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Sample records for agro-biotechnology bt cotton

  1. Access and control of agro-biotechnology : Bt cotton, ecological change and risk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Peter; Zhao, Jennifer H.; Xue, Dayuan

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that if the introduction of genetically modified crops (GM crops) in developing countries is to be successful, we can and should not evade questions of access and control of technology. It implies probing into the experiences, perceptions and understanding of GM crops by the

  2. The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.

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    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

  3. Leaf tissue assay for lepidopteran pests of Bt cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory measurements of susceptibility to Bt toxins can be a poor indicator of the ability of an insect to survive on transgenic crops. We investigated the potential of using cotton leaf tissue for evaluating heliothine susceptibilities to two dual-gene Bt cottons. A preliminary study was conduct...

  4. Fitness of Bt-resistant cabbage loopers on Bt cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ran; Wang, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Development of resistance to the insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in insects is the major threat to the continued success of transgenic Bt crops in agriculture. The fitness of Bt-resistant insects on Bt and non-Bt plants is a key parameter that determines the development of Bt resistance in insect populations. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the fitness of Bt-resistant Trichoplusia ni strains on Bt cotton leaves was conducted. The Bt-resistant T. ni strains carried two genetically independent mechanisms of resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The effects of the two resistance mechanisms, individually and in combination, on the fitness of the T. ni strains on conventional non-Bt cotton and on transgenic Bt cotton leaves expressing a single-toxin Cry1Ac (Bollgard I) or two Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab (Bollgard II) were examined. The presence of Bt toxins in plants reduced the fitness of resistant insects, indicated by decreased net reproductive rate (R 0 ) and intrinsic rate of increase (r). The reduction in fitness in resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was greater than that on Bollgard I leaves. A 12.4-day asynchrony of adult emergence between the susceptible T. ni grown on non-Bt cotton leaves and the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was observed. Therefore, multitoxin Bt plants not only reduce the probability for T. ni to develop resistance but also strongly reduce the fitness of resistant insects feeding on the plants. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Impact of efficient refuge policies for Bt cotton in India on world cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit; Johnson, Phillip N.; Misra, Sukant K.

    2010-01-01

    India is a major cotton producing country in the world along with the U.S. and China. A change in the supply of and demand for cotton in the Indian market has the potential to have an impact on world cotton trade. This study evaluates the implications of efficient Bt cotton refuge policies in India on world and U.S. cotton markets. It can be hypothesized that increased refuge requirements for Bt cotton varieties in India could decrease the world supply of cotton because of the lower yield pot...

  6. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China.

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    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins.

  7. Indian Bt cotton varieties do not affect the performance of cotton aphids.

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    Nora C Lawo

    Full Text Available Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184 and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt protein and analyzed the sugar composition of aphid honeydew to evaluate its suitability for honeydew-feeders. Plant transformation did not have any influence on aphid performance. However, some variation was observed among the three cotton varieties which might partly be explained by the variation in trichome density. None of the aphid samples contained Bt protein. As a consequence, natural enemies that feed on aphids are not exposed to the Cry protein. A significant difference in the sugar composition of aphid honeydew was detected among cotton varieties as well as between transformed and non-transformed plants. However, it is questionable if this variation is of ecological relevance, especially as honeydew is not the only sugar source parasitoids feed on in cotton fields. Our study allows the conclusion that Bt cotton poses a negligible risk for aphid antagonists and that aphids should remain under natural control in Bt cotton fields.

  8. Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals

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    Sadia Bano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To know the effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, animals and other expected hazards due to the introduction of GM crops into the environment is critical both scientifically and environmentally. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Methods: For this purpose, animals like rat and soil organisms like Earthworm were selected. Rats were selected on the basis of its 95% homology on genomic, cellular and enzymatic level with human while earthworm were preferred on the basis of their direct contact with soil to evaluate the impact of Bt (Cry1AC crop field soil on earthworm, secreted by root exudates of Bt cotton. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (control group as well containing Bt protein (experimental group. Results: Molecular analyses such as immune Dot blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA and PCR, confirmed the absence of Cry1Ac protein in blood and urine samples of rats, which were fed with Bt protein in their diet. Furthermore, histological studies showed that there was no difference in cellular architecture in liver, heart, kidney and intestine of Bt and non-Bt diet fed rats. To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non-Bt field soil. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. Bradford assay, Dipstick assay ELISA demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan.

