzing 18 agronomic zones covering an agricultural area of 1.53millionkm 2 . Our results show that, for both crops, the GHG and energy efficiencies at the Pampean region were significantly higher than those at the extra-Pampean region. The national average for production of soybeans in Argentina results in 6.06ton/ton CO 2 -eq emitted to the atmosphere, while 0.887ton of soybean were produced per GJ of energy used; and for maize 5.01ton/ton CO 2 -eq emitted to the atmosphere and 0.740ton of maize were produced per each GJ of energy used. We found that the large differences on yields, GHGs and energy efficiencies between agronomic regions for soybean and maize crop production are mainly driven by climate, particularly mean annual precipitation. This study contributes for the first time to understand the carbon and energy footprint of soybean and maize production throughout several agronomic zones in Argentina. The significant differences found in the productive efficiencies questions on the environmental viability of expanding the agricultural frontier to less suitable lands for crop production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Codianni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  3. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  4. Avaliação de cultivares de soja, sob manejo orgânico, para fins de adubação verde e produção de grãos Evaluation of soybean cultivars under organic management for green manuring and grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Parron Padovan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de seis cultivares de soja, sob manejo orgânico, para fins de adubação verde e produção de grãos. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições por tratamento (cultivar. Na época da colheita, 81 dias após a emergência das plântulas, todas as cultivares testadas (Celeste, Surubi, Campo Grande, Mandi, Lambari e Taquari mostraram excelente nodulação, variando de 545 a 760 mg/planta de massa nodular seca. As cultivares Celeste e Taquari, que produziram, respectivamente, 8,33 e 7,12 t ha-1 de biomassa seca da parte aérea, apresentaram outras características agronômicas vantajosas, tais como: ciclo curto, alta acumulação de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca e Mg nos tecidos verdes e bom rendimento de sementes. Esses caracteres indicam potencial de 'Celeste' e 'Taquari' para adubação verde de verão em sistemas de agricultura orgânica. Cinco das cultivares avaliadas revelaram tendência ao acamamento, porém dentro de níveis aceitáveis. As cultivares Celeste, Surubi, Campo Grande, Mandi e Taquari suplantaram em 23%, 32%, 33%, 44% e 70%, respectivamente, a média nacional de produtividade de soja, estimada em 2.398 kg ha-1 nas últimas três safras.The objective of this work was to evaluate the grain and aboveground biomass production of six soybean cultivars under organic management. A randomized block design was adopted with four replications per treatment (cultivar. By harvest time, 81 days after plants emergence, all tested cultivars (Celeste, Surubi, Campo Grande, Mandi, Lambari, and Taquari had excellent nodulation ranging from 545 to 760 mg/plant of nodule mass (dry weight. The cultivars Celeste and Taquari, which yielded 8.33 and 7.12 t ha-1 of dry biomass, respectively, showed other advantageous agronomic characteristics such as: short cycle, a high accumulation of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg in green tissues, and good seed setting. These

  5. Perennial pastures for marginal farming country in southern Queensland. 2. Potential new grass cultivar evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Silcock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials in the Condamine-Balonne basin, Australia, compared 11 promising perennial pasture grass accessions (4 Bothriochloa, 2 Cenchrus, 2 Urochloa and 1 each of Digitaria, Eragrostis and Panicum species against the best similar commercial cultivars on the basis of ease of establishment from seed, persistence once established, forage yield and ease of seed production.  Accessions sown at a site were determined by prior experience with them on a range of soils.  High quality seed was relatively easy to produce for both Urochloa species and for Eragrostis curvula CPI 30374 but problematic for the Bothriochloa spp.  Once established, all accessions persisted for 3–5 years and most were well grazed, but adequate establishment was sometimes a problem with Panicum stapfianum and Bothriochloa ewartiana.  The dry matter yield ratings of the non-commercial lines were similar to those of the commercial equivalents of the same species.  While agronomically valuable, none of the promising new grasses was considered worthy of commercialization at this point because their strengths did not warrant the setting up of a seed-production business in competition with current commercial enterprises.  Long-standing cultivars such as Gayndah buffel and Nixon sabi grass continued to exhibit their superior pasture qualities.Keywords: Herbicide tolerance, persistence, forage yield, establishment ease, commercialization, seed production.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(315-26

  6. Effect of Some Agronomic Practices to Increase Maize Yield in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Some Agronomic Practices to Increase Maize Yield in Ghana. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... With the increasing population and consumption of maize in the country, research must be directed to solve this problem ...

  7. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use efficiencies of canola (Brassica napus L.) grown in selected localities of the Western Cape province, South Africa. Wonder Ngezimana, Gert A. Agenbag ...

  8. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of agronomic traits in Indian Mucuna pruriens using an intraspecific F₂population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, S; Leelambika, M; Jaheer, Md; Anithakumari, A M; Sathyanarayana, N

    2016-03-01

    Mucuna pruriens is a well-recognized agricultural and horticultural crop with important medicinal use. However, antinutritional factors in seed and adverse morphological characters have negatively affected its cultivation. To elucidate the genetic control of agronomic traits, an intraspecific genetic linkage map of Indian M. pruriens has been developed based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers using 200 F₂ progenies derived from a cross between wild and cultivated genotypes. The resulting linkage map comprised 129 AFLP markers dispersed over 13 linkage groups spanning a total distance of 618.88 cM with an average marker interval of 4.79 cM. For the first time, three QTLs explaining about 6.05-14.77% of the corresponding total phenotypic variation for three quantitative (seed) traits and, eight QTLs explaining about 25.96% of the corresponding total phenotypic variation for three qualitative traits have been detected on four linkage groups. The map presented here will pave a way for mapping of genes/QTLs for the important agronomic and horticultural traits contrasting between the parents used in this study.

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME WILD AND CULTIVATED ISATIS SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    KIZIL, Süleyman

    2006-01-01

    The study evaluated Isatis tinctoria, I. constricta, I. glauca, I. cochlearis, I. aucheri and I. demiriziana during 2002-03 and 2003-04 growing seasons for different agronomic characteristics affecting the percentage of dye in them. The results showed wide variations in the agronomic characteristics of Isatis constricta, Isatis cochlearis, Isatis aucheri, Isatis demiriziana collected from wild; compared to culture Isatis tinctoria and Isatis glauca. I. tinctoria showed early emergence (36 day...

  10. 抗灰斑病大豆品种农艺性状、品质性状与产量性状的典型相关分析%Canonical Correlation Analysis for Agronomic Trait Group, Quality Trait Group and Yield in Soybean Immune to Grey Speck Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于凤瑶; 辛秀珺; 张代军; 周顺启

    2012-01-01

    To study the relationship between agronomic trait groups yield and quality trait groups of grey speck immune soybean, Canonical correlation analysis in 17 soybean cultivars and the establishment of a comprehensive selection index for yield are reported in this paper. The result showed that: the most important factors for seed yield are yield group's seed per plant, 3-seed pod, pods per plant; agronomic trait group's growth period, knot per plant and plant height, agronomic character and yield group are positively correlated. Growth days and 100-seed weight are positively correlated, bottom pod height and 4-seed pod are negatively correlated; canonical correlation coefficient between agronomic character and quality group has reached the significant level; growth days and protein content are positively correlated, middle height plant, moderate grow period, more knots per plant, low pod position, middle seed, more seed per plant in yield character should be chose as breeding goal, protein content can be improved by selection of grow days and 100-seed weight character.%为了探究抗灰斑病大豆品种农艺性状、产量性状、品质性状间的相互关系,选用了近年黑龙江省审定的17个抗灰斑病的大豆品种为试验材料,对其各性状及性状组基因型值进行相关与典型相关分析,并建立了以产量性状为目标的各性状选择指数.结果表明:对单株产量影响最大的是产量性状组的单株粒数、3粒荚数、单株荚数;农艺性状组的生育期、单株节数及株高,农艺性状与产量性状组间以正相关为主;生育日数与百粒重呈正相关、底荚高与4粒荚数呈负相关;品质性状与农艺性状组间典型相关系数达显著水平;且生育日数与蛋白质含量呈正相关,产量性状的选择应以株高中等、生育期适中、单株多有效节数、较低的结荚部位、粒中等大、单株粒数多为选育目标,蛋白质含量的提高可通过生育日

  11. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Aijanio Gomes de Brito; Goncalves Junior, Murilo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Costa, Janaina Ribeiro; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m -1 ). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m -1 density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m -1 1density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  12. Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dyulgerov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley. For this purpose, 22 lines from the ICARDA High Input Barley Program for favorable environment and 3 check varieties (Rihane-03, VMorales and Veslets were tested in an alpha-lattice design with two replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015 growing season. The traits days to heading, plant height, number of tillers per plant, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, spike length, awn length, peduncle length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei infection were studied. Significant differences between lines for all studied traits were found. The number of fertile tillers per plant was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Lines expressed higher grain yields, shorter stem, better tolerance to net blotch and stripe rust than Bulgarian check variety Veslets were identified. These genotypes can, therefore, be used as parents for the improvement of spring barley.

  13. Agronomic and environmental implications of enhanced s-triazine degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutz, L. J.; Dale L. Shaner,; Mark A. Weaver,; Webb, Richard M.; Zablotowicz, Robert M.; Reddy, Krishna N.; Huang, Y.; Thompson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Novel catabolic pathways enabling rapid detoxification of s-triazine herbicides have been elucidated and detected at a growing number of locations. The genes responsible for s-triazine mineralization, i.e. atzABCDEF and trzNDF, occur in at least four bacterial phyla and are implicated in the development of enhanced degradation in agricultural soils from all continents except Antarctica. Enhanced degradation occurs in at least nine crops and six crop rotation systems that rely on s-triazine herbicides for weed control, and, with the exception of acidic soil conditions and s-triazine application frequency, adaptation of the microbial population is independent of soil physiochemical properties and cultural management practices. From an agronomic perspective, residual weed control could be reduced tenfold in s-triazine-adapted relative to non-adapted soils. From an environmental standpoint, the off-site loss of total s-triazine residues could be overestimated 13-fold in adapted soils if altered persistence estimates and metabolic pathways are not reflected in fate and transport models. Empirical models requiring soil pH and s-triazine use history as input parameters predict atrazine persistence more accurately than historical estimates, thereby allowing practitioners to adjust weed control strategies and model input values when warranted. 

  14. EST-SSR marker revealed effective over biochemical and morphological scepticism towards identification of specific turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ambika; Jena, Sudipta; Kar, Basudeba; Sahoo, Suprava; Ray, Asit; Singh, Subhashree; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-05-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., family Zingiberaceae) is one of the most economically important plants for its use in food, medicine, and cosmetic industries. Cultivar identification is a major constraint in turmeric, owing to high degree of morphological similarity that in turn, affects its commercialization. The present study addresses this constraint, using EST-SSR marker based, molecular identification of 8 elite cultivars and 88 accessions in turmeric. Fifty EST-SSR primers were screened against eight cultivars of turmeric (Suroma, Roma, Lakadong, Megha, Alleppey Supreme, Kedaram, Pratibha, and Suvarna); out of which 11 primers showed polymorphic banding pattern. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of these primers ranged from 0.13 to 0.48. However, only three SSR loci (CSSR 14, CSSR 15, and CSSR 18) gave reproducible unique banding pattern clearly distinguishing the cultivars 'Lakadong' and 'Suvarna' from other cultivars tested. These three unique SSR markers also proved to be effective in identification of 'Lakadong' cultivars when analysed with 88 accessions of turmeric collected from different agro-climatic regions. Furthermore, two identified cultivars (Lakadong and Suvarna) could also be precisely differentiated when analysed and based on phylogenetic tree, with other 94 genotypes of turmeric. The novel SSR markers can be used for identification and authentication of two commercially important turmeric cultivars 'Lakadong' and 'Suvarna'.

  15. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars reveals its karyotype variations and sex chromosomes constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumova, Olga V; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Divashuk, Mikhail G; Sukhorada, Tatiana I; Karlov, Gennady I

    2016-05-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L., 2n = 20) is a dioecious plant. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation. The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. The DNA of 210 monoecious plants was used for PCR analysis with the male-associated markers MADC2 and SCAR323. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the subtelomeric CS-1 probe to chromosomes plates and karyotyping revealed a lack of Y chromosome and presence of XX sex chromosomes in monoecious cultivars with the chromosome number 2n = 20. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected. The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants.

  16. Effect of Nano Iron and Solupotasse Fertilizers on Accumulation of Nutrient Elements and Quality of Two Onion (Allium cepa Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Joghatay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of nano iron and solupotass on agronomic and physiological traits of two onion cultivars, a factorial experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design with 32 treatments and three replications in Joghatai of Khorasan-e- Razavi province, Iran. Treatments consisted of two onion cultivars (red, yellow and four levels (0, 1, 2, 3 kg per hectare of nano iron chelat and four levels of solupotass (0, 5, 10, 15 kg per hectare. Results showed that the effect of nano iron and solupotasse on fresh weight, dry weight, pyrovic acid and macro element (N, P, S contents were significant at %1 levels. Application nano iron, solupotasse to red onion cultivar increased dry weight significantly at the %5 level. Highest onion weight was obtained by using 2 kg nano iron and 15 kg solupotasse (17.3 g. Use of nano iron and solupotasse highly increased the pyruvic acid percentage (1.07 mM. Highest rate of pyruvic acid obtained by application of 3 and 15 kg nano iron and solupotasse respectively. Application of nano iron on the sulfur and nitrogen contents of onion were significant. Use of 2 kg/ha of nano iron exhibited highest increase in these elements. Thus, soil application of 10 kg/ha solupotasse, 3 kg/ha nano iron would highly increase red onion traits mentioned above.

  17. Adaptation of cotton cultivars | Wondimu | African Crop Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For each cultivar a linear regression of yield on the mean yield of all cultivars for each year was computed to measure cultivar adaptation. The cultivars with the highest mean yield exhibited a similar degree of adaptation to different environments with regression coefficient close to 1.0. For example, the breeding lines, Acala ...

  18. SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS OF PRATA,JAPIRA AND VITÓRIA BANANA CULTIVARS PROVEN BY CHLOROPHYLL a FLUORESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA NOBRES DOS SANTOS

    the banana life cycle and important tool for distinguishing different cultivars yields.

  19. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  20. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  1. IPR 82-Araucária, cultivar de batata para olericultura sustentável IPR 82-Araucária, potato cultivar for sustainable vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scotti

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas as principais características agroindustriais e morfológicas de uma nova cultivar de batata lançada pelo IAPAR, em parceria com a Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília (DF e a Embrapa Semente Básica, Canoinhas (SC. "IPR 82-Araucária" foi selecionada de populações clonais introduzidas do CIP, Lima-Peru, por meio da Embrapa Hortaliças e avaliada nas Estações Experimentais do IAPAR desde 1984. A nova cultivar apresentou como fatores positivos alta produtividade comercial e resistência de campo à requeima, permitindo prever reduções em até 50% no uso de fungicidas para o controle da doença. A suscetibilidade à mancha chocolate e sarna comum evidenciaram a necessidade de manejo adequado de densidade e época de plantio, calagem e irrigação para minimizar os riscos de ocorrência dessas doenças. Com essas características, "IPR 82-Araucária" apresenta potencial para atender às demandas de produtores orgânicos e para produção em áreas de mananciais de água.The main agronomic, industrial, and morphological characteristics of a new Brazilian potato cultivar released by IAPAR, Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília-DF and Embrapa Sementes Básicas, Canoinhas-SC are presented. "IPR 82-Araucária" has been selected from clonal populations derived from crosses done in CIP, Lima, Peru, and introduced for field evaluations in 1984. High yield and field resistance to late blight have been the main features of the new cultivar, allowing to predict reductions as much as 50% in fungicides applications. Susceptibility to internal brown necrosis and common scab requires special farmer's attention in respect of planting density, liming, and irrigation management to decrease risks of incidence of these diseases. "IPR 82-Araucária" is potentially suited for organic farming, and for growing in areas close to water resources.

  2. Mutation breeding of autotetraploid Achimenes cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1976-01-01

    Colchicine-induced autotetraploids of three Achimenes cultivars were irradiated with X-rays or fast neutrons. The results were compared, in one cultivar, with those of the irradiated diploid form. The mutation frequency after irradiation of the autotetraploid was a 20-40 fold higher as compared to the corresponding diploid. These results may open new possibilities for mutation breeding, though they are hard to explain. Several promising mutants were selected. (author)

  3. Preferência da broca-das-cucurbitáceas [Diaphania nitidalis Cramer, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae] por cultivares de pepineiro em ambiente protegido Pickleworm [Diaphania nitidalis Cramer, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae]preference for cucumber cultivars in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Greigh de Brito

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A broca-das-cucurbitáceas (Diaphania nitidalis é uma praga de grande importância em diversas culturas, principalmente do pepineiro. Esta espécie pode apresentar preferência em relação a determinadas cultivares quanto à sua alimentação e até mesmo oviposição. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar a ocorrência desta praga em frutos de seis cultivares de pepineiro, em ambiente protegido. As cultivares Patton, Victoria, Premier, Vlaspik e Napoleon apresentaram, respectivamente, 50%, 43,75%, 37,50%, 34,37% e 25,87% dos frutos brocados. A cultivar Marinda apresentou resultado promissor, com apenas 10,37% dos frutos com presença de larvas de D. nitidalis.The pickleworm (Diaphania nitidalis is a major pest on different crops, particulary on cucumber. This species has shown a preference for determined cultivars to its feeding and oviposition habits. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of D. nitidalis larvae in fruits of six cucumber cultivars in greenhouse. The cultivars Patton, Victoria, Premier, Vlaspik and Napoleon showed, respectively, 50%, 43.75%, 37.50%, 34.37% and 25.87% of bored fruits. Promising results were obtained with the cultivar Marinda, which showed only 10.37% of bored fruits.

  4. Considerations on the research and dissemination of agricultural knowledge by the Facultad de Agronomía

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    Gustavo A Ligarreto M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to mark the 50-year-history of the Facultad de Agronomía of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, this article reviews the beginning of agronomy in Colombia, the creation of the Facultad de Agronomía, the development of the Escuela de Posgrados, and the launching of the journal Agronomia Colombiana; and analyzes the prioritization of research as a function of undergraduate thesis and theses from 1970 to 2012 and of the articles published in Agronomia Colombiana for 30 years. The fruits of its labor show that the Facultad strengthened the discipline of Crop protection in its first two decades with important advances in crops of flowers and cacao and went on to strengthen the fields of Crop physiology, Plant breeding, Soil and water, Economy and rural development, resulting in diversification to fruits, vegetables, the potato, flower species and perennial crops, showing how the Facultad's mission of teaching, research and continuing education has contributed to the development of the agricultural sector in Colombia

  5. Enhancing Brassinosteroid Signaling via Overexpression of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum SlBRI1 Improves Major Agronomic Traits

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    Shuming Nie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses through the receptor, Brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1, which perceives BRs and initiates BR signaling. There is considerable potential agricultural value in regulating BR signaling in crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum BRI1 gene, SlBRI1, on major agronomic traits, such as seed germination, vegetative growth, fruit ethylene production, carotenoid accumulation, yield, and quality attributes. SlBRI1 overexpression enhanced the endogenous BR signaling intensity thereby increasing the seed germination rate, lateral root number, hypocotyl length, CO2 assimilation, plant height, and flower size. The transgenic plants also showed an increase in fruit yield and fruit number per plant, although the mean weight of individual fruit was reduced, compared with wild type. SlBRI1 overexpression also promoted fruit ripening and ethylene production, and caused an increase in levels of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, and soluble sugars during fruit ripening. An increased BR signaling intensity mediated by SlBRI1 overexpression was therefore positively correlated with carotenoid accumulation and fruit nutritional quality. Our results indicate that enhancing BR signaling by overexpression of SlBRI1 in tomato has the potential to improve multiple major agronomic traits.

