WorldWideScience

Sample records for agronomic trait development

  1. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

  2. Putative zeatin O-glucosyltransferase OscZOG1 regulates root and shoot development and formation of agronomic traits in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Qing Guo

    2016-01-01

    As a ubiquitous reaction, glucosylation controls the bioactivity of cytokinins in plant growth and development. Here we show that genetic manipulation of zeatin-O-glucosylation regulates the formation of important agronomic traits in rice by manipulating the expression of OscZOG1 gene, encoding a putative zeatin O-glucosyltransferase. We found that OscZOG1 was preferentially expressed in shoot and root meristematic tissues and nascent organs. The growth of lateral roots was stimulated in the overexpression lines, but inhibited in RNA interference lines. In shoots, knockdown of OscZOG1 expression by RNA interference significantly im-proved tillering, panicle branching, grain number per panicle and seed size, which are important agronomic traits for grain yield. In contrast, constitutive expression of OscZOG1 leads to negative effects on the formation of the grain-yielding traits with a marked increase in the accumulation levels of cis-zeatin O-glucoside (cZOG) in the transgenic rice plants. In this study, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of improving the critical yield-determinant agronomic traits, including tiller number, panicle branches, total grain number per panicle and grain weight by downregulating the expression level of OscZOG1. Our results suggest that modulating the levels of cytokinin glucosylation can function as a fine-tuning switch in regulating the formation of agronomic traits in rice.

  3. Development of iron and zinc enriched mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars with agronomic traits in consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition in India, particularly among women, children and adolescents is an emergency that needs immediate attention in this fast growing and developing country. Micronutrient deficiencies are threatening public health in India more and more. Deficiencies of micronutrients drastically affect gro

  4. Development of iron and zinc enriched mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars with agronomic traits in consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition in India, particularly among women, children and adolescents is an emergency that needs immediate attention in this fast growing and developing country. Micronutrient deficiencies are threatening public health in India more and more. Deficiencies of micronutrients drastically affect growth, metabolism and reproductive phase in humans as it does in plants and animals. Cereal and pulse based Indian diets are qualitatively deficient in micronutrients such as iron, calcium, vitamin A...

  5. Quantitative trait loci for agronomic traits in an elite barley population for Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Elsayed; Casas Cendoya, Ana María; Gracia Gimeno, María Pilar; Molina-Cano, José Luis; Moralejo, Marian; Cattivelli, Luigi; William T.B. Thomas; Igartua Arregui, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Advances in plant breeding through marker-assisted selection (MAS) are only possible when genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can contribute to the improvement of elite germplasm. A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed for one of the best crosses of the Spanish National Barley Breeding Program, between two six-row winter barley cultivars Orria and Plaisant. The objective of this study was to identify favourable QTLs for agronomic traits in this population, which may...

  6. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracke Silke

    2010-01-01

    genes only explained a minor part of the total genetic variation although they are known to be important factors influencing the expression of seed quality traits. Therefore, we assume that grain quality as well as plant height and flowering time are influenced by many factors each contributing a small part to the expression of the phenotype. A genome-wide association analysis could provide a more comprehensive picture of loci involved in the regulation of grain quality, thousand grain weight and the other agronomic traits that were analyzed in this study. However, despite available high-throughput genotyping arrays the marker density along the barely genome is still insufficient to cover all associations in a whole genome scan. Therefore, the candidate gene-based approach will further play an important role in barley association studies.

  7. Repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum (Jacq.) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, T G S; Fonseca, D M; Jank, L; Cruz, C D; Martuscello, J A

    2015-01-01

    When evaluating plants, in particular perennial species, it is common to obtain repeated measures of a given trait from the same individual to evaluate the traits' repeatability in successive harvests. The degree of correlation among these measures defines the coefficient of repeatability, which has been widely utilized in the study of forage traits of interest for breeding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum hybrids. Hybrids from three progenies totaling 320 hybrids were evaluated in an incomplete-block design, with consideration of production and morpho-agronomic traits. Of the production traits, total dry matter and leaf dry matter showed the highest repeatability and varied from 0.540 to 0.769, whereas stem dry matter had lower coefficients (0.265-0.632). Among the morpho-agronomic traits, plant height and incidence of Bipolaris maydis had higher coefficients (0.118-0.460). The repeatability values of the agronomic traits were low-to-moderate, and six evaluations were sufficient to provide accuracy in the selection of hybrids regarding total dry matter, leaf dry matter, plant height, and incidence of B. maydis, whereas the other traits require more repeated measures to increase reliability in the prediction of their response. PMID:26782581

  8. Genetic dissection of agronomic traits in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A; Santos, J O; Sudré, C P; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mapping is very useful for dissecting complex agronomic traits. Genetic mapping allows for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL), provide knowledge on a gene position and its adjacent region, and enable prediction of evolutionary mechanisms, in addition to contributing to synteny studies. The aim of this study was to predict genetic values associated with different agronomic traits evaluated in an F2 population of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Previously, a reference genetic map for C. baccatum was constructed, which included 183 markers (42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplification of polymorphic DNA) arranged in 16 linkage groups. The map was used to identify QTL associated with 11 agronomic traits, including plant height, crown diameter, number of days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit pulp thickness, soluble solids, and fruit dry weight. QTL mapping was performed by standard interval mapping. The number of small QTL effects ranged from 3-11, with a total of 61 QTL detected in 9 linkage groups. This is the first report involving QTL analysis for C. baccatum species. PMID:25867359

  9. QTL consistency for agronomic traits across three generations and potential applications in popcorn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yong-bin; ZHANG Zhong-wei; SHI Qing-ling; WANG Qi-lei; ZHOU Qiang; DENG Fei; MA Zhi-yan; QIAO Da-he; LI Yu-ling

    2015-01-01

    Favorable agronomic traits are important to improve productivity of popcorn. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 258 lines was evaluated to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for nine agronomic traits (plant height, ear height, top height (plant height subtracted ear height), top height/plant height, number of leaves above the top ear, leaf area, stalk diameter, number of tassel branches and the length of tassel) under three environments. Meta-anal-ysis was conducted then to integrate QTLs identiifed across three generations (RIL, F2:3 and BC2F2) developed from the same crosses. In total, 179 QTLs and 36 meta-QTLs (mQTL) were identiifed. The percentage of phenotypic variation (R2) explained by any single QTL varied from 3.86 to 28.4%, and 24 QTLs with contributions over 15%. Nine common QTLs located in the same or similar chromosome regions were detected across three generations. Five meta-QTLs were identiifed including QTLs in three independent studies. Seven important mQTLs were composed of 11–26 QTLs for 4–7 traits, respectively. Only 11 mQTLs were commonly identiifed in the same or similar chromosome regions across agronomic traits, popping characteristics (popping fold, popping volume and popping rate) and grain yield components (ear weight per plant, grain weight per plant, 100-grain weight, ear length, kernel number per row, ear diameter, row number per ear and kernel ratio) by meta-QTL analysis. In conclusion, we identiifed a list of QTLs, some of which with much higher contributions to agronomic traits should be valuable for further study in improving both popping characteristics and grain yield components in popcorn.

  10. Agronomic traits and RAPD analysis of two mutants derived from rice somatic cell culturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic variation, including agronomic trait variation, often occurs in somatic cell culturing. In this study, we compared the main agronomic traits of two rice mutants, M3 and M14, which were derived from Shenxiangjing 5 somatic cell culturing. Significant differences were found between the two mutants and the wild rice Shenxiangjing 5 (Table 1). Results were as follows:

  11. Combining Abilities of Agronomic and Morphological Traits in Burley Tobacco

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    Jasminka Butorac

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-year investigations (1998-1999 of diallel crosses with four parent cultivars of burley tobacco (TN 86, Saturn, Bs 92, Bols 100 and their six F1 hybrids were carried out at the experimental field of Tobacco Institute Zagreb in Pitomača. The trial was set up according to the RCBD in four replications. Standard agrotehnics for this tobacco type were applied in tobacco growing. The goal of these investigation was to estimate on specific genetic materials the values of parent genotypes as combiners and the best specific cross combinations for agronomic (yield, price and income and morphological traits (topping height, leaf number, days to flowering, leaf length, leaf width and leaf area and internode length. Significant differences between parents and F1 hybrids were found for all investigation traits and years according to analysis of variance. Significant general and specific combining ability were also estimated for all investigation traits, except of specific combining ability for price in both investigation years. According to the GCA/SCA ratio, a higher GCA values were estimated for most traits. The cultivars TN 86 and Bs 92 were the best general combiners, while TN 86 x Bs 92, TN 86 x Bols 100 i Bs 92 x Bols 100 were the best specific combinations in both investigation years.

  12. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest. PMID:26985915

  13. Early selection of agronomic traits in segregating black bean populations

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    Juliano Garcia Bertoldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the agronomic performance of six segregating populations of black bean (BRS Supremo x CHP 97-01, BRS Supremo x CHP 97-04, BRS Supremo x CHP 97-05-16, BRS Supremo x CHP 97-26, BRS Supremo x IPR Graúna and BRS Supremo x Uirapuru IPR in the F3 generation, conducted by the bulk method. Populations and parents were evaluated in the 2007/08 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications. Results show promising traits of the segregating population BRS Supremo x CHP 97-04, which was superior to parent BRS Supremo, indicating the line for further selection. The segregating populations and their parents were grouped by Ward’s method, indicating the similarity of the selected lines.

  14. The development and application of molecular markers for linkage mapping and quantitative trait loci analysis of important agronomic traits in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Siou Ting

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces over five times more oil/year/hectare than oil seed rape and accounted for 33% of world vegetable oil production in 2011. Being a cross-pollinated perennial tree crop with long breeding cycles (typically 12 years) and a large planting area requirement (usually 143 palms/hectare), utilization of molecular technology could greatly improve the efficiency of oil palm breeding. In the present study, various approaches were used to develop molecular markers for...

  15. Variability, heritability, and correlations of agronomic traits in an onion landrace and derived S1 lines

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    Bettina Porta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed variability, heritability and correlations of agronomic traits in an onion (Allium cepa L. landrace and derived S1 lines after a single selfing generation. Bulbs used to develop S1 lines were selected for shape, colour and high number of skins. Fifty-one S1 lines and the original population were evaluated using an incomplete random block design. The original population and S1 lines were highly diverse for quantitative and qualitative traits. S1 lines were significantly different, with transgressive segregation for number and maximum leaf length, bulbing index, bulb weight, diameter, and dry matter content. Variances within S1 lines were greater than among S1 lines for all traits. Bulb colour and number of skins responded to selection. Heritabilities for dry matter and soluble solids were 52.6% and 36.1% respectively. Both traits were highly correlated. The development of S1 lines allowed the expression of genetic variation and the identification of better genotypes for agronomic traits of interest.

  16. Genotype × Environment Interactions for Agronomic Traits of Rice Revealed by Association Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fei-fei; TANG Fu-fu; SHAO Ya-fang; CHEN Ya-ling; TONG Chuan; BAO Jin-song

    2014-01-01

    Agronomic traits are important determinants to rice yield, which are controlled by complex genetic factors as well as genotype by environment (G × E) interaction effects. The G × E effects for agronomic traits of rice have been dissected with various approaches, but not with the current available approach, the association studies. In this study, a total of 32 655 single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to carry out associations with 14 agronomic traits among 20 rice accessions in two environments. The G × E interaction effects for all the agronomic traits were at highly significant levels (P<0.01), accounting for 3.4%-22.3% of the total sum of squares except for the length of brown rice. Twenty three putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including five previously known and several new promising associations, were identified for 10 of 14 traits. Analysis of the relationships between the traits for which QTLs and the genotype effects could be identified suggested that the higher the genotypic effect, the higher the possibility to identify QTLs for the given trait. The new QTLs detected in this study will facilitate dissection of the complex agronomic traits and may give insight into the G × E effects with association mapping.

  17. Agronomic and Seed Quality Traits Dissected by Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Niklas; Bus, Anja; Li, Jinquan; Parkin, Isobel A P; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Stich, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i) genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii) the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii) candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 B. napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations. PMID:27066036

  18. Agronomic and seed quality traits dissected by genome-wide association mapping in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eKörber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. % as well as require high experimental effort due to their quantitative inheritance and the importance of genotype*environment interaction. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 Brassica napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P-value 100 and a sequence identity of > 70 % to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations.

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity in glandless cotton germplasm resources by using agronomic traits and molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhikun LI; Xingfen WANG; Yan ZHANG; Guiyin ZHANG; Liqiang WU; Jina CHI; Zhiying MA

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-one glandless cotton germplasm resources were firstly evaluated genetically by using nine agronomic traits,33 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and ten amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)primer combinations.Principal component analysis (PCA) of the agronomic traits showed that the first six principal components (PCs) explained a total of 86.352% of the phenotypic variation.A total of 329 alleles were amplified for 33 SSR primers,and 232 polymorphic bands in a total of 389 bands were obtained by using ten AFLP primer combinations.The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.80 and 0.18 for SSR primers and AFLP primer combinations,respectively.The DIST (average taxonomic distance) and DICE (Nei and Li's pairwise distance) coefficients ranged from 0.373 to 3.164 and 0.786 to 0.948,respectively,for agronomic traits and SSR & AFLP data based on UPGMA analysis.This suggested that there was a higher diversity in the evaluated population for both agronomic traits and molecular markers.The Mantel's test showed that the correlation between the dendrograms based on agronomic traits and SSR & AFLP data was non-significant.

  20. Association of AFLP and SSR markers with agronomic and fibre quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arunita Rakshit; S. Rakshit; J. Singh; S. K. Chopra; H. S. Balyan; P. K. Gupta; Shripad R. Bhat

    2010-08-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTL contributing to agronomic and fibre quality traits would be useful for cotton improvement. We have attempted to tag yield and fibre quality traits with AFLP and SSR markers using F2 and F3 populations of a cross between two Gossypium hirsutum varieties, PS56-4 and RS2013. Out of 50 AFLP primer combinations and 177 SSR primer pairs tested, 32 AFLP and four SSR primers were chosen for genotyping F2 individuals.Marker-trait associations were studied for eight agronomic and five fibre quality traits through simple and multiple regression analysis (MRA) using a set of 92 AFLP polymorphic loci and four SSR markers. Simple linear regression analysis (SLRA) identified 23 markers for eight different traits whereas multiple regression analysis identified 30 markers for at least one of the 13 traits. SSR marker BNL 3502 was consistently identified to be associated with fibre strength. While all the markers identified in SLRA were also detected in MRA, as many as 16 of the 30 markers were identified to be associated with respective traits in both F2 and F3 generations. The markers explained up to 41 per cent of phenotypic variation for individual traits. A number of markers were found to be associated with multiple traits suggesting clustering of QTLs for fibre quality traits in cotton.

  1. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 21 peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2013 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics) and resistance to diseases (Sclerotinia blight, southern blight, and Pythium and Rhizoctonia pod rot). Among th...

  2. Genomic regions underlying agronomic traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) as revealed by association mapping‡

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J.; Duguid, Scott; Booker, Helen; Rowland, Gordon; Diederichsen, Axel; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The extreme climate of the Canadian Prairies poses a major challenge to improve yield. Although it is possible to breed for yield per se, focusing on yield-related traits could be advantageous because of their simpler genetic architecture. The Canadian flax core collection of 390 accessions was genotyped with 464 simple sequence repeat markers, and phenotypic data for nine agronomic traits including yield, bolls per area, 1,000 seed weight, seeds per boll, start of flowering, end of flowering...

  3. Characterization of QTL for unique agronomic traits of new-plant-type rice varieties using introgression lines of IR64

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    Analiza G. Tagle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the yield potential of an elite indica rice cultivar, an introgression (BC3-derived line of IR64, YTH288, was developed using a new-plant-type cultivar, IR66215-44-2-3, as a donor parent. YTH288 has agronomically valuable characteristics such as large panicles, few unproductive tillers, and large leaves inherited from NPT. To identify the genetic basis of these traits, we used 167 F2 plants derived from a cross between IR64 and YTH288 to conduct QTL analysis for five agronomic traits: days to heading (DTH, culm length (CL, flag leaf length (FLL, flag leaf width (FLW, and filled spikelet number per panicle (FSN. Six putative QTL were detected: four on chromosome 4 (for CL, FLL, FLW, and FSN and two on chromosome 2 (for DTH and FLL. All QTL with the IR66215-44-2-3 allele, except that for FLL on chromosome 2, had positive effects on each trait. To confirm the effects of these putative QTL, we developed NILs with the IR64 genetic background by marker-assisted selection. We observed significant differences in several agronomic traits between IR64 and NILs that carried these QTL on chromosomes 2 and 4. Additionally, four IR64-NILs carrying chromosomal segments derived from different NPT varieties on the long arm of chromosome 4 exhibited similar pleiotropic effects for unique agronomic traits. These NILs can be used as research materials for studying each trait and as breeding materials for yield improvement of indica rice cultivars. Abbreviations NPT, new plant type; QTL, quantitative trait loci (locus; GF, grain fertility; DTH, days to heading; CL, culm length; PL, panicle length; LL, leaf length; FLL, flag leaf length; LW, leaf width; FLW, flag leaf width; FSN, filled spikelet number per panicle; TSN, total spikelet number per panicle; PN, panicle number per plant; IRRI, International Rice Research Institute; NIL, near-isogenic line; IL, introgression line; SSR, simple sequence repeat; PCR, polymerase chain reaction

  4. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of agronomic traits in Indian Mucuna pruriens using an intraspecific F2 population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Mahesh; M. Leelambika; Md Jaheer; A. M. Anithakumari; N. Sathyanarayana

    2016-03-01

    Mucuna pruriens is a well-recognized agricultural and horticultural crop with important medicinal use. However, antinutritional factors in seed and adverse morphological characters have negatively affected its cultivation. To elucidate the genetic control of agronomic traits, an intraspecific genetic linkage map of Indian M. pruriens has been developed based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers using 200 F2 progenies derived from a cross between wild and cultivated genotypes. The resulting linkage map comprised 129 AFLP markers dispersed over 13 linkage groups spanning a total distance of 618.88 cM with an average marker interval of 4.79 cM. For the first time, three QTLs explaining about 6.05–14.77% of the corresponding total phenotypic variation for three quantitative (seed) traits and, eight QTLs explaining about 25.96% of the corresponding total phenotypic variation for three qualitative traits have been detected on four linkage groups. The map presented here will pave a way for mapping of genes/QTLs for the important agronomic and horticultural traits contrasting between the parents used in this study.

  5. EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITY ON AGRONOMIC TRAITS AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PERFORMANCE IN THE MAIZE IBM POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Franić; Maja Mazur; Mirna Volenik; Josip Brkić; Andrija Brkić; Domagoj Šimić

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a vital process in plant physiology. Performance index is an indicator of plant vitality and is used as a main parameter in chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Plant density is an important factor in maize production that can affect grain yield. Objective of this paper was to estimate the effect of plant density on agronomic traits and photosynthetic efficiency in the maize IBM population. The results showed a decrease in grain yield per plant basis (20 plants per plot) i...

  6. A Chromosome Segment Substitution Library of Weedy Rice for Genetic Dissection of Complex Agronomic and Domestication Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Subudhi

    Full Text Available Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs are a powerful alternative for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL, analyzing gene interactions, and providing starting materials for map-based cloning projects. We report the development and characterization of a CSSL library of a U.S. weedy rice accession 'PSRR-1' with genome-wide coverage in an adapted rice cultivar 'Bengal' background. The majority of the CSSLs carried a single defined weedy rice segment with an average introgression segment of 2.8 % of the donor genome. QTL mapping results for several agronomic and domestication traits from the CSSL population were compared with those obtained from two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations involving the same weedy rice accession. There was congruence of major effect QTLs between both types of populations, but new and additional QTLs were detected in the CSSL population. Although, three major effect QTLs for plant height were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, and 8 in the CSSL population, the latter two escaped detection in both RIL populations. Since this was observed for many traits, epistasis may play a major role for the phenotypic variation observed in weedy rice. High levels of shattering and seed dormancy in weedy rice might result from an accumulation of many small effect QTLs. Several CSSLs with desirable agronomic traits (e.g. longer panicles, longer grains, and higher seed weight identified in this study could be useful for rice breeding. Since weedy rice is a reservoir of genes for many weedy and agronomic attributes, the CSSL library will serve as a valuable resource to discover latent genetic diversity for improving crop productivity and understanding the plant domestication process through cloning and characterization of the underlying genes.

  7. QTL mapping of agronomic traits in tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc) Trotter

    OpenAIRE

    Breseghello Flavio; Graznak Elizabeth; Yu Ju-Kyung; Tefera Hailu; Sorrells Mark E

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is the major cereal crop in Ethiopia. Tef is an allotetraploid with a base chromosome number of 10 (2n = 4× = 40) and a genome size of 730 Mbp. The goal of this study was to identify agronomically important quantitative trait loci (QTL) using recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from an inter-specific cross between E. tef and E. pilosa (30-5). Results Twenty-two yield-related and morphological traits were assessed across eight differe...

  8. Genomic regions underlying agronomic traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) as revealed by association mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Braulio J. Soto-Cerda; Scott Duguid; Helen Booker; Gordon Rowland; Axel Diederichsen; Sylvie Cloutier

    2014-01-01

    The extreme climate of the Canadian Prairies poses a major chal enge to improve yield. Although it is possible to breed for yield per se, focusing on yield-related traits could be advantageous because of their simpler genetic architecture. The Canadian flax core col ection of 390 accessions was genotyped with 464 simple sequence repeat markers, and phenotypic data for nine agronomic traits including yield, bol s per area, 1,000 seed weight, seeds per bol , start of flowering, end of flowering, plant height, plant branching, and lodging col ected from up to eight environments was used for association mapping. Based on a mixed model (principal component analysis (PCA) þ kinship matrix (K)), 12 significant marker-trait associations for six agronomic traits were identi-fied. Most of the associations were stable across environments as revealed by multivariate analyses. Statistical simulation for five markers associated with 1000 seed weight indicated that the favorable al eles have additive effects. None of the modern cultivars carried the five favorable al eles and the maximum number of four observed in any accessions was mostly in breeding lines. Our results confirmed the complex genetic architecture of yield-related traits and the inherent difficulties associated with their identification while il ustrating the potential for improvement through marker-assisted selection.

  9. Genomic regions underlying agronomic traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) as revealed by association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Duguid, Scott; Booker, Helen; Rowland, Gordon; Diederichsen, Axel; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The extreme climate of the Canadian Prairies poses a major challenge to improve yield. Although it is possible to breed for yield per se, focusing on yield-related traits could be advantageous because of their simpler genetic architecture. The Canadian flax core collection of 390 accessions was genotyped with 464 simple sequence repeat markers, and phenotypic data for nine agronomic traits including yield, bolls per area, 1,000 seed weight, seeds per boll, start of flowering, end of flowering, plant height, plant branching, and lodging collected from up to eight environments was used for association mapping. Based on a mixed model (principal component analysis (PCA) + kinship matrix (K)), 12 significant marker-trait associations for six agronomic traits were identified. Most of the associations were stable across environments as revealed by multivariate analyses. Statistical simulation for five markers associated with 1000 seed weight indicated that the favorable alleles have additive effects. None of the modern cultivars carried the five favorable alleles and the maximum number of four observed in any accessions was mostly in breeding lines. Our results confirmed the complex genetic architecture of yield-related traits and the inherent difficulties associated with their identification while illustrating the potential for improvement through marker-assisted selection. PMID:24138336

  10. Genetic and Association Mapping Study of Wheat Agronomic Traits Under Contrasting Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Dodig

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses and association mapping were performed on a winter wheat core collection of 96 accessions sampled from a variety of geographic origins. Twenty-four agronomic traits were evaluated over 3 years under fully irrigated, rainfed and drought treatments. Grain yield was the most sensitive trait to water deficit and was highly correlated with above-ground biomass per plant and number of kernels per m2. The germplasm was structured into four subpopulations. The association of 46 SSR loci distributed throughout the wheat genome with yield and agronomic traits was analyzed using a general linear model, where subpopulation information was used to control false-positive or spurious marker-trait associations (MTAs. A total of 26, 21 and 29 significant (P < 0.001 MTAs were identified in irrigated, rainfed and drought treatments, respectively. The marker effects ranged from 14.0 to 50.8%. Combined across all treatments, 34 significant (P < 0.001 MTAs were identified with nine markers, and R2 ranged from 14.5 to 50.2%. Marker psp3200 (6DS and particularly gwm484 (2DS were associated with many significant MTAs in each treatment and explained the greatest proportion of phenotypic variation. Although we were not able to recognize any marker related to grain yield under drought stress, a number of MTAs associated with developmental and agronomic traits highly correlated with grain yield under drought were identified.

  11. Genetic mapping of agronomic traits in false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, A; Friedt, W; Lühs, W; Snowdon, R J

    2006-12-01

    The crucifer oilseed plant false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa) possesses numerous valuable agronomic attributes that make it attractive as an alternative spring-sown crop for tight crop rotations. The oil of false flax is particularly rich in polyunsaturated C18-fatty acids, making it a valuable renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry. Because of the minimal interest in the crop throughout the 20th century, breeding efforts have been limited. In this study, a genetic map for C. sativa was constructed, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, in a population of recombinant inbred lines that were developed, through single-seed descent, from a cross between 'Lindo' and 'Licalla', 2 phenotypically distinct parental varieties. Three Brassica simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also integrated into the map, and 1 of these shows linkage to oil-content loci in both C. sativa and Brassica napus. Fifty-five other SSR primer combinations showed monomorphic amplification products, indicating partial genome homoeology with the Brassica species. Using data from field trials with different fertilization treatments (0 and 80 kg N/ha) at multiple locations over 3 years, the map was used to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed yield, oil content, 1000-seed mass, and plant height. Some yield QTLs were found only with the N0 treatment, and might represent loci contributing to the competitiveness of false flax in low-nutrient soils. The results represent a starting point for future marker-assisted breeding. PMID:17426770

  12. Variation in the Agronomic and Morphological Traits of Iranian Chickpea Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI; Mohammad Reza JAHANSOUZ

    2005-01-01

    Landraces of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Iran have not been adequately characterized for their agronomic and morphological traits. Such characterization would be helpful in the development of improved cultivars, so in this study 362 chickpea accessions, collected from the major chickpea growing areas of Iran, were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity. High coefficients of variation (CVs)were recorded in pods/branch, seeds/pod, yield/plant, seeds/plant, pods/plant and branches/plant. Using principal component (PC) analysis, the first four PCs with eigenvalues more than 1 contributed 84.10% of the variability among accessions, whereas PC5 to PC10 were less than unity. PC1 was positively related to days to first maturity, days to 50% flowering and days to 50% maturity. The characters with the greatest weight on PC2 were seeds/plant and yield/plant, whereas PC3 was mainly related to pods/plant, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight, and PC4 was positively related to pods/branch and negatively to branches/plant. The germplasm was grouped into four clusters using cluster analysis. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the cluster I was clearly separated from clusters Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. These accessions are an important resource for the establishment of a core collection of chickpeas in the world.

  13. Agronomic Trait and Genetic Analysis of Latvian Flax Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Runģis, Dainis; Ļubinskis, Linards; Stramkale, Veneranda

    2015-01-01

    There is a long history of flax cultivation in Latvia, and breeding programs were active until 1970’s, when flax breeding in Latvia was halted. Since 1992, the Agriculture Science Centre of Latgale (ASCL) has repatriated Latvian flax germplasm from various genebanks, as well as renewed limited breeding activities in flax. Currently, the ASCL holds a collection of 497 flax accessions, as well as 9865 accessions of various lines and hybrids developed at the LLZC since 1993. To assist in the cha...

  14. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN DOSES ON TUBER YIELD AND SOME AGRONOMICAL TRAITS OF EARLY POTATOES

    OpenAIRE

    GULLUOGLU, Leyla; ARIOGLU, Halis; BAKAL, Halil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the effects of different nitrogen rates on tuber yield and some agronomical traits of early potatoes grown in 2011 and 2012. The field trial was conducted at the experimental field of Cukurova University, in the Randomized Complete Block Designs, with three replications, with Marfona a medium early table potato. Zero, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 kg ha-1 pure nitrogen doses were applied. According to the mean values of two years, ...

  15. QTL Analysis of Agronomic Traits in Rice Using SSR and AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina KEBRIYAEE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative trait is a measurable trait that depends on the cumulative action of many genes and their interaction with the environment that can vary among individuals over a given range to produce a continuous distribution of phenotypes. The identification and mapping of QTLs for such traits has great significance for rice breeders. In this study, a genetic analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting 11 agronomical traits was performed using an F2 population of a cross between two Oryza sativa ssp. indica type cultivars, �Domsiah� and �IR44�, comprising 160 plants. A total of 22 QTLs were detected for 11 traits, including two for plant height (PH, one for full grain per panicle (FG, two for flag leaf width (FLW, three for 1000-grain weight (TGW, two for number of panicles per plant (NP, three for flag leaf length (FL, two for peduncle length (Pd, one for panicle exertion (PE, two for grain yield (GY, two for basal panicle length (BPL and two for awn length (AL.

  16. QTL mapping of agronomic traits in tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc Trotter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breseghello Flavio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc. Trotter] is the major cereal crop in Ethiopia. Tef is an allotetraploid with a base chromosome number of 10 (2n = 4× = 40 and a genome size of 730 Mbp. The goal of this study was to identify agronomically important quantitative trait loci (QTL using recombinant inbred lines (RIL derived from an inter-specific cross between E. tef and E. pilosa (30-5. Results Twenty-two yield-related and morphological traits were assessed across eight different locations in Ethiopia during the growing seasons of 1999 and 2000. Using composite interval mapping and a linkage map incorporating 192 loci, 99 QTLs were identified on 15 of the 21 linkage groups for 19 traits. Twelve QTLs on nine linkage groups were identified for grain yield. Clusters of more than five QTLs for various traits were identified on seven linkage groups. The largest cluster (10 QTLs was identified on linkage group 8; eight of these QTLs were for yield or yield components, suggesting linkage or pleotrophic effects of loci. There were 15 two-way interactions of loci to detect potential epistasis identified and 75% of the interactions were derived from yield and shoot biomass. Thirty-one percent of the QTLs were observed in multiple environments; two yield QTLs were consistent across all agro-ecology zones. For 29.3% of the QTLs, the alleles from E. pilosa (30-5 had a beneficial effect. Conclusion The extensive QTL data generated for tef in this study will provide a basis for initiating molecular breeding to improve agronomic traits in this staple food crop for the people of Ethiopia.

  17. Agronomic and molecular traits of the 'Italia Muscat' clone in Sao Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate agronomic and molecular traits of the 'Italia Muscat' clone and compare it with the cv. 'Italia', providing information to support the cultivation of 'Italia Muscat' this cultivar in the São Francisco River Valley. Agronomic characteristics of both clones were evaluated for two seasons in 2004. The characteristics were phenology, bud break (%, bud fertility (%, yield (kg mass of bunches (g, length and width of bunches (cm, mass of berries (g, length and diameter of berries (mm, TSS (ºBrix, ATT (% titratable acidity and TSS/TTA. Molecular analysis of seven SSR markers were carried out. The clone 'Italia Muscat' showed larger berries, mass of bunches and better TSS/TA ratio than 'Italia'. The molecular analysis resulted in the same allelic profile in both clones, highlighting the need to use a larger number of microsatellite markers or other molecular technique to allow their discrimination. Based on their morpho-agronomic characteristics, 'Italia Muscat' seems to be a good table grape cultivar alternative for grape growers of São Francisco River Valley.

  18. Quantitative trait loci and underlying candidate genes controlling agronomical and fruit quality traits in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida

    2011-09-01

    Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location. PMID:21667037

  19. QTL and QTL x Environment Effects on Agronomic and Nitrogen Acquisition Traits in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senapathy Senthilvel; Kunnummal Kurungara Vinod; Palaniappan Malarvizhi; Marappa Maheswaran

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural environments deteriorate due to excess nitrogen application.Breeding for low nitrogen responsive genotypes can reduce soil nitrogen input.Rice genotypes respond variably to soil available nitrogen.The present study attempted quantification of genotype x nitrogen level interaction and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and other associated agronomic traits.Twelve parameters were observed across a set of 82 double haploid (DH) lines derived from IR64/Azucena.Three nitrogen regimes namely,native (0 kg/ha; no nitrogen applied),optimum (100 kg/ha) and high (200 kg/ha) replicated thrice were the environments.The parents and DH lines were significantly varying for all traits under different nitrogen regimes.All traits except plant height recorded significant genotype x environment interaction.Individual plant yield was positively correlated with nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen uptake.Sixteen QTLs were detected by composite interval mapping.Eleven QTLs showed significant QTL x environment interactions.On chromosome 3,seven QTLs were detected associated with nitrogen use,plant yield and associated traits.A QTL region between markers RZ678,RZ574 and RZ284 was associated with nitrogen use and yield.This chromosomal region was enriched with expressed gene sequences of known key nitrogen assimilation genes.

  20. Genetic architecture of complex agronomic traits examined in two testcross populations of rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedaner Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye is an important European crop used for food, feed, and bioenergy. Several quality and yield-related traits are of agronomic relevance for rye breeding programs. Profound knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits is needed to successfully implement marker-assisted selection programs. Nevertheless, little is known on quantitative loci underlying important agronomic traits in rye. Results We used 440 F3:4 inbred lines from two biparental populations (Pop-A, Pop-B fingerprinted with about 800 to 900 SNP, SSR and/or DArT markers and outcrossed them to a tester for phenotyping. The resulting hybrids and their parents were evaluated for grain yield, single-ear weight, test weight, plant height, thousand-kernel weight, falling number, protein, starch, soluble and total pentosan contents in up to ten environments in Central Europe. The quality of the phenotypic data was high reflected by moderate to high heritability estimates. QTL analyses revealed a total of 31 QTL for Pop-A and 52 for Pop-B. QTL x environment interactions were significant (P  Conclusions QTL mapping was successfully applied based on two segregating rye populations. QTL underlying grain yield and several quality traits had small effects. In contrast, thousand-kernel weight, test weight, falling number and starch content were affected by several major QTL with a high frequency of occurrence in cross validation. These QTL explaining a large proportion of the genotypic variance can be exploited in marker-assisted selection programs and are candidates for further genetic dissection.

  1. Population structure and association mapping studies for important agronomic traits in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhupender Kumar; Akshay Talukdar; Indu Bala; Khushbu Verma; Sanjay Kumar Lal; Ramesh Lal Sapra; B. Namita; Subhash Chander; Reshu Tiwari

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out with a set of 96 diverse soybean genotypes with the objectives of analysing the population structure and to identify molecular markers associated with important agronomic traits. Large phenotypic variability was observed for the agronomic traits under study indicating suitability of the genotypes for association studies. The maximum values for plant height, pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant were approximately two and half to three times more than the minimum values for the genotypes. Seed yield per plant was found to be significantly correlated with pods per plant ($r = 0.77$), 100-seed weight ($r = 0.35$) and days to maturity ($r = 0.23$). The population structure studies depicted the presence of seven subpopulations which nearly corresponded with the source of geographical origin of the genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the linked markers decreased with the increased distance, and a substantial drop in LD decay values was observed between 30 and 35 cM. Genomewide marker-traits association analysis carried out using general linear (GLM) and mixed linear models (MLM) identified six genomic regions (two of them were common in both) on chromosomes 6, 7, 8, 13, 15 and 17, which were found to be significantly associated with various important traits viz., plant height, pods per plant, 100-seed weight, plant growth habit, average number of seeds per pod, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. The phenotypic variation explained by these loci ranged from 6.09 to 13.18% and 4.25 to 9.01% in the GLM and MLM studies, respectively. In conclusion, association mapping (AM) in soybean could be a viable alternative to conventional QTL mapping approach.

  2. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0–55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R2 = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R2 = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R2 = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481–scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64–scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782–Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353–Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits.

  3. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0-55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R (2) = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R (2) = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R (2) = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481-scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64-scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782-Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353-Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits. PMID:27458471

  4. Correlation and path analysis of agronomic and morphological traits in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallyta Nayara Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The efficiency of selection can be broadened for certain traits using estimative of genetic parameters, which are fundamental for plant breeding. The estimative of genetic parameters allows identifying the nature of the action of genes involved in the control of quantitative traits and evaluates the efficiency of different breeding strategies to obtain genetic gains. Therefore, this study aimed to verify the variability and correlation between morphological and agronomic traits in synthetic maize populations, in order to practice indirect selection. Thirteen populations were evaluated in field experiments at Jaboticabal- SP and Campo Alegre de Goiás-GO, using randomized block design, for lodging (LOD, culm breakage (CB, plant height (PH, ear height (EH and grain yield (GY. The 13 populations were also sown in 1 kg-plastic bags under black shade cloth, using a randomized complete block design with nine replications, for evaluation of the morphological traits: main root length (MRL, root fresh matter (RFM, root dry matter (RDM, average root diameter (ARD, root surface area (RSA, root tissue density (RTD and shoots dry matter (SDM. The trait GY exhibited genetic variability enough to be effective if used for selection. The selection on the morphological traits is indicated on RDM, due to the ease in obtaining data and its accuracy, high correlation with all morphological traits and association with GY. The simultaneous selection based on RFM and RDM, for gains in GY, can be performed. The highest direct effect on GY was identified in LOD and CB, being indicated for indirect selection.

  5. Combining ability and heterosis for agronomic traits in chili pepper Capacidade combinatória e heterose para características agronômicas em pimenta

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Rodrigues; Leandro SA Gonçalves; Cintia dos S Bento; Claudia P Sudré; Renata R Robaina; Antonio T do Amaral Júnior

    2012-01-01

    The Capsicum breeding has been developed with emphasis in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and few studies are available in other species, especially C. baccatum, which has potential use not only as disease resistance source but also in obtaining new genotypes suitable for farmers' production. In the present work, the combining ability of ten C. baccatum hybrids, along with their five parentals, were tested considering 12 agronomic traits. The hybrids were produced from a complete diallel withou...

  6. QTLs for agronomic traits in the Mediterranean environment identified in recombinant inbred lines of the cross 'Arta' × ¤H. spontaneum¤ 41-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, M.; Grando, S.; Backes, G.;

    2003-01-01

    ). The linkage map extended to 890 cM. Agronomic traits such as grain yield, biological yield, days to heading, plant height, cold tolerance and others were evaluated at the ICARDA research stations Tel Hadya and Breda during the years 1996-97 and 1997-98. QTLs for agronomic traits related to drought...... other traits associated with adaptation to the Mediterranean environment such as cold tolerance, days to heading and tiller number. The identification of QTLs for agronomic traits is a first step to analyze and to dissect complex characters such as adaptation to drought tolerance....

  7. Correlations and path analysis among agronomic and technological traits of upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, F J C; Carvalho, L P; Silva Filho, J L; Teodoro, P E

    2016-01-01

    To date, path analysis has been used with the aim of breeding different cultures. However, for cotton, there have been few studies using this analysis, and all of these have used fiber productivity as the primary dependent variable. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify agronomic and technological properties that can be used as criteria for direct and indirect phenotypes in selecting cotton genotypes with better fibers. We evaluated 16 upland cotton genotypes in eight trials conducted during the harvest 2008/2009 in the State of Mato Grosso, using a randomized block design with four replicates. The evaluated traits were: plant height, average boll weight, percentage of fiber, cotton seed yield, fiber length, uniformity of fiber, short fiber index, fiber strength, elongation, maturity of the fibers, micronaire, reflectance, and the degree of yellowing. Phenotypic correlations between the traits and cotton fiber yield (main dependent variable) were unfolded in direct and indirect effects through path analysis. Fiber strength, uniformity of fiber, and reflectance were found to influence fiber length, and therefore, these traits are recommended for both direct and indirect selection of cotton genotypes. PMID:27525939

  8. Whole-genome mapping of agronomic and metabolic traits to identify novel quantitative trait Loci in bread wheat grown in a water-limited environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Camilla B; Taylor, Julian D; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Bacic, Antony; Langridge, Peter; Roessner, Ute

    2013-07-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world. Progress in breeding to improve complex multigene traits, such as drought stress tolerance, has been limited by high sensitivity to environmental factors, low trait heritability, and the complexity and size of the hexaploid wheat genome. In order to obtain further insight into genetic factors that affect yield under drought, we measured the abundance of 205 metabolites in flag leaf tissue sampled from plants of 179 cv Excalibur/Kukri F1-derived doubled haploid lines of wheat grown in a field experiment that experienced terminal drought stress. Additionally, data on 29 agronomic traits that had been assessed in the same field experiment were used. A linear mixed model was used to partition and account for nongenetic and genetic sources of variation, and quantitative trait locus analysis was used to estimate the genomic positions and effects of individual quantitative trait loci. Comparison of the agronomic and metabolic trait variation uncovered novel correlations between some agronomic traits and the levels of certain primary metabolites, including metabolites with either positive or negative associations with plant maturity-related or grain yield-related traits. Our analyses demonstrate that specific regions of the wheat genome that affect agronomic traits also have distinct effects on specific combinations of metabolites. This approach proved valuable for identifying novel biomarkers for the performance of wheat under drought and could facilitate the identification of candidate genes involved in drought-related responses in bread wheat. PMID:23660834

  9. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with important agronomic traits in the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cross ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the genetic factors underlying agronomic traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to making gains from selection during the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’ mapping population was grown in two crop years at two loc...

  10. Effect of induced mutation by space-flight on main agronomic traits and protein components in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We selected three soybean varieties with specific quality, Zhonghuang 28, Zhonghuang 29 and Zhonghuang 31 as experimental materials. The seeds were boarded on the recoverable breeding satellite Shijian No. 8for spaceflight treatment and the untreated materials used as controls. Major agronomic traits in SP1 and SP2, quality traits (protein content, fat content, protein component, 11S /7S globulin) in SP2 and SP3 were investigated. The results showed that three soybean varieties gave different response to the space environment. A total of 15 variants were obtained in the SP1 generation with the total variation rate of 0. 649%. 3 variants came from SP1 of Zhonghuang 28, with variation rate of 0. 417%, and the others came from SP1 of Zhonghuang 29, and the variation rate was 1. 667%. No variation was found in SP1 of Zhonghuang 31. Traits segregation was found to occur in 7 variants in SP2 generation. Agronomic traits of variants were found significant difference between SP2 and SP1 generation. The mutation was found in 11S globulin subunit and Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor. Space mutation could be one of methods to improve both agronomic and quality traits in soybean breeding. (authors)

  11. Prediction of industrial tomato hybrids from agronomic traits and ISSR molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A S T; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Da-Silva, P R; Fagundes, B S; Morales, R G F

    2016-01-01

    Heterosis is a highly relevant phenomenon in plant breeding. This condition is usually established in hybrids derived from crosses of highly divergent parents. The success of a breeder in obtaining heterosis is directly related to the correct identification of genetically contrasting parents. Currently, the diallel cross is the most commonly used methodology to detect contrasting parents; however, it is a time- and cost-consuming procedure. Therefore, new tools capable of performing this task quickly and accurately are required. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic divergence in industrial tomato lines, based on agronomic traits, and to compare with estimates obtained using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The genetic divergence among 10 industrial tomato lines, based on nine morphological characters and 12 ISSR primers was analyzed. For data analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the genetic dissimilarity measures estimated by Mahalanobis distance and Jaccard's coefficient of genetic dissimilarity from the heterosis estimates, combining ability, and means of important traits of industrial tomato. The ISSR markers efficiently detected contrasting parents for hybrid production in tomato. Parent RVTD-08 was indicated as the most divergent, both by molecular and morphological markers, that positively contributed to increased heterosis and by the specific combining ability in the crosses in which it participated. The genetic dissimilarity estimated by ISSR molecular markers aided the identification of the best hybrids of the experiment in terms of total fruit yield, pulp yield, and soluble solids content. PMID:27323023

  12. Construction of a genetic linkage map and analysis of quantitative trait loci associated with the agronomically important traits of Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chak Han; Park, Young-Hoon; Hammel, Kenneth E; Park, Bokyung; Kwon, Soon Wook; Ryu, Hojin; Ryu, Jae-San

    2016-07-01

    Breeding new strains with improved traits is a long-standing goal of mushroom breeders that can be expedited by marker-assisted selection (MAS). We constructed a genetic linkage map of Pleurotus eryngii based on segregation analysis of markers in postmeiotic monokaryons from KNR2312. In total, 256 loci comprising 226 simple sequence-repeat (SSR) markers, 2 mating-type factors, and 28 insertion/deletion (InDel) markers were mapped. The map consisted of 12 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 1047.8cM, with an average interval length of 4.09cM. Four independent populations (Pd3, Pd8, Pd14, and Pd15) derived from crossing between four monokaryons from KNR2532 as a tester strain and 98 monokaryons from KNR2312 were used to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL) for nine traits such as yield, quality, cap color, and earliness. Using composite interval mapping (CIM), 71 QTLs explaining between 5.82% and 33.17% of the phenotypic variations were identified. Clusters of more than five QTLs for various traits were identified in three genomic regions, on LGs 1, 7 and 9. Regardless of the population, 6 of the 9 traits studied and 18 of the 71 QTLs found in this study were identified in the largest cluster, LG1, in the range from 65.4 to 110.4cM. The candidate genes for yield encoding transcription factor, signal transduction, mycelial growth and hydrolase are suggested by using manual and computational analysis of genome sequence corresponding to QTL region with the highest likelihood odds (LOD) for yield. The genetic map and the QTLs established in this study will help breeders and geneticists to develop selection markers for agronomically important characteristics of mushrooms and to identify the corresponding genes. PMID:27166667

  13. Univariate and Multivariate Analysis of Agronomical Traits of Preselected Argan Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima AIT AABD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A collection of thirty argan trees (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels, representing the Aoulouz provenance in southwest of Morocco were used to study genetic variability and selection for three years. In this study, the genetic diversity of thirty genotypes (tree mothers of argan (Argania spinosa collected from Aoulouz was evaluated using agro-morphological characters. The main objective of the study was to assess and describe with multivariate analysis the genetic diversity in order to select good candidate trees for a future breeding program. The results obtained showed a large variation for all the traits examined. Analysis of variance using general linear model provided a significant variation between genotypes. Furthermore, genotypic and phenotypic variances for quantitative traits, particularly for seed length, seed width, almond length and oil content were higher. Phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters. High heritability was recorded for oil content (97.90%, seed width (72.68% and seed length (57.55% respectively, indicating the additive gene action. In addition, a three dimensional plot based on principal coordinate analysis method was used to evaluate the performance genotypes as to the production of oil for three years. The genotypes ‘Ao-12R’, ‘Ao-7R’, ‘Ao-4R’, ‘Ao-4V’, ‘Ao-11R’, ‘Ao-8V’ and ‘Ao-7V’ were found to be the best for high oil content. Identification and selection with superior agronomic traits may be an effective method for genetic improvement of argan trees, and a first step for further breeding studies.

  14. Main agronomic traits and resistance to rice blast of space-induced mutant lines of Zhong-er-ruan-zhan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main agronomic traits and resistance to rice blast of 34 space-induced lines from an elite rice cultivar, Zhong-er-ruan-zhan were evaluated at their SP4. The resistance to blast of the mutant lines had been tested by two blast isolates previously. It was found that the mutant lines showed significant difference in plant height, effective panicles, panicle length and grains per panicle etc. from their parent. The range of variation in 1000-grain weight the largest, followed by the seed-setting rate, and that of effective panicles was the least among all the traits. Except for the line Z34, 33 mutant lines had broader resistance spectra than the wild-type based on the test with 38 different blast isolates, and all the 33 lines were also resistant to the panicle blast in the field. The result confirmed that selection for resistant to blast in lower generations was reliable. Taking account of agronomic traits and blast resistance, promising lines with resistance to blast and good agronomic characters could be selected from those mutant lines. Therefore, the elite rice germplasm with enhanced disease resistance can be produced. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of Agronomic Traits in Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines of KDML105 Containing Drought Tolerance QTL under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vaiphot KANJOO; Kanchana PUNYAWAEW; Jonaliza L. SIANGLIW; Suwat JEARAKONGMAN; Apichart VANAVICHIT; Theerayut TOOJINDA

    2012-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic constraint to rice production in rainfed lowland and insufficiently irrigated areas.The improvement of drought tolerant varieties is one of the strategies to reduce the negative effects of drought.Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for primary and secondary traits related to drought toleranco (DT) on chromosomes 1,3,4,8 and 9 that determined from double haploid lines derived from a cross between CT9993 and IR62266 were introgressed and dissected into small pieces in the genetic background of Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML105) to develop chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) population.The CSSLs were evaluated at the reproductive stage for their agronomic performance and yield components under drought stress,and results were compared with irrigated condition.The flowering of CSSL lines was 6 to 7 d earlier than KDML105.The mean values of grain yields in the CSSLs were higher than KDML105 under drought and irrigated conditions.At irrigated condition,the grain yields of introgression lines carrying DT-QTLs from chromosomes 4 and 8 were higher than that of KDML105,whereas other traits showed little difference with KDML105.Analysis indicated that grain yield has positive correlation with plant height,tiller and panicle number per plant,and total grain weight per plant under drought stress while negatively correlated with days to flowering.As mentioned above,CSSLs showing good adaptation under drought stress can be used as genetic materials to improve drought tolerance in Thai rainfed lowland rice breeding program,and as materials to dissect genes underlying drought tolerance.

  16. Gene action studies for agronomic traits in maize under normal and water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of six drought tolerant and susceptible maize inbred lines were evaluated under normal and water stress conditions. Significant differences among the genotypes were found for all the characters. Plant height, leaf area, grain yield per plant and harvest index, under both conditions indicated additive gene action with partial dominance which suggested that these traits might be useful during selection for developing synthetics. However over-dominance type of gene action was recorded for kernels per row and 100-grain weight. Heritability estimates ranged from moderate to high (54- 85%) for various traits. Gene action (additive and overdominance) and heritability suggested selection of desirable parents for breeding drought tolerant hybrids. (author)

  17. 胡麻农艺性状与品质性状的相关性分析%Correlation Analysis Between Agronomic Traits and Quality Traits in Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利民; 党占海; 张建平; 赵利; 党照; 赵玮

    2013-01-01

    为了研究胡麻主要农艺性状与品质性状间的相互关系,为胡麻品质育种提供理论依据,以256份胡麻品种资源为材料,应用简单相关和典型相关分析方法,对胡麻主要农艺性状和品质性状间的相关性进行了分析。结果表明:胡麻农艺性状和品质性状间存在显著地相关性,通过典型相关分析可以归纳出6对主要典型变量,占两组性状间总相关信息的99.30%,在二者典型相关中起决定作用的主要性状有千粒重、单株果数、单株产量、单株分茎数及含油率、油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸含量。其中,前3对典型变量所包含的相关信息分别占两组性状间全部相关信息的45.47%、30.53%和13.51%,所凝聚的生物学信息主要是千粒重与含油率、单株果数与油酸及亚麻酸含量、单株分茎数与含油率的相关性,表明千粒重大、单株果数多而分茎数较少的品种含油率及油酸的含量较高。因此,通过农艺性状可以实现对胡麻品质性状的间接选择。%To analyze the correlation between agronomic traits and quality traits in flax and provide scientific basis for flax quality breeding, the simple correlation and canonical correlation analysis was used to study the correlation between agronomic traits and quality traits in 256 flax cultivars. The results showed that, the correlation between agronomic traits and quality traits of flax was extremely significant. Using canonical correlation analysis, 6 pairs of canonical variables were obtained which contained 99.3%of the total correlation information between agronomic and quality traits. The main traits that played a decisive role in canonical correlation were 1000-seeds weight, fruits per plant, plant yield, stems per plant, oil content, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Among the 6 pairs of canonical variables, the correlation information involved in front 3 pairs of canonical variables were 45

  18. GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY ESTIMATES OF AGRONOMIC TRAITS FOR SELECTION IN A SWEETPOTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS POLYCROSS POPULATION IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boney Wera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful crop breeding program incorporating agronomic and consumer preferred traits can be achieved by recognizing the existence and degree of variability among sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas, (L. Lam. genotypes. Understanding genetic variability, genotypic and phenotypic correlation and inheritance among agronomic traits is fundamental to improvement of any crop. The study was carried out with the objective to estimate the genotypic variability and other yield related traits of highlands sweetpotato in Papua New Guinea in a polycross population. A total of 8 genotypes of sweetpotato derived from the polycross were considered in two cycles of replicated field experiments. Analysis of Variance was computed to contrast the variability within the selected genotypes based on high yielding β-carotene rich orange-fleshed sweetpotato. The results revealed significant differences among the genotypes. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV % was lower than phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV % for all traits studied. Relatively high genetic variance, along with high heritability and expected genetic advances were observed in NMTN and ABYield. Harvest index (HI, scab and gall mite damage scores had heritability of 67%, 66% and 37% respectively. Marketable tuber yield (MTYield and total tuber yield (TTYield had lower genetic variance, low heritability and low genetic advance. There is need to investigate correlated inheritance among these traits. Selecting directly for yield improvement in polycross population may not be very efficient as indicated by the results. Therefore, it can be conclude that the variability within sweetpotato genotypes collected from polycross population in Aiyura Research Station for tuber yield is low and the extent of its yield improvement is narrow.

  19. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify candidate sunn hemp accessions having high concentrations of cellulose for use as parents in breeding for cellulose and to determine variability for glucose content and some important agronomic traits among sunn hemp accessions. Since sunn hemp is an under-utilized species, glucose content and agronomic trait variation is essential for the identification of superior sunn hemp accessions for use as potential ethanol for biofuel. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied. "Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied." In addition, to verify variability, these traits plus morphological, phenological, and seed reproductive traits were analyzed using multivariate and cluster analysis. The accessions, PI 250487, PI 337080, and PI 219717 produced the highest glucose concentrations (859, 809, and 770 mg g(-1) stem dry weight, respectively), however PI 468956 produced the highest stem dry weight (258 g). Branching significantly correlated with foliage (r(2) = 0.67**) and relative maturity (r(2) = 0.60*), while maturity had a significantly negative correlation with seed number (r(2) = -0.67**) and plant width (r(2) = -0.53*) as well. Seed number significantly correlated with plant width (r(2) = 0.57*). Average linkage cluster analysis grouped the 16 sunn hemp accessions into well-defined phenotypes with four distinct seed-producing groups and one outlier. Based on multivariate and cluster analysis, sufficient variation among these16 sunn hemp accessions exists to support the development of cellulosic ethanol producing cultivars with improved architecture, early maturity, seed yield, glucose concentrations, and stem dry weights. PMID:23356343

  20. Determining the most important physiological and agronomic traits contributing to maize grain yield through machine learning algorithms: a new avenue in intelligent agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avat Shekoofa

    Full Text Available Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features.

  1. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Souza; M.-A. Van-Sluys; Vincentz, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Menossi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regul...

  2. Genomewide association studies for 50 agronomic traits in peanut using the 'reference set' comprising 300 genotypes from 48 countries of the semi-arid tropics of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M S; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M V C; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S; Khan, Aamir W; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H L; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the 'reference set' of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15-20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (p value > 2.1 × 10-6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81-90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  3. Genomewide association studies for 50 agronomic traits in peanut using the 'reference set' comprising 300 genotypes from 48 countries of the semi-arid tropics of the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish K Pandey

    Full Text Available Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the 'reference set' of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD decay and marker-trait association (MTA in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC. Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3 while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2 predicted LD decay of 15-20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (p value > 2.1 × 10-6 with wide phenotypic variance (PV range (5.81-90.09% for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components.