  9. Suppressing Resistance to Bt Cotton with Sterile Insect Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabashnik, B E [Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Sisterson, M S [USDA-ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA (United States); Ellsworth, P C [Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown widely for pest control. However, insect adaptation can reduce the toxins' efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to provide susceptible insects to mate with resistant insects. Variable farmer compliance is one of the limitations of this approach. Here we report the benefits of an alternative strategy where sterile insects are released to mate with resistant insects and refuges are scarce or absent. Computer simulations show that this approach works in principle against pests with recessive or dominant inheritance of resistance. During a largescale, four-year field deployment of this strategy in Arizona, resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) to Bt cotton did not increase. A multitactic eradication program that included the release of sterile moths reduced pink bollworm abundance by >99%, while eliminating insecticide sprays against this key invasive pest. (author)

  10. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  11. Insect pests management of bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Khan, M.H.; Tofique, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to manage insect pests of Bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques. A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of different treatments reflected that lowest population of jassids (0.29) was observed in bio-control treated Bt cotton followed by bio-control treated conventional cotton (0.41). Mean per leaf population of thrips was found lowest in insecticide treated Bt cotton (0.97) which was statically at par with bi-control treated conventional cotton (0.95), biocontrol treated Bt cotton (1.09) and colour traps treated Bt cotton (1.50). In case of white flies, bio-control treated Bt cotton and bio-control treated conventional cotton again proved effective in maintaining the population at lower levels per leaf (0.33 and 0.35 respectively). No bollworms infestation was recorded in transgenic cotton whereas higher attack of the same was observed in the untreated conventional cotton block. The best results were achieved with the application of bio-control agents in combination with Bt cotton resulting in least infestation by insect pests and maximum seed yield of 3657 kg/ha. The population of Chrysoperla carnea was significantly higher in Bt and conventional cotton treated with bio-control agents as compared to the other treatments. The parasitism percentage of Trichogramma chilonis was observed significantly higher in bio-control treated conventional cotton. The studies manifested that combination of bio-control technology with Bt cotton effectively preserves the local beneficial insect fauna indicating its potential to be used as integrated management system against different insect pests of cotton. (author)

  12. The natural refuge policy for Bt cotton (Gossypium L. in Pakistan – a situation analysis

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    Muhammad Sajjad Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bt cotton (event Cry1Ac was formally commercialized in Pakistan in 2010. However, there has been an increasing trend of planting unauthorized Bt cotton germplasm in farmers' fields since 2003 with a high rate of adoption in the core cotton areas especially in the province Punjab. The transgenic cotton technology has provided the growers with substantial economic benefits and has reduced their dependence on pesticides for pest control, especially against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner. However, keeping in view the capacity of this insect to develop resistance against novel chemical formulations, it is easily speculated that Bt toxin, too, is no exception. Refuge crop policy for mono transgenic crop events has helped in delaying the rate of resistance evolution in the target pests. Thus, in Pakistan, where planting of structured refuge crops along Bt cotton fields is not mandatory, the effectiveness and durability of Bt cotton technology may decrease due to a number of factors which are discussed in this review.

  13. Cross-resistance to purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton in a Cry2Ab2-corn resistant strain of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula; Huang, Fangneng