  6. New cultivars of jujube induced by mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, V.T.; Tuynh, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Mutation breeding of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lin.) received attention by the Food Crops Research Institute since 1978. Mutations can be directly released as new cultivars or indirectly as bud grafting source. N-methyl-N-nitroso urea (MNH) was used at a concentration of 0.02-0.04% for 12 h treatment of pre-germinated seeds of different jujube cultivars. Some useful mutants were selected and directly released as new cultivars to farmers. Of the selected mutants two cultivars, ''Ma hong'' and ''Dao tien'', are the most preferable and popularly grown in the country. ''Ma hong'' is a mutant of ''Gia Loc'', a very popular cultivar. Main useful traits of ''Gia Loc'' such as early maturing, two crops of fruits per year are maintained (harvest in December and August). ''Ma hong'' has round-formed, pink rose coloured, sweeter fruits and stable fruit yield in off-season (Aug.) as compared with oval-formed, yellow-coloured and sour fruit of ''Gia Loc''. ''Dao tien'' is a mutant of the local variety ''Thien Phien'' with quite different traits. The original cultivar is late maturing (harvested in Feb.) with one crop of fruit per year and has small fruits (mean wt. of fruit at harvest 20 g). ''Dao tien'' is one month earlier in maturing allowing two crops of fruit per year (harvested in Jan. and Nov.). Fruits are round-formed, bigger (mean wt. of fruit: 25 g) and more tasteful (peach-flavored and brittle). (author)

  7. Applied Mathematics for agronomical engineers in Spain at UPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Fabregat, J.; Sanchez, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Mathematics, created or discovered, are a global human conceptual endowment, containing large systems of knowledge, and varied skills to use definite parts of them, in creation or discovery, or for applications, e.g. in Physics, or notably in engineering behaviour. When getting upper intellectual levels in the 19th century, the agronomical science and praxis was noticeably or mainly organised in Spain in agronomical engineering schools and also in institutes, together with technician schools, also with different lower lever centres, and they have evolved with progress and they are much changing at present to a EEES schema (Bolonia process). They work in different lines that need some basis or skills from mathematics. The vocation to start such careers, that have varied curriculums, contains only some mathematics, and the number of credits for mathematics is restrained because time is necessary for other initial sciences such as applied chemistry, biology, ecology and soil sciences, but some basis and skill of maths are needed, also with Physics, at least for electricity, machines, construction, economics at initial ground levels, and also for Statistics that are here considered part of Applied Mathematics. The ways of teaching mathematical basis and skills are especial, and are different from the practical ways needed e. g. for Soil Sciences, and they involve especial efforts from students, and especial controls or exams that guide much learning. The mathematics have a very large accepted content that uses mostly a standard logic, and that is remarkably stable and international, rather similar notation and expressions being used with different main languages. For engineering the logical basis is really often not taught, but the use of it is transferred, especially for calculus that requires both adapted somehow simplified schemas and the learning of a specific skill to use it, and also for linear algebra. The basic forms of differential calculus in several

  8. Identification of rice cultivar with exclusive characteristic to Cd using a field-polluted soil and its foreground application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie; Wei, Shuhe; Niu, Rongcheng; Li, Yunmeng; Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Jiangong

    2013-04-01

    Using low-accumulative plant, especially excluder crop, to safely produce food is one of the very important technologies of phytoremediation, which is practical to safe production and long-term remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil. A pot experiment using field cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil (Cd concentration was 0.75 mg kg(-1)) was conducted to compare Cd accumulation differences among 39 normal rice cultivars (Japonica) in Shenyang region of China for food safety and high grain yield aim. The results showed that brown grain Cd concentration in 12 rice cultivars of a total of 39 tested cultivars was lower than 0.2 mg kg(-1) (Agricultural Trade Standard of Nonpollution Food for Rice of China, NY 5115-2008). In these 12 cultivars, Cd enrichment factors (Cd concentration ratio in shoot to that in soil) of nine cultivars were lower than 1. Likewise, Cd translocation factors (Cd concentration ratio in shoot to that in root) of eight cultivars were lower than the 0.28 average. Furthermore, grain yield per pot of seven cultivars were higher than the average 18.4 g pot(-1). Four cultivars, i.e., Shendao 5, Tianfu 1, Fuhe 90, and Yanfeng 47 showed Cd-exclusive characteristic and better foreground application.

  9. Agronomic and chemical characteristics of hybrid corn to ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Borges de Assis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate agronomic and chemical characteristics of corn hybrids to ensiling. It were evaluated nine corn hybrids (MX 300, RB 9308, 2B655, XB 6012, GNZ 2500, PL6890, PRE 32D10, PRE 22T10 e AG 1051, with three replicates. The higher fresh matter yield were observed in the hybrids PL6890 and PRE 32D10, while the dry matter yield was observed in the hybrid PRE 32D10 (13.43 t ha-1. The hybrids PRE 32D10 and PRE 22T10 stood out to present higher percent of leaf in relation to whole plant, while the lower percent of stems was found in the hybrids MX 300, 2B655 and XB 6012, however the higher leaves: stems relation was found in XB 6012 (0.49. There was higher CP content in the hybrid PRE 32D10 (9.10% of DM, while the lower NDF (57.78% of DM and cellulose content (24.27% of DM were observed in the hybrid GNZ 2500. The hybrid PL6890 presented higher ADF and lignin contents, the others hybrids had values lower. The lower NDIN content was observed in the hybrid RB 9308, while the lower AIDN content occurred on the hybrid 2B655. The lower buffer capacity was observed in the hybrid 2B655 (0.29. There are some differences on chemical composition among the corn hybrids used in this study, however, it is recommended to use the hybrids MX 300, PL6890 and PRE 32D10 for showing higher dry matter yield, which may reflect in the amortization of silage production costs.

  10. Kinetic parameters of silicon uptake by rice cultivars

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    Priscila Oliveira Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is considered an important chemical element for rice, because it can improve tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, in many situations no positive effect of silicon was observed, probably due to genetic factors. The objective of this research was to monitor Si uptake kinetics and identify responses of rice cultivars in terms of Si uptake capacity and use. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, factorial design with three replications. that consisted of two rice cultivars and two Si levels. Kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, and Cmin, root morphology variables, dry matter yield, Si accumulation and levels in shoots and roots, uptake efficiency, utilization efficiency, and root/shoot ratio were evaluated. Higher Si concentrations in the nutrient solution did not increase rice dry matter. The development of the low-affinity silicon uptake system of the rice cultivar 'Caiapó' was better than of 'Maravilha'.

  11. Assessing the Effect of Planting Date on Safflower Cultivars Growth and Seed Yield in Rafsanjan Condition

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    F Khatib

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate cultivar and planting date is the most important principles of agronomy; therefore, the aim of the present study was to consider the growth indices of different safflower cultivars and their relationships with seed yield. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted as factorial in randomized block design with four replicates included three planting dates (4 April, 25 April and 16 May and four safflower cultivars (411, Sina, Local Esfahan and Sofeh. The maximum leaf area index (2.33 obtained in the first planting date that it was not significantly different with the second planting date but it decreased up to 70% in the third planting date. In the first planting date, the maximum LAI obtained for Local Esfahan and 411 cultivars. Maximum total dry matter was 124.2 g m-2 for the first planting date that it decreased up to 31 and 78% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date Sina and Local Esfahan cultivars had the higher dry matter. Maximum crop growth rate for the first planting date was 38.84 g m-2d-1 that it decreased up to 41 and 66% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date, the highest total dry matter obtained for the Local Esfahan cultivar. The results showed that the maximum value of seed yield dedicated to 411 and Local Esfahan cultivars that it had the high correlation with maximum total dry matter. In respect to the present study, it is suggested to use 411 or Local Esfahan cultivars in the first planting date.

  12. Variability in Susceptibility to Anthracnose in the World Collection of Olive Cultivars of Cordoba (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Xaviér, Carlos J; Viruega, José R; Roca, Luis F; Caballero, Juan; Trapero, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose of olive ( Olea europaea ssp. europaea L.), caused by Colletotrichum species, is a serious disease causing fruit rot and branch dieback, whose epidemics are highly dependent on cultivar susceptibility and environmental conditions. Over a period of 10 years, there have been three severe epidemics in Andalusia (southern Spain) that allowed us to complete the assessment of the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Córdoba, one of the most important cultivar collections worldwide.A total of 308 cultivars from 21 countries were evaluated, mainly Spain (174 cvs.), Syria (29 cvs.), Italy (20 cvs.), Turkey (15 cvs.), and Greece (16 cvs.). Disease assessments were performed using a 0-10 rating scale, specifically developed to estimate the incidence of symptomatic fruit in the tree canopy. Also, the susceptibility of five reference cultivars was confirmed by artificial inoculation. Because of the direct relationship between the maturity of the fruit and their susceptibility to the pathogen, evaluations were performed at the end of fruit ripening, which forced coupling assessments according to the maturity state of the trees. By applying the cluster analysis to the 308 cultivars, these were classified as follows: 66 cvs. highly susceptible (21.4%), 83 cvs. susceptible (26.9%), 66 cvs. moderately susceptible (21.4%), 61 cvs. resistant (19.8%), and 32 cvs. highly resistant (10.4%). Representative cultivars of these five categories are "Ocal," "Lechín de Sevilla," "Arbequina," "Picual," and "Frantoio," respectively. With some exceptions, such as cvs. Arbosana, Empeltre and Picual, most of the Spanish cultivars, such as "Arbequina," "Cornicabra," "Hojiblanca," "Manzanilla de Sevilla," "Morisca," "Picudo," "Farga," and "Verdial de Huévar" are included in the categories of moderately susceptible, susceptible or highly susceptible. The phenotypic evaluation of anthracnose reaction is a limiting factor for the selection of olive cultivars by farmers, technicians, and breeders.

  13. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

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    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quantification and identification of biogenic amines by HPLC were performed. Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine, were found in all evaluated cultivars. By principal component analysis (PCA, treatments can be divided into two groups, according to the cultivar. Juices obtained from 'Isabel Precoce' are characterized by higher levels of total sugar content and soluble solids; however, juices from 'BRS Cora' are positively correlated with phenolic content, anthocyanins, and color and acidity parameters. The differences found by PCA for juices from the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora cultivars indicate that, regardless of the rootstock used, the most important factor in the chemical characterization of juices is the grape cultivar.

  14. [Introduction of upland rice cultivars to eastern Keerqin sandy land and their biological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dehui; Zhang, Chunxing; Wang, Guirong; Fan, Zhiping

    2004-10-01

    Developing water-saving rice cultivation is one important strategy for food security in China. This paper reported the experimental results of introducing six upland rice cultivars to eastern Keerqin sandy land. The field experiment results showed that under the condition of 60% water-saving, the yield of cultivars XH 95-13 and XH 95-13-6 was 10.2% and 5.5% higher than the control, respectively, while other four cultivars decreased by 6.7%-18.6%. Economically, all the cultivars except JP 121 had a higher income than the control, and the profitability of cultivars XH 95-13 and XH 95-13-6 reached 24.0% and 19.3%, respectively. The water productivity of all the six cultivars was over 0.566 kg x m(-3), increased by 59.89%-116.38%. Pot experiment showed that 12.1%-16.3% of soil moisture in 0-15 cm layer was beneficial to the growth of upland rice. In eastern Keerqin sandy land, effective tillers occurred before July 18. In brief, upland rice production could be extensively applicable in eastern Keerqin sandy land to gradually alternate the traditional lowland rice cultivation with continuous flooding, and save much underground water.

  15. Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Some Apricot Cultivars Grown in Zanjan Region

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    sanaz molaie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. has special position in Iran fruit culture industry. In terms of cultivation and producing, Iran is one of the major countries in the world but in terms of export Iran is ranked 23. For this reason, research on necessities of fruit culture industries and access to new cultivars by breeding project is required. Obviously, paying attention to quality and quantity of products and using of local germplasm that known completely, played a significant role in this project. Apricot with genomic feature 2n=16, has extensive diversity due to sexual propagation and cultivation in different areas. Central Asia and Caucasian groups of apricot that involving Iranian and Turkish cultivars, have greatest phenotypic variations, while European group including cultivars that cultivated in North America, Australia and South Africa have the lowest diversity. Climate adaptation, increasing of fruits quality, self-compatibility and resistance to diseases are the most important goals of apricot breeding. Of course, the quality of fruits depends on sugar and acid balance and special aroma. One of the important targets of apricot breeding is introduce and develop of cultivars that can be cultivated in extensive areas. Target of recent study is primary evaluating of morphological and pomological traits of some cultivar and genotypes of apricot grown in Zanjan province. In order to introduce the cultivars that produces fruit with high quality and complete scientific researches to selection of ideal cultivars in this region for future. Method and material: This research carried out on four cultivars (Badami, Daneshkadeh, Shekarpareh, Shahroodi and two genotypes (C and D and was conducted in a completely randomize design with three replications. Evaluating of tree, branch, leaf, flower and some fruit traits performed based on existing descriptor. For determining some important pomological traits, fruits harvested in commercial time

  16. Characterization of Mangifera indica cultivars in Thailand based on macroscopic, microscopic, and genetic characters

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    Aunyachulee Ganogpichayagrai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai mango cultivars are classified into six groups plus one miscellaneous group according to germplasm database for mango. Characterization is important for conservation and the development of Thai mango cultivars. This study investigated macroscopic, microscopic leaf characteristics, and genetic relationship among 17 cultivars selected from six groups of mango in Thailand. Selected mango samples were obtained from three different locations in Thailand (n = 57. They were observed for their leaf and fruit macroscopic characteristics. Leaf measurement for the stomatal number, veinlet termination number, and palisade ratio was evaluated under a microscope attached with digital camera. DNA fingerprint was performed using CTAB extraction of DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR amplification. Forty-five primers were screened; then, seven primers that amplified the reproducible band patterns were selected to amplified and generate dendrogram by Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Average. These selected 17 Thai mango cultivars had individually macroscopic characteristics based on fruits and leaves. For microscopic characteristics, the stomatal number, veinlet termination number, and palisade ratio were slightly differentiable. For genetic identification, 78 bands of 190-2660 bps were amplified, of which 82.05% were polymorphic. The genetic relationship among these cultivars was demonstrated and categorized into two main clusters. It was shown that ISSR markers could be useful for Thai mango cultivar identification.

  17. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadjayé Faouziath Sanoussi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca, and compare them with the farmers’ and processors’ perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%, starch (24.47% to 25.5% and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%, low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%, and cyanide (50 mg/kg contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers’ perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  18. Severidade de ferrugem polissora em cultivares de milho e seu efeito na produtividade Severity of southern rust in maize cultivars and its effect on yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dudienas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem polissora, causada por Puccinia polysora Underw. é uma das doenças mais destrutivas da cultura do milho, ocorrendo em importantes áreas de produção desta cultura no Brasil. A principal forma de controle desta doença é o uso de cultivares resistentes, havendo no mercado um grande número de cultivares com diferentes graus de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de cultivares comerciais de milho quanto à resistência à ferrugem polissora, em diferentes localidades no Estado de São Paulo, correlacionando com a produtividade. Foram avaliados 50 híbridos simples e triplos (HST e 22 híbridos duplos e variedades de milho (HDV em uso pelos agricultores no ano agrícola 2005/2006 quanto à sua reação à ferrugem polissora em seis locais nas regiões oeste e centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo. Nos experimentos com HST, as cultivares mais resistentes e que tiveram as maiores produtividades foram: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 e Impacto. Dentre os HDV, destacaram-se como as mais resistentes e apresentando as maiores produtividades: 30S40 e AG 2040. A redução de produtividade em função da severidade da ferrugem polissora, avaliada no estádio de grãos pastosos, variou de 3,5% para cultivares com aproximadamente 2,5% de área foliar afetada a 20,3% para cultivares com, em média, 39% de área foliar afetada, em relação às cultivares com maior resistência à doença (1,4% de área foliar afetada.Southern rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw., has become one of the most destructive diseases affecting maize, occurring in important areas of production of this crop in Brazil. Using resistant cultivars is the most efficient means to control this disease, and there are a large number of cultivars with different resistance degrees in the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of commercial maize cultivars for resistance to southern rust in different

  19. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  20. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  1. Genetic study of various agronomic traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, F.; Khan, I.A.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of already existing genetic variability in the breeding material, as well as, the creation of new variability along with the genetic understanding of various agronomic traits is of crucial importance, in order to develop potential sources of cotton. For this purpose, 5 X 6 complete diallel cross experiment was conducted during 2003-04, involving 5 strains i.e. VH-55, MNH-516, ACALA-SJ-4, A-8100 and CRIS-420, to evaluate gene-action, general and specific combining ability for number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, plant height, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and yield of seed cotton. Additive type of gene action, with partial dominance for all the traits studied, was observed. Most dominant genes for boll weight, yield of seed-cotton, and number of sympodial branches were observed in CRIS-420, while maximum dominant genes for number of monopodial branches, plant height were observed in ACALA-SJ-4. Variety VH-55 carried maximum dominant genes for number of bolls per plant. Recessive genes for the number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, plant height, number of bolls per plant and yield of seed-cotton, were exhibited by MNH-516. The variety ACAU-SJ-4 showed harmonius combination for bolls per plant and yield of seed-cotton, whereas CRIS- 420 was found a good general combiner for plant height and number of sympodial branches. (author)

  2. Prediction of industrial tomato hybrids from agronomic traits and ISSR molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A S T; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Da-Silva, P R; Fagundes, B S; Morales, R G F

    2016-05-13

    Heterosis is a highly relevant phenomenon in plant breeding. This condition is usually established in hybrids derived from crosses of highly divergent parents. The success of a breeder in obtaining heterosis is directly related to the correct identification of genetically contrasting parents. Currently, the diallel cross is the most commonly used methodology to detect contrasting parents; however, it is a time- and cost-consuming procedure. Therefore, new tools capable of performing this task quickly and accurately are required. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic divergence in industrial tomato lines, based on agronomic traits, and to compare with estimates obtained using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The genetic divergence among 10 industrial tomato lines, based on nine morphological characters and 12 ISSR primers was analyzed. For data analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the genetic dissimilarity measures estimated by Mahalanobis distance and Jaccard's coefficient of genetic dissimilarity from the heterosis estimates, combining ability, and means of important traits of industrial tomato. The ISSR markers efficiently detected contrasting parents for hybrid production in tomato. Parent RVTD-08 was indicated as the most divergent, both by molecular and morphological markers, that positively contributed to increased heterosis and by the specific combining ability in the crosses in which it participated. The genetic dissimilarity estimated by ISSR molecular markers aided the identification of the best hybrids of the experiment in terms of total fruit yield, pulp yield, and soluble solids content.

  3. Genetic and agronomic evaluation of induced semi-dwarf mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Induced semi-dwarf mutants have played an important role in California's rapid shift from nearly all tall rice varieties in 1978 to nearly all semi-dwarf varieties at present. In 1981 over half of the California rice area was planted with semi-dwarf varieties carrying the induced mutant semi-dwarfing gene sd 1 , while much of the other half was planted to a variety deriving its semi-dwarfism from IR8. The sd 1 mutant is allelic to the major semi-dwarfing gene in DGWG and IR8. Current objectives are to determine the inheritance of new semi-dwarf mutants, including allelism tests with sd 1 , and to evaluate the agronomic potential of nonallelic sources and of double-dwarfs. To date semi-dwarf mutants from 10 varieties have been partially or completely evaluated. At least three nonallelic semi-dwarfing genes, sd 1 , sd 2 , and sd 4 , have been described. Rather than attempt to determine all possible allelic relationships of new mutants, crosses are being made only to the reference sd 1 source, since sd 1 , still seems to be the most productive semi-dwarfing gene source. However, nonallelic semi-dwarf mutants in the varieties M5 and Labelle may be useful if genetic vulnerability from widespread usage of the sd 1 source becomes a problem. (author)

  4. Assessment of heritability and genetic advance for agronomic traits in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN NIKKHAHKOUCHAKSARAEI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the amount of heritability for desirable agronomic characteristics and the genetic progress associated with grain yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., a split plot experiment was carried out with four replications during three cropping seasons (2009-2012. Three sowing dates (as environmental factor and six durum wheat varieties (as genotypic factor were considered as main and sub factors respectively. Analysis of variance showed interaction effects between genotypes and environments in days to ripening, plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, number of spikes per unit area, grain mass and grain yield. The grain yield showed the highest positive correlation with number of grains per spike also grain mass (91 % and 85 %, respectively. A relatively high heritability of these traits (82.1 % and 82.2 %, respectively suggests that their genetic improvement is possible. The maximum genetic gain (19.6 % was observed for grain mass, indicating this trait should be a very important indicator for durum wheat breeders, although the climatic effects should not be ignored.

  5. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea eLarranaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra and A. purpurea and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa. The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  6. Genome-wide association studies dissect the genetic networks underlying agronomical traits in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Ma, Yanming; Wu, Shiwen; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Rui; Hu, Guanghui; Zhou, Zhengkui; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Min; Pan, Yi; Zhou, Guoan; Ren, Haixiang; Du, Weiguang; Yan, Hongrui; Wang, Yanping; Han, Dezhi; Shen, Yanting; Liu, Shulin; Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jixiang; Qin, Hao; Yuan, Jia; Yuan, Xiaohui; Kong, Fanjiang; Liu, Baohui; Li, Jiayang; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wang, Guodong; Zhu, Baoge; Tian, Zhixi

    2017-08-24

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is one of the most important oil and protein crops. Ever-increasing soybean consumption necessitates the improvement of varieties for more efficient production. However, both correlations among different traits and genetic interactions among genes that affect a single trait pose a challenge to soybean breeding. To understand the genetic networks underlying phenotypic correlations, we collected 809 soybean accessions worldwide and phenotyped them for two years at three locations for 84 agronomic traits. Genome-wide association studies identified 245 significant genetic loci, among which 95 genetically interacted with other loci. We determined that 14 oil synthesis-related genes are responsible for fatty acid accumulation in soybean and function in line with an additive model. Network analyses demonstrated that 51 traits could be linked through the linkage disequilibrium of 115 associated loci and these links reflect phenotypic correlations. We revealed that 23 loci, including the known Dt1, E2, E1, Ln, Dt2, Fan, and Fap loci, as well as 16 undefined associated loci, have pleiotropic effects on different traits. This study provides insights into the genetic correlation among complex traits and will facilitate future soybean functional studies and breeding through molecular design.