  4. Genetic analysis of some agronomic traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Alam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 10×10 half diallel experiment was conducted on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. to ascertain the gene action and genetic parameters of ten traits including 50% flowering, no. of pods per plant, plant height, harvest index, pod index, 100 pod weight, 100 kernel weight, pod size, diseases infection and yield per plot. The experiments were carried out in the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU, Mymensingh during the cropping season of 2010-2011. The estimates of gene effects indicated that significance of both additive and non-additive variance for pod size, 100 pod weight and diseases infection among the traits and presence of over dominance satisfying assumptions of diallel except dormancy. However, both the additive and non-additive gene affects together importance to control of most quantitative traits in the groundnut. The average degree of dominance (H1/D 1/2 (H1 = dominance variance, D = additive variance was higher than one, indicating over dominance for all the traits. The narrow-sense heritability was high for 50% flowering (38%, harvest index (35%, pod size (52%, 100 pod weight (35% and yield per plot (41% indicating that great genetic gain could be achieved for them.

  5. Grain yield and agronomic traits in soybean according to crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop rotation systems (CRS on soybean yield and agronomic characteristics were evaluated from 1996/1997 to 2010/2011 at Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo (RS, Brazil. Four soil management systems (SMS were compared, namely: 1 no tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using a disk plow and a disk harrow, and 4 conventional using a moldboard and a disk harrow - and three CRS: system I (wheat/soybean, system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum and system III (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum. This is a split-plot, randomized, complete block design with three replications. SMS were assigned in the main plot and CRS systems in the split-plots. This work addressed only data on crop rotation systems. There were no significant differences between the CRS for number of grains per plant, 1,000 grain weight and first pod height in soybean. The crop rotation for a summer, with corn or sorghum, propitiates a higher soybean yield compared with the other systems and monoculture soybean. The combination of conservation systems (no tillage and minimum tillage and CR resulted in a higher soybean yield. The lowest grain yield and grain weight per plant were obtained in monoculture soybean.

  6. Identification of Introgressed Lines by the SSR Markers and Agronomic Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; LIU Xiao-jie; SUN Jun-ling; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ The wild cotton cultivars and species have abundant genetic polymorphisms,and they possess lots of excellent genes,such as drought resistance,insect resistance,fine and strong fiber,and so on.So cotton breeding experts have widely carried out interspecific hybridization and obtained more than 20 types of advanced generation hybrids with good quality and stable traits between wild resources and upland cotton.

  7. Variance components and correlations of agronomic traits among cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. maturity groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the variability and correlation of cabbage traits in different maturity groups. The study included early spring cabbages (planted in early spring, harvested in early summer and autumn cabbages (planted in mid-summer, harvested in late autumn. Using coefficients of variation and correlation coefficients, we analyzed 17 cabbage traits in 35 commercially grown cultivars, F1 hybrids, and experimental F1 hybrids. The traits were analyzed separately for each maturity group. In the early cabbages, the coefficients of variation ranged from 4.8 to 44.2%. The calculated correlation coefficients differed between the two maturity groups. The early cabbages had 26 significant positive correlations. The positive correlations calculated among different traits of early cabbages defined this group fully and made it distinct from the late-maturing genotypes. Plant height and rosette diameter in the early genotypes were highly positively correlated with rosette weight, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, head height, and head diameter. Plant height and rosette diameter participate in the formation of active photosynthetic area in early cabbages. Rosette width in these genotypes provides a greater influx of light and heat, which results in greater head weight. Also, in early cabbages that have greater plant height, the leaf rosette will not lie on the cold surface of the ground in the spring. The activity of the cabbage plant is thus more focused towards the formation of larger head weight. Head volume in the late genotypes was highly positively correlated with rosette diameter, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, inner stem length, and head height. In late cabbages plant activity is directed towards the formation of head volume due to the longer duration of the growth period, larger leaves, and differences in climatic conditions.

  8. Combining ability and heterosis for agronomic traits in chili pepper Capacidade combinatória e heterose para características agronômicas em pimenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Capsicum breeding has been developed with emphasis in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum and few studies are available in other species, especially C. baccatum, which has potential use not only as disease resistance source but also in obtaining new genotypes suitable for farmers' production. In the present work, the combining ability of ten C. baccatum hybrids, along with their five parentals, were tested considering 12 agronomic traits. The hybrids were produced from a complete diallel without reciprocals and assessed in greenhouse conditions, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, during the period July to December 2009. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replications and the following agronomic traits evaluated: canopy diameter (CD, plant height (PH, days to fructification (DF, number of fruits per plant (NFP, mean fruit weight (FW, dry fruit matter weight (FDM, dry matter content (DM, fruit length (FL, fruit diameter (FD, pulp thickness (PT, total soluble solids (TSS and yield per plant (PP. Significant differences were observed only for general combining ability (GCA in regard to PH, FW, FDM, DM, PT and TSS, indicating that additive effects were involved on the control of these characters. For CD, DF, NFP, FL, FD and PP, there was significance not only for GCA but also for specific combining ability (SCA indicating that non-additive and additive effects were important in genetic control of these traits. The hybrids UENF 1629 X UENF 1732, UENF 1616 X UENF 1732 and UENF 1624 X UENF 1639 were considered superior because they have favorable agronomic traits.O melhoramento de Capsicum tem sido desenvolvido dando-se ênfase à espécie C. annuum, com pouca pesquisa sendo conduzida em outras espécies, sobretudo com C. baccatum, que possui potencial de uso não somente como fonte de resistência a doenças, mas também na obtenção de novos genótipos para uso pelos produtores. Neste trabalho, a capacidade

  9. Influence of Bulk and Nanoparticles Titanium Foliar Application on some Agronomic Traits, Seed Gluten and Starch Contents of Wheat Subjected to Water Deficit Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Amir JABERZADEH; Payam MOAVENI; Hamid Reza TOHIDI MOGHADAM; Hossein ZAHEDI

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a very interesting chemical element, especially physiologically. Although Ti is not toxic for animals and humans, its effects on plants show remarkable concentration dependence. Whereas for plants, it shows beneficial effects on various physiological parameters at low doses. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bulk and nanoparticles titanium foliar. Application on some agronomic traits, seed gluten and starch contents of wheat under water deficit stress conditi...

  10. Genetic characterization of Moroccan and the exotic bread wheat cultivars using functional and random DNA markers linked to the agronomic traits for genomics-assisted improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Henkrar, Fatima; El-Haddoury, Jamal; Ouabbou, Hassan; Bendaou, Najib; Udupa, Sripada M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most importan...

  11. Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield, fodder yield and other agronomic traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Jain and P. R. Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design of nine parents and one standard check GJ-39 were evaluated for general and specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant, days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf breadth and 100- seed weight. The mean square due to general and specific combining ability was significant for all the characters. Both additive and non additive genetic effects were present in the material under study. However the ratio of σ2gca/ σ2sca suggested that the preponderance of non additive gene action in expression of all the characters under study. Out of the nine parents GJ-39, GFS-5, CSV-15, SSV 84 and SPV 2113 identified as good general combiner for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant and other agronomical traits. The hybrid SPV 2110 x GFS 5 and GFS 5 x GJ 39 for grain yield/plant and hybrid CSV 15 x SSV 84, SPV 2113 x SPV 1616 and SPV 2110 x GFS 5 for dry fodder yield/plant exhibited higher magnitude of positive significant specific combining ability effect with highest standard heterosis and per se performance. These hybrids were also found suitable for two or three yield contributing traits. In general, close association between specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis was observed among the best hybrids identified on the basis of specific combining ability effects for grain and dry fodder yield.

  12. Genome-wide association studies of morphological and agronomical traits in cultivated tepary beans (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) is adapted to high temperature arid agroecological zones. In light of the ongoing and rapid changes in the world climate, the evaluation and development of alternate grain legume species that have similar nutritional and culinary characteristics as common ...

  13. Characterization of Boerhavia diffusa L. mutant lines by RAPD and isozyme, selected for agronomically valuable traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerhavia diffusa is a medicinally important plant and finds extensive uses in traditional herbal drug preparations. For the development of improved varieties in terms of superior yield and quality of herb/root of B. diffusa, mutation breeding was attempted. Mutants generated by physical and chemical mutagenic treatments were screened for yield and quality parameters of the root/herb up to three consecutive generations. The selected-screened lines generated by physical and chemical mutagenic treatments on two selected genotypes I and II were molecularly analyzed using eight isozymes and eleven RAPD primers producing good amplification. Mutants from BD10 (selected genotype I) were distinct, while, in case of BD22 (selected genotype II), only one mutant BDMu7 was recorded distinct by isozyme analysis. The wild mutant (BDMu16, with maximum height and mouve coloured flower) was distinct in RAPD banding pattern. Isozymes differentiated the mutants from their respective controls, whereas RAPD differentiated the mutants and controls and also distinguished the mutants. The RAPD analysis was found to be better suited than isozymes for detecting genetic differences among controls and their mutants. However, both RAPD and isozyme analyses gave similar patterns of genetic relationships

  14. Integration of QTL detection and marker assisted selection for improving resistance to Fusarium head blight and important agronomic traits in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lv

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most destructive wheat (Triticum aestivum L. diseases worldwide. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring FHB resistance followed by marker assisted selection (MAS is an efficient approach to breed FHB-resistant varieties. In this study, 38 additive QTL and 18 pairs of epistatic QTL for FHB resistance were detected in four environments using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from varieties Neixiang 188 and Yanzhan 1. Six QTL clusters were located on chromosomes 2D, 4B, 4D, 5A, 5D and 7B, suggesting possible polytrophic functions. Six elite lines with good FHB resistance and agronomic traits were selected from the same population using the associated markers. Our results suggest that MAS of multiple QTL will be effective and efficient in wheat breeding.

  15. Integration of QTL detection and marker assisted selection for improving resistance to Fusarium head blight and important agronomic traits in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao; Lv; Yanxia; Song; Lifeng; Gao; Qin; Yao; Ronghua; Zhou; Rugen; Xu; Jizeng; Jia

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium head blight(FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most destructive wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) diseases worldwide. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) conferring FHB resistance followed by marker assisted selection(MAS) is an efficient approach to breed FHB-resistant varieties. In this study, 38 additive QTL and 18 pairs of epistatic QTL for FHB resistance were detected in four environments using a population of recombinant inbred lines(RILs) derived from varieties Neixiang 188 and Yanzhan 1. Six QTL clusters were located on chromosomes 2D, 4B, 4D, 5A, 5D and 7B, suggesting possible polytrophic functions. Six elite lines with good FHB resistance and agronomic traits were selected from the same population using the associated markers. Our results suggest that MAS of multiple QTL will be effective and efficient in wheat breeding.

  16. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  17. Genetic parameter estimation for agronomic traits in grain-only and forage-plus-grain winter wheat systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual purpose winter wheat utilized for both livestock forage and grain yield is frequently grown throughout the Southern Great Plains of USA, yet no cultivars to date were bred specifically under a dual-purpose management system. This research was initiated to determine whether breeders should select winter wheat genotypes in a forage-plus-grain system, or continue the current practice of indirect selection in the grain-only system. Thirty-seven random winter wheat lines were evaluated in three experiments for 3 yr at the North Central Research Station, Lahoma, OK. Each experiment represented either an early-planted forage-plus-grain (FG) system, a normal-planted grain-only (GO) system, or a forage-plus-grain control (FGC) system, in which the forage was not removed. To simulate continuous grazing, the FG experiments were mechanically clipped three to four times from November until first-hollowstem development in late-February. Though significant genetic variation was observed among wheat lines for all traits under each system, the genotype X system interactions were not significant due to strong genetic (rG > 0.94) and phenotypic (rP > 0.71, P < 0.01) correlations. Genetic variances and heritability estimates for all traits were equal to or slightly higher in the GO system than those in FG and FGC systems. Indirect selection in the GO system was as effective as direct selection for trait improvement in the FG system. It is concluded that separate selection of wheat genotypes should not be applied in FG and GO systems. (author)

  18. Vegetative phase change in sweet corn populations: Genetics and relationship with agronomic traits (vegetative phase change in open-pollinated sweet corn).

    OpenAIRE

    Abedon, B. G.; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Tracy, W.F.

    1996-01-01

    Vegetative development in maize can be divided into juvenile and adult phases, each, with distinct anatomy and physiology. Transition from juvenile to adult vegetative growth may have some adaptive value since adult leaves have increased photosynthetic rates, xeromorphism, and resistance to certain insects and diseases. Variation in the timing of this transition (i.e., the node(s) at which phase change occurs) may be associated with agronomic performance. Our objectives were to investigate th...

  19. Observation of Main Agronomic Traits of Piper nigrum L. in Three Different Cultivation Modes%3种不同栽培模式下胡椒主要农艺性状观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈绍斌; 刘光华; 刘倩; 左红

    2011-01-01

    Main agronomic traits of Piper nigrum L.in three different cultivation modes in Baihua Village of Baoshanlujiang Town were observed. The results showed that in different cultivation modes ,the main agronomic traits of Piper nigrum L.were significant ,agronomic traits of Piper nigrum L. and coffee interplant mode as well as Piper nigrum L. as well as corn interplant mode were better than that in Piper nigrum L. purebred mode,main agronomic traits in Piper nigrum L. and coffee interplant mode were the best.%对保山潞江镇百花村知青农场3种不同栽培模式下的胡椒主要农艺性状进行观测。结果表明:不同栽培模式下胡椒的主要农艺性状差异明显,其中胡椒与咖啡套种栽培模式及胡椒与包谷套种栽培模式下农艺性状表现较胡椒纯种模式好,胡椒与咖啡套种栽培模式下农艺性状表现最好。

  20. Agronomic Weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines agronomic weed problems and control. Contents include a listing of the characteristics of weeds, a section on herbicides, and a section on the important weeds of agronomic crops in Pennsylvania. The herbicide section discusses systemic herbicides, contact…

  1. Analysis on Maize Agronomic traits by Multivariate Statistical Method%应用多元统计分析玉米农艺性状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭贤杰; 覃兰秋; 廖金秀; 周锦国; 江禹奉; 谢和霞; 程伟东; 吴子恺

    2011-01-01

    在作物遗传育种研究中,产量及其相关性状多属于数量性状范畴,这类性状由多基因控制,易受环境影响使其遗传极为复杂,并且性状间常存在复杂相关关系.产量及其相关性状间的复杂关系使得育种中对以产量为目标的选择极为困难.多元统计分析是研究客观事物中多个变量之间相互依赖的统计规律性综合分析方法.合理利用多元统计分析可以加深对性状间相互关系的遗传规律及各相关性状对产量影响的主次和依存关系认识,为新品种选育和改良提供理论依据.对35个玉米品种(组合)的20个农艺性状应用GGE双标图、因子分析和聚类分析研究,结果表明,平均日产量、千粒重、穗长与产量呈显著正相关;20个农艺性状可综合为6个公因子;以6个公因子为综合指标对35个品种(组合)聚类结果聚成17个类群,其中G8、G14、G12、G10和G17为综合性状优良品种(组合).%In crop breeding, yield and yield related traits are mostly quantitative traits. These traits are controlled by multiple genes and apt to affect by environment, the relationship between traits arecomplex. The complex relationship between yield and yield related traits are hindrances to crops breeding for yield as target trait. Multivariate statistical analysis is a comprehensive and powerful tool for multivariate statistical analysis, it has been comprehensively applied in genetic breeding for discovering the discipline and the major and minor relationship of trait heredity. In this study,20 agronomic traits of 35 maize varieties (combination) were analyzed by GGE biplot, and carried out factor analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that: (1) yield per day, kilo grain weight and ear length were significantly correlated with yield. (2)20 agronomic traits could be consolidated into six factors. (3)35 varieties clustered into 17 groups scoring by 6 factors. (4) variety (combination) G 8, G 14, G 12, G

  2. QTLs Associated with Agronomic Traits in the Cutler × AC Barrie Spring Wheat Mapping Population Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lara, Enid; Semagn, Kassa; Chen, Hua; Iqbal, Muhammad; N'Diaye, Amidou; Kamran, Atif; Navabi, Alireza; Pozniak, Curtis; Spaner, Dean

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported three earliness per se quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with flowering and maturity in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars 'Cutler' and 'AC Barrie' using 488 microsatellite and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. Here, we present QTLs associated with flowering time, maturity, plant height, and grain yield using high density single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers in the same population. A mapping population of 158 RILs and the two parents were evaluated at five environments for flowering, maturity, plant height and grain yield under field conditions, at two greenhouse environments for flowering, and genotyped with a subset of 1809 SNPs out of the 90K SNP array and 2 functional markers (Ppd-D1 and Rht-D1). Using composite interval mapping on the combined phenotype data across all environments, we identified a total of 19 QTLs associated with flowering time in greenhouse (5), and field (6) conditions, maturity (5), grain yield (2) and plant height (1). We mapped these QTLs on 8 chromosomes and they individually explained between 6.3 and 37.8% of the phenotypic variation. Four of the 19 QTLs were associated with multiple traits, including a QTL on 2D associated with flowering, maturity and grain yield; two QTLs on 4A and 7A associated with flowering and maturity, and another QTL on 4D associated with maturity and plant height. However, only the QTLs on both 2D and 4D had major effects, and they mapped adjacent to well-known photoperiod response Ppd-D1 and height reducing Rht-D1 genes, respectively. The QTL on 2D reduced flowering and maturity time up to 5 days with a yield penalty of 436 kg ha-1, while the QTL on 4D reduced plant height by 13 cm, but increased maturity by 2 days. The high density SNPs allowed us to map eight moderate effect, two major effect, and nine minor effect QTLs that were not identified in our previous study using

  3. GA-responsive dwarfing gene Rht12 affects the developmental and agronomic traits in common bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available Opportunities exist for replacing reduced height (Rht genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b with alternative dwarfing genes, such as the gibberellin-responsive gene Rht12, for bread wheat improvement. However, a comprehensive understanding of the effects and mode of action of Rht12 is lacking. In the present study, the effects of Rht12 were characterized by analyzing its effects on seeding vigour, seedling roots, leaf and stem morphology, spike development and carbohydrate assimilation and distribution. This was carried out in the four genotypes of F2:3 lines derived from a cross between Ningchun45 and Karcagi (12 in two experiments of autumn sowing and spring sowing. Rht12 significantly decreased stem length (43%∼48% for peduncle and leaf length (25%∼30% for flag leaf while the thickness of the internode walls and width of the leaves were increased. Though the final plant stature was shortened (40% by Rht12, the seedling vigour, especially coleoptile length and root traits at the seedling stage, were not affected adversely. Rht12 elongated the duration of the spike development phase, improved the proportion of spike dry weight at anthesis and significantly increased floret fertility (14% in the autumn sowing experiment. However, Rht12 delayed anthesis date by around 5 days and even the dominant Vrn-B1 allele could not compensate this negative effect. Additionally, grain size was reduced with the ability to support spike development after anthesis decreased in Rht12 lines. Finally, grain yield was similar between the dwarf and tall lines in the autumn sowing experiment. Thus, Rht12 could substantially reduce plant height without altering seeding vigour and significantly increase spikelet fertility in the favourable autumn sowing environment. The successful utilization of Rht12 in breeding programs will require careful selection since it might delay ear emergence. Nonetheless, the potential exists for wheat improvement by using Rht12.

  4. Selection of parents for crossing based on genotyping and phenotyping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) resistance and agronomic traits in bread wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Irfaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Khan, Abdul Jabbar; Khattak, Gul Sanat Shah; Mohammad, Tila; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm consisting of 45 genotypes were clustered phenotypically using ten morphological traits and Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) as measure of stripe rust resistance. The clustering was ratified by using twenty three molecular markers (SSR, EST and STS) linked to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistant QTLs. The aim was to asses the extent of genetic variability among the genotypes in order to select the parents for crossing between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with respect to stripe rust. The Euclidian dissimilarity values resulted from phenotypic data regarding morphological traits and AUDPC were used to construct a dendrogram for clustering the accessions. Using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic means, another dendrogram resulted from the similarity coefficient values was used to distinguish the genotypes with respect to stripe rust. Clustering based on phenotypic data produced two major groups and five clusters (with Euclidian dissimilarity ranging from 244 to 16.16) whereas genotypic data yielded two major groups and four clusters (with percent similarity coefficient values ranging from 0.1 to 46.0) to separate the gene pool into highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible genotypes. With few exceptions, the outcome of both type of clustering was almost similar and resistant as well as susceptible genotypes came in the same clusters of molecular genotyping as yielded by phenotypic clustering. As a result seven genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Frontana, Saleem 2000, Tatara, Inqilab-91, Fakhre Sarhad and Karwan) of diverse genetic background were selected for pyramiding stripe rust resistant genes as well as some other agronomic traits after hybridization. PMID:22329159

  5. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cell wall lignification have been shown to influence both cell wall digestibility and yield traits. Results In this study, associations between monolignol biosynthetic genes and plant height (PHT, days to silking (DTS, dry matter content (DMC, and dry matter yield (DMY were identified by using a panel of 39 European elite maize lines. In total, 10 associations were detected between polymorphisms or tight linkage disequilibrium (LD groups within the COMT, CCoAOMT2, 4CL1, 4CL2, F5H, and PAL genomic fragments, respectively, and the above mentioned traits. The phenotypic variation explained by these polymorphisms or tight LD groups ranged from 6% to 25.8% in our line collection. Only 4CL1 and F5H were found to have polymorphisms associated with both yield and forage quality related characters. However, no pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (DNDF, and PHT or DMY were discovered, even under less stringent statistical conditions. Conclusion Due to absence of pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both forage yield and quality traits, identification of optimal monolignol biosynthetic gene haplotype(s combining beneficial quantitative trait polymorphism (QTP alleles for both quality and yield traits appears possible within monolignol biosynthetic genes. This is beneficial to maximize forage and bioethanol yield per unit land area.

  6. Identification of QTLs for eight agronomically important traits using an ultra-high-density map based on SNPs generated from high-throughput sequencing in sorghum under contrasting photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guihua; Zhai, Guowei; Feng, Qi; Yan, Song; Wang, Ahong; Zhao, Qiang; Shao, Jianfeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu; Han, Bin; Tao, Yuezhi

    2012-09-01

    The productivity of sorghum is mainly determined by agronomically important traits. The genetic bases of these traits have historically been dissected and analysed through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping based on linkage maps with low-throughput molecular markers, which is one of the factors that hinder precise and complete information about the numbers and locations of the genes or QTLs controlling the traits. In this study, an ultra-high-density linkage map based on high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated from low-coverage sequences (~0.07 genome sequence) in a sorghum recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was constructed through new sequencing technology. This map consisted of 3418 bin markers and spanned 1591.4 cM of genome size with an average distance of 0.5 cM between adjacent bins. QTL analysis was performed and a total of 57 major QTLs were detected for eight agronomically important traits under two contrasting photoperiods. The phenotypic variation explained by individual QTLs varied from 3.40% to 33.82%. The high accuracy and quality of this map was evidenced by the finding that genes underlying two cloned QTLs, Dw3 for plant height (chromosome 7) and Ma1 for flowering time (chromosome 6), were localized to the correct genomic regions. The close associations between two genomic regions on chromosomes 6 and 7 with multiple traits suggested the existence of pleiotropy or tight linkage. Several major QTLs for heading date, plant height, numbers of nodes, stem diameter, panicle neck length, and flag leaf width were detected consistently under both photoperiods, providing useful information for understanding the genetic mechanisms of the agronomically important traits responsible for the change of photoperiod. PMID:22859680

  7. Breeding investigations into the gene action and agronomic performance of sunflower traits based on F1 top-cross hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Makanda I.; Matamela T.; Mashingaidze K.; Chigeza G.; Musanya J.; Muungani D.

    2012-01-01

    Information on the performance and gene action of sunflower traits is still scarce in southern Africa despite the crop’s increasing importance and the growing demand for adapted cultivars. To generate this information, 30 malesterile lines were cross-bred to a restorer line generating 30 experimental hybrids. The hybrids and three check varieties were evaluated in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Data was analyzed using REML procedure in Gen-Stat®. Signif...

  8. Assessing molecular and morpho-agronomical diversity and identification of ISSR markers associated with fruit traits in quince (Cydonia oblonga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganopoulos, I; Merkouropoulos, G; Pantazis, S; Tsipouridis, C; Tsaftaris, A

    2011-01-01

    Quince is a deciduous tree known to the countries around the Mediterranean since antiquity. Nowadays, quince is used as an ornamental plant, and as a rootstock for pear trees, with its fruit being appreciated mainly for production of jam and sweets rather than for raw consumption. Quince leaves contain compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancerous properties that have been the focus of recent research on pharmaceutical and medical uses as well as for food preservatives. An orchard has been established in Greece, composed of quince varieties (Cydonia oblonga, N = 49) collected from different sites of the country (mainly from home gardens), constituting a unique quince gene bank collection for southeast Europe. We made a phenotypic analysis using 26 morphological plus seven agronomical descriptors coupled with molecular techniques in order to examine the genetic diversity within the collection. Principal component analysis using the 33 descriptors identified 10 components explaining the existence of more than 70% of the total variation. Subsequent cluster analysis classified most of the previously identified productive varieties of the quince orchard in the same clade of a dendrogram. Molecular analysis generated by 13 inter-simple sequence repeat primers amplified 139 bands, including 109 polymorphic bands, indicating a level of polymorphism of 79%; mean gene diversity was calculated to be 0.309. Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, a number of markers significantly associated with fire blight susceptibility, yield, mean fruit weight, citric acid content, soluble solid content, and fruit drop were identified. Hence, data extracted by multiple regression analysis could be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs, especially when no previous genetic information is available. PMID:22095599

  9. Evaluation of recurrent radiation with Cobalt 60 gamma rays on agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) in the R2M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of recurrent radiation on agronomic traits in two barley varieties. The research was carried out at experimental fields pertaining to the Instituto de Investigacion Agropecuaria, Acuicola y Forestal of the Estado de Mexico (ICAMEX). The biological material was irradiated in the Gamma Cell 220 at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The experimental design was divided plots in the randomized blocks, with four replications. The factor varieties (Cerro Prieto and Puebla) was assigned to the big plots mean while in the factor doses was assignated to the small plots (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 krad of gamma rays). The variables under study were: germination, number of shoots, plant height, incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, spike length and yield. The analysis of variance exhibited no significant differences between varieties for all the studied variables. Regarding to dose, most of the studied variables exhibited significant differences, except for incidence of Puccinia striiformis and days to flowering. The interaction variety x doses showed significance only for the variable days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. The mean separation by Tukey test at 0.05 and the regression analysis showed that the variables: germination, number of shoots, plant height, spike length and yield decreased as the dose increased. On the other hand in the variables incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering and days to physiological maturity exhibited a direct relationship with the dose. (Author)

  10. Intra-population genetic variance for grain iron and zinc contents and agronomic traits in pearl millet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahalingam Govindaraj; Kedar N. Rai; Ponnusamy Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Crop biofortification is a sustainable approach for fighting micronutrient malnutrition in the world. The estimation of variance components in genetically broad-based populations provides information about their genetic architecture, allowing the design of an appropriate biofortification breeding method for cross-pollinated crops such as pearl millet. The objective of this study was to estimate intra-population genetic variance using self (S1) and half-sib (HS) progenies in two populations, AIMP92901 and ICMR312. Field trials were evaluated in two contrasting seasons (2009 rainy and 2010 summer; otherwise called environments) in Alfisols at ICRISAT, Patancheru. Analyses of variance showed highly significant variation for S1s and HS progenies, reflecting high within-population genetic variation for both micronutrients and other key traits. However, the HS showed narrow ranges and lower genetic variances than the S1 for all of the traits. The micronutrients were highly positively correlated in S1 (r=0.77 to 0.86;P<0.01) and HS (r=0.74 to 0.77;P<0.01) progenies of both populations, implying concurrent genetic improvement for both micronutrients. The genetic variance component was different among populations for Fe and Zn contents across environments, with AIMP92901 showing a greater proportion of dominance and ICMR312 greater additive variance for these micronutrients. The estimates of variance (additive and dominance) were specific for each population, given their dependence on the additive and dominance effects of the segregating loci, which also differ among populations. The possible causes for such differences were discussed. The results showed that the expression of these micronutrients in pearl millet shows largely additive variance, so that breeding high-iron hybrids will require incorporation of these micronu-trient traits into both parental lines.

  11. Allelic variations of a light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (Lhcb1 associated with agronomic traits in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshi Xia

    Full Text Available Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (LHCP is one of the most abundant chloroplast proteins in plants. Its main function is to collect and transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the roles of different LHCPs in light-harvesting antenna systems remain obscure. Exploration of nucleotide variation in the genes encoding LHCP can facilitate a better understanding of the functions of LHCP. In this study, nucleotide variations in Lhcb1, a LHCP gene in barley, were investigated across 292 barley accessions collected from 35 different countries using EcoTILLING technology, a variation of the Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING. A total of 23 nucleotide variations were detected including three insert/deletions (indels and 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Among them, 17 SNPs were in the coding region with nine missense changes. Two SNPs with missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Seventeen SNP formed 31 distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. The levels of nucleotide diversity in the Lhcb1 locus differed markedly with geographic origins and species of accessions. The accessions from Middle East Asia exhibited the highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity. H. spontaneum showed greater nucleotide diversity than H. vulgare. Five SNPs in Lhcb1 were significantly associated with at least one of the six agronomic traits evaluated, namely plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, flag leaf area and leaf color, and these SNPs may be used as potential markers for improvement of these barley traits.

  12. Genotype x environment interaction of agronomic and processing quality traits in potato Interação genótipo x ambiente em caracteres agronômicos e qualidade de processamento em batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizete Augustin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available At the main crop production region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, potato is cultivated in two different growing seasons: autumn and spring. The objectives of this research paper were: i identify potato clones with high yield potential and industrial quality for Autumn and Spring growing seasons in the northern/northeastern region of the state; ii estimate the effects of environment and of the genotype x environment interaction on the expression of agronomic and processing quality traits of potato clones in order to determine the appropriate strategy for breeding potato for the target region. One hundred and seventy clones of nine families were developed and compared to the cultivars Atlantic, Baronesa, Catucha, Ciclamen, Hertha, Lady Roseta, Macaca, Monalisa and Vivaldi and to the clone SMIJ 461-1, in the autumn and spring of 2006, in Passo Fundo, northern Rio Grande do Sul state. The evaluated traits included number of tubers per plant, tuber weight, plant yield, presence of deep eyes, dry matter content and chip color. Genotype x environment interaction (G x E was significant for the expression of all traits but processing quality traits like chip color were most influenced by the growing season conditions. Genetic potential expression for yield traits was maximized in the spring season. Superior clones combining agronomic and quality traits were identified at the two growing seasons. High correlation between the two growing seasons was observed for the presence of deep eyes and dry matter, indicating they can be selected at either season.Nas principais regiões produtoras do Rio Grande do Sul a batata é cultivada em dois períodos do ano: na primavera, sob condições de fotoperíodo e temperatura crescentes e, no outono, sob fotoperíodo e temperatura decrescentes. Devido às diferenças nas condições de cultivo nessas duas épocas, é fundamental a avaliação e a identificação de clones adaptados a ambas. Os objetivos do trabalho

  13. Seed Priming Improves Agronomic Trait Performance under Flooding and Non-flooding Conditions in Rice with QTL SUB1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramni Kumar SARKAR

    2012-01-01

    Farmers in South East Asia are adopting rice crop establishment methods from transplanting to direct wet or dry seeding as it requires less labour and time and comparatively less energy than transplanting.In contrast to irrigated condition,in rainfed lowland,direct seeding is a common practice.Early flooding controls weeds but decreases seedling establishment in direct seeded rice.Anaerobic germination is an important trait to counteract damages caused by early flooding.Management options which can help in crop establishment and improve crop growth under flooding might remove the constraints related to direct seeding.The investigation was carried out with two near isogenic lines Swarna and SwarnaSub1.Swarna-Sub1 is tolerant to submergence whereas Swarna is susceptible.Seed priming was done with water and 2%Jamun (Syzygium cumini) leaf extract,and it improved seedling establishment under flooding.Acceleration of growth occurred due to seed pretreatment,which resulted longer seedling and greater accumulation of biomass.Seed priming greatly hastened the activities of total amylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in Swarna-Sub1 than in Swarna.Swarna-Sub1 outperformed Swarna when the plants were cultivated under flooding.Weed biomass decreased significantly under flooding compared to non-flooding conditions.Seed priming had positive effects on yield and yield attributing parameters both under non-flooding and early flooding conditions.

  14. Caracterização agronômica e pungência em pimenta de cheiro Agronomic traits and pungency of chilli pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina I Domenico

    2012-09-01

    údo de capsaicina, resultado inédito para uma pimenta de cheiro brasileira.Nine accessions of the Active Capsicum chinense Germplasm Bank of Instituto Agronômico were characterized and evaluated in climate and soil conditions of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from January to October 2010. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with nine treatments, five replications and eight plants per plot. Evaluated traits were plant height, plant growth habit, first flower anthesis, fruit yield, fresh fruit weight, fruit height and width, capsaicin content, ripe fruit color, fruit shape and fruit surface. For fruit and plant characterization were considered the four central plants of each plot; for capsaicin content evaluation were used three samples of five fruits of each accession. Capsaicin content was measured by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography. Plant height ranged from 1.13 to 0.85 m. The most accessions presented compact growth habit of plants. Accessions IAC 1644, IAC 1645 and IAC 1643 were the earliest for anthesis of first flower. IAC 1646 showed high fruit yield, fruit width and fresh weight, and IAC 1641 showed the longest fruits. IAC 1552 ('Murupi' stood out with highest capsaicin content, outperforming IAC 1646 ('Scotch Bonnet' and IAC 1644 ('Fidalga', habanero types. Fruits presented yellow, orange, salmon and red colors. The fruits presented the elongated, round, triangular, campanulated and blocked shape. The fruit surface was characterized as smooth, semi-rough and rough. In the climate and soil conditions where the research was developed and, regarding the accessions evaluated, there was high variability in chili peppers for agronomic traits and capsaicin content. IAC 1552 stood out with highest capsaicin content, first result for a Brazilian chilli pepper.

  15. 宁夏灌区扁豆农艺及产量性状分析%Analysis on Agronomic and Yield Traits of Lentils in Irrigation of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The article is analysis lentils agronomic and yield traits in irrigation of Ningxia ,The results showed that lentils needs from planting to maturity about 80 d in irrigation.The correlation analysis showed growth peri⁃od and the number of pods per plant with plant height was significantly negatively correlated,But stem branches and 1000-grains weight with yileld was a significant positive correlation.The principal component analysis showed three main components,were yield,1000-grains weight and the number of grain per pod. The pods per plant,the number of grain per pod were no significant differences,but 1000- grains weight was significant difference in va⁃rieties.the change of yield was mainly due to the changes caused by the grain weight.%  对宁夏灌区引种扁豆的农艺及产量性状进行分析,结果表明,宁夏灌区引种的扁豆从播种到成熟需要80d左右;株高与生育期、单株荚数呈显著负相关;小区产量与主茎分枝、千粒重均呈显著正相关;主成分分析表现为3个主成分,分别是产量主成分、千粒重主成分和荚粒数主成分;产量及其构成因素分析表明单株荚数、单荚粒数品种间均无显著差异,而千粒重差异显著,产量的变化主要是由千粒重的变化引起的。

  16. Genetic variation, linkage mapping of QTL and correlation studies for yield, root, and agronomic traits for aerobic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, Nitika; Jain, Sunita; Kumar, Arvind; Mehla, Balwant Singh; Jain, Rajinder

    2013-01-01

    Background Water scarcity and drought have seriously threatened traditional rice cultivation practices in several parts of the world, including India. Aerobic rice that uses significantly less water than traditional flooded systems has emerged as a promising water-saving technology. The identification of QTL conferring improved aerobic adaptation may facilitate the development of high-yielding aerobic rice varieties. In this study, experiments were conducted for mapping QTL for yield, root-re...

  17. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad (VCU)

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but ...

  18. 长春花中长春质碱含量与农艺性状的分析%Analysis of catharanthine content and agronomic traits in Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小芬; 陈雨; 潘俊松; 王玉亮; 孙克兴; 蔡润; 唐克轩

    2009-01-01

    目的:对国内外长春花主栽品种的长春质碱含量和农艺性状进行了分析.方法:记录长春花盛花期的农艺性状,反相高效认相色谱仪测定长春质碱含量.结果:发现不同品种的长春质碱含量和农艺性状均存在很大差异,太平洋系列(Pacifica)品种Polka Dot(PPD)中长春质碱质量分数最高,达到叶片干重的3.79 mg·g~(-1);清凉系列(cooler)品种Pink(CP)中长春质碱质量分数最低,仅为叶片干重的0.9 mg·g~(-1).长春花中长春质碱含量与农艺性状之间存在一定程度的相关性.通径分析表明,长春花主要农艺性状中,节间距对长春质碱含量的正影响达到了显著水平(P<0.05),通径系数为1.473.结论:本研究对高含量长春质碱长春花引种和育种具有参考价值.%Catharanthine content and agronomic traits in major Catharanthus resells varieties were analyzed.It was found that there existed great difference in catharanthine content and agronomic traits among the varieties.Catharanthine content was the highest in variety Pacifica Polka Dot(PPD),reaching 3.79 mg·g~(-1) dry leaf weight,and the lowest in variety Cooler Pink(CP)with only 0.9 mg·g~(-1) dry leaf weight.Correlation existed in certain extent between catharanthine content and agronomic traits in C. roseus.Path analysis showed that among all the agronomic traits analyzed,intemodal distance positively affected catharanthine content at significant level(P<0.05),with the path coefficient being 1.473.This study provides useful information for high-catharanthine content C.roseus introduction and breeding.

  19. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the First 15K Coffee Microarray, a New Tool for Discovering Candidate Genes correlated to Agronomic and Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. Results The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta. Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics. This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid, drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research.

  20. Correlation Analysis Between Biomass, Active Components and Agronomic Traits of B. purpurascens%岩白菜的生物量和有效成分与农艺性状间的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱映安; 王仕玉; 李玉强; 赵桂茹; 陈骊君; 郭凤根

    2013-01-01

      为了探明不同种源岩白菜的农艺性状与生物量及有效成分间的相关性,为岩白菜的良种选育和永续利用提供理论依据。观测了24份岩白菜种源的7个农艺性状和3个生物量性状,并利用HPLC法测定岩白菜的有效成分含量。结果表明:株根状茎干重与株干重、株高、根状茎直径间均呈极显著正相关关系(P<0.01);株叶片干重与株高呈显著正相关关系(P<0.05),与根状茎直径极显著正相关关系(P<0.01)。岩白菜素单株产量与根状茎直径间呈显著正相关关系(P<0.05),与其他农艺性状间相关性不显著;叶片中熊果苷的含量与株高呈显著负相关(P<0.05),与其他农艺性状间呈负相关,但没有达到显著水平;而根状茎中岩白菜素的含量和熊果苷的单株产量与7个农艺性状间相关性均不强。株高和根状茎直径是岩白菜选育种时需重点关注的2个农艺性状。%In order to provide a theory basis for breeding and sustainable utilization of Bergenia purpurascens, the correlations between agronomic traits and biomass and effective components in different resources of B. purpurascens had been discussed. 7 agronomic characters and 3 biomass characters from 24 resources were observed, and the contents of effective component were determined in the method of HPLC. It was showed that there was a very significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between dry weight of rhizomes per plant, total dry weight of plant and plant height, diameter of rhizomes. A significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between dry weight of leaves per plant and plant height and a very significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between dry weight of leaves per plant and diameter of rhizomes per plant were found too. There also was a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between the yield of bergenin per plant and diameter of rhizomes, although there was no significant correlation between the yield of

  1. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K Hatemi

    Full Text Available The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  2. Genetic Diversity among Agronomic Traits of Flax%亚麻品种主要农艺性状遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关虎; 王振华; 曹禹; 魏凌基; 李卫华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解亚麻的遗传多样性,有助于种质资源的搜集、管理和利用,有利于对核心种质进行研究.[方法]选择来自不同地区的66份亚麻种质资源,对其株高、蒴果数和千粒重等7个主要农艺性状进行遗传多样性和聚类分析.[结果]遗传多样性指数最高的为分枝数;性状变异系数最大的是株粒重,其后依次为蒴果数和分枝数,最小的为株高.通过聚类分析,把66个品种(系)划分为4类,第Ⅰ大类群可以作为高产、抗倒伏等育种目标选育的杂交亲本;第Ⅱ和第Ⅲ类株高和枝下长均较大,可以作为高秆纤维用亚麻的育种目标的亲本,但由于第Ⅲ类株粒重和蒴果数均较差,做亲本时应慎重;第Ⅳ类可以作为矮秆、大粒亚麻育种目标选育的杂交亲本.[结论]亚麻各性状的遗传多样性指数均较大,遗传资源丰富.%[ Objective ] The studies of flax genetic diversity not only contributed to the collection, management and utilization of germplasm, but also benefited the conducting of the research of core collection. [ Method ] 66 of flax germplasm were selected from different regions, and cluster analysis of the genetic diversity of the plant height, number of capsule and its thousand - grain weight of the 7 main agronomic traits were conducted. [ Result] The highest number of genetic diversity is branches; The variation coefficient of the grain weight per plant was the maximal, while the number of capsules and branches were the next, the minimum was plant height. According to genetic difference of each characteristic among varieties, the 66 accessions could be classified into 4 categories by cluster analysis. The first group could be used as parents of high - yield and lodging resistance breeding of hybrid parents. The second group and the third group of plant height and branch length were large, which could be used as breeding goals of the parents of high - fiber flax, but due to the poor grain

  3. Experimental agronomic sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Stützel, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Agronomy as an experimental science began to develop about 200 years ago, in a time of rapid population increase in Europe. In the beginning, research was performed on the field, cropping systems and farm level. Over its development, agronomic science increasingly became specialized and reductionistic. This led to big successes in yield improvement but negative ecological impacts. What the world expects from agronomists is the intensification of production by increasing resource use efficienc...

  4. Impact of Different Application Ways of Biogas Manure on Agronomic Traits and Yield of Maize%沼肥不同施用方式对玉米农艺性状及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗林

    2014-01-01

    为玉米生产上合理利用沼肥提供科学依据,采用直播地膜覆盖栽培试验方法,研究了沼肥不同施用方式对玉米农艺性状及产量的影响。结果表明:1)沼液浸种子24 h 后,发芽率和成苗率分别达98.73%和99.36%,比对照组高7.06%和14.63%;2)农艺性状,与对照组相比均以处理5最佳,株高达247 cm、茎粗达3.3 cm,穗位高为120 cm,穗长达26.5 cm,秃尖仅1.5 cm,穗行数为15.5行,百粒重达40 g;3)产量表现,处理5达10100.29 kg/hm2,均比对照组和其余处理组高。4)经济效益,处理5的玉米和玉米秸秆的总收入为30990.7元/hm2,均比对照组和其余处理组高。沼肥不同施用方式均能促进玉米种子发芽率和成活率,促进玉米植株生长发育,以浸种24 h,底肥施入沼渣75 t/hm2,60%沼液追肥效果最好。%For the purpose of providing scientific reference for using biogas manure in the production of corn appropriately,through the experiments of cultivating corns with direct seeding and plastic film mulching,the effect of different ways of treatment on agronomic traits and output of corn was studied. Results:1)The germination rate and seedling rate of seeds soaked in biogas slurry for 24 hours were respectively 98.73% and 99.36%,7.06% and 14.63% higher than the control group;2)Compared with the control group,the agronomic traits of treatment 5 was the best,of which the plant height was 247 cm, stem diameter was 3.3 cm,ear height was 120 cm,ear length was 26.5 cm,ear barren tip was only 1.5 cm,ear row number was 15,and hundred grain weight was 40 g;3)As for the output,the output of treatment 5 was 10 100.29 kg/hm2 ,which was higher than the control group and other treatments;4)As for economic benefits,the total income of corn and maize straw was 30 990.7 Yuan/hm2 ,which was also higher than the control group and other treatments.All different use methods of biogas manure

  5. Fragaria vesca NIL collection: development and genetic characterization of agronomical, nutritional and organoleptic traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia Rosauro, María; Poschenrieder Wiens, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    La maduixa silvestre, F. vesca, és una espècie diploid de la família Rosaceae. El seu petit genoma (240 Mb), la seva gran diversitat genètica i la seva elevada col·linealitat amb la maduixa cultivada (Fragaria x ananassa), la fan un model ideal per tota mena de estudis genètics i funcionals. En aquest treball, s'ha volgut contribuir al coneixement profund de la espècie i la seva variabilitat amb l'objectiu de mapar caràcters de interès agronòmic i de qualitat de fruit. Per això s'ha desenvolu...

  6. Fragaria vesca NIL collection: development and genetic characterization of agronomical, nutritional and organoleptic traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia Rosauro, María

    2015-01-01

    La maduixa silvestre, F. vesca, és una espècie diploid de la família Rosaceae. El seu petit genoma (240 Mb), la seva gran diversitat genètica i la seva elevada col·linealitat amb la maduixa cultivada (Fragaria x ananassa), la fan un model ideal per tota mena de estudis genètics i funcionals. En aquest treball, s’ha volgut contribuir al coneixement profund de la espècie i la seva variabilitat amb l’objectiu de mapar caràcters de interès agronòmic i de qualitat de fruit. Per això s’ha desenv...

  7. Agronomic traits and comprehensive utilization values analysis of Swiss chard%叶用甜菜农艺特性及综合利用价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秀显; 刘巧环; 牟善伟; 田庆彬; 刘丽萍; 徐伟丽; 刘巧红

    2014-01-01

    Swiss chard ( Beta vulgaris cicla ) belongs to biennial herbaceous plant , which Leaves are used as main raw material for planter .Its foliage possesses the characteristics of rich nutrition , tender, juicy and good palatability .Swiss chard not only is one of fodders for pigs , cattle and other animal , also can be used as vegeta-bles and herbal medicines .Leaf beet is sibling species of sugar beet .As rare genetic germplasm materials , Swiss chard is one of the important resources for improving genetic basis of sugar beet .In recent years , researchers have breeding some new varieties regard leaf morphology , color and flavor quality , which have the combination features of edible and ornamental .Leaf beet has a broad prospect of development and utilization .In this paper , agronomic characteristics , such as biology classification , botany characteristics and comprehensive utilization of nutrition function value for foods , fodders , medicines are analyzed .%叶用甜菜是以叶片作为主要原料的二年生草本植物。其营养丰富,柔嫩多汁,适口性好,不仅是猪、牛等喜食的青饲料之一,也可用作草药或作为蔬菜食用。叶用甜菜是糖甜菜的近缘种,作为不可多得的甜菜遗传种质材料,是改良糖甜菜遗传基础的重要资源之一。近年来国内外科研人员从叶用形态学、色泽以及风味品质等方面入手培育出了一些新的品种,具有食用、观赏等兼用的特性,有着广阔的开发利用前景。本文针对叶用甜菜的生物学分类、植物学特性等农艺特征及食用、饲用、药用等营养功能的综合利用价值进行了分析。

  8. 杂交棉主要农艺性状与产量品质的相关分析%Correlation Analysis on Main Agronomic Traits and Yield and Quality of Hybrid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利平; 周桃华; 张诗军

    2013-01-01

    [目的]对杂交棉主要农艺性状与产量品质进行相关分析.[方法]对13个杂交抗虫棉的生育期、主要农艺性状、产量构成因素及产量品质的差异进行比较以及主要农艺性状、产量构成因素与产量品质进行相关性分析.[结果]各参试品种的生育期在123 d左右,在整个生育期生长势较强;皮棉产量与第一果枝节位、株高、株果枝数、株铃数、总铃数和籽棉产量都呈极显著正相关,第一果枝节位与马克隆值呈显著正相关;科杂1号和春杂棉1号马克隆值最优,均为4.5;各品种的比强度在27~30 cN/tex之间,差异较大;品种间皮棉产量间的差异达极显著水平.[结论]该研究为杂交棉的优质高产栽培提供了理论参考.%[Objective] This study aimed to analyze the correlations of the main agronomic traits,yield and quality of hybrid cotton cultivars.[Method] The growth period,main agronomic traits,yield components,yield and quality of 13 hybrid cotton cultivats were compared,and the correlations of their main agronomic traits,yield components,yield and quality were analyzed.[Result] The growth period of the 13 cultivars was about 123 d,and all of them presented strong growth potential throughout the growth period.The ginned cotton yield shared an extremely significant positive correlation with the first fruiting branch position,plant height,number of fruiting branches,number of bolls per plant,number of bolls per hectare and seed cotton yield; the first fruiting branch position and micronaire value shared a significant positive correlation.Keza No.1 and Chunzamian No.1 had the lowest micronaire value,4.5.The specific strength of all the cotton cultivars ranged from 27 cN/tex to 30 cN/tex,presenting significant difference.In addition,there was extremely significant difference in the ginned cotton yield among all the cotton cultivars.[Conclusion] The study provides theoretical reference for the cultivation of high-yield hybrid

  9. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2011-12-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species. PMID:22146966

  10. Stability of PAC (Psy-2A-CrtI) gene and agronomic traits in the F2:3 of IR36/PAC transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Suk Lee; Gihwan Yi; Kyung Min Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the expression of yel ow endosperm color in the progeny of Psy-2A-CrtI (β-carotene gene, PAC) transgenic plants crossed with IR36. The selected 25 lines of F2 progeny exhibited stable expression of yel ow endosperm color and high agronomic characteristics. IR36 and PAC transgenic plant of the grain length, width and ratio showed the same tendency of normal distribution. For progeny selection, colorimeters were as employed to distinguish differing visible colors. Correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between b*value and the expres-sion of speciifc genes. b*value was associated with the relative expression of the PAC-Rev and MAR product by real-time PCR and t-test revealed signiifcant difference. Based on this study, correlation between colorimetric values and real-time PCR was effective to detect gene expression. Yel ow endosperm progenies represent a new genetic pool that might be useful to increase the genetic diversity of yel ow endosperm rice.

  11. Effect of Salt-Stress on Agronomic Traits and Yield of Different Varieties of Sorghum%盐胁迫对不同高粱品种农艺性状和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱元刚; 王乐政; 高凤菊; 曹鹏鹏; 王士岭; 田文铎

    2013-01-01

    Two varieties (JZ123 and LZ11) of sorghum were used as materials to study their tolerance to salt in different concentrations.The result showed that agronomic traits and yield of sorghum were inhibited obvigusly with increasing of salt concentration,and there were extremely significant(P < 0.01) differences between all treatments and control.The agronomic traits and yield of two varieties of sorghum showed:relative survival seedling rate was dropped,the time of emergence was delayed,plant height was shorter,stem diameter was thinner,and 1000-grain weight,grain weight per spike,and yield were decreased,especially,grain weight per spike and yield declined obviously.LZ11 had stronger tolerance than that of JZ123,and could be more suitable for planting in saline-alkali land.%以2个高粱品种吉杂123(JZ123)和龙杂11(LZ11)为材料,设置5个不同盐浓度(0、0.3%、0.4%、0.5%、0.6%)处理,探讨了盐胁迫对不同高粱品种农艺性状和产量形状的影响.试验结果表明:不同浓度盐胁迫下,高粱的农艺性状和产量均受到不同程度抑制,且盐浓度越高,抑制作用越明显,与对照差异均达到极显著(P<0.01),2个品种的农艺性状和产量随盐浓度的升高均表现出以下变化:相对成苗率下降,出苗时间延迟,株高变矮,茎粗变细,千粒重、穗粒重和产量下降,尤其穗粒重和产量的下降幅度最为明显.综合2个高粱品种的性状表现,LZ11的耐盐能力较强于JZ123,更适于盐碱地栽培.

  12. 南通扁豆品种主要农艺性状的主成分与聚类分析%Analysis of Principal Component and Cluster Analysis of Main Agronomic Traits of Nantong Lentils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永; 邱海荣; 章洪娟; 宋益民

    2015-01-01

    Taking 16 cultivars of Nantong lentils 〔Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet〕as experimental material, we analyzed the principal components of 10 major agronomic traits using principal component analysis and cluster analysis to investigate the genetic distance and the main factors affecting yield of lentils.The results showed that under the premise of keeping 84.889 3% of information amount,10 agronomic traits could be simplified as the following 4 principal components:grain type factor,grain weight factorⅠ,pod type factor and grain weight factorⅡ.During the breeding process,the reasonable principal component values should be determined combining with the breeding objectives.The genetic distances between these 16 varieties were 0.886 6-7.775 7, and the average was 4.047 4.These 16 varieties could be divided into 4 classes,pod color and geographical source could not be used as the basis for judging germplasm genetic differences.%以16个南通扁豆品种为试材,采用主成分和聚类分析方法对10个主要农艺性状进行分析,探讨影响扁豆产量的主要因子及品种间的遗传距离。结果表明:在保留84.8893%信息量的前提下,10个农艺性状可简化为粒型因子、粒重因子Ⅰ、荚型因子和粒重因子Ⅱ等4个主成分,在育种过程中需结合育种目标确定合理的主成分值;16个品种间的遗传距离为0.8866~7.7757,平均4.0474;16个品种可分为4类,荚色与地理来源不能作为判断种质间遗传差异的依据。

  13. Business success and psychological traits of housing developers

    OpenAIRE

    Mastura Jaafar; Azlan Raofuddin Nuruddin; Syed Putra Syed Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Although the issues on entrepreneurship in the real estate industry are disparaging and have received little interest from global researchers, the significant roles played by the industry players warrant further investigation. The personal traits of the owners/managers are deemed to be the key factors to the business success of housing development firms. This paper examined the main determinants of successful business in the housing development sector under the lens of psychological traits of...

  14. Research of Agronomic Trait for Winter Wheats%冬小麦种质材料主要农艺性状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新月; 裴磊; 董双全; 卫云宗

    2012-01-01

    Wheat germ plasm resources are very important for breeding program. Genetic diversity study on wheat is beneficial to the collection, management and utilization of wheat genetic resources, and the establishment of core collection. In order to make efficient use of wheat germplasm resources and reduce blindness in combination selection of crosses, this study selected 73 cultivars in China to investigate the traits plant height, the grain number per spike, 1000-grain weight, the number of productive ear and grain yield, and all accessions were made clustering analysis based on these agricultural traits. The results showed that: the coefficient of variation among traits size under rain-fed cultivation: yield > spikes > grains per spike > 1000-grain weight > plant height; Yield components and yield related degree: spikes> grains per spike > 1000-grain weight. The cultivars could be divided into six groups. The character and application in breeding of per group were appreciated. Comprehensive trait of 18th FAWWON-IR-023 and 18th FAWWON-IR-111 and 18th FAWWON-IR-027 and 18th FAWWON-IR-169 are good in fourth group, it may be provide fine gene for breeding wheat variety with resistance drought and high quality and high yield.%小麦种质资源是小麦育种的重要基础,小麦遗传多样性评价不仅有助于种质资源的搜集、管理和利用,也有利于核心种质的研究.为了合理利用小麦种质资源,降低组配小麦杂交组合的盲目性,选取73份国内外种质材料,在旱地条件种植,以株高、穗粒数、千粒重、有效穗数和产量为指标对其进行了聚类分析.结果表明,在雨养条件下各性状的变异系数大小为:产量>有效穗数>穗粒数>千粒重>株高;产量构成因素与产量的相关程度为:有效穗数>穗粒数>千粒重;供试材料可以分为6类,并对各类种质材料的特点及在育种中的应用作了评述.试验中综合表现较好的4个亲本材料为第Ⅵ组的18th

  15. Personality Trait Development and Social Investment in Work

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Nathan W.; Roberts, Brent W.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work—the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one’s job—and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness,...