    2017-12-01

    Gene-pyramiding by combining two or more dissimilar Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins into a crop has been used to delay insect resistance. The durability of gene-pyramiding can be reduced by cross-resistance. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a major target pest of the Cry2Ab2 protein used in pyramided Bt corn and cotton. Here, we provide the first experimental evaluation of cross-resistance in S. frugiperda selected with Cry2Ab2 corn to multiple Bt sources including purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton. Concentration - response bioassays showed that resistance ratios for Cry2Ab2-resistant (RR) relative to Cry2Ab2-susceptible (SS) S. frugiperda were -1.4 for Cry1F, 1.2 for Cry1A.105, >26.7 for Cry2Ab2, >10.0 for Cry2Ae and -1.1 for Vip3A. Larvae of Cry2Ab2-heterozygous (RS), SS and RR S. frugiperda were all susceptible to Bt corn and Bt cotton containing Cry1 (Cry1F or Cry1A.105) and/or Vip3A proteins. Pyramided Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab2 or Cry1Ab + Cry2Ae were also effective against SS and RS, but not RR. These findings suggest that Cry2Ab2-corn-selected S. frugiperda is not cross-resistant to Cry1F, Cry1A.105 or Vip3A protein, or corn and cotton plants containing these Bt proteins, but it can cause strong cross-resistance to Cry2Ae and Bt crops expressing similar Bt proteins. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A case to study population dynamics of bemisia tabaci and thrips tabaci on bt and non-bt cotton genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, M.; Hussain, M.; Ahmed, S.; Hafeez, F.; Farooq, M.; Arshad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the performance of eight bt and five non-bt cotton genotypes against whitefly and thrips and impact of abiotic factors on the population fluctuation of these sucking pests, at cotton research station, multan, during 2010 and 2011. The results exhibited that bt genotypes found more susceptible host for the whitefly and thirps than non-bt genotypes, during the course of years of study. Among bt genotypes, maximum and minimum temperature showed significant and positive effect on whitefly population whereas relative humidity exerted negative effect during 2010. During 2011, the effect of all the factors was non significant. On cumulative basis, there was positive correlation between population of whitefly and minimum temperature. But in case of non-bt, it has negative with maximum temperature whereas relative humidity had a positive effect on whitefly population. similar trend was observed for thrips population on bt varieties during both years but on non-bt varieties only minimum temperature exerted strong positive impact on thrips population. Hierarchical regression models for whitefly and thrips revealed that minimum temperature was the most important factor (Bt and non-Bt varieties). Maximum temperature was the major contributing factor for whitefly fluctuation on bt varieties during 2010. (author)

  15. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  16. Valuing financial, health and environmental benefits of Bt cotton in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kouser, Shahzad; Qaim, Matin

    2012-01-01

    Data from a farm survey and choice experiment are used to value the benefits of Bt cotton in Pakistan. Unlike previous research on the economic impacts of Bt, which mostly concentrated on financial benefits in terms of gross margins, we also quantify and monetize positive externalities associated with technology adoption. Due to lower chemical pesticide use on Bt cotton plots, there are significant health advantages in terms of reduced incidence of acute pesticide poisoning, and environmental...

  17. PRICING OF BT COTTON SEEDS IN INDIA: THE DEBATE BEHIND

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    Anchal ARORA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the state government of Andhra Pradesh reduced the Bt cotton seed prices from Indian Rs1600 to Rs750 in order to make the technology affordable and accessible to small and marginal farmers in the state and also to prevent the monopolistic market structure in the seed market. The drastic reduction in seed prices, on the other hand could affect the profitability of seed providing companies and curb their incentives to innovate in future. Recent literature has also examined the impact of price controls on diffusion of technology, revenue and profitability of seed providers. It suggests that price controls have positively impacted the diffusion of technology in India, and were also successful in increasing the revenue of seed providers in the short run. However, the impact of price controls on profitability would depend on cost conditions. In the light of the above discussion, this article attempts to discuss the debate behind price controls and draws certain policy implications pertaining to pricing of Bt seeds, which has an international policy relevance.

  18. Effects of Soil Salinity on the Expression of Bt Toxin (Cry1Ac and the Control Efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in Field-Grown Transgenic Bt Cotton.

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    Jun-Yu Luo

    Full Text Available An increasing area of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is being planted in saline-alkaline soil in China. The Bt protein level in transgenic cotton plants and its control efficiency can be affected by abiotic stress, including high temperature, water deficiency and other factors. However, how soil salinity affects the expression of Bt protein, thus influencing the control efficiency of Bt cotton against the cotton bollworm (CBW Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner in the field, is poorly understood. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the effects of soil salinity on the expression of Bt toxin (Cry1Ac and the control efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in field-grown transgenic Bt cotton using three natural saline levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil-salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil-salinity] and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil-salinity]. We found that the Bt protein content in the transgenic Bt cotton leaves and the insecticidal activity of Bt cotton against CBW decreased with the increasing soil salinity in laboratory experiments during the growing season. The Bt protein content of Bt cotton leaves in the laboratory were negatively correlated with the salinity level. The CBW populations were highest on the Bt cotton grown in medium-salinity soil instead of the high-salinity soil in field conditions. A possible mechanism may be that the relatively high-salinity soil changed the plant nutritional quality or other plant defensive traits. The results from this study may help to identify more appropriate practices to control CBW in Bt cotton fields with different soil salinity levels.