  7. Estimation of loss of genetic diversity in modern Japanese cultivars by comparison of diverse genetic resources in Asian pear (Pyrus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Sogo; Takada, Norio; Saito, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-14

    Pears (Pyrus spp.) are one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions. Japanese pear breeding has been carried out for over 100 years, working to release new cultivars that have good fruit quality and other desirable traits. Local cultivar 'Nijisseiki' and its relatives, which have excellent fruit texture, have been repeatedly used as parents in the breeding program. This strategy has led to inbreeding within recent cultivars and selections. To avoid inbreeding depression, we need to clarify the degree of inbreeding among crossbred cultivars and to introgress genetic resources that are genetically different from modern cultivars and selections. The objective of the present study was to clarify the genetic relatedness between modern Japanese pear cultivars and diverse Asian pear genetic resources. We genotyped 207 diverse accessions by using 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The heterozygosity and allelic richness of modern cultivars was obviously decreased compared with that of wild individuals, Chinese pear cultivars, and local cultivars. In analyses using Structure software, the 207 accessions were classified into four clusters (K = 4): one consisting primarily of wild individuals, one of Chinese pear cultivars, one of local cultivars from outside the Kanto region, and one containing both local cultivars from the Kanto region and crossbred cultivars. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) were similar to those from the Structure analysis. Wild individuals and Chinese pears appeared to be distinct from other groups, and crossbred cultivars became closer to 'Nijisseiki' as the year of release became more recent. Both Structure and PCoA results suggest that the modern Japanese pear cultivars are genetically close to local cultivars that originated in the Kanto region, and that the genotypes of the modern cultivars were markedly biased toward 'Nijisseiki'. Introgression of germplasm from Chinese pear and wild individuals that are

  8. BIODIVERSITY OF NATIONAL SQUASH CULTIVAR ACCESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Bukharov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The squash is one of  the most  ancient plants, bearing numerous qualities. The squash gave high yield and is unpretentious plant, the fruit of which is long-stored and can be used as boiled, stewed, baked, fried product, and be added to bread, mush and pudding, and be prepared as puree, jam, candied fruit and other meals. Owing to useful characteristics the squash is a valuable source or raw  material for  food  canning  industry,  for  health-care and functional foodstuff production. Its best cultivar accessions contain to 30% of dry matter, to 12% of sugars  and  to  36%  of  carotene.  The  species  of  squash includes 4 subspecies and 20 varieties. One accession that came from Spain in 1937 served as an initial breeding accession for many other table cultivars for long time. For 80 years of national breeding program the many cultivars for  table  use have been released. There are the classic cultivars, such as ‘Mramornaya’, ‘Stolovaya Zimnaya’,  Gribovskaya Zimnaya’,  ‘Donskaya  Sladkaya’, ‘Michurinskaya’ that are selected or developed from first Spanish accession. This richness and originality of cultivar squash accessions should be carefully preserved. There are the new generation cultivars, such as ‘Kroshka’, ‘Malishka’,    ‘Rossiyanka’,    ‘Konfetka’,    ‘Moskvichka’, ‘Vnuchka’ and many others, which are short-tendrils and suitable for  modern  mechanized cultivation  technology. Moreover the development of new cultivars, bearing resistance to biotic and abiotic stress is the main goal of nearest breeding program.

  9. Morphological, mechanical and antioxidant properties of Portuguese almond cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Ivo; Meyer, Anne S.; Afonso, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological (of fruit and kernel), mechanical (namely shell rupture force) and antioxidant properties (including phenolics and flavonoid content) of five Portuguese almond cultivars, comparing them with two commercial cultivars (Glorieta and Ferragnès). Of ...... high kernel weight, low percentages of double kernels or losses during shelling and considerable higher phenolics and flavonoids content may be considered by industry during selection of almond.......). Of the analyzed traits, nut and kernel dimensions varied substantially and were used to describe cultivars. However, some traditional cultivars recorded similar (Pegarinhos), or even higher (Amendoão, Casanova and Refêgo) nut and kernel weight than commercial cultivars. Furthermore, shelling percentage...... of traditional cultivar (Bonita) was higher than commercial cultivars. Rupture force necessary to break fruits of all traditional cultivars was higher than commercial ones, and was correlated to nut weight cultivars. The phenolics, flavonoids content and antioxidants were higher for Casanova. Parameters like...

  10. Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

    2013-06-15

    Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Boron application improves yield of rice cultivars under high temperature stress during vegetative and reproductive stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Mohammad; Nayak, Amaresh Kumar; Tripathi, Rahul; Katara, Jawahar Lal; Bihari, Priyanka; Lal, Banwari; Gautam, Priyanka

    2018-04-12

    It is reported that high temperatures (HT) would cause a marked decrease in world rice production. In tropical regions, high temperatures are a constraint to rice production and the most damaging effect is on spikelet sterility. Boron (B) plays a very important role in the cell wall formation, sugar translocation, and reproduction of the rice crop and could play an important role in alleviating high temperature stress. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of B application on high temperature tolerance of rice cultivars in B-deficient soil. The treatments comprised of four boron application treatments viz. control (B0), soil application of 1 kg B ha -1 (B1), soil application of 2 kg B ha -1 (B2), and foliar spray of 0.2% B (Bfs); three rice cultivars viz. Annapurna (HT stress tolerant), Naveen, and Shatabdi (both HT stress susceptible); and three temperature regimes viz. ambient (AT), HT at vegetative stage (HTV), and HT at reproductive stage (HTR). The results revealed that high temperature stress during vegetative or flowering stage reduced grain yield of rice cultivars mainly because of low pollen viability and spikelet fertility. The effects of high temperature on the spikelet fertility and grain filling varied among cultivars and the growth stages of plant when exposed to the high temperature stress. Under high temperature stress, the tolerant cultivar displays higher cell membrane stability, less accumulation of osmolytes, more antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher pollen viability and spikelet fertility than the susceptible cultivars. In the present work, soil application of boron was effective in reducing the negative effects of high temperature both at vegetative and reproductive stages. Application of B results into higher grain yield under both ambient and high temperature condition over control for all the three cultivars; however, more increase was observed for the susceptible cultivar over the tolerant one. The results

  12. Boron application improves yield of rice cultivars under high temperature stress during vegetative and reproductive stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Mohammad; Nayak, Amaresh Kumar; Tripathi, Rahul; Katara, Jawahar Lal; Bihari, Priyanka; Lal, Banwari; Gautam, Priyanka

    2018-04-01

    It is reported that high temperatures (HT) would cause a marked decrease in world rice production. In tropical regions, high temperatures are a constraint to rice production and the most damaging effect is on spikelet sterility. Boron (B) plays a very important role in the cell wall formation, sugar translocation, and reproduction of the rice crop and could play an important role in alleviating high temperature stress. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of B application on high temperature tolerance of rice cultivars in B-deficient soil. The treatments comprised of four boron application treatments viz. control (B0), soil application of 1 kg B ha-1 (B1), soil application of 2 kg B ha-1 (B2), and foliar spray of 0.2% B (Bfs); three rice cultivars viz. Annapurna (HT stress tolerant), Naveen, and Shatabdi (both HT stress susceptible); and three temperature regimes viz. ambient (AT), HT at vegetative stage (HTV), and HT at reproductive stage (HTR). The results revealed that high temperature stress during vegetative or flowering stage reduced grain yield of rice cultivars mainly because of low pollen viability and spikelet fertility. The effects of high temperature on the spikelet fertility and grain filling varied among cultivars and the growth stages of plant when exposed to the high temperature stress. Under high temperature stress, the tolerant cultivar displays higher cell membrane stability, less accumulation of osmolytes, more antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher pollen viability and spikelet fertility than the susceptible cultivars. In the present work, soil application of boron was effective in reducing the negative effects of high temperature both at vegetative and reproductive stages. Application of B results into higher grain yield under both ambient and high temperature condition over control for all the three cultivars; however, more increase was observed for the susceptible cultivar over the tolerant one. The results suggest

  13. Salt Tolerance of Six Switchgrass Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youping Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass cultivars (‘Alamo’, ‘Cimarron’, ‘Kanlow’, ‘NL 94C2-3’, ‘NSL 2009-1’, and ‘NSL 2009-2’ were evaluated for salt tolerance in two separate greenhouse experiments. In experiment (Expt. 1, switchgrass seedlings were irrigated with a nutrient solution at an electrical conductivity (EC of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control or a saline solution (spiked with salts at an EC of 5.0 dS·m−1 (EC 5 or 10.0 dS·m−1 (EC 10 for four weeks, once a week. Treatment EC 10 reduced the tiller number by 32% to 37% for all switchgrass cultivars except ‘Kanlow’. All switchgrass cultivars under EC 10 had a significant reduction of 50% to 63% in dry weight. In Expt. 2, switchgrass was seeded in substrates moistened with either a nutrient solution of EC 1.2 dS·m−1 (control or a saline solution of EC of 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 dS·m−1 (EC 5, EC 10, or EC 20. Treatment EC 5 did not affect the seedling emergence, regardless of cultivar. Compared to the control, EC 10 reduced the seedling emergence of switchgrass ‘Alamo’, ‘Cimarron’, and ‘NL 94C2-3’ by 44%, 33%, and 82%, respectively. All switchgrass cultivars under EC 10 had a 46% to 88% reduction in the seedling emergence index except ‘NSL 2009-2’. No switchgrass seedlings emerged under EC 20. In summary, high salinity negatively affected switchgrass seedling emergence and growth. Dendrogram and cluster of six switchgrass cultivars indicated that ‘Alamo’ was the most tolerant cultivar, while ‘NSL 2009-2’ was the least tolerant cultivar at both seedling emergence and growth stages. A growth-stage dependent response to salinity was observed for the remaining switchgrass cultivars. ‘NSL 2009-1’ and ‘NL 94C2-3’ were more tolerant to salinity than ‘Cimarron’ and ‘Kanlow’ at the seedling emergence stage; however, ‘Kanlow’ and ‘Cimarron’ were more tolerant to salinity than ‘NSL 2009-1’ and ‘NL 94C2-3’ at the seedling growth

  14. POTENCIAL PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO

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    AMANDA GONÇALVES GUIMARÃES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo de cultivares de morangueiro em região representativa do Alto Jequitinhonha. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Mape Frutas Ltda., localizada no município de Datas-MG, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito cultivares de morangueiro em quatro repetições, para verificar a produção de mudas e de frutos. A contagem da produção de estolões e de mudas foi realizada aos 180 dias após o plantio. A avaliação das variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos foi feita duas vezes por semana, no período de maio a outubro de 2012. Das cultivares de dias curtos (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande e Camarosa e dias neutros (Diamante e Aromas, apenas Toyonoka foi a que apresentou menor desempenho para as variáveis. A significativa superioridade das cultivares Camarosa e Festival, para praticamente todas as variáveis avaliadas, permite recomendá-las para regiões com características edafoclimáticas semelhantes às da região onde o experimento foi conduzido. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, as mais precoces tenderam a apresentar maior desempenho para variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos.

  15. Molecular characterization of rye cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želmíra Balážová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 The results of molecular analysis of 45 rye taxa (Secale cereale L. represented by agricultural varieties originated from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN are presented. The genetic diversity of rye cultivars by 6 SSR markers was evaluated. Six specific microsatellite primer pairs produced 58 polymorphic alleles with an average of 9.7 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from 6 (SCM2 to 14 (SCM86. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The diversity index (DI of SSR markers ranged from 0.5478 (SCM2 to 0.887 (SCM86 with an average of 0.778. The lowest value of polymorphic information content was recorded for SCM2 (0.484 and the highest value for SCM86 (0.885 of PIC was detected in SCM86 with an average of 0.760.The dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed, based on UPGMA algorithm. The hierarchical cluster analysis divided rye genotypes into 4 main clusters. The first cluster of 14 genotypes was subdivided in two subclusters (1a and 1b where 50% of genotypes were Czechoslovak origin. The second cluster contained four genotypes were three (75% of them had Czech or Czechoslovak origin. In the third subcluster separated three rye genotypes of different origin. The rest (24 of rye genotypes in the fourth cluster were divided into two subclusters (4a and 4b where clearly separated group of Polish (4aa and Czech and Czechoslovak (4ab genotypes. Two genotypes of 4aa subcluster (Wojcieszyckie and Dankowskie Nowe from Poland were genetically the closest. In the dendrogram alle genotypes were differentiated and clustering partially reflects geographic origin of studied rye genotypes. In this experiment, SSRs markers proved to be a high informative and usefull tool in genetic diversity research for the distinguishing and characterization of close related varieties. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  16. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  17. Caracterización morfo agronómica de diecinueve cultivares de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en la sabana de Bogotá Morpho-agronornic characterization of nineteen cultivars of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Bogota's savanna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres M. Juner

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de proveer información acerca de la variabilidad genética y la adaptación en la Sabana de Bogotá de la colección de quinua correspondiente a la Prueba Americana y Europea de Quinua, se estudiaron 19 cultivares mediante la evaluación 49 características morfológicas y agronómicas. El ensayo se realizó en el Centro Agropecuario «Marengo» de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ubicado en Mosquera (Cundinamarca. El análisis estadístico, mediante componentes principales para 35 de las variables evaluadas mostró que los ocho primeros componentes
    explican el 88.12% de la variación total. Estos componentes
    estuvieron asociados a 18 variables manifestando la diversidad entre los genotipos. Además, éstos se usaron para construir un dendograma que, calculado a partir de la distancia euclidiana, mostró la existencia de nueve grupos en los cuales se distinguieron claramente los materiales americanos de los europeos. Agronómicamente se destacaron los cultivares E-DK-4 y G-205- 95, procedentes de Dinamarca, principalmente por su precocidad, alto rendimiento en grano, alto rendimiento en biomasa y
    por su porte bajo.
    Nineteen cultivars of «American and European Quinoa Test» were used in this assay. Forty-nine morphological and agronomic characteristics were evaluated at Research Center «Marengo» of National University of Colombia, located at Mosquera (Cundinamarca. The main objective ofthis experiment was to study the genetic variability of quinoa cultivars from American and European countries. The statistical analysis was carried out with 35 out of 49 variables. The first eight components explained the 88,12% of total variation and were constituted by 18 variables. Using this information a dendogram was constructed. Nine groups
    were identified. Cultivars from American countries were separated from European's ones. The bcst cultivars were E-DK-4 and G-205-95 from Denmark. These presented high

  18. Contrasting agronomic response of biochar amendment to a Mediterranean Cambisol: Incubation vs. field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; De Celis, Reyes; Miller, Ana Z.; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The application of biochar to soil is being proposed as a novel approach to establish a significant long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, biochars offer a simple, sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added value products. Numerous research studies pointed out that biochar can act as a soil conditioner enhancing plant growth by supplying and, more importantly, retaining nutrients and by providing other services such as improving soil physical and biological properties [1]. However, the effectiveness of biochar in enhancing plant fertility is a function of soil type, climate, and type of crop [2] but also of the biochar properties. The inherent variability of biochars due to different feedstock and production conditions implies a high variability of their effect on soil properties and productivity. Furthermore, due to the irreversibility of biochar application, it is necessary to perform detailed studies to achieve a high level of certainty that adding biochar to agricultural soils, for whatever reason, will not negatively affect soil health and productivity. The major goals of this research were: i) understanding how the properties of 5 different biochars produced by using different feedstock and pyrolysis conditions are related to their agronomic response, and ii) assessing the agronomic effect of biochar amendment under field conditions of a typical Mediterranean non-irrigated plantation. Four of the used biochars were produced by pyrolysis from wood (2), paper sludge (1) and sewage sludge (1), at temperatures up to 620 °C. The fifth biochar was produced from old grapevine wood by applying the traditional kiln method. Biochars were analysed for elemental composition (C, H, N), pH, WHC and ash contents. The H/C and O/C atomic ratios suggested high aromaticity of all biochars, which was confirmed by 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of lignin residues in

  19. Chemical control of vegetation on urban sites: agronomic and ecotoxicological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanin, G.; Otto, S.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the chemical control of spontaneous vegetation on urban sites is tackled. A method is presented to identify the best herbicides under both the agronomic and ecotoxicological aspects. Selection of the herbicides from the agronomic point of view is on the basis of the qualitative characteristics of the vegetation (life-form types periodicity types botanical composition), surveyed at 5 different times on the year while selection from the environmental viewpoint is based on an evaluation integrated with a series of ecotoxicological indices. The best solution was tested in a pilot area and the contamination of the water compartment evaluated both on entering and leaving the water treatment works

  20. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Phuke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01 indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc.

  1. Physiological and Agronomic Performance of the Coffee Crop in the Context of Climate Change and Global Warming: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaMatta, Fábio M; Avila, Rodrigo T; Cardoso, Amanda A; Martins, Samuel C V; Ramalho, José C

    2018-05-30

    Coffee is one of the most important global crops and provides a livelihood to millions of people living in developing countries. Coffee species have been described as being highly sensitive to climate change, as largely deduced from modeling studies based on predictions of rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. Here, we discuss the physiological responses of the coffee tree in the context of present and ongoing climate changes, including drought, heat, and light stresses, and interactions between these factors. We also summarize recent insights on the physiological and agronomic performance of coffee at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and highlight the key role of CO 2 in mitigating the harmful effects of heat stress. Evidence is shown suggesting that warming, per se, may be less harmful to coffee suitability than previously estimated, at least under the conditions of an adequate water supply. Finally, we discuss several mitigation strategies to improve crop performance in a changing world.

  2. A haplotype map of genomic variations and genome-wide association studies of agronomic traits in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guanqing; Huang, Xuehui; Zhi, Hui; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Wenjun; Chai, Yang; Yang, Lifang; Liu, Kunyan; Lu, Hengyun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Zhou, Congcong; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Guo, Yunli; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Feng, Qi; Hao, Hangfei; Liu, Hongkuan; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Li, Yuhui; Guo, Erhu; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Suying; Liu, Jinrong; Zhang, Wenfei; Chen, Guoqiu; Zhang, Baojin; Li, Wei; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Haiquan; Zhao, Baohua; Li, Jiayang; Diao, Xianmin; Han, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important grain crop that is grown in arid regions. Here we sequenced 916 diverse foxtail millet varieties, identified 2.58 million SNPs and used 0.8 million common SNPs to construct a haplotype map of the foxtail millet genome. We classified the foxtail millet varieties into two divergent groups that are strongly correlated with early and late flowering times. We phenotyped the 916 varieties under five different environments and identified 512 loci associated with 47 agronomic traits by genome-wide association studies. We performed a de novo assembly of deeply sequenced genomes of a Setaria viridis accession (the wild progenitor of S. italica) and an S. italica variety and identified complex interspecies and intraspecies variants. We also identified 36 selective sweeps that seem to have occurred during modern breeding. This study provides fundamental resources for genetics research and genetic improvement in foxtail millet.

  3. Modeling monthly meteorological and agronomic frost days, based on minimum air temperature, in Center-Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Sentelhas, Paulo César; Stape, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Although Brazil is predominantly a tropical country, frosts are observed with relative high frequency in the Center-Southern states of the country, affecting mainly agriculture, forestry, and human activities. Therefore, information about the frost climatology is of high importance for planning of these activities. Based on that, the aims of the present study were to develop monthly meteorological (F MET) and agronomic (F AGR) frost day models, based on minimum shelter air temperature (T MN), in order to characterize the temporal and spatial frost days variability in Center-Southern Brazil. Daily minimum air temperature data from 244 weather stations distributed across the study area were used, being 195 for developing the models and 49 for validating them. Multivariate regression models were obtained to estimate the monthly T MN, once the frost day models were based on this variable. All T MN regression models were statistically significant (p Brazilian region are the first zoning of these variables for the country.

  4. In-vitro mutation and multiplication of chrysanthemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahloowalia, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental, grown as a cut and potted flower. No other flower rivals its volume of production and sale. As a result, growers are always on the look out for new or improved blooms which will maintain their market share. New and novel types of chrysanthemum were obtained for flower shape and size, and for plant height, by combining in-vitro radiation and micropropagation. This technique promises a rapid and efficinet method for obtaining new cultivars of vegetatively propagated plants. (author)

  5. Competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho

    OpenAIRE

    Balbinot Junior,Alvadi Antonio; Fleck,Nilson Gilberto; Menezes,Valmir Gaedke; Agostinetto,Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Características morfológicas e fisiológicas de plantas cultivadas podem afetar sua habilidade competitiva com plantas daninhas. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L.) com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho. Investigou-se na safra 2000/2001 o comportamento de oito genótipos de arroz, cultivados na presença ou ausência da cultivar de arroz EEA 406, que simulou infestação de arroz-vermelho. Aos 45 e aos 60 dias após a semeadura, ...

  6. Genetic diversity characterization of cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz.: I RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity of 31 Brazilian cassava clones. The results were compared with the genetic diversity revealed by botanical descriptors. Both sets of variates revealed identical relationships among the cultivars. Multivariate analysis of genetic similarities placed genotypes destinated for consumption "in nature" in one group, and cultivars useful for flour production in another. Brazil?s abundance of landraces presents a broad dispersion and is consequently an important resource of genetic variability. The botanical descriptors were not able to differentiate thirteen pairs of cultivars compared two-by-two, while only one was not differentiated by RAPD markers. These results showed the power of RAPD markers over botanical descriptors in studying genetic diversity, identifying duplicates, as well as validating, or improving a core collection. The latter is particularly important in this vegetatively propagated crop.

  7. Rapid identification of red-flesh loquat cultivars using EST-SSR markers based on manual cultivar identification diagram strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Xu, H X; Chen, J W

    2014-04-29

    Manual cultivar identification diagram is a new strategy for plant cultivar identification based on DNA markers, providing information to efficiently separate cultivars. We tested 25 pairs of apple EST-SSR primers for amplification of PCR products from loquat cultivars. These EST-SSR primers provided clear amplification products from the loquat cultivars, with a relatively high transferability rate of 84% to loquat; 11 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic products. After analysis of 24 red-fleshed loquat accessions, we found that only 7 pairs of primers could clearly separate all of them. A cultivar identification diagram of the 24 cultivars was constructed using polymorphic bands from the DNA fingerprints and EST-SSR primers. Any two of the 24 cultivars could be rapidly separated from each other, according to the polymorphic bands from the cultivars; the corresponding primers were marked in the correct position on the cultivar identification diagram. This red-flesh loquat cultivar identification diagram can separate the 24 red-flesh loquat cultivars, which is of benefit for loquat cultivar identification for germplasm management and breeding programs.