  16. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  17. 不同辣椒株系自交系主要农艺性状研究%Study on Main Agronomic Traits of Different Hot Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.) Inbred Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晶霞; 颜秀娟; 梁生蕃; 马守才; 王学梅; 崔静英

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose was to investigate and identify the main agronomic traits of 15 pepper inbred lines, and the correlation analysis and principal component analysis were done. [Method] Test materials were 15 inbred lines of pepper, 3 times, 5 plants were surveyed in each plot and then their botanical characters, photosynthetic characteristics and fruit quality were measured. Yield was actual harvest yield of plot, and recorded singly when harvesting. [Result] Petiole length had significant positive correlation with leaf length and leaf width, leaf length had very significant positive correlation with leaf width and the correlation coefficient was about 0.938 00. Fruit stalk length had very significant negative correlation with fruit pulp thickness, and the correlation coefficient reached -0.677 00. In 16 indices, green mature fruit Vc content was very significant positive correlation only with red fruit Vc content, and the correlation coefficient reached 0.907 00. First flower node position had very significant negative correlation with fruit pulp thickness, namely higher first flower node position, smaller green mature fruit pulp thickness, while single fruit weight had very significant positive correlation with fruit pulp thickness. Single fruit weight had very significant positive correlation with fruit pulp thickness, and significant positive correlation with fruit shoulder width. Early yield and reduced yield showed significant positive correlation, and the correlation coefficient reached 0.739 00. At the 5% significance level, single fruit weight of No. 69, fruit length and thickness of No. 56 were most outstanding performance. [Conclusion] The study reveals the relationship among the agronomic trait, between agronomic traits and yield traits, and provides a scientific basis for hot pepper breeding, and lays a theoretical reference for its high yield and good quality cultivation.%[目的]对15个辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)自交系主要农艺性状进

  18. Effects of Different Planting Densities on Agronomic Traits and Yield Components of Hybrid Cotton%种植密度对杂交棉农艺性状及产量构成因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉芳; 李景龙; 杨春安; 郭利双

    2011-01-01

    以湘杂棉8号为材料,2008~2010年在湖南常德研究了不同密度下杂交棉生育期的差异、农艺性状的变化以及对产量构成的影响.结果表明:生育期方面,现蕾前无差异,现蕾后各生育期随着密度的增加而推迟但差异不大;农艺性状变化总体上符合随着密度的增加第一果枝节位、株高增高,而果枝数、果节数和单株成铃数减少的规律;从单位面积产量构成来看,铃数、衣分总体上有随密度增加而降低的趋势,单铃重随着密度的增加而减轻,籽棉和皮棉产量均随着密度的增加而降低.其中1 400株/667m的处理铃数最多、单铃重最重、籽棉和皮棉产量均最高,而800株/667m的处理铃数最少,籽棉和皮棉均最低.天气条件正常的年份1 400株,667m的处理为最佳的密度,但遇到干旱少雨的年份可适当增加密度,但以不超过2 000株/667m为宜.%Taking Xiangzamian No.8 as the material to study the differences of growth period and the variation of some agronomic traits of hybrid cotton and their impacts on yield components under different planting densities in Changde of Hunan from 2008 to 2010.The resulls showed that in growth aspect, there was no difference before squaring stage, and each growth period delayed with increasing planting density after squaring stage but the difference was not big; changes of agronomic traits generally consistent with the law that with increasing planting density, the first fruit with minor bits and plant height increased, but fruit branch number, fruit node number and section number of bolls per plant reduced; from the aspect of yield component per unit area, with increasing planting density, boll number and ginning outturn showed a decreasing trend, single boll weight and yield of seed cotton and lint all decreased.In which, the treatment with planting density of 21000 shoots/hm2 had the most boll number, the highest single boll weight and the highest yield of seed

  19. Effects of Different SIow -ReIease Potassium FertiIizers on Agronomic Traits and QuaIity of FIue -cured tobacco%缓释钾肥对烤烟农艺性状和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永秋; 张卓; 范才银; 刘顺

    2015-01-01

    采用田间试验,研究了不同缓释钾肥对烤烟农艺性状和品质的影响。结果表明:相比普通钾肥,缓释钾肥可以在不同程度上促进烟株的生长发育,但差异不显著。缓释钾肥可以提高烤后烟叶石油醚提取物含量,促进常规化学成分的协调,提高烟叶的钾含量,其中添加生物质炭的缓释钾肥的效果要明显优于添加腐殖酸的缓释钾肥。%A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different slow -release potassium fertilizers on agro-nomic traits and quality of flue -cured tobacco.The results showed that compared to common potassium fertilizer,slow -release potassium fertilizers could promote the growth of flue -cured tobacco,but the difference was not significant.The slow -release potassium fertilizers could heighten the content of petroleum ether extract and promote the coordination of conventional chemical compositions,and improve the content of potassium in tobacco leaves.The effects of slow -release potassium fertilizer which be added biomass charcoal were clearly better than those of slow -release potassium fertilizer which be added humic acid.

  20. Performance of Several Agronomic Traits and Their Correlation Analysis of Flax(Linum usitatissimum)%亚麻几个农艺性状表现及相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建忠; 姜卫东; 赵茜; 关凤芝

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to provide a theoretical basis for the next breeding work of Linum usitatissimum.[Method] 210 high-generation materials in flax germplasm resources were selected randomly and then analyzed their performances and correlation of five agronomic traits,plant height,stem length,branching number,the number of capsule and the fiber rate per plant.[Result] The results showed that the capsule number had the largest range and the coefficient of variation was 25.74%,the five traits all showed unimodal approximately normal distribution.The correlation analysis showed that the capsule number was significant negative correlation with the fiber rate per plant and significantly related to the branching number,plant height and stem length shoued significant correlation.[Conclusion] Some excellent germplasm can be used in a high yield and quality breeding in the high-generation material in flax germplasm resources.%[目的]为亚麻(Linum usitatissimum)下一步的育种工作提供理论基础.[方法]随机挑选210份亚麻高世代材料,分析了5个农艺性状(株高、工艺长、分枝数、蒴果数、单株麻率)的表现特征及其相关性.[结果]蒴果数变幅最大,变异系数为25.74%,5个性状的表现均呈单峰近似正态分布.相关性分析显示,蒴果数和单株麻率呈极显著负相关,与分枝数显著相关,株高和工艺长表现出极显著的相关性.[结论]高世代材料中存在一些优异的品系,通过筛选可以获得高产优质育种材料.

  1. Preliminary Study on the Relationship between Yield and Other Agronomic Traits in Wheat%小麦品种(系)籽粒产量与其他若干性状关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何贤芳; 赵莉; 朱昭进; 汪建来

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The study was aimed to seek the key indices for high-yield and super high-yield breeding of wheat. [ Method ] Ten wheat varieties (or lines), which are suitable for cultivation under Anhui conditions, were chosen as the experimental materials to study the relationships between yield and yield components ( the number of spikes, grain weight, grain number, grain weight, grain number per unit area, pike length, fruit spikelet number, spikelet number of abortive spikelet), biomass, plant height, and the harvest index. [ Results] Coefficient between yield and other traits varied in direction and degree was different. Among the studied agronomic traits, there were significant differences. For most of the varieties (or lines) studied, grain yield was significantly related to biomass and grain weight per spike. For some of the other varieties (or lines), grain yield was significantly related to other parameters. [ Conclusion] Yield parameter itself can be adopted effectively in selecting potential high-yield and super high-yield wheat varieties.%[目的]寻求小麦高产和超高产育种的关键指标.[方法]以安徽省种植的10个小麦品种(系)为试验材料,研究不同品种(系)的产量与产量构成因素(有效穗数、千粒重、穗粒数、穗粒重、单位面积粒数、穗长、结实小穗数、不实小穗数)、生物学产量、株高、收获指数等性状之间的相关性.[结果]产量与其他若干性状在相关方向和程度上均有差异,且其他性状之间相关性及差异显著性均有不同;大多数品种(系)的产量与产量构成因素中的生物学产量及穗粒重显著相关,同时某些品种(系)的产量与其他性状之间显著相关.[结论]以产量作为小麦高产及超高产育种的选择指标之一是有效的.

  2. The Development of the Meta-Affective Trait Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Meta-Affective Trait Scale (MATS) to measure the meta-affective inclinations related to emotions that students have while they are studying for their classes. First, a pilot study was performed with 380 10th-grade students. Results of the exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure of the…

  3. The Key to a Librarian's Success: Developing Entrepreneurial Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftoy, Charles N.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for librarians to develop effective strategic plans and to regard the library operation as a business operation. Explains 12 entrepreneurial traits that are needed for success in librarianship and information services, including passion, enthusiasm, trustworthiness, creativity, persistence, responsibility, flexibility,…

  4. Agronomic traits and chemical composition of single hybrids of sweet corn Caracteres agronômicos e composição química de híbridos simples de milho doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kwiatkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the greengrocery market of sweet corn has been expanding along the country. In contrast, there have been few agri-industries canning sweet corn (Zea mays because of the lack of cultivars with agronomic characteristics proper to industrial purposes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general combining ability (GCA of seven inbred lines of sweet corn, and the specific combining ability (SCA of their hybrid combinations based on their agronomic traits, and the chemical composition of the grain. In the growing season 2006/2007, twenty-one single hybrids were evaluated in the Iguatemi Research Station, Maringá County, Northwestern Paraná, in Brazil using a complete randomized block design with four replications. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance and the genotypes were clustered by the Scott-Knott test. We estimated the GCA and SCA effects using the Griffing's method IV with the fixed model for plant height (PH, height of ear (EH, dehusked ears yield (DEY, reducing (RS and total sugars (TS, starch (ST, proteins (PTN, ether extract (EE and fibers (FB. The inbred line L4, which was originated from the 'Doce de Cuba', had the best GCA for crop yield and grain quality and therefore should be used in the next hybrid combinations. The hybrids L4xL5 and L3xL7 were the most promising with regard to crop yield and grain quality.No Brasil, poucas indústrias envazam o milho doce (Zea mays por causa da falta de cultivares para o processamento industrial. Em compensação, o mercado de milho verde doce aumentou. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC de sete linhagens de milho doce e da capacidade específica de combinação (CEC das combinações híbridas, com base em características agronômicas e composição química dos grãos. Os vinte e um híbridos simples foram avaliados em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, durante o ano agrícola 2006/2007, no distrito de Iguatemi

  5. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna P. Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos

  6. Molecular Markers and Agronomic Traits of a New Kind of Genic Male Sterile Material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus L.%新型甘蓝型油菜核不育材料绵7AB-4-2农艺性状鉴定及分子检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩杰; 汤天泽; 袁代斌; 蒙大庆; 蒲晓斌; 张锦芳; 蒋梁材

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to investigate the agronomic traits and breeding characteristics of genic male sterile material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus. [Method] The differences in agronomic traits and polymorphisms in SSR markers, between the genic male sterile material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus and its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 were investigated by hybridization and molecular identification; and the percentage of sterile individuals of Mian 7AB-4-2 and of the hybrids with its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 from test cross and back cross were also studied. [Result] Mian 7AB-4-2 was not significantly different in agronomic traits from its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 at 0.05 probability level. The percentages of sterile individuals in the pollinated fertile Mian 7AB-4-2 plants were over 60%, and that in its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 was about 25%. In test crosses with other nine sterile lines, Mian 7AB-4-1 kept the percentage of sterile individuals of sterile lines over 90%, and the percentage of sterile individuals from back cross over 80%. With regard to molecular markers, Mian 7AB-4-2 and its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 were different in the band number from SSR primers a2 and E10. [Conclusion] The results indicate that Mian 7AB-4-2 is helpful for rapeseed breeding, quickening the application of new materials in field breeding.

  7. Impact of Cultivation Modes of Puna Chicory on its Agronomic Traits and Yield%不同栽培模式对黔引普那菊苣农艺性状及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志祯; 何胜礼; 黄河斋; 陈克庆; 陈进碧; 高巍

    2012-01-01

    采取撒播、条播、穴播和育苗移栽4种栽培模式种植黔引普那菊苣,观测其生育期、再生速度、产草量.结果表明:黔引普那菊苣在黔南温热地区4种栽培模式上均能很好地完成生育期,不同栽培模式之间生育天数、生长天数以及再生速度差异不显著(P>0.05).4种栽培模式以穴播产量最高,撒播次之,育苗移栽最低,条播、撒播、穴播分别比育苗移栽提高8194、9134和10146kg/hm2,差异显著(P<0.05).建议田间规模种植时采取穴播.%The agronomic traits and yields of puna chicory under four cultivation modes (taking sowing, drilling, dibbling and transplanting seedling )were compared by observing their growth period, regeneration rate and grass yield in warm area of Qian-nan Prefecture. The results showed that the puna chicory completed the reproductive phase of growth well under four cultivation modes, there were no significant differeneesC/MJ.OS) in the fertility day, growth day and regeneration speed of puna chicory un-der the cultivation modes. In the four cultivation modes, the yield in dibble mode was the highest, and the yield in the trans-planting seedling was the lowest. Compared with the transplanting seedling, the yields in drilling mode, sowing mode and dib-bling mode were higher by 8 194 kg/hm2, 9 134 kg/hm2 and 10 146 kg/hm2 respectively. So the dibbling mode was the best for puna chicory plant.

  8. 矮杆大穗高产小麦育种亲本SW3243重要农艺性状特性及育种应用效果%Agronomic Traits and Utilization of Large-Spike and High-Yield Dwarf Wheat Breeding Parent SW3243

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恩年; 李俊; 杨武云; 邹裕春

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to investigate the utilization value of parent material SW3243 in wheat breeding, and its pedigree was 1426/4/IR68 -77/YAA//ALD' S'/3/YAZ//ST2022/983. [ Method] The selection, agronomic traits, some quality - related genetic traits, and the application of 1BL/1 RS translocation line in breeding were analyzed. [ Result] SW3243 had the following characteristics: the SW3243 was high resistant to stripe rust race CYR29 and CYR30, and did not suppress the pedormance of resistant genes; SW3243 showed lots of advantages such as dwart, more spike lets, large spike, high yield potential and early maturity even in late planting; the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) of SW3243 was composed in the form of 1,7 +8, 2 +12, containing 232 bp fragment of PPO allele; Waxy protein subunit was not lost; its grain contains a small amount late maturing α- amylase; SW3243 contained 1 BL/1 RS translocation line, but it was significantly different from the tested translocation lines; a large number of new lines had been developed from SW3243 in Sichuan, among them, 42 derived lines attended provincial and national yield trial respectively, and seven varieties were released in Sichuan Province and three were released in national level; the planting area of SW3243 and its derived varieties were totally extended to 4.33 million hm2 in Sichuan. [ Conclusion] The wheat variety SW3243, which had excellent agronomic traits, was the impodant parent material for wheat breeding in Sichuan. The research will provide reference for the innovation in germplasm resources and high -yield breeding of wheat.%[目的]研究小麦亲本材料SW3243(组合为1426/4/IR68-77/YAA//ALD'S'/3/YAZ//ST2022/983)的育种利用价值.[方法]对SW3243的选育、农艺特性、部分品质相关遗传性状、1BL/1RS易位系及育种的应用情况进行了分析.[结果]SW3243具有如下特点:SW3243高抗条中29、30,对抗性基因不具有抑制作用;具有矮杆、多

  9. Business success and psychological traits of housing developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Jaafar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the issues on entrepreneurship in the real estate industry are disparaging and have received little interest from global researchers, the significant roles played by the industry players warrant further investigation. The personal traits of the owners/managers are deemed to be the key factors to the business success of housing development firms. This paper examined the main determinants of successful business in the housing development sector under the lens of psychological traits of the owners/managers. To identify the success factors of housing development firms, interviews were conducted on 10 housing developers in Peninsular Malaysia. The study shows the significant psychological traits that distinguish the business success of housing developers compared with those in the existing literature. These factors are (1 high confidence and ambition, (2 vision and foresight, (3 industriousness, (4 perseverance and (5 integrity. As housing development is a risky industry, developers can use these findings as a guideline in managing their business toward superior performance.

  10. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Stable across Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Hickey, Martha; Ronald, Angelica

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic traits (AT) are on a continuum in the general population, with clinical autism representing the extreme end of a quantitative distribution. While the nature and severity of symptoms in clinical autism are known to persist over time, no study has examined the long-term stability of AT among typically developing toddlers. The current investigation measured AT in 360 males and 400 males from the general population close to two decades apart, using the...

  11. CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÔMICAS DE CULTIVARES DE SORGO (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench SOB TRÊS DOSES DE NITROGÊNIO AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF SORGHUM CULTIVARS AT THREE LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Queiroz Santos Mello

    2007-09-01

    test was used for comparison of treatment means. The yields of natural matter, with general average 59.31 t.ha-1, were significantly different among sorghum cultivars; but there was no difference caused by nitrogen levels in this trait. The dry matter yield mean (15.17 t.ha-1 did not differ among cultivars or nitrogen levels. As opposed, dry matter and panicle and stalk contents in the natural matter were different among cultivars as well as among N levels. The plant height (with general average 2.39 m and stalk dry matter means were different only among cultivars. BR 700 and CMSXS 762 cultivars showed the best panicle/stalk/leaf ratio and the largest panicle percentage. Increased amounts of nitrogen resulted in increased panicle and decreased stalk percentage.

    KEY-WORDS: Sorghum; nitrogen fertilization; agronomic valuation.

  12. Options for development of transgenic pigs with enhanced performance traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Traditional breeding practices have yielded a slow but steady genetic improvement of domestic animals. Unfortunately, these practices often do not enable the separation of desirable production traits from undesirable traits, and furthermore, do not enable the transfer of advantageous genetic traits from one species to another. Transgenic methodologies surmount these barriers, and transgenic pigs have been developed that have a variety of novel enhanced performance traits, the capability to serve as factories for the production of pharmaceuticals, and soon may provide a reliable supply of organs for xenotransplantation. This presentation will focus primarily on the expression of novel performance traits, since they have the potential to provide the greatest benefit to farmers in countries with a less well developed agricultural infrastructure. The first hurdle in the development of animals with novel production characteristics is the availability of reliable methods for the production of transgenic animals. This requires the combination of a suitable transgenic technique and an appropriate genetic construct. Classic pronuclear microinjection, the original method for producing transgenic animals may soon be surpassed by the more convenient sperm-mediated transgenesis, use of a retroviral vector system, or by techniques involving nuclear transfer. Despite the complexity involved in generating transgenic animals, a variety of interesting performance enhancing genes have been introduced into pigs. These include porcine growth hormone and IGF1 to enhance growth characteristics and carcass quality, α-lactalbumin to enhance the growth of nursing piglets, plant oleate desaturase (http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99991841) to increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in tissues, and phytase to enhance plant phosphorus utilization. No information is available on the performance or meat quality characteristics of pigs expressing the

  13. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  14. 叶用莴苣种质资源的主要农艺性状鉴定与耐热性评价%Evaluation of Major Agronomic Traits and Heat Tolerance of Lettuce Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青君; 韩莹琰; 谷建田; 范双喜

    2011-01-01

    In 2 environment conditions of open field and greenhouse, in spring and summer 2 cultivation seasons, the agronomic traits of 110 accessions of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ) germplasm were investigated. At the same time, the heat tolerance was evaluated by the center column length, number of bolting days and the index of heat injury. The results showed that the leaves traits of no-heading lettuce tip, leaf shape, leaf color, plant height, petiole length, stem thickness, plant weight and fresh-cut vegetables weight all varied greatly, showing that the no-heading lettuce bears great potential in germplasm variation and innovation ability. Heading lettuce varieties have a higher similarity. Only in the petiole thick, rosette leaves, fresh-cut vegetables weight ( head weight), there is a big variation. In early summer, the no-heading lettuce bolts 12-36 days earlier than the spring, and the heading lettuce bolts18-38 days earlier. In greenhouse under strong high temperature stress, the no-heading lettuce bolts further ahead of schedule, and 82% of them holt within 10 days, showing sensitivity to high temperature. Some heading lettuce varieties die of heat injury. The heat injury index can accurately reflect the heat tolerance between varieties of heading lettuce. The number of bolting days, center column length and single plant weight, head weight, leaf /shape ratio, etc. Show remarkable correlation. They are also important indicators to evaluate the heat tolerance of lettuce. In spring greenhouse cultivation, the heat tolerance of lettuce germplasm resources are preferably evaluated by heat injury index and the number of bolting days.%在露地和大棚两种环境、春季和初夏两种栽培季节下,对110份叶用莴苣种质资源的农艺性状进行了调查,同时以中心柱长、抽薹天数和热害指数3个指标综合评价叶用莴苣种质资源的田间耐热性.结果表明:散叶莴苣叶尖形状、叶形、叶色、株高、叶柄长、叶柄厚

  15. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  16. Mid-low Castor Agronomic Traits under Different Density Level and the Oil Content of the Correlation and Path Analysis%不同密度水平下矮秆蓖麻各农艺性状与含油量的相关及通径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娟霞; 朱国立; 衣海会; 何智彪; 莫德乐吐; 张智勇; 乔文杰

    2013-01-01

    对5个不同种植密度处理下2个矮秆蓖麻品种含油量与个农艺性状态进行相关及通径分析。总结出不同密度水平下,影响矮秆蓖麻含油量的主要农艺性状,并提出提高密植矮秆蓖麻的含油量,一定要主攻容重,在增加容重的基础上增加株穗数,并选择适中的株高、茎粗及主穗与一级分枝夹角。%through the analysis of 5 different planting densities of 2 dwarf castor varieties of oil content and agronomic state correlation and path ,it could be summarized that the main agronomic traits of dwarf castor oil content in different density level, and be put forward improving oil content close planting dwarf castor-oil plant,and the bulk density must be the main part, increasing on the number of spike per plant based on increased bulk density, and choose the moderate plant height, stem diameter and main spike and a branch angle.

  17. EVALUATION OF AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC AND EXOTIC SOYBEAN GERMPLASM IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The collaboration and interchange of breeding materials between breeding programs worldwide is important and necessary to increase the amount of genetic diversity by incorporating unique exotic germplasm into existing domestic germplasm. The objective of this study was to measure and compare the agronomic performance of 15 soybean cultivars released by the Agricultural Institute Osijek (Croatia (OS-cultivars and 15 cultivars released by the University of Guelph (Canada (CA-cultivars in Croatia. Based on the comparison, parental combinations could be designed to introgress exotic germplasms from the CA-cultivars into Croatian. Agronomic performance was determined in field trials that were conducted at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during the period from 2002 to 2005. Quantitative traits were measured and analyzed for maturity, grain yield components, level and stability of grain yield, adaptability, lodging resistance and field tolerance to Peronospora manshurica. The results indicated higher agronomic performance of OS-cultivars compared to CA- cultivars. However, comparison of yield is only tentative because all but one OS cultivar were later maturing than the CA-cultivars. Among 15 tested CA-cultivars, five cultivars (OAC Millennium, OAC Champion, OAC Bayfield, OAC Auburn, OAC Wallace were identified as the most favorable for parental combinations in hybridization with OS-cultivars. The results of this study will enable strategic incorporation of diversity from exotic Canadian germplasm into the domestic Croatian germplasm to develop segregating populations from which new, genetically more diverse improved soybeanline, could be released.

  18. SOVIET POSTERS IN PROMOTING AGRONOMIC KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to combine professional agronomic knowledge with familiarity with graphic art presented in the form of a poster in the paper. The term "poster" is considered a large loose-leaf edition, combines visual and typographic elements and execute graphic communications. The main idea of the poster is to convey the information to the reader quickly and accurately. In the study of the material we have formed complex scientific and educational resources on the history of agricultural science, including the history of the popularization of agronomic knowledge. In our work, the poster is treated as an object of analysis, as the material of social and cultural analysis and as a tool to gather information on the development of agronomic knowledge through their visualization. In the course "History and methodology of scientific agronomy" one of the competencies of students is familiarity with the methodology popularization of agronomic knowledge, understanding of what is happening. In this regard, an attempt was made to consider the Soviet poster as a source of information on the development of scientific agriculture in the period from 1917 to 1980. The aim was to analyze the main events of this period, elements of the technology of agricultural production, species and varietal diversity of crops, as well as various events in the agricultural sector. The article considers four basic types of posters: promotional, political, instructional, scientific and educational. Each of these types of posters performs its function. The poster covered all stages of agrarian sector of the country, was a historical reflection of the Soviet period and always remained mobile, online and popular art form. Today, his role is small, because it has changed the ways of presenting information. However, its historical role unchanged, he has served as the Foundation of the modern advertising industry, including agronomic knowledge

  19. PLANT DENSITY AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF MAIZE HYBRIDS IN NARROW ROW SPACING DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS E CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÔMICAS DE HÍBRIDOS DE MILHO SOB ESPAÇAMENTO REDUZIDO ENTRE LINHAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Morais Guimarães

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of maize hybrids cultivated under different population densities in narrow row spacing (0.45 m. Two field experiments were installed to evaluate six commercial hybrids (A 2555, A 2288, AG 9010, AG 6690, P 30F88 and Valent grown in five plant densities (40,000; 53,000; 71,000; 84,000; and 97,000 plants per hectare, in Goiânia and Jataí, Goiás State, during the growing season of 2002/2003. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks, arranged in a 6x5 factorial design with four replicates. In the Goiânia experiment, the treatments were carried out using a split plot design. In the experiment of Goiânia, the treatments were carried out using a split plot design. The means of ear insertion, plant height, stalk lodging, ear length, ear diameter, corncob diameter, kernels per ear, weight of 100 kernels and grain yield was significantly influenced by plant density in both experiments. Grain yield was increased for plant densities higher than 70,000 plants per hectare, indicating that the use of narrow row spacing associated to the presence of shorter plant stature hybrids, favors enhancements in plant density. The grain yield was significantly affected by the interaction between hybrid and plant density in both fields. This indicates that, depending of the hybrid, the reduction of row spacing to 0.45 m is a managing practice that allows an increment in the sowing density.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; cultivar; plant arrangement; agronomic trait; grain yield.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de híbridos de milho (A 2555, A 2288, AG 9010, AG 6690, P 30F88 e Valent, cultivados em diferentes densidades populacionais (40 mil, 53 mil, 71 mil, 84 mil e 97 mil plantas por hectare e sob espaçamento reduzido

  20. 重组自交系群体对大豆胞囊线虫3号生理小种抗性与主要农艺性状的相关分析%Correlation between Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode Race No.3 and Major Agronomic Traits of Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海波; 韩英鹏; 滕卫丽; 常玮; 李文滨

    2012-01-01

    A total of 164 F6 and F7 recombinant inbred lines( RILs) ,derived from ' Suinong 10' × ' L-10' ,was used to study relationship between resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode race No. 3 and main agronomic traits. Magenta staining identification method was used to analyze SCN female index(FI)in the RIL population. Relationship between FI and main agronomic trait was analyzed through Software SPSS 10. 0. The results showed that FI was significantly correlated with growth duration and main stem nodes per plant, and negatively correlated with plant height, branch number, pods per plant, seeds and 100-seed weight. Moreover,FI had no correlation with hilum color, grain shape and pubescence color, while significantly related with nodules.%2009和2010年以绥农10与L-10杂交衍生的164个株系组成的F6和F7重组自交系群体为试验材料,利用品红染色法对大豆胞囊线虫抗性进行了鉴定.并分析了大豆胞囊线虫病3号生理小种抗病性与主要农艺性状之间的相关性,结果表明:大豆胞囊线虫病3号生理小种抗病性与生育期、节数呈显著负相关,与株高、分枝数、单株荚数、粒数、百粒重呈负相关;与种脐颜色、粒形、茸毛色无明显的相关性,与根瘤呈极显著相关.

  1. 1978-2007年河南省棉花品种遗传改良成效研究Ⅲ.抗枯、黄萎病及农艺性状的改良%The Research of Genetic Improvement Effectiveness on Cotton Varieties of Henan Province from 1978 to 2007 Ⅲ. Improvement of Disease Resistance and Agronomic Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐中杰; 李武; 谢德意

    2011-01-01

    By comprehensive analysis of the data of region trials on 87 cotton varities authorized by Henan province from 1978 to 2007(the latest three decades) , the paper researches on effectiveness about helminthosporium turcicum,verticillium wilt and agronomic traits for cotton. It shows that,slow progress toward improvement of cultivars resistant to verticillium wilt, but effectiveness on helminthosporium turcicum is good in latest three decades. Verticillium wilt and Helminthosporium turcicum still harm production of cotton,they increased as 0. 967 9 and 0. 248 0 as per year respectively. The effectiveness of agronomic traits is significant, increasing potential of cotton single plant production is improved greatly, the increasment of cotton bolls per plant (0. 383 1), boll weight (0. 045 5 g) and fruit branch quantity (0. 071 9) etc. Traits, which closely related to productivity reached highly significant level. The influence of traits on lint cotton yield as below: cotton bolls per plant > fruit branch quantity > proportion of mature bolls before frost > ginning outturn > plant height > boll weight.%以1978-2007年河南省审定的87个棉花品种的区域试验资料为材料,研究了河南省棉花品种在抗枯萎病、黄萎病和农艺性状方面遗传改良的成效.结果表明,棉花抗枯萎病改良成效相对较好,抗黄萎病改良进展缓慢,枯萎病、黄萎病病指分别以每年0.2480和0.9679的速度增加,分别达显著、极显著水平,这2种病害对棉花生产危害依然严重;农艺性状遗传改良成效显著,棉花个体增产潜力明显提高,株铃数、铃质量和果枝数等与丰产性密切相关的指标分别为0.3831个、0.0455 g、0.0719台.年均增加量达极显著水平,各性状对皮棉产量的影响力顺序为:株铃数>果枝数>霜前花率>衣分>株高>铃质量.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for High-Throughput Phenotyping and Agronomic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J Alex; Murray, Seth C; Pugh, N Ace; Rooney, William L; Shafian, Sanaz; Rajan, Nithya; Rouze, Gregory; Morgan, Cristine L S; Neely, Haly L; Rana, Aman; Bagavathiannan, Muthu V; Henrickson, James; Bowden, Ezekiel; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff; Bishop, Michael P; Sheridan, Ryan; Putman, Eric B; Popescu, Sorin; Burks, Travis; Cope, Dale; Ibrahim, Amir; McCutchen, Billy F; Baltensperger, David D; Avant, Robert V; Vidrine, Misty; Yang, Chenghai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants. Faster phenotypic trait data collection and analysis relative to genetic data leads to faster and better selections in crop improvement. Furthermore, faster and higher-resolution crop data collection leads to greater capability for scientists and growers to improve precision-agriculture practices on increasingly larger farms; e.g., site-specific application of water and nutrients. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have recently gained traction as agricultural data collection systems. Using UAVs for agricultural remote sensing is an innovative technology that differs from traditional remote sensing in more ways than strictly higher-resolution images; it provides many new and unique possibilities, as well as new and unique challenges. Herein we report on processes and lessons learned from year 1-the summer 2015 and winter 2016 growing seasons-of a large multidisciplinary project evaluating UAV images across a range of breeding and agronomic research trials on a large research farm. Included are team and project planning, UAV and sensor selection and integration, and data collection and analysis workflow. The study involved many crops and both breeding plots and agronomic fields. The project's goal was to develop methods for UAVs to collect high-quality, high-volume crop data with fast turnaround time to field scientists. The project included five teams: Administration, Flight Operations, Sensors, Data Management, and Field Research. Four case studies involving multiple crops in breeding and agronomic applications add practical descriptive detail. Lessons learned include critical information on sensors, air vehicles, and configuration parameters for both. As the first and

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for High-Throughput Phenotyping and Agronomic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Murray, Seth C.; Pugh, N. Ace; Rooney, William L.; Shafian, Sanaz; Rajan, Nithya; Rouze, Gregory; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Neely, Haly L.; Rana, Aman; Bagavathiannan, Muthu V.; Henrickson, James; Bowden, Ezekiel; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff; Bishop, Michael P.; Sheridan, Ryan; Putman, Eric B.; Popescu, Sorin; Burks, Travis; Cope, Dale; Ibrahim, Amir; McCutchen, Billy F.; Baltensperger, David D.; Avant, Robert V.; Vidrine, Misty; Yang, Chenghai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants. Faster phenotypic trait data collection and analysis relative to genetic data leads to faster and better selections in crop improvement. Furthermore, faster and higher-resolution crop data collection leads to greater capability for scientists and growers to improve precision-agriculture practices on increasingly larger farms; e.g., site-specific application of water and nutrients. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have recently gained traction as agricultural data collection systems. Using UAVs for agricultural remote sensing is an innovative technology that differs from traditional remote sensing in more ways than strictly higher-resolution images; it provides many new and unique possibilities, as well as new and unique challenges. Herein we report on processes and lessons learned from year 1—the summer 2015 and winter 2016 growing seasons–of a large multidisciplinary project evaluating UAV images across a range of breeding and agronomic research trials on a large research farm. Included are team and project planning, UAV and sensor selection and integration, and data collection and analysis workflow. The study involved many crops and both breeding plots and agronomic fields. The project’s goal was to develop methods for UAVs to collect high-quality, high-volume crop data with fast turnaround time to field scientists. The project included five teams: Administration, Flight Operations, Sensors, Data Management, and Field Research. Four case studies involving multiple crops in breeding and agronomic applications add practical descriptive detail. Lessons learned include critical information on sensors, air vehicles, and configuration parameters for both. As the first

  4. 小麦易位系1BL/1RS×7DL.7Ag的F2分子检测及其农艺和品质性状分析%F2 Molecular Detection and the Agronomic and Quality Traits of Chromosome Translocations 1BL/1RS× 7DL.7Ag in Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳彬; 胡阳杰; 王宇娟; 宋全昊; 田芳慧; 李法计; 孙道杰

    2012-01-01

    The 1BL/1RS translocation and 7DL. 7Ag translocation have been widely used by wheat breeders to enhance agronomic performance and disease resistance. In the past decades,the introduction and application of 1BL/1RS translocation significantly increased yield potentials and adaptability in China;now it still plays an important role in wheat breeding and production. Currently,the positive effects of 7DL. 7Ag translocation in terms of increasing the yield have caused attention of wheat breeders over the world. The objective of this study was to analysis the effects of 1BL/1RS and 7DL. 7Ag chromosome translocations on the main agronomic,yield and quality traits in wheat. A total of 900 F2 population and F2:3 family derived from the cross 'Yunong 982'(1BL/1RS translocation)/wheatear(7DL. 7Ag translocation) were planted in Yan-gling of Shaanxi Province during 2009-2011. This study identified the chromosome translocation types of F2 population using SSR and STS. In addition,a total of 15 traits of the two parents,F2 population and F2:3 family, such as plant height, spike length, grain number per spike, thousand-grain weight, grain weight per spike and days from emerge to maturity,were investigated (this study took the agronomic traits of F2 population as a reference, the main agronomic traits of F2:3 family were this study's key point). The F-test and multiple comparisons of the agronomic traits of no-translocation lines,homozygous 1BL/1RS translocation lines,homozygous 7DL. 7Ag translocation lines and Double Translocation Lines (1BL/1RS, 7DL. 7Ag) in F2:3 family were done using the SAS8. 2 System. At the same time, the effects of 1BL/1RS translocation and 7DL. 7Ag translocation on wheat quality were tested. The results showed that;STS Lrl9130 maker and Xgwm428 marker were identified,which could effectively distinguish the heterozygous 7DL. 7Ag translocation from homozygous 7DL. 7Ag translocation when they were used together. In terms of agronomic traits and yield traits

  5. Agronomic Evaluation and Genetic Characterization of Different Accessions in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bacchi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentil is an important winter-sown legume for semi-arid and temperate areas, food consumption of seed is considerable in several countries of Mediterranean Basin. In Central and Southern Italy different lentil landraces are cultivated within specific marginal areas and commercialized with a recognizable geographical indication of origin. Considering the extensive germplasm and the economic importance of lentil in several rural areas, detailed knowledge of existing genetic variation from different regions is the first important step both for conservation and exploitation of genetic resources, allowing to develop breeding programs. In field experiments over three cropping seasons (2002-2005, 25 lentil accessions from Plant Genetic Institute of National Research Council (Bari, representing part of a large germplasm collection from different areas, were carried out at the University of Reggio Calabria in order to characterize the agronomic performances in a semi-arid environment and to study genetic variability. For this purpose, 10 AFLP primer combinations and 6 SSR markers were used. The agronomic results highlighted the influence of different climatic conditions on phenological, biometrical and yielding traits. A considerable production level of lentil (2,55 t ha-1 and a low yield variability in the three years was observed, showing the high adaptability of the germplasm tested to semi-arid environment. The earliness and the plant height appeared as the most important traits negatively correlated to grain yield; in particular the earliness was confirmed as suitable mechanism of escape from abiotic stress. Genetic characterization showed that a few number of microsatellites and primer combinations are able to provide significant insights on genetic diversity combining the 25 accessions in 3 large clusters that mainly mirror their geographic origin. Principal Component Analysis that consider genetic as well as morphological and agronomic data

  6. Development of a Geo-Referenced Database for Weed Mapping and Analysis of Agronomic Factors Affecting Herbicide Resistance in Apera spica-venti L. Beauv. (Silky Windgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Massa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluate the role of agronomic factors in the selection for herbicide resistance in Apera spica-venti L. Beauv. (silky windgrass. During a period of three years, populations were collected in more than 250 conventional fields across Europe and tested for resistance in the greenhouse. After recording the field history of locations, a geo-referenced database has been developed to map the distribution of herbicide-resistant A. spica-venti populations in Europe. A Logistic Regression Model was used to assess whether and to what extent agricultural and biological factors (crop rotation, soil tillage, sowing date, soil texture and weed density affect the probability of resistance selection apart from the selection pressure due to herbicide application. Our results revealed that rotation management and soil tillage are the factors that have the greatest influence on the model. In addition, first order interactions between these two variables were highly significant. Under conventional tillage, a percentage of winter crops in the rotation exceeding 75% resulted in a 1280-times higher risk of resistance selection compared to rotations with less than 50% of winter crops. Under conservation tillage, the adoption of >75% of winter crops increased the risk of resistance 13-times compared to rotations with less than 50% of winter crops. Finally, early sowing and high weed density significantly increased the risk of resistance compared to the reference categories (later sowing and low weed density, respectively. Soil texture had no significant influence. The developed model can find application in management programs aimed at preventing the evolution and spread of herbicide resistance in weed populations.

  7. Agronomic Importance of First Development of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Under Semi-arid Conditions: II. Seed Imbibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oksel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., it could not combated with weeds and easiliy caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass Labr. disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical compounds such as Humic Acid (HA known soil regulator under the semi-arid conditions. With this aim this research was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications under semi-arid field conditions during (2008/2009 and (2009/2010 in Turkiye. Two cultivars (V1 = Gokce and V2 = Ispanyol and four seed imbibition methods (A0 = 0, A1 = Tap Water, A2 = ½ Tap Water + ½ Humic acid (HA, A3 = Full HA, as w/w and seven yield components Plant Height (PH, Number of Branches per Plant (NBP, Number of Pods per Plant (NPP, First Pod Height (NFP, Number of Seeds per Pod (NSP, Seed Weight per Plant (SWP and 100-Seed weight (HSW were investigated. The PH and FPH were affected the A0, the NBP, NPP and NSP were affected the A2 and the SWP and HSW were given the varied but not clear responses according to varieties for all the parameters in A1. The A0 and A1 were encouraged the germination and top soil of the plant but, the A2 to A3 were encouraged root system’s development. It was concluded that the A2 is a promising method which makes the maximum and positive effect to the first development of the chickpea agronomy under the semi-arid conditions.

  8. Agronomic importance of first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under semi-arid conditions: II. Seed imbibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukan, H; Bayraktar, N; Oksel, A; Gursoy, M; Kocak, N

    2012-02-15

    Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), it could not combated with weeds and easily caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical compounds such as Humic Acid (HA) known soil regulator under the semi-arid conditions. With this aim this research was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications under semi-arid field conditions during (2008/2009) and (2009/2010) in Turkiye. Two cultivars (V1 = Gokce and V2 = Ispanyol) and four seed imbibition methods (A0 = 0, A1 = Tap Water, A2 = 1/2 Tap Water + 1/2 Humic acid (HA), A3 = Full HA, as w/w) and seven yield components Plant Height (PH), Number of Branches per Plant (NBP), Number of Pods per Plant (NPP), First Pod Height (NFP), Number of Seeds per Pod (NSP), Seed Weight per Plant (SWP) and 100-Seed weight (HSW) were investigated. The PH and FPH were affected the A0, the NBP, NPP and NSP were affected the A2 and the SWP and HSW were given the varied but not clear responses according to varieties for all the parameters in A1. The A0 and A1 were encouraged the germination and top soil of the plant but, the A2 to A3 were encouraged root system's development. It was concluded that the A2 is a promising method which makes the maximum and positive effect to the first development of the chickpea agronomy under the semi-arid conditions. PMID:22816177

  9. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna P. Cruz; Luciana M. Chedier; Rodrigo L. Fabri; Daniel S. Pimenta

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range...

  10. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Antony Ceasar, S.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Vinod, K. K.; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  11. Psychosocial Development and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how psychosocial development and personality traits are related. In particular, the study investigates the predictive power of the successful resolution of the Eriksonian psychosocial crises for the Big Five personality traits beyond age and gender. Four hundred university students in mainland China responded to the Measures of…

  12. [Development of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale for late adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Sera

    2016-02-01

    This study developed a scale to measure the respect-related emotional traits (the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale) for late adolescence and examined the reliability and validity. In study 1,368 university students completed the items of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale and other scales of theoretically important personality constructs including adult attachment style, the "Big Five," self-esteem, and two types of narcissistic personality. Factor analysis indicated that there are three factors of trait respect-related emotions: (a) trait (prototypical) respect; (b) trait idolatry (worship and adoration); and (c) trait awe. The three traits associated differentially with the daily experience (frequency) of the five basic respect-related emotions (prototypical respect, idolatry, awe, admiration, and wonder), and other constructs. In Study 2, a test-retest correlation of the new scale with 60 university students indicated good reliability. Both studies generally supported the reliability and validity of the new scale. These findings suggest that, at Ieast in late adolescence, there are large individual differences in respect-related emotion experiences and the trait of respect should be considered as multi-dimensional structure. PMID:26964371

  13. Temperature-dependent development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Haque, Md. Ahsanul; Nachman, Gösta;

    2012-01-01

    Development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated on kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., at eleven constant temperatures. Tetranychus macfarlanei was able to develop and complete its life cycle at temperatures ranging from 17...

  14. 川麦42的1BS染色体臂对小麦主要农艺性状的遗传效应%Genetic Effects of 1BS Chromosome Arm on the Main Agronomic Traits in Chuanmai 42

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 魏会廷; 杨粟洁; 李朝苏; 汤永禄; 胡晓蓉; 杨武云

    2009-01-01

    川麦42的1BS染色体臂来源于人工合成小麦亲本Syn769.利用川麦42与含1BL/1RS易位系的四川小麦品种川农16构建的127个重组自交系(RIL,F_8),经3年4个环境的遗传评价,比较了川麦42的1BS和川农16的1RS染色体臂对小麦产量构成因子和产量的遗传效应.结果表明,RIL群体中川麦42的1BS染色体臂株系和川农16的1RS染色体臂株系在分蘖力、成穗率、全生育期、小穗数、收获指数和籽粒产量6个性状上存在显著差异;1BS染色体臂有利于提高成穗率和收获指数,而1RS染色体臂有利于提高分蘖能力和增加小穗数,1BS株系的籽粒平均产量比1RS株系增加2.91%.鉴于1RS染色体臂上的抗条锈病基因丧失抗性,其携带的黑麦碱基因对加工品质有明显的负向作用,而川麦42的1BS染色体臂携带高抗条锈病基因YrCH42,并对小麦籽粒产量有正向作用,因此建议在小麦遗传改良中利用川麦42的1BS替换1RS染色体臂.%Chuanmai 42 (Syn769/Sw3243//Chuan6415) is a non-1BL/1RS wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar with high-yield potential and good resistance to strip rust (Puccinia striiformis f. Sp. Tritici), which has been developed from an elite synthetic hexaploid wheat Syn769 (Decoy 1/Aegilops tauschii 188, 1BS/1BL). The 1BS chromosome arm of Chuanmai 42 is originated from Syn769 and carries a stripe rust resistance gene YrCH42. In purpose of understanding the genetic effects of 1BS and 1RS chromosome arm on yield-related traits in wheat, 127 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F_8) derived from Chuanmai 42 and Chuan-nong 16 (1BL/1RS translocation cultivar) were evaluated in three years across four environments in Sichuan province from 2005 to 2008. A total of 16 traits of the two parents (Chuanmai 42 and Chuannong 16) and the RIL population, such as spike number, grain number per spike, thousand-grain weight, and grain yield, were investigated. 1BS chromosome arm lines derived from Chuanmai 42 and 1RS

  15. 小麦1BL/1RS和7DL·7Ag易位对小麦主要农艺性状的遗传效应%Genetic Effects of Chromosome Translocations 1BL/1RS and 7DL · 7Ag on the Main Agronomic Traits of Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡阳杰; 田芳慧; 宋全昊; 李法计; 孙道杰

    2012-01-01

    为了解染色体易位对小麦农艺性状的影响,以豫农982(1BL/1RS易位系)和wheatear(7DL.7Ag易位系)杂交后代的900个F2群体及其F2∶3家系为实验材料,对F2群体进行1BL/1RS易位和7DL.7Ag易位类型的分子检测,并对F2群体及F2∶3家系的主要农艺性状进行田间调查(F2群体的农艺性状仅作参考,重点分析F2∶3家系的农艺性状)。结果表明,(1)STS标记Lr19130与SSR引物Xgwm428联合使用可作为共显性标记鉴定纯合与杂合的7DL.7Ag易位,完善了7DL.7Ag易位的分子检测方法;(2)1BL/1RS易位可显著降低株高,提高穗粒数与小穗数;(3)7DL.7Ag易位在籽粒千粒重和饱满度上有显著的正向作用,但7DL.7Ag易位的穗粒数显著低于非7DL.7Ag易位,且有延迟小麦成熟和增加株高的趋势;(4)1BL/1RS和7DL.7Ag双重易位可同时提升小穗数和千粒重,但穗粒数减少。%The 1BL/1RS translocation and 7DL ·7Ag translocation have been widely used by wheat breeders to enhance agronomic performance and disease resistance. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic effects of 1BL/1RS and 7DL ·7Ag chromosome translocations on the main agro- nomic traits of wheat. A total of 900 F2 population and F2.3 family derived from the cross Yunong 982 (1BL/1RS translocation) / wheatear (TDL · 7Ag translocation) were planted in Yangling of Shaanxi Province during 2009--2011. The chromosome translocation types of F2 population were identified u- sing SSR and STS. In addition, a total of 15 traits of the two parents, F2 population and F2. a family, such as plant height, spike length, grain number per spike, thousand-grain weight, grain weight per spike and days from emergeto maturity, were investigated (this study took the agronomic traits of F2 population as a reference, the main agronomic traits of F2.3 family were the key point of this study). The F-test and multiple comparisons of the agronomic traits of no

  16. 整合农艺性状和分子标记数据构建新疆野苹果核心种质%Combining Agronomic Traits and Molecular Marker Data for Constructing Malus sieversii Core Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘遵春; 刘大亮; 崔美; 李敏; 焦其庆; 高利平; 陈学森

    2012-01-01

    以新疆野苹果[Malussieversii(Ledeb.)Roem.]60份初级核心种质为试材,采用不同遗传距离构建新疆野苹果核心种质,利用数量性状参数均值差异百分率(MD)、方差差异百分率(VD)、极差符合率(CR)、变异系数变化率(VR)和分子标记参数多态位点百分率(p)、平均有效等位基因数(MNe)、平均多态信息含量(MPIC)和平均Shannon’S信息指数(M1)等8个指标评价不同方法构建核心种质的优劣,用选出的合适方法构建新疆野苹果核心种质。研究结果表明:利用混合遗传距离(Dmix)构建的核心种质整合了两类不同数据,优于单独使用农艺性状表型值数据或分子标记数据构建的核心种质,其VD为50%,CR为96.56%,VR为117.98%,P为97.67%,MNe为97.15%,MPIC为101.88%,%为100.44%;利用15个农艺性状检测表明,所构建的42份新疆野苹果核心种质保留了300份原始种质93%以上的农艺性状,很好地代表了原始种质的遗传多样性。%To construct Malus sieversii (Ledeb.)Roem. core collection, based on 15 agrinomic traits data and molecular maker from M. sieversii primary core collection, a serials of subsets were sampled at 50% proportion by different genetic distances, respectively. The genetic variation among collections was compared by evaluating the MD (mean difference percentage), VD (variance difference percentage), CR ( coincidence rate of range), VR ( changeable rate of coefficient of variation) of agrinomic traits and the p (percentage of polymorphic loci), M~ (average effective number of alleles), Mt (average Shannon's information index) and Melc (average polymorphism information content) of molecular marker information. The results showed that the core collection constructed on the basis of a combinationof data for agrinomic traits and molecular marker data is more

  17. Effects of Successive Selfing on Agronomic Traits of Brassica napus L.%连续自交对甘蓝型油菜主要农艺性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚宏; 孙万仓; 雷建明; 武军艳; 张建学

    2012-01-01

      In this experiment, four Brassica napus L. lines as the test materials, the changes of major economic traits were studied after four years selfing, and the impact on Brassica napus L. by selfing were discussed . The results showed that selfing had significant impacts on the main economic characters of Brassica napus L. Plant height, branch height, effective branch, pods in the main inflorescence, pods of whole-plant and yield per plant were reduced as self-generations increased . The correlation coefficient between the major economic traits and selfing is from -0.979 to 0.289, and selfing with plant height, branch height, the number of pods of whole-plant, yield and other traits was a significant negative correlation, while the impact on seeds per pods and 1 000-seed-weight was smaller .%  研究了4个甘蓝型油菜品系连续自交四代主要经济性状的变化.结果表明,自交对甘蓝型油菜主要经济性状有显著影响,株高、分枝部位、有效分枝数、主花序有效结角数、单株角果数及单株产量均随着自交世代的增加而减小.自交与主要经济性状之间的相关系数在-0.979~0.289之间变化,株高、分枝部位、单株角果数、单株产量等与自交世代数呈显著负相关,而千粒重和角果粒数受到的影响较小

  18. Fine-tuning tomato agronomic properties by computational genome redesign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carrera

    Full Text Available Considering cells as biofactories, we aimed to optimize its internal processes by using the same engineering principles that large industries are implementing nowadays: lean manufacturing. We have applied reverse engineering computational methods to transcriptomic, metabolomic and phenomic data obtained from a collection of tomato recombinant inbreed lines to formulate a kinetic and constraint-based model that efficiently describes the cellular metabolism from expression of a minimal core of genes. Based on predicted metabolic profiles, a close association with agronomic and organoleptic properties of the ripe fruit was revealed with high statistical confidence. Inspired in a synthetic biology approach, the model was used for exploring the landscape of all possible local transcriptional changes with the aim of engineering tomato fruits with fine-tuned biotechnological properties. The method was validated by the ability of the proposed genomes, engineered for modified desired agronomic traits, to recapitulate experimental correlations between associated metabolites.

  19. Personality trait development in midlife: exploring the impact of psychological turning points

    OpenAIRE

    Allemand, Mathias; Gomez, V.; Jackson, J J

    2010-01-01

    This study examined long-term personality trait development in midlife and explored the impact of psychological turning points on personality change. Selfdefined psychological turning points reflect major changes in the ways people think or feel about an important part of their life, such as work, family, and beliefs about themselves and about the world. This study used longitudinal data from the Midlife in the US survey to examine personality trait development in adults aged 40–60 years. The...

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality’s Constant Individual Traits Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Wilsz Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality’s constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of occupational development theories have been confronted with constant individual traits of personality.