  19. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  20. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

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    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly.

  1. Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on the Growth and Foliar Chemistry of Transgenic Bt Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Feng Ge; Yu-Cheng Sun

    2007-01-01

    A field study was carried out to quantify plant growth and the foliar chemistry of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)cotton (cv. GK-12) exposed to ambient CO2 and elevated (double-ambient) CO2 for different lengths of time (1, 2 and 3 months) in 2004 and 2005. The results indicated that CO2 levels significantly affected plant height, leaf area per plant and leaf chemistry of transgenic Bt cotton. Significantly, higher plant height and leaf area per plant were observed after cotton plants that were grown in elevated CO2 were compared with plants grown in ambient CO2 for 1, 2 and 3 months in the investigation. Simultaneously, significant interaction between CO2 level x investigating year was observed in leaf area per plant. Moreover, foliar total amino acids were increased by 14%, 13%, 11% and 12%, 14%, 10% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Condensed tannin occurrence increased by 17%, 11%, 9% in 2004 and 12%, 11%, 9% in 2005 in transgenic Bt cotton after being exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 for the same time. However, Bt toxin decreased by 3.0%,2.9%, 3.1% and 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.9% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3months compared with ambient CO2 for same time in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Furthermore, there was prominent interaction on the foliar total amino acids between the CO2 level and the time of cotton plant being exposed to elevated CO2. It is presumed that elevated CO2 can alter the plant growth and hence ultimately the phenotype allocation to foliar chemistical components of transgenic Bt cotton, which may in turn, affect the plant-herbivore interactions.

  2. What are farmers really planting? Measuring the presence and effectiveness of Bt cotton in Pakistan.

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    David J Spielman

    Full Text Available Genetically modified, insect-resistant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is cultivated extensively in Pakistan. Past studies, however, have raised concerns about the prevalence of Bt cotton varieties possessing weak or nonperforming insect-resistance traits conferred by the cry gene. We examine this issue using data drawn from a representative sample of cotton-growing households that were surveyed in six agroclimatic zones spanning 28 districts in Pakistan in 2013, as well as measurements of Cry protein levels in cotton tissue samples collected from the sampled households' main fields. The resultant dataset combines information from 593 sampled households with corresponding plant tissue diagnostics from 70 days after sowing, as well as information from 589 sampled households with corresponding diagnostics from 120 days after sowing. Our analysis indicates that 11 percent of farmers believed they were cultivating Bt cotton when, in fact, the Cry toxin was not present in the tested tissue at 70 days after sowing (i.e., a Type I error. The analysis further indicates that 5 percent of farmers believed they were cultivating non-Bt cotton when, in fact, the Cry toxin was present in the tested tissue (i.e., a Type II error. In addition, 17 percent of all sampled farmers were uncertain whether or not they were cultivating Bt cotton. Overall, 33 percent of farmers either did not know or were mistaken in their beliefs about the presence of the cry gene in the cotton they cultivated. Results also indicate that toxic protein levels in the plant tissue samples occurred below threshold levels for lethality in a significant percentage of cases, although these measurements may also be affected by factors related to tissue sample collection, handling, storage, and testing procedures. Nonetheless, results strongly suggest wide variability both in farmers' beliefs and in gene expression. Such variability has implications for policy and regulation in Pakistan

  3. Effects of temperature on the feeding behavior of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton plants

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    FRANCISCO S. RAMALHO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The host acceptance behavior and environmental factors as temperature affect the feeding behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Thus, they must be considered in studies about the risk potential of resistance evolution. The current study sets the differences in the feeding behavior of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae exposed to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants, under different temperatures and time gap after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used: the Bt (DP 404 BG - bollgard and the non-transformed isoline, DP 4049. We found that the feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea is significantly different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. Based on the number of larvae with vegetal tissue in their gut found on the plant and in the organza as well as on the amount of vegetal tissue ingested by the larvae. A. argillacea shows feeding preference for non-Bt cotton plants, in comparison to that on the Bt. However, factors such as temperature and exposure time may affect detection capacity and plant abandonment by the larvae and it results in lower ingestion of vegetal tissue. Such results are relevant to handle the resistance of Bt cotton cultivars to A. argillacea and they also enable determining how the cotton seeds mix will be a feasible handling option to hold back resistance evolution in A. argillacea populations on Bt cotton, when it is compared to other refuge strategies. The results can also be useful to determine which refuge distribution of plants is more effective for handling Bt cotton resistance to A. argillacea.