  8. A Study on soybean cultivar and rhizobium strain interaction related to biological nitrogen fixation in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirvali Biranvand, N.

    1999-01-01

    Since, symbiotic effectiveness is affected by three important factors such as bacteria genotype, plant cultivar and environmental conditions (e.g. soil properties). In this research, simple and interaction effects of the first two factors about symbiosis of three soybean cultivar, which are most commonly cultivated soybean, with several commercial strain of bacteria with three different soils is investigated. For this purpose five Bradyrhizobium japonicum commercial strains (Rhizoking, Helinitro, Goldoat, Biodoz and CB 1809) were taken from soil and water rea search institute. Based on assurance of bacteria strains purity and ineffectiveness with cultivars, for comparison of strains symbiotic effectiveness with soybean cultivars and the best strain selection performed a factorial experiment with RCBD in 24 treatments and 4 replication. The seeds of soybean cultivars were cultivated in Growth chamber under Leonard jar system. The treatment used were 3 levels of soybean cultivar, 5 levels of Bradyrhizobium strains and 3 levels of Nitrogen (0, 35 and 70 PPM). Plants were fed with Brought on and Dil worth solution (1970) for 75 days. Then, plants were harvested and dried. Selective parameters were analysed by MSTATC program. The results indicated that, all bacteria stains were highly effective as far as symbiotic effectiveness is concerned. Eventually Rhizoking, Gold coat and Helinitro stains selected for soybean inoculation. Provided for pot culture, two soil samples from soybean original planting area (in the subregion of Gorgan and Sari cities) and another sample from Karaj countryside were taken with moderate, high and zero symbiont indigenous bacteria levels respectively. For study of interaction and simple effects of Bacteria strain and soybean cultivar in each soil; a factorial experiment with RCBD in 4 replication performed. Factors were contained soybean cultivar (three levels) and three Bacteria strain with a blank treatment for inoculation. In this respect

  9. Genetic similarity among strawberry cultivars assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne cultivars used in Brazil are developed in other countries, it became clear the need to start the strawberry breeding program in the country. To start a breeding program is necessary the genetic characterization of the germplasm available. Molecular markers are important tools that can be used for this purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic similarity among 11 strawberry cultivars using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers and to indicate the possible promising crosses. The DNA of the eleven strawberry cultivars was extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA fragments were separated in agarose gel for the RAPD markers and in polyacrylamide gel for the ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. Based on this matrix, the cultivars were grouped using the UPGMA method. The dendogram generated by the RAPD markers distributed the cultivars in three groups while the ISSR markers generated two groups. There was no direct relationship between the marker groups when the two types of markers were compared. The grouping proposed by the ISSR markers was more coherent with the origin and the genealogy of the cultivars than that proposed by the RAPD markers, and it can be considered the most efficient method for the study of genetic divergence in strawberry. The most promising crosses, based on the genetic divergence estimated from the RAPD and ISSR molecular data were between the Tudla and Ventana and the Oso Grande and Ventana cultivars, respectively.

  10. Cisgenic Rvi6 scab-resistant apple lines show no differences in Rvi6 transcription when compared with conventionally bred cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gusberti, Michele; Schouten, H.J.; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, G.A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: The expression of the apple scab resistance geneRvi6in different apple cultivars and lines is not modulated by biotic or abiotic factors.All commercially important apple cultivars are susceptible to Venturia inaequalis, the causal organism of apple scab. A limited number of apple

  11. Fusarium head blight incidence and mycotoxin accumulation in three durum wheat cultivars in relation to sowing date and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Anna; Oleksy, Andrzej; Gala-Czekaj, Dorota; Urbaniak, Monika; Laskowska, Magdalena; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2018-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. durum) is an important crop in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered as one of the most damaging diseases, resulting in yield and quality reduction as well as contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Three winter durum wheat cultivars originating from Austria, Slovakia, and Poland were analyzed during 2012-2014 seasons for FHB incidence and Fusarium mycotoxin accumulation in harvested grain. Moreover, the effects of sowing density and delayed sowing date were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Southern Poland. Low disease severity was observed in 2011/2012 in all durum wheat cultivars analyzed, and high FHB occurrence was recorded in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant pathogen, followed by Fusarium avenaceum. Through all three seasons, cultivar Komnata was the most susceptible to FHB and to mycotoxin accumulation, while cultivars Auradur and IS Pentadur showed less symptoms. High susceptibility of cv. Komnata was reflected by the number of Fusarium isolates and elevated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and moniliformin) content in the grain of this cultivar across all three seasons. Nivalenol was identified in the samples of cv. Komnata only. Genotype-dependent differences in FHB susceptibility were observed for the plants sown at optimal date but not at delayed sowing date. It can be hypothesized that cultivars bred in Austria and Slovakia show less susceptibility towards FHB than the cultivar from Poland because of the environmental conditions allowing for more efficient selection of breeding materials.

  12. Identification of Terpenoid Chemotypes Among High (-)-trans-Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol-Producing Cannabis sativa L. Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischedick, Justin T

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: With laws changing around the world regarding the legal status of Cannabis sativa (cannabis) it is important to develop objective classification systems that help explain the chemical variation found among various cultivars. Currently cannabis cultivars are named using obscure and inconsistent nomenclature. Terpenoids, responsible for the aroma of cannabis, are a useful group of compounds for distinguishing cannabis cultivars with similar cannabinoid content. Methods: In this study we analyzed terpenoid content of cannabis samples obtained from a single medical cannabis dispensary in California over the course of a year. Terpenoids were quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and peak identification was confirmed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Quantitative data from 16 major terpenoids were analyzed using hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Results: A total of 233 samples representing 30 cultivars were used to develop a classification scheme based on quantitative data, HCA, PCA, and OPLS-DA. Initially cultivars were divided into five major groups, which were subdivided into 13 classes based on differences in terpenoid profile. Different classification models were compared with PLS-DA and found to perform best when many representative samples of a particular class were included. Conclusion: A hierarchy of terpenoid chemotypes was observed in the data set. Some cultivars fit into distinct chemotypes, whereas others seemed to represent a continuum of chemotypes. This study has demonstrated an approach to classifying cannabis cultivars based on terpenoid profile.

  13. Seed storage effects on germination for two forage kochia cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivar ‘Snowstorm’ forage kochia was released by the USDA-ARS in 2012. It is a synthetic cultivar selected for stature, forage production, and adaptation to semiarid environments. Similar to the earlier released (1984) ‘Immigrant’ cultivar it can increase rangeland productivity magnitudes when...

  14. Secondary metabolism responses in two Pisum sativum L. cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both cultivars were grown in the absence or presence of Fe with the addition of bicarbonate for twelve days. Higher concentrations of phenols and flavonoids were observed in Fe-deficient tissues of both cultivars; however, the increase was greater in the tolerant cultivar than in the susceptible one. The activity of shikimate ...

  15. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this research confirmed AFLP and SSR to be useful tools in genetic relationships among olive cultivars, in creating a molecular database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Keywords: Olea europaea, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  16. Milk production potential of two ryegrass cultivars with different total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare a new Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivar (Enhancer), bred to contain a high total non-structural carbohydrate content, with the cultivar, Dargle, in terms of dry matter (DM) production, nutritional value, carrying capacity and milk production. The ryegrass cultivars were sown (25 ...

  17. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty durum wheat (19 commercial cultivars and 11 breeding lines) and 30 bread wheat (20 commercial cultivars and 10 breeding lines) were tested for gene postulation. Stem rust infection types produced on wheat cultivars and breeding lines by ten Pgt races was compared with infection types produced on 40 near ...

  18. Avaliação agronômica de parentais e híbridos de maracujazeiro- amarelo Agronomic evalution of parental and hybrid of yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Garcia Neves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetiva determinar o potencial agronômico de genótipos de maracujazeiro-amarelo, visando a identificar e selecionar híbridos promissores. O experimento foi conduzido em área de produção no município de Cruz das Almas (BA, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, 41 genótipos (30 híbridos e 11 parentais, com parcela de 4 plantas. As características avaliadas foram: produtividade; número de frutos; massa média de frutos; espessura de casca; rendimento de suco; produtividade de suco e teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos a 1% de probabilidade pelo teste F, para todas as variáveis em estudo, exceto para a característica rendimento de suco (pThe present study aims to determine the agronomic potential of genotypes of yellow passion fruit, to identify and select promising hybrid. The experiment was conducted in the production area in Cruz das Almas (BA in a randomized block design with three replications, 41 genotypes (30 hybrids and 11 parents, in a share of four plants. The characteristics evaluated were: yield, number of fruits, average mass fruit, peel thickness, juice yield, and total soluble solids. There were significant differences between genotypes for the F test for all variables studied, except for juice yield (p<0.06. High amplitudes for all traits were observed, showing favorable situation to select the best genotypes for recommendation. However, it was observed that the most suitable traits for a good yellow passion fruit cultivar are presented in different genotypes, with existence of some undesirable correlations. Among the positive genotypic correlation of greater importance are yield x number of fruits (0.78 and yield x juice productivity (0.81. However, the use of the selection indexes of Mulamba & Mock (MM and genotype-ideotype distance, allowed the appointment of three hybrids (H09-10, H09-14 and H09-20 with high average and

  19. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in

  20. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... In our study, the combination of Nannong88-1 with EHA105 is the optimum selection for explant and bacterial inoculum in soybean transformation, which could be applied in future functional study of soybean ...

  1. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    and they are not encouraged by advisory services. Based on the methodology developed by Kiær et al. (2009), we achieved a meta-analysis of cultivar mixtures in wheat. Among the 120 publications dedicated to wheat, we selected 32 studies to analyze various factors that may condition the success or failure of wheat mixtures...

  2. (EAHB-AAA) cultivars to drought stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) yields are estimated at 5-30 t ha-1yr-1, lower than the potential 60 t ha-1yr-1, with the cause being drought stress. Much evidence among stakeholders shows little understanding about banana cultivar sensitivity, escape and avoidance mechanisms to drought due to un-attempted measures of retaining ...

  3. susceptibility of some kersting's groundnut landrace cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT: Seeds of five different landrace cultivars of Kersting's groundnut, Macrotyloma geocarpum. (Harms) Marechal and Baudet, obtained from northern Ghana, were evaluated for their suscep- tibility to infestation and damage by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. The com- pletely randomized design ...

  4. Bloemverdroging: Cultivars met vroege bloemaanleg koeler bewaren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Uitval in de tulpenbroeierij door bloemverdroging kwam de afgelopen jaren veel meer voor dan daarvoor. Reden voor PPO om na te gaan wat hiervan de oorzaak zou kunnen zijn. In dit artikel legt onderzoeker Martin van Dam uit dat vooral in warme lentes bij vroege cultivars de kans op bloemverdroging

  5. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF RICE FOR TIDAL SWAMP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Hairmansis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of rice varieties for tidal swamp areas is emphasized on the improvement of rice yield potential in specific environment. However, grain yield is a complex trait and highly dependent on the other agronomic characters; while information related to the relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield in the breeding program particularly for tidal swamp areas is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield of rice as a basis for selection of high yielding rice varieties for tidal swamp areas. Agronomic characters and grain yield of nine advanced rice breeding lines and two rice varieties were evaluated in a series of experiments in tidal swamp areas, Karang Agung Ulu Village, Banyuasin, South Sumatra, for four cropping seasons in dry season (DS 2005, wet season (WS 2005/2006, DS 2006, and DS 2007. Result from path analysis revealed that the following characters had positive direct effect on grain yield, i.e. number of productive tillers per hill (p = 0.356, number of filled grains per panicle (p = 0.544, and spikelet fertility (p = 0.215. Plant height had negative direct effect (p = -0.332 on grain yield, while maturity, number of spikelets per panicle, and 1000-grain weight showed negligible effect on rice grain yield. Present study suggests that indirect selection of high yielding tidal swamp rice can be done by selecting breeding lines which have many product tive tillers, dense filled grains, and high spikelet fertility.

  6. Understanding Arsenic Dynamics in Agronomic Systems to Predict and Prevent Uptake by Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciatio...

  7. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Disentangling agronomic and economic yield gaps: An integrated framework and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M. van; Morley, T.; Jongeneel, R.A.; Ittersum, M.K. van; Reidsma, P.; Ruben, R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in policy discussions on future agricultural production, both the concept of the yield gap and its determinants are understood differently by economists and agronomists. This study provides a micro-level framework that disentangles and integrates agronomic and economic

  9. Introgression lines of Triticum aestivum x Aegilops tauschii: Agronomic and nutritional value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighty-five single homozygous substitution lines (SLs) of the Aegilops tauschii D genome in Chinese Spring (CS) hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic background were evaluated for agronomic, phenotypic and ionome profiles during three years of field experiments. An augmented design with a r...

  10. [Correlation analysis of major agronomic characters and the polysaccharide contents in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xi-Long; Qiu, Dao-Shou; Cai, Shi-Ke; Luo, Huan-Ming; Deng, Rui-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Jin

    2013-10-01

    In order to provide theoretical and technological basis for the germplasm innovation and variety breeding in Dendrobium officinale, a study of the correlation between polysaccharide content and agronomic characters was conducted. Based on the polysaccharide content determination and the agronomic characters investigation of 30 copies (110 individual plants) of Dendrobium officinale germplasm resources, the correlation between polysaccharide content and agronomic characters was analyzed via path and correlation analysis. Correlation analysis results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between average spacing and polysaccharide content, the correlation coefficient was -0.695. And the blade thickness was positively correlated with the polysaccharide content, but the correlation was not significant. The path analysis results showed that the stem length was the maximum influence factor to the polysaccharide, and it was positive effect, the direct path coefficient was 1.568. According to thess results, the polysaccharide content can be easily and intuitively estimated by the agronomic characters investigating data in the germpalsm resources screening and variety breeding. Therefore, it is a visual and practical technology guidance in quality variety breeding of Dendrobium officinale.

  11. Digester effluent’s agronomic and odor emission potential: A swine case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This on-farm study looked at the full-scale treatment effects of anaerobic digestion on the composition of manure effluent from an agronomic and air quality perspective. The goal was to improve our understanding of the role that anaerobic digestion may play in managing manure as a fertilizer and in...

  12. Physiological Responses of Some Iranian Grape Cultivars to Iron Chelate Application in Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron chlorosis is considered to be one of the most important nutritional disorders in grapevines, particularly in calcareous soils that under these conditions fruit yield and quality is depressed in the current year and fruit buds poorly develop for following year. Symptoms of iron chlorosis in orchards and vineyards are usually more frequent in spring when shoot growth is rapid and bicarbonate concentration in the soil solution buffers soil pH in the rhizosphere and root apoplast. Several native grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential, are widely cultivated in Iran. Cultivated plants differ as to their susceptibility to Fe deficiency in calcareous soils, some being poorly affected while others showing severe leaf chlorotic symptoms. Selection and the use of Fe-efficient genotypes is one of the important approaches to prevent this nutritional problem. In this research the response of three local grapevine cultivars was evaluated to iron chelate consumption in a calcareous soil (26% T.N.V. Materials and Methods: Well rooted woody cuttings of three autochthonous varieties (Rasha, Qezel uzum, Keshmeshi Qermez were cultivated in pots filled with a calcareous soil with iron chelate consumption at three rates (0, 7.5 and 15 mg Fe/ Kg soil. The study was conducted with two factors (cultivar and iron chelate and 3 replicates in a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design. Plant parameters including vegetative growth, chlorophyll index and leaf area were monitored during the growth period. At the end of the treatment, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were determined. The concentrations of macro and micro elements in the leaves were assayed using an atomic absorption and spectrophotometer. One-way-ANOVA was applied comparing the behavior of the cultivars growing. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that chlorophyll

  13. Challenges of breeding potato cultivars to grow in various environments and to meet different demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuyuki; Asano, Kenji; Tamiya, Seiji; Nakao, Takashi; Mori, Motoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is cultivated all year round in Japan by using four types of cropping: summer and winter croppings, and double cropping in spring and fall. In each cropping season, growth conditions such as temperature, day length, and growing period, differ drastically; thus, different cultivars adapted to each environment are required. Breeding stations are located in both summer cropping areas and double cropping areas, and cultivars suitable for each cropping system are developed. The required cultivars differ according to cropping type and according to use such as table use, food processing, and starch production. The qualities necessary for each purpose differ and are therefore evaluated accordingly. Improvements in pest and disease resistance and in yield abilities are important as common breeding targets for all purposes. To develop potato cultivars that meet different needs, breeders have continued efforts to improve these traits. In this review, we introduce our approaches to developing new potato cultivars. We also discuss problems predicted in the future and introduce our efforts on broadening genetic diversity. PMID:25931976

  14. Mineral nutrition as a factor of stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Afield trial was carried out with eight cultivars (Libellula, Drina, Sremica NSR-2, Jugoslavija, Somborka, Lasta and Pobeda of winter wheat (Trticum aestivum L representing several different periods in our country's wheat selection and having different potentials for technological grain quality. Six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer were tested: 0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kgNha-1. Increasing N fertilizer rates resulted in a linear increase of the direct and indirect indicators of quality. The best results were obtained with the cultivar Sremica and the poorest with Lasta, while Jugoslavija and Pobeda were shown to be of approximately the same quality. The contribution of N fertilizer variance to total variance was the largest for protein content (43.7%. N nutrition had a greater influence on protein content in cultivars from the earlier periods of selection. Its effect on sedimentation value, on the other hand, was greater in the recently released cultivars. The contribution of the genetic factor to total variance was the highest for crumb value number (CVN (58.7% and bread volume yield (44.2% and the lowest for protein content (20.8%. The absence of significant differences in the CVN means at any of the N nutrition levels studied resulted from the variability of the indirect indicators closely linked with the direct indicators of baking quality, showing the importance of N nutrition for maintaining the stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars.

  15. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  16. Sensory profiles of chocolates produced from cocoa cultivars resistant to Moniliophtora Perniciosa

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    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the sensory quality of chocolates obtained from two cocoa cultivars (PH16 and SR162 resistant to Moniliophtora perniciosa mould comparing to a conventional cocoa that is not resistant to the disease. The acceptability of the chocolates was assessed and the promising cultivars with relevant sensory and commercial attributes could be indicated to cocoa producers and chocolate manufacturers. The descriptive terminology and the sensory profile of chocolates were developed by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Ten panelists, selected on the basis of their discriminatory capacity and reproducibility, defined eleven sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Tukey's test to compare the means. The results revealed significant differences among the sensory profiles of the chocolates. Chocolates from the PH16 cultivar were characterized by a darker brown color, more intense flavor and odor of chocolate, bitterness and a firmer texture, which are important sensory and commercial attributes. Chocolates from the SR162 cultivar were characterized by a greater sweetness and melting quality and chocolates from the conventional treatment presented intermediate sensory characteristics between those of the other two chocolates. All samples indicated high acceptance, but chocolates from the PH16 and conventional cultivars obtained higher purchase intention scores.

  17. The effects of electron irradiation doses on storability of Iranian Onion cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodadadi, M.; Zolfagharyeh, H. R.

    2009-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is considered as an important vegetable that a considerable amount of the product is lost in the storage process. The loss prevention and reducing methods are related to the production stages and post harvest conditions. One of the effective methods after harvesting is irradiation of bulbs by ionizing radiations as gamma ray. This research was conducted for 2 years in Seed and Plant Improvement Institute for surveying of different ionizing electron doses on four cultivars composed Ghermeze Azar Shahr, Sefide Kashan, Dorcheh Isfahan and Sefide Qom. The research was performed in split plot design with three replications that cultivar and radiation doses were the main and sub factors, respectively. Irradiated bulbs were stored for four months in ambient conditions (10-15 d eg C and 60-70% Rh) and the storage traits composed sprouting and rotting percentage, weight loss percentage, dry matter percentage and tissue firmness (kg/cm 2 ) recorded in 40, 80 and 120 days intervals. The results showed that cultivars had significant difference in all traits. Sefid Qom and Ghermeze Azar Shahr cultivars had the least sprouting percentage and weight loss percentage in all periods. Dry matter percentage and tissue firmness in Sefid Qom was higher than other cultivars. The irradiation caused significant improvement in traits specially 120 days after storage. The reciprocal effects of experimental factors were not significant in traits exceptly in sprouting and rotting percentage after 80 days storing and weight loss after 120 days storing.