  1. Características produtivas, agronômicas e nutricionais do capim-tanzânia em cinco diferentes idades ao corte Productivity, agronomical and nutritional traits of Tanzânia grass cut on five different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H.F. Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv Tanzânia cortado aos 42, 63, 84, 107 e 126 dias quanto à produtividade, às características agronômicas, à composição bromatológica e à digestibilidade in vitro. Observou-se aumento na altura da planta do capim-tanzânia até os 84 dias, com aumento da produção de massa verde de forragem e aumento na produção de matéria seca com o avançar da idade ao corte. O aumento da idade ao corte resultou em diminuição do percentual de folhas e em aumento no percentual de hastes. Na composição bromatológica, observaram-se diminuição do teor de proteína bruta e aumento das frações fibrosas, com aumento do nitrogênio retido nessa última com o avançar da idade. Os resultados obtidos refletiram-se na cinética de fermentação ruminal, descrita pela técnica in vitro semiautomática de produção de gases, demonstrando menor potencial de produção de gases, menor taxa fraccional de fermentação e, consequentemente, menor degradabilidade efetiva da matéria seca. Recomenda-se o corte do capim-tanzânia no intervalo de 42 a 63 dias de crescimento.The potential for use of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania cut at different ages for the production of silage was evaluated. In the first experiment, Tanzania grass, cut at 42, 63, 84, 107, and 126 days of growth, was evaluated considering its productivity, agronomic characteristics and chemical composition. It was observed gain in height of Tanzania grass until the 84th day, with increased the production of green fodder and mass production of dry material with the advancing age of cutting. It also resulted in a decrease in the percentage of leaves and an increase in the percentage of stems. Regarding chemical composition, it was detected a decrease in crude protein percentage and an increase of fibrous fractions with the advancing of age. The results were reflected in the kinetics of rumen fermentation of Tanzania grass cut on the

  2. Potencial de genótipos de trigo duro para produtividade e caracteres agronômicos no Estado de São Paulo Potential of durum wheat genotypes for productivity and agronomic traits in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Henrique da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O trigo duro produz a semolina que, extraída dos grãos, é a matéria-prima empregada na elaboração de macarrão. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo e comportamento agronômico de 17 linhagens de trigo duro (BH-1146/LGN//2*IAC-1003 oriundas do programa de melhoramento do Instituto Agronômico (IAC e três cultivares-controle: IAC-1001, IAC-1002 e IAC-1003, originárias de introduções do Centro Internacional de Melhoramento de Milho e Trigo (CIMMYT, México. Os experimentos foram instalados em Capão Bonito (sequeiro e em Mococa (irrigado, em 2007 e 2008. Foram avaliados os seguintes caracteres: produtividade (kg ha-1, altura das plantas, comprimento da espiga e comprimento do internódio da raque (cm, número de grãos por espiga e massa de cem grãos (g. A tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio foi realizada empregando soluções nutritivas, no laboratório. As cultivares IAC-1001 e IAC-1003 destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos nos dois locais. As linhagens 2, 9 e 13 possuem porte semianão mais baixo; as linhagens 4, 15 e a cultivar IAC-1001 exibiram espigas mais compridas; as cultivares IAC-1001 e IAC-1002 sobressaíram-se pelo grande número de grãos por espiga; a 'IAC-1003' pelos grãos mais pesados e as linhagens 1, 4, 15 e 17 revelaram maior comprimento do internódio da raque. Houve tendência dos genótipos de porte semianão mais alto serem mais produtivos, com maior número de grãos por espiga e grãos mais pesados. As linhagens obtidas pelo programa de melhoramento do IAC foram tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio e as cultivares-controle sensíveis.Semolina extracted from grains of durum wheat is used for manufacturing pastas. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the yield potential and agronomic behavior of seventeen durum wheat inbred lines (BH-1146/LGN//2*IAC-1003 originated from Instituto Agronômico (IAC breeding program and three check cultivars IAC-1001, IAC-1002 and IAC-1003

  3. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  4. Agronomic Characteristic Performance of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L). Moench) Mutant Lines in Bogor District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum has a large potential to be grown and developed in Indonesia especially during dry season since it has wide adaptability and is more tolerant to drought than any other food crops. Research on mutation induction in sorghum using gamma irradiation have been conducted at the Center for the Application Isotopes and Radiation Technology (PATIR), National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). The objective is to improve agronomic and quality traits of sorghum for being used as alternative food, animal feed and raw material for industries. A number of seven promising mutant lines was obtained. In dry season 2005 and 2006, those mutant lines were evaluated for their agronomic characteristic performance in three locations i.e. Muara, Cikemeuh and Citayam, Bogor. The original parent (Durra variety) and two national variety (UPCA-S1 and Mandau) were used as controls. Results showed that lines B-100 and Zh-30 have significantly higher yield (7.233 and 7.224 ton/ha) than the three control varieties (4.914 - 5.442 ton/ha). (author)

  5. Agronomic and molecular traits of the 'Italia Muscat' clone in Sao Francisco River Valley Caracterização agronômica e molecular do clone Itália Muscat no submédio do Vale do São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate agronomic and molecular traits of the 'Italia Muscat' clone and compare it with the cv. 'Italia', providing information to support the cultivation of 'Italia Muscat' this cultivar in the São Francisco River Valley. Agronomic characteristics of both clones were evaluated for two seasons in 2004. The characteristics were phenology, bud break (%, bud fertility (%, yield (kg mass of bunches (g, length and width of bunches (cm, mass of berries (g, length and diameter of berries (mm, TSS (ºBrix, ATT (% titratable acidity and TSS/TTA. Molecular analysis of seven SSR markers were carried out. The clone 'Italia Muscat' showed larger berries, mass of bunches and better TSS/TA ratio than 'Italia'. The molecular analysis resulted in the same allelic profile in both clones, highlighting the need to use a larger number of microsatellite markers or other molecular technique to allow their discrimination. Based on their morpho-agronomic characteristics, 'Italia Muscat' seems to be a good table grape cultivar alternative for grape growers of São Francisco River Valley.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características agronômicas e moleculares do clone 'Itália Muscat' e compará-lo à 'Itália', disponibilizando informações para subsidiar o cultivo da cultivar Itália Muscat no Submédio do Vale do São Francisco. Foram avaliadas durante dois ciclos, no ano de 2004, as características agronômicas nos dois clones, tais como, fenologia, brotação (%, fertilidade de gemas (%, produção (kg, massa de cachos (g, comprimento e largura de cachos (cm, massa de bagas (g, comprimento e diâmetro de bagas (mm, SST (Brix, ATT (% ácido tartárico e relação SST/ATT. Realizou-se a análise molecular com sete marcadores moleculares SSR. O clone 'Itália Muscat' apresentou maior tamanho de bagas, peso de cachos e melhor relação SST/ATT que a 'Itália'. O mesmo perfil alélico foi observado nos dois clones, o que

  6. Correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em dois ciclos de seleção recorrente em milho-pipoca Correlations among agronomic traits in two recurrent selection cycles in popcorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máskio Daros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de monitorar o comportamento de blocos gênicos em diferentes gerações de seleção recorrente em milho pipoca, quantificaram-se as correlações fenotípica, genotípica e de ambiente entre caracteres agronômicos, em dois ciclos de seleção recorrente. O primeiro ciclo foi formado por famílias de irmãos completos e o segundo ciclo por famílias S1. Embora não significativa, em ambos os ciclos, houve correlação genotípica negativa entre capacidade de expansão e rendimento de grãos. Para o segundo ciclo, as maiores magnitudes de correlação genotípica positiva ocorreram entre rendimento de grãos, número de espigas sadias e estande, indicando a possibilidade de sucesso na seleção de uma ou outra, com base no rendimento de grãos. Embora não significativa e em baixa magnitude, houve acréscimo da correlação genotípica entre rendimento de grãos e capacidade de expansão do primeiro para o segundo ciclo, denotando aumento na concentração de alelos favoráveis na população.This work was carried out to estimate environment, genotypic and phenotypic correlations among traits in two intrapopulational recurrent selection cycles in popcorn. The first cycle was composed by full sib families and the second cycle by S1 families. Seventy-five families of full sib and two hundred and twenty two families S1 were evaluated in randomized complete block design with two replicates in two environments. Although not statistically significant, genotypic correlation between grain yield and popping expansion was negative in both selection cycles. For the second cycle of recurrent selection, the highest positive estimates of genotypic correlations were found between: grain yield and number of ears and grain yield and stand, indicating the perspective of the success for selection based on grain yield. Although in less magnitude there was an increase in genotypic correlation between the grain yield and popping expansion from the

  7. Combining Ability and Heritability Analysis of Main Agronomic Traits in Seedless Watermelon%无籽西瓜主要农艺性状配合力及遗传力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 刘童光; 任怀富; 王朋成; 王磊; 谈敏

    2011-01-01

    Twelve watermelon inbreds were used to create triploid hybrids with 6 × 6 incomplete diallel mating design and to study combining ability and heritability of yield and quality in seedless watermelon. Heterosis was observed on 11 traits (except main shoot length and rind thickness )among 13 traits evaluated. The general combining ability of the 6 male parental lines was Huaxin ( A 1 ) >Damingjingxinerhao ( A2 ) >Fengyuan W- 1 ( A6 ) >Zaokanglijia ( A5 ) >Yulinglong ( A4 ) >Jingxinerhao ( A3 ). The general combining ability of the 6 female parental lines was Tianba ( M5 ) >8424 ( M4 ) >Luqingqihao ( M6 ) >Tianxinerhao(M2)>Guoyuerhao(M1 )and Chunyi (M3). Inbred lines M5 and A1 are the best parental lines for improving hybrid yield and nutritional quality.%选用12个西瓜高世代自交系进行6×6不完全双列杂交试验,分析了后代产量及品质等性状的配合力和遗传力.结果表明:除主蔓长度、果皮厚度外,其余11个性状从育种角度,适宜采用优势育种.根据各个亲本的综合评价,6个父本一般配合力优劣顺序为:华欣(Al)>大明京欣2号(A2)>丰园W-1(A6)>早抗丽佳(A5)>玉玲珑(A4)>京欣2号(A3);6个母本一般配合力优劣顺序为:甜霸(M5)>8424(M4)>鲁青7号(M6)>甜欣2号(M2)>国豫2号(M1)、春一(M3).其中,自交系M5与Al在提高杂交一代果实产量和营养品质方面是表现良好的母本和父本.

  8. A Study on the Effects of Drought Stress on the Agronomic Traits of Yunyan87 and K326%干旱对云烟87和K326的农艺性状影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雪丹; 肖玉; 周紫燕; 肖金香

    2012-01-01

    The responses of agronomic characters of flue-cured tobacco Yunyan87 and K326 to drought stress were studied in the rosette stage, the vigorously growing stage and the budding stage respectively by controlling water under rainproof shelter. The drought time was set to 7 d, 10 d, 13 d, 16 d, long term drought with one group as the control. The long term drought was used for measuring the soil water content. The result showed that; the plant heights of Yunyan87 and K326 showed a downward trend while prolonging the dry spells, the most influential time was drought 16 d especially in the vigorously growing stage and the amplitude reduction was 42. 2% and 41. 3% respectively. The worst inhibitory effect of drought time on the stem and average effective leaf area of the two varieties in each growing stage was 16 d, the descent of stem of Yunyan87 in the rosette stage, vigorously growing stage and budding stage was 22. 9% , 17. 5% and 34. 6% respectively which of K326 was 31. 1% , 21.6% and 13.2%. The decreasing ranges of leaf area of Yunyan87 in the rosette stage, vigorously growing stage and budding stage was 20. 6% , 35. 6% and 27. 9% which of K326 were 42. 5% , 20. 4% and 20. 2%. Both of the root - shoot ratios rose first and then fell in the rosette stage and vigorously growing stage which fell slowly in the budding stage. The stage of largest water consumption of the two varieties was in the vigorously growing stage and the soil moisture content under Yunyan87 stopped growing in the resettling growth stage, vigorously growing stage and budding period and the soil water contents were 5.7% , 7. 4% and 5. 5% respectively, while those under K326 were 6. 0% ,7. 3% and 6. 4% . Overall, the capacity of drought resistance of Yunyan87 is a little bit better than that of K326.%以烤烟云烟87和K326为试验材料,采用盆栽防雨控水试验,干旱时间设为7d、10d、13d、16d、长期干旱(DL)和CK(对照)6个处理,分别在2个品种的团棵期、旺长期、现

  9. Agronomic Importance of First Development of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Under Semi-arid Conditions: I. Effect of Powder Humic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bayraktar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to slow growth and weakness of the first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plant could not combatted with weeds and easily get caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass Labr. disease; esp. under the late sowing and semi-arid conditions, due to effect of biotic and abiotic stress factors, significant yield losses could be arised. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate the first development of this crop. So, one of the best solutions is to use of “soil conditioner” chemical compounds such as HA at optimum dose. With this aim, it was established in order to find out the optimum dose range of HA. Three doses (D0 = 0 g, D1 = 100 g and D2 = 200 g, four varieties (V1 = Er–99, V2 = Gökçe, V3 = ILC-482 and V4 = Australia and five yield components (Plant Height (PH, First pod height (FPH, Number of Branches per Plant (NBP, Number of Pods per Plant (NPP and Number of seeds per pod (NSP were investigated. Obtained results are: Recommended (Optimum HA doses and interactions were ranged and found as (V4>V2=V3>V1; (D2>D0=D1; (D1xV4 for the PH and FPH, (D2xV3 for the NBP and (D1xV3 for the NPP, respectively. It was concluded that when the recommended HA dose applied, it was seen that the first development has been clearly accelerated and increased under the semi-arid conditions in terms of investigated traits and cultivars.

  10. Agronomic importance of first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under semi-arid conditions: I. Effect of powder humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukan, H; Bayraktar, N; Koçak, N

    2012-02-15

    Due to slow growth and weakness of the first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plant could not combatted with weeds and easily get caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease; esp. under the late sowing and semi-arid conditions, due to effect of biotic and abiotic stress factors, significant yield losses could be arised. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate the first development of this crop. So, one of the best solutions is to use of "soil conditioner" chemical compounds such as HA at optimum dose. With this aim, it was established in order to find out the optimum dose range of HA. Three doses (D0 = 0 g, D1 = 100 g and D2 = 200 g), four varieties (V1 = Er-99, V2 = Gökçe, V3 = ILC-482 and V4 = Australia) and five yield components Plant Height (PH), First pod height (FPH), Number of Branches per Plant (NBP), Number of Pods per Plant (NPP) and Number of seeds per pod (NSP) were investigated. Obtained results are: Recommended (Optimum) HA doses and interactions were ranged and found as (V4 > V2 = V3 > V1); (D2 > D0 = D1); (D1 x V4) for the PH and FPH, (D2 x V3) for the NBP and (D1 x V3) for the NPP, respectively. It was concluded that when the recommended HA dose applied, it was seen that the first development has been clearly accelerated and increased under the semi-arid conditions in terms of investigated traits and cultivars. PMID:22816179

  11. Seleção de linhagens experimentais de soja para características agronômicas e tolerância a insetos Soybean experimental lines selected for agronomic traits and insect tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clideana Cabral Maia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa visou avaliar linhagens experimentais de soja, com a finalidade de identificar genótipos que reúnam características de alta produtividade e tolerância a insetos. O material foi composto por três populações obtidas de um dialelo parcial 4 x 4 envolvendo quatro genitores tolerantes a insetos e quatro cultivares de elevada produtividade. Foram conduzidos 24 experimentos no delineamento aleatório, em blocos com duas repetições subdivididas em conjuntos experimentais com testemunhas comuns, combinando as três populações e oito ambientes. Com base na produtividade de grãos, concluiu-se que: existe variabilidade genética remanescente entre as linhagens nas três populações; o manejo diferenciado com controle intensivo de insetos e controle ecológico de insetos (CII vs. CEI é um representante eficiente de ambientes diversos; o local Anhembi destacou-se como de alta produtividade em todas as situações; para a capacidade de gerar linhagens superiores, sobressaíram-se os genitores IAC-100, D72-9601-1, BR-6, Davis e IAS-5; destaques especiais envolveram os cruzamentos do genitor IAC-100 com IAS-5, Davis, OCEPAR-4 e BR-6.This research aimed to evaluate experimental soybean lines, with the finality to identify genotypes that contine traits of elevate yield and insect tolerance. Plant material included three populations derived from a 4×4 partial diallel having four parents insect resistants and four with elevated yield cultivars. The 24 experiments were carried out in randomized complete block design with two replications subdivided in three sets with common checks, testing the three populations in eight environments. There is genetic variability among lines in the three populations; the management systems were efficient as representative of the environmental diversity; the Anhembi location exhibited with high seed yield in all situations; as for the ability in originating superior lines, the following parents stand out

  12. Agronomic performance and stability of andean common bean lines with white grains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of genotype by environment interaction in Andean common bean lines with white grains, in Central Southern Brazil, to identify lines with high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability, aiming to meet domestic demand and to increase the Brazilian participation in the foreign market of common bean. Nineteen trials with twelve Andean lines were conducted in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in Central Southern Brazil. Grain yield and other agronomic traits were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and of adaptability/stability using Annicchiarico and modified AMMI methods. Significant differences were found between lines for all traits evaluated. Genotype by environment interaction was important for lines with Andean origin and white seed. The utilization of weighted mean of absolute scores and yield with the AMMI results enabled the identification of the most stable and adapted lines. Lines Poroto Alubia, CNFB 16211, Ouro Branco and WAF 160 were stable and adapted, using both methods. CNFB 16211 line presented high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability and therefore this line may be a new cultivar. USWA 70 and WAF 75 lines presented grain size similar to that required by the foreign market and superior to the Brazilian cultivars, besides favorable agronomic traits, and thus these lines may be indicated as new cultivars.

  13. The entrepreneur's general personality traits and technological developments

    OpenAIRE

    Antončič, Boštjan

    2013-01-01

    Technological newness and innovativeness are important aspects of small firm development, growth and wealth creation. The contribution of the study to entrepreneurship personality research and to technology-related research in entrepreneurship is that the model of the general personality driven technological development was developed and empirically tested. Hypotheses relating the big five personality factors (OCEAN: openness, conscientiousness,extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) an...

  14. Genetic characterisation of agronomic and morphological traits and the development of DNA markers associated with total glycoalkaloid content in the tubers of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.

    2002-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites that are characterised by an undesirable taste, and which are known to be toxic when consumed in large quantities. Some wild potato germplasms that are used for the introgression of genes

  15. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality’s Constant Individual Traits Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsz Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of personality’s constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of occupational development theories have been confronted with constant individual traits of personality.

  16. Seed germination photobiology. Physiological and agronomic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed germination photobiology is an important aspect of seed biology research for both physiological and agronomic aspects. Such knowledge is of extreme importance for the optimization of seed crop germination and for the prediction of weed seed bank emergence dynamics in field. Several aspects of photobiology research are reported and discussed in order to evidencing some of the relative agronomic involvements

  17. The development, special traits and potential of holographic display technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Haikuo

    2015-01-01

    Holographic Technology is a type of display technique created in the last century. The applications and usages of it have been developed and popularized rapidly in the recent years. However, to most common people this technique is still just a simple concept or impression. Compared with the processing performances of CPU and GPU which are reaching their bottlenecks, the development of a new display technology is a new direction for the future of digital devices. At a certain level, the hol...

  18. Trait analysis, diversity, and genotype x environment interaction in some wheat landraces evaluated under drought and heat stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sindhu Sareen; Bhudev Singh Tyagi; Ashok Kumar Sarial; Vinod Tiwari; Indu Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Both drought and heat stress are responsible for decline in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in many regions of the world. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted increase in these areas. Development of heat and drought tolerant genotypes is on priority. Landraces are unexploited genetic resources for various agronomic traits contributing tolerance to abiotic stress. Twenty-five wheat genotypes were evaluated in irrigated timely, rainfed timely and irrigated late...

  19. The Mediator Effect of Career Development between Personality Traits and Organizational Commitment: The Example of Sport Communication Technology Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hung-Jen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Tung-Hsing, Lin; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships among career development, personality trait, and organizational commitment and examines whether career development mediates the relationship between personality trait and organizational commitment. The sample was 275 sport communication technology talents in Taiwan. The instrument included the Personality…

  20. Effects of Aerobic Fermentation Seedling-breeding in Higher Temperature on Agronomic Characters and Economic Traits of Flue-cured Tobacco%有氧发酵增温育苗对烤烟农艺性状和经济性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗福命; 邓世媛; 谢文婷; 凌寿军; 王维; 王俊; 陈建军; 文俊

    2011-01-01

    In order to resolve the influence of low temperature during seedling-breeding on the growth of tobacco in southern tobacco planting region,aerobic fermentation materials were paved on the bottom of nutrition pool, then the water temperature, growth status of tobacco and agronomic characters,accumulation of dry matter after transplanting and economic traits such as yield and output value were determined.Results showed that laying aerobic fermentation materials especially peanut bran under the seedling-bed could increase the temperature of nutrition pool,shorten seedling growing period by 13 days, and the ratio of strong seedling reached 95 %.After transplanting, the stem length, stem girth and root length were greater but the pitch was less than the control, so there were more leaves.There existed significant difference on accumulation of dry matter include overground and underground between treatment of peanut bran and the control.The yield,output value,ratios of grade A and grade B leaves were better than the control obviously.%为解决南方烟区育苗时温度过低影响烟苗后期生长的问题,进行了在育苗池底部铺设有氧发酵材料(稻草秸秆、稻草秸秆+猪粪、稻草秸秆+花生麸)的增温育苗试验,对育苗池温度、烟苗生长状况和移栽后的大田农艺性状、干物质积累及产量产值等经济性状进行了测定.结果表明,有氧发酵增温育苗,尤其是稻草秸秆+花生麸处理,可以有效提高育苗池温度(1℃以上),使苗龄缩短13d,其壮苗率达95%;有氧发酵增温育苗移栽后株高、茎围、根长等都显著大于对照(常规浅水育苗),节距则小于对照,因而叶片数更多;地上部和地下部的干物质积累与对照的差异显著,产量、产值、上中等烟比例等也明显优于对照.

  1. The impact of Information Systems Development Education on Entrepreneurial Personality Traits and Cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Lyng, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of entrepreneurship modules at developing entrepreneurial personality traits and cognitions of Information Systems Development (ISD) students studying at Irish Institutes of Technology (IoT). Current Irish government policy dictated that entrepreneurship education should be embedded in all technical third-level courses. In theory, such an education should create an entrepreneurial mind-set amongst students and increase the probability of graduates eng...

  2. Finding Relationships between Socio-Technical Aspects and Personality Traits by Mining Developer E-mails

    OpenAIRE

    Paruma-Pabón, Oscar Hernán; GONZÁLEZ, FABIO A.; Aponte, Jairo; Camargo, Jorge E.; Restrepo-Calle, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits influence most, if not all, of the human activities, from those as natural as the way people walk, talk, dress and write to those most complex as the way they interact with others. Most importantly, personality influences the way people make decisions including, in the case of developers, the criteria they consider when selecting a software project they want to participate. Most of the works that study the influence of social, technical and human factors in software develop...

  3. Biochar from Biomass and its Potential Agronomic and Environmental Use in Washington: A Promising Alternative to Drawdown Carbon from the Atmosphere and Develop a New Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Garcia-Perez, Manuel [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Sjoding, David [Washington State Energy Program Office, Olympia, WA (United States); Fuchs, Mark R. [Washington Dept. of Ecology, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    document is a companion to a white paper titled Biochar from Wood Biomass and Agricultural Residues and its Potential Agronomic Use in Washington: A Tool to Improve Irrigation Water Use Efficiency, Energy Efficiency and Sequester Carbon (Amonette, et al., 2016, in preparation).

  4. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  5. Biotechnology and the Development of Food Markets: Retrospect and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    GianCarlo Moschini

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has had an important impact on the agricultural and food industries over the last twelve years by way of fast and extensive adoption of a few genetically modified (GM) crops. This has produced large efficiency gains, including higher yields and reduced costs of weed and pest control, as well as some environmental benefits. The expected development of crops with additional agronomic traits, and with output traits to improve the nutrition and health attributes of food products, ho...

  6. Características agronômicas, produtividade e qualidade fisiológica da soja "safrinha" sob semeadura direta, em função da cobertura vegetal e da calagem superficial Agronomic traits, yield and physiological quality of "safrinha" (off-season soybean under no till as a function of plant cover and surface liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo do Valle Lima

    2009-01-01

    ógica das sementes de soja cultivadas em "safrinha", com exceção da condutividade elétrica.Soybean productivity under the no till system (NTS can be influenced by the preceding type of plant cover and surface liming. However, the effects of this technique on yield components and the seed physiological quality have been little studied, especially in ("safrinha" off-season soybean under NTS. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate some agronomic traits, yield components, productivity, and physiological quality of soybean grown during the off-season ("safrinha", as a function of different cover plants, with or without surface liming, under NTS. The experiment was conducted during the 1999/00 cropping season on the Lageado Experimental Farm, FCA/UNESP/Botucatu-SP, Brazil. The experimental design was organized as randomized blocks in split-plots, with 4 replications. The 6m × 10m plots consisted of broomcorn (Sorghum bicolor, millet (Pennisetum americanum, fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum, spontaneous vegetation, and no vegetation. At 53 days after emergence the cover plants were desiccated and lodged, and a surface application of 3.1 t.ha-1 lime was made in half of the plots, in order to increase V% to 70. Soybean (cv. IAC-19 was sown two weeks later, during the off-season ("safrinha". Determinations were made for the final stand, first pod height, plant height, total number of pods and blank pods per plant, total number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and yield. As to seed physiological quality, determinations were made for germination, artificial aging, germination at 18°C, plantlet D.M., and electric conductivity. During NTS implementation, plant cover type and surface liming did not affect the agronomic traits studied, yield components, seed productivity, and physiological quality of soybean seeds grown in the off-season ("safrinha" system, except for electric conductivity.

  7. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza; Hussein Shimelis; Rob Melis; Julia Sibiya; Magnifique Ndambe Nzaramba

    2012-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gi...

  8. Agronomic performance of super-sweet corn genotypes in the north of Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Henrique Araújo Diniz Santos; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Roberto dos Santos Trindade; Keila Silva da Cunha; Geovana Cremonini Entringer; Julio Cesar Fiorio Vettorazzi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the agronomic performance of super-sweet corn genotypes. Super-sweet corn genotypes were backcrossed with regionally adapted field varieties (CIMMYT 8 and Piranão 8). Eight morphological and yield-related traits were evaluated. A significant effect of interaction was observed between the five groups of genotypes (donor parents; super-sweet backcrossed parents; super-sweet intervarietal hybrids; common intervarietal corn hybrids; and field corn populations). Despite...

  9. EFFECTS OF AGRONOMIC VARIABLES AND HINERITANCE ON AROMATIC COMPONENTS IN BASIL AND CHILI PEPPER

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This PhD Thesis focuses on how aroma profile in crops is affected by agronomic and genetic variables. In the first chapter we considered the effects of salt stress on main morphological and physiological traits of two cultivars of sweet basil (Genovese and Napoletano) Specifically, we focused on compositional changes in aroma profile and their possible significance in adaptation and tolerance to the oxidative stress. In the second chapter, we considered the aroma profile of two chilli pep...

  10. Economic and agronomic impact of commercialised GM crops: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Areal, Francisco; Riesgo, Laura; Rodriguez Cerezo, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of the economic and agronomic performance of genetically modified (GM) crops worldwide. A Bayesian, classical and non-parametric approaches were used to evaluate the performance of GM crops versus their conventional counterparts. The two main GM crop traits -herbicide tolerant (HT) and insect resistant (Bt) - and three of the main GM crops produced worldwide -Bt cotton, HT soybean and Bt maizewere analysed in terms of yield, production cost and gross margin...

  11. A Baseline Study of Biofuel Feedstock Growth on Non-Traditional Agronomic Land in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, Dallas A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Non-Traditional Agronomic Land (NTAL) Project is to develop sustainable, agronomic, crop growth methods that will allow biofuel feedstock production to occur on marginal or non-traditional plots of land, e.g., roadways, railroads, airports, and military installations. Recent economic feasibility models by Utah State University (USU) indicate these lands could, in theory, produce one billion gallons of economically viable new feedstock annually. Specifically, USU models show th...

  12. Quality Indicator Development for Positive Screen Follow-up for Sickle Cell Disease and Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Elissa Z; Wang, C Jason; Oyeku, Suzette O

    2016-07-01

    Extensive variation exists in the follow-up of positive screens for sickle cell disease. Limited quality indicators exist to measure if the public health goals of screening-early initiation of treatment and enrollment to care-are being achieved. This manuscript focuses on the development of quality indicators related to the follow-up care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait through screening processes. The authors used a modified Delphi method to develop the indicators. The process included a comprehensive literature review with rating of the evidence followed by ratings of draft indicators by an expert panel held in September 2012. The expert panel was nominated by leaders of various professional societies, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and met face to face to discuss and rate each indicator. The panel recommended nine quality indicators focused on key aspects of follow-up care for individuals with positive screens for sickle cell disease and trait. Public health programs and healthcare institutions can use these indicators to assess the quality of follow-up care and provide a basis for improvement efforts to ensure appropriate family education, early initiation of treatment, and appropriate referral to care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait. PMID:27320465

  13. Iterative development and the scope for plasticity: contrasts among trait categories in an adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S A; Wund, M A; Graham, M A; Earley, R L; Gardiner, R; Kearns, T; Baker, J A

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can influence evolutionary change in a lineage, ranging from facilitation of population persistence in a novel environment to directing the patterns of evolutionary change. As the specific nature of plasticity can impact evolutionary consequences, it is essential to consider how plasticity is manifested if we are to understand the contribution of plasticity to phenotypic evolution. Most morphological traits are developmentally plastic, irreversible, and generally considered to be costly, at least when the resultant phenotype is mis-matched to the environment. At the other extreme, behavioral phenotypes are typically activational (modifiable on very short time scales), and not immediately costly as they are produced by constitutive neural networks. Although patterns of morphological and behavioral plasticity are often compared, patterns of plasticity of life history phenotypes are rarely considered. Here we review patterns of plasticity in these trait categories within and among populations, comprising the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish Gasterosteus aculeatus. We immediately found it necessary to consider the possibility of iterated development, the concept that behavioral and life history trajectories can be repeatedly reset on activational (usually behavior) or developmental (usually life history) time frames, offering fine tuning of the response to environmental context. Morphology in stickleback is primarily reset only in that developmental trajectories can be altered as environments change over the course of development. As anticipated, the boundaries between the trait categories are not clear and are likely to be linked by shared, underlying physiological and genetic systems. PMID:26243135

  14. Advances in Phenotyping of Functional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plants, functional traits are morphological, biochemical, physiological, structural, phenological, or behavioral characteristics that are expressed in phenotypes of individual plants,that are relevant to the plant’s role in the ecosystem or its agronomic performance. By themselves, functional tra...

  15. Within-trait heterogeneity in age group differences in personality domains and facets: implications for the development and coherence of personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Mõttus

    Full Text Available The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3, more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality, suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p < 0.0002 residual age-correlations. When facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p < 0.002 residual age-correlations. For each domain, a series of latent factors were specified using random quarters of their items: scores of such latent factors varied notably (within domains in correlations with age. We argue that manifestations of aetiologically coherent traits should show similar age group differences. Given this, the FFM domains and facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.

  16. Effects of the Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa T4DL·4VS Translocation Chromosome on the Agronomic Important Traits in Different Backgrounds%小麦-簇毛麦T4DL·4VS易位染色体对小麦农艺性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 赵仁慧; 袁春霞; 张守忠; 肖进; 王秀娥

    2012-01-01

    It has been found that the T4DL·4VS translocation can be used in wheat breeding programs as a donor of resistance to wheat yellow mosaic bymovirus and take-all disease and can be used in wheat breeding for disease resistance.In order to further elucidate the potential application of this translocation line,five F2 population derived from crosses of the T4DL·4VS with 5 wheat varieties from different ecological wheat grown areas were used to assess the effects of the T4DL·4VS translocation on agronomic characters in different genetic backgrounds.It was found for all the used cross combinations,there was no significant difference between T4DL·4VS lines and non-T4DL·4VS lines on the number of effective spikes,the total spikelets per spike and the number of grains per spike.Positive effect of the T4DL·4VS lines on plant height was found in the background of Zheng 9023,Zhou 9823 and Mianyang 26,while negative effects were found on thousand-kernel weight in the background of Zhou 9823,Shi 4185 and Yangmai 15,on spike length in the background of Zheng 9023,Zhou 9823,and Yangmai 15,on the flag leaf area in the background of Yangmai 15.These results showed that significant variation occurred for some traits among different crosses,indicating that parent selection could lead to further improvements.%为了进一步探究小麦-簇毛麦T4DL·4VS易位系的育种利用价值,选用以T4DL·4VS易位系为亲本组配的5个F2群体为试验材料,研究了T4DL·4VS易位染色体在不同遗传背景中对小麦农艺性状的影响。结果表明,在所有组合中,T4DL·4VS易位染色体对有效穗数、每穗小穗数和穗粒数无明显影响;在与郑麦9023、周9823和绵阳26配置的3个组合中,T4DL·4VS易位染色体对株高表现出一定的正向效应;在与周9823、石4185和扬麦15配置的3个组合中,T4DL·4VS易位染色体对千粒重表现出负向效应;在与郑麦9023、周9823和扬麦15配置的3个组合中,T4DL·4VS易位染色体

  17. 15个苦荬菜新品种(系)在川西南地区农艺性状综合评价%Agronomic traits of 15 annual Ixeris polycephala varieties in the southwest of Si-chuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班骞; 黄琳凯; 张新全; 蒋林峰

    2016-01-01

    Agronomic traits of 15 Ixeris polycephala varieties were studied in field trials in Ya’an,in the southwest of Sichuan Province.The growth periods of new lines Chuanxuan No.1 and L5-4 were longer than Longmu (P <0.01).In the two years 2013 and 2014,the yields of new line Chuanxuan No.1 were the highest, with a notable yield advantage at the second defoliation and regeneration.The average hay yield of the new line Chuanxuan No.1 was 5585 kg/ha,a 64.75% (P <0.01 )increase,compared with Longmu.With respect to stem∶leaf ratio,the highest leaf content was found in the new line L5-4,and the second ranked was new line Chuanxuan No.1;the stem∶leaf ratios were 0.52 and 0.55,respectively.In terms of nutrients,the new line Chuanxuan No.1 had abundant minerals and high nutritional value,the crude protein was 26.12%,while crude fiber was 12.11%.Thus,the new lines Chuanxuan No.1 and L5-4 with high yields and leaves of high feeding value were suitable for recommendation for planting in the southwest of Sichuan Province.%通过田间试验,对15个苦荬菜品种(系)在川西南地区进行农艺性状综合评价。结果表明,1)新品系川选1号和 L5-4生育期相对较长,与对照品种龙牧差异极显著(P <0.01),属于晚熟品系。2)产草量以新品系川选1号产量最高,在刈割第2茬产量有明显优势,且刈割后再生性好。新品系川选1号在2013-2014两年平均干草产量达5585 kg/hm2,比对照增产64.75%,差异极显著(P <0.01)。3)茎叶比方面,L5-4叶片含量最高,茎叶比0.52,川选1号次之,茎叶比0.55。4)营养成分方面,川选1号粗蛋白达26.12%,粗纤维12.11%,营养价值高。综合分析,新品系川选1号和 L5-4产草量高,叶量丰富,适合在川西南地区种植推广。

  18. The effect of genotype on fattening and body development traits of young cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ostojić-Andrić D.; Bogdanović V.; Aleksić S.; Petrović M.M.; Miščević B.; Pantelić V.; Josipović S.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in demonstration of fattening and traits of body development in young cattle from three genotype groups are investigated: Domestic Simmental breed (G1) and its crosses F1 gen. With Limousine (G2) and Charolais breed (G3). Sample included total of 96 heads, 32 in each group. The greatest body mass at birth was realized by Charolais crosses (41,8 kg) and the lowest calves of domestic Simmental breed (40,5 kg), significance of differences established was at the level of p<...

  19. Trait stacking for biotech crops: an essential consideration for agbiotech development projects for building trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of agricultural biotechnology humanitarian projects for food security in the last five years has been rapid in developing countries and is expected to rise sharply over the coming years. An extremely critical issue in these projects involves building trust with the community and farmers they aim to serve. For the first time, our social audit engagement with one of these initiatives, the Water Efficient Maize for Africa project, has revealed that a critical but unrecognized component of building trust with farmers involves publicly addressing the concerns surrounding stacked trait crops. As a result, we argue in this article that it is critical to actively anticipate the concerns that could be raised over trait stacking by incorporating them into global access plans of such initiatives early in order to facilitate adoption, provide the best value to the small-scale farmer and gain trust with the community whom these projects aim to serve. This perspective, based on an actual international social audit, should be of value to scientists, funders and partners involved in biotech development initiatives for food security.

  20. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  1. Agronomic Importance of First Development of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Semi-arid Conditions: I. Effect of Powder Humic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    N. Bayraktar; Ulukan, H; N. Kocak

    2012-01-01

    Due to slow growth and weakness of the first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plant could not combatted with weeds and easily get caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease; esp. under the late sowing and semi-arid conditions, due to effect of biotic and abiotic stress factors, significant yield losses could be arised. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate the first development of this crop. So, one of the best solutions is to use ...

  2. Agronomic Importance of First Development of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Semi-arid Conditions: II. Seed Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    A. Oksel; N. Bayraktar; Ulukan, H; Gursoy, M; N. Kocak

    2012-01-01

    Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), it could not combated with weeds and easiliy caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical...

  3. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  4. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits. PMID:27037832

  5. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits. PMID:27037832

  6. 干旱胁迫对油菜蕾薹期生理特性及农艺性状的影响%Influence of Drought Stress on Physiological Characteristics and Agronomic Traits at Bud Stage of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白鹏; 冉春艳; 谢小玉

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]Against the characteristics of less precipitation which easily lead to drought in the Yangtze River Basin, especially in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in the spring in recent years, the effects of water stress on physiological characters and agronomic traits at bud stage of rapeseed were studied, the aims were to reveal the drought resistance mechanism of rapeseed at bud stage, and to provide a theoretical basis for drought-resistant breeding. [Method]The changes of associated physiological indicators and agronomic traits of rapeseed were studied by drought resistance coefficients of each character using two different drought resistance rapeseed varieties at bud stage (zhongshuang10 with low drought resistance and 94005 with high drought resistance) with drought stress experiment in pot. And filter out some indicators that apply to the local area, which can be used to identify drought resistance at bud stage of rapeseed.[Result]The results showed that the drought resistance coefficients of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, leaf relative water content, content of chlorophyll, RuBP carboxylase activity, height per plant, stem diameter, primary branches number and seed yield per plant tended to decrease with the extension of drought stress time, and the decrease range was positively related to the time of drought stress, the decrease range of the drought resistance coefficients of stomata conductance and transpiration rate was positively related to the drought resistant ability of rapeseed, the rest of the indicators were negatively related to the drought resistance coefficients of materials. The drought resistance coefficients of stomata limitation value and water use efficiency of low drought resistance variety presented an upward to downward and downward trend, respectively, but both of that showed an increase trend in high drought resistance variety. With the lasting of drought

  7. Effects of Pesticide Exposure on Embryonic Development and Hatchling Traits of Turtles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baofeng WU; Liang LIANG; Liang MA; Weiguo DU

    2016-01-01

    Deltamethrin is a widespread environmental hormone with endocrine-disrupting properties, but its effect on embryonic development of reptiles is largely unexplored. We investigated the effects of deltamethrin on embryonic development and offspring traits in two turtle species, one with parchment-shelled eggs and the other with rigid-shelled eggs. Deltamethrin exposure during egg incubation did not affect hatching success and hatchling body size in either species. However, embryonic exposure to deltamethrin resulted in reduced hatchling locomotor performance in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) with parchment-shelled eggs, but not in the Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (Chinemys reevesii) with rigid-shelled eggs. These results suggest that parchment-shelled eggs are likely more vulnerable to deltamethrin than rigid-shelled eggs.

  8. Agronomic Evaluation and Utilization of Red Clover (Trifolium pratense L. Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana TUCAK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Germplasm collection as a source of variability and genetic diversity must be evaluated for an efficient management and effective utilization. This research was aimed to evaluate the agronomic value of red clover germplasm collection, to group the cultivars and population according to their morpho-agronomical traits, and to select valuable materials for future breeding programs. Thirty red clover cultivars and populations of different geographical origin were included in the study. Investigation was carried out at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek in Croatia. The field trial was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Each plot included twenty spaced plants (50 x 50 cm of each cultivar/population. During two consecutive years (2006, 2007 the following data were collected: yields of green mass, dry matter and seed (g/plant, plant height (cm, dry matter content (%, persistence (%, flowering time. The analysis of variance was carried out for all the traits, with the exception of seed yield and flowering time (which were not recorded as replicated data, using PROC GLM of SAS 9.1. Differences among cultivars/populations were highly significant for all analyzed traits. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward method based on the seven morpho-agronomic traits allowed the identification of six groups of red clover cultivars/populations. This research shows that there is a great genetic variability in the investigated germplasm collection. The most promising materials were selected to form a new breeding gene pool that could be helpful for the improvement of our red clover breeding programme.

  9. Distribution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidative Activities of Rice Kernel and Their Relationships with Agronomic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kesarwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of two Japonica rice cultivars, Taikeng no. 16 (medium and slender grain and Kaohsiung no. 139 (short and round grain, grown under organic and conventional farming were examined. Analyses shows that Kaohsiung no. 139 contains the highest amount of secondary metabolites and continuous farming can increase its production. Results also suggest that phenolic content under different agronomic practices, has not shown significant differences but organically grown rice has proven to be better in higher accumulation of other secondary metabolites (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, flavonoid content, and ferrous chelating capacity. In nutshell, genetic traits and environment have significant effect on phenolic compounds and the least variation reported under agronomic practices.

  10. Global land model development: time to shift from a plant functional type to a plant functional trait approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, P. B.; Butler, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    This project will advance global land models by shifting from the current plant functional type approach to one that better utilizes what is known about the importance and variability of plant traits, within a framework of simultaneously improving fundamental physiological relations that are at the core of model carbon cycling algorithms. Existing models represent the global distribution of vegetation types using the Plant Functional Typeconcept. Plant Functional Types are classes of plant species with similar evolutionary and life history withpresumably similar responses to environmental conditions like CO2, water and nutrient availability. Fixedproperties for each Plant Functional Type are specified through a collection of physiological parameters, or traits.These traits, mostly physiological in nature (e.g., leaf nitrogen and longevity) are used in model algorithms to estimate ecosystem properties and/or drive calculated process rates. In most models, 5 to 15 functional types represent terrestrial vegetation; in essence, they assume there are a total of only 5 to 15 different kinds of plants on the entire globe. This assumption of constant plant traits captured within the functional type concept has serious limitations, as a single set of traits does not reflect trait variation observed within and between species and communities. While this simplification was necessary decades past, substantial improvement is now possible. Rather than assigning a small number of constant parameter values to all grid cells in a model, procedures will be developed that predict a frequency distribution of values for any given grid cell. Thus, the mean and variance, and how these change with time, will inform and improve model performance. The trait-based approach will improve land modeling by (1) incorporating patterns and heterogeneity of traits into model parameterization, thus evolving away from a framework that considers large areas of vegetation to have near identical trait

  11. Trait analysis, diversity, and genotype x environment interaction in some wheat landraces evaluated under drought and heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Sareen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Both drought and heat stress are responsible for decline in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in many regions of the world. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has predicted increase in these areas. Development of heat and drought tolerant genotypes is on priority. Landraces are unexploited genetic resources for various agronomic traits contributing tolerance to abiotic stress. Twenty-five wheat genotypes were evaluated in irrigated timely, rainfed timely and irrigated late sown conditions for 2 yr using 10 agronomic traits for their response to drought and heat stress and four stress indices (stress susceptibility index, stress tolerance index, mean productivity, and stress tolerance were calculated. Variability averaged over traits was highest under rainfed conditions. Grain yield, plant height, and productive tillers were more sensitive and test grain weight as tolerant under drought. Under heat stress grain yield, grain weight, test grain weight and phenological traits were more sensitive. Productive tillers and grain number per spike were identified as important selection parameters for drought and grain weight (per spike and test grain weight as for heat tolerance. Genotypes IC 321987, IC 322005, IC 138852, IC 138870 adapted to stressed environments or genotypes CPAN 4079 and NEPAL 38 stable over all environments can be used for introgression of the stress tolerance in elite cultivars.

  12. Beyond The Blueprint: Development Of Genome-Informed Trait-Based Models For Prediction Of Microbial Dynamics And Biogeochemical Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, E.; King, E.; Molins, S.; Karaoz, U.; Johnson, J. N.; Bouskill, N.; Hug, L. A.; Thomas, B. C.; Castelle, C. J.; Beller, H. R.; Banfield, J. F.; Steefel, C. I.

    2014-12-01

    In soils and sediments microorganisms perform essential ecosystem services through their roles in regulating the stability of carbon and the flux of nutrients, and the purification of water. But these are complex systems with the physical, chemical and biological components all intimately connected. Components of this complexity are gradually being uncovered and our understanding of the extent of microbial functional diversity in particular has been enhanced greatly with the development of cultivation independent approaches. However we have not moved far beyond a descriptive and correlative use of this powerful resource. As the ability to reconstruct thousands of genomes from microbial populations using metagenomic techniques gains momentum, the challenge will be to develop an understanding of how these metabolic blueprints serve to influence the fitness of organisms within these complex systems and how populations emerge and impact the physical and chemical properties of their environment. In the presentation we will discuss the development of a trait-based model of microbial activity that simulates coupled guilds of microorganisms that are parameterized including traits extracted from large-scale metagenomic data. Using a reactive transport framework we simulate the thermodynamics of coupled electron donor and acceptor reactions to predict the energy available for respiration, biomass development and exo-enzyme production. Each group within a functional guild is parameterized with a unique combination of traits governing organism fitness under dynamic environmental conditions. This presentation will address our latest developments in the estimation of trait values related to growth rate and the identification and linkage of key fitness traits associated with respiratory and fermentative pathways, macromolecule depolymerization enzymes and nitrogen fixation from metagenomic data. We are testing model sensitivity to initial microbial composition and intra

  13. Agronomic, cytogenetic, and isoenzymatic characterizations of oat somaclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizete Augustin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Immature embryo-derived somaclones regenerated from genotypes UPF 12, UPF 89S080 and UFRGS 7 were analyzed for eight agronomic traits and two enzymatic systems in order to evaluate the potential of tissue cultures to induce genetic variability in oats (Avena sativa L.. Some somaclones were also analyzed cytogenetically. Agronomic traits were evaluated in the field for all somaclones in 1993 and 1994. Bi-directional variation (P Para avaliar o potencial da cultura de tecidos na indução de variabilidade genética em aveia (Avena sativa L., somaclones regenerados de embriões imaturos dos genótipos UPF 12, UPF 89S080 e UFRGS 7 foram analisados em relação a oito características agronômicas e dois sistemas enzimáticos. A avaliação foi realizada em dois anos consecutivos, 1993 e 1994, em relação aos caracteres agronômicos. Foram observadas variações bidirecionais significativas (P < 0.05 para todos os caracteres, sendo que a freqüência média de variações detectadas em 1993, em populações somaclonais provenientes dos genótipos UPF 12 e UPF 89S080, foi de 35,2%. A maioria das alterações observadas em 1993 se mantiveram em 1994. A análise isoenzimática mostrou variações para os dois sistemas enzimáticos em quatro somaclones. A freqüência de anormalidades citogenéticas, de uma forma geral, foi baixa, porém mesmo nos somaclones onde a mesma foi alta, estas anormalidades não se refletiram na estabilidade meiótica. O processo de cultura de tecidos como gerador de variabilidade apresenta potencial como estratégia de apoio aos programas de melhoramento genético de aveia.

  14. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    OpenAIRE

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice Mariafe N. Calingacion Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits such as flavour and aroma, especially of non-fragrant rices, has not been given high priority. In this study, we utilised a multi-disciplinary approach to understand better quality traits of aroma and flavour in rice grains, and to ...

  15. Effects of Nitrogen and Cycocel Application on Soil Nitrate Pollution and Agronomic Characters of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvani, M; M. Shafiezadeh

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, due to the effective role of nitrogen fertilizer in growth, yield and crop quality, farmers apply large amount of chemical fertilizers. High application of nitrogen fertilizers has caused soil and water pollution and environmental dangers, higher nitrate accumulation in plant, and different disease risks in human and livestock. In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and cycocel application effects on soil nitrate pollution and agronomic traits of rice, an experiment was arr...

  16. Development of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) for Scaling Terrestrial Ecosystem Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, R.; McMahon, A. M.; Serbin, S.; Rogers, A.

    2015-12-01

    The next generation of Ecosystem and Earth System Models (EESMs) will require detailed information on ecosystem structure and function, including properties of vegetation related to carbon (C), water, and energy cycling, in order to project the future state of ecosystems. High spatial-temporal resolution measurements of terrestrial ecosystem are also important for EESMs, because they can provide critical inputs and benchmark datasets for evaluation of EESMs simulations across scales. The recent development of high-quality, low-altitude remote sensing platforms or small UAS (management, and information extraction. The fusion of 3D structure information, thermal-infrared imagery, and spectroscopic measurements, will provide a foundation for the development of ecological scaling and mapping algorithms. Our initial focus is in temperate forests but near-term research will expand into the high-arctic and eventually tropical systems. The results of this prototype study show that off-the-shelf technology can be used to develop a low-cost alternative for mapping plant traits and three-dimensional structure for ecological research.

  17. Identification of Three Distinct Eggplant Subgroups within the Solanum aethiopicum Gilo Group from Côte d’Ivoire by Morpho-Agronomic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auguste Kouassi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Solanum aethiopicum Gilo group, described as homogeneous, shows a high diversity, at least at the morphological level. In Côte d’Ivoire, farmers distinguish three subgroups, named “N’Drowa”, “Klogbo” and “Gnangnan”, within this group. Data were obtained from 10 quantitative and 14 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits measured in 326 accessions of Gilo eggplants, at flowering and fruiting stages. Univariate and multivariate analyses allowed clearly clustering the studied accessions into the three subgroups. Fruit taste, leaf blade width, fruit diameter, leaf blade length, fruit weight, fruit color at commercial ripeness, petiole length, germination time, plant breadth, fruit position on the plant, fruit length and flowering time were, in decreasing order, the twelve most discriminating traits. Compared to the “Gnangnan” subgroup, the “N’Drowa” subgroup has smaller plant breadth and larger leaves. The fruits of this subgroup were mainly white at commercial ripeness, larger and sweeter. Most of the traits of the “Klogbo” subgroup were intermediate between those of the “N’Drowa” and “Gnangnan” subgroups. Our results could contribute to a better understanding of S. aethiopicum diversity and to the development of a core collection for African eggplant breeding.

  18. Importance of personality traits and psychosocial factors for the development of coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous studies have provided clear and convincing evidence that psychosocial factors contribute to the pathogenesis and expression of coronary heart disease (CHD. These factors have been related to the following psychosocial domains: personality factors and character traits, depression, anxiety, social isolation and chronic life stress. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of personality traits and psychosocial risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. Methods. The investigation was conducted as observational cross-sectional (case-control study. Based on medical records all subjects were divided into two groups: the group of patients with CHD (61 participants, and the control group of 41 healthy participants. All participants fulfilled the Eysenck Inventory Questionnaire, Paykel stress scale and Bortner scale of A-B self-estimation. Results. The participants with CHD were shown to have lower education than healthy participants, but were comparable by gender, age and place of residence. According to the Bortner scale, most participants with CHD expressed type A personality, whereas most healthy participants expressed types B and AB. The patients with CHD achieved higher scores on the Paykel stress scale of life events, and they had the higher level of neurotic and psychotic tendencies, as well as the lower level of extroversion compared to the healthy participants. Multivariate logistic regression model identified chronic stress (odds ratio 1.018; 95% confidence interval 1.007−1.028 as an important predictor for the occurrence of coronary heart disease, when adjusted for age, gender, nourishment and blood pressure. On the other side, the lower risk for the occurrence of CHD was observed among the participants who had the higher level of extroversion (odds ratio 0.859; 95% confidence interval 0.636−0.902. Conclusion. Chronic stress and introversion can be considered important risk factors for

  19. Non cognitive skills and personality traits: Labour market relevance and their development in education & training systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello, Giorgio; Schlotter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical economic literature on the relative importance of non cognitive skills for school and labour market outcomes, with a focus on Europe. There is evidence that high cognitive test scores are likely to result not only from high cognitive skills but also from high motivation and adequate personality traits. This suggests that part of the contribution of cognitive skills to economic growth could be due to personality traits. Across large parts of the literature, the...

  20. Appetitive traits and relationships with BMI in adults: Development of the Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunot, Claudia; Fildes, Alison; Croker, Helen; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a validated parent-report measure of appetitive traits associated with weight in childhood. There is currently no matched measure for use in adults. The aim of this study was to adapt the CEBQ into a self-report Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) to explore whether the associations between appetitive traits and BMI observed in children are present in adults. Two adult samples were recruited one year apart from an online survey panel in 2013 (n = 708) and 2014 (n = 954). Both samples completed the AEBQ and self-reported their weight and height. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive 35 items for the AEBQ in Sample 1 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the factor structure in Sample 2. Reliability of the AEBQ was assessed using Cronbach's α and a two week test-retest in a sub-sample of 93 participants. Correlations between appetitive traits measured by the AEBQ and BMI were calculated. PCA and CFA results showed the AEBQ to be a reliable questionnaire (Cronbach's α > 0.70) measuring 8 appetitive traits similar to the CEBQ [Hunger (H), Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Over-Eating (EOE), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Emotional Under-eating (EUE), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE)]. Associations with BMI showed FR, EF (p < 0.05) and EOE (p < 0.01) were positively associated and SR, EUE and SE (p < 0.01) were negatively associated. Overall, the AEBQ appears to be a reliable measure of appetitive traits in adults which translates well from the validated child measure. Adults with a higher BMI had higher scores for 'food approach' traits (FR, EOE and EF) and lower scores for 'food avoidance' traits (SR, EUE and SE). PMID:27215837

  1. Trait-based representation of biological nitrification: Model development, testing, and predicted community composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NickBouskill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Trait-based microbial models show clear promise as tools to represent the diversity and activity of microorganisms across ecosystem gradients. These models parameterize specific traits that determine the relative fitness of an ‘organism’ in a given environment, and represent the complexity of biological systems across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we introduce a microbial community trait-based modeling framework (MicroTrait focused on nitrification (MicroTrait-N that represents the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB using traits related to enzyme kinetics and physiological properties. We used this model to predict nitrifier diversity, ammonia (NH3 oxidation rates and nitrous oxide (N2O production across pH, temperature and substrate gradients. Predicted nitrifier diversity was predominantly determined by temperature and substrate availability, the latter was strongly influenced by pH. The model predicted that transient N2O production rates are maximized by a decoupling of the AOB and NOB communities, resulting in an accumulation and detoxification of nitrite to N2O by AOB. However, cumulative N2O production (over six month simulations is maximized in a system where the relationship between AOB and NOB is maintained. When the reactions uncouple, the AOB become unstable and biomass declines rapidly, resulting in decreased NH3 oxidation and N2O production. We evaluated this model against site level chemical datasets from the interior of Alaska and accurately simulated NH3 oxidation rates and the relative ratio of AOA:AOB biomass. The predicted community structure and activity indicate (a parameterization of a small number of traits may be sufficient to broadly characterize nitrifying community structure and (b changing decadal trends in climate and edaphic conditions could impact nitrification rates in ways that are not captured by extant biogeochemical models.

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L.): use of random versus trait-linked microsatellite markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sheel Yadav; Ashutosh Singh; M. R. Singh; Nitika Goel; K. K. Vinod; T. Mohapatra; A. K. Singh

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of genetic diversity in a crop germplasm is a vital part of plant breeding. DNA markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers have been widely used to estimate the genetic diversity in rice. The present study was carried out to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic variability, and to assess the efficiency of random vis-à-vis QTL linked/gene based simple sequence repeat markers in diversity estimation. A set of 88 rice accessions that included landraces, farmer’s varieties and popular Basmati lines were evaluated for agronomic traits and molecular diversity. The random set of SSR markers included 50 diversity panel markers developed under IRRI’s Generation Challenge Programme (GCP) and the trait-linked/gene based markers comprised of 50 SSR markers reportedly linked to yield and related components. For agronomic traits, significant variability was observed, ranging between the maximum for grains/panicle and the minimum for panicle length. The molecular diversity based grouping indicated that varieties from a common centre were genetically similar, with few exceptions. The trait-linked markers gave an average genetic dissimilarity of 0.45 as against that of 0.37 by random markers, along with an average polymorphic information constant value of 0.48 and 0.41 respectively. The correlation between the kinship matrix generated by trait-linked markers and the phenotype based distance matrix (0.29) was higher than that of random markers (0.19). This establishes the robustness of trait-linked markers over random markers in estimating genetic diversity of rice germplasm.

  3. Engineering Value-Added Traits in Cereal Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal crops – chiefly wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, and pearl millet – are the main food source for more than two-thirds of the world population. Conventional breeding is mainly responsible for the genetic improvement of cereal crops and has resulted in cultivars with superior agronomic traits. Ho...

  4. Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt GS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

  5. Trait impulsivity and anhedonia: two gateways for the development of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc eHoueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Apathy and impulsivity are two major comorbid syndromes of Parkinson’s disease (PD that may represent two extremes of a behavioral spectrum modulated by dopamine-dependent processes. PD is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta to which are attributed the cardinal motor symptoms of the disorder. Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT, used widely to treat these motor symptoms, is often associated with deficits in hedonic processing and motivation, including apathy and depression, as well as impulse control disorders (ICDs. ICDs comprise pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping, binge eating, compulsive overuse of dopaminergic medication, and punding. More frequently observed in males with early onset PD, ICDs are associated not only with co-morbid affective symptoms such as depression and anxiety, but also with behavioral traits such as novelty seeking and impulsivity, as well as with personal or familial history of alcohol use. This constellation of associated risk factors highlights the importance of inter-individual differences in the vulnerability to develop comorbid psychiatric disorders in PD patients. Additionally, withdrawal from DRT in patients with ICDs frequently unmasks a severe apathetic state, suggesting that apathy and ICDs may be caused by overlapping neurobiological mechanisms within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical networks. We suggest that altered hedonic and impulse control processes represent distinct prodromal substrates for the development of these psychiatric symptoms, the etiopathogenic mechanisms of which remain unknown. Specifically, we argue that deficits in hedonic and motivational states and impulse control are mediated by overlapping, yet dissociable, neural mechanisms that differentially interact with DRT to promote the emergence of ICDs in vulnerable individuals. We thus provide a novel heuristic framework for basic and clinical

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Management on Tobacco Agronomic and Economic Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangzhi Yu1,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunyan 97 was used as the tested tobacco cultivar, the impact of nitrogenous fertilizer application management such as nitrogenous fertilizer reduction and application ratio increased in base fertilizer was studied based on the field experiment. The results showed that, (1 The nitrogenous fertilizer reduction affected the stem height in resetting growth stage, length and width of the middle leaf in fast growing period, and width of upper leaf in matured stage, length and width of middle leaf in matured stage significantly. These agronomic traits were decreased obviously along with reduction of nitrogenous fertilizer. (2 Regulation of nitrogen application ratio in base fertilizer showed that the proper nitrogen application ratio of 70% to 30%, with the increasing of the stem height in resetting growth stage, internodes length, length of middle leaf and stem girth in matured stage, the yield, output and the ratio of mid-high grade leaves were promoted. The nitrogen application ratio exceeded at early stage (base fertilizer proportion was 80% and the proper rate (base fertilizer proportion was 70% had no obvious difference. However, the nitrogen application ratio exceeded at later stage (base fertilizer proportion was only 60% affected the agronomic trait and economic character of tobacco disadvantageously.