  18. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weitao; Zhou Qixing; An Jing; Sun Yuebing; Liu Rui

    2010-01-01

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  19. Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonol Synthase Gene From Litchi chinensis and Its Variation Among Litchi Cultivars With Different Fruit Maturation Periods

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    Wei Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Litchi (Litchi chinensis is an important subtropical fruit tree with high commercial value. However, the short and centralized fruit maturation period of litchi cultivars represents a bottleneck for litchi production. Therefore, the development of novel cultivars with extremely early fruit maturation period is critical. Previously, we showed that the genotypes of extremely early-maturing (EEM, early-maturing (EM, and middle-to-late-maturing (MLM cultivars at a specific locus SNP51 (substitution type C/T were consistent with their respective genetic background at the whole-genome level; a homozygous C/C genotype at SNP51 systematically differentiated EEM cultivars from others. The litchi gene on which SNP51 was located was annotated as flavonol synthase (FLS, which catalyzes the formation of flavonols. Here, we further elucidate the variation of the FLS gene from L. chinensis (LcFLS among EEM, EM, and MLM cultivars. EEM cultivars with a homozygous C/C genotype at SNP51 all contained the same 2,199-bp sequence of the LcFLS gene. For MLM cultivars with a homozygous T/T genotype at SNP51, the sequence lengths of the LcFLS gene were 2,202–2,222 bp. EM cultivars with heterozygous C/T genotypes at SNP51 contained two different alleles of the LcFLS gene: a 2,199-bp sequence identical to that in EEM cultivars and a 2,205-bp sequence identical to that in MLM cultivar ‘Heiye.’ Moreover, the coding regions of LcFLS genes of other MLM cultivars were almost identical to that of ‘Heiye.’ Therefore, the LcFLS gene coding region may be used as a source of diagnostic SNP markers to discriminate or identify genotypes with the EEM trait. The expression pattern of the LcFLS gene and accumulation pattern of flavonol from EEM, EM, and MLM cultivars were analyzed and compared using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for mature leaves, flower buds, and fruits, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after anthesis. Flavonol

  20. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRSMG União: common bean cultivar with jalo grain for the state of Minas Gerais

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    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bean cultivar BRSMG União as a new option of a bean cultivar with jalo grains for the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar BRSMG União had an average grain yield of 9.8% above the mean of the controls (Jalo EEP 558 and BRS Radiante and was resistant to powdery-mildew.

  1. RADISH CULTIVARS BRED AT VNIISSOK AND THEIR USE

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    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the base of comparative assessment and average data estimation from 2010 to 2015, the characteristics of 11 cultivars bred at VNIISSOK were described regarding yield capacity and its components, variation, interdependencies at two sowing terms winter,spring time, direction of selection and cultivar uses at cultivar maintaining breeding program. Cultivar 'Koroleva Margo' is rather used in breeding program for yield capacity and taste qualities. Cultivar 'Sonata' is a source of such features as early maturity, valuable biochemical content and low nitrate accumulation. Cultivar 'Sofit' is known to bear early maturity and simultaneous seed maturation. 'Ariya' is a source of cylindrical root shape and early maturation. Cultivar 'Teplichnyi Gribovskyi' is used in breeding program for early maturation and simultaneous seed maturation. Cultivar 'Feya' bearsresistance to bolting and valuable biochemical substances. Cultivar 'Variant' has such features as root density, ability to grow under low lighting, short-term storability.  Purple-red with white tips is a newmade cultivar 'Mavr' suitable for breeding program for valuable biochemical content, unusual root color, also bearing male sterile forms (MS for heterosis hybrid breeding. Out of all cultivars regarded, 'Mokhovskiy' is only a genetic source to breed radish forms with edible leaves. The positive weak dependence was revealed between cultivar biochemical characteristics, root weight, dry matter  content, and nitrate content; whereas the positive middle dependence is revealed with sugar contents and negative dependence with ascorbic acid content. According to  iochemical characteristics, the best cultivar population as 'Ariya', 'Sonata' (ascorbic acid; Mavr, Sonata, Variant (dry matter, sugars have been chosen. Cultivars 'Koroleva Margo', Pheya, Sonata, Sophit, Mokhovskiy are the initial breeding accessions for selection of new cultivar population, MS and MF lines needed for heterosis.

  2. The Effect of Nitroxin Biofertilizer and Foliar Applicatin of Micronutrients Time Consumption on Yield and Yield Components of New Wheat Cultivars under Khorramabad Climatic Conditions

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    A. Vaez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to study the effects of Nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients time consumption on yield and yield components of new wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum & T. durum under Khorramabad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm khorramabad during growing season of 2012-2013. Considering the positive effect of inoculation with bio-fertilizer and foliar Nitroxin micronutrients and reaction of cultivars to this type of fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizers and the importance of wheat as one of the main crops, this study aims to determine the most appropriate time for foliar and Nitroxin application of micronutrients at the different stages of plant growth and bio-fertilizer application on yield and yield components. Materials and Methods The first factor was considered in six levels: N0: The lack of the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and without the foliar application of micronutrients (control, N1: the seed inoculation with the nitroxin biofertilizer, N2: the foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N3: the foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage, N4: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N5: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage. The second factor was considered at two levels, consisting: V1: Parsi cultivar and V2: Dena cultivar. MSTATC Software was used for data analysis and means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test at the 5% level. Results and Discussion In this experiment the grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, 1000- grain weight, spike number per m-2, grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike of wheat were studied. The results of the data variance analysis has

  3. Narrowing the agronomic yield gap with improved nitrogen use efficiency: a modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T D; Lobell, D B; Ortiz-Monasterio, J I; Li, Y; Matson, P A

    2010-01-01

    Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in the major cereals is critical for more sustainable nitrogen use in high-input agriculture, but our understanding of the potential for NUE improvement is limited by a paucity of reliable on-farm measurements. Limited on-farm data suggest that agronomic NUE (AE(N)) is lower and more variable than data from trials conducted at research stations, on which much of our understanding of AE(N) has been built. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and causes of variability in AE(N) across an agricultural region, which we refer to as the achievement distribution of AE(N). The distribution of simulated AE(N) in 80 farmers' fields in an irrigated wheat system in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, was compared with trials at a local research center (International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center; CIMMYT). An agroecosystem simulation model WNMM was used to understand factors controlling yield, AE(N), gaseous N emissions, and nitrate leaching in the region. Simulated AE(N) in the Yaqui Valley was highly variable, and mean on-farm AE(N) was 44% lower than trials with similar fertilization rates at CIMMYT. Variability in residual N supply was the most important factor determining simulated AE(N). Better split applications of N fertilizer led to almost a doubling of AE(N), increased profit, and reduced N pollution, and even larger improvements were possible with technologies that allow for direct measurement of soil N supply and plant N demand, such as site-specific nitrogen management.

  4. Labores Piscícolas en la Facultad Nacional De Agronomía

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    Ruiz Landa Eduardo

    1939-12-01

    Full Text Available Una de las principales obligaciones de todo gobierno es el cuidado de las riquezas naturales constituidas por la Fauna del país, regulando su aprovechamiento y asegurando en los casos en que sea posible, su conservación y mejoramiento; evitando que por explotación inmoderada o cualquiera otra causa, se extingan o disminuyan las existencias de animales útiles, y agregando a las especies nativas otras extranjeras cuya aclimatación pueda obtenerse y que al ser propagadas crean una adición valiosa a los recursos de pesca. Siguiendo esas normas, la Facultad Nacional de Agronomía y un grupo de particulares patrocinados por el doctor Francisco Navarro Ospina, llevan a cabo la buena iniciativa de acrecentar y mejorar los recursos de pesca, mediante la introducción, aclimatación y reproducción de distintas variedades exóticas de peces de aguas dulces útiles, adaptables a las condiciones naturales existentes en el Departamento de Antioquia para hacer su distribución en los ríos, arroyos, quebradas, etc. Se importó de Cuba en agosto del año de 1938 un lote de peces, consistente en 48 pequeñas Crías, de las cuales 24 de la especie conocida como "Largemouth Black Bass" (Huro Floridana y 24 de la especie conocida como "Carpa" (Ciprinus Carpio, las que se aclimataron perfectamente tanto que de las primeras ya estamos actualmente haciendo su distribución, después de haberse reproducido en condiciones admirables

  5. Molecular and Morpho-Agronomical Characterization of Root Architecture at Seedling and Reproductive Stages for Drought Tolerance in Wheat.

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    Ram Sewak Singh Tomar

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. Root architecture is important for water and nutrition acquisition for all crops, including wheat. A set of 158 diverse wheat genotypes of Australian (72 and Indian (86 origin were studied for morpho-agronomical traits in field under irrigated and drought stress conditions during 2010-11 and 2011-12.Out of these 31 Indian wheat genotypes comprising 28 hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L. and 3 tetraploid (T. durum were characterized for root traits at reproductive stage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC pipes. Roots of drought tolerant genotypes grew upto137cm (C306 as compared to sensitive one of 63cm with a mean value of 94.8cm. Root architecture traits of four drought tolerant (C306, HW2004, HD2888 and NI5439 and drought sensitive (HD2877, HD2012, HD2851 and MACS2496 genotypes were also observed at 6 and 9 days old seedling stage. The genotypes did not show any significant variation for root traits except for longer coleoptiles and shoot and higher absorptive surface area in drought tolerant genotypes. The visible evaluation of root images using WinRhizo Tron root scanner of drought tolerant genotype HW2004 indicated compact root system with longer depth while drought sensitive genotype HD2877 exhibited higher horizontal root spread and less depth at reproductive stage. Thirty SSR markers were used to study genetic variation which ranged from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average value of 0.57. The genotypes were categorized into three subgroups as highly tolerant, sensitive, moderately sensitive and tolerant as intermediate group based on UPGMA cluster, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses. The genotypic clustering was positively correlated to grouping based on root and morpho-agronomical traits. The genetic variability identified in current study demonstrated these traits can be used to improve drought tolerance and

  6. Molecular and Morpho-Agronomical Characterization of Root Architecture at Seedling and Reproductive Stages for Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod; Naik, Bhojaraja K.; Chand, Suresh; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Mallick, Niharika; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Tomar, S. M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. Root architecture is important for water and nutrition acquisition for all crops, including wheat. A set of 158 diverse wheat genotypes of Australian (72) and Indian (86) origin were studied for morpho-agronomical traits in field under irrigated and drought stress conditions during 2010–11 and 2011-12.Out of these 31 Indian wheat genotypes comprising 28 hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.) and 3 tetraploid (T. durum) were characterized for root traits at reproductive stage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. Roots of drought tolerant genotypes grew upto137cm (C306) as compared to sensitive one of 63cm with a mean value of 94.8cm. Root architecture traits of four drought tolerant (C306, HW2004, HD2888 and NI5439) and drought sensitive (HD2877, HD2012, HD2851 and MACS2496) genotypes were also observed at 6 and 9 days old seedling stage. The genotypes did not show any significant variation for root traits except for longer coleoptiles and shoot and higher absorptive surface area in drought tolerant genotypes. The visible evaluation of root images using WinRhizo Tron root scanner of drought tolerant genotype HW2004 indicated compact root system with longer depth while drought sensitive genotype HD2877 exhibited higher horizontal root spread and less depth at reproductive stage. Thirty SSR markers were used to study genetic variation which ranged from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average value of 0.57. The genotypes were categorized into three subgroups as highly tolerant, sensitive, moderately sensitive and tolerant as intermediate group based on UPGMA cluster, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses. The genotypic clustering was positively correlated to grouping based on root and morpho-agronomical traits. The genetic variability identified in current study demonstrated these traits can be used to improve drought tolerance and association

  7. Reação de cultivares de abacateiro à podridão de raízes Reaction of avocado cultivars to avocado root rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Hideki Sumida

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de abacateiro (Persea americana Mill 'Margarida', 'Fortuna' e 'Hass' têm muita importância econômica no mercado nacional e internacional. Em função disso, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a reação dessas cultivares frente à Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands., agente causal da podridão das raízes. A inoculação do patógeno foi feita por meio de implantação de tecidos de raízes sintomáticas. Foram inoculadas quatro raízes em três árvores diferentes, uma de cada cultivar, em três pontos diferentes da raiz. Em cada cultivar, das quatro raízes, uma foi utilizada como testemunha, nas quais foram implantados tecidos sadios. A avaliação foi realizada aos 120 dias após a inoculação, observando-se as raízes externamente quanto à alteração da coloração e presença de estruturas de patógenos na região da superfície da casca nos pontos inoculados. Internamente, foram removidas as cascas para visualização das alterações a partir do ponto inoculado, sendo observadas alterações de coloração dos tecidos e realizada mensuração da extensão do escurecimento (lesão aparente. Nas extremidades das lesões foram retirados segmentos de raízes e implantados em meio de cultivo farinha de milho-ágar e incubados, para verificação da colonização na área sem escurecimento, ou seja, a colonização não- aparente. Das cultivares avaliadas, a 'Hass' foi a menos suscetível ao P. cinnamomi, quando comparada às cultivares 'Fortuna' e 'Margarida'. O patógeno P. cinnamomi pode apresentar desenvolvimento ou colonização nos tecidos radiculares além da área sintomática.Cultivars of the avocado (Persea americana Mill 'Margarida', 'Fortuna' and 'Geada' have importance in the national and international markets. The present paper had as objective to evaluate the reaction of such cultivars to Phytophthora cinanamomi Rands, the causal agent of avocado root rot. They were inoculated four roots in three different

  8. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  9. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

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    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  10. Acúmulo de matéria seca e de macronutrientes em cultivares de bananeira irrigada Accumulation of dry matter and macronutrient in cultivars of irrigated banana tree

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    Ricardo Bezerra Hoffmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das quantidades de matéria seca e de nutrientes acumulados e exportados por cultivares de bananeira é importante para o desenvolvimento de uma recomendação de adubação para esta cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as quantidades de matéria seca e de macronutrientes acumuladas e exportadas por seis cultivares de bananeiras irrigadas. Foram amostradas plantas das cultivares Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha e Gross Michel, em uma área de plantio comercial de bananeira irrigada, no município de Limoeiro do Norte - CE. Na colheita, foram escolhidas quatro famílias de cada cultivar para amostragem. A "planta-mãe" foi dividida em rizoma, pseudocaule, pecíolo, limbo, engaço e frutos. Na matéria seca dessas partes das plantas, determinaram-se os teores dos macronutrientes. As cultivares Pacovan, Prata-Anã e Pacovan-Apodi que, de modo geral, extraíram do solo as maiores quantidades de macronutrientes, foram as que acumularam quantidades mais elevadas de matéria seca. O potássio e o nitrogênio foram os macronutrientes mais acumulados e exportados pelas seis cultivares de bananeira irrigada, seguidos pelo enxofre, cálcio, magnésio e fósforo.The knowledge about the quantity of dry matter and nutrients accumulated and exported by banana is important for the development of fertilizer recommendations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of dry matter and macronutrients by six cultivars of irrigated banana crop. Plants of Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha and Gross Michel cultivars were sampled in a commercial plantation in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, state of Ceará, Brazil. At harvest, four plants of each cultivar were selected for sampling. The "mother-plant" was divided into rhizome, pseudo stem, petiole, leaf blade, stalk and fruits. In the dry matter of these parts, the contents of macronutrients were determined. The

  11. Barley cultivar MN 698, high malting quality for the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caierão Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available MN 698 is a new cultivar developed by AmBev that resulted from a cross between the cultivars MN 599 and MN 635. MN 698 shows a grain yield potential higher than 4t ha-1, has early cycle and is moderately resistant to lodging. Its spike is uniform and produces around 20 grains well-distributed. MN 698 shows a medium tillering capacity (two to three per plant, and is characterized by the presence of anthocyanin in the culm basis, arists, and glumes. It is the national cultivar with the highest quality and represents an important advance for this cereal in Brazil, combining interests of both the producer and the industrial sector.

  12. Induced mutation breeding in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar `Bosom Nsia`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahiabu, R K.A.; Klu, G Y.P. [Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Inst., Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon (Ghana)

    1997-12-01

    Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in the lowland tropics. In most cassava producing countries, it is mainly utilized for human consumption. Cassava leaves are a good source of protein and vitamins, and are used as food in Africa. In Ghana, `Bosom Nsia` is one of the most widely grown cultivars probably because of its good cooking quality and fast maturation in six months. However, this cultivar is highly susceptible to cassava mosaic virus disease (CMV), hence the need to improve its resistance to the disease. Various in vitro techniques have been developed for cassava research, Klu and Lamptey reported irradiation doses of 25 and 30 Gy to be ideal for in vitro mutagenesis of cassava. These doses were applied to in vivo and in vitro mutation for breeding CMV resistance in the cultivar `Bosom Nsia`. 6 refs.

  13. Oviposition efficacy of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on different cultivars of blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits.

  14. Induced mutation breeding in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabu, R.K.A.; Klu, G.Y.P.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in the lowland tropics. In most cassava producing countries, it is mainly utilized for human consumption. Cassava leaves are a good source of protein and vitamins, and are used as food in Africa. In Ghana, 'Bosom Nsia' is one of the most widely grown cultivars probably because of its good cooking quality and fast maturation in six months. However, this cultivar is highly susceptible to cassava mosaic virus disease (CMV), hence the need to improve its resistance to the disease. Various in vitro techniques have been developed for cassava research, Klu and Lamptey reported irradiation doses of 25 and 30 Gy to be ideal for in vitro mutagenesis of cassava. These doses were applied to in vivo and in vitro mutation for breeding CMV resistance in the cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'. 6 refs

  15. Ruminal silage degradability and productivity of forage and grain-type sorghum cultivars Degradabilidade ruminal das silagens e produtividade de cultivares de sorgo de tipo forrageiro e granífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Resende

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Forages for feeding dairy cows should conciliate the potential for high dry matter yield per unit area, maximizing animal stocking rate, with high nutritive value, which enables decreasing the amount of concentrate feedstuffs per milk unit produced. Eighteen sorghum cultivars were cultivated 0.70 m apart and with 12 plants per linear meter. Plants harvested at the milk-to-dough stage were ensiled in the laboratory. Eleven agronomic and chemical traits were evaluated. Silage samples were incubated in situ and the effective ruminal dry matter degradation (DEF was calculated assuming a fractional passage rate of -0.04 h-1. Dry matter yield was 13.0 ± 2.3 (mean ± S.D. t ha-1. The neutral detergent fiber content was 50.3 ± 3.8 and the DEF was 48.8 ± 2.8% (dry matter basis. The average sorghum DEF was 84% of the DEF of a composite sample of 60 corn hybrids simultaneously cultivated, ensiled and ruminally incubated. The 12 forage-type cultivars were taller, more productive, had higher fiber content and lower DEF than the 6 grain and dual purpose-type cultivars. The acid detergent fiber content had the greatest correlation with DEF (r= -0.64. The linear model correlating DEF with productivity was: DEF=54.694 - 0.4449 x t of dry matter ha-1 (r²=0.14. Although there are cultivars that show high productivity and digestibility, it seems to be difficult to conciliate the maximum nutritive value with the maximum productivity of the sorghum crop.Forrageiras para alimentação de vacas leiteiras devem conciliar a alta produção de matéria seca por área, maximizando a taxa de lotação animal, com o alto valor nutritivo, capaz de reduzir a necessidade de alimentos concentrados por litro de leite produzido. Dezoito cultivares de sorgo foram cultivados com espaçamento de 0,70 m e 12 plantas por metro linear. As plantas colhidas ao atingirem o estádio leitoso-pastoso foram ensiladas em laboratório. Onze características agronômicas e químicas foram

  16. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  17. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Catherine M. G. C.; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars (‘Ariane’, ‘Melrose’ and ‘Smoothee’) managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the

  18. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Le Bourvellec

    Full Text Available Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee' managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26 over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013. The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic… encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside

  19. Effect of Salinity on Growth and Physiological Parameters of Four Olive (OleaeuropaeaL. Cultivars underGreenhouse Conditions

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    Farzaneh Olyaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects crop production around the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions.The deleterious effects of salinity on plant growth are associated with low osmotic potential of soil solution (water stress, nutritional imbalance, specific ion effect (salt stress, or a combination of these factors. Olive is one of the most important fruit crops in Iran and the world. Despite olive has been classified as moderately salt tolerant plant, poor quality of irrigation water in association with salt build-up soils has reduced the yields, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. The tolerance of the olive to salt is to a great extent depends on the cultivar. Selecting salinity-resistant cultivars is one of the most important strategies used for mitigating salinity effects on olive. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the salt tolerance of four olive cultivars under greenhouse condition. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, one-year-old rooted cuttings of Iranian olive cultivars (‘Dakal’, ‘Shiraz’, ‘Zard’ and non-Iranian cultivar ‘Amigdal’ were grown in the research greenhouse of Agricultural College, Isfahan University of Technology of Iran. Plants were grown in plastic pots. The pots were 180 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth with volume of 7 L. The minimum and maximum temperatures during the experiment period were 19 and 35˚C, respectively. After sticking the cuttings, the pots with uniform plants were subjected to the treatment with 0 (control, 100, 150 or 200 mMNaCl. The electrical conductivities of these solutions were 0.003, 10.52, 15.43 and 19.55 dS m-1, respectively. To avoid osmotic shock, the NaCl concentration was gradually increased. The layout was a 4×4 factorial experiment based oncompletely randomized design, with four replications. The experimental measurements were carried out three months after beginning the salt treatments

  20. Genetics of leaf rust resistance in the hard red winter wheat cultivars Santa Fe and Duster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and important disease of hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. The hard red winter wheat cultivars 'Santa Fe' and 'Duster' have had effective leaf rust resistance since their release in 2003 and 2006, respectively. Both cul...

  1. Characterization of resistance to powdery mildew in the Hop cultivars Newport and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera macularis, is an important disease in the Northwestern U.S. Outbreaks of powdery mildew on cultivars previously resistant to the disease have been reported increasingly with the emergence of virulent pathogen strains capable of overcoming a commonly deployed...