  7. ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) WHEATS

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Janzen, Edward L.; Dahl, Bruce L.; Wachenheim, Cheryl J.

    2003-01-01

    Development of genetically modified (GM) wheat varieties is proceeding; however, several critical issues remain the focus of contention. This project summarizes the current state of knowledge on some of these critical issues for commercialization of GM wheats. Background on the evolution of GM Wheats is presented. Then, agronomic adoption and competitiveness of GM crops; research on GM traits in wheat; consumer acceptance of GM crops (a separate section is included on issues related to consum...

  8. Agronomic evaluation of guano sources by means of isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many soils of the tropics and subtropics under continuous cultivation are very infertile, thus poor yields are obtained and little crop residues remain to protect the soils from degrading erosion. External nutrient inputs in the form of chemical fertilizers, organic materials and other nutrients sources are essential for developing sustainable agricultural production systems. As chemical fertilizers are costly for developing countries with insufficient foreign currency for their purchase and their supplies are limited and irregular for small landholders, alternative nutrient sources must be sought and evaluated for use in dominant agricultural production systems. Locally available organic materials of different origin are potential sources of nutrients. One such source with high agronomic potential is guano. The present study was carried out to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of two guano materials of different origin (Zaire and Peru) as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus as compared to chemical fertilizers (ammonium sulfate and triple superphosphate) using isotopic ( 15N and 32P) techniques. Using the classical method of comparing dry matter weight and P uptake, no significant differences among the tested guano sources were found. The use of the isotopic techniques allowed a quantitative assessment of the N and P supply to crops. Both guano materials were found to be good sources of N but in contrast were poor sources of phosphorus. In addition, from the agronomic evaluation, it was found that the guano of Zaire and the ammonium sulfate were N sources of equivalent efficiency and the guano of Peru even slightly better than the ammonium sulfate. As expected, P in the single superphosphate was as available to the P in the triple superphosphate. However, the substitution ratios for the guano sources were relatively high. Thus, 1 kg P as single superphosphate was equivalent to 9.5 kg P as guano from Zaire or 12.5 kg P as guano from Peru. Further field trials in

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of potato tuber development and tuber quality traits using microarray technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The potato crop is one of the most important food crops in the world and in order to understand how in potato plants the formation of potato tubers and the determination of different tuber quality traits are regulated, we need to identify and characterize the genes that are involved in regulating th

  10. Agronomic conditions and crop evolution in ancient Near East agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araus, José L; Ferrio, Juan P; Voltas, Jordi; Aguilera, Mònica; Buxó, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent propelled the development of Western civilization. Here we investigate the evolution of agronomic conditions in this region by reconstructing cereal kernel weight and using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of kernels and charcoal from a set of 11 Upper Mesopotamia archaeological sites, with chronologies spanning from the onset of agriculture to the turn of the era. We show that water availability for crops, inferred from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C), was two- to fourfold higher in the past than at present, with a maximum between 10,000 and 8,000 cal BP. Nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) decreased over time, which suggests cultivation occurring under gradually less-fertile soil conditions. Domesticated cereals showed a progressive increase in kernel weight over several millennia following domestication. Our results provide a first comprehensive view of agricultural evolution in the Near East inferred directly from archaeobotanical remains. PMID:24853475

  11. Spectral-agronomic relationships of corn, soybean and wheat canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Daughtry, C. S. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    During the past six years several thousand reflectance spectra of corn, soybean, and wheat canopies were acquired and analyzed. The relationships of biophysical variables, including leaf area index, percent soil cover, chlorophyll and water content, to the visible and infrared reflectance of canopies are described. The effects on reflectance of cultural, environmental, and stress factors such as planting data, seeding rate, row spacing, cultivar, soil type and nitrogen fertilization are also examined. The conclusions are that several key agronomic variables including leaf area index, development stage and degree of stress are strongly related to spectral reflectance and that it should be possible to estimate these descriptions of crop condition from satellite acquired multispectral data.

  12. Evaluation Of The Impact Of Chemical And Biological Fertiliser Application On Agronomical Traits Of Safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L.) / Íîmiskâ Un Bioloìiskâ Mçslojuma Pielietojuma Ietekme Uz Saflora (Carthamus Tinctorius L.) Agronomiskâm Pazîmçm

    OpenAIRE

    Janmohammadi Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of biological and chemical fertilisers on morphological traits, yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a field experiment was conducted in Maragheh (37°23' N; 46°16' E), in north western Iran, for one year in the 2014 growing season. The effect of seven treatments was evaluated: T1 - control (no fertiliser application), T2 - seed inoculation with P biofertiliser (contains phosphate solubilising bacteria; Pantoea agglomerans str...

  13. Evaluation Of The Impact Of Chemical And Biological Fertiliser Application On Agronomical Traits Of Safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L. / Íîmiskâ Un Bioloìiskâ Mçslojuma Pielietojuma Ietekme Uz Saflora (Carthamus Tinctorius L. Agronomiskâm Pazîmçm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmohammadi Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of biological and chemical fertilisers on morphological traits, yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a field experiment was conducted in Maragheh (37°23' N; 46°16' E, in north western Iran, for one year in the 2014 growing season. The effect of seven treatments was evaluated: T1 - control (no fertiliser application, T2 - seed inoculation with P biofertiliser (contains phosphate solubilising bacteria; Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and Pseudomonas putida strain P13, T3 - seed inoculation with N biofertiliser (contains Azotobacter vinelandii strain O4, T4 - foliar application of iron chelate, T5 - soil application of complete NPK, T6: foliar application of manganese chelate, and T7 - foliar application of zinc sulphate. The result showed that although application of N biofertiliser did not have a significant effect on the evaluated traits, P biofertiliser slightly improved grain yield. However, the application of complete NPK fertiliser improved most of the traits, compared to the control and biofertiliser treatment. The best performance was obtained by foliar application of manganese chelate and zinc sulphate. The results showed that micronutrient-deficiencies have to be managed to unlock the potential yield of safflower in semiarid production systems.

  14. Effect of Within-Row Spacing on Agronomic and Morphological Characteristics of the Flue-Cured Tobacco Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bukan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. production the aim is improvement of yield and quality (usability of cured leaf. This has been achieved through development of new cultivars and adjustment of cultural practices. In Croatia, most of the flue-cured tobacco is grown at plant spacing of 45 cm within and 100 cm between rows, i.e. at planting density of about 22,000 plants per ha. In order to evaluate the effect of decreased planting density on agronomic and morphological characteristics of flue-cured tobacco, field experiments with six flue-cured tobacco cultivars and two within row plant spacings (45 and 55 cm were conducted at two locations in the main Croatian flue-cured tobacco growing regions, over four years (2005 to 2008. Wider spacing within rows resulted in 396.12 kg ha-1 higher yield and 861.01 $ ha-1 higher value than the closer spacing. Change in price was not significant. Length, width, and leaf area of the 9th leaf also increased significantly at 55 cm within row spacing, while plant height and leaf number were unchanged. Cultivar x plant spacing and environment x plant spacing interactions were not significant for the studied traits. Results indicate that higher yield, higher value and good quality of cured tobacco leaf could be produced at 55 cm within row spacing (about 18,000 plants per ha.

  15. Effect of Within-Row Spacing on Agronomical and Morphological Characteristics of the Flue-Cured Tobacco Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bukan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. production the aim is improvement of yield and quality (usability of cured leaf. This has been achieved through development of new cultivars and adjustment of cultural practices. In Croatia, most of the flue-cured tobacco is grown at plant spacing of 45 cm within and 100 cm between rows, i.e. at planting density of about 22,000 plants per ha. In order to evaluate the effect of decreased planting density on agronomic and morphological characteristics of flue-cured tobacco, field experiments with six flue-cured tobacco cultivars and two within row plant spacings (45 and 55 cm were conducted at two locations in the main Croatian flue-cured tobacco growing regions, over four years (2005 to 2008. Wider spacing within rows resulted in 396.12 kg ha-1 higher yield and 861.01 $ ha-1 higher value than the closer spacing. Change in price was not significant. Length, width, and leaf area of the 9th leaf also increased significantly at 55 cm within row spacing, while plant height and leaf number were unchanged. Cultivar x plant spacing and environment x plant spacing interactions were not significant for the studied traits. Results indicate that higher yield, higher value and good quality of cured tobacco leaf could be produced at 55 cm within row spacing (about 18,000 plants per ha.

  16. Genetic control of soybean seed isoflavone content: importance of statistical model and epistasis in complex traits

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Juan Jose; Wu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Juan; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Ellersieck, Mark; Shannon, J. Grover; Yu, Oliver; Nguyen, Henry T.; Sleper, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A major objective for geneticists is to decipher genetic architecture of traits associated with agronomic importance. However, a majority of such traits are complex, and their genetic dissection has been traditionally hampered not only by the number of minor-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) but also by genome-wide interacting loci with little or no individual effect. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seed isoflavonoids display a broad range of variation, even in genetically stabilized line...

  17. Agronomic Effectiveness of Partially Acidulated Phosphate Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENIAN-ZU; SUNQI-WEI

    1994-01-01

    Laboratorial incubation and field experiments were conducted on soils ranging in texture from sandy loam to clay and in pH from 3.6 to 9.0 to determine the agronomic effectiveness of single superphosphate (SSP).fused magnesium phosphate(FMP) and partially acidulated phosphate rock(PAPR) on 8 field crops.The results showed that the pattern of available P released from SSP was fixing-releasing-fixing-steady state,while that of PAPR was shortly fixing-slowly releasing-fixing steady state.And the PAPR,SSP and FMP were equally effective as judged by yield Puptake by phants and extractable P in soils after crop harvesting,The PAPR used as basal fertilizer was more effective than that as top dressing,and its residual effect was also obvious.

  18. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility in chicken to develop pulmonary hypertension syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, T S K M; Crooijmans, R P M A; Bovenhuis, H; Vereijken, A L J; Veenendaal, T; van der Poel, J J; Van Arendonk, J A M; Pakdel, A; Groenen, M A M

    2005-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), also referred to as ascites syndrome, is a growth-related disorder of chickens frequently observed in fast-growing broilers with insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity at low temperature and/or at high altitude. A cross between two genetically different broiler dam lines that originated from the White Plymouth Rock breed was used to produce a three-generation population. This population was used for the detection and localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting PHS-related traits. Ten full-sib families consisting of 456 G2 birds were typed with 420 microsatellite markers covering 24 autosomal chromosomes. Phenotypic observations were collected on 4202 G3 birds and a full-sib across family regression interval mapping approach was used to identify QTL. There was statistical evidence for QTL on chicken chromosome 2 (GGA2), GGA4 and GGA6. Suggestive QTL were found on chromosomes 5, 8, 10, 27 and 28. The most significant QTL were located on GGA2 for right and total ventricular weight as percentage of body weight (%RV and %TV respectively). A related trait, the ratio of right ventricular weight as percentage to total ventricular weight (RATIO), reached the suggestive threshold on this chromosome. All three QTL effects identified on GGA2 had their maximum test statistic in the region flanked by markers MCW0185 and MCW0245 (335-421 cM). PMID:16293119

  19. Effects of Cold and Heat Stress on Egg Quality Traits of a Newly Developed Native Hybrid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ATAK-S is a newly developed native hybrid layer. Although the laying performance of this hybrid has been studied and determined, the performance response of the hybrid to different environmental temperature conditions is not known. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cold and heat stress on egg quality traits. Hens were divided into three different groups; control (20°C, low (12°C and high (32°C. A total of 360 hens, with 120 in each of the groups, were used in the study. Hens were held in three tier battery cages in an environmentally controlled poultry house. The study lasted for 3 weeks. No differences were found among different groups in terms of shape index, albumen height and Haugh unit of the egg quality traits. It was found that the differences among the heat groups in terms of egg shell breaking strength, egg weight, shell thickness and yolk colour were significant and the value of these traits decreased under the heat stress conditions, whereas they were not affected from the cold stress.

  20. Molecular and Morpho-Agronomical Characterization of Root Architecture at Seedling and Reproductive Stages for Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod; Naik, Bhojaraja K.; Chand, Suresh; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Mallick, Niharika; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Tomar, S. M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. Root architecture is important for water and nutrition acquisition for all crops, including wheat. A set of 158 diverse wheat genotypes of Australian (72) and Indian (86) origin were studied for morpho-agronomical traits in field under irrigated and drought stress conditions during 2010–11 and 2011-12.Out of these 31 Indian wheat genotypes comprising 28 hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.) and 3 tetraploid (T. durum) were characterized for root traits at reproductive stage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. Roots of drought tolerant genotypes grew upto137cm (C306) as compared to sensitive one of 63cm with a mean value of 94.8cm. Root architecture traits of four drought tolerant (C306, HW2004, HD2888 and NI5439) and drought sensitive (HD2877, HD2012, HD2851 and MACS2496) genotypes were also observed at 6 and 9 days old seedling stage. The genotypes did not show any significant variation for root traits except for longer coleoptiles and shoot and higher absorptive surface area in drought tolerant genotypes. The visible evaluation of root images using WinRhizo Tron root scanner of drought tolerant genotype HW2004 indicated compact root system with longer depth while drought sensitive genotype HD2877 exhibited higher horizontal root spread and less depth at reproductive stage. Thirty SSR markers were used to study genetic variation which ranged from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average value of 0.57. The genotypes were categorized into three subgroups as highly tolerant, sensitive, moderately sensitive and tolerant as intermediate group based on UPGMA cluster, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses. The genotypic clustering was positively correlated to grouping based on root and morpho-agronomical traits. The genetic variability identified in current study demonstrated these traits can be used to improve drought tolerance and association

  1. Molecular and Morpho-Agronomical Characterization of Root Architecture at Seedling and Reproductive Stages for Drought Tolerance in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Ram Sewak Singh; Tiwari, Sushma; Vinod; Naik, Bhojaraja K; Chand, Suresh; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Mallick, Niharika; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Tomar, S M S

    2016-01-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. Root architecture is important for water and nutrition acquisition for all crops, including wheat. A set of 158 diverse wheat genotypes of Australian (72) and Indian (86) origin were studied for morpho-agronomical traits in field under irrigated and drought stress conditions during 2010-11 and 2011-12.Out of these 31 Indian wheat genotypes comprising 28 hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.) and 3 tetraploid (T. durum) were characterized for root traits at reproductive stage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. Roots of drought tolerant genotypes grew upto137cm (C306) as compared to sensitive one of 63cm with a mean value of 94.8cm. Root architecture traits of four drought tolerant (C306, HW2004, HD2888 and NI5439) and drought sensitive (HD2877, HD2012, HD2851 and MACS2496) genotypes were also observed at 6 and 9 days old seedling stage. The genotypes did not show any significant variation for root traits except for longer coleoptiles and shoot and higher absorptive surface area in drought tolerant genotypes. The visible evaluation of root images using WinRhizo Tron root scanner of drought tolerant genotype HW2004 indicated compact root system with longer depth while drought sensitive genotype HD2877 exhibited higher horizontal root spread and less depth at reproductive stage. Thirty SSR markers were used to study genetic variation which ranged from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average value of 0.57. The genotypes were categorized into three subgroups as highly tolerant, sensitive, moderately sensitive and tolerant as intermediate group based on UPGMA cluster, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses. The genotypic clustering was positively correlated to grouping based on root and morpho-agronomical traits. The genetic variability identified in current study demonstrated these traits can be used to improve drought tolerance and association

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of potato tuber development and tuber quality traits using microarray technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kloosterman, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The potato crop is one of the most important food crops in the world and in order to understand how in potato plants the formation of potato tubers and the determination of different tuber quality traits are regulated, we need to identify and characterize the genes that are involved in regulating these processes. The aim of the research described in this PhD thesis was to implement a relatively new genomic tool (i.e. microarray technology) in an ongoing study to understand the process of pota...

  3. Assessment of Environmental and Hereditary Influence on Development of Pituitary Tumors Using Dermatoglyphic Traits and Their Potential as Screening Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradiser, Marina; Matovinovic Osvatic, Martina; Dilber, Dario; Bilic-Curcic, Ines

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess environmental and hereditary influence on development of pituitary tumors using dermatoglyphic traits. The study was performed on 126 patients of both genders with pituitary tumors (60 non-functional and 66 functional pituitary tumor patients) in comparison to the control group of 400 phenotypically healthy individuals. Statistical analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits of digito-palmar dermatoglyphics was performed, and hormonal status was determined according to the standard protocols. Although we did not find markers that could specifically distinguish functional from non-functional tumors, we have found markers predisposing to the development of tumors in general (a small number of ridges between triradius of both hands, a smaller number of ridges between the triradius of c-d rc R), those for endocrine dysfunction (increased number of arches and reduced number of whorls, difference of pattern distribution in the I3 and I4 interdigital space), and some that could potentially be attributed to patients suffering from pituitary tumors (small number of ridges for variables FRR 5, smaller number of ridges in the FRL 4 of both hands and difference of pattern distribution at thenar of I1 and I2 interdigital space). The usage of dermatoglyphic traits as markers of predisposition of pituitary tumor development could facilitate the earlier detection of patients in addition to standard methods, and possibly earlier treatment and higher survival rate. Finally, our results are consistent with the hypothesis about multifactorial nature of pituitary tumor etiology comprised of both gene instability and environmental factors. PMID:26999178

  4. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: I. Sources of Agronomic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers which was conducted to: assess where and from whom local fertilizer dealers obtain agronomic training; evaluate the effectiveness of various dealer training; and determine the needs and objectives of future training programs. (TW)

  5. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: II. Sources of Agronomic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers that was conducted to assess how the dealers were obtaining their agronomic information, aside from formal training sessions, and determine if these sources of information were satisfactory in fulfilling the dealers' needs. (TW)

  6. The Influence of Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits on Academic Development Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Brown, Joshua L; Jones, Stephanie M; Aber, J Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    The present study attempted to address developmental differences within the large group of youth with conduct problems through an examination of the relationship between callous-unemotional traits and academic outcomes in an effort to expand the field's understanding of heterogeneity in outcomes associated with behavior problems. Data were collected from a cohort of 3rd grade students (N = 942; 51 % female; 45.6 % Hispanic/Latino, 41.1 % Black/African American, 4.7 % Non-Hispanic White; mean age = 8.07 years) in eighteen public elementary schools, as well as their parents and teachers. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that callous-unemotional traits were associated with lower quality student-teacher relationships and worse performance on standardized math and reading exams over and above the effects of conduct problems. These findings suggest that school-based interventions may be particularly effective in ameliorating some of the deficits noted within this subset of youth exhibiting conduct problems. This finding has important policy implications as the field of developmental science attempts to design and enrich programs that focus on improving social-emotional learning. PMID:26369348

  7. Can Species Traits Predict the Susceptibility of Riverine Fish to Water Resource Development? An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J.; Sternberg, David

    2015-06-01

    Water resource developments alter riverine environments by disrupting longitudinal connectivity, transforming lotic habitats, and modifying in-stream hydraulic conditions. Effective management of anthropogenic disturbances therefore requires an understanding of the range of potential ecosystem effects and the inherent traits symptomatic of elevated vulnerability to disturbance. Using 42 riverine fish native to South Eastern Australia as a case study, we quantified six morphological, behavioral, and life-history traits to classify species into groups reflecting potential differences in their response to ecosystem changes as a result of water resource development. Classification analysis identified five strategies based on fish life-history dispersal requirements, climbing potential, and habitat preference. These strategies in turn highlight the potential species at risk from the separate impacts of water resource development and inform management decisions to mitigate those risks. Swimming ability did not contribute to distinguishing species into functional groups, likely due to methodological inconsistencies in quantifying swimming performance that may ultimately hinder the ability of fish passage facilities to function within the physical capabilities of species at risk of habitat fragmentation. This study improves our ability to predict the performance of groups of species at risk from the multiple environmental changes imposed by humans and goes beyond broad-scale dispersal requirements as a predictor of individual species response.

  8. Características agronómicas y contenido de Fe y Zn en el grano de frijol tipo Rosa de Castilla (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Agronomic traits and Fe and Zn content in the grain of common Rosa de Castilla type bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Jiménez-Hernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El frijol de tipo Rosa de Castilla (RC es popular en áreas de Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí y Zacatecas, donde se produce bajo temporal. El objetivo fue comparar características agronómicas de 22 colectas de tipo RC con dos variedades mejoradas de tipo Flor de Mayo (FM bajo condiciones de temporal. El experimento se estableció en 2008 en dos localidades de Guanajuato, Celaya (1 785 msnm y Ocampo (2 200 msnm y una de San Luis Potosí, Villa de Arriaga (2 200 msnm. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar. En las localidades de Guanajuato se determinaron características fenologicas y la reacción a enfermedades y en las tres se determino el rendimiento y peso de 100 semillas y a una muestra de semilla de cada material se le determino el contenido de hierro y Zinc. Se observaron diferencias significativas (p 1 300 kg ha-¹, lo obtuvieron las colectas RCG08001, RCA06001 y RCZ06001. El promedio del peso de 100 semillas más alto lo obtuvo la colecta RCSLP 08001 con 40.2 g. Las colectas sobresalientes por contenido de minerales fueron RCG 08011 y RCZ06001 con más de 65 y 40 ppm para Fe y Zn, respectivamente. En comparación con los testigos, las colectas mostraron ciclo largo y susceptibilidad a la roya y al tizón de halo.The 'Rosa de Castilla' type bean is popular in areas of Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí and Zacatecas, where it is produced under rainfed conditions. The aim of this research was to compare the agronomic characteristics of 22 RC accessions with two bred cultivars of the Flor de Mayo type beans grown under rainfed conditions. The trial was established during 2008 under rainfall conditions in two locations in the state of Guanajuato: Celaya (1 785 masl and Ocampo (2 200 masl, as well as one in San Luis Potosí, in Villa de Arriaga (2 200 masl. A complete random block design was used. At the locations in Guanajuato, phenological characteristics and reactions to diseases were established, and in all three locations, seed

  9. Evaluation of selenium and carotenoid concentrations of 200 foxtail millet accessions from China and their correlations with agronomic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Min-xuan; ZHANG Zong-wen; REN Gui-xing; ZHANG Qi; WANG Yin-yue; LU Ping

    2016-01-01

    As selenium and carotenoids are essential micronutrients, the determination of their concentrations in different varieties is important in the breeding of foxtail milet (Setaria italicaL. P.Beauv.). To identify selenium- and carotenoid-enriched foxtail milet varieties and to analyze correlations between trace elements and agronomic traits, we measured the selenium and carotenoid concentrations of 200 Chinese accessions by high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic lfuorescence spectrometry. Our analysis revealed that lutein concentration in 200 foxtail milet accessions folowed normal distribution and average was 3.1 μg g–1. The mean value of zeaxanthin concentration in 200 accessions was 8.6 μg g–1. Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations were higher in the foxtail milet from Liaoning than in varieties from other locations, with averages of 10.0 and 3.5 μg g–1, respectively. The average measured selenium concentration was 100.3 μg kg–1. The highest average selenium concentration, 110.3 μg kg–1, was found in varieties from Shanxi. Varieties from Inner Mongolia had the lowest average selenium concentration, 84.7 μg kg–1, which was signiifcantly lower (P4.27 μg g–1) and 30 zeaxanthin-enriched ones (>12.63 μg g–1), which corresponded to 14.5 and 15% of tested accessions, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that selenium concentration was signiifcantly positively correlated with spikelet length (P<0.01), while zeaxanthin concentration was signiifcantly correlated with grass weight (P<0.05) and spikelet length (P<0.01). No correlation was found between lutein concentration and agronomic characters, selenium content or zeaxanthin content. Our results should contribute substantialy to the selection of suitable varieties for the development of plants with desired levels of these nutritionaly important elements. These results wil signiifcantly contribute towards selection of the most suitable varieties for obtaining plants with desired

  10. Nitrogen fertilization of fall panicum cultivars (Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.): biochemical and agronomical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Soratto Rogério Peres; Lima Eduardo do Valle; Silva Tiago Roque Benetoli da; Boaro Carmen Sílvia Fernandes; Cataneo Ana Catarina

    2004-01-01

    Information on improved fall panicum cultivars and agronomical pratices is scarce because of the relatively small importance of this crop in Brazil. The present study aimed to evaluate levels of nitrogen sidedressing on plant development and biochemical characteristics of two fall panicum cultivars. The experiment was set up under plastic tunnel conditions in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, with plants growing inside asbestos-cement boxes. The experimental design was a randomized block setup and...

  11. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2009-01-01

    The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin res...

  12. Associação entre características agronômicas e capacidade de expansão em população de milho pipoca sob seleção recorrente Association between agronomical traits and popping expansion in a popcorn population under recurrent selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Macedo Rangel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, investigar a possibilidade de seleção mais eficiente por meio do uso de análise de trilha e de correlações parciais no programa de seleção recorrente da população UENF de milho pipoca. Duzentas famílias de irmãos completos foram obtidas e avaliadas quanto a oito características em dois ambientes no estado do Rio de Janeiro: Campos dos Goytacazes e Itaocara. A correlação genotípica entre capacidade de expansão e rendimento de grãos foi negativa e não significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo teste t. A análise de trilha demonstrou ser a massa de 100 grãos, a característica mais associada à capacidade de expansão neste estudo. Há possibilidade de obtenção de resposta correlacionada em capacidade de expansão e rendimento de grãos, desde que se selecionem, entre os genótipos de maior rendimento, aqueles com menores tamanhos de grãos.The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of a more efficient selection through path analysis and partial correlation in the breeding program of the UENF popcorn population by recurrent selection. Two hundred full-sib progenies were obtained and evaluated by eight traits in two environments in Rio de Janeiro State: Campos dos Goytacazes and Itaocara. The genotypic correlation between popping expansion and grain yield was negative and non significant at the 5% probability level by t test. Path analysis showed that mass weight of 100 grains is the most associated trait at popping expansion in this study. It is possible to obtain correlated response for popping expansion by grain yield, as long as genotypes with smaller grain size are selected from the genotypes with higher grain yield.

  13. WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM TRAIT THEORIES AND CHARISMATIC-TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP?: A NOTE TO DEVELOP PERSONAL CAREER STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Juli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how personal strategies for career advancement and leadership skills can be developed by drawing a red line from the trait theories of leadership and charismatic-transformational leadership. Shackleton's experience will provide an important example and reinforce those two theories which suggest that no leadership theories can be applied in isolation and that directly or indirectly, those theories will be manifested in a successful leader. Some challenges to the future leadership are examined in order to develop some personal career strategies that may be applicable for future careers. Five strategies (personal vision, personal development, mentoring, team building, and learning and change of future leadership career are finally suggested. The first two strategies deal with the development of personal leadership started by setting a personal mission which inspires the development of personal leadership qualities. The next two strategies, mentoring and team-building are intended to incorporate the personal leadership into an organisational setting and make the leadership meaningful for other people. Finally, it can be inferred that those four strategies are not sufficient in a turbulent and dynamic environment and thus the last strategy is required to enhance the leaders' ability to stimulate learning and change in the organisation. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui secara mendalam tentang bagaimanakah strategi-strategi untuk meningkatkan karir dan kemampuan kepemimpinan seorang individu dapat dibangun dengan berfokus pada teori kepemimpinan trait dan teori kepemimpinan transformasi karismatik. Pengalaman Shackleton akan menjadi contoh yang penting dan menguatkan, bahwa tidak satupun dari kedua teori kepemimpinan tersebut dapat diaplikasikan didalam suatu keadaan yang terisolasi, dan bahwa kedua teori tersebut, baik secara langsung maupun tidak, akan termanifestasikan dalam diri seorang

  14. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  15. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  16. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F(sub 2) progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar

  17. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-06-20

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  18. Statistical epistasis between candidate gene alleles for complex tuber traits in an association mapping population of tetraploid potato

    OpenAIRE

    Li LI; Paulo, M.J.; Eeuwijk, van, F.A.; Gebhardt, C.

    2010-01-01

    Association mapping using DNA-based markers is a novel tool in plant genetics for the analysis of complex traits. Potato tuber yield, starch content, starch yield and chip color are complex traits of agronomic relevance, for which carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role. At the functional level, the genes and biochemical pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism are among the best studied in plants. Quantitative traits such as tuber starch and sugar content are therefore models for...

  19. Agronomic characteristics of five different urban waste digestates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampio, Elina; Salo, Tapio; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-03-15

    The use of digestate in agriculture is an efficient way to recycle materials and to decrease the use of mineral fertilizers. The agronomic characteristics of the digestates can promote plant growth and soil properties after digestate fertilization but also harmful effects can arise due to digestate quality, e.g. pH, organic matter and heavy metal content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences and similarities in agronomic characteristics and the value of five urban waste digestates from different biogas plants treating either food waste, organic fraction of organic solid waste or a mixture of waste-activated sludge and vegetable waste. The digestate agronomic characteristics were studied with chemical analyses and the availability of nutrients was also assessed with growth experiments and soil mineralization tests. All studied urban digestates produced 5-30% higher ryegrass yields compared to a control mineral fertilizer with a similar inorganic nitrogen concentration, while the feedstock source affected the agronomic value. Food waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste digestates were characterized by high agronomic value due to the availability of nutrients and low heavy metal load. Waste-activated sludge as part of the feedstock mixture, however, increased the heavy metal content and reduced nitrogen availability to the plant, thus reducing the fertilizer value of the digestate. PMID:26773433

  20. Development of an Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation System and Production of Herbicide-Resistant Transgenic Plants in Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-01-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest...

  1. Organic complexed superphosphates (CSP): physicochemical characterization and agronomical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Javier; Urrutia, Oscar; Baigorri, Roberto; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Storino, Francesco; Torino, Francesco; Mandado, Marcos; Yvin, Jean Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2012-02-29

    A new type of superphosphate (organic complexed superphosphate (CSP)) has been developed by the introduction of organic chelating agents, preferably a humic acid (HA), into the chemical reaction of single superphosphate (SSP) production. This modification yielded a product containing monocalcium phosphate complexed by the chelating organic agent through Ca bridges. Theoretically, the presence of these monocalcium-phosphate-humic complexes (MPHC) inhibits phosphate fixation in soil, thus increasing P fertilizer efficiency. This study investigateed the structural and functional features of CSP fertilizers produced employing diverse HA with different structural features. To this end were used complementary analytical techniques: solid-phase ³¹P NMR, ¹³C NMR, laser-confocal microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and molecular modeling. Finally, the agronomical efficiency of four CSP have been compared with that of SSP as P sources for wheat plants grown in both alkaline and acidic soils in greenhouse pot trials under controlled conditions. The results obtained from the diverse analytical studies showed the formation of MPHC in CSP. Plant-soil studies showed that CSP products were more efficient than SSP in providing available phosphate for wheat plants cultivated in various soils with different physicochemical features. This fact is probably associated with the ability of CSP complexes to inhibit phosphate fixation in soil. PMID:22300509

  2. Agronomic and environmental implications of enhanced s-triazine degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutz, L. J.; Dale L. Shaner; Mark A. Weaver; Webb, Richard M.; Zablotowicz, Robert M.; Reddy, Krishna N.; Huang, Y.; Thompson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Novel catabolic pathways enabling rapid detoxification of s-triazine herbicides have been elucidated and detected at a growing number of locations. The genes responsible for s-triazine mineralization, i.e. atzABCDEF and trzNDF, occur in at least four bacterial phyla and are implicated in the development of enhanced degradation in agricultural soils from all continents except Antarctica. Enhanced degradation occurs in at least nine crops and six crop rotation systems that rely on s-triazine herbicides for weed control, and, with the exception of acidic soil conditions and s-triazine application frequency, adaptation of the microbial population is independent of soil physiochemical properties and cultural management practices. From an agronomic perspective, residual weed control could be reduced tenfold in s-triazine-adapted relative to non-adapted soils. From an environmental standpoint, the off-site loss of total s-triazine residues could be overestimated 13-fold in adapted soils if altered persistence estimates and metabolic pathways are not reflected in fate and transport models. Empirical models requiring soil pH and s-triazine use history as input parameters predict atrazine persistence more accurately than historical estimates, thereby allowing practitioners to adjust weed control strategies and model input values when warranted. 

  3. Correlações genotípicas, fenotípicas e de ambiente entre dez caracteres de melancia e suas implicações para o melhoramento genético Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental correlations among agronomic traits and the consequences for watermelon breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aldete J.F. Ferreira

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimadas as correlações genotípicas, fenotípicas e de ambiente entre os caracteres número de dias para o aparecimento da primeira flor feminina (FF; número de frutos por planta (NF; peso de frutos por planta (PF; cor (CP e espessura (EP da polpa; diâmetro longitudinal (DL e transversal (DT de frutos; teor de sólidos solúveis (TS; número de sementes (NS e peso de 100 sementes (PS por fruto. As populações de melancia B9, 'Charleston Gray', 'Crimson Sweet', 'New H. Midget', M7, P14 e B13, os 21 híbridos F1, em dialelo, e seus recíprocos foram avaliados em campo, de acordo com o delineamento em blocos ao acaso completos, com quatro repetições. Houve grande similaridade entre as estimativas das correlações genotípicas e fenotípicas investigadas. Foram verificadas correlações genotípicas importantes entre os caracteres NF e PF, DL e DT; entre PF e DL, DT, EP e TS e entre CP e FF, EP e TS. Tais correlações indicam que o aumento no número de frutos por planta está correlacionado com a redução do peso de frutos e do tamanho dos frutos (função de DL e DT e que o aumento no peso dos frutos está associado ao aumento no tamanho dos frutos, da espessura e teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa, assim como a polpa vermelha está relacionada à precocidade e ao aumento na espessura e no teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa. As associações indesejáveis entre os caracteres, como entre número de frutos por planta e cor da polpa e número de frutos por planta e teor de sólidos solúveis, não foram completas, indicando, portanto, a possibilidade de se obter indivíduos recombinantes a partir de populações segregantes sintetizadas através de intercruzamentos de populações contrastantes.Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental correlations were estimated among the following traits of watermelon: number of days to the appearance of the first female flower (FF; number of fruits per plant (NF; weight of fruit (PF; flesh color

  4. Development of Oryza rufipogon and O. sativa Introgression Lines and Assessment for Yield-related Quantitative Trait Loci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lubin Tan; Fengxia Liu; Wei Xue; Guijuan Wang; Sheng Ye; Zuofeng Zhu; Yongcai Fu; Xiangkun Wang; Chuanqing Sun

    2007-01-01

    Introgression lines population was effectively used in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying favorable genes, discovering hidden genetic variation, evaluating the action or interaction of QTLs in multiple conditions and providing the favorable experimental materials for plant breeding and genetic research. In this study, an advanced backcross and consecutive selfing strategy was used to develop introgression lines (ILs), which derived from an accession of Oryza rufipogon Griff, collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province of China, as the donor, and an elite indica cultivar Teqing (O. sativa L.), as the recipient. Introgression segments from O. rufipogon were screened using 179 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers in the genome of each IL. Introgressed segments carried by the introgression lines population contained 120 ILs covering the whole O. rufipogon genome. The mean number of homozygous O. rufipogon segments per introgression line was about 3.88. The average length of introgressed segments was approximate 25.5 cM, and about 20.8% of these segments had sizes less than 10 cM. The genome of each IL harbored the chromosomal fragments of O. rufipogon ranging from 0.54% to 23.7%, with an overall average of 5.79%. At each locus, the ratio of substitution of O. rufipogon alleles had a range of 1.67-9.33, with an average of 5.50. A wide range of alterations in morphological and yield-related traits were also found in the introgression lines population. Using single-point analysis, a total of 37 putative QTLs for yield and yield components were detected at two sites with 7%-20% explaining the phenotypic variance. Nineteen QTLs (51.4%) were detected at both sites, and the alleles from O. rufipogon at fifteen loci (40.5%) improved the yield and yield components in the Teqing background. These O. rufipogon-O. sativa introgression lines will serve as genetic materials for identifying and using favorable genes from common wild rice.

  5. Maize pan-transcriptome provides novel insights into genome complexity and quantitative trait variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minliang; Liu, Haijun; He, Cheng; Fu, Junjie; Xiao, Yingjie; Wang, Yuebin; Xie, Weibo; Wang, Guoying; Yan, Jianbing

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression variation largely contributes to phenotypic diversity and constructing pan-transcriptome is considered necessary for species with complex genomes. However, the regulation mechanisms and functional consequences of pan-transcriptome is unexplored systematically. By analyzing RNA-seq data from 368 maize diverse inbred lines, we identified almost one-third nuclear genes under expression presence and absence variation, which tend to play regulatory roles and are likely regulated by distant eQTLs. The ePAV was directly used as “genotype” to perform GWAS for 15 agronomic phenotypes and 526 metabolic traits to efficiently explore the associations between transcriptomic and phenomic variations. Through a modified assembly strategy, 2,355 high-confidence novel sequences with total 1.9 Mb lengths were found absent within reference genome. Ten randomly selected novel sequences were fully validated with genomic PCR, including another two NBS_LRR candidates potentially affect flavonoids and disease-resistance. A simulation analysis suggested that the pan-transcriptome of the maize whole kernel is approaching a maximum value of 63,000 genes, and through developing two test-cross populations and surveying several most important yield traits, the dispensable genes were shown to contribute to heterosis. Novel perspectives and resources to discover maize quantitative trait variations were provided to better understand the kernel regulation networks and to enhance maize breeding. PMID:26729541

  6. Hitchhiking Effect Mapping: A New Approach for Discovering Agronomic Important Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; TONG Yi-ping; YOU Guang-xia; HAO Chen-yang; GE Hong-mei; WANG Lan-fen; LI Bin; DONG Yu-shen; LI Zhen-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Besides the natural selection, the crops cultivated today have experienced two episodes of strong artificial selection,domestic and modern breeding. Domestication led to giant genetic structure differentiation between cultivars and their wild species, while modern breeding made further genetic structure differentiation between the modern varieties and the landraces. In a population, diversity of the loci under strong selection is significantly lower than that of other loci. At the same time, diversity in the genomic regions flanking these selected loci also declines in the process of selection. This phenomenon is called hitchhiking effects or selection sweep in genetics. Genomic regions with selection sweep (haplotype block) could be detected after draft genome scanning (genome typing) with molecular markers in a number of released varieties or natural populations. Marker/trait association analysis in these regions would detect the loci (or QTLs) even the favored alleles (genes) in breeding or natural adaptation. Fine scanning of these genomic regions would help to determine the sizes of haplotype blocks and to discover the key genes, thereby providing very valuable information for isolation of the key genes and molecular design of new varieties. Establishment of high density genetic linkage maps in the major crops and availability of high throughput genotyping platform make it possible to discover agronomic important genes through marker/trait association analysis. On the basis of available publications, we give a brief introduction of the hitchhiking effect mapping approach in this paper using plant height, 1 000-grain weight, and phosphorus-deficiency tolerance as examples in wheat.

  7. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  8. Agronomic and Environmental Implications of Enhanced s-Triazine Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel catabolic pathways enabling rapid detoxification of s-triazine herbicides have been elucidated and detected at a growing number of locations. Herein we describe the potential agronomic and environmental ramifications of these bacterial adaptations. The genes responsible for s-triazine minera...

  9. AGRONOMIC AND QUALITY QTL MAPPING IN SPRING WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mergoum

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. flour represents one of the primary sources of calories and proteins for the human diet. The increase in the wheat yield without losing its baking and milling quality is an important breeding objective. The use of QTL analysis is an expedient methodology to help breeders to face this multifaceted challenge. Here, a population of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs developed from a cross between ‘Steele-ND’ cultivar and ‘ND 735’ advanced line was used to evaluate several yield and quality traits and map the genomic regions controlling these traits. The phenotypic data were collected from field experiments conducted at four North Dakota (ND, USA environments. Transgressive segregation was observed for all traits, with RILs outperforming the most adapted parent and commercial cultivars. Using a linkage map of 392 markers, composite interval mapping identified a total of 13 environment-specific QTLs, all explaining large phenotypic variations (R2=16-44%. The genotypic values of these “reserve” alleles were directly used as criteria of selection in breeding programs.

  10. What makes a perennial a perennial? A meta-analysis of allocation patterns and functional traits in congeneric annual and perennial plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Weih, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Currently, a large fraction of food, fiber, and feed is provided by annual crops - in particular annual grains. A shift from annual to perennial crops has been advocated to move towards a more sustainable agriculture. While providing lower yields than annuals, perennial crops are often assumed to reduce soil erosion, promote soil health, and be able to achieve higher water and nitrogen use efficiency, primarily through higher allocation below ground. Nevertheless, quantifications of these benefits are still scarce and often inconclusive, as well as mostly limited to first-year perennials. Here we consider congeneric annual and perennial species pairs, for which measured productivity, resource allocation, and resource use efficiency are available in the literature, in search for a signature of life-history (i.e., annuality vs. perenniality) on plant allocation, traits, and agronomic performances. A new database of allocation strategies and functional traits of these congeneric species is developed, covering more than 25 genera of agronomical and ecological relevance, including wild and domesticated species, as well as new hybrids, grown under a variety of conditions. Some general patterns emerge. Perennials have lower biomass allocation to reproductive structures (as expected), and generally higher root-to-shoot biomass ratio, potentially promoting soil C accumulation. Patterns in nitrogen tissue concentration and resource use efficiencies are less clear, due to the limited available data. Our analyses highlight a paucity of comprehensive studies, hampering our understanding of the long-term implications of a shift to perennial crops for ecosystem hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles.

  11. High-throughput phenotyping allows for QTL analysis of defense, symbiosis and development-related traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nina Eberhardtsen

    Legumes and soil bacteria called rhizobia are capable of forming a mutualistic symbiotic relationship that results in fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, which is of world-wide ecological importance. As all other plants, legumes also encounter an array of microorganisms, which induce pathogen...... characterization. Another focus area was lateral root and nodule primordia that develop from already differentiated root cells. Different cell labeling techniques were tested in order to clearly distinguish one from the other and derive metrics to describe cell division patterns during development of the two organ...

  12. Clonal traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Leoš; Klimešová, Jitka

    Groningen : LEDA Traitbase project, University of Groningen, Community and Conservation Ecology group, 2005 - (Knevel, I.C., Bekker, R.M., Kunzmann, D., Stadler, M., Thompson, K.), s. 66-88 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : plant functional traits * clonality * vegetative regeneration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. Biochar: a synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Kurt A; Cantrell, Keri B; Novak, Jeffrey M; Archer, David W; Ippolito, James A; Collins, Harold P; Boateng, Akwasi A; Lima, Isabel M; Lamb, Marshall C; McAloon, Andrew J; Lentz, Rodrick D; Nichols, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    Biochar has been heralded as an amendment to revitalize degraded soils, improve soil carbon sequestration, increase agronomic productivity, and enter into future carbon trading markets. However, scientific and economic technicalties may limit the ability of biochar to consistently deliver on these expectations. Past research has demonstrated that biochar is part of the black carbon continuum with variable properties due to the net result of production (e.g., feedstock and pyrolysis conditions) and postproduction factors (storage or activation). Therefore, biochar is not a single entity but rather spans a wide range of black carbon forms. Biochar is black carbon, but not all black carbon is biochar. Agronomic benefits arising from biochar additions to degraded soils have been emphasized, but negligible and negative agronomic effects have also been reported. Fifty percent of the reviewed studies reported yield increases after black carbon or biochar additions, with the remainder of the studies reporting alarming decreases to no significant differences. Hardwood biochar (black carbon) produced by traditional methods (kilns or soil pits) possessed the most consistent yield increases when added to soils. The universality of this conclusion requires further evaluation due to the highly skewed feedstock preferences within existing studies. With global population expanding while the amount of arable land remains limited, restoring soil quality to nonproductive soils could be key to meeting future global food production, food security, and energy supplies; biochar may play a role in this endeavor. Biochar economics are often marginally viable and are tightly tied to the assumed duration of agronomic benefits. Further research is needed to determine the conditions under which biochar can provide economic and agronomic benefits and to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these benefits. PMID:22751040

  14. Toward understanding genetic mechanisms of complex traits in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2010-10-01

    Rice is the primary carbohydrate staple cereal feeding the world population. Many genes, known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs), control most of the agronomically important traits in rice. The identification of QTLs controlling agricultural traits is vital to increase yield and meet the needs of the increasing human population, but the progress met with challenges due to complex QTL inheritance. To date, many QTLs have been detected in rice, including those responsible for yield and grain quality; salt, drought and submergence tolerance; disease and insect resistance; and nutrient utilization efficiency. Map-based cloning techniques have enabled scientists to successfully fine map and clone approximately seventeen QTLs for several traits. Additional in-depth functional analyses and characterizations of these genes will provide valuable assistance in rice molecular breeding. PMID:21035092

  15. De novo analysis of transcriptome dynamics in the migratory locust during the development of phase traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Chen

    Full Text Available Locusts exhibit remarkable density-dependent phenotype (phase changes from the solitary to the gregarious, making them one of the most destructive agricultural pests. This phenotype polyphenism arises from a single genome and diverse transcriptomes in different conditions. Here we report a de novo transcriptome for the migratory locust and a comprehensive, representative core gene set. We carried out assembly of 21.5 Gb Illumina reads, generated 72,977 transcripts with N50 2,275 bp and identified 11,490 locust protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis with eight other sequenced insects was carried out to identify the genomic divergence between hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects for the first time and 18 genes relevant to development was found. We further utilized the quantitative feature of RNA-seq to measure and compare gene expression among libraries. We first discovered how divergence in gene expression between two phases progresses as locusts develop and identified 242 transcripts as candidates for phase marker genes. Together with the detailed analysis of deep sequencing data of the 4(th instar, we discovered a phase-dependent divergence of biological investment in the molecular level. Solitary locusts have higher activity in biosynthetic pathways while gregarious locusts show higher activity in environmental interaction, in which genes and pathways associated with regulation of neurotransmitter activities, such as neurotransmitter receptors, synthetase, transporters, and GPCR signaling pathways, are strongly involved. Our study, as the largest de novo transcriptome to date, with optimization of sequencing and assembly strategy, can further facilitate the application of de novo transcriptome. The locust transcriptome enriches genetic resources for hemimetabolous insects and our understanding of the origin of insect metamorphosis. Most importantly, we identified genes and pathways that might be involved in locust development

  16. Tree species traits cause divergence in soil acidification during four decades of postagricultural forest development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijver, An de; Frenne, Pieter de; Staelens, Jeroen;

    2012-01-01

    fundamentally different nutrient cycles within the ecosystem, both directly through the chemical composition of the litter and indirectly through its effects on the size and composition of earthworm communities. Poor leaf litter quality contributes to the absence of a burrowing earthworm community, which......-depth understanding of tree species-specific effects on soil acidification is therefore crucial, particularly in view of the predicted global increases in acidifying nitrogen (N) deposition. Here, we report soil acidification rates in a chronosequence of broadleaved deciduous forests planted on former arable land in...... Belgium. This region receives one of the highest loads of potentially acidifying atmospheric deposition in Europe, which allowed us to study a ‘worst case scenario’. We show that less than four decades of forest development caused significant soil acidification. Atmospheric deposition undoubtedly and...

  17. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    ‚€Ã‚¢ How will these crops affect fertilizer use and water quality? • What kind of water management is needed to maintain a productive crop? The answers to these questions will help supporting institutions across the state to improve land assessment and agronomic management practices for biomass production. In the last decade, energy supply has become a worldwide problem. Bioenergy crops could supply energy in the future. Bioenergy crops are plants, usually perennial grasses and trees, that produce a lot of biomass that can be converted into energy. Bioenergy crops can be grown for two energy markets: power generation, such as heat and electricity, or liquid fuel, such as cellulosic ethanol. These resources could reduce petroleum dependency and greenhouse gas production. Woody plants and herbaceous warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass, giant miscanthus,energy cane, and high yielding sorghums, could be major sources of biomass in Mississippi.

  18. Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines enables QTL mapping for flowering and morphological traits in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs represent a powerful method for precise quantitative trait loci (QTL detection of complex agronomical traits in plants. In this study, we used a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy to develop a population consisting of 63 CSSLs, derived from backcrossing of the F1 generated from a cross between two Brassica rapa subspecies: ‘Chiifu’ (ssp. pekinensis, the Brassica A genome-represented line used as the donor, and ‘49caixin’ (ssp. parachinensis, a non-heading cultivar used as the recipient. The 63 CSSLs covered 87.95% of the B. rapa genome. Among them, 39 lines carried a single segment; 15 lines, two segments; and nine lines, three or more segments of the donor parent chromosomes. To verify the potential advantage of these CSSL lines, we used them to locate QTL for six morphology-related traits. A total of 58 QTL were located on eight chromosomes for all six traits: 17 for flowering time, 14 each for bolting time and plant height, 6 for plant diameter, 2 for leaf width, and 5 for flowering stalk diameter. Co-localized QTL were mainly distributed on eight genomic regions in A01, A02, A05, A06, A08, A09, and A10, present in the corresponding CSSLs. Moreover, new chromosomal fragments that harbored QTL were identified using the findings of previous studies. The CSSL population constructed in our study paves the way for fine mapping and cloning of candidate genes involved in late bolting, flowering, and plant architecture-related traits in B. rapa. Furthermore, it has great potential for future marker-aided gene/QTL pyramiding of other interesting traits in B. rapa breeding.

  19. Quantitative field testing Heterodera glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from soil under agronomic production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil.

  20. Bimodal mortality dynamics for uveal melanoma: a cue for metastasis development traits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study estimates mortality dynamics (event-specific hazard rates over a follow-up time interval) for uveal melanoma. Three thousands six hundred seventy two patients undergoing radical or conservative treatment for unilateral uveal melanoma, whose yearly follow-up data were reported in three published datasets, were analysed. Mortality dynamics was studied by estimating with the life-table method the discrete hazard rate for death. Smoothed curves were obtained by a Kernel-like smoothing procedure and a piecewise exponential regression model. The ratio deaths/patients at risk per year was the main outcome measure. The three explored hazard rate curves display a common bimodal pattern, with a sudden increase peaking at about three years, followed by reduction until the sixth-seventh year and a second surge peaking at about nine years after treatment. The bimodal pattern of mortality indicates that uveal melanoma metastatic development cannot be explained by a continuous growth model. Similar metastasis dynamics have been reported for other tumours, including early breast cancer, for which it supported a paradigm shift to an interrupted growth model, the implications of which are episodes of ‘tumour dormancy’. We propose that the concepts of tumour homeostasis, tumour dormancy and enhancement of metastasis growth related to primary tumour removal, convincingly explaining the clinical behaviour of breast cancer, may be used for uveal melanoma as well. To confirm this proposition, a careful analysis of uveal melanoma metastasis dynamics is strongly warranted

  1. Development of three groundnut varieties with improved quantitative and qualitative traits through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to develop high yielding, bold seeded and disease resistant varieties of groundnut, 200 dry seeds of an established mutant, Mut-6, was irradiated with 200 Gy gamma rays. All the M1 plants were harvested and kept separately. In M2-M4 generations, selection and evaluation were made following high mean and high/low variances compared to the check cultivar Dhaka-1 (the parent of Mut-6). In M4 generation, 16 true breeding lines were obtained. Through preliminary, advance, zonal and farmers' field trials during 1997-1999, three mutant lines M6/20/42-M(2), M6/20/44-3 and M6/20/62-4, were identified to be dwarf, high yielding, bold podded and seeded and moderately resistant to cercospora leafspot, rust and collar rot diseases, compared to the check variety, Dhaka-1. Moreover, these mutants have higher oil contents and higher/similar protein contents. The National Seed Board has registered these mutant families in 2000 as BINAchinabadam-1, BINAchinabadam- 2 and BINAchinabadam-3, respectively, for commercial cultivation by the farmers. (author)

  2. Some traits of low temperature germplasm wheat under extremely unfavorable weather conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嵩午; 王长发; 冯佰利; 苗芳; 周春菊; 张荣萍

    2001-01-01

    Through a long-term observation on the canopy temperature and some traits of wheat the temperature germplasm of wheat was found to result in the wheats having either a high or a low plant temperature. Under normal weather conditions, the wheat having a low temperature germplasm (LTG) demonstrated several advantageous physiologi-cal and agronomic traits than those having a high temperature germplasm (HTG). Under the extremely unfavorableweather conditions, such as rainy weather or severe drought, LTG wheat still could maintain its superiority to HTG wheat in physiological and agronomic traits including leaf functional duration, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, root vitality and kernel plumpness. The wide adaptability of LTG wheat to awide range of meteoro-ecological conditions could provide a valuable germplasm in breeding of good strains with broad-spectrum stress resistance.

  3. Blast disease influence on agronomic and quality traits of rice varieties under Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTROUBAS, Spyridon D.; Katsantonis, Dimitrios; NTANOS, Dimitrios A.; Lupotto, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The effects of Pyricularia oryzae, the causal agent of blast disease in rice, on plant growth, grain yield, and grain quality under Mediterranean conditions were studied in 2002 and 2003. Four rice varieties were grown under high and low disease pressure, achieved by early inoculation with the blast fungus and by natural infection, respectively. Results showed that inoculation affected the overall plant growth and yield and resulted in a reduction in plant height, number of productive tillers...

  4. Screening of lettuce germplasm for agronomic traits under low water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a preliminary screening of over 3,500 varieties, we selected 200 cultivars of butterhead, cos, crisphead, leaf, and stem lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) to test under high water (150% ET) and low water (50% ET) conditions in the field, and tracked com...

  5. Univariate and Multivariate Analysis of Agronomical Traits of Preselected Argan Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Naima AIT AABD; Fouad MSANDA; Abdelhamid EL MOUSADIK

    2012-01-01

    A collection of thirty argan trees (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels), representing the Aoulouz provenance in southwest of Morocco were used to study genetic variability and selection for three years. In this study, the genetic diversity of thirty genotypes (tree mothers) of argan (Argania spinosa) collected from Aoulouz was evaluated using agro-morphological characters. The main objective of the study was to assess and describe with multivariate analysis the genetic diversity in order to select g...

  6. Assessment of anthocyanin and agronomic trait variation in some commonly used medicinal legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several legumes including Canavalia ensiformis, Desmodium adscendens, Indigofera suffruticosa, Senna covesii, and S. occidentalis are currently used as medicinal plants. These species contain anthocyanins as well with potential to be used in the pharmaceutical markets. The USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic R...