  2. Variation and Distribution of Glucosinolates in 42 Cultivars of Brassica oleracea Vegetable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Tebbenhoff, S.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain glucosinolates that are precursors for bioactive compounds like isothiocyanates that have been shown to play an important role in human health. This study reports the results of a screening of 11 Brassica oleracea crops consisting of 42 cultivars (6 white

  3. Effect of location in the canopy on the colour development of three apple cultivars during growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unuk, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Germsek, B.; Zadravec, P.; Vogrin, A.; Hribar, J.; Simcic, M.; Stanislav Tojnko, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Homogeneity in appearance is one of the quality aspects asked for in the supply chain. Decreasing the biological variation in batches of harvested apples (cultivars Braeburn, Fuji and Gala) becomes increasingly important. Skin colour is one of the aspects that determine both optimal

  4. Considerations for Managing Agricultural Co-Existence between Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cultivars of Outcrossing Perennial Forage Plants in Dairy Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the major forage species used in agriculture are outcrossing and rely on the exchange of pollen between individuals for reproduction; this includes the major species used for dairy production in grazing systems: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L.. Cultivars of these species have been co-existing since contrasting cultivars were developed using plant breeding, but the consequences and need for strategies to manage co-existence have been made more prominent with the advent of genetic modification. Recent technological developments have seen the experimental evaluation of genetically modified (GM white clover and perennial ryegrass, although there is no current commercial growing of GM cultivars of these species. Co-existence frameworks already exist for two major cross-pollinated grain crops (canola and maize in Europe, and for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in the US, so many of the principles that the industry has developed for co-existence in these crops such as detection techniques, segregation, and agronomic management provide lessons and guidelines for outcrossing forage species, that are discussed in this paper.

  5. Assessment of susceptibility of olive cultivars to the Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) and Camarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) Zachos & Tzav.-Klon. attacks in Calabria (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotta, Nino; Noce, Maria E; Ripa, Vincenzo; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of research concerning the application of techniques alternative to chemical pesticides for control of parasites, the C.R.A. Experimental Institute for Olive Growing for many years has been performing a large investigation in order to detect sources of genetic resistance in olive germplasm. In the present study we observed the behavior related to the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) infestation and Camarosporium dalmaticum infection of ten olive cultivars farmed under the same agronomic and climatic conditions in Calabria, Southern Italy. The sampling and the data collecting were carried out in three different ripening times. The drupe amount of oleuropein and cyanidine was detected by laboratory analyses in order to verify a possible correlation between these molecules and the level of infestation/infection of the above-mentioned parasites. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance. In relation to the fungal infection the results displayed that cvs Tonda nera dolce showed the lowest susceptibility, while the cv Giarraffa turned out to be the most susceptible. The less susceptible cultivars to the phytophagous were Tonda nera dolce and Bhardi Tirana. Since the less susceptible cultivar to olive fly attacks are the same observed in relation to the susceptibility to olive fruit rot, it is suggested a relation between the olive fly infestation and the fungal infection. It suggests the utility to achieve these results both to transfer directly to the farmers' world and to emphasize ecosystem health and biodiversity conservation.

  6. Trash measurement in middle sugar cane cultivars after the harvest; Quantificacao de palhico em diferentes cultivares medios de cana-de-acucar, apos a colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Ivan; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], E-mail: santinivan@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The introduction of mechanized harvesting of sugarcane made it possible to cut raw cane. Thus the amount of trash has produced a significant increase, which is important in that it can be used in the production of electricity through combustion. This study aimed to quantify the productivity of trash in the semi-mechanized harvesting of different middle sugarcane cultivars. The experiment was conducted at UNESP-Jaboticabal. The experimental design was a randomized block design with six treatments (cultivars) and three replications. At harvest, we counted the number of stems in the meter and the weight of stems was estimated agricultural productivity. After harvesting the cane, was used a rectangle of 4.5 m{sup 2}, which was placed randomly within each plot and all trash contained therein was weighed. Using these results to estimate the potential number of people who would benefit from the energy from this trash. Cultivar IAC94-4004 received the largest amount of trash (44.33 t ha- 1), IP (37.66%), Pd (38.00 x10-6) and TCH (118.00 t ha-1). Cultivar IAC95- 5000 obtained the less satisfactory results, generating a small amount of trash and therefore expressing lower potential energy. (author)

  7. Resposta de cultivares de arroz a doses de nitrogênio e do regulador de crescimento cloreto de clormequat Response of rice cultivars to nitrogen and growth regulator chlormequat chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatiér Buzetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 e do regulador de crescimento cloreto de clormequat (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1, em algumas características agronômicas de cultivares de arroz IAC 201 e IAC 202. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O N foi aplicado em cobertura, no estádio da diferenciação floral, e o regulador de crescimento foi aplicado parceladamente, aos 20 e 30 dias após a emergência das plântulas de arroz (perfilhamento. Na safra 2001/2002, houve efeito significativo de N para altura de plantas, comprimento da panícula, espiguetas por panícula, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. Houve efeito do regulador de crescimento sobre o comprimento da panícula e espiguetas por panícula. A maior produtividade foi a da cultivar IAC 202. Na safra 2002/2003, houve efeito de N para altura de plantas, massa de 100 grãos, fertilidade das espiguetas e produtividade de grãos. O regulador de crescimento não exerceu efeito nas características testadas, e a cultivar IAC 202 foi novamente a mais produtiva.The objective of this work was to evaluate N rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 and the growth regulator chlormequat chloride effect (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1 on some agronomic characteristics of rice cultivars IAC 201 and IAC 202. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Nitrogen was applied as side-dressing at flower differentiation and the growth regulator was split in two times and applied at 20 and 30 days after seedlings emergency (tillering. In the harvests of 2001/2002, there was no significant effect of N rates on plant height, panicle length, spikelet per panicle, 100-grain mass and grain yield. The growth regulator rates were significant for panicle length and spikelet per panicle. IAC 202 presented higher grain yield. In the harvest of 2002/2003 there was no effect of N rates on plant height, spikelet

  8. Genetic Progress in Winter Wheat Cultivars released in Chile from 1920 to 2000 Progreso Genético en Cultivares de Trigo de Invierno Liberados en Chile desde 1920 a 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Matus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the major crop in terms of planted area and presents the largest distribution in the country covering a wide range of climatic regions. This study assesses the changes of various agronomic traits of winter wheat cultivars released in Chile between 1920 and 2000. A total of 117 winter accessions, representing 45 old and 72 modern cultivars were tested in a humid Mediterranean-type climate, with irrigation, in 2003. Old cultivars were those released before 1960 and modern ones were those released after 1960. Principal component (PC analysis using 10 agronomic traits clearly separate modern from old cultivars of winter wheat. Comparing modern cultivars with old ones, plant height have been reduced by 25.6%, but others traits have increased, like harvest index (21.1%, number of grains per ear (42.6%, sedimentation value (103%, and grain hardness (32.0%. The variation in plant height was negatively correlated with harvest index (r = -0.30, p El trigo (Triticum aestivum L. es el cultivo más importante en Chile en términos de superficie sembrada y áreas geográficas en las cuales se siembra, cubriendo una gran diversidad de condiciones climáticas. Este estudio evaluó los cambios de varias características agronómicas de variedades de trigo de invierno liberadas en el país entre 1920 y 2000. Un total de 117 genotipos de trigos de invierno, que representa 45 cultivares antiguos y 72 cultivares modernos, se evaluaron en un clima húmedo de tipo mediterráneo, en condiciones de riego, en el año 2003. Los cultivares antiguos corresponden a aquellos liberados antes del año 1960 y los modernos a los liberados después del año 1960. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales (CP usando 10 características agronómicas, permitió separar claramente los cultivares modernos de los antiguos. Al comparar los cultivares modernos con los antiguos se determinó que la altura de la planta se ha reducido un 25,6%, pero en

  9. Breeding of a new eddo (Colocasia esculenta L.) cultivar, 'Chiba maru'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Ohara, M.; Ino, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Ito, M.; Sakiyama, H.; Ushio, S.

    2006-01-01

    We applied soft-X rays for breeding new taro varieties which suit agronomic needs in Chiba prefecture, have round cormels of bigger size, high yield, and high food quality. As a result, we introduce the cultivar 'Chiba maru' with the following characters: 1. 'Chiba maru' is of the rather late maturing eddo type. Vegetatively it resembles 'Dodare', but produces a lower number of shoots from the cormels. Its cormels are densely budding; secondary cormels are round and big. 2. The susceptibility to physiological disorders such as the lack of apical buds in cormels known, as 'Metubure', and cracks in the cormel skin is lower than in 'Jinnousouken 1 gou' and similar as in 'Dodare' 3. The commercial yield is about 12 tons per hectare. 4. The storage quality is rather high as for example in 'Egu imo'. The food quality is the same as in Dodare'. The resistance for the wilt induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp colocasiae is weaker than that of 'Dodare' 5. 'Chiba maru' appears suitable for field conditions occuring in Chiba prefecture

  10. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-02

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement.

  11. Estimation of variation and correlation analysis for yield components in black currant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating genotypes that will be characterized by high yields, good quality and other favorable agronomic characters is a major objective of most currant breeding programs worldwide. For easier and faster achievement of these goals and identification of superior genotypes suitable for use as parents in future hybridization programs, study of genetic parameters seems to be obligatory. In this regard, the aims of our study were to estimate components of variability and heritability, and do correlation analysis for yield components in order to determine efficient strategies for improving yield in black currant breeding programs. Significant differences between cultivars were established for all studied traits. A high proportion of genotypic variance was found with bush width, no. of shoots per bush, bunch weight and berry weight indicating that genetic improvement for these traits through breeding was achievable. Opposite, seasonal variance was high for bush height, no. of bunch per bush and yield. The high heritability coefficients (0.80-0.94 detected for all traits studied reflect the close agreement between their phenotypic and genotypic values. Also, most pairs of traits were similarly correlated at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. So, yield was significantly and positively correlated with bush height, no of bunch per bush and bunch weight. These results imply a rapid response of black currants to selection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013 i FP7 Project AREA 316004

  12. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zou

    Full Text Available Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1 markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, 'Attila' and 'CDC Go', and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering, flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight, 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers, we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1, maturity (2, plant height (1, grain yield (1, test weight (2, kernel weight (4, tillering (1 and grain protein content (2. Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61-66 cM, 4B (80-82 cM and 5A (296-297 cM harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75 with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval. Six of the 14

  13. Activity of beta-glucosidase and levels of isoflavone glucosides in soybean cultivars affected by the environment Atividade de beta-glicosidase e níveis de isoflavonóides glicosídios em cultivares de soja, influenciadas pelo ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEDES CONCÓRDIA CARRÃO-PANIZZI

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme beta-glucosidase hydrolyses the isoflavone glucosides developing aglycones, which are compounds with anticancer effects, that are also related with the astringency observed in soybean flavor. Due to the importance of this enzyme, a study was carried out to determine beta-glucosidase activity in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars with different contents of isoflavone glucosides (enzyme substrate. The enzyme activity was determined in 51 soybean cultivars sowed in Londrina (latitude 23ºS, in Paraná State, Brazil, and in the cultivar IAS 5 from soybean production regions of different Brazilian states. Among the cultivars, a range of variability of 176.1 to 96.3 units of enzyme activity (cultivars IAC-2 and Embrapa 2, respectively was observed. A significant variability among cultivars could suggest genetic differences. In the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, the cultivar IAS 5 presented similar average of beta-glucosidase activity: 132.1, 131.9 and 132.5 units, respectively. Among locations in the states, the cultivar IAS 5 presented a variability for enzyme activity from 138.8 to 124.8 units, which were statistically different. In spite of statistics, the numerical values were not too different to assume that environmental conditions affected enzyme activity. A non-significative correlation for isoflavone glucoside concentrations and enzyme activity was observed among cultivars.

  14. Eco-physiolgoical role of root-sourced signal in three genotypes of spring wheat cultivars: a cue of evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Kong, H.Y.; Sun, G.J.; Cheng, Z.G.; Batool, A.; Jiang, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-hydraulic root-sourced signal (nHRS) is so far affirmed to be a unique and positive early-warning response of plant to drying soil, but its functional role and potential evolutionary implication is little known in dryland wheat. Three spring wheat cultivars, Monkhead (1940-1960s), Dingxi 24 (1970-1980s) and Longchun 8139 (1990-present) with different drought sensitivity were chosen as materials for the research. Physiological and agronomic parameters were measured and analyzed in two relatively separated but closely related trials under environment-controlled conditions. The results showed that characteristics of nHRS and its eco-physiological effects varied from cultivars. Threshold ranges (TR) of soil moisture at which nHRS was switched on and off were 60.1-51.4% (% of FWC) in Monkhead, 63.8-47.3% in Dingxi 24 and 66.5-44.8% in Longchun 8139 respectively, suggesting that earlier onset of nHRS took place in modern cultivars. Leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration was significantly greater and increased more rapidly in old cultivars, Monkhead and Dingxi 24 than that of Longchun 8139 during the operation of nHRS. As a result of nHRS regulation, maintenance rate of grain yield was 43.4%, 60.8% and 79.3%, and water use efficiency was 1.47, 1.65 and 2.25 g/L in Monkhead, Dingxi 24 and Longchun 8139 respectively. In addition, drought susceptibility indices were 0.8858, 0.6037 and 0.3182 for the three cultivars, respectively. This suggests that earlier trigger of nHRS led to lower ABA-led signal intensity and better drought adaptability. It can be argued that the advances in yield performance and drought tolerance might be made by targeted selection for an earlier onset of nHRS. Finally, we attempted developing a conceptual model regarding root-sourced signal weakening and its evolutionary cue in dryland wheat. (author)

  15. Polymorphic microsatellites of analysis in cultivars of taro Análise polimórfica por microssatélites em cultivares de taro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel SC Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Taro (Colocasia esculenta is a tuberous plant belonging to the Araceae family whose tuber is the 14th most consumed food crop in the world. Characterized as an unconventional vegetable, taro is grown in Brazil as a subsistence crop, but in recent years began to gain commercial importance, especially in the states of Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. To avoid loss of genetic diversity of the local varieties traditionally grown in Brazil a core collection for taro germplasm has been developed by the Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural do estado do Espirito Santo (Incaper. The aim of this study was to perform a molecular characterization of the seven regional core collections. Genetic diversity of the cultivars was investigated by using SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats polymorphisms, in seven loci (Xuqtem55, Xuqtem73, Xuqtem84, Xuqtem88, Xuqtem91, Xuqtem97 and Xuqtem110. Genetic diversity of the cultivars, based on the seven microsatellite alleles, was evaluated by using the software GelCompar II, showed that the loci Xuqtem73, Xuqtem88 and Xuqtem110 were the most informative, featuring 7, 10 and 8 alleles, respectively, a percentage of cultivars with polymorphic alleles of 85, 57 and 100% and identical PIC of 0.91. Based on Xuqtem110 locus analysis, the seven cultivars were grouped in two clusters. Chinês Regional Incaper cultivar was originated from Chinês cultivar which originated the São Bento cultivar, corroborating previous results. Macaquinho and Chinês cultivars were shown to be the primitive ones originating the allelic collections found in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Espirito Santo.O taro (Colocasia esculenta é uma hortaliça da família Araceae cujo rizoma é o décimo quarto alimento vegetal mais consumido no mundo. Caracterizado como uma hortaliça não convencional, o taro é cultivado no Brasil como uma cultura de subsistência, mas nos últimos anos começou a ser

  16. GWAS of agronomic traits in soybean collection included in breeding pool in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatybekov, Alibek; Abugalieva, Saule; Didorenko, Svetlana; Gerasimova, Yelena; Sidorik, Ivan; Anuarbek, Shynar; Turuspekov, Yerlan

    2017-11-14

    In recent years soybean is becoming one of the most important oilseed crops in Kazakhstan. Only within the last ten years (2006-2016), the area under soybean is expanded from 45 thousand hectares (ha) in 2006 to 120 thousand ha in 2016. The general trend of soybean expansion is from south-eastern to eastern and northern regions of the country, where average temperatures are lower and growing seasons are shorter. These new soybean growing territories were poorly examined in terms of general effects on productivity level among the diverse sample of soybean accessions. In this study, phenotypic data were collected in three separate regions of Kazakhstan and entire soybean sample was genotyped for identification of marker-trait associations (MTA). In this study, the collection of 113 accessions representing five different regions of the World was planted in 2015-2016 in northern, eastern, and south-eastern regions of Kazakhstan. It was observed that North American accessions showed the highest yield in four out of six trials especially in Northern Kazakhstan in both years. The entire sample was genotyped with 6 K SNP Illumina array. 4442 SNPs found to be polymorphic and were used for whole genome genotyping purposes. Obtained SNP markers data and field data were used for GWAS (genome-wide association study). 30 SNPs appear to be very significant in 42 MTAs in six studied environments. The study confirms the efficiency of GWAS for the identification of molecular markers which tag important agronomic traits. Overall thirty SNP markers associated with time to flowering and maturation, plant height, number of fertile nodes, seeds per plant and yield were identified. Physical locations of 32 identified out of 42 total MTAs coincide well with positions of known analogous QTLs. This result indicates importance of revealed MTAs for soybean growing regions in Kazakhstan. Obtained results would serve as required prerequisite for forming and realization of specific breeding

  17. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Yield efficiency for nine apple cultivars grafted on two rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Caetano Fioravanço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Currently, using smaller trees is one of the most important trends in apple cultivation. It is expected that reduced size plants produce lower amount of fruit, but with high yield and yield efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield efficiency (YE of nine apple tree cultivars, grafted on two rootstocks, from the second to the seventh year after planting. The YE indexes oscillated from one to the other year, regardless of rootstock. Correlations between YE and yield per tree and between YE and trunk cross sectional area (TCSA confirmed that efficiency can be increased by the production increment or by the plant's vigor reduction. The usefulness of cumulative YE (ƩYE is highlighted to compare apple tree cultivars after the third year of production. The highest ƩYE indexes were observed for 'Royal Gala' and 'Baigent', on M-9 rootstock, and for 'Gala Real' and 'Maxi-Gala', on Marubakaido/M-9 rootstock.

  19. Plant type improvement of indigenous rice cultivars through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihupi, A.

    1997-01-01

    A high yielding, locally adapted cultivar 'Afaa Mwanza 1/159' of rice (Oryza sativa L.) which is tall and late in maturity, was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 170, 210 and 250 Gy to shorten plant height and time of maturity. Twelve mutants were selected, and evaluated for yield performance in field trials from M 6 to M 9 generations. All the mutants were shorter in plant height, and gave higher mean yield than the parent. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that the number of productive tillers, number of panicles per square meter and grain filling in the panicle were important characters which influenced yield. On the other hand, panicle length had negative influence on yield. Cv. 'Supa India' and 'Salama' were also irradiated with doses of 170, 210, 240 Gy gamma rays. Analysis of M 2 populations of these cultivars indicated that mutagenesis created a lot of variation in plant height, maturity, spikelet fertility and panicle length. The induced variation shall be useful in selecting desired plant types. (author). 16 refs, 12 tabs

  20. Plant type improvement of indigenous rice cultivars through induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihupi, A [Department of Crop Science and Production, Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania)

    1997-07-01

    A high yielding, locally adapted cultivar `Afaa Mwanza 1/159` of rice (Oryza sativa L.) which is tall and late in maturity, was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 170, 210 and 250 Gy to shorten plant height and time of maturity. Twelve mutants were selected, and evaluated for yield performance in field trials from M{sub 6} to M{sub 9} generations. All the mutants were shorter in plant height, and gave higher mean yield than the parent. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that the number of productive tillers, number of panicles per square meter and grain filling in the panicle were important characters which influenced yield. On the other hand, panicle length had negative influence on yield. Cv. `Supa India` and `Salama` were also irradiated with doses of 170, 210, 240 Gy gamma rays. Analysis of M{sub 2} populations of these cultivars indicated that mutagenesis created a lot of variation in plant height, maturity, spikelet fertility and panicle length. The induced variation shall be useful in selecting desired plant types. (author). 16 refs, 12 tabs.

  1. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  2. Genetic fingerprinting of mutant rose cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, K V; Singh, K P; Singh, A.P. [Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: kvprasad66@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Six rose mutants evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from four parent cultivars were characterized based on RAPD markers. Contrary to the earlier findings our effort has conclusively proven that the RAPD markers are indeed robust tools to discern the mutants from their parents. Among 40 primers screened, 7 primers produced inconsistent banding pattern. The number of polymorphic bands varied between 4 (OPA 14) and 10 (OPA1) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 62.5 (OPM 9) to 100 percent (OPA 1). Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands between parent and mutant rose cultivars. When primer OPA 2 was used a specific band of 2.5 kb was noticed in mutant cv. Pusa Urmil and cv. Pusa Abhishek but was absent in parent cv. Jantar Mantar. A polymorphic band of 750 bp was noticed in the parent Kiss of Fire and helped in differentiating the parent from its mutant when amplified with OPK 3. Primer OPS 16 produced discriminatory band of 800 bp in mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma while it was absent in its parent cv. Montezuma. Another specific band of 650 bp was present in parent cv. Montezuma and absent in its mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma signifying the uniqueness of the mutant. Primer OPM 5 brought out distinct polymorphism among the parent Jantar Mantar and its three mutants with absence of a specific band of 1.5 kb in the parent. The four parents and 6 mutants were divided into four distinct groups in the Dendogram constructed by UPGMA method. The most genetically similar cultivar among the 10 cultivars analyzed are Montezuma and its pink sport of Montezuma whereas Abhisarika a mutant of cv. Kiss of Fire was distinctly different and formed a separate cluster. (author)

  3. Apple cultivars resistant to scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke. Aderh. Part II. Winterhardiness of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe winter which occurred in Poland in 1986-1987 damaged the most part of scab resistant apple cultivars and selected apple hybrids. Cold hardiness studied in 1987 and 1988 showed significant differences in degree of frost injury on stem, branches, twigs and buds of apple trees. Two scab-resistance cultivars, namely Florina and Sir Prize, as well as two check culuvars, Idared and Golden Delicious, were killed by frost. Strong damages were noted in cultivars: Prima, Primula, and Priam. Lower susceptibility showed: Jonafree, Gavin, Liberty Sister and three hybrids selected from crosses of Bankroft with scab-resistant Primula. Relatively frost resistant was Novamac and three hybrids of U-breeding line: U-1101 and U-50, originated from crosses of polish culrivar Fantazja (McIntosh x Linda with Primula, Highest resistance to frost showed cultivars: Freedom. Liberty. new polish cultivar Witos (Fantazja x Primula and three hybrids: U-337, U-237 and U-1098. During the 1987 and 1988 seasons severe infection of apple trees by numerous fungi was noted. Twelve species of isolated fungi were identified as pathogens of apple trees bark and wood.

  4. Avaliação fitotecnica de bananeiras tipo terra sob irrigação em condições semi-áridas Agronomical evaluation of bananas under irrigation and semi-arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Caldeira de Faria

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar fitotecnicamente as características vegetativas e de rendimento de cinco cultivares de bananeira tipo Terra, em primeiro ciclo de produção sob irrigação nas condições semiáridas da região de Guanambi - BA. Utilizaram-se descritores fenotípicos relevantes para a identificação e seleção de indivíduos com características superiores, visando a disponibilizar aos produtores dos perímetros de irrigação uma alternativa para a diversificação da bananicultura. Avaliaram-se as seguintes características: número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita, altura da planta, perímetro do pseudocaule, número de folhas vivas nas épocas do florescimento e colheita, o intervalo florescimento-colheita, peso do cacho, da ráquis e das pencas, número de pencas e de frutos, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto. O experimento foi delineado em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos, constituídos pelas cultivares AAB: Terra, Terra-Maranhão, Terrinha e D'Angola e pelo híbrido AAAB: FHIA-21 com cinco repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída por 20 plantas (quatro fileiras de cinco plantas, com seis plantas úteis no espaçamento de 3,0 m x 3,0 m. Destacaram-se as cultivares avaliadas a Terra e a Terra Maranhão como as mais produtivas, porém, com maior altura e mais tardias em ciclo. O híbrido FHIA-21 e as cultivares Terrinha e D'Angola, apresentaram-se com maior número de folhas vivas à época da colheita. A cultivar D'Angola apresentou a menor produtividade dentre as cultivares avaliadas.The goal of this work was to make a agronomical evaluation of the vegetative characteristics and income of five cultivars of banana type Plantain, in the first production cycle under irrigation in the semi-arid conditions of the region of the city of Guanambi -Bahia State. Relevant phenotypic descriptors were used for the identification and selection of individuals with superior

  5. Epistatic association mapping in homozygous crop cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Lü

    Full Text Available The genetic dissection of complex traits plays a crucial role in crop breeding. However, genetic analysis and crop breeding have heretofore been performed separately. In this study, we designed a new approach that integrates epistatic association analysis in crop cultivars with breeding by design. First, we proposed an epistatic association mapping (EAM approach in homozygous crop cultivars. The phenotypic values of complex traits, along with molecular marker information, were used to perform EAM. In our EAM, all the main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs, environmental effects, QTL-by-environment interactions and QTL-by-QTL interactions were included in a full model and estimated by empirical Bayes approach. A series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed to confirm the reliability of the new method. Next, the information from all detected QTLs was used to mine novel alleles for each locus and to design elite cross combination. Finally, the new approach was adopted to dissect the genetic basis of seed length in 215 soybean cultivars obtained, by stratified random sampling, from 6 geographic ecotypes in China. As a result, 19 main-effect QTLs and 3 epistatic QTLs were identified, more than 10 novel alleles were mined and 3 elite parental combinations, such as Daqingdou and Zhengzhou790034, were predicted.

  6. Population Growth Parameters of Rose Aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Different Rose Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, A; Jafari-Behi, V; Razmjou, J; Naseri, B; Hassanpour, M

    2017-02-01

    The rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (L.), is one of the most important pests on rose plants (Rosa spp.) with a worldwide distribution. As resistance indices, the development, survivorship, and reproduction of this aphid were evaluated on 10 rose cultivars, including Bella Vita, Cool Water, Dolce Vita, Maroussia, Orange Juice, Pinkpromise, Roulette, Tea, Valentine, and Persian Yellow in laboratory at 25 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity, and photoperiod of 16:8 (L/D) h. Rose aphid successfully survived on all 10 rose cultivars, although mortality rate was higher on Tea and Bella Vita. The number of offspring per female differed significantly among the tested rose cultivars, and ranged from 9.2 on Tea to 38.7 nymphs on Orange Juice. Population growth parameters were significantly affected by rose cultivars. The longest mean generation time (T) was observed on Bella Vita (14.8 days) and Tea (14.7 days) and the shortest on Orange Juice (10.0 days). The net reproductive rate (R 0 ) ranged from 6.9 on Tea to 33.2 nymphs on Orange Juice cultivar. Correspondingly, the highest value of intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) was observed on Orange Juice (0.348 day -1 ) and lower values on Tea (0.131 day -1 ) followed by Bella Vita (0.154 day -1 ). Cluster analysis of all the measured parameters of rose aphid on different rose cultivars revealed that Tea and Bella Vita were relatively resistant to M. rosae. These findings could be useful in developing an integrated pest management (IPM) program for this aphid in urbanized areas and commercial rose potting.

  7. Damage evaluation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on five apple cultivars under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, E.S.; Vendramin, J.D.; Denardi, F.; Nora, I.

    1999-01-01

    The apple production losses in southern Brazil caused by the attack of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus can reach up to 100% in some years. Its control demands intensive systematic sprays of insecticides, which increase production costs and affect environmental quality. In terms of integrated pest management, the use of resistant cultivars represents one of the most important alternatives to control this apple pest. With the objective of identifying sources of host plant resistance, apple fruits of different cultivars from the Clonal Germplasm Repository of the EPAGRI Research Station of Cacador were tested. The experiment consisted of 5 treatments (cultivars) with 5 replicates. Fruits at the harvest stage were used. The fruits were placed in boxes (40x110 cm), where they were exposed to oviposition by the fruit fly. After infestation, fruits were left on shelves at room temperature for 10 days in order to evaluate the damage level according to the following scale: 1 = fruit without attack; 2 = fruit with punctures and/or deformation without galleries; 3 = fruit with punctures and/or deformation and galleries; 4 = fruit with punctures and/or deformations, galleries and larvae. The Gala cultivar was the most susceptible, with an average damage level of 3.4, differing from the cultivars Fuji and Royal Red Delicious (damage levels of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively). The Belgolden and Sansa clones presented intermediate damage levels. A. fraterculus preferred to oviposit in the Golden Delicious group compared with the Delicious group. These studies suggest good possibilities for reduction of insecticide sprays to control the fruit fly in the cv. Fuji, as well as the incorporation of resistance factor in apple cultivars. (author)

  8. Traditional versus modern apple cultivars – a comparison of juice composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrowolska-Iwanek Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apples are rich in components that are important for human health, such as polyphenols, organic acids and microelements, but their chemical composition varies with different apple cultivars. We aimed to find out if there is any superiority in traditionally grown apple cultivars in terms of their fruits’ bioactive components content. Juice from two traditionally grown apple cultivars, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’, was compared to eight popular apple cultivars, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagold Decosta’, ‘Jonica’, ‘Šampion’, ‘Gloster’, ‘Elise’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Rubin’, and the results are presented. In the study we determined several major and minor nutrient elements, organic acids, phenolic content as well as the antioxidant activity of apple juice made from different cultivars, both modern and traditionally grown. Antioxidant activity determined as FRAP varied from 1.12 (‘Elise’ to 12.10 (‘Jonagold’ mmol Fe dm-3. The concentration of polyphenols fell between 0.16 (‘Elise’ and 1.30 (‘Jonagold’ mg ml-1 gallic acid equivalent. Malic acid concentration was highest in ‘Reinette Simirenko’ and ‘Mutsu’ (6.58 and 5.84 g dm-3, respectively and lowest for ‘Jonagold’ (3.73 g dm-3. The microelement concentrations for the apple cultivar juices were as follows: 8-24 mg dm-3 for Na, 567-1022 mg dm-3 for K, 26.9-59.4 mg dm-3 for Mg and 0.105-0.201 mg dm-3 for Zn. Statistical analysis confirmed a highly positive correlation between total polyphenols and antioxidant activity (r = 0.98, p = 0.001.

  9. Temperature effects on radiation use and biomass partitioning in diverse tropical maize cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafitte, H.R.; Edmeades, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    Temperature can influence crop yields through effects on radiation interception, radiation use, yield component elaboration and/or carbohydrate partitioning. In an attempt to identify causes of yield variation, this study examined these processes in a diverse group of maize cultivars (Zea mays L.). The cultivars were adapted to zones characterized by different temperatures, and were grown in six environments whose mean temperature during the growing season ranged from 13°C to 28°C.Adaptation groups differed greatly in grain and total biomass production across environments, and large differences were observed in harvest index, supporting the hypothesis that temperature has important effects of dry matter partitioning to grain. All yield components were affected. The number of ears per plant, grains per ear and mass per kernel of highland-adapted cultivars declined dramatically when average site temperature exceeded about 17°C, while those of lowland-adapted cultivars were adversely affected by low temperatures. Carbon exchange rates differed among individual cultivars in all environments where that trait was measured, but significant differences were observed among adaptation groups only in the warmest environment, where rates for the highland cultivars were about 15% less than for the others. No consistent differences were observed among adaptation groups for variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Adaptation groups differed significantly in the proportion of incident radiation intercepted by the crop near flowering in three of four environments. This was due to both reduced leaf number and reduced area of individual leaves, but those differences were not proportional to the differences in grain yield among groups. Because indicators of potential assimilate flux to the ear near flowering used in this study (i.e. radiation interception and utilization) could not be consistently related to differences in harvest index among adaptation groups, direct effects of

  10. Banana Cultivar Mapping and Constraints Identification With Farmers in Southwest Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyago, M.; Makworo, S.; Njue, E.; Rees, D.

    1999-01-01

    Southwest Kenya is one of the major banana growing ares of Kenya and contributes about 40% of the country's production. Banana is an important crop in Kenya providing the small-scale resource poor farmers with food and the much-needed income. In southwest Kenya, Banana is a priority crop that is grown in a wide range of farms from backyard gardens to medium farms. Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRP) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) were conducted between January, 1996 and December 1997. The overall objective was to identify major constraints in specific areas, rank them with farmers and determine suitable interventions. The RRA and PRA revealed that farmers grow banana as a pure stand, intercropped with crops like maize, beans and groundnuts, in addition along the contour lines for soil conservation purpose. Diverse banana cultivars are grown in the region, of which some are localised while others are widespread. The major cultivars grown include 'Ekeganda', Kisukari', 'Ng'ombe' and 'Pisang Awak'. Pisang Awak was found prevalent in drier areas of Kendu Bay (LM 3 ) and very cold areas of Bomet (LH 1 ). Ekeganda is the most popular cooking type while Kisukari is a dessert type and is the second most popular banana cultivar in the region. Some of the constraints cut across the AEZs and include a complex of pests and diseases, poor orchard management, soil exhaustion because of land pressure, lack of superior cultivars and socioeconomic factors such as poor infrastructure. Panama disease, nematodes and banana weevil are prevalent at the medium and lower AEZs while moles are menace in the upper midlands and highland areas. To address some of the major constraints, on-farm banana cultivar evaluation trials were initiated in four AEZs namely LM 3-4 , LH 1 , UM 1 and LM 2 , respectively. Monitoring and evaluation of these cultivars by both researchers, extension and farmers is on-going

  11. Seed-storage Mycoflora of Peanut Cultivars Grown in Nigerian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankiti, AO.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of peanut is increasingly becoming important both among growers and users of the crop in Nigerian savanna. The aim is to sell the produce and maximize benefits accruing from the crops during scarcity. Very often, these envisaged advantages fail due to unfavourable market forces, thus compelling them to sell at a loss or store them across seasons for periods ranging from one to two years. However, information on fungi associated with storage of such peanuts in Nigerian savanna and its attendant problems are yet to be investigated. Thus, the seed mycoflora and viability seven common peanut cultivars stored under conditions similar to traditional settings were investigated using different isolating techniques. The peanut cultivars were RMP 12, RMP 91, RRB, 48-115B, M554-76, 55-437 Ex-Dakar and a local cultivar. None of these cultivars possessed resistance to in vitro colonization by fungi. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer were consistently isolated from all the cultivars from almost all isolating techniques. Other fungi were Fusarium chlamydosporium, F. roseum, F. oxysporium, Penicillium spp., Curvularia spp., Botryodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina and Sclerotium rolfsii. Relative percentages, however, varied with individual fungi and peanut cultivars. The test with seven different types of growth media gave the highest fungi recovery rate than the blotter paper technique. Seed viability was lower with peanut seeds stored for two years. Also, the relative percentage occurrence of individual fungi was significantly higher with seeds stored for two years. While we recommend the use of growth media for recovery and study of seed mycoflora, peanut seeds should not be stored for more than one year.

  12. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  13. Evaluation of Compatibility and Morpho–Physiological Characteristics of Some Olive Cultivars (Oleaeuropaea L. at Tarom Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahmoud azimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction According to statistics presented by FAO in 2011, the world area under olive cultivation has been estimated about 9 million and six hundred thousand hectares from which Iran shares approximately 103 thousand hectares. Tarom region in Zanjan province is one of the important olive cultivation in which 12600 hectare has been devoted to olive planting. A growing trend could be seen if the cultivation area regarding the fertile and non- fertile olive orchards along with amount of production were compared during the last decades which may be attributed mainly to favorable climatic condition for olive cultivation in the region. Temperature as the most important environmental factor affects flowering and fruiting of olive trees. Temperatures that stimulate olive fruiting, and sub-zero temperatures which cause damage to olive tree or fruit yielding are of great importance in determining the adaptability of olive trees. Regarding the quality of olive oil, fruit characters such as: cultivar, ripening and climatic conditions are considered as main characters too. To determine the adaptable cultivars for any region and microclimates many experiments have been carried out worldwide. In Iran, Zard and Roghany local olive cultivars selected for northern parts of Iran with the most area under cultivation in Rudbar and Tarom regions but the Dezful cultivar has been released for southern regions of the country. This study was carried at Tarom Olive Research Station, Zanjan, Iran and aimed to evaluate the vegetative and reproductive traits of some domestic and foreign olive cultivars and to determine the adaptability of them to the studied area. Materials and Methods At the beginning of the study, age of the olive trees varied between 4 to 6 years and all the trees were in the reproductive phase. Plantation system was also 8 × 8 meters with trickle irrigation systems. The cultivars were: Amigdalolia, Arbequina, Abusatl, Bladi, Picual, Roghany, Zard

  14. Seed yield and agronomic parameters of cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... 1Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Bozok University, Sivas ... Key words: Vigna unguiculata, seed yield, thousand seed weight, Black Sea. INTRODUCTION. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important.

  15. Evaluation of Vetch Species and their Accessions for Agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    matter yield while early maturing species have higher seed yield and thousand seed weight ... Livestock is an integral component of the agricultural activities in ... conventional forage production systems) are important and appropriate in areas ...

  16. 78 FR 25692 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...] Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel AGENCY: Animal and Plant... authorize the importation into the United States of fresh dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel. Based on... weeds via the importation of fresh dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel. In addition, based on the...

  17. Caracterização agronômica de genótipos de cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L. Agronomic characterization if birdsfoot trefoil genotypes (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Bolzon Soster

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de caracterizar agronomicamente genótipos de cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., incluindo oito populações do cv. São Gabriel, um cultivar rizomatoso (cv. ARS-2620 e um cultivar sem rizomas (cv. Trueno. Plantas individuais foram cultivadas e submetidas a sete cortes em condições de campo, durante um ano, em Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os genótipos apresentaram variabilidade quanto ao comprimento de entrenós, estatura, diâmetro, comprimento de legumes, produção de forragem e valor nutritivo. Na média geral, as populações e o cv. Trueno foram cerca de 50% mais produtivos em relação ao cv. ARS-2620. Os genótipos apresentaram entre 80 e 100% de sobrevivência. O conteúdo de proteína bruta reduziu de 21,8% (estádio vegetativo para 11,2% (estádio de frutificação. A média geral de fibra detergente ácido foi de 24,2% e a de fibra detergente neutro variou entre 55,3 e 58,8%.This work was carried out to characterize agronomically birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. genotypes, including eight populations derived from the cultivar São Gabriel, one rhizomatous cultivar (ARS-260 and one cultivar without rhizomes (Trueno. Individual plants were submitted to seven cuts under field conditions during one year, at Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The genotypes showed variability relative to internode lenght, height, diameter, legume lenght, forage production and nutritive value. On the average, the populations and the cv. Trueno were about 50% more productive than the cv. ARS-260. The genotypes presented a survival range from 80% to 100%. The crude protein content decreased from 21.8 (vegetative stage to 11.2% (fruiting stage. The overall mean for acid detergent fiber was 24.2% and the neutral detergent fiber ranged from 55.3% to 58.8%.

  18. Utilization of the cropgro-soybean model to estimate yield loss caused by Asian rust in cultivars with different cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Ávila Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, crop models have increasingly been used to simulate agricultural features. The DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer is an important tool in modeling growth; however, one of its limitations is related to the unaccounted-for effect of diseases. Therefore, the goals of this study were to calibrate and validate the CSM CROPGRO-Soybean for the soybean cultivars M-SOY 6101 and MG/BR 46 (Conquista, analyze the performance and the effect of Asian soybean rust on these cultivars under the environmental conditions of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experimental data for the evaluation, testing, and adjustment of the genetic coefficients for the cultivars, M-SOY 6101 and MG/BR 46 (Conquista, were obtained during the 2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2009/2010 growing seasons. GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation was used for the estimation of the genetic coefficients, and pedotransfer functions have been utilized to estimate the physical characteristics of the soil. For all of the sowing dates, the early season cultivar, M-SOY 6101, exhibited a lower variance in yield, which represents more stability with regard to the interannual climate variability, i.e., the farmers who use this cultivar will have in 50% of the crop years analyzed, a higher yield than a late-season cultivar. The MG/BR 46 (Conquista cultivar demonstrated a greater probability of obtaining higher yield in years with favorable weather conditions. However, in the presence of the Asian soybean rust, yield is heavily affected. The early cultivar, M-SOY 6101, showed a lower risk of being affected by the rust and consequently exhibited less yield loss considering the scenario D90 (condensation on the leaf surface occurs when the relative humidity is greater than or equal to 90%, for a sowing date of November 14.

  19. Targeted genotyping-by-sequencing permits cost-effective identification and discrimination of pasture grass species and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Luke W; Drayton, Michelle C; Bain, Melissa; Baillie, Rebecca C; Inch, Courtney; Spangenberg, German C; Wang, Junping; Forster, John W; Cogan, Noel O I

    2016-05-01

    A targeted amplicon-based genotyping-by-sequencing approach has permitted cost-effective and accurate discrimination between ryegrass species (perennial, Italian and inter-species hybrid), and identification of cultivars based on bulked samples. Perennial ryegrass and Italian ryegrass are the most important temperate forage species for global agriculture, and are represented in the commercial pasture seed market by numerous cultivars each composed of multiple highly heterozygous individuals. Previous studies have identified difficulties in the use of morphophysiological criteria to discriminate between these two closely related taxa. Recently, a highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotyping assay has been developed that permits accurate differentiation between both species and cultivars of ryegrasses at the genetic level. This assay has since been further developed into an amplicon-based genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach implemented on a second-generation sequencing platform, allowing accelerated throughput and ca. sixfold reduction in cost. Using the GBS approach, 63 cultivars of perennial, Italian and interspecific hybrid ryegrasses, as well as intergeneric Festulolium hybrids, were genotyped. The genetic relationships between cultivars were interpreted in terms of known breeding histories and indistinct species boundaries within the Lolium genus, as well as suitability of current cultivar registration methodologies. An example of applicability to quality assurance and control (QA/QC) of seed purity is also described. Rapid, low-cost genotypic assays provide new opportunities for breeders to more fully explore genetic diversity within breeding programs, allowing the combination of novel unique genetic backgrounds. Such tools also offer the potential to more accurately define cultivar identities, allowing protection of varieties in the commercial market and supporting processes of cultivar accreditation and quality assurance.

  20. Migration Monitoring of Blackcurrant Gall Mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw. from Buds to Leaves on Several Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

  1. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  2. Sensory Description of Cultivars (Coffea Arabica L. Resistant to Rust and Its Correlation with Caffeine, Trigonelline, and Chlorogenic Acid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira Fassio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the chemical compounds in Arabica coffee beans in the definition of the drink sensory quality and authentication of coffee regions, the aim of this study was to evaluate, from principal component analysis—PCA—if there is a relation between the caffeine, trigonelline, and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA content and the sensory attributes of the drink, and in this context, enabling the differentiation of cultivars in two coffee-producing regions of Brazil. We evaluated seven rust-resistant Coffea arabica cultivars, and two rust-susceptible cultivars in two cultivation environments: Lavras, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, and Patrocinio in the Cerrado region of Minas Gerais. The flavor and acidity were determinant for differentiation of the cultivars and their interaction with the evaluated environments. Cultivars Araponga MG1, Catigua MG2, and Catigua MG1 are the most suitable for the production of specialty coffee in the state of Minas Gerais. A poor correlation was found between caffeine, trigonelline, 5-CQA contents, and fragrance, flavor, acidity, body, and final score attributes. However, these compounds enabled the differentiation of the environments. The PCA indicated superiority in the sensory quality of cultivars resistant to rust, compared to the control, Bourbon Amarelo, and Topázio MG1190.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME WILD AND CULTIVATED ISATIS SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman KIZIL

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated Isatis tinctoria, I. constricta, I. glauca, I. cochlearis, I. aucheri and I. demiriziana during 2002-03 and 2003-04 growing seasons for different agronomic characteristics affecting the percentage of dye in them. The results showed wide variations in the agronomic characteristics of Isatis constricta, Isatis cochlearis, Isatis aucheri, Isatis demiriziana collected from wild; compared to culture Isatis tinctoria and Isatis glauca. I. tinctoria showed early emergence (36 day compared to other species, and I. glauca was determined as late fl owering (512 day species. Among Isatis species, I. glauca showed the maximum plant height (113.4 cm, stem diameter (10.84 mm seed yield per plant (103.0 g . Whereas, I. tinctoria produced the largest number of branches per plant (16.8 plant-1 and the maximum number of seeds (17918 per plant.