  7. Combining ability analysis for agronomic traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ortis L.; Nestares G.; Frutos E.; Machado N

    2005-01-01

    The general and specific combining abilities among 20 cytoplasmic male sterile inbred lines and four testers were estimated in order to study the potential of these materials in a sunflower (Helianthns annuus L) breeding program. Test cross progenies were evaluated in three environments. Plant height, days to 50% flowering, 1000-kernel weight, seed oil content and grain yield were evaluated. Seed oil content, plant height and 1000-kernel weight presented the largest proportional con tri but i...

  8. Trait Impulsivity and Anhedonia: Two Gateways for the Development of Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houeto, Jean-Luc; Magnard, Robin; Dalley, Jeffrey W.; Belin, David; Carnicella, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Apathy and impulsivity are two major comorbid syndromes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) that may represent two extremes of a behavioral spectrum modulated by dopamine-dependent processes. PD is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta to which are attributed the cardinal motor symptoms of the disorder. Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), used widely to treat these motor symptoms, is often associated with deficits in hedonic processing and motivation, including apathy and depression, as well as impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs comprise pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping, binge eating, compulsive overuse of dopaminergic medication, and punding. More frequently observed in males with early onset PD, ICDs are associated not only with comorbid affective symptoms, such as depression and anxiety, but also with behavioral traits, such as novelty seeking and impulsivity, as well as with personal or familial history of alcohol use. This constellation of associated risk factors highlights the importance of inter-individual differences in the vulnerability to develop comorbid psychiatric disorders in PD patients. Additionally, withdrawal from DRT in patients with ICDs frequently unmasks a severe apathetic state, suggesting that apathy and ICDs may be caused by overlapping neurobiological mechanisms within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical networks. We suggest that altered hedonic and impulse control processes represent distinct prodromal substrates for the development of these psychiatric symptoms, the etiopathogenic mechanisms of which remain unknown. Specifically, we argue that deficits in hedonic and motivational states and impulse control are mediated by overlapping, yet dissociable, neural mechanisms that differentially interact with DRT to promote the emergence of ICDs in vulnerable individuals. Thus, we provide a novel heuristic framework for basic and clinical research to better

  9. Improving agronomic and grain quality of upland rice variety NSIC Rc9 through seed mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of NSIC Rc9, a drought tolerant upland rice variety, with intermediate maturity and plant height, medium-intermediate grain size and shape, with purple apiculus, high % amylose content (%AC), and above average % chalky grains were irradiated with 250Gy and 300Gy y-rays from sup 60 Co. The M1 and M2 populations, established plant to a row in 2008 wet season (WS), and 2009 dry season (DS) and WS generated 946 plants with reduced plant height, improved grain size and shape and apiculus color. In 2010 DS, the M3 lines were evaluated for field drought tolerance resulting in the selection of mutants with comparable recovery rate from drought stress as the wild type or the progenitor NSIC Rc9. The 54 mutant line selections comprising the M4 population were advanced to observational nursery for agronomic and grain quality trait evaluation in 2010 WS. Maturity of the mutants ranged from 110 to 119 days after sowing (DAS), with 27 (50.0%) and 14 (25.9%) mutants matured earlier and later, respectively, compared with the progenitor which matured in 114 DAS. Plant height was reduced, from 88cm to 111cm, as compared with 121cm of the progenitor. The mutant lines generated 12 to 21 productive tillers while the progenitor had 12 productive tillers. The mutant lines yielded 3.925t/ha to 7.193t/ha, with 18 (33.3%) yielding 0.012t/ha to 1.365t/ha higher than the progenitor, with 5.828t/ha yield. The milling potentials of most lines are within the recommended values, viz., 75.0% and above % brown rice, 65.1% and above % total milled rice, and 48.0% and above % head rice. Milled grain length of 32 (59.3%) mutant lines were significantly increased by 0.6mm to 1.3mm, shifting the shape from medium to long size, and grain shape by 0.8 to 1.2, shifting the shape from intermediate to slender. The apparent % AC of the 31 (38.9%) lines reduced significantly by 1.2 to 4.2%. The chalky grain of 47 (87.0%) lines was likewise, reduced significantly by 3.3% to 11.5%. The mutant lines will be

  10. Use of swine wastewater in oilseed radish crop: agronomic and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Pegoraro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent has been applied to soils to promote nutrient cycling and reduce the uncontrolled disposal of effluents into bodies of water. However, the use of these effluents on various crops has raised environmental and public health concerns. Oilseed radish crop (Raphanus sativus L. is a winter crop planted in no-tillage systems as a green fertilizer that also can be used for biodiesel, and it requires high levels of nutrients for its development. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental and agronomic effects of the application of swine wastewater on oilseed radish. The experiment was conducted in a 0.162 ha area with the following treatments: unirrigated (rainfed, irrigated, and fertilized with swine wastewater (370 m3 ha-1 cycle-1. After each rainfall event, analyses were conducted for the main macro and micronutrients in the runoff and percolated material from drainage lysimeters. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were also analyzed, as were the agronomic and nutritional indices of the dry crop phytomass in full blooming stage. Application of swine wastewater at a level of 370 m3 ha-1 produces a crop with better agronomic quality. Over the long term, however, caution should be taken regarding the surface runoff of NO3-, P, K, Mn and total salts and the percolation of NO3-, Na and Cu. Moreover, the rainfall occurred one day after fertigation contributed to the increase of the levels of P, K, Na, Cu, Zn and Mn in the percolated material.

  11. The long-term agronomic performance of organic stockless rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, James P; Philipps, Lois; Cormack, William F

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Two long-term experiments were established with the aim of evaluating the agronomic and economic performance of organic stockless rotations. In total, four different rotations were evaluated at two sites in the south (Elm Farm Research Centre) and east (ADAS Terrington) of England. All of the rotations included either a one or two-year red clover green manure crop to provide nitrogen for subsequent crops and it was found th...

  12. Organic Production of Tuberous Vegetables: Agronomic, Nutritional and Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Suja, G.; Sreekumar, J.; John, K. Susan; Sundaresan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Global awareness of health and environmental issues has stimulated interest in alternative Agricultural systems like organic farming. Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) and yams (Dioscorea spp.) are ethnic starchy vegetables with high energy, nutritive and medicinal values. Field experiments were conducted at the Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, India, during 2004-2011 to assess the agronomic, nutritional and economic advantages of organic farming over...

  13. Effect of Biofertilizers on Agronomic Criteria of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Tabrizi, Leila; Alireza KOOCHEKI; Ghorbani, Reza

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the effects of pure or combinations of biofertilizers on agronomic and quality criteria of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), a medicinal and aromatic plant from Labiateae family at the Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2006 and 2007. A complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Treatments containing Azospirillum/Azotobacter(Nitroxin), Azospirillum/Bacillus s...

  14. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develop commercial cassava varieties with amylose-free starch. However, little information is available regarding the biological and agronomic implications of starch mutations in cassava, nor in other root and tuber crops. In this study, siblings from eight full-sib families, segregating for the waxy trait, were used to determine if the mutation has implications for yield, dry matter content (DMC) and harvest index in cassava. A total of 87 waxy and 87 wild-type starch genotypes from the eight families were used in the study. The only significant effect of starch type was on DMC (p cassava varieties will have competitive FRYs but special efforts will be required to attain adequate DMCs. This study contributes to the limited knowledge available of the impact of starch mutations on the agronomic performance of root and tuber crops. PMID:27242813

  15. Selection and agronomic evaluation of induced mutant lines of sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Station yield trial: Three high yielding mutants (8, 48, and EFM92) with better and stable performance were developed in our breeding programme and submitted for registration to the Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. Multi-location yield trials indicated that mutant line EFM92 ranked first in all locations; significant yield increases recorded for it ranged from 14.7 to 74.0% over the check variety. Moreover, it was 15-20 days earlier than the check and/or other mutants. Mutant lines 8 and 48 produced higher seed yields than the check at two different locations. These mutants can probably be grown and produce more yield than the check variety at the low yielding environments. Seed quality assay: During 1996 and 1997, 15 promising lines of sesame including mutants and hybrid populations as well as the local variety were evaluated for seed protein, oil content and fatty acid composition. The protein content varied from 20.6 to 26.7%; hybrid population EXM90 gave the highest value. About 85% of the total fatty acids in the oil are unsaturated (oleic and linoleic) and 15% saturated, mainly palmitic and stearic. Linoleic acid ranged from 41.8 to 47.9%. Mutant lines 6, 9, and EFM92, which gave high oil content (54-55.5%) together with high linoleic acid values (45.2-47.8%), are recommended for breeding for seed oil quality. Heterosis, combining ability and type of gene action in sesame: A half diallel set of crosses involving seven parents was used to study heterosis and combining ability in the F1 generation as well as the nature of gene action controlling seed yield and its contributing traits in both F1 and F2 in order to identify the most efficient breeding methods leading to rapid genetic improvement. The expressions of heterosis varied with the crosses and characters investigated. The maximal significant positive useful heterosis was observed for branches/plant (52.9%) followed by seed yield/plant (38

  16. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  17. Development of cassava germplasm resources for the improvement of high value root quality traits through induced mutation and marker aided breeding in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of cassava for increased beta carotene and protein content, dry matter content and delayed post-harvest physiological deterioration.is important for increased income and improved livelihood for poor farmers. Irradiation was used in this study to induce mutation using in vitro culture plantlets and botanical seeds. Gamma irradiated in vitro culture plantlets of varieties SM 909-25 and Col 2215 identified 12 clones with dry matter content above 40% and five clones with high beta carotenoid content. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) resistant varieties/land race are presently being used for mutation breeding to reduce the effect of this devastating disease in Africa and irradiated plants are being selfed to generate M2 populations. Crosses of Latin American varieties having cream or deep yellow coloured-roots and crude protein contents of 3-8%.were made to generate populations with combined enhanced beta carotene and high protein contents in cassava roots. A total of 1555 seeds were derived from 17 parents. They were genotyped in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) using one SSR marker, NS158 and a SCAR marker, RME 1. Fourteen percent (138 plants) were selected for CMD resistance and are being evaluated in the breeding scheme. Delayed post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) have been introgressed from Manihot Walkerae and and backcross populations developed. About 150 SSR polymorphic markers were used for mapping in delayed PPD population resulting in the identification of three putative markers for this trait. A BC2 population for delayed PPD and CMD resistance have been developed. Initial results obtained with irradiated germplasm indicates that induced mutation can rapidly facilitate the development of value-added traits in cassava. The development of new populations for root quality traits using parental lines from Latin America in combination with MAS are also contributing immensely in the breeding for

  18. IMPROVING BIOMASS LOGISTICS COST WITHIN AGRONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY CONSTRAINTS AND BIOMASS QUALITY TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; David J. Muth; William Smith

    2012-10-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  19. Children’s sense of coherence and trait emotional intelligence: a longitudinal study exploring the development of somatic complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Jellesma; C. Rieffe; M. Meerum Terwogt; P.M. Westenberg

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prospective relationships between sense of coherence, trait emotional intelligence and children's somatic complaints. The study included four waves of data collection with six months in between each wave. Participants were 324 girls and 393 boys (me

  20. Children’s sense of coherence and trait emotional intelligence: a longitudinal study exploring the development of somatic complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Jellesma; C. Rieffe; M. Meerum Terwogt; P.M. Westenberg

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prospective relationships between sense of coherence, trait emotional intelligence and children's somatic complaints. The study included four waves of data collection with six months in between each wave. Participants were 324 girls and 393 boys (me

  1. Fear Inhibition in High Trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Merel Kindt; Marieke Soeter

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear [1]. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study - High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n =...

  2. Belowground plant development measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI: exploiting the potential for non-invasive trait quantification using sugar beet as a proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eMetzner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both structural and functional properties of belowground plant organs are critical for the development and yield of plants but, compared to the shoot, much more difficult to observe due to soil opacity. Many processes concerning the belowground plant performance are not fully understood, in particular spatial and temporal dynamics and their interrelation with environmental factors. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a noninvasive method to evaluate which traits can be measured when a complex plant organ is monitored in-vivo while growing in the soil. We chose sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris as a model system. The beet consists mainly of root tissues, is rather complex regarding tissue structure and responses to environmental factors, and thereby a good object to test the applicability of MRI for 3D phenotyping approaches. Over a time period of up to 3 months, traits such as beet morphology or anatomy were followed in the soil and the effect of differently sized pots on beet fresh weight calculated from MRI data was studied. There was a clear positive correlation between the pot size and the increase in fresh weight of a sugar beet over time. Since knowledge of the development of internal beet structures with several concentric cambia, vascular and parenchyma rings is still limited, we consecutively acquired 3D volumetric images on individual plants using the MRI contrast parameter T2 to map the development of rings at the tissue level. This demonstrates that MRI provides versatile protocols to non-invasively measure plant traits in the soil. It opens new avenues to investigate belowground plant performance under adverse environmental conditions such as drought, nutrient shortage or soil compaction to seek for traits of belowground organs making plants more resilient to stress.

  3. Quantitative trait loci associated with tipburn, heat stress-induced physiological disorders, and maturity traits in crisphead lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Sylvie; Truco, Maria José; Michelmore, Richard W

    2013-09-28

    Crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops exhibit several economically important, physiological disorders when grown in high temperature conditions. These include tipburn, rib discoloration, premature bolting, ribbiness, and internal rib cracking. We evaluated seven physiological disorders and three agronomic traits segregating in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 152 F7 RILs derived from an intra-specific cross between two crisphead cultivars, L. sativa cv. Emperor x L. sativa cv. El Dorado; evaluations were carried out at each of two parental maturities in one planting and at one intermediate maturity in a second planting in each of 2 years for a total of six evaluations. A genetic map was developed using 449 polymorphic SNP markers; it comprises 807 cM in 20 linkage groups that covered 51 % of the nine lettuce chromosomes. Composite interval mapping revealed a total of 36 significant QTLs for eight out of the ten traits evaluated. Significant QTLs were distributed in 11 linkage groups on seven of the chromosomes and accounted for up to 83 % of the phenotypic variation observed. The three largest QTLs for rib discoloration, which accounted individually for 7-21 % of the variation, were clustered with stem length, two with ribbiness and one with head firmness. Three major clusters of QTLs revealed pleiotropic effects or tight linkage between tipburn incidence and severity, head type, stem length, head firmness and ribbiness. One QTL, qTPB5.2, was detected in multiple trials and described 38-70 % of the variation in tipburn incidence. qTPB5.2 is, therefore, a useful candidate gene for breeding for tipburn resistance using marker-assisted selection. PMID:24078012

  4. Comparing Immature Development and Life History Traits in Two Coexisting Host-Feeding Parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea and Neochrysocharis formosa (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-bo; LU Shu-long; LIU Wan-xue; WANG Wen-xia; WANG Wei; WAN Fang-hao

    2014-01-01

    Coexisting natural enemies that share a common host resource in the same guild usually exhibit variation in their life history traits, due to their need to share a similar ecological niche. In this study, we compared the immature development times and adult life history traits of two coexisting, host-feeding parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea Walker and Neochrysocharis formosa Westwood (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae), of which both attack larvae of the same agromyzid leafminers. These two species are both synovigenic, idiobiont parasitoids, whose adults consume host lfuids (“host feeding”) and lay anhydropic eggs. Of the two, D. isaea has a larger body but little or no initial egg load, and engages in similar lifetime host-feeding events. However, it achieves higher fecundity, longer adult longevity, and higher host suppression ability than N. formosa, which has a smaller body and higher initial egg load. Although D. isaea engages in similar lifetime host-feeding events with N. formosa, all of its gains in life history traits per host-feeding event of D. isaea were larger than those of N. formosa. The age-speciifc fecundity and host mortality curves of N. formosa were more skewed in early life than those of D. isaea. In addition, the ovigeny index of N. formosa was negatively correlated to body size. Our results conifrmed that two coexisting parasitoids, which share the same host resource, show different immature development patterns and life history traits, suggesting that different resource allocation mode could be a general rule of coexisting species sharing the same habitat or host.

  5. Breeding of a high yielding chamomile variety (Matricaria recutita L. with improved traits for machine harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A more productive variety of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., which is more efficient in machine processing with consistent quality traits, will benefit the viability of german products in the global market. Breeding of an enhanced chamomile variety is part of a german multi-network project called KAMEL whose research aims on Matricaria recutita L., Valeriana officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L. The agronomic and qualitative improvement of these speciality crops are the basis for further economic prosperity of medicinal and aromatic plant cultivation in Germany. The main breeding goals of a new variety of chamomile are the increase of blossom product yield (Matricariae flos to 6 dt/ha in up to three harvest stages through a homogenous flower horizon (pick height, an even flowering time, large flower heads and a high regeneration rate after each harvest stage. The upgrade of the content of essential oil content to a minimum of 0.8 % with its compostion according to Ph. Eur. and a chamazulene content of min. 25 % are further objectives of the breeding process. In addition to these quality traits, high tolerances against common fungal diseases are of particular interest. Development of an innovative chamomile variety is realized over nine years in three stages (2010 - 2019.

  6. Theory of Mind and Executive Control Deficits in Typically Developing Adults and Adolescents with High Levels of Autism Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçen, Elif; Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K V

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by profound difficulties in empathic processing and executive control. Whilst the links between these processes have been frequently investigated in populations with autism, few studies have examined them at the subclinical level. In addition, the contribution of alexithymia, a trait characterised by impaired interoceptive awareness and empathy, and elevated in those with ASD, is currently unclear. The present two-part study employed a comprehensive battery of tasks to examine these processes. Findings support the notion that executive function and theory of mind are related abilities. They also suggest that individuals with elevated levels of autism-like traits experience a partially similar pattern of social and executive function difficulties to those diagnosed with ASD, and that these impairments are not explained by co-occurring alexithymia. PMID:26886468

  7. Multifinality in the Development of Personality Disorders: A Biology × Sex × Environment Interaction Model of Antisocial and Borderline Traits

    OpenAIRE

    BEAUCHAINE, THEODORE P.; Klein, Daniel N.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more common among females, some (e.g., Paris, 1997) have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of A...

  8. Theory of Mind and Executive Control Deficits in Typically Developing Adults and Adolescents with High Levels of Autism Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçen, E.; Frederickson, N.; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by profound difficulties in empathic processing and executive control. Whilst the links between these processes have been frequently investigated in populations with autism, few studies have examined them at the subclinical level. In addition, the contribution of alexithymia, a trait characterised by impaired interoceptive awareness and empathy, and elevated in those with ASD, is currently unclear. The present two-part study employed a comprehen...

  9. Examining Mechanisms of Personality Maturation: The Impact of Life Satisfaction on the Development of Big Five Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Jule; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals are expected to mature with increasing age, but it is not yet fully understood which factors contribute to this maturation process. Using data of a representative sample of Germans (N = 14,718) who gave information about their Big Five personality traits twice over a period of 4 years, we identified satisfaction with life, which was reported yearly, as an important variable for explaining mechanisms and interindividual differences in personality maturation. Dual latent change mode...

  10. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  11. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  12. Physiological and agronomical responses of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation with different plastic films was evaluated during 2012 and 2013 seasons in South of Minas Gerais State. Agronomical and physiological measurements were done on eight years old grapevines, grafted onto ‘1103 Paulsen’ rootstock cultivated under uncovered conditions, covered with transparent and with diffuse plastic films. Both plastic covers induced the highest shoot growth rate and specific leaf area. The diffuse plastic induced greater differences on leaf area, pruning weight and leaf chlorophyll content as compared to uncovered vines. Grapevines under diffuse plastic also had the lowest rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Leaf starch, glucose and fructose contents were not affected by treatment, but leaf sucrose was reduced by transparent plastic. The leaf and stem water potential were higher under diffuse plastic. In 2013, grapevines under diffuse plastic showed the highest yields mainly due to decreased rot incidence and increased cluster weight. Furthermore, berries under diffuse plastic showed the highest anthocyanins concentration. The use of diffuse plastic induces more agronomical benefits to produce Syrah grape under protected cultivation.

  13. The agronomic science of spatial and temporal water management:How much, when and where

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agronomic sciences are those that are applied to soil and water management and crop production, including soil, water and plant sciences and related disciplines. The science of spatial and temporal water management includes many agronomic science factors, including soil physics, biophysics, plan...

  14. Agronomic performance and transcriptional analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis in fruits of transgenic HighCaro and control tomato lines under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorio, Giovanni; Stigliani, Adriana Lucia; D'Ambrosio, Caterina

    2007-02-01

    Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in higher plants has been the objective of a number of biotechnology programs, e.g. the Golden Rice Program. However, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), which naturally accumulates lycopene in fruits, has attracted the attention of many groups who have manipulated it to increase or diversify carotenoid accumulation. One of the most significant achievements was "HighCaro (HC)," a transgenic tomato plant constitutively expressing the tomato lycopene beta-cyclase (tLcy-b), that produces orange fruits due to the complete conversion of lycopene to beta-carotene. In this article we report the results of a field trial conducted in Metaponto (Italy) on HC and on two control genotypes to evaluate the stability of the transgenic trait and their yield performances. Transcriptional regulation of eight genes involved in carotenogenesis was assayed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis on fruits collected at four distinct development stages. Statistical analysis results demonstrated that in field conditions the transgene maintained its ability to induce the conversion of lycopene to beta-carotene. Moreover, agronomic performances and fruit quality in the transgenic line were not impaired by this metabolic disturbance. Results of qRT-PCR analysis suggested that transcription of PSY-1, PDS and ZDS genes were developmentally regulated in both genotypes. Unexpectedly, Lcy-b expression in transgenic fruits was also developmentally regulated, despite the fact that the gene was driven by a constitutive promoter. Our data provide evidence that in photosynthetic cells a strict and aspecific mechanism controls the level of transcripts until the onset of chromoplasts differentiation, at which point a gene-specific control on transcription takes place. PMID:17096211

  15. Quantitative trait loci for rice blast resistance detected in a local rice breeding population by genome-wide association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinada, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Toshio; Sato, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Eiji; Hori, Kiyosumi; Yonemaru, Junichi; Sato, Takashi; Fujino, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Plant breeding programs aim to develop cultivars with high adaptability to the specific conditions in a local region. As a result, unique genes and gene combinations have been accumulated in local elite breeding populations during the long history of plant breeding. Genetic analyses on such genes and combinations may be useful for developing new cultivars with more-desirable agronomic traits. Here, we attempted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rice blast resistance (BR) using a local breeding rice population from Hokkaido, Japan. Using genotyping data on single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat markers distributed throughout the whole genomic region, we detected genetic regions associated with phenotypic variation in BR by a genome-wide association mapping study (GWAS). An additional association analysis using other breeding cultivars verified the effect and inheritance of the associated region. Furthermore, the existence of a gene for BR in the associated region was confirmed by QTL mapping. The results from these studies enabled us to estimate potential of the Hokkaido rice population as a gene pool for improving BR. The results of this study could be useful for developing novel cultivars with vigorous BR in rice breeding programs. PMID:26719741

  16. Use of modeling to characterize phenology and associated traits among wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Herndl, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Predicting phenology of wheat is important for many aspects of wheat production as for example facilitating accurate timing of pesticides, fertilizers and irrigation, avoiding stress at critical growth stages, and adapting cultivar characteristics to specific environmental constraints or global changes in climate. The aim of the dissertation was to characterize and test the impact of wheat phenology on agronomic traits through integrated use of crop models and information on the genetic makeu...

  17. A study on the nature and magnitude of variations in different traits in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. Tyagi, Satish Sharma and S.B. Bhardwaj

    2011-01-01

    Nature and magnitude of the variation for different agronomic traits in sugarcane under subtropical conditions of North-western Uttar Pradesh was studied. An estimation of heritability and genetic advance of these components under different environmental conditions was worked out. Fourteen sugarcane genotypes in three crop year experiment were analysed for 15 different characters and variance at phenotypic and genotypic levels, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and pooled analysis of ...

  18. Molecular Evolution of Candidate Genes for Crop-Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; McAssey, Edward V.; Nambeesan, Savithri; García-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes...

  19. Traits in Java

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A trait is a programming language feature which contains a collection of methods that can be reused across class hierarchies. Traits is a relatively new language feature that is beginning to be a part of some of the newest object-oriented programming languages. Traits have been implemented in some languages but it has not become a part of the Java language yet. In this thesis we apply traits to the Java 5 language by designing and implementing a traits aware preprocessor....

  20. Impact of systems modelling on agronomic research and adoption of new practices in smallholder agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D J Connor; H van Rees; P S Carberry

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of simulation model ing in three diverse crop-livestock improvement projects in Agricultural Re-search for Development (AR4D) reveals beneifts across a range of aspects including identiifcation of objectives, design and implementation of experimental programs, effectiveness of participatory research with smal holder farmers, implementation of system change and scaling-out of results. In planning change, farmers must consider complex interactions within both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of their crop and animal production activities. For this, whole-farm models that include household models of food, workload and ifnancial requirements have the most utility and impact. The analysis also proposes improvements in design and implementation of AR4D projects to improve the utility of simulation model ing for securing positive agronomic and livestock outcomes and lasting legacies.

  1. Molecular identification of a major quantitative trait locus, qLTG3–1, controlling low-temperature germinability in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ono, Kazuko; Yano, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Tolerance to abiotic stress is an important agronomic trait in crops and is controlled by many genes, which are called quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Identification of these QTLs will contribute not only to the understanding of plant biology but also for plant breeding, to achieve stable crop production around the world. Previously, we mapped three QTLs controlling low-temperature tolerance at the germination stage (called low-temperature germinability). To understand the molecular basis of ...

  2. Characterization of indigenous gossypium arboreum L. genotypes for various fiber quality traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) being an Old World cultivated cotton species, evolved in Indo-Pak subcontinent, has been known for conferring resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To the extent of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive report available on the characterization of G. arboreum germplasm. Hence, the present study was conducted to characterize 26 G. arboreum genotypes by deploying univariate and multivariate analysis in 2010 at NIBGE, Faisalabad. All these genotypes were characterized for boll weight, GOT percentage, micronaire value, staple length, fiber bundle strength and uniformity index. Genotypic variation was significant (p<0.01) for all the analyzed traits except boll weight. Maximum boll weight (2.47g) was observed for genotype 23718. GOT ranged from 18.75% (Haroonabad) to 36.94 percentage (DC-116).The finest fiber was obtained from synthetic (4.37 micro g/inch) and this genotype also exhibited the higher values for staple length (23.81 mm) and fiber bundle strength (27.37 g/tex). Range for uniformity index was observed from 76.19 percentage (Garohill) to 77.98 percentage (212). Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited that first five components accounted for >63 percentage of the total variability. Cluster analysis identified four groups based on their agronomic properties. Significant relationships among different traits can be useful to select best genotypes having good fiber quality traits. These genotypes may prove a valuable resource to fuel the breeding efforts for not only broadening the genetic base of the newly developed material but can also add synergy to various cotton genomic projects. (author)

  3. Selected sperm traits are simultaneously altered after scrotal heat stress and play specific roles in in vitro fertilization and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Aline C; Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Martins, Muller C; Braga, Lucas S; Miglio, Luisa; Alves, Bruna G; Silva, Thiago H; Jacomini, José O; Beletti, Marcelo E

    2016-09-01

    Improvements in the estimation of male fertility indicators require advances in laboratory tests for sperm assessment. The aims of the present work were (1) to apply a multivariate analysis to examine sperm set of alterations and interactions and (2) to evaluate the importance of sperm parameters on the outcome of standard IVF and embryonic development. Bulls (n = 3) were subjected to scrotal insulation, and ejaculates were collected before (preinsulation = Day 0) and through 56 days (Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56) of the experimental period. Sperm head morphometry and chromatin variables were assessed by a computational image analysis, and IVF was performed. Scrotal heat stress induced alterations in all evaluated sperm head features, as well as cleavage and blastocyst rates. A principal component analysis revealed three main components (factors) that represented almost 89% of the cumulative variance. In addition, an association of factor scores with cleavage (factor 1) and blastocyst (factor 3) rates was observed. In conclusion, several sperm traits were simultaneously altered as a result of a thermal insult. These sperm traits likely play specific roles in IVF and embryonic development. PMID:27087533

  4. Characterization of selenium-enriched wheat by agronomic biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinha, Catarina; Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pacheco, Adriano M G; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Coutinho, José; Maçãs, Benvindo; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Pérez-Corona, María Teresa; Madrid, Yolanda; Wolterbeek, Hubert T

    2015-07-01

    Agronomic biofortification of staple crops is an effective way to enhance their contents in essential nutrients up the food chain, with a view to correcting for their deficiencies in animal or human status. Selenium (Se) is one such case, for its uneven distribution in the continental crust and, therefore, in agricultural lands easily translates into substantial variation in nutritional intakes. Cereals are far from being the main sources of Se on a content basis, but they are likely the major contributors to intake on a dietary basis. To assess their potential to assimilate and biotransform Se, bread and durum wheat were enriched with Se through foliar and soil addition at an equivalent field rate of 100 g of Se per hectare (ha), using sodium selenate and sodium selenite as Se-supplementation matrices, in actual field conditions throughout. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated by using HPLC-ICP-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis for Se-species extraction in the resulting mature wheat grains. Selenomethionine and Se(VI) were identified and quantified: the former was the predominant species, representing 70-100 % of the total Se in samples; the maximum amount of inorganic Se was below 5 %. These results were similar for both supplementation methods and for both wheat varieties. Judging from the present results, one can conclude that agronomic biofortification of wheat may improve the nutritional quality of wheat grains with significant amounts of selenomethionine, which is an attractive option for increasing the Se status in human diets through Se-enriched, wheat-based foodstuff. PMID:26139888

  5. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacheng Zheng

    Full Text Available ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2 and 7 (TaER1 of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55 and grain-filling (Z73 stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties, medium (27 varieties and low (16 varieties levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE- related traits, including stomatal density (SD, transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A, instant water use efficiency (WUEi and carbon isotope discrimination (CID, and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP. Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01, transpiration rate (P<0.05 and CID (P<0.01, while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01, A (P<0.05, WUEi (P<0.05, BYPP (P<0.01 and GYPP (P<0.01, with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that

  6. Agronomic, leaf anatomy, morphology, endophyte presence and ploidy characterization of accessions of Festuca group rubra collected in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J. A.; Gutierrez-Villarias, M. I.; Fernandez-Casado, M. A.; Costal-Andrade, L.; Gonzalez-Arraez, E.; Bughrara, S. S.; Afif, E.

    2008-07-01

    Fifteen accessions of Facet's group rubra collected in northern Spain were characterized and grouped into four Festuca taxa on the basis of leaf anatomy, morphology and ploidy; seven were identified as F. heteromalla; two as F. trichophylla ssp. asperifolia; two as F. nigrescens ssp. microphylla and four as F. rubra ssp. pruinosa. All the accessions and one commercial cultivar Wilma (F. nigrescens ssp. nigrescens), used as control, were established at the Mabegondo Agronomical Research Centre, A Coruna (Galicia) in a completely randomised block design with three replicates of 10 plants per accession. The plants were agronomically characterized for seven traits during 2004 and 2005. Cluster analysis was useful in identifying four clusters that described 66.5% of the phenotypic variation. Cluster 1 consisted of nine accessions with early heading, intermediate values of green colour and tolerance to crown rust in autumn and the highest seasonal growth. Cluster 2 contained two accessions with intermediate values of heading, green colour, good tolerance to crown rust in autumn and intermediate seasonal growth. Cluster 3 contained two accessions and the cultivar Wilma, which showed early heading, dark green colour, good tolerance to crown rust in autumn and spring and intermediate seasonal growth. Cluster 4 consisted of two late heading accessions with dark green colour, and the best tolerance to crown rust in autumn and intermediate seasonal growth. Thirteen of the 15 accessions (86.6%) were infected by fungal endophytes, with the degree of infection ranging from 2 to 73%. Additional key words: endophyte, fine fescues, genetic resources, hierarchical clustering, leaf sections, multivariate analysis, turf grass. (Author) 33 refs.

  7. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of induced mutant rice (oryza sativa l.) lines in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted at the farm of the Rice Research and Training Center, Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, during 2000-2007 rice sowing seasons. Five rice varieties viz., Giza 171, Giza 175, Giza 176, Giza 181 and GZ 1368 were the most widely grown Japonica and Indica types in Egypt during the last period, possesses at that time many positive agronomic characteristics including wide adaptability, high yield potential, tolerance to stresses and good eating quality. But with the passage of time it has lost its vigor. In Rice Research Program, Egypt, dry seeds of the above mentioned varieties were treated with different doses of gamma rays (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 Gy) for raising M1 generation. M1 plants were established by transplanting in the year 2000 season. One hundred independent lines have been advanced to M5 generation enabling evaluation of quantitative traits by replicated trials and promising lines were selected and tested in multi-location trials as M6, M7 and M8 generations. Morphological variations at vegetative and reproductive stages including plant type and various physiological characters were observed in the five populations. The mutant lines characteristics consisted of better resistance to lodging, blast disease, high yield potential, as well as early maturity. Results from yield trials and molecular assessments indicated that the mutants differed genetically from their parents. So, these mutants could be used as a donor parents in rice breeding program and some of them can be recommended as new rice varieties suitable for rice belt in Egypt. (author)

  8. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  9. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, M.J.; Claus, S.; Dekeyzer, S; Vandepitte, L.; Ó Tuama, É.; Lear, D.; Tyler-Walters, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of...

  10. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... zooplankton in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function...... and type. Some traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for...

  11. Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

    2013-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

  12. Identification of ISSR and RAPD markers linked to yield traits in bread wheat under normal and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.A. Khaled

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability and identification of some molecular markers were studied in twenty promising lines of wheat using agronomic traits, ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Significant variation was evidenced in all agronomic traits. The lines proved to be superior to the check cultivar Sahel1 in yield and its component traits. Lines L2, L7 and L8 were the best in most yield component traits in both seasons. Moreover, Lines L2, L4, L5, L7 and L8 showed drought tolerance by which they displayed high performance in agronomic traits as well as a low drought susceptibility index. The percentage of polymorphism was 39.3% and 53.2% for ISSRs and RAPDs, respectively. UBC-881 belonged to penta-nucleotide repeat sequences (GGGTG that produced the highest level of polymorphism, while UBC-846 belonged to di-nucleotide repeat sequences (CA that produced the lowest level of polymorphism. Genetic similarities among wheat lines based on ISSR and RAPD markers ranged from 0.81 to 1.00 and from 0.86 to 0.98, respectively. There was a low average of PIC (polymorphism information content values which were 0.10 (ISSR and 0.15 (RAPD. The RAPD technique exhibited a higher marker index (MI = 0.69 compared to ISSR (MI = 0.43. There was insignificant correlation between ISSR and RAPD data (0.168, p > 0.05. There were two markers (UBC-881450bp and OPF-10540bp, on each of which two traits regressed significantly. The associated markers each explained a maximum regression of 18.92–34.95% of the total available variation for individual associated traits.

  13. Global climate niche estimates for bioenergy crops and invasive species of agronomic origin: potential problems and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N Barney

    Full Text Available The global push towards a more biomass-based energy sector is ramping up efforts to adopt regionally appropriate high-yielding crops. As potential bioenergy crops are being moved around the world an assessment of the climatic suitability would be a prudent first step in identifying suitable areas of productivity and risk. Additionally, this assessment also provides a necessary step in evaluating the invasive potential of bioenergy crops, which present a possible negative externality to the bioeconomy. Therefore, we provide the first global climate niche assessment for the major graminaceous (9, herbaceous (3, and woody (4 bioenergy crops. Additionally, we contrast these with climate niche assessments for North American invasive species that were originally introduced for agronomic purposes as examples of well-intentioned introductions gone awry. With few exceptions (e.g., Saccharum officinarum, Pennisetum purpureum, the bioenergy crops exhibit broad climatic tolerance, which allows tremendous flexibility in choosing crops, especially in areas with high summer rainfall and long growing seasons (e.g., southeastern US, Amazon Basin, eastern Australia. Unsurprisingly, the invasive species of agronomic origin have very similar global climate niche profiles as the proposed bioenergy crops, also demonstrating broad climatic tolerance. The ecoregional evaluation of bioenergy crops and known invasive species demonstrates tremendous overlap at both high (EI≥30 and moderate (EI≥20 climate suitability. The southern and western US ecoregions support the greatest number of invasive species of agronomic origin, especially the Southeastern USA Plains, Mixed Woods Plains, and Mediterranean California. Many regions of the world have a suitable climate for several bioenergy crops allowing selection of agro-ecoregionally appropriate crops. This model knowingly ignores the complex biotic interactions and edaphic conditions, but provides a robust assessment of

  14. Relationships Between Agronomic and Environmental Soil Test Phosphorus in Three Typical Cultivated Soils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Min; JIE Xiao-Lei; ZHU Yong-Guan; HOU Yan-Lin; ZHANG Tie-Quan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationships between agronomic soil test P and environmental soil test P in three soils predominately distributing in three typical agricultural production areas of China. Soil P was analyzed using Bray-1 (BP), Oisen (OP), and Mehlich-3 (MP) methods as agronomic tests, and using Fe-oxide impregnated filter paper (FeP), anion-exchange resin membrane (RP), and water (WP) as environmental tests. There were linear relationships between soil P extractable with all the tests evaluated. The regression coefficients, R2, ranged from 0.8164 to 0.9409 between each two of thc agronomic soil test P, and ranged from 0.4702 to 0.8990 between each two of the environmental soil test P, when the three soils were considered separately. When soil test P was analyzed across all the three soils, the highest regression R2 was found between OP and MP (0.7940) amongst agronomic soil test P, and between FeP and RP amongst environmental soil test P (0.8842). While all of the three agronomic soil test P was linearly related to each of the environmental soil test P across the three soils, strongest relationships were found between OP and environmental soil test P. Agronomic OP may be adopted as an analytical tool for environmental prediction of soil P.

  15. Agronomical and physiotechnical characterization of mutant lines in sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the use of ionizing radiations from cobalt 60 applied to 25 collects of high burden and long biological cycle from the sorghum world collection, mutant lines which are the product of seven generations of selection toward low burden and short biological cycle were obtained. Under the assumption that the lines obtained by mutagenesis should involve the direct improvement of other characteristics besides the height and maturity, the present study was planned, with the objective of characterize, in basis to agronomical and physiological parameters, ten sorghum lines of eight generation (M8), with low burden and precocious, obtained by induced mutations, comparing this versions of original lines against the outstanding lines of sorghum program from post-degree college. The planned hypothesis was that reduction both in height and biological cycle of plans obtained by mutagenesis, involved changes in the amount of foliar area, the production and distribution of dry matter in the aerial organs of the plant and consequently in the effectiveness in the production of sorghum grains. (Author). 19 refs, 4 tabs

  16. Agronomic Performance of Two Tetraploid Hybrid Plantains in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloved Mensah Dzomeku

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field performance of two IITA plantain hybrids (‘PITA-1’, ‘PITA-4’ were assessed at two locations in Ghana alongside two local landraces (False Horn ‘Brodeyuo’, Intermediate French ‘Oniaba’ and a hybrid cultivar ‘Apem Hemaa’ (‘FHIA-21’. The objective of the study was to identify high yielding and disease resistant hybrids for growers in Ghana. The hybrids were evaluated for their agronomic performance and yield, tolerance to Black Sigatoka disease, number of functional leaves at flowering and at harvest, crop cycle, plant height and pseudostem girth. The results showed that the hybrids were tolerant/resistant to the Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fi jiensis disease with high number of functional leaves at flowering and at harvest. This characteristic of the hybrids was an important feature that could fit well into the smallholder cropping system. The crop cycles were comparable to that of ‘False Horn’ plantains. The yield performance of the hybrids was better compared to the landraces. The number of hands per bunch produced by the hybrids was also higher than those of the landraces except the intermediate French plantain (‘Oniaba’. The finger lengths of the IITA hybrids were however shorter compared to the landraces and this could hinder their acceptance by consumers.

  17. Fate of RDX and TNT in agronomic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation is of great interest to remediate soil contaminated with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The ability of 4 agronomic plants (maize, soybean, wheat and rice) to take up these explosives and their fate in plants were investigated. Plants were grown for 42 days on soil contaminated with [14C]RDX or [14C]TNT. Then, each part was analyzed for its radioactivity content and the percentage of bound and soluble residues was determined following extractions. Extracts were analyzed by radio-HPLC. More than 80% of uptaken RDX was translocated to aerial tissues, up to 64.5 mg g-1 of RDX. By contrast, TNT was little translocated to leaves since less than 25% of uptaken TNT was accumulated in aerial parts. Concentrations of TNT residues were 20 times lower than for RDX uptake. TNT was highly metabolized to bound residues (more than 50% of radioactivity) whereas RDX was mainly found in its parent form in aerial parts. - Crop plants are able to accumulate RDX in aerial parts and to metabolize TNT in roots

  18. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m-1). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m-1 density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m-11density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  19. Genetic Improvement of Agronomic Water Use Efficiency of Wheat in Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The five North-western provinces of China (Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinhai and Xinjiang) are located in arid or semiarid areas, where evaporation is 4- to 10-fold higher than precipitation. The serious deficiency of water results in poor yields and low profits from agricultural production. Grain production in the limited irrigated areas is seriously threatened by the continuous water decline in the Yellow River. Wheat is the major crop cultivated in the region. Therefore, breeding wheat varieties resistant to drought with increased water use efficiency (WUE) is one of main strategies for increasing food security and stabilizing farmers' incomes. The purpose of the research was to study the relationships between carbon isotope discrimination (CID, Δ13C or Δ) and yield, agronomic WUE and other related traits in wheat, and to select high WUE wheat varieties adapted to different ecological environments. We evaluated the genetic variation of Δ, studied the relationships between Δ and yield, developed populations from progenitors which contrasted in leaf and kernel-Δ, and studied the genetics of Δ in wheat from 2004 to 2006. In 2004, 32 bread wheat cultivars were planted in four locations, including two rain fed sites (Guyuan and Penyang) and two limited irrigated sites (Yinchuan and Huinong) to study the genetic variation in Δ. In 2005, 20 bread wheat genotypes were studied for the relationship between Δ and yield, and the varieties with contrasting Δ values were selected to make crosses in three locations. In 2006, 2007 and 2008, F3, F4, F6 progenies and stabilized genotypes were planted in Yinchuan (limited irrigation) and in Guyuan (rain fed). The genetics of Δ were studied in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Correlations between Δ and yield were studied in progenies and stabilized genotypes in 2008. Significant variation in Δ was found across genotypes, locations and years. The Δ of local varieties was significantly lower than that of improved varieties and

  20. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    these lines is in progress. Objective 2 The experiments from this objective have been completed and the data were published in the journal Crop Science by Felderhoff et al. (2012). A second publication by Felderhoff et al. is in progress (see publication list for full details). The experiments were based on a mapping population derived from the sweet sorghum 'Rio' and the dry-stalk grain sorghum BTx3197. The main findings were: 1) The apparent juiciness of the sorghum stalk, based on the appearance of a cut stem surface (moist vs. pithy), is not representative of the moisture content of the stalk. This was surprising, as pithy stalks have been associated with low moisture content. This means that in order to assess 'juiciness', a different evaluation needs to be used, for example by removing juice with a roller press or by measuring the difference in mass between a fresh and dried stalk segment. 2) A total of five QTLs associated with juice volume (corrected for height) or moisture content were identified, but not all QTLs were detected in all environments, providing evidence for genotype x environment interactions. This finding complicates breeding for juice volume using marker-assisted selection. 3) The QTL for sugar concentration identified on chromosome 3, and the subject of Objective 1, was confirmed in this mapping population, but unlike in previous studies (Murray et al., 2008), the presence of this QTL was associated with negative impacts on agronomic performance (fresh and dry biomass yield, juice yield). Consequently, introgression of the Brix QTL from Rio as part of a commercial breeding program will require monitoring of the precise impacts of this QTL on agronomic performance. 4) The absence of dominance effects for the Brix trait (= sugar concentration) indicated that Brix must be high in both parents to produce high Brix in hybrids. This means an extra constraint on the development of hybrid parents. With the results from Objective 1

  1. Agronomic characteristics of corn hybrids for silage production in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15592 Agronomic characteristics of corn hybrids for silage production in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléverton Marcelino de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Mato Grosso in the municipality of Santo Antônio do Leverger, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of corn hybrids in the cultivation of second crop for silage production. The experimental design was carried out with randomized blocks with 23 treatments (hybrids and three replications. Corn hybrids from different seed companies and recommended for the midwestern region of Brazil, were used. The agronomic traits were: stem diameter (cm, plant height and ear insertion (m; yield of green matter (ton. ha-1, percentage of spike, stem and leaves in green mass; ear productivity (ton. ha-1, dry matter content of stem + leaf and whole plant. Hybrids BF 9304, DKB 370, 177 DKB, BF 9534, BF 9417, AG 5020, BE 9701, P 3021 and P 30F98 had the highest production of green matter, plant height and spike insertion. The hybrid BF 9304 was also prominent for spike percentage (50.55%. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Mato Grosso in the municipality of Santo Antônio do Leverger, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of corn hybrids in the cultivation of second crop for silage production. The experimental design was carried out with randomized blocks with 23 treatments (hybrids and three replications. Corn hybrids from different seed companies and recommended for the midwestern region of Brazil, were used. The agronomic traits were: stem diameter (cm, plant height and ear insertion (m; yield of green matter (ton. ha-1, percentage of spike, stem and leaves in green mass; ear productivity (ton. ha-1, dry matter content of stem + leaf and whole plant. Hybrids BF 9304, DKB 370, 177 DKB, BF 9534, BF 9417, AG 5020, BE 9701, P 3021 and P 30F98 had the highest production of green matter, plant height and spike insertion. The hybrid BF 9304 was also prominent for spike

  2. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  3. Morpho-physiolological and qualitative traits of a bread wheat collection spanning a century of breeding in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Laino; Margherita Limonta; Davide Gerna; Patrizia Vaccino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation and characterization are crucial steps in the exploitation of germplasm collections. The Sant’Angelo Lodigiano unit of the Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria (CREA) maintains a broad collection of Triticum spp, including more than 4000 genotypes of T. aestivum . Such collection represents a wide source of genetic variability for many agronomic and qualitative traits, extremely useful in modern breeding programs. The collection size, h...

  4. AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA) CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO E RECOMENDAÇÕES PARA CULTIVO DE QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA) NO CERRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos; Juliana Evagelista da Silva Rocha; Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2011-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), native to the South American Andes, has been adapted for cultivation in Brazil, via progeny selection. Originating from the Q4 population, from Ecuadorian valleys, Q4.5 has shown outstanding performance. During the trials, it was standardized for agronomic traits and named BRS Syetetuba. In the summer and winter, it reached 2.3 t ha-1 and 7.5 t ha-1, respectively for grain and biomass yield, in 120 days, from emergence to maturity. These results were higher...

  5. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Nerea; Hormaza, José I

    2015-01-01

    The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra, and A. purpurea) and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia) and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa). The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management. PMID:26284104

  6. Applied Mathematics for agronomical engineers in Spain at UPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Fabregat, J.; Sanchez, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Mathematics, created or discovered, are a global human conceptual endowment, containing large systems of knowledge, and varied skills to use definite parts of them, in creation or discovery, or for applications, e.g. in Physics, or notably in engineering behaviour. When getting upper intellectual levels in the 19th century, the agronomical science and praxis was noticeably or mainly organised in Spain in agronomical engineering schools and also in institutes, together with technician schools, also with different lower lever centres, and they have evolved with progress and they are much changing at present to a EEES schema (Bolonia process). They work in different lines that need some basis or skills from mathematics. The vocation to start such careers, that have varied curriculums, contains only some mathematics, and the number of credits for mathematics is restrained because time is necessary for other initial sciences such as applied chemistry, biology, ecology and soil sciences, but some basis and skill of maths are needed, also with Physics, at least for electricity, machines, construction, economics at initial ground levels, and also for Statistics that are here considered part of Applied Mathematics. The ways of teaching mathematical basis and skills are especial, and are different from the practical ways needed e. g. for Soil Sciences, and they involve especial efforts from students, and especial controls or exams that guide much learning. The mathematics have a very large accepted content that uses mostly a standard logic, and that is remarkably stable and international, rather similar notation and expressions being used with different main languages. For engineering the logical basis is really often not taught, but the use of it is transferred, especially for calculus that requires both adapted somehow simplified schemas and the learning of a specific skill to use it, and also for linear algebra. The basic forms of differential calculus in several

  7. Advances in agronomic management of phytoremediation: methods and results from a 10-year study of metal-polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofilo Vamerali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among green technologies addressed to metal pollution, phytoextraction has received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to physical and chemical methods of decontamination. Since 1998, as part of an Italian multidisciplinary research team on phytoremediation, we have been carrying out several agronomic investigations with field crops in agricultural soil and pyrite waste, both markedly contaminated by heavy metals. Phytoextraction was rarely an efficient process, requiring a long time even to remove merely the bioavailable metal fraction, but the great metal stock in roots suggests exploring the effectiveness of long-term in planta stabilisation. Poor above-ground productivity was the main factor constraining metal removals, especially in wastes. Without assisting the process, only zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu were harvested by the canopy in substantial amounts, with an estimated maximum of ~8 kg of metals from an hectare base with rapeseed in the agricultural soil and only 0.33 kg with fodder radish in pyrite waste. Root growth was a key trait in species and genotype selection, in view of the close relationship between root length and metal uptake. The auxins, humic acids and chelators tested on the model plant fodder radish generally increased metal concentrations in plant tissues, but reduced growth and removals. It is currently concluded that phytoremediation efficiency with crop species may be improved through increased productivity by suitable soil management, involving mineral and organic fertilisation, contaminant dilution, soil capping, and metal immobilisation with inorganics and biochar.

  8. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters for tomato plants, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chehade, Lara; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    In organic farming, where nutrient management is constrained and sustainability is claimed, bio-effectors pave their way. Considering selected bio-effectors, this study integrates metabolomics to agronomy in depicting induced relevant phenomena. Extracts of three agro-industrial wastes (Lemon processing residues, Fennel processing residues and Brewer's spent grain) are being investigated as sources of bio-effectors for the third trial consequently. Corresponding individual and mixture aqueous extracts are assessed for their synergistic and/or single agronomic and qualitative performances on soil-grown tomato, compared to both a control and humic acid treatments. A metabolomic profiling of tomato fruits via the Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, as holistic indicator of fruit quality and extract-induced responses, complements crop productivity and organoleptic/nutritional qualitative analyses. Results are expected to show mainly an enhancement of the fruit qualitative traits, and to confirm partly the previous results of better crop productivity and metabolism enhancement. Waste-derived bio-effectors could be, accordingly, demonstrated as potential candidates of plant-enhancing substances. Keywords: bio-effectors, organic farming, agro-industrial wastes, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), tomato.

  9. The principles and guidelines for designing long-term agronomic experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark; Conyers

    2009-01-01

    Many of the important questions facing farming systems in the world today require long-term studies to provide meaningful information and answers. A long-term agronomic experiment (LTAE) should (1) have long-term objectives; (2) study important soil processes or ecological processes; and (3) be related to the productivity and sustainability of systems. A well established LTAE can provide both insights into how the system operates and foresight into where the system goes. The prerequisites for setting up a LTAE are the secured land, continuous funding and dedicated scientists. A number of principles must be considered carefully when establishing a LTAE, (1) the site must be representative of large areas; (2) the treatments should be simple, but focusing on the big questions; (3) the plots should be large enough to allow subsequent modification of the experiment if this becomes necessary; (4) crop rotations should minimise, wherever possible, the risk of build-up of pests and diseases, and rotational phase should be considered in a rotational experiment; (5) a clearly defined experimental protocol should be developed to ensure data collected is scientifically valid and statistically analysable, but with flexibility to allow essential changes; (6) soil samples, possibly plant samples, should be achieved to provide better answer to the original questions when new, perhaps more accurate analytical techniques are developed, or answer new research questions that were not considered in the original design. The MASTER experiment in Australia was used as a case study to demonstrate how these principles are implemented in practice.

  10. Clinical skills development in student-run free clinic volunteers: a multi-trait, multi-measure study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Mio; Altshuler, David; Binienda, Juliann

    2014-01-01

    Background At Wayne State University School of Medicine (WSU SOM), the Robert R. Frank Student Run Free Clinic (SRFC) is one place preclinical students can gain clinical experience. There have been no published studies to date measuring the impact of student-run free clinic (SRFC) volunteerism on clinical skills development in preclinical medical students. Methods Surveys were given to first year medical students at WSU SOM at the beginning and end of Year 1 to assess perception of clinical s...

  11. Evaluating agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rocks using nuclear and related techniques: Results from an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project, 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates', was in operation during the period 1993-98. The research network comprised twenty-three scientists, of whom seventeen were in developing countries, with six in industrialized nations. Conventional and 32P-isotope techniques were utilized to assess the bioavailability of P in soils amended with phosphate rock (PR) and water-soluble fertilisers, and to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PR products. No single chemical extraction method was found to be suitable for all soils and fertilisers. The Pi strip method showed promising results, but more testing is needed with tropical acid soils. The 32P-phosphate-exchange kinetics method allowed a complete characterization of P dynamics, and provided basic information for estimating the kinetic pools of soil P. The agronomic effectiveness (AE) of PRs depends on their solubility (reactivity), which is related to the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure. Rock phosphates of low reactivity were unsuitable for direct application to annual crops. Research in Venezuela, China, Cuba, Brazil, and Thailand demonstrated that AE can be increased by partial acidulation, or by mixing with organic materials or a water-soluble source. The AE can be enhanced also through inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria. The AE, which depends on species, is particularly high in crops such as canola and lupin that exude organic acids from the roots. Agronomic effectiveness of PR is higher on soils with low pH, low available P, low exchangeable Ca, high cation exchange capacity and high organic-matter content. The 32P-techniques are powerful tools for studying the factors that affect AE. Information from field trials was used to create a database for validating a model for providing recommendations for PR application

  12. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  13. Long-term effects of delayed fatherhood in mice on postnatal development and behavioral traits of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palomares, Silvia; Pertusa, José F; Miñarro, José; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Rausell, Francisco; Cano, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J

    2009-02-01

    This study aims to analyze, in mice, the long-term effects of delayed fatherhood on postnatal development, spontaneous motor activity, and learning capacity of offspring. Hybrid parental-generation (F(0)) males, at the age of 12, 70, 100, and 120 wk, were individually housed with a randomly selected 12-wk-old hybrid female. The resulting first-generation (F(1)) offspring were tested for several developmental and behavioral variables. Cumulative percentage of F(1) pups that attained immediate righting in the 120-wk group was lower than that found in the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. Furthermore, the postnatal day of attaining immediate righting was higher in pups from the 120-wk group when compared to pups from the other age-groups. At the age of 20 wk, F(1) offspring from the 120-wk group displayed lower counts of motor activity than offspring from the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. One week later, a higher percentage of offspring from the 100- and 120-wk groups entered the dark compartment during the retention trial of the passive-avoidance test when compared to offspring from the 12-wk group. Offspring from the 120-wk group exhibited also lower step-through latency in the retention trial than offspring from the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. These results show that advanced paternal age at conception has long-term effects on preweaning development, spontaneous motor activity, and reduced passive-avoidance learning capacity of mouse offspring. PMID:18923158

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT UNITS BASED ON PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L Cucunubá-Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is an alternative for the development of productive systems in the tropics. By determining the spatial variability of physical characteristics of soil, specific recommendations for certain areas within a zone can be made. Geostatistical analysis can determine the existence and characteristics of the spatial distribution and is an appropriate tool for analyzing the spatial variability of soil properties. The aim of this study was to determine areas with homogeneous physical characteristics in order to establish agricultural management units, using geostatistical techniques. For this study, 62 samples were collected in 10.6 ha in the municipality of El Reten (Magdalena, Colombia. The properties analyzed were: content of sand, silt and clay, particle density, bulk density, total porosity, gravimetric and volumetric water content, hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate. All properties showed spatial correlation, with adjustments to semivariograms theoretical models, mostly to the spherical model, with ranges between 84.87 and 218.60 m and moderate to strong spatial dependence. The contour maps obtained through ordinary kriging, allowed for the identification of the relationship between the different physical properties of the soil and subsequent classification to determine the Agronomic Management Units (AMU.