  4. Enhancement of the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock in a ferralsol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Herrera, J.A.; Garcia, A.; Nuviola, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Ferralsols from Ciego de Avila, Cuba, have a pH near neutrality and very low exchangeable acidity, thus, they are not suitable for direct application of phosphate rock. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments, different P fertilizers were tested in order to assess their agronomic effectiveness through the use of nuclear and conventional methods. The phosphate rocks (PRs) came from different deposits (Higuanojo, La Pimienta and Trinidad de Guedes from Cuba; Riecito, Baja California and North Carolina from other countries). Partial acidulation (PA) of some of these rocks was also evaluated. Trinidad de Guedes PAPRs were found to be highly effective compared to their natural PR when evaluated through dry matter production, P uptake and isotopic parameters. Further field experiments are needed to validate the greenhouse results to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of the local Trinidad de Guedes PR through partial acidulation. (author)

  5. The agronomic landspreading of coal bottom ash: using a regulated solid waste as a resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, N; McIntosh, T; Severance, C; Peterson, A

    1989-02-01

    Within the US, approximately 8860 Mg of dry coal bottom ash is generated daily, the majority of which is disposed of by landfilling. The disposal cost varies significantly depending on location. In Wisconsin, for example, in 1987 public landfill disposal costs ranged from 8.90 US dollars to 30 US dollars per Mg. However, bottom ash appears to be an acceptable soil amendment which may alter texture and improve tilth by making clay soils more friable and decreasing crust formation. If a generic exemption for this material can be developed with the appropriate regulatory bodies, use of coal bottom ash as a soil amendment has societal and economic advantages. This paper describes the key point of an agronomic management plant. An economic comparison indicates that, based on 1987 costs, agronomic use is only 38% as costly as landfill disposal. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. QTL mapping for yield components and agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to map QTL for agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population. For this, 207 F2:3 progenies from the cross CS3035PTA276-1-5-2x UFVS2012 were genotyped and cultivated in Viçosa-MG, using randomized block design with three replications. QTL detection was carried out by linear regression and composite interval mapping. Thirty molecular markers linked to QTL were detected by linear regression for the total of nine agronomic traits. QTL for SWP (seed weight per plant, W100S (weight of 100 seeds, NPP (number of pods per plant, and NSP (number of seeds per plant were detected by composite interval mapping. Four QTL with additive effect are promising for marker-assisted selection (MAS. Particularly, the markers Satt155 and Satt300 could be useful in simultaneous selection for greater SWP, NPP, and NSP.

  7. Essential-Oil Variability in a Collection of Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Roscigno, Graziana; Bruno, Maurizio; De Falco, Enrica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant of great tradition in the Mediterranean area. Its economic importance is growing up determining an expansion of cultivation. This paper evaluated the morphological traits, the chemical profiles, and antibacterial activity of 21 cultivars of basil belonging to 'Genovese', 'Napoletano', and 'Purple basil' types. The cultivars were characterized by different growth rate and morphological traits. The chemical composition of the oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS analysis, supported by the PCA analysis, underlined the strong influence of chemotype. It is noteworthy that estragole, never present in Genovese and purple basil types, occurred in Napoletano type. The high presence of eugenol, methyl eugenol, and linalool in the majority of cultivars, belonging both to Genovese and to Napoletano types was registered. Of great interest resulted the composition of the purple basil 'Opal'. All the samples tested exhibited similar antibiotic profiles with moderate antibacterial activity. The results enhanced the importance of determination of essential-oil profile in the selection of cultivars characterized by diverse morphological traits and are useful for different purposes. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  8. Flower opening and vase life of gladiolus cultivars: the sensitivity to ethylene and the carbohydrate content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cavalcante da Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vase life is one of the most important characteristics in the quality of cut flowers. The carbohydrate content of petals from each cultivar can be a decisive factor to vase life of gladiolus flowers. Despite exposure to ethylene does not affect the life of open florets of gladiolus flowers, it may reduce the flower’s commercial life due the occurrence of flower buds abortion. This study thus aimed to evaluate the flower opening and the vase life of gladiolus flowers according to ethylene sensitivity and carbohydrate content of each cultivar. The gladiolus cultivars used in Experiment I were  ‘Amsterdam’, ‘Blue Frost’, ‘Gold Field’, ‘Green Star’, ‘Jester’, ‘Lavender’, ‘Red Beauty’, ‘Rose Supreme’, ‘Traderhorn’, and ‘Verônica’. Stems were stored in airtight chambers and exposed to the ethylene concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100, and 1000 μL L−1 for 24 h. Subsequently, flower stem were placed in a test tube with distilled water when were evaluated for percentage of flower opening and vase life. In Experiment II, three cultivars (‘Amsterdam’, ‘Red Beauty’, and ‘Verônica’ were chosen based on the lowest, medium, and highest vase life in Experiment I, respectively. Total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, and starch contents were evaluated in five flower developmental stages. No effect of ethylene on the flower opening or alterations in flower opening between cultivars. The vase life of gladiolus flowers differed between cultivars regardless of ethylene action. ‘Verônica’ and ‘Amsterdam’, which had the highest and lowest vase life, respectively, differed as to the total soluble sugar content. Ethylene does not influence the flower opening or vase life of the gladiolus cultivars studied. In these cultivars, the maintenance of flower opening is attributed to total soluble sugars content, which, in turn, is a major determinant of the vase life.

  9. Phenolic content and anti-hyperglycemic activity of pecan cultivars from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hawary, Seham S; Saad, Soumaya; El Halawany, Ali Mahmoud; Ali, Zeinab Y; El Bishbishy, Mahitab

    2016-01-01

    Pecans are commonly used nuts with important health benefits such as anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. A comparative investigation of the antihyperglycemic and total phenolic content of the leaves and shells of four pecan cultivars growing in Egypt was carried out. The selected cultivars (cv.) were Carya illinoinensis Wangneh. K. Koch. cv. Wichita, cv. WesternSchely, cv. Cherokee, and cv. Sioux family Juglandaceae. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the leaves and shells of pecan cultivars were carried out using Folin-Ciocalteu's and aluminum chloride assays, respectively. Moreover, HPLC profiling of phenolic and flavonoid contents was carried out using RP-HPLC-UV. In addition, in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity of the ethanolic extracts (125 mg/kg bw, p.o.) of C. illinoinensis cultivars was carried out using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Phenolic contents were higher in shells than leaves in all studied cultivars, while flavonoids were higher in leaves. Leaves and shells of cv. Sioux showed the highest phenolics (251.7 µg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g), and flavonoid contents (103.27 µg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 210.67 µg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g), respectively. The HPLC profiling of C. illinoinensis cultivars resulted in the identification of eight flavonoids (five of these compounds are identified for the first time from pecan), and 15 phenolic acids (six are identified for the first time from pecan). Leaves of cv. Sioux revealed the most potent decrease in blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) (194.9 mg/dl and 6.52%, respectively), among other tested cultivars. Moreover, leaves of cv. Sioux significantly elevated serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) (0.33 mMol/l and 30.68 mg/dl, respectively), and significantly suppressed the markers of both lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and protein oxidation (protein carbonyl, PC

  10. Photo-biotechnology as a tool to improve agronomic traits in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururani, Mayank Anand; Ganesan, Markkandan; Song, Pill-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes are photosensory phosphoproteins with crucial roles in plant developmental responses to light. Functional studies of individual phytochromes have revealed their distinct roles in the plant's life cycle. Given the importance of phytochromes in key plant developmental processes, genetically manipulating phytochrome expression offers a promising approach to crop improvement. Photo-biotechnology refers to the transgenic expression of phytochrome transgenes or variants of such transgenes. Several studies have indicated that crop cultivars can be improved by modulating the expression of phytochrome genes. The improved traits include enhanced yield, improved grass quality, shade-tolerance, and stress resistance. In this review, we discuss the transgenic expression of phytochrome A and its hyperactive mutant (Ser599Ala-PhyA) in selected crops, such as Zoysia japonica (Japanese lawn grass), Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bentgrass), Oryza sativa (rice), Solanum tuberosum (potato), and Ipomea batatas (sweet potato). The transgenic expression of PhyA and its mutant in various plant species imparts biotechnologically useful traits. Here, we highlight recent advances in the field of photo-biotechnology and review the results of studies in which phytochromes or variants of phytochromes were transgenically expressed in various plant species. We conclude that photo-biotechnology offers an excellent platform for developing crops with improved properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Agronomic-productive characteristics of two genotype of stevia rebaudiana in Central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Andolfi; Mario Macchia; Lucia Ceccarini

    2006-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni produces a variety of high-potency low calorie sweeteners in its’ leaf tissue. The aim of this work was to evaluate the productive potential of two different Stevia rebaudiana genotypes and the characteristics of the production of the plant obtained through different cultivation methods, in central Italy. For several years (1992-2000) agronomic trials on Stevia rebaudiana cultivated in the littoral area near Pisa (Italy) carried out. In 1992 two different g...

  12. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic lettuce growers in California typically use insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) to attract hoverflies (Syrphidae) that provide biological control of aphids. A two year study with transplanted organic romaine lettuce in Salinas, California investigated agronomic aspects of lettuce monoculture and lettuce-alyssum strip intercropping on beds in replacement intercropping treatments where alyssum transplants replaced 2 to 8% of the lettuce transplants, and in additi...

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for High-Throughput Phenotyping and Agronomic Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeyin Shi

    Full Text Available Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants. Faster phenotypic trait data collection and analysis relative to genetic data leads to faster and better selections in crop improvement. Furthermore, faster and higher-resolution crop data collection leads to greater capability for scientists and growers to improve precision-agriculture practices on increasingly larger farms; e.g., site-specific application of water and nutrients. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have recently gained traction as agricultural data collection systems. Using UAVs for agricultural remote sensing is an innovative technology that differs from traditional remote sensing in more ways than strictly higher-resolution images; it provides many new and unique possibilities, as well as new and unique challenges. Herein we report on processes and lessons learned from year 1-the summer 2015 and winter 2016 growing seasons-of a large multidisciplinary project evaluating UAV images across a range of breeding and agronomic research trials on a large research farm. Included are team and project planning, UAV and sensor selection and integration, and data collection and analysis workflow. The study involved many crops and both breeding plots and agronomic fields. The project's goal was to develop methods for UAVs to collect high-quality, high-volume crop data with fast turnaround time to field scientists. The project included five teams: Administration, Flight Operations, Sensors, Data Management, and Field Research. Four case studies involving multiple crops in breeding and agronomic applications add practical descriptive detail. Lessons learned include critical information on sensors, air vehicles, and configuration parameters for both

  14. Comparison of Resistance Index Some Potato Cultivars to the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say (Col.: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghassemi-Kahrizeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potato, Solanum tuberosum L. is an important crop with 5.24 million tons of production on 210,000 hectares of irrigated land in Iran. Several pests attack the potato crop which among them the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say, is the most important defoliating pest of potato throughout the world and Iran and considerably reduce crop yield. Growers rely on pesticides to control this pest in the field but this insect is well known for its rapid resistance development to pesticides, so that it has developed field resistance to nearly all insecticides used against it and it is now resistant to more than 40 chemical insecticides. The problems of insecticide resistance, combined with continuing environmental concerns associated with chemical pesticide use, have provided a considerable stimulus over the past 50 years for the development of alternative control methods. Host plant resistance is considered to be an important part of integrated pest management (IPM system of this pest, which is compatible with sustainable control methods and can reduce the use of chemical insecticides .With the aim of identifying the existence of resistance resources, a study was conducted to evaluate and comparison the resistance index (PRI of 33 potatocultivarsto the Colorado potato beetle. Detected resistant variety (ies could be used as a resistance source for IPM programs of this pest. Materials and Methods: Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to compare resistance index (PRI of 33 potato cultivars to the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say, in Naghadeh region during 2007-2008. In a choice test, the numbers of attracted beetles to each cultivar was determined as antixenosis index in the field. Also, Percentage of larval and pupal mortality were determined and used as the antibiosis index under greenhouse conditions. To evaluate the tolerance index, infested and non infested plots were planted and

  15. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghum cultivars for silage production in the lower middle San Francisco Valley - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.13072

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getúlio Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Productive performance for silage production of five forage sorghum genotypes (BRS Ponta Negra, BRS 655, BR 601, BRS 506 and BRS 610 was evaluated through the yield of dry matter, digestible dry matter, and fresh matter, plant height, percentage of lodged and broken plants, and anatomical fractions in Brazilian semi-arid region. BRS 506 and BRS Ponta Negra varieties achieved the highest fresh forage yields (89.4 and 76.2 ton. ha-1, and BRS 506, stood out for dry and digestible dry matter yield (25.2 and 12.1 ton. ha-1, respectively. Regarding the participation of the plant fractions, BRS 655 and BRS 610 genotypes showed a higher percentage of panicles (50.2 and 41.0% respectively, while BRS 506 stressed out the stem participation (84.6%, and BRS Ponta Negra, the leaf participation (17.9%. Among the materials evaluated for silage production, stood out the BRS 506 and BRS Ponta Negra genotypes. The results obtained for production of dry and digestible dry matter, and the ratio of plant fractions indicates the possible use of these genotypes on silage production in the Brazilian semiarid.  

  16. Effects of drought stress on some agronomic and morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... has a vital usage. Being aware of ... world. Most countries in the world are facing the problem of drought. ... yield over a wide range of environmental condition is very important. ... grain yield and straw weight decreases with water stress ... Each plastic pot had been filled with cultivated soil, sand and manure ...

  17. agronomic performance and estimate of genetic variability of upland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    importance of rice, it has many industrial uses. For example ... environmental constraints. Particularly ... of Variance (ANOVA) according to Gomez and Gomez. (1984) and ... selection of genotypes for increased grain yield. For grain ..... yield components in wheat, Crop Science ... variability, stability and correlation studies in.

  18. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  19. Agronomic and forage characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Manríquez-Mendoza, Leonor Yalid; López-Ortíz, Silvia; Pérez-Hernández, Ponciano; Ortega- Jiménez, Eusebio; López-Tecpoyotl, Zenón Gerardo; Villarruel-Fuentes, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Native trees are an important source of forage for livestock, particularly in regions having prolonged dry periods. Some tree species have fast growth rates, good nutritional quality, and the ability to produce forage during dry periods when the need for forage is greater. Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. is a tree native to tropical America that has a high forage potential. This species is mentioned in a number of studies assessing the forage potential of trees in a diverse array of environments and v...

  20. Newly registered small grains cultivars from Zaječar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principal properties of 5 new cultivars of small grains created in the Center for Agricultural and Technological Research in Zaječar. They are as follows: Arena (winter bread wheat, Premium (winter malting barley, Tango (winter triticale, Center (spring oat and Balsa (spring naked barley. In 2004 and 2005 these cultivars were registered by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia. The Arena cultivar has good indices of technological quality and high yield genetic potential which is successfully preserved even in dry years. The Premium cultivar, besides high yield capacity, has a very low protein grain content what makes it especially suitable for brewers industry. Triticale Tango is intended, in the first place, for animal feeds and like Arena cultivar. is highly tolerant to draught. Spring oat Center is Zaječar's first made oat cultivar in this group of small grains. Cultivar Balsa is the first spring six-row naked barley in Serbia and Montenegro. Creating of Balsa cultivar is the attempt to meet the future demands on the market. By the act of registering above mentioned cultivars the Center in Zajecar has completed and enlarged its already existing variety of small grains assortment.

  1. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Zheng Qiwei; Yao Fangfang; Chen Zhan; Feng Zhaozhong; Manning, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants. - Cultivar sensitivity should be considered when using protective chemical to assess the effects of ambient ozone on plants

  2. Potencial de genótipos de trigo duro para produtividade e caracteres agronômicos no Estado de São Paulo Potential of durum wheat genotypes for productivity and agronomic traits in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Henrique da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O trigo duro produz a semolina que, extraída dos grãos, é a matéria-prima empregada na elaboração de macarrão. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo e comportamento agronômico de 17 linhagens de trigo duro (BH-1146/LGN//2*IAC-1003 oriundas do programa de melhoramento do Instituto Agronômico (IAC e três cultivares-controle: IAC-1001, IAC-1002 e IAC-1003, originárias de introduções do Centro Internacional de Melhoramento de Milho e Trigo (CIMMYT, México. Os experimentos foram instalados em Capão Bonito (sequeiro e em Mococa (irrigado, em 2007 e 2008. Foram avaliados os seguintes caracteres: produtividade (kg ha-1, altura das plantas, comprimento da espiga e comprimento do internódio da raque (cm, número de grãos por espiga e massa de cem grãos (g. A tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio foi realizada empregando soluções nutritivas, no laboratório. As cultivares IAC-1001 e IAC-1003 destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos nos dois locais. As linhagens 2, 9 e 13 possuem porte semianão mais baixo; as linhagens 4, 15 e a cultivar IAC-1001 exibiram espigas mais compridas; as cultivares IAC-1001 e IAC-1002 sobressaíram-se pelo grande número de grãos por espiga; a 'IAC-1003' pelos grãos mais pesados e as linhagens 1, 4, 15 e 17 revelaram maior comprimento do internódio da raque. Houve tendência dos genótipos de porte semianão mais alto serem mais produtivos, com maior número de grãos por espiga e grãos mais pesados. As linhagens obtidas pelo programa de melhoramento do IAC foram tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio e as cultivares-controle sensíveis.Semolina extracted from grains of durum wheat is used for manufacturing pastas. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the yield potential and agronomic behavior of seventeen durum wheat inbred lines (BH-1146/LGN//2*IAC-1003 originated from Instituto Agronômico (IAC breeding program and three check cultivars IAC-1001, IAC-1002 and IAC-1003

  3. Preliminary evidence for associations between molecular markers and quantitative traits in a set of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Babak; Nasri, Shilan; Dashchi, Sahar; Arzhang, Sorour; Bernousi, Iraj; Abbasi Holasou, Hossein

    The identification of polymorphic markers associated with various quantitative traits allows us to test their performance for the exploitation of the extensive quantitative variation maintained in gene banks. In the current study, a set of 97 wheat germplasm accessions including 48 cultivars and 49 breeding lines were evaluated for 18 agronomic traits. The accessions were also genotyped with 23 ISSR, nine IRAP and 20 REMAP markers, generating a total of 658 clear and scorable bands, 86% of which were polymorphic. Both neighbor-joining dendrogram and Bayesian analysis of clustering of individuals revealed that the accessions could be divided into four genetically distinct groups, indicating the presence of a population structure in current wheat germplasm. Associations between molecular markers and 18 agronomic traits were analyzed using the mixed linear model (MLM) approach. A total of 94 loci were found to be significantly associated with agronomic traits (P≤0.01). The highest number of bands significantly associated with the 18 traits varied from 11 for number of spikelets spike -1 (NSS) to two for grain yield in row (GRY). Loci ISSR16-9 and REMAP13-10 were associated with three different traits. The results of the current study provide useful information about the performance of retrotransposon-based and ISSR molecular markers that could be helpful in selecting potentially elite gene bank samples for wheat-breeding programs. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars give better androgenic response than hollow-stemmed cultivars in anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Weigt, Dorota; Kiel, Angelika; Nawraca?a, Jerzy; Pluta, Mateusz; ?acka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) are resistant to the stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Nort.) and lodging. Anthers of 24 spring wheat cultivars with varying content of pith in the stem were used in the experiment. All were classified into three groups: solid, medium?solid and hollow stems. There was considerable influence of the cultivar on callus formation and green plant regeneration. The highest efficiency of green plant regeneration (24%) was observed for the solid-s...

  5. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid used together with 1 mg/L 6-benzyladenine or 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on basal Murashige and Skoog medium. Callus is not a desirable method to clonally propagate important germplasm but can serve as one possible way of deriving periclinal mutants as a result of somaclonal variation.

  6. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  7. Relationship of European Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) Cultivars to Asian Cultivars, Characterized Using AFLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty one persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) selections, including 17 Italian, 11 Spanish, 13 Japanese, six Korean, five Chinese, one Israeli, and eight of unknown origin, were evaluated for genetic differences by AFLP analysis. Relationships among cultivars were evaluated by UPGMA clustering, Neigh...

  8. UEL 7: nova cultivar de Dendrobium UEL 7: a new Dendrobium cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available UEL 7 é uma cultivar de Dendrobium nobile desenvolvida no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina resultante do cruzamento das plantas matrizes D3 x D8 e selecionada pela coloração das flores amarelas e com largura e comprimento semelhantes (7,0 cm, formando praticamente um círculo. As plantas foram poliniza