  15. Pay Attention to Developing Children's Good Personality Traits%关注幼儿良好个性品质的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英

    2012-01-01

    Foster children's good personality traits is an important task of early childhood education, teachers in the daily teaching and life should focus on training the children's good personality, and focus on shaping and protecting young children, good personality, respectful of their individuality and their parents interact in the game,to create the conditions to ac- tivate the early learning initiative to promote children's subjectivity, autonomy, uniqueness, and creativity continue to generate and development.%培养幼儿良好的个性品质是幼儿教育的重要任务,教师在日常教学和生活中要注重培养幼儿良好的个性,在游戏中注重塑造和保护幼儿的良好个性,在和家长互动时尊重幼儿的个性,创造条件去激活幼儿学习的主动性,促进幼儿的主体性、自主性、独特性、创造性不断地生成与发展。

  16. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  17. Induction of agronomically useful mutants in sorghum through radiations and in vitro techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum is an important millet crop known for its multiple usage as food, fodder and fuel. In this crop, irradiation and cell and tissue culture techniques can be very useful for creating new genetic variation affecting major and polygenic traits. In the present study, two grain sorghum varieties (CO 26, COS 28) and two forage sorghum varieties (CO 27, COFS 29) were utilized. LD50 dose for all the four varieties were fixed (400Gy for CO 26, 350Gy for COS 28, 500Gy for CO 27 and 600Gy for COPS 29. The viable mutants for high yield, high biomass, thick stem, tall and dwarf mutant, stay green, bold grain, grain colour (pearly white in CO 26 and COS 28, red seed colour in CO27), glume colour (red glume in CO27 and COFS 29) and forty five non-shattering mutants (COFS 29) were identified. In grain sorghum, fifty families of CO 26 and forty eight families of COS 28 were selected for high grain yield and in forage sorghum, fifteen families of CO 27 and twenty two families of COFS 29 were selected for high biomass inM4generation. In grain sorghum for stay green trait, twelve families in CO 26 and seven families of COS 28 were selected inM4generation. Agronomically superior mutants are being subjected to further evaluation, selection and stability of performance. In vitro culture studies: The explants utilized for the present study were immature inflorescence and young leaf and the medium used was MS the percentage of callus induction was high (82.14%) in CO 27 leaf explant and percentage of regeneration was high in inflorescence callus of CO 26 and COS 28 (80%). Addition of activated charcoal was found to be effective in reducing the phenols. As regards callus induction, 0.4 g/l activated charcoal was found to be optimum. Double the dose of Fe-EDTA was found to be necessary for high frequency of callus induction and regeneration. The best composition of ingredients for callus induction was 0.4 g/l activated charcoal, 2.0 mg /l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l kinetin. The best

  18. Morpho-agronomic characterization of 96 rice mutant line M5 induced through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 96 rice mutant lines M5 of Khaw Dawk Mali induced with gamma radiation at doses ranging from 200 to 400 Gray were morpho-agronomically characterized at Muda Agricultural Department Authority (MADA) experimental plot and at Malaysian Institute For Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) laboratory. These mutant lines were selected for resistance to blast disease, which caused by Pyricularia orayzae. Several morphoagronomic characters were evaluated including stability, plant height, number of tiller per hill, flag leaf behavior, flowering and maturity period, grain length and 1000 seeds weight. Variations were found among mutant lines in all morpho-agronomic characters studied. Some mutant lines were better in certain characters as compared to variety Khaw Dawk Mali (Parent). About 20 percent of these mutant lines showed better performance in all morpho-agronomic characters studied as compared to parent will be selected for preliminary yield trial at M6 generation

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to quantitative trait loci for grain quality traits in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlian Li; Guihua Bai; Shiaoman Chao; Brett Carver; Zhonghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain quality traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTL) define suitable growing areas and potential end-use products of a wheat cultivar. To dissect QTL for these traits including protein content (GPC);test weight (TW);single kernel characterization system (SKCS)-estimated kernel weight (SKW); kernel diameter (KD);kernel hardness measured by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) hardness index (NHI); and SKCS-hardness index (SHI), a high-density genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Ning7840 × Clark. The RILs were evaluated for these quality traits in seven Oklahoma environments from 2001 to 2003. A total of 41 QTL with additive effects on different traits were mapped on most wheat chromosomes, excluding 1A, 2A, 3D, 4D, 6D, and 7B. Seven chromosome regions showed either tightly linked QTL or QTL with pleiotropic effects on two to four traits. Ten pairs of QTL showed additive × additive effects (AA), four QTL were involved in additive × environment (AE) effects, and one was involved in AAE effects. Two to eleven QTL for each of the six traits and 139 tightly linked markers to these QTL were identified. The findings shed light on the inheritance of wheat grain quality traits and provide DNA markers for manipulating these important traits to improve quality of new wheat cultivars.

  20. Predicting microbial traits with phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberna, Marta; Verdú, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Phylogeny reflects genetic and phenotypic traits in Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic conservatism of microbial traits has prompted the application of phylogeny-based algorithms to predict unknown trait values of extant taxa based on the traits of their evolutionary relatives to estimate, for instance, rRNA gene copy numbers, gene contents or tolerance to abiotic conditions. Unlike the 'macrobial' world, microbial ecologists face scenarios potentially compromising the accuracy of trait reconstruction methods, as, for example, extremely large phylogenies and limited information on the traits of interest. We review 990 bacterial and archaeal traits from the literature and support that phylogenetic trait conservatism is widespread through the tree of life, while revealing that it is generally weak for ecologically relevant phenotypic traits and high for genetically complex traits. We then perform a simulation exercise to assess the accuracy of phylogeny-based trait predictions in common scenarios faced by microbial ecologists. Our simulations show that ca. 60% of the variation in phylogeny-based trait predictions depends on the magnitude of the trait conservatism, the number of species in the tree, the proportion of species with unknown trait values and the mean distance in the tree to the nearest neighbour with a known trait value. Results are similar for both binary and continuous traits. We discuss these results under the light of the reviewed traits and provide recommendations for the use of phylogeny-based trait predictions for microbial ecologists. PMID:26371406

  1. The legume NOOT-BOP-COCH-LIKE genes are conserved regulators of abscission, a major agronomical trait in cultivated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Magne, Kevin; Mondy, Samuel; Cosson, Viviane; Clements, Jonathan; Ratet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Plants are able to lose organs selectively through a process called abscission. This process relies on the differentiation of specialized territories at the junction between organs and the plant body that are called abscission zones (AZ). Several genes control the formation or functioning of these AZ. We have characterized BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) orthologues from several legume plants and studied their roles in the abscission process using a mutant approach. Here, we show that the Medicago truncatula NODULE ROOT (NOOT), the Pisum sativum COCHLEATA (COCH) and their orthologue in Lotus japonicus are strictly necessary for the abscission of not only petals, but also leaflets, leaves and fruits. We also showed that the expression pattern of the M. truncatula pNOOT::GUS fusion is associated with functional and vestigial AZs when expressed in Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that the stip mutant from Lupinus angustifolius, defective in stipule formation and leaf abscission, is mutated in a BOP orthologue. In conclusion, this study shows that this clade of proteins plays an important conserved role in promoting abscission of all aerial organs studied so far. PMID:26390061

  2. Effects on agronomic traits of M1 by pollen of upland cotton irradiated by 60Co-γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [Objective] The aim was to provide reference for research on radiation and breeding of cotton pollen through irradiating common ripe pollen grain of upland cotton by 60Co-? Ray of varied doses. [Method] Ripe pollen grains of upland cotton were irradiated by 60Co-γ Ray with doses of 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy, respectively, to learn radiation effect and select appropriate dose. [Result] Most properties of M1 obviously showed variation when dose was over 10 Gy; vitality, growth, and fertility were greatly inhibited when dose was 15 Gy which was almost semi-lethal concentration, and variation species were richest at the same time, which provided materials for practical breeding. [Conclusion] 60Co-γ Ray of 15 Gy was more suitable for inducing research for ripe pollen grains of upland cotton

  3. Localising QTLs for leaf rust resistance and agronomic traits in barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicherer, S.; Backes, G.; Walther, U.; Jahoor, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Hordeum vulgare accession 'HOR 1063' was crossed with the barley cultivar Krona, and 220 doubled haploid lines were produced based on this cross. A molecular map was constructed based on RFLP markers. Field trials were performed over 2 years and at two locations. In field trials, resistance t...

  4. Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield, fodder yield and other agronomic traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Jain and P. R. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Thirty six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design of nine parents and one standard check GJ-39 were evaluated for general and specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant, days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf breadth and 100- seed weight. The mean square due to general and specific combining ability was significant for all the characters. Both additive and non additive g...

  5. Effects of Different Rates of Potassium on Nitrogen Fixation and Agronomic Traits of Three Medicago sative Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhassan Fajri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of K (0, 50 and 100 kg K ha-1 on nitrogen fixation and dry matter production of three medicago (Medicago sativa L. varieties (Hamadani, Sacoeal and Gharayoungeh, in the agricultural research station of Urmia University, West Azarbijan province. The performance management was under irrigating and cutting regime in a small-plot trial (1 m2 with low K soil. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block split-plot design with four replicates. Three plants from each plot at initial flowering stage were taken for measuring N2-fixation by using the natural abundance of 15N, dry weight of leaves, stems, nodules and nutrients (K, C of the shoots. Nodule weights were estimated from root systems of plants prior to third harvest. The highest rate of nitrogen fixed from atmosphere in shoots of Gharayoungeh (122 kg ha-1 was obtained with the application of 100 kg K ha-1, whilst the lowest yield (83 kg ha-1 belonged to Sacoel in unfertilized plots. Both dry matter yield of stems and nodule weight were significantly increased by K fertilization. Dry matter yield of leaves in plants was reduced by K fertilization. K application increased the K, carbon contents of shoots of overall plant varieties by more than 50 kg K ha-1. These evaluations demonstrated that varieties responded to different levels of K fertilizer. Increased yield of stems and nodules, in contrast, reduction in leaf yield by K application indicated that carbon from photosynthesis is preferably used for stem production and nodule formation.

  6. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zein, Imad; Brenner, Everton A;

    2010-01-01

    Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes...

  7. Performance of agronomic traits of Chinese CMS lines in India and their potential application in rice breeding program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOLongxing; ZHANGShanqing; WANGXi; A.V.Kini; P.Suresha

    1999-01-01

    Experiment was conducted in E. I. D Pazry(India )LTD, Agriteeh Res Center (N12. 5°,E78°) in Rabi season, 1998. Chinese indiea cytoplasmic male sterile lines (CMS) ZS97A,V20A, Jing 23A, You-IA, and D297A, and tropical CMS IR68902A, IR69616A, and IR58025A were sowed on Feb 6 and transplanted on Mar 1.

  8. Contrasting agronomic response of biochar amendment to a Mediterranean Cambisol: Incubation vs. field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; De Celis, Reyes; Miller, Ana Z.; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    are still being processed. Nevertheless, preliminary results indicated that addition of biochar did not alter negatively physical properties (pH, EC) or composition of this alkaline soil, on the contrary biochar addition caused a slight improvement of the WHC and soil porosity. Those changes produced a faster development of plant shoots. However, at the end of the experiment, biochar amendment caused no significant increase on the agronomic production for any of the tested biochars. From these preliminary results, we conclude that biochar amendment improved physical-surficial characteristics of the calcic Cambisol from an agronomic point of view, but under the typical Mediterranean climate those changes seem to leave the harvested seed yields unaffected. References: [1] Glaser B, Lehmann J, Zech W, 2002. Biol. Fert. Soils. 35, 219-230. [2] Blackwell P, Riethmuller G, Collins M, 2009. in Lehmann J, Joseph S. Earthscan (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, London. [3] IUSS Working Group WRB, 2007. World Soil Resources Reports 103. FAO, Rome. [4] De la Rosa JM, Knicker H, 2011. Soil Biol. Biochem. 43, 2368-2373. [5] De la Rosa JM, Paneque M, Miller AZ, Knicker H, 2014. Sci. of the Tot. Env. 499, 175-184. Acknowledgements: The Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (REA grant agreement n° PCIG12-GA-2012-333784-Biocharisma project) and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) (project PCGL2012-37041) are thanked for the financial support of the present study. The "Fondo Social Europeo" is thanked for funding J.M de la Rosa JAE-Doc contract. The European Biochar Network (Biochar as option for sustainable resource management-COST action TD1107) and Bodegas Torres (Spain) are acknowledged for providing the biochar samples.

  9. Haplotype hitchhiking promotes trait coselection in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lunwen; Qian, Wei; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-07-01

    Local haplotype patterns surrounding densely spaced DNA markers with significant trait associations can reveal information on selective sweeps and genome diversity associated with important crop traits. Relationships between haplotype and phenotype diversity, coupled with analysis of gene content in conserved haplotype blocks, can provide insight into coselection for nonrelated traits. We performed genome-wide analysis of haplotypes associated with the important physiological and agronomic traits leaf chlorophyll and seed glucosinolate content, respectively, in the major oilseed crop species Brassica napus. A locus on chromosome A01 showed opposite effects on leaf chlorophyll content and seed glucosinolate content, attributed to strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between orthologues of the chlorophyll biosynthesis genes EARLY LIGHT-INDUCED PROTEIN and CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE, and the glucosinolate synthesis gene ATP SULFURYLASE 1. Another conserved haplotype block, on chromosome A02, contained a number of chlorophyll-related genes in LD with orthologues of the key glucosinolate biosynthesis genes METHYLTHIOALKYMALATE SYNTHASE-LIKE 1 and 3. Multigene haplogroups were found to have a significantly greater contribution to variation for chlorophyll content than haplotypes for any single gene, suggesting positive effects of additive locus accumulation. Detailed reanalysis of population substructure revealed a clade of ten related accessions exhibiting high leaf chlorophyll and low seed glucosinolate content. These accessions each carried one of the above-mentioned haplotypes from A01 or A02, generally in combination with further chlorophyll-associated haplotypes from chromosomes A05 and/or C05. The phenotypic rather than pleiotropic correlations between leaf chlorophyll content index and seed GSL suggest that LD may have led to inadvertent coselection for these two traits. PMID:26800855

  10. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  11. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  12. New methods for mapping quantitative trait loci

    OpenAIRE

    Carlborg, Örjan

    2002-01-01

    This thesis presents and discusses the use of various genetic models, high performance computing, global optimization algorithms and statistical methods for mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The aim of the work has been to develop statistically powerful and computationally efficient methods to detect genomic loci affecting multifactorial traits, and use the methods use to analyse experimental data. Imprinting is an epigenetic phenomena which causes differential expression of alleles base...

  13. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  14. Plant Hormone Resistance and Agronomic Characteristics of the MT10 Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The MT10 mutant plants had resistances to auxin. Under light and dark culture,the roots of MT10 seedlings had shown less lateral roots and short lateral roots. In soil ,MT10 seedlings had shown not only no changed agronomic characteristics but also no significant difference with WT.

  15. Improving agronomic water use efficiency in tomato by rootstock-mediated hormonal regulation of leaf biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Albacete, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Water availability is the most important factor limiting food production, thus developing new scientific strategies to allow crops to more efficiently use water could be crucial in a world with a growing population. Tomato is a highly water consuming crop and improving its water use efficiency (WUE) implies positive economic and environmental effects. This work aimed to study and exploit root-derived hormonal traits to improve WUE in tomato by grafting on selected rootstocks. Firstly, root-related hormonal parameters associated to WUE were identified in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that some hormonal traits were associated with productivity (plant biomass and photosynthesis) and WUE in the RIL population. Leaf ABA concentration was associated to the first component (PC1) of the PCA, which explained a 60% of the variance in WUE, while the ethylene precursor ACC and the ratio ACC/ABA were also associated to PC1 but in the opposite direction. Secondly, we selected RILs according to their extreme biomass (high, B, low, b) and water use (high, W, low, w), and studied the differential effect of shoot and root on WUE by reciprocal grafting. In absence of any imposed stress, there were no rootstock effects on vegetative shoot growth and water relations. Finally, we exploited the previously identified root-related hormonal traits by grafting a commercial tomato variety onto the selected RILs to improve WUE. Interestingly, rootstocks that induced low biomass and water use, 'bw', improved fruit yield and WUE (defined as fruit yield/water use) by up to 40% compared to self-grafted plants. Although other hormonal factors appear implicated in this response, xylem ACC concentration seems an important root-derived trait that inhibits leaf growth but does not limit fruit yield. Thus tomato WUE can be improved exploiting rootstock-derived hormonal signals

  16. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  17. Sebacina vermifera: a unique root symbiont with vast agronomic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prasun; Craven, Kelly D

    2016-01-01

    The Sebacinales belong to a taxonomically, ecologically, and physiologically diverse group of fungi in the Basidiomycota. While historically recognized as orchid mycorrhizae, recent DNA studies have brought to light both their pandemic distribution and the broad spectrum of mycorrhizal types they form. Indeed, ecological studies using molecular-based methods of detection have found Sebacinales fungi in field specimens of bryophytes (moss), pteridophytes (fern) and all families of herbaceous angiosperms (flowering plants) from temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. These natural host plants include, among others, liverworts, wheat, maize and Arabidopsis thaliana, the model plant traditionally viewed as non-mycorrhizal. The orchid mycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera (MAFF 305830) was first isolated from the Australian orchid Cyrtostylis reniformis. Research performed with this strain clearly indicates its plant growth promoting abilities in a variety of plants, while demonstrating a lack of specificity that rivals or even surpasses that of arbuscular mycorrhizae. Indeed, these traits thus far appear to characterize a majority of strains belonging to the so-called "clade B" within the Sebacinales (recently re-classified as the Serendipitaceae), raising numerous basic research questions regarding plant-microbe signaling and the evolution of mycorrhizal symbioses. Further, given their proven beneficial impact on plant growth and their apparent but cryptic ubiquity, sebacinoid fungi should be considered as a previously hidden, but amenable and effective microbial tool for enhancing plant productivity and stress tolerance. PMID:26715121

  18. PLEIOTROPIC EFFECT OF Rht3 DWARFING GENE ON SOME TRAITS OF WHEAT (Tr. aestivum L. em Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Jošt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available True-isogenic lines, differing only in the semi-dominant Rht3 dwarfing gene, were developed from the cross 'Tom Thumb x Bankuty 1201' during 17 years of continuous selection on heterozygous semidwarf plant. The effect of double (Rht3 Rht3 = full-dwarf, single (Rht3 rht3 =semi-dwarf, or no dwarfing gene (rht3 rht3 = tall dosage on some plant, seed, and flour quality traits were observed in the isogenic lines during two years field experiment, planted by 'honey-comb design' at Kri`evci, Croatia. Significant main effect of Rht3 gene was in shortening of plant height by 54% and 28% in double and single gene dosage respectively. Full-dwarf genotype (Rht3 Rht3 had by 12% more heads/plant, but the other yield components as number of grains/head, and grain weight/head were lower by 25 and 28% respectively, resulting in significantly lower grain yield/plant (-27%. However, this also could be a secondary side effect of prolonged vegetation influenced by doubled Rht3 gene. There was no significant effect on flour protein content. Double gene effect was strong and significant for maximum dough viscosity measured by amylograph in BU (101%. In our environment full dwarf (Rht3 Rht3 has no agronomic value, but single gene dosage could be of commercial interest in hybrid wheat breeding.

  19. PLEIOTROPIC EFFECT OF Rht3 DWARFING GENE ON SOME TRAITS OF WHEAT (Tr. aestivum L. em Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jošt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available True-isogenic lines, differing only in the semi-dominant Rht3 dwarfing gene, were developed from the cross 'Tom Thumb x Bankuty 1201' during 17 years of continuous selection on heterozygous semi-dwarf plant. The effect of double (Rht3 Rht3 = full-dwarf, single (Rht3 rht3 =semi-dwarf, or no dwarfing gene (rht3 rht3 = tall dosage on some plant, seed, and flour quality traits were observed in the isogenic lines during two years field experiment, planted by 'honey-comb design' at Kri`evci, Croatia. Significant main effect of Rht3 gene was in shortening of plant height by 54% and 28% in double and single gene dosage respectively. Full-dwarf genotype (Rht3 Rht3 had by 12% more heads/plant, but the other yield components as number of grains/head, and grain weight/head were lower by 25 and 28% respectively, resulting in significantly lower grain yield/plant (-27%. However, this also could be a secondary side effect of prolonged vegetation influenced by doubled Rht3 gene. There was no significant effect on flour protein content. Double gene effect was strong and significant for maximum dough viscosity measured by amylograph in BU (101%. In our environment full dwarf (Rht3 Rht3 has no agronomic value, but single gene dosage could be of commercial interest in hybrid wheat breeding.

  20. Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-06-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states.

  1. Relationship of sphinganine analog mycotoxin contamination in maize silage to seasonal weather conditions and to agronomic and ensiling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Michele A; Archibald, Douglas D; Jones, A Daniel; Kuldau, Gretchen A

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT Sphinganine analog mycotoxins (SAMs) are reported in maize and maize based feeds. Our objectives were to detect and quantify fumonisins B(1) and B(2) and Alternaria toxins (AAL toxins) AAL-TA and AAL-TB and determine how agronomic practices, weather conditions, and ensiling affected the occurrence and levels in maize silage. Silage was collected at harvest and after ensiling in 2001 and 2002 from 30 to 40 dairies, representing four regions in Pennsylvania. SAMs were quantified using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection and high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry HPLC-MS. The average concentrations and ranges were as follows: fumonisin B(1) 2.02 mug/g (0.20 to 10.10), fumonisin B(2) 0.98 mug/g (0.20 to 20.30), AAL-TA 0.17 mug/g (0.20 to 2.01), and AAL-TB 0.05 mug/g (0.03 to 0.90). Fumonisin B(1) was the most frequently detected toxin (92%) in all samples, followed by fumonisin B(2) (55%), AAL-TA (23%), and -TB (13%). Temperature during maize development was positively correlated with fumonisin occurrence and levels and negatively with AAL-TA, while moisture events were negatively correlated with fumonisins and positively with AAL-TA. Fumonisin levels were higher in silage harvested at later developmental stages (dough through physiological maturity). Ensiling did not affect toxin concentration nor did agronomic practices (tillage system, inoculant use, or silo type) or silage characteristics (dry matter, pH, or organic acid concentration). This is the first report of AAL-TB in silage and on factors that affect SAM frequency and levels in maize silage. PMID:18943291

  2. Agronomic-productive characteristics of two genotype of stevia rebaudiana in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andolfi

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni produces a variety of high-potency low calorie sweeteners in its’ leaf tissue. The aim of this work was to evaluate the productive potential of two different Stevia rebaudiana genotypes and the characteristics of the production of the plant obtained through different cultivation methods, in central Italy. For several years (1992-2000 agronomic trials on Stevia rebaudiana cultivated in the littoral area near Pisa (Italy carried out. In 1992 two different genotypes of Stevia (B1 and B2 transplanted in silt-loam soil; in 1996 other plants from B2 genotype, produced by vegetative process (micropropagation, were transplanted in the same field. In the period from 1992-1999 the production of leaves from both genotypes increase as of the third year and the ratio leaf-aerial plant, after the peak in the third year, tends to diminish. Except the first year (1997 there were not recorded statistically significant differences between the two propagation methods employed in relation to leaf production. The quantity of leaves produced from a single harvest was less than resulting from two cuttings and the micropropagation plants produced a larger amount of leaves than those from cutting. The leaf-stem ratio was to become an interesting morphological and production characteristic parameter of the plant. Stevia rebaudiana appears particularly suited for the cultivation environment of central Italy. A particular positive aspect that must be considered in these regions is that Stevia can be grown successfully as poliannual species because crop survival over the winter is high. The results obtained show that this species is economically profitable until the 5th or 6th year of cultivation. At our latitudes is also necessary to establish a program of genetic improvement in order to develop earlier varieties that can guaranty an optimum qualitative and quantitative seed production.

  3. Morpho-physiolological and qualitative traits of a bread wheat collection spanning a century of breeding in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Paolo; Limonta, Margherita; Gerna, Davide; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation and characterization are crucial steps in the exploitation of germplasm collections. The Sant'Angelo Lodigiano unit of the Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria (CREA) maintains a broad collection of Triticum spp, including more than 4000 genotypes of T. aestivum. Such collection represents a wide source of genetic variability for many agronomic and qualitative traits, extremely useful in modern breeding programs. The collection size, however, makes very difficult its management as a whole. A reduced subset, representing the process of wheat breeding in Italy during the last hundred years, was hence identified for an in-depth characterization. The lines were cropped in two locations over two growing seasons, and analyzed using 16 morpho-agronomic and qualitative descriptors. Most of the analysed characters showed a broad variation throughout the collection, allowing to follow the plant ideotype changes across the breeding progress in Italy during the 20th century. PMID:26379457

  4. Morpho-physiolological and qualitative traits of a bread wheat collection spanning a century of breeding in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Laino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation and characterization are crucial steps in the exploitation of germplasm collections. The Sant’Angelo Lodigiano unit of the Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria (CREA maintains a broad collection of Triticum spp, including more than 4000 genotypes of T. aestivum. Such collection represents a wide source of genetic variability for many agronomic and qualitative traits, extremely useful in modern breeding programs. The collection size, however, makes very difficult its management as a whole. A reduced subset, representing the process of wheat breeding in Italy during the last hundred years, was hence identified for an in-depth characterization. The lines were cropped in two locations over two growing seasons, and analyzed using 16 morpho-agronomic and qualitative descriptors. Most of the analysed characters showed a broad variation throughout the collection, allowing to follow the plant ideotype changes across the breeding progress in Italy during the 20th century.

  5. FishTraits: A Database of Ecological and Life-history Traits of Freshwater Fishes of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  6. Effect of Water Stress Imposed at Different Growth and Development Stages on Morphological Traits and Yield of Bambara Groundnuts (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Moseki; V. Emongor; R. Vurayai

    2011-01-01

    Two greenhouse trials were carried out to evaluate the response pattern of morphological traits of bambara groundnut to short periods of water stress imposed at different developmental stages and also their recuperative ability after rewatering. The treatments consisted of watering plants to 100% Plant Available Water (PAW), withholding water to 30% PAW at vegetative, flowering and pod filling growth stages and rewatering the plants after 21 days of each stress treatment. Water stress reduced...

  7. Genetic control of soybean seed isoflavone content: importance of statistical model and epistasis in complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Juan Jose; Wu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Juan; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Ellersieck, Mark; Shannon, J Grover; Yu, Oliver; Nguyen, Henry T; Sleper, David A

    2009-10-01

    A major objective for geneticists is to decipher genetic architecture of traits associated with agronomic importance. However, a majority of such traits are complex, and their genetic dissection has been traditionally hampered not only by the number of minor-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) but also by genome-wide interacting loci with little or no individual effect. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seed isoflavonoids display a broad range of variation, even in genetically stabilized lines that grow in a fixed environment, because their synthesis and accumulation are affected by many biotic and abiotic factors. Due to this complexity, isoflavone QTL mapping has often produced conflicting results especially with variable growing conditions. Herein, we comparatively mapped soybean seed isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and glycitein by using several of the most commonly used mapping approaches: interval mapping, composite interval mapping, multiple interval mapping and a mixed-model based composite interval mapping. In total, 26 QTLs, including many novel regions, were found bearing additive main effects in a population of RILs derived from the cross between Essex and PI 437654. Our comparative approach demonstrates that statistical mapping methodologies are crucial for QTL discovery in complex traits. Despite a previous understanding of the influence of additive QTL on isoflavone production, the role of epistasis is not well established. Results indicate that epistasis, although largely dependent on the environment, is a very important genetic component underlying seed isoflavone content, and suggest epistasis as a key factor causing the observed phenotypic variability of these traits in diverse environments. PMID:19626310

  8. Phenotyping and beyond: modelling the relationships between traits

    OpenAIRE

    Granier, Christine; Vile, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenotyping technology has become more advanced with the capacity to measure many morphological and physiological traits on a given individual. With increasing automation, getting access to various traits on a high number of genotypes over time raises the need to develop systems for data storage and analyses, all congregating into plant phenotyping pipelines. In this review, we highlight several studies that illustrate the latest advances in plant multi-trait phenotyping and discuss fut...

  9. Effects of main traits of sweet sorghum irradiated by carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the influence of carbon ion irradiation on important agronomic characters of sweet sorghum, dry seeds of Sweet Sorghum BJ0601 and BJ0602 were irradiated by 100 MeV/u 12C+6 ion beam to different doses at Heavy Ion Accelerator National Laboratory in Lanzhou (HIANLL). When matured, the main traits of sweet sorghum were measured. The correlation coefficient of five main agronomic characters, i.e. number of node, plant height, stalk diameter, sugar content and stem weight per plant, were analyzed using the SPSS 13.0 software. The results indicated that the obvious influence of sweet sorghum irradiated by carbon ion beam was observed. In addition, the correlation of main traits was studied. This study may provide rudimental data to select novel variety of sweet sorghum suited for fuel ethanol production. In addition, the average of sugar content of early mutant BJ0601-1 is higher than BJ0601 in M2, and the sugar content of sweet sorghum may be improved by carbon ion beam irradiation. (authors)

  10. Developing Resistance to Aflatoxin in Maize and Cottonseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Luo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available At this time, no “magic bullet” for solving the aflatoxin contamination problem in maize and cottonseed has been identified, so several strategies must be utilized simultaneously to ensure a healthy crop, free of aflatoxins. The most widely explored strategy for the control of aflatoxin contamination is the development of preharvest host resistance. This is because A. flavus infects and produces aflatoxins in susceptible crops prior to harvest. In maize production, the host resistance strategy has gained prominence because of advances in the identification of natural resistance traits. However, native resistance in maize to aflatoxin contamination is polygenic and complex and, therefore, markers need to be identified to facilitate the transfer of resistance traits into agronomically viable genetic backgrounds while limiting the transfer of undesirable traits. Unlike maize, there are no known cotton varieties that demonstrate enhanced resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination. For this reason, transgenic approaches are being undertaken in cotton that utilize genes encoding antifungal/anti-aflatoxin factors from maize and other sources to counter fungal infection and toxin production. This review will present information on preharvest control strategies that utilize both breeding and native resistance identification approaches in maize as well as transgenic approaches in cotton.

  11. Transgenic strawberry: state of the art for improved traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yonghua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zhang, Lingxiao; Zhang, Shanglong

    2008-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), a member of the Rosaceae family, is one of the most important fruit crops cultivated worldwide. Strawberry is unique within the Rosaceae because it is a rapidly growing herbaceous perennial with a small genome, short reproductive cycle, and facile vegetative and generative propagation for genetic transformation. For these reasons, strawberry has been recognized as excellent germplasm for genetic and molecular studies for the Rosaceae family. Although traditional breeding methods have achieved steady improvement in agronomic traits, the lack of useful economic characters still remains a major challenge. Genetic transformation has opened a new era for greater creativity in strawberry breeding and germplasm by offering an effective method for creating new varieties that selectively targets a specific interested gene or a few heterologous traits. Enormous advances have been made in strawberry genetic transformation since the first transgenic strawberry plant was obtained in 1990. This paper reviews recent progress in genetic transformation of strawberry on increasing resistance to viruses, fungi, insects, herbicides, stress, and achieving better quality. Problems and prospects for future applications of genetic transformation in strawberry are also discussed. PMID:18280082

  12. Agronomic performance of rape seed (brassica napus L.) mutant lines under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil seed forms of Brassica napus are not well adapted to drought and the warner environments of Pakistan. Induced mutations were, therefore, utilized for improving drought tolerance efficiency of two napus cultivars. Induction of genetic variability, selection of desirable mutants and stabilization of mutants in acceptable agronomic background were carried out during 1988-1991. Fourteen promising mutants each of cv. Pak-cheen and Tower were evaluated for different agronomic characters in separate yield trials, under extremely drought conditions. The results demonstrated that yield potential of some mutants was very high and 9 mutants of cv. Pak-cheen and 8 mutants of cv. Tower significantly (P<0.05) out yield the local commercial cultivar. Eleven mutants in both the trials matured significantly earlier than the check. Nevertheless, more extensive testing of the drought tolerant lines under diversified environs of the country will help confirm these findings. (author)

  13. Enhancement of the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock in a ferralsol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ferralsols from Ciego de Avila, Cuba, have a pH near neutrality and very low exchangeable acidity, thus, they are not suitable for direct application of phosphate rock. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments, different P fertilizers were tested in order to assess their agronomic effectiveness through the use of nuclear and conventional methods. The phosphate rocks (PRs) came from different deposits (Higuanojo, La Pimienta and Trinidad de Guedes from Cuba; Riecito, Baja California and North Carolina from other countries). Partial acidulation (PA) of some of these rocks was also evaluated. Trinidad de Guedes PAPRs were found to be highly effective compared to their natural PR when evaluated through dry matter production, P uptake and isotopic parameters. Further field experiments are needed to validate the greenhouse results to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of the local Trinidad de Guedes PR through partial acidulation. (author)

  14. Durable resistance to net blotch and agronomic performance in some barley mutants [Hordeum vulgare L.; Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds from the net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) susceptible cultivar Thibaut were treated by gamma ray radiation and subsequently evaluated for reaction to the pathogen in the M2-M5 generations. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of putative mutants were compared with Thibaut in two different locations. Genetic variation among some mutant lines/cv Thibaut was estimated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Sixteen mutant lines and their mother cultivar Thibaut were analyzed with 14 EcoR1-Mse1 primer combinations. A total number of 504 AFLP bands were analyzed for each pair mutant/Thibaut. Narrow genetic variation among all genotypes was detected with an average of genetic similarity of 0.96. Cluster analysis with the entire AFLP data divided all genotypes into two major groups. The resistant mutant lines were grouped in one subcluster with 0.98 similarity index. Some resistant mutant lines to net blotch with good agronomic performances were produced

  15. Towards a Better Understanding of Agronomic Efficiency of Nitrogen: Assessment and Improvement Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Montemurro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic N-use efficiency is the basis for economic and environmental efficiency, and an effective agro-ecosystem management practice, improving nutrient use efficiency, is a crucial challenge for a more sustainable production of horticultural, industrial and cereal crops. However, discrepancy between theory and practice still exists, coming from large gaps in knowledge on net-N immobilization/mineralization rates in agro-ecosystems, as well as on the effects of indigenous and applied N to crop response. A more thorough understanding of these topics is essential to improve N management in agricultural systems. To this end, the present Special Issue collects research findings dealing with different aspects of agronomic efficiency of N in different agro-ecosystems, and environmental impact derived from fertilization management practices. In particular, the Special Issue contains selected papers, which concern a wide range of topics, including analyzing tools, options of management, calculation equation and modeling approaches.

  16. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  17. Extreme climatic events: impacts of drought and high temperature on physiological processes in agronomically important plants

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Urs; Vaseva, Irina I

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict more frequent and more severe extreme events (e.g., heat waves, extended drought periods, flooding) in many regions for the next decades. The impact of adverse environmental conditions on crop plants is ecologically and economically relevant. This review is focused on drought and heat effects on physiological status and productivity of agronomically important plants. Stomatal opening represents an important regulatory mechanism during drought and heat stress since it in...

  18. Agronomic efficiency of polymer-coated triple superphosphate in onion cultivated in contrasting texture soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wantuir Filipe Teixeira Chagas; Douglas Ramos Guelfi; Eduardo Bucsan Emrich; André Leite Silva; Valdemar Faquin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Information related to phosphate fertilization and coated phosphate fertilizer in onion is scarce. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate agronomic efficiency, production and nutritional characteristics of triple superphosphate coated with polymers in onion cultivated in contrasting texture soils. Two experiments were carried out under protected conditions in pots containing 5 kg soil. The experimental design was completely randomized with treatments arranged in a 2 x 5 factori...

  19. Fruit yield and quality of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) in relation to agronomic and environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Habib

    2012-01-01

    From 2008 to 2010 field experiments with the medicinal and spice plant Pimpinella anisum L. were carried out to clarify the effect of different agronomic factors on fruit yield and its components as well as on essential oil content and its composition. Three field experiments were carried out at two experimental stations in Giessen and Gross-Gerau. First experiment included three factors: sowing rates, sowing times and cultivars. Second experiment included different row spacing (15, 25 an...

  20. Segregation, correlation and heritability of agronomic characters in F2 progenies of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Chaumongkol, Y.; Nilnond, C.; Tongkum, P.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Songsri, N.; Eksomtramage, T.

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the segregation, correlation and heritability of certain agronomic characters in F2 plants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which were collected and planted in 1989 at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Southern Thailand. The 1,038 palms collected at the age of thirteen-years derived from F1 Tenera hybrid plants were selected from oil palm plantations in different areas in Southern Thailan...

  1. Agronomic-productive characteristics of two genotype of stevia rebaudiana in Central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Andolfi; Mario Macchia; Lucia Ceccarini

    2006-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni produces a variety of high-potency low calorie sweeteners in its’ leaf tissue. The aim of this work was to evaluate the productive potential of two different Stevia rebaudiana genotypes and the characteristics of the production of the plant obtained through different cultivation methods, in central Italy. For several years (1992-2000) agronomic trials on Stevia rebaudiana cultivated in the littoral area near Pisa (Italy) carried out. In 1992 two different g...

  2. Agronomic Potential and Industrial Value of Madder (Rubia tinctorum L.) as a Dye Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan BAYDAR; Tahsin KARADOĞAN

    2006-01-01

    Madder (Rubia tinctorum L.) is a valuable dye crop due to its roots, which are rich in anthraquinone pigments, one of them being alizarin. This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic potential and industrial value of madder plants under rainfed conditions in Southwest Anatolia, Turkey. Three different propagation materials (seeds, seedlings and root cuttings), and 5 different propagation methods (autumn root transplanting, spring root transplanting, autumn seed sowing, spring seed sowing, and ...

  3. Agronomic features and yield performance of green corn cultivars in the conventional and organic system

    OpenAIRE

    Neli Cristina Belmiro dos Santos; Silvia Antoniali do Carmo; Gustavo Pavan Mateus; Lauro Kenji Komuro; Leandro Barradas Pereira; Lilian Christian Domingues de Souza

    2015-01-01

    The corn used in the production of green ears presents a higher commercialization value compared to corn grain and its demand occurs throughout the year. Due to a small specific cultivation availability and the lack of important information regarding this kind of cultivation, this work has had the objective to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and the production performance in the cultivation of corn to be harvest green in both organic and conventional systems. The experiments have been ...

  4. Ecophysiological and agronomic response of Abaca (Musa textilis) to different resource conditions in Leyte Island, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Bande, Marlito M.

    2012-01-01

    Abaca (Musa textilis Née) is closely related to edible bananas (Musa acuminata Colla and M. balbisiana Colla). Abaca usually thrives in the shade beneath tall trees, especially important for protecting the young plants from the sun and the older, taller plants from wind breakage. However, there is still disagreement on the need for shade trees in abaca cultivation. Hence, this study was conducted to ascertain the ecophysiological and agronomic response of abaca grown in different shade condit...

  5. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaumongkol, Y.; Nilnond, C.; Tongkum, P.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Songsri, N.; Eksomtramage, T.

    2001-01-01

    A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell) was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand th...

  6. Juvenile hormone mediates developmental integration between exaggerated traits and supportive traits in the horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasukazu; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Miyatake, Takahisa; Okada, Kensuke

    2012-07-01

    Sexually selected exaggerated traits are often coupled with modifications in other nontarget traits. In insects with weapons, enlargements of nontarget characters that functionally support the weapon often occur (i.e. supportive traits). The support of sexual traits requires developmental coordination among functionally related multiple traits-an explicit example of morphological integration. The genetic theory predicts that developmental integration among different body modules, for which development is regulated via different sets of genes, is likely to be coordinated by pleiotropic factors. However, the developmental backgrounds of morphological integrations are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the juvenile hormone (JH), as a pleiotropic factor, mediates the integration between exaggerated and supportive traits in an armed beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. During combat, males of this beetle use exaggerated mandibles to lift up their opponents with the supportive traits, that is, the head and prothoracic body parts. Application of methoprene, a JH analog (JHA), during the larval to prepupal period, induced the formation of large mandibles relative to the body sizes in males. Morphometric examination of nontarget traits elucidated an increase in the relative sizes of supportive traits, including the head and prothoracic body parts. In addition, reductions in the hind wing area and elytra length, which correspond to flight and reproductive abilities, were detected. Our findings are consistent with the genetic theory and support the idea that JH is a key pleiotropic factor that coordinates the developmental integration of exaggerated traits and supportive characters, as well as resource allocation trade-offs. PMID:22765207

  7. Regulatory Traits in Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Acerbi, Alberto; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Enquist, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    We call \\regulatory traits" those cultural traits that aretransmitted through cultural interactions and, at the same time, changeindividual behaviors directly inuencing the outcome of future culturalinteractions. The cultural dynamics of some of those traits are studiedthrough simple simulations. In particular, we consider the cultural evolu-tion of traits determining the propensity to copy, the number of potentialdemonstrators from whom one individual may copy, and conformist ver-sus anti{co...

  8. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander B Siegling; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  9. Evaluation of alternative RNA labeling protocols for transcript profiling with Arabidopsis AGRONOMICS1 tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Marlen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microarrays are routine tools for transcript profiling, and genomic tiling arrays such as the Arabidopsis AGRONOMICS1 arrays have been found to be highly suitable for such experiments because changes in genome annotation can be easily integrated at the data analysis level. In a transcript profiling experiment, RNA labeling is a critical step, most often initiated by oligo-dT-primed reverse transcription. Although this has been found to be a robust and reliable method, very long transcripts or non-polyadenylated transcripts might be labeled inefficiently. In this study, we first provide data handling methods to analyze AGRONOMICS1 tiling microarrays based on the TAIR10 genome annotation. Second, we describe methods to easily quantify antisense transcripts on such tiling arrays. Third, we test a random-primed RNA labeling method, and find that on AGRONOMICS1 arrays this method has similar general performance as the conventional oligo-dT-primed method. In contrast to the latter, however, the former works considerably better for long transcripts and for non-polyadenylated transcripts such as found in mitochondria and plastids. We propose that researchers interested in organelle function use the random-primed method to unleash the full potential of genomic tiling arrays.

  10. Agronomic efficiency of polymer-coated triple superphosphate in onion cultivated in contrasting texture soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantuir Filipe Teixeira Chagas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information related to phosphate fertilization and coated phosphate fertilizer in onion is scarce. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate agronomic efficiency, production and nutritional characteristics of triple superphosphate coated with polymers in onion cultivated in contrasting texture soils. Two experiments were carried out under protected conditions in pots containing 5 kg soil. The experimental design was completely randomized with treatments arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial: triple superphosphate (TSP and polymer-coated triple superphosphate (TSP+P applied in five phosphorus rates: Dystroferric Red Latosol (LVdf (clayey = 0; 100; 200; 400; 800 mg P2O5 kg-1, and Quartzarenic Neosol (sandy = 0; 75; 150; 300; 600 mg P2O5 kg-1, with three replications. Results indicated that polymer-coated TSP showed no difference for bulb mass and agronomic efficiency for phosphorus fertilization. Agronomic efficiency of phosphorus fertilization decreased with the increase in the amount of phosphorus applied. Phosphorus accumulation for onion bulb cultivated in Dystroferric Red Latosol (LVdf was higher with the use of polymer-coated triple superphosphate. Growth, production and nutritional characteristics in onion were affected by phosphorus. The highest bulbs mass production and phosphorus accumulation occurred at the doses of 783; 629 mg kg-1 P2O5 (Dystroferric Red Latosol - LVdf, and of 406; 600 mg kg-1 P2O5 (Quartzarenic Neosol -RQ.

  11. Molecular mapping of important agro-botanic traits in sesame

    OpenAIRE

    P. Venkata Ramana Rao, & , K. Prasuna, G. Anuradha, A. Srividya, Lakshminarayana R Vemireddy, V. Gouri Shankar, S. Sridhar, M. Jayaprada, K. Raja Reddy, N.P. Eswara Reddy and E.A. Siddiq

    2014-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) ((2n=26) is one of the most ancient oilseed crop of the world. The present study was undertaken to develop a molecular map of the important agro-botanic traits in sesame. Two sesame genotypes Chandana and TAC-89-309 that differ in respect of the important agro-botanic traits were crossed to study the inheritance of these traits. The F2 population along with the F1 and parents was evaluated under field conditions and observations were made on nine agro-botanic trait...

  12. Physiological Traits Associated with Wheat Yield Potential and Performance under Water-Stress in a Mediterranean Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Alejandro; Yáñez, Alejandra; Matus, Iván A.; Tapia, Gerardo; Castillo, Dalma; Sanchez-Jardón, Laura; Araus, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Different physiological traits have been proposed as key traits associated with yield potential as well as performance under water stress. The aim of this paper is to examine the genotypic variability of leaf chlorophyll, stem water-soluble carbohydrate content and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), and their relationship with grain yield (GY) and other agronomical traits, under contrasting water conditions in a Mediterranean environment. The study was performed on a large collection of 384 wheat genotypes grown under water stress (WS, rainfed), mild water stress (MWS, deficit irrigation), and full irrigation (FI). The average GY of two growing seasons was 2.4, 4.8, and 8.9 Mg ha−1 under WS, MWS, and FI, respectively. Chlorophyll content at anthesis was positively correlated with GY (except under FI in 2011) and the agronomical components kernels per spike (KS) and thousand kernel weight (TKW). The WSC content at anthesis (WSCCa) was negatively correlated with spikes per square meter (SM2), but positively correlated with KS and TKW under WS and FI conditions. As a consequence, the relationships between WSCCa with GY were low or not significant. Therefore, selecting for high stem WSC would not necessary lead to genotypes of GY potential. The relationship between Δ13C and GY was positive under FI and MWS but negative under severe WS (in 2011), indicating higher water use under yield potential and MWS conditions. PMID:27458470

  13. Agronomical and molecular characterization of banana germplasm Caracterização agronômica e molecular de germoplasma de bananeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenna Alves Mattos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to characterize banana accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical (Brazil, using agronomical, physical and physicochemical characteristics of fruit and simple sequence repeats (SSR markers. Twenty-six accessions were analyzed, in which high genetic variability was found, especially for the agronomical characters number of fruit and weight of bunch. Accessions with high contents of carotenoids (diploid 'Jaran', polyphenols (triploid 'Caipira' and tetraploid 'Teparod' and vitamin C (diploid 'Tuugia' and an unknown triploid AAA in the fruit were identified. Thirteen microsatellite primers revealed an average of 7.23 alleles, which showed high variability. A dendrogram was prepared using the Gower algorithm for the distance matrices obtained from the agronomical, physical and physicolchemical analysis of fruit and SSR markers. Adopting the average genetic divergence as the cut-off point, three clusters were found: G1, formed by the diploids 'Jaran', 028003-01 and M-48; G2, by the diploids 'Malbut' and 'Ido 110'; and G3, by 21 tri-and tetraploid accessions, including one diploid, 'Tuugia'. The triploids with the B genome 'Thap Maeo', 'Walha', 'Pacha Nadan' and 'Champa Madras' were grouped in G2. Results from this work can be used for breeding hybrids with good agronomical traits and fruit quality.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar acessos de bananeira do Banco de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, por meio de características agronômicas, físicas e físico-químicas dos frutos e por marcadores "Simple sequence repeats" (SSR. Foram analisados 26 acessos, nos quais observou-se ampla variabilidade genética, em especial para número de frutos e peso de cacho. Foram identificados acessos com altos teores de carotenoides (diploide 'Jaran', polifenóis (tetraploide 'Teparod' e vitamina C (diploide 'Tuugia' e um triploide AAA desconhecido. Os 13

  14. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  15. Agronomic approaches in biofortification of food crops with micronutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Cakmak, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiencies are well-documented public health issue affecting nearly half of the world population. Developing countries are among the worst affected from Zn and Fe deficiencies which result in number of serious health complications, such as impairments in brain function and mental development, high susceptibility to deadly infectious disease and high risk for anemia. Recent reports indicate that, for example, Zn deficiency is responsible for death of nearly 450 000 ...

  16. Induced Mutation on Jatropha (Jatropha Curcas L.) for Improvement of Agronomic Characters Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation can be used for improving quality in term of seed production, oil content in seed and early maturity of Jatropha with the aim for biodiesel in Indonesia. The doses of 10, 15, 20, and 25 Gy of gamma applied to cuttings was able to increase genetic variability in vegetatively propagated plants of Jatropha at M1V1 (mutant-1 vegetative-1) generation. Selection for desirable trait will be done at M1V2 (mutant-1 and vegetative-2) generation until homogenous plants obtained. Gamma rays at dose of 20 to 25 Gy damaged several genes controlling growth and development on Jatropha which was shown by dwarf and poor plant growth compared to control (plant without irradiation). Irradiation with the dose of 10 Gy raised genetic variability on plant development which was identified with early maturity. 100 seeds weight was 30% over control, and the number of branch growth was good. (author)

  17. Induced Mutation on Jatropha (Jatropha Curcas L. for Improvement of Agronomic Characters Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Dwimahyani

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Induced mutation can be used for improving quality in term of seed production, oil content in seed and early maturity of Jatropha with the aim for bio_diesel in Indonesia. The doses of 10, 15,20, and 25 Gy of gamma applied to cuttings was able to increase genetic variability in vegetatively propagated plants of Jatropha at M1V1 (mutant-vegetative-1 generation. Selection for desirable trait will be done at M1 V2 (mutant-1 and vegetative-2 generation untill homogenous plants obtained. Gamma rays at dose of 20 to 25 Gy damaged several genes controlling growth and development on Jatropha which was shown by dwarf and poor plant growth compared to control (plant without irradiation. Irradiation with the dose of 10 Gy raised genetic variability on plant development which was identified with early maturity, 100 seeds weight was 30% over control, and the number of branch growth was good

  18. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2:3 design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chengsong Zhu; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Zhigang Guo

    2008-12-01

    In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phenotypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits of biological interest and economic importance are seldom addressed. In this study, an attempt was made to map binary trait loci (BTL) in the F2:3 design. The fundamental idea was: the F2 plants were genotyped, all phenotypic values of each F2:3 progeny were measured for binary trait, and these binary trait values and the marker genotype informations were used to detect BTL under the penetrance and liability models. The proposed method was verified by a series of Monte–Carlo simulation experiments. These results showed that maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and liability models provide accurate estimates for the effects and the locations of BTL with high statistical power, even under of low heritability. Moreover, the penetrance model is as efficient as the liability model, and the F2:3 design is more efficient than classical F2 design, even though only a single progeny is collected from each F2:3 family. With the maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and the liability models developed in this study, we can map binary traits as we can do for quantitative trait in the F2:3 design.

  19. Personality Traits and Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha V

    2008-01-01

    Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...

  20. Thalassaemia trait and pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    White, J. M.; Richards, R; Byrne, M; T. Buchanan; White, Y S; Jelenski, G

    1985-01-01

    The haematological variables, haematinic state, and placental function of more than 2000 pregnant women, heterozygous for either alpha- or beta-thalassaemia genes, were examined during pregnancy. Four features emerged. Firstly, it was possible by discriminant function analysis of haematological variables to distinguish in pregnant patients between the anaemia caused by thalassaemia trait and that caused by iron deficiency. Secondly, patients with thalassaemia become significantly more anaemic...

  1. Bridging traits, story, and self: Prospects and problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In his target article, McAdams brings together three domains in the field of psychology in which challenging developments have been observed over the past decades: trait psychology, narrative psychology, and culture. Trait psychology has been rejuvenated by crossnational and cross-cultural research

  2. Mapping quantitative trait Loci using generalized estimating equations.

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, C.; Whittaker, J C

    2001-01-01

    A number of statistical methods are now available to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) relative to markers. However, no existing methodology can simultaneously map QTL for multiple nonnormal traits. In this article we rectify this deficiency by developing a QTL-mapping approach based on generalized estimating equations (GEE). Simulation experiments are used to illustrate the application of the GEE-based approach.

  3. The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

  4. Advances in the Research of Strategies and Methods for Analyzing Complex Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zai-xiang; XU Chen-wu

    2008-01-01

    Complex traits are the features whose properties are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Generally, complex traits include the classical quantitative traits with continuous distribution, the binary or categorical traits with discrete distribution controlled by polygene and other traits that cannot be measured exactly, such as behavior and psychology. Most human complex diseases and most economically important traits in plants and animals belong to the category. Understanding the molecular basis of complex traits plays a vital role in the genetic improvement of plant and animal breeding. In this article, the conception and research background of complex traits were summarized, and the strategies, methods and the great progress that had been made in dissecting genetic basis of complex traits were reviewed. The challenges and possible developments in future researches were also discussed.

  5. Efficient use of water under Mediterranean conditions: Agronomic tools

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Mário

    2014-01-01

    The efficient use of water is crucial under Mediterranean conditions, due to the development of water stress during late spring and summer. However, an astonishing intra-annual variability of rainfall makes any solution very complex. Production techniques need to be adapted to this variability, thereby increasing the availability of and the efficiency with which crops utilize water. Tillage plays a major role in both aspects. No-till reduces runoff and therefore increases the amount of wa...

  6. Characterization of digestates: agronomic value and residual biodegradability

    OpenAIRE

    Trémier, A.; Buffet, J.; Berger, S.; Dabert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Management of digestates could be a key issue for the future development of the anaerobic digestion market. Actually, a clear definition of their status and quality is necessary to secure valorization opportunities for all of the treated organic matter. In this study, three digestion plants have been followed for one year. Raw, solid and liquid digestate were sampled and characterized five times along the year in order to state on their quality and to compare it to the existing standards for ...

  7. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  8. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale De Vita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  9. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, L.; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  10. The economics and psychology of personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, L.; Angela Lee Duckworth; Heckman, James J.; Bas Ter Weel

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  11. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  12. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  13. Comparative mapping reveals similar linkage of functional genes to QTL of yield-related traits between Brassica napus and Oryza sativa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fupeng Li; Chaozhi Ma; Qingfang Chen; Touming Liu; Jinxiong Shen; Jinxing Tu; Yongzhong Xing; Tingdong Fu

    2012-08-01

    Oryza sativa and Brassica napus—two important crops for food and oil, respectively—share high seed yield as a common breeding goal. As a model plant, O. sativa genomics have been intensively investigated and its agronomic traits have been advanced. In the present study, we used the available information on O. sativa to conduct comparative mapping between O. sativa and B. napus, with the aim of advancing research on seed-yield and yield-related traits in B. napus. Firstly, functional markers (from 55 differentially expressed genes between a hybrid and its parents) were used to detect B. napus genes that co-localized with yield-related traits in an F2∶3 population. Referring to publicly available sequences of 55 B. napus genes, 53 homologous O. sativa genes were subsequently detected by screening, and their chromosomal locations were determined using silico mapping. Comparative location of yield-related QTL between the two species showed that a total of 37 O. sativa and B. napus homologues were located in similar yield-related QTL between species. Our results indicate that homologous genes between O. sativa and B. napus may have consistent function and control similar traits, which may be helpful for agronomic gene characterization in B. napus based on what is known in O. sativa.

  14. Multiple Trait Analysis of Genetic Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, C.; Zeng, Z B

    1995-01-01

    We present in this paper models and statistical methods for performing multiple trait analysis on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the composite interval mapping method. By taking into account the correlated structure of multiple traits, this joint analysis has several advantages, compared with separate analyses, for mapping QTL, including the expected improvement on the statistical power of the test for QTL and on the precision of parameter estimation. Also this joint analysis ...

  15. Development, characterization, and gene mapping of low phytate mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytic acid (PA, myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) is the primary storage form of phosphorus (P) in cereal seeds - accounting for about 65-85% of the total P. It is widely regarded as the major anti-nutrient component in cereal and legume grains including rice. By using gamma irradiation, we developed a dozen low phytic acid (LPA) mutant lines in the past 5 years. The LPA traits of those mutant lines were controlled by at least four non-allelic genes; we have mapped four genes to different positions in chromosome 2, 3 and 4, and three genes were identified to be responsible for three non-allelic mutations. Field agronomic trials showed that LPA mutations could affect, mostly at significant levels, the grain weight and yield, seed viability and storability. However, the inferior performance of the LPA lines could be improved through cross breeding and targeted selection. (author)

  16. Evaluation of some Newly Developed Diploid Hybrids and their Breeding Value in 4x-2x Crosses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The narrow genetic base in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) limits the progress in cultivar development.The rich diploid germplasm in the origin center of potato provide a unique resource for improvement of tetraploid potatoes. Seven newly developed diploid hybrids with 2n pollen production, all of which have S.phureja background,were developed and evaluated for their value in potato breeding. They were crossed as male parnets to six tetraploid Solanum tuberosum cultivars,and seeds in large quantity from eleven crosses were obtained. Main agronomic traits ,such as tuber yield ,tuber number,mean tuber weight ,tuber shape ,eye depth, skin smoothness, flesh color, and specific gravity, were measured for 4x-2x tetraploid progenies in seedling generation ,and their parents as well. All of the diploid hybrids had some merit for specific traits and the DH39 was more promising ;high specific gravity trait in some diploid hybrids was successfully introgressed into tetroploid progenies via 4x-2x crosses. These diploid hybrids have potential value in potato breeding.

  17. Relations Between Red Edge Characteristics and Agronomic Parameters of Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yan-Lin; WANG Ren-Chao; HUANG Jing-Feng

    2004-01-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance of the canopy and the leaves on the main stem for six varieties, two each of rice, corn, and cotton crops, were measured at different growth stages with an ASD FieldSpec Pro FRTM to analyze red edge characteristics for leaf area indices (LAI), aboveground biomass, as well as the chlorophyll, carotenoid, and nitrogen shift' for λr of the leaf spectra for all 3 crops as the development stages progressed. For rice, corn, and cotton the LAI and fresh leaf mass had highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) to the red edge parameters λr, Dλr, and Sr of their canopy spectra. Additionally, for all crops the chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid content of the leaves all had highly significant (P < 0.01) correlations to their λr.For rice, the nitrogen content of the leaves in g kg-1 and phytomass for a unit area of land in g m-2 also had a highly significant (P < 0.01) correlation to λr, Dλr, and Sr of the canopy spectra.

  18. Agronomic performance, chromosomal stability and resistance to velvetbean caterpillar of transgenic soybean expressing cry1Ac gene Performance agronômica, estabilidade cromossômica e resistência à lagarta-da-soja em soja transgênica que expressa o gene cry1Ac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Schenkel Homrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the agronomic performance and chromosomal stability of transgenic homozygous progenies of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill.], and to confirm the resistance of these plants against Anticarsia gemmatalis. Eleven progenies expressing cry1Ac, hpt and gusA genes were evaluated for agronomic characteristics in relation to the nontransformed parent IAS 5 cultivar. Cytogenetical analysis was carried out on transgenic and nontransgenic plants. Two out of the 11 transgenic progenies were also evaluated, in vitro and in vivo, for resistance to A. gemmatalis. Two negative controls were used in resistance bioassays: a transgenic homozygous line, containing only the gusA reporter gene, and nontransgenic 'IAS 5' plants. The presence of cry1Ac transgene affected neither the development nor the yield of plants. Cytogenetical analysis showed that transgenic plants presented normal karyotype. In detached-leaf bioassay, cry1Ac plants exhibited complete efficacy against A. gemmatalis, whereas negative controls were significantly damaged. Whole-plant feeding assay confirmed a very high protection of cry1Ac against velvetbean caterpillar, while nontransgenic 'IAS 5' plants and homozygous gusA line exhibited 56.5 and 71.5% defoliation, respectively. The presence of cry1Ac transgene doesn't affect the majority of agronomic traits (including yield of soybean and grants high protection against A. gemmatalis.O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a performance agronômica e a estabilidade cromossômica de progênies transgênicas homozigotas de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill.], e confirmar a resistência dessas plantas a Anticarsia gemmatalis. Onze progênies com expressão dos genes cry1Ac, hpt e gusA foram avaliadas quanto às características agronômicas, em relação à cultivar parental IAS 5 não transformada. Análises citogenéticas foram realizadas em plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas. Duas das 11 prog

  19. An agronomic field-scale sensor network for monitoring soil water and temperature variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J.; Gasch, C.; Brooks, E. S.; Huggins, D. R.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental sensor networks have been deployed in a variety of contexts to monitor plant, air, water and soil properties. To date, there have been relatively few such networks deployed to monitor dynamic soil properties in cropped fields. Here we report on experience with a distributed soil sensor network that has been deployed for seven years in a research farm with ongoing agronomic field operations. The Washington State University R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF), Pullman, WA, USA has recently been designated a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. In 2007, 12 geo-referenced locations at CAF were instrumented, then in 2009 this network was expended to 42 locations distributed across the 37-ha farm. At each of this locations, Decagon 5TE probes (Decagon Devices Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) were installed at five depths (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm), with temperature and volumetric soil moisture content recorded hourly. Initially, data loggers were wirelessly connected to a data station that could be accessed through a cell connection, but due to the logistics of agronomic field operations, we later buried the dataloggers at each site and now periodically download data via local radio transmission. In this presentation, we share our experience with the installation, maintenance, calibration and data processing associated with an agronomic soil monitoring network. We also present highlights of data derived from this network, including seasonal fluctuations of soil temperature and volumetric water content at each depth, and how these measurements are influenced by crop type, soil properties, landscape position, and precipitation events.

  20. Genome Informed Trait-Based Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Trait-based approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem models. Trait-based models (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem modeling perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction rates and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., based on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize models that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth rates and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this model to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict rates of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational

  1. Agronomic and environmental impacts of a single application of heat-dried sludge on an Alfisol

    OpenAIRE

    Gavalda, D.; Scheiner, Javier David; Revel, Jean-Claude; Merlina, Georges; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pinelli, Eric; Guiresse, Maritxu

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on Alfisols in South-West France to assess the agronomic and environmental impacts of a single application of heat-dried sludge pellets at 11.1 Mg dry matter ha-1. The sludge pellets, with a moisture level of 9.5%, were spread on an irrigated crop of maize (Zea mays L.). This treatment was compared with inorganic fertilization (urea and diammonium phosphate mixed with KCl). Soil properties, yield and the composition of maize and the quality of drained water we...

  2. Personality Traits and Social Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Guijarro Usobiaga, Jan

    2015-01-01

    During many decades, sociologists have downplayed the role that personality traits play in shaping individual’s lives. However, recent studies, mostly in economics, have shown the influence of these traits on a several educational and occupational outcomes. This thesis is an attempt to shed more light on this topic. By using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, it first investigates how the Big Five personality traits affect two important labor market outcomes: unemployment...

  3. Unemployment duration and personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Selver; Pohlmeier, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role personality traits play in determining individual unemployment duration. We argue that a worker's job search intensity is decisively driven by her personality traits, reflected in her propensity to motivate and control herself while searching for a job. Moreover, personality traits, in as far as they can be signaled to a potential employer, may also enhance the probability of receiving and accepting a job offer. For our econometric duration analysis, we use the ...

  4. Social Status and Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Bucciol; Barbara Cavasso; Luca Zarri

    2014-01-01

    In this study we provide direct evidence on the relationship between social status and personality traits. Using survey data from the 2006-2012 waves of the HRS, we show that individuals’ self-perceived social status is associated with all the “Big Five” personality traits, after controlling for observable characteristics that arguably reflect one’s actual status. We also construct an objective status measure that in turn is influenced by personality traits. Objectively measured status is pos...

  5. Contributions of climate, varieties, and agronomic management to rice yield change in the past three decades in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Tao, Fulu; Xiao, Dengpan; Shi, Wenjiao; Liu, Fengshan; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yujie; Wang, Meng; Bai, Huizi

    2016-06-01

    The long-term field experiment data at four representative agro-meteorological stations, together with a crop simulation model, were used to disentangle the contributions of climate change, variety renewal, and fertilization management to rice yield change in the past three decades. We found that during 1981-2009 varieties renewal increased rice yield by 16%-52%, management improvement increased yield by 0-16%, and the contributions of climate change to rice yield varied from — 16% to 10%. Varieties renewal and management improvement offset the negative impacts of climate change on rice production. Among the major climate variables, decreases in solar radiation reduced rice yield on average by 0.1%per year. The impact of temperature change had an explicit spatial pattern. It increased yield by 0.04%-0.4% per year for single rice at Xinbin and Ganyu station and for late rice at Tongcheng station, by contrast reduced yield by 0.2%-0.4% per year for single rice at Mianyang station and early rice at Tongcheng station. During 1981-2009, rice varieties renewal was characterized by increases in thermal requirements, grain number per spike and harvest index. The new varieties were less sensitive to climate change than old ones. The development of high thermal requirements, high yield potential and heat tolerant rice varieties, together with improvement of agronomic management, should be encouraged to meet the challenges of climate change and increasing food demand in future.

  6. Personality predictors of successful development: toddler temperament and adolescent personality traits predict well-being and career stability in middle adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Blatný

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being and adaptive social functioning (career stability in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women. Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.

  7. 甘薯淀粉产量及相关性状的遗传多样性和关联度分析%Genetic diversity and correlation analysis of starch yield-related traits in sweet potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 罗小敏; 王季春; 唐道彬; 吴正丹; 叶爽; 王莉

    2013-01-01

    As a major starch-based raw material for fuel ethanol production, sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is a critical industrial material and a new energy resource.The development of new sweet potato varieties with high starch yield has been a key element of sweet potato research.To improve breeding efficiency of sweet potato varieties with high starch yield, short breeding cycle and valuable index supply for early selection of high starch yield sweet potato breed, this study used the Unweighted Pair Group and PSC- (Pair Similarity Coefficient) based Arithmetic Average Method to classify 48 main sweet potato germplasm resources in terms of starch yield, morphological traits and synthetic enzyme activity.Then correlation analysis was used to assess the relations of starch yield with agronomic traits and starch synthetic enzyme activity at different times.The results showed significant variations in agronomic traits of different sweet potato varieties/lines and periods.Cluster results indicated that agronomic traits in 100 days after planting were most relevant with starch yield.Among the agronomic traits, starch yield was significantly negatively correlated with plant branch (r = -0.428) and significantly positively correlated with dry matter rate (r = 0.423) in 100 days after planting.No significant correlation existed between starch yield and maximum vine length, root tuber number per plant or root tuber fresh weight per plant.It was possible to use plant branch and dry matter in 100 days after planting as indexes in early selection of high starch yield sweet potato breed.The cluster results for key starch synthesis enzymes (ADPG-PPase, SS and SPS) activities at different times were significantly different.The cluster results showed key starch synthesis enzymes activities in 50 days after planting was most relevant with starch yield.Among the enzymes activities in 50 days after planting, starch yield was negatively correlated with ADPG-PPase activity (r = -0

  8. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (× Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.Doty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eGupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz. Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR%= 36.7±1.55% over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2±2.6% and M. oxyspermum (17.8±1.77%, while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2±2.2% (p<0.05. The fatty acid (FA analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs compared to saturated FAs (SFAs and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae.

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs mapping for growth traits in the mouse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medrano Juan F

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The attainment of a specific mature body size is one of the most fundamental differences among species of mammals. Moreover, body size seems to be the central factor underlying differences in traits such as growth rate, energy metabolism and body composition. An important proportion of this variability is of genetic origin. The goal of the genetic analysis of animal growth is to understand its "genetic architecture", that is the number and position of loci affecting the trait, the magnitude of their effects, allele frequencies and types of gene action. In this review, the different strategies developed to identify and characterize genes involved in the regulation of growth in the mouse are described, with emphasis on the methods developed to map loci contributing to the regulation of quantitative traits (QTLs.

  10. Integration of Agronomic Practices with Herbicides for Sustainable Weed Management in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Till now, herbicide seems to be a cost effective tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds. But long term efficacy and sustainability issues are the driving forces behind the reconsideration of herbicide dependent weed management strategy in rice. This demands reappearance of physical and cultural management options combined with judicious herbicide application in a more comprehensive and integrated way. Keeping those in mind, some agronomic tools along with different manual weeding and herbicides combinations were evaluated for their weed control efficacy in rice under aerobic soil conditions. Combination of competitive variety, higher seeding rate, and seed priming resulted in more competitive cropping system in favor of rice, which was reflected in lower weed pressure, higher weed control efficiency, and better yield. Most of the herbicides exhibited excellent weed control efficiency. Treatments comprising only herbicides required less cost involvement but produced higher net benefit. On the contrary, treatments comprising both herbicide and manual weeding required high cost involvement and thus produced lower net benefit. Therefore, adoption of competitive rice variety, higher seed rate, and seed priming along with spraying different early-postemergence herbicides in rotation at 10 days after seeding (DAS followed by a manual weeding at 30 DAS may be recommended from sustainability view point.

  11. Effect of ureaformaldehyde on the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilization in rice (Oryza sativa lin. flooded.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Meneses Dartayet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out during the years 2004 - 2011 in the international Center of Tsukuba, belonging to the International Agency of Cooperation of Japan and in the Territorial Station of Investigations of Grains "Sur del Jíbaro" in Sancti Spíritus with the objective value the employment of the nitrogenous fertilizer of Slow Liberation Ureaformaldehído on the index of agronomic efficiency in the use of the nitrogen and the increment of the agricultural yield for the production of rice; in the first one you study the speed of liberation of the nitrogen of the Ureaformaldehído and the conventional Urea to three temperatures (10; 17.5 and 25 ºC; in the second one studies effect of the fertilizer Ureaformaldehído on the agricultural yield and the index of agronomic efficiency in the use of the nitrogen, in the cultivation of the flooded rice. The main results showed the Ureaformaldehído reacted in a significant way in the measure the temperature was incremented, ending up being mineralized a percentage from 82 to the 100 days; on the other hand, the best yield was reached statistically, with the dose of 120 kg of N/ha, for the fertilizer Ureaformaldehído.

  12. Agronomic Practices for Improving Gentle Remediation of Trace Element-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Petra; Mench, Michel; Álvarez-López, Vanessa; Bert, Valérie; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Herzig, Rolf; Janssen, Jolien Olga; Kolbas, Aliaksandr; Müller, Ingo; Neu, Silke; Renella, Giancarlo; Ruttens, Ann; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The last few decades have seen the rise of Gentle soil Remediation Options (GRO), which notably include in situ contaminant stabilization ("inactivation") and plant-based (generally termed "phytoremediation") options. For trace element (TE)-contaminated sites, GRO aim to either decrease their labile pool and/or total content in the soil, thereby reducing related pollutant linkages. Much research has been dedicated to the screening and selection of TE-tolerant plant species and genotypes for application in GRO. However, the number of field trials demonstrating successful GRO remains well below the number of studies carried out at a greenhouse level. The move from greenhouse to field conditions requires incorporating agronomical knowledge into the remediation process and the ecological restoration of ecosystem services. This review summarizes agronomic practices against their demonstrated or potential positive effect on GRO performance, including plant selection, soil management practices, crop rotation, short rotation coppice, intercropping/row cropping, planting methods and plant densities, harvest and fertilization management, pest and weed control and irrigation management. Potentially negative effects of GRO, e.g., the introduction of potentially invasive species, are also discussed. Lessons learnt from long-term European field case sites are given for aiding the choice of appropriate management practices and plant species. PMID:25581041

  13. Segregation, correlation and heritability of agronomic characters in F2 progenies of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the segregation, correlation and heritability of certain agronomic characters in F2 plants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. which were collected and planted in 1989 at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Southern Thailand. The 1,038 palms collected at the age of thirteen-years derived from F1 Tenera hybrid plants were selected from oil palm plantations in different areas in Southern Thailand. Only one good performance bunch (i.e. big bunch with thin shell fruit was selected from each plantation and four seeds per selected bunch were used for planting. The results showed that three types of oil palm could be distinguished by brown fiber ring in mesocarp and shell thickness of fruit, as having Dura, Tenera and Pisifera at 27.3, 49.8 and 22.9%, respectively. The presence of brown fiber ring character was controlled by a single gene pair with complete dominant action. The action of genes controlling shell thickness in fruit was additive. High variation was observed for agronomic charaters in F2 plants, e.g. fruit weight, %mesocarp/fruit, %shell/fruit, %kernel/fruit, number of bunch/plant, bunch weight and FFB yield. Correlations among these characters and broad sense heritabilities from this study could help in parental selection in breeding program of Thai oil palm.

  14. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?; Pollina: utilizzo agronomico o fonte di energia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration. [Italian] Nel primo decennio del 2000 in Italia potrebbero sorgere tre impianti di incenerimento in grado di produrre energia utilizzando quale combustibile le deiezioni avicole. In tale lavoro sono stati considerati i vantaggi e gli svantaggi di tale scelta, sia dal punto di vista ambientale che economico, sottolienando come sia necessario tenere presente innanziutto la qualita' agronomica di tale biomassa organica. L'analisi effettuata suggerisce che il settore agricolo recuperi le deiezioni avicole in maniera preponderante, attraverso l'utilizzo immediato quale fertilizzante organico ed a seguito di processi alternativi in grado di esaltarne le caratteristiche agronomiche, rimandando al settore energetico il compito di smaltirne l'eventuale surplus mediante l'incenerimento.

  15. Do host genetic traits in the bacterial sensing system play a role in the development of Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal pathology in subfertile women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito James I

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In women, Chlamydia (C. trachomatis upper genital tract infection can cause distal tubal damage and occlusion, increasing the risk of tubal factor subfertility and ectopic pregnancy. Variations, like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in immunologically important host genes are assumed to play a role in the course and outcome of a C. trachomatis infection. We studied whether genetic traits (carrying multiple SNPs in different genes in the bacterial sensing system are associated with an aberrant immune response and subsequently with tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. The genes studied all encode for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs involved in sensing bacterial components. Methods Of 227 subfertile women, serum was available for C. trachomatis IgG antibody testing and genotyping (common versus rare allele of the PRR genes TLR9, TLR4, CD14 and CARD15/NOD2. In all women, a laparoscopy was performed to assess the grade of tubal pathology. Tubal pathology was defined as extensive peri-adnexal adhesions and/or distal occlusion of at least one tube. Results Following a C. trachomatis infection (i.e. C. trachomatis IgG positive, subfertile women carrying two or more SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes were at increased risk of tubal pathology compared to women carrying less than two SNPs (73% vs 33% risk. The differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.15, but a trend was observed. Conclusion Carrying multiple SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes tends to result in an aberrant immune response and a higher risk of tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. Larger studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

  16. Association between schizotypal and borderline personality disorder traits, and cannabis use in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of schizotypal and borderline personality traits to cannabis use. Participants were 476 college students (95 males; 381 females; mean age of males=21; mean age of females=20.7) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing cannabis use, schizotypal and borderline personality traits. Problematic cannabis use, depressive symptoms, borderline and schizotypal traits were significantly inter-correlated. A logistic regression analysis showed that only borderline traits contributed significantly to cannabis use in the total sample. A multiple regression analysis showed that only schizotypal traits were positively and uniquely associated to problematic cannabis use symptoms among users. These results may imply that schizotypal traits are not a risk factor for initiating use, but may facilitate the development of problematic use symptoms among users. This study showed the necessity of taking into account schizotypal traits when exploring the relationships between depressive symptoms, borderline traits and cannabis use. PMID:27149691

  17. Scaling up functional traits for ecosystem services with remote sensing: concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelleira Martínez, Oscar J; Fremier, Alexander K; Günter, Sven; Ramos Bendaña, Zayra; Vierling, Lee; Galbraith, Sara M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Ordoñez, Jenny C

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem service-based management requires an accurate understanding of how human modification influences ecosystem processes and these relationships are most accurate when based on functional traits. Although trait variation is typically sampled at local scales, remote sensing methods can facilitate scaling up trait variation to regional scales needed for ecosystem service management. We review concepts and methods for scaling up plant and animal functional traits from local to regional spatial scales with the goal of assessing impacts of human modification on ecosystem processes and services. We focus our objectives on considerations and approaches for (1) conducting local plot-level sampling of trait variation and (2) scaling up trait variation to regional spatial scales using remotely sensed data. We show that sampling methods for scaling up traits need to account for the modification of trait variation due to land cover change and species introductions. Sampling intraspecific variation, stratification by land cover type or landscape context, or inference of traits from published sources may be necessary depending on the traits of interest. Passive and active remote sensing are useful for mapping plant phenological, chemical, and structural traits. Combining these methods can significantly improve their capacity for mapping plant trait variation. These methods can also be used to map landscape and vegetation structure in order to infer animal trait variation. Due to high context dependency, relationships between trait variation and remotely sensed data are not directly transferable across regions. We end our review with a brief synthesis of issues to consider and outlook for the development of these approaches. Research that relates typical functional trait metrics, such as the community-weighted mean, with remote sensing data and that relates variation in traits that cannot be remotely sensed to other proxies is needed. Our review narrows the gap between

  18. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2009-01-01

    The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin resistance as the plant selectable marker. Explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos infected with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary plasmid pCAMBIA3201 produced four putative transformed leucaena plants. Transformation was con- firmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern blot, Western analyses, GUS-specific enzyme activity and herbicide leaf spraying assay. A transformation efficiency of 2% was established using this protocol. PMID:20041041

  19. QuickBird Satellite and Ground-based Multispectral Data Correlations with Agronomic Parameters of Irrigated Maize Grown in Small Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite remote sensing has not been practical for agronomic research conducted in small plots due to spatial resolution issues. Objectives were to determine (1) the potential use of QuickBird high resolution digital images for estimating agronomic parameters of irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) grown...

  20. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Endosperm Traits with Molecular Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chen-wu; LI Tao; SUN Chang-sen; GU Shi-liang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the genetic models for triploid endosperm traits and on the methods for mapping diploid quantitative traits loci (QTLs), the genetic constitutions, components of means and genetic variances of QTL controlling endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes of different generations were presented. From these results, a multiple linear regression method for mapping QTL underlying endosperm traits in cereals was proposed, which used the means of endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes as a dependent variable, the coefficient of additive effect ( d ) and dominance effect ( h 1 and/or h2 ) of a putative QTL in a given interval as independent variables. This method can work at any position in a genome covered by markers and increase the estimation precision of QTL location and their effects by eliminating the interference of other relative QTLs. This method can also be easily used in other uneven data such as markers and quantitative traits detected or measured in plants and tissues different either in generations or at chromosomal ploidy levels, and in endosperm traits controlled by complicated genetic models considering the effects produced by genotypes of both maternal plants and seeds on them.

  1. Analysing leadership traits in establishing effective leadership at Eskom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lekganyane

    2006-12-01

    need to develop the leadership capacity with the appropriate traits to deal with this increasing threat.

  2. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avit Kumar Bhowmik

    Full Text Available Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent. We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect

  3. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate

  4. Expression profiling analysis for genes related to meat quality and carcass traits during postnatal development of backfat in two pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The competitive equilibrium of fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation in vivo determines porcine sub-cutaneous fat thickness(SFT) and intramuscular fat(IMF) content.Obese and lean-type pig breeds show obvious differences in adipose deposition;however, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotypic variation remains unclear.We used pathway-focused oligo microarray studies to examine the expression changes of 140 genes associated with meat quality and carcass traits in backfat at five growth stages(1―5 months) of Landrace(a leaner, Western breed) and Taihu pigs(a fatty, indigenous, Chinese breed).Variance analysis(ANOVA) revealed that differences in the expression of 25 genes in Landrace pigs were significant(FDR adjusted permutation, P<0.05) among 5 growth stages.Gene class test(GCT) indicated that a gene-group was very significant between 2 pig breeds across 5 growth stages(PErmineJ<0.01), which consisted of 23 genes encoding enzymes and regulatory proteins associ-ated with lipid and steroid metabolism.These findings suggest that the distinct differences in fat deposition ability between Landrace and Taihu pigs may closely correlate with the expression changes of these genes.Clustering analysis revealed a very high level of significance(FDR adjusted, P<0.01) for 2 gene expression patterns in Landrace pigs and a high level of significance(FDR adjusted, P<0.05) for 2 gene expression patterns in Taihu pigs.Also, expression patterns of genes were more diversified in Taihu pigs than those in Landrace pigs, which suggests that the regulatory mechanism of micro-effect polygenes in adipocytes may be more complex in Taihu pigs than in Landrace pigs.Based on a dy-namic Bayesian network(DBN) model, gene regulatory networks(GRNs) were reconstructed from time-series data for each pig breed.These two GRNs initially revealed the distinct differences in physiological and biochemical aspects of adipose metabolism between the two pig breeds;from these results, some potential

  5. Expression profiling analysis for genes related to meat quality and carcass traits during postnatal development of backfat in two pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI MingZhou; WANG JinYong; ZHU Li; LI XueWei; SHUAI SuRong; TENG XiaoKun; XIAO HuaSheng; LI Qiang; CHEN Lei; GUO YuJiao

    2008-01-01

    The competitive equilibrium of fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation in vivo determines porcine sub-cutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Obese and lean-type pig breeds show obvious differences in adipose deposition; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotypic variation remains unclear. We used pathway-focused oligo microarray studies to examine the expression changes of 140 genes associated with meat quality and carcass traits in backfat at five growth stages (1-5 months) of Landrace (a leaner, Western breed) and Taihu pigs (a fatty, indigenous, Chinese breed). Variance analysis (ANOVA) revealed that differences in the expression of 25 genes in Landrace pigs were significant (FDR adjusted permutation, P<0.05) among 5 growth stages. Gene class test (GCT) indicated that a gene-group was very significant between 2 pig breeds across 5 growth stages (PErmineJ<0.01), which consisted of 23 genes encoding enzymes and regulatory proteins associ-ated with lipid, and steroid metabolism. These findings suggest that the distinct differences in fat deposition ability between Landrace and Taihu pigs may closely correlate with the expression changes of these genes. Clustering analysis revealed a very high level of significance (FDR adjusted, P<0.01) for 2 gene expression patterns in Landrace pigs and a high level of significance (FDR adjusted, P<0.05) for 2 gene expression patterns in Taihu pigs. Also, expression patterns of genes were more diversified in Taihu pigs than those in Landrace pigs: which suggests that the regulatory mechanism of micro-effect polygenes in adipocytes may be more complex in Taihu pigs than in Landrace pigs. Based on a dy-namic Bayesian network (DBN) model, gene regulatory networks (GRNs) were reconstructed from time-series data for each pig breed. These two GRNs initially revealed the distinct differences in physiological and biochemical aspects of adipose metabolism between the two pig breeds; from these

  6. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  7. Stability analysis for economic traits in sesame (sesamum indicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract:- This study examined 10 elite genotypes of sesame across three locations for the estimation of genotypes environment(GE) interaction and to identify stable genotype(s) using stability parameters, and to determine inter-parameters correlation. Two locations (NARC and D.I. Khan) were suitable for high productivity. PR-19-9-S produced maximum (341 kgha ) at NARC and V-90005 produced 344 kgha and PARS-I produced 304 kgha at D.I Khan. The variance due to GE interaction was highly significant for all the traits showing heritable variation among the genotypes. The linear component of GE interaction was also significant for all traits except branches per plant. Pooled deviation was significant only for yield indicating the differential genotypic response across the locations. The significant variance due to environment (linear) indicated that the performance of genotypes was under genetic control. The b-values of V-90005, T-89 and PARS-I were larger than unit regression; hence were suitable for favourable environments for yield. Whereas, V-III and Sanghar- I were with b-values less than unity indicating their below average response. For branches per plant, Sanghar-1 and S-17 had regression coefficients less than one with negative sign making them suitable only for poor environment. Four genotypes namely, Sanghar-I, S-17, PR-19-9-S, and Rattodero-1 had greater than unity and non-significant regression coefficients with high response towards better agronomic conditions and were stable due to low deviation from regression. Correlations of mean with b-value and S d, for seed yield were highly significant and positive suggesting that average yield could be considered as a measure of response and stability. (author)

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S;

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  9. VARIATION IN ADAPTIVE TRAITS OF CORN HYBRIDS FIRST GENERATION (GENOTYPE) UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF GROWTH REGULATOR Варьирование адаптивных свойств гибридов кукурузы первого поколения (генотипов) под влиянием регулятора роста

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchenko R. V.

    2012-01-01

    The article reviews the results of studying the adaptive potential of hybrids of corn maturity of different groups in the Central Caucasus. It discusses the variation of adaptive traits of maize hybrids (ecological plasticity and stability of the manifestations of agronomic traits), as well as stabilizing the yield of corn on an annual basis in the processing of seed preparation "TMTD-plus", which contains in its composition Krezatsin growth regulator

  10. Elevation gradient of successful plant traits for colonizing alpine summits under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upward migration of plant species due to climate change has become evident in several European mountain ranges. It is still, however, unclear whether certain plant traits increase the probability that a species will colonize mountain summits or vanish, and whether these traits differ with elevation. Here, we used data from a repeat survey of the occurrence of plant species on 120 summits, ranging from 2449 to 3418 m asl, in south-eastern Switzerland to identify plant traits that increase the probability of colonization or extinction in the 20th century. Species numbers increased across all plant traits considered. With some traits, however, numbers increased proportionally more. The most successful colonizers seemed to prefer warmer temperatures and well-developed soils. They produced achene fruits and/or seeds with pappus appendages. Conversely, cushion plants and species with capsule fruits were less efficient as colonizers. Observed changes in traits along the elevation gradient mainly corresponded to the natural distribution of traits. Extinctions did not seem to be clearly related to any trait. Our study showed that plant traits varied along both temporal and elevational gradients. While seeds with pappus seemed to be advantageous for colonization, most of the trait changes also mirrored previous gradients of traits along elevation and hence illustrated the general upward migration of plant species. An understanding of the trait characteristics of colonizing species is crucial for predicting future changes in mountain vegetation under climate change. (letter)

  11. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H.; Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexi...

  12. Designing an Accompanying Ecosystem to Foster Entrepreneurship among Agronomic and Forestry Engineering Students. Opinion and Commitment of University Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Medina, L.; Fernández-Ahumada, E.; Lara-Vélez, P.; Taguas, E. V.; Gallardo-Cobos, R.; del Campillo, M. C.; Guerrero-Ginel, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a collective project conceived as an 'ecosystem to support and accompany entrepreneurs' has been proposed. The approach aims to spread and consolidate the entrepreneurial spirit and to respond to the demands of possible stakeholders involved in the whole…

  13. Folate concentrations during pregnancy and autistic traits in the offspring. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Roza, Sabine J

    2015-06-01

    In a population-based study, we examined the associations of maternal plasma folate concentrations at 13 weeks of gestation and prenatal folic acid supplement use with autistic traits in the offspring at the age of six years. Parent-reported autistic traits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale short form. Maternal folate was not associated with autistic traits in the offspring. In contrast, prenatal folic acid use was associated with less child autistic traits. Future research should focus on the timing of the potential effect of prenatal folate on the development of autistic traits in combination with clinical diagnosis of autism in the offspring. PMID:25085472

  14. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  15. Sewage sludge hydrochars: properties and agronomic impact as related to different production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Conte, Pellegrino; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The huge amount of sewage sludge (SS) generated in wastewater treatment plants all over the world represents an environmental problem. Due to the high concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen in SS as well as other macro and micro nutrients it has been considered a suitable soil amendment. However, before being applied to soil a complete sterilization and elimination of pollutants should be carried out [1]. In this context, thermal treatments appear as a convenient methodology for producing SS byproducts useful for agronomic purposes. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a kind of pyrolysis characterized by the heating of the biomass in presence of water. This process shows an advantage compared to other thermal treatments for wet residues since dryness of the biomass prior to the thermal transformation is not necessary. The solid product which results from HTC is called hydrochar and it has been suggested to increase soil productivity [2]. However, the agronomic potential of hydrochars depends on the feedstock and production conditions. Additionally, possible toxic and risks have to be carefully evaluated. Thus, SS hydrochars appear as a potential soil amendment but further scientific research is needed to find its real capacity, optimal production conditions as well as possible environmental harmful effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate which are the most suitable production conditions, to transform SS into hydrochar. An additional goal of this work was to relate the hydrochars properties to its agronomic response. Therefore, hydrochars were produced from SS collected from the Experimental Wastewater Treatment plant of CENTA (http://www.centa.es/), located in Carrion de los Cespedes (Seville), under two different temperatures (200 and 260˚C) and residence times (30 min and 1h). With the hydrochars obtained, a greenhouse pot incubation study was carried out for 80 days. The pots contained 250 g of a Calcic Cambisol (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2007) and an

  16. Copper accumulation in vineyard soils: Rhizosphere processes and agronomic practices to limit its toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Gustavo; Bastos de Melo, George Wellington; Terzano, Roberto; Del Buono, Daniele; Astolfi, Stefania; Tomasi, Nicola; Pii, Youry; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Viticulture represents an important agricultural practice in many countries worldwide. Yet, the continuous use of fungicides has caused copper (Cu) accumulation in soils, which represent a major environmental and toxicological concern. Despite being an important micronutrient, Cu can be a potential toxicant at high concentrations since it may cause morphological, anatomical and physiological changes in plants, decreasing both food productivity and quality. Rhizosphere processes can, however, actively control the uptake and translocation of Cu in plants. In particular, root exudates affecting the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the rhizosphere, might reduce the availability of Cu in the soil and hence its absorption. In addition, this review will aim at discussing the advantages and disadvantages of agronomic practices, such as liming, the use of pesticides, the application of organic matter, biochar and coal fly ashes, the inoculation with bacteria and/or mycorrhizal fungi and the intercropping, in alleviating Cu toxicity symptoms. PMID:27513550

  17. Modified Ishikawa Diagram as a Tool for Knowledge-Mapping of Agronomic Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kedaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel method of graphical representation of agronomic practices in crop production. The influence of initial factors, the need to follow a chronology of individual operations and the possibility of using this information for creating a knowledge base are all considered in the method designed. Consequently, alternate methods of knowledge mapping are described: Mind maps, conceptual maps, cognitive maps as well as Ishikawa diagram, which is the main inspiration for our method. These established methods of knowledge mapping have been confronted with the method proposed by our research team using a qualitative survey. Results of this study suggest a high potential of use of our method in agronomy. At the end of this article, we propose additional steps for possible improvements in usability of the method described.

  18. MORPHO-AGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION IN RED RICE AND UPLAND RICE CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOAGRONÔMICA EM ARROZ VERMELHO E ARROZ DE SEQUEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higino Marcos Lopes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Red rice is considered a weed in white rice fields. Despite presenting features such as higher susceptibility to lodging and plant height, red rice genotypes with traits similar to white rice cultivars have already been observed. The aim of this study was to compare morphological and agronomic traits of red rice genotypes (Vermelho Pequeno and Vermelho Virgínia and white rice cultivars (BRS Primavera and Caiapó under upland crop conditions. An experiment was conducted in randomized blocks design, with five replications, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from November 2009 to March 2010. The Vermelho Virgínia genotype showed higher plant height and lower length x grain width ratio, while the Vermelho Pequeno genotype presented the lowest one thousand spikelets weight. The red rice genotypes showed a higher yield for viable panicles and no significant differences (p > 0.05 in relation to white rice cultivars, concerning percentage of fertile spikelets per panicle and grain yield, revealing their agronomic potential for upland crop conditions.

    O arroz vermelho é conhecido como planta invasora, em lavouras de arroz branco. Apesar de possuir características como porte elevado e maior susceptibilidade ao acamamento, já foram observados genótipos de arroz vermelho com características semelhantes às das cultivares de arroz branco. O presente estudo objetivou comparar genótipos de arroz vermelho (Vermelho Virgínia e Vermelho Pequeno e branco (cultivares BRS Primavera e Caiapó, no que concerne a caracteres morfoagronômicos, sob condições de cultivo de sequeiro (terras altas. Para tanto, foi instalado experimento em

  19. Morphological and agronomical characterization and estimates of genetic parameters of sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasey E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two accessions of seven Sesbania (Leguminosae species: S. emerus, S. rostrata, S. tetraptera, S. exasperata (annuals, S. grandiflora, S. sesban and S. virgata (perennials, used for ruminant fodder, firewood, wood products, soil improvement, and human food, were investigated, with the aim of characterizing both inter- and intraspecific genetic variability, estimating genetic parameters for the characters evaluated and appraising the forage potential of the accessions. These were planted at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with 22 treatments and four replications. Seventeen morphological and 17 agronomic characters were evaluated. Genetic parameters coefficient of intraspecific genetic diversity (bi and coefficient of intraspecific genetic variation (CVgi were obtained for the species represented by more than one accession. Highly significant differences were observed among as well as within species for most characters, showing considerable genetic variability. S. exasperata showed intraspecific genetic variability for the largest number of morphological characters. The same was observed for S. sesban for the agronomic characters. Most of the characters gave high bi values, above 0.80, indicating the possibility of selecting superior genotypes. The CVgi values, on the other hand, which indicate the magnitude of the existing genetic variability relative to the character mean, varied according to the species and character evaluated. Differences between annual and perennial species were observed, with higher biomass yields presented by the annuals at the first cut and by the perennials after the second cut, reaching the highest yield at the third cut. The annual species had higher seed production. Accession NO 934 of S. sesban gave the highest biomass yields and regrowth vigor, showing promise as a forage legume plant.

  20. Isolation and characterization of endophytic colonizing bacteria from agronomic crops and prairie plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinniel, Denise K; Lambrecht, Pat; Harris, N Beth; Feng, Zhengyu; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Higley, Phyllis; Ishimaru, Carol A; Arunakumari, Alahari; Barletta, Raúl G; Vidaver, Anne K

    2002-05-01

    Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. In this study, 853 endophytic strains were isolated from aerial tissues of four agronomic crop species and 27 prairie plant species. We determined several phenotypic properties and found approximately equal numbers of gram-negative and gram-positive isolates. In a greenhouse study, 28 of 86 prairie plant endophytes were found to colonize their original hosts at 42 days postinoculation at levels of 3.5 to 7.7 log(10) CFU/g (fresh weight). More comprehensive colonization studies were conducted with 373 corn and sorghum endophytes. In growth room studies, none of the isolates displayed pathogenicity, and 69 of the strains were recovered from corn or sorghum seedlings at levels of 8.3 log(10) CFU/plant or higher. Host range greenhouse studies demonstrated that 26 of 29 endophytes were recoverable from at least one host other than corn and sorghum at levels of up to 5.8 log(10) CFU/g (fresh weight). Long-range dent corn greenhouse studies and field trials with 17 wild-type strains and 14 antibiotic-resistant mutants demonstrated bacterial persistence at significant average colonization levels ranging between 3.4 and 6.1 log(10) CFU/g (fresh weight) up to 78 days postinoculation. Three prairie and three agronomic endophytes exhibiting the most promising levels of colonization and an ability to persist were identified as Cellulomonas, Clavibacter, Curtobacterium, and Microbacterium isolates by 16S rRNA gene sequence, fatty acid, and carbon source utilization analyses. This study defines for the first time the endophytic nature of Microbacterium testaceum. These microorganisms may be useful for biocontrol and other applications. PMID:11976089

  1. Structural–functional dissection and characterization of yield-contributing traits originating from a group 7 chromosome of the wheatgrass species Thinopyrum ponticum after transfer into durum wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanović, Ljiljana; Gennaro, Andrea; Benedettelli, Stefano; Dodd, Ian C.; Quarrie, Stephen A.; Ceoloni, Carla

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, using chromosome engineering of durum wheat, the underlying genetic determinants of a yield-improving segment from Thinopyrum ponticum (7AgL) were dissected. Three durum wheat–Th. ponticum near-isogenic recombinant lines (NIRLs), with distal portions of their 7AL arm (fractional lengths 0.77, 0.72, and 0.60) replaced by alien chromatin, were field-tested for two seasons under rainfed conditions. Yield traits and other agronomic characteristics of the main shoot and whole p...

  2. Developments in rice allelopathy: Searching for the balance between allelopathic activity, agronomic viability and commercial acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable weed control is an ongoing challenge in rice production. Indica rice lines that suppress troublesome C4 grass weeds such as Echinochloa crus-galli and Leptochloa fusca ssp. fascicularis have been evaluated extensively in Arkansas. Earlier findings suggested that suppression likely incl...

  3. Bridging traits, story, and self: Prospects and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In his target article, McAdams brings together three domains in the field of psychology in which challenging developments have been observed over the past decades: trait psychology, narrative psychology, and culture. Trait psychology has been rejuvenated by crossnational and cross-cultural research projects on the "Big Five". The narrative approach has cropped up in a great diversity of psychological subdisciplines, including personality psychology, and is on its way to being accepted as a re...

  4. Search for Genetic Variants Underlying Musical Aptitude and Related Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Music perception and practice represents complex cognitive functions of the brain. There is an abundance of data about the neurophysiological effects of music on the human brain, but heritability and especially molecular studies have been lacking. The development of genome technologies and bioinformatics has enabled the identification of genetic variants underlying complex human traits. These methods can be applied to normal human traits like music perception and performance. Prior to th...

  5. Drug Addiction Endophenotypes: Impulsive Versus Sensation-Seeking Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ersche, Karen D.; Turton, Abigail J.; Pradhan, Shachi; Bullmore, Edward T; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of substance abuse disorders, but the role of pre-existing vulnerability in addiction is still poorly understood. Personality traits of impulsivity and sensation-seeking are highly prevalent in chronic drug users and have been linked with an increased risk for substance abuse. However, it has not been clear whether these personality traits are a cause or an effect of stimulant drug dependence. Method We compared self-reported ...

  6. Inheritance of some traits in honesty (Lunaria L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Boika Olena; Lyakh Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Inheritance character of the some morphological and physiological traits such as white color of corolla, chlorophyll mutation of “albina” type and plant development type was investigated in honesty. Hybridological analysis demonstrated that white corolla color was inherited as monogenic and recessive trait, showing a characteristic 3:1 phenotypical ratio in the second generation of hybrids. It was established that the chlorophyll mutation of “albina” type, which was revealed in th...

  7. LA REVISTA FACULTAD NACIONAL DE AGRONOMÍA, MEDELLÍN COMO INDICADOR DEL FRACCIONAMIENTO ESPECIALIZADO DEL SABER AGRONÓMICO THE REVISTA FACULTAD NACIONAL DE AGRONOMÍA, MEDELLÍN AS AN INDICATOR OF THE SPECIALIZED FRAGMENTATION OF AGRONOMIC KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arango Marín

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Como en otras áreas del conocimiento, la fragmentación especializada y el régimen disciplinar del saber agronómico fue correspondientemente necesario para el despliegue discursivo del desarrollo, y dentro del mismo, el desdoble de la Revolución verde a mediados del siglo XX. Con este objetivo, y en cumplimiento del convenio de 1950 entre el Ministerio de Agricultura colombiano y la Fundación Rockefeller, se definió la intervención de varias misiones estadounidenses en los programas curriculares y planes de estudio de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomía. Una de las expresiones que caracteriza la citada orientación de la agronomía colombiana, se deduce del análisis temático comparativo que este trabajo hace de los artículos publicados por la Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín, en cuatro períodos: 1939-1952, 1953-1976, 1977-1989 y 1990-2002.As in other academic areas, specialized fragmentation and regime of the discipline in agronomic knowledge was correspondingly needed for the discursive unfolding of development, and in of itself, the unfolding of the «Green Revolution» in the middle of the 20th century. With this objective, and in compliance with the 1950 agreement between the Colombian Ministry of Agriculture and the Rockefeller Foundation, the intervention of several American missions in the syllabi and curricula of the National Faculty of Agronomy was defined. One of the manifestations that characterizes the mentioned guidance of Colombian agronomy may be deduced through a comparative thematic analysis that this study undertakes for articles published by the Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín during four periods: 1939-1952; 1953-1976; 1977-1989 and 1990-2002.

  8. Pregnancy outcomes amongst thalassemia traits

    OpenAIRE

    Hanprasertpong, Tharangrut; Kor-anantakul, Ounjai; Leetanaporn, Roengsak; Suntharasaj, Thitima; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Pruksanusak, Ninlapa; Pranpanus, Savitree

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the pregnancy outcome between pregnancies affected and not affected by thalassemia trait. Methods A retrospective case–control cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnant women who attended antenatal care and delivered at Songklanagarind Hospital. All of the participating thalassemia trait pregnant women were diagnosed based on hemoglobin typing and/or DNA analysis. A ratio of around 1–1 was used to compare their pregnancy outcomes with normal pregnant women. Results...

  9. Personality Trait Change in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Brent W.; Mroczek, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Recent longitudinal and cross-sectional aging research has shown that personality traits continue to change in adulthood. In this article, we review the evidence for mean-level change in personality traits, as well as for individual differences in change across the life span. In terms of mean-level change, people show increased selfconfidence, warmth, self-control, and emotional stability with age. These changes predominate in young adulthood (age 20–40). Moreover, mean-level change in person...

  10. Designing an accompanying ecosystem for entrepreneurship students of agronomic and forestry engineering. Opinion and commitment of the faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Leovigilda; Fernández-Ahumada, Elvira; Lara-Vélez, Pablo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gallardo-Cobos, Rosa; Campillo, M. Carmen; Guerrero-Ginel, José E.

    2014-05-01

    The current context has called attention to the need of training engineers with new skills beyond the purely technical. Among others, fostering the entrepreneurial spirit has gained special prominence. In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a 12-year-experience of an entrepreneurship program for undergraduate students concluded that, for an adequate consolidation and evolution of the program, is important to establish a robust network with active participation of all actors involved. With this antecedent, a collective project conceived as an "ecosystem of support and accompaniment for entrepreneurs" is the approach proposed. The objective is to perform an evaluation of this model in terms of viability, usefulness, actions to be taken and degree of commitment. The key actors identified (undergraduate students, faculty, alumni, local and regional entrepreneurs, enterprises, public administration) have been involved in the evaluation process. This study focuses on the academic staff. For that aim, a survey to the entire faculty (N=128, response rate = 45%) and semi-structured interviews to 20 members have been performed. Data have been treated by means of univariate and multivariate analysis. Results suggest that there exists an agreement concerning the appropriateness of a collective project; there is a critical mass of teachers willing to be engaged; guidelines need to be incorporated in order to facilitate taking on tasks; main restrictions concern the existing asymmetry between formal requirements and those necessary for establishing the ecosystem. ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This research work has been developed in the framework of the ALFA III programme financed by the European Union.

  11. Agronomic methods for mountain grassland habitat restoration for faunistic purposes in a protected area of the northern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervasio F

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of pastures often leads to a remarkable deterioration of grasslands, caused by the spread of intrusive, herbaceous and woody species which reduces the general quality of pastures. Different treatments aimed at improving the grassland and enhancing the forage quality of herbaceous resources have been developed to face this problem. We report the results of a five-year experiment conducted in a protected area of central Italy (the “Laghi di Suviana e Brasimone” regional park on an abandoned pasture inside a beech forest encroached by intrusive species (mainly bracken. We analyzed the effect on sward’s specific composition and grazing value of two agronomic factors: (i the establishment method (ploughing followed by sowing of a forage mixture versus no intervention, and (ii the number of cuts performed on vegetation during the growing season (0, 1 or 2 cuts. Plots were arranged according to a split-split-plot experimental design with three replications, with the sampling dates as the main factor, the establishment technique as the subplot factor, and the number of cuts as the sub-subplot factor. In each plot, data were recorded once a month from June to September every year from 2006 to 2010, in order to assess the botanical composition and the quality of the sward. The main pastoral and botanical parameters of pastures were significantly affected by both cutting and sowing. Establishment by sowing significantly reduced the presence of bracken, even with no cuts, with strong effects on the qualitative value of the pasture. A single cut resulted in an efficient recovery of the pasture as compared to cutting twice, especially in sown plots. Our results confirmed that the regular and continued maintenance of the recovered areas is crucial to ensure the long-term preservation of the results achieved by the improvements.

  12. An integrated crop model and GIS decision support system for assisting agronomic decision making under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, M D M; Nedumaran, S; Singh, Piara; S, Chukka; Irshad, Mohammad A; Bantilan, M C S

    2015-07-15

    The semi-arid tropical (SAT) regions of India are suffering from low productivity which may be further aggravated by anticipated climate change. The present study analyzes the spatial variability of climate change impacts on groundnut yields in the Anantapur district of India and examines the relative contribution of adaptation strategies. For this purpose, a web based decision support tool that integrates crop simulation model and Geographical Information System (GIS) was developed to assist agronomic decision making and this tool can be scalable to any location and crop. The climate change projections of five global climate models (GCMs) relative to the 1980-2010 baseline for Anantapur district indicates an increase in rainfall activity to the tune of 10.6 to 25% during Mid-century period (2040-69) with RCP 8.5. The GCMs also predict warming exceeding 1.4 to 2.4°C by 2069 in the study region. The spatial crop responses to the projected climate indicate a decrease in groundnut yields with four GCMs (MPI-ESM-MR, MIROC5, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES) and a contrasting 6.3% increase with the GCM, GFDL-ESM2M. The simulation studies using CROPGRO-Peanut model reveals that groundnut yields can be increased on average by 1.0%, 5.0%, 14.4%, and 20.2%, by adopting adaptation options of heat tolerance, drought tolerant cultivars, supplemental irrigation and a combination of drought tolerance cultivar and supplemental irrigation respectively. The spatial patterns of relative benefits of adaptation options were geographically different and the greatest benefits can be achieved by adopting new cultivars having drought tolerance and with the application of one supplemental irrigation at 60days after sowing. PMID:25829290

  13. Composite interval mapping of QTL for dynamic traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijiang; YANG Runqing

    2006-01-01

    Many economically important quantitative traits in animals and plants are measured repeatedly over time. These traits are called dynamic traits. Mapping QTL controlling the phenotypic profiles of dynamic traits has become an interesting topic for animal and plant breeders. However, statistical methods of QTL mapping for dynamic traits have not been well developed. We develop a composite interval mapping approach to detecting QTL for dynamic traits. We fit the profile of each QTL effect with Legendre polynomials. Parameter estimation and statistical test are performed on the regression coefficients of the polynomials under the maximum likelihood framework. Maximum likelihood estimates of QTL parameters are obtained via the EM algorithm. Results of simulation study showed that composite interval mapping can improve both the statistcial power of QTL detecting and the accuracy of parameter estimation relative to the simply interval mapping procedure where only one QTL is fit to each model. The method is developed in the context of an F2 mapping population, but extension to other types of mapping populations is straightforward.

  14. Relationships among heifer traits, early-life productive traits, and lifetime productivity within Angus and Simmental female cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, José Aurélio Garcia

    1992-01-01

    Data from 946 Angus and 351 Simmental females were used to quantify relationships between calfhood and early-life traits of females with fertility in the fust two breeding seasons, and with calf production in the fITst, in three and in eleven years of life. These traits were used to develop pre· diction equations for fertility using logistic regression methodology. For productive performance, three methodologies were compared: least squares, ridge regression and principal componen...

  15. Visual/Verbal-Analytic Reasoning Bias as a Function of Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits: A Study of Typically Developing Individuals Solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Stewart, Mary E.; Stenning, Keith

    2011-01-01

    People with autism spectrum condition (ASC) perform well on Raven's matrices, a test which loads highly on the general factor in intelligence. However, the mechanisms supporting enhanced performance on the test are poorly understood. Evidence is accumulating that milder variants of the ASC phenotype are present in typically developing individuals,…

  16. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  17. Exploring trait assessment of samples, persons, and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    I present a very broad overview of what I have learned about personality trait assessment at different levels and offer some views on future directions for research and clinical practice. I review some basic principles of scale development and argue that internal consistency has been overemphasized; more attention to retest reliability is needed. Because protocol validity is crucial for individual assessment and because validity scales have limited utility, I urge combining assessments from multiple informants, and I present some statistical tools for that purpose. As culture-level traits, I discuss ethos, national character stereotypes, and aggregated personality traits, and summarize evidence for the validity of the latter. Our understanding of trait profiles of cultures is limited, but it can guide future exploration. PMID:23924211

  18. PHYSIOLOGIC QUALITY OF SEEDS AND AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF SWEET CORN GENOTYPES QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES E DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO DE GENÓTIPOS DE MILHO DOCE

    OpenAIRE

    Aracelle Assunção; Luíce Gomes Bueno; Jaison Pereira de Oliveira; Patrícia Guimarães Santos Melo; André Ferreira Pereira

    2008-01-01

    This study was developed to evaluate the agronomic performance and  physiological quality of seeds of six commercial sweet corn simple hybrids, fifteen double hybrids obtained from crossings among the simple hybrids, taken two by two, and one control. The field phase was conducted in Goiânia (16...

  19. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: development of a market conformity tool for pork products based on technological quality traits ocr r24v

    OpenAIRE

    González, J.; Gispert, M.; M. Gil; Hviid, M.; Dourmad, Jean-Yves; de Greef, K. H.; Zimmer, C; Fàbrega, E

    2014-01-01

    A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality...

  20. 胡麻种间杂交种主要农艺性状与产量的关系研究%Study on the Relationship between Major Agronomic Characters and Yield of Flax Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 米君; 李世芳

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization technology is a major breakthrough of oil flax breeding in our country , which overcomes the incompatibility between cultivated and wild species.Through correlation analysis between the main agronomic traits and yield of interspecific hybrids , the effects of main agronomic traits on yield of hybrids was discussed.The results showed that it was positive correlation between per unit area yield and stems number , grain number per fruit, plant yield and 1000-grain weight, but the correlation did not reach significant level.The highest correlation coefficient was 0.795 which between the yield and 1000-grain weight.It is negative correlation between per unit area yield and plant height, long process, main stem number and effective fruit number, and the correlation of plant height reached significant level, correlation between process long was the very significant level.Through comprehensive evaluation the membership functions of agronomic traits of varieties ( strains ) , the best comprehensive performance hybrid strains flax material 1062 was selected.Interspecific hybridization have shorter plant height and process length, more stems, higher 1000-grain weight and yield compared with the conventional culture ( double) .%胡麻种间杂交技术是我国胡麻育种上的一个重大突破,克服了胡麻栽培种与野生种之间的不亲和性。通过分析胡麻种间杂交种各主要农艺性状与产量之间的相关性,探讨了胡麻杂交种主要农艺性状对产量的影响。结果表明:单位面积产量与分茎数、单果粒数、单株产量和千粒重呈正相关关系,但相关程度均未达到显著水平,其中与千粒重的相关性最高,相关系数为0.795;与株高、工艺长、主茎分枝数和有效果数呈负相关关系,其中与株高的相关性达到了显著水平,与工艺长的相关性达到了极显著水平。通过品种(品系)各农艺性状的隶属度函数对参试