  4. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

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    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  5. [Effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton on rhizosphere bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lianhua; Meng, Ying; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-04

    The effect of transgenic cotton on the rhizosphere bacteria can be important to the risk assessment for the genetically modified crops. We studied the rhizosphere microbial community with cultivating genetically modified cotton. The effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI Cotton (SGK321) and its receptor cotton (SY321) on rhizosphere total bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population size were studied by using droplet digital PCR. We collected rhizosphere soil before cotton planting and along with the cotton growth stage (squaring stage, flowering stage, belling stage and boll opening stage). There was no significant change on the total bacterial population between the transgenic cotton and the receptor cotton along with the growth stage. However, the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in both type of cottons showed significant difference between different growth stages, and the variation tendency was different. In squaring stage, the numbers of AOB in rhizosphere of SY321 and SGK321 increased 4 and 2 times, respectively. In flowering stage, AOB number in rhizosphere of SY321 significantly decreased to be 5.96 x 10(5) copies/g dry soil, however, that of SGK321 increased to be 1.25 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil. In belling stage, AOB number of SY321 greatly increased to be 1.49 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil, but no significant change was observed for AOB number of SGK321. In boll opening stage, both AOB number of SY321 and SGK321 clearly decreased and they were significantly different from each other. Compared to the non-genetically modified cotton, the change in abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was slightly smooth in the transgenic cotton. Not only the cotton growth stage but also the cotton type caused this difference. The transgenic cotton can slow down the speed of ammonia transformation through impacting the number of AOB, which is advantageous for plant growth.

  6. Fitness cost of resistance to Bt cotton linked with increased gossypol content in pink bollworm larvae.

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    Jennifer L Williams

    Full Text Available Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins.

  7. The recovery of Bt toxin content after temperature stress termination in transgenic cotton

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    Chen, Y.; Wen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.

    2013-06-01

    The insecticidal efficacy of Bt cotton under different environments has generated controversy in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate possible reasons of the conflicting results caused by temperature stress. Two different types of Bt transgenic cotton cultivars (a Bt cultivar, Sikang1, and an hybrid Bt cultivar, Sikang3) were selected. The plants of the two Bt cultivars were exposed to high temperature (37 degree centigrade), low temperature (18 degree centigrade), and the control (27 degree centigrade) for short (24 h) and long (48 h) periods of stress at peak boll stage, and then moved to the glasshouse where the control plants were maintained. The results showed that the leaf insecticidal toxin content fully recovered within 24 h to the level of control after the end of short duration high-temperature treatment, and recovered mostly within 48 h of the termination of 24 h low-temperature stress. Under long duration high temperature treatment the Bt toxin content required longer recovery periods (48 and 72 h for Sikang3 and Sikang1, respectively) to reach the control level. The Bt protein content only recovered partially at 96 h after the end of the long-duration low-temperature stress, and the concentrations of the Cry1Ac protein were 74% and 77% of the corresponding control for Sikang1 and Sikang3, respectively. The different recovery and increase slowly of the leaf nitrogen metabolic rates after ceasing the heat and cold stress may be possible reason for the above difference. In summary, the duration and type of temperature (cold or heat) stress may cause different Bt insecticidal protein recovery rate due to different recovery rate of enzymes. (Author) 31 refs.

  8. Bt cotton and employment effects for female agricultural laborers in Pakistan.

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    Kouser, Shahzad; Abedullah; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-25

    The literature about economic and social impacts of Bt cotton adoption on farm households in developing countries is growing. Yet, there is still uncertainty about wider implications of this technology for rural development, including effects for landless rural laborers. Bt-related yield advantages may lead to intensified production and higher demand for labor. Building on farm survey data collected in Pakistan and using double-hurdle regression models, we analyze employment effects of Bt cotton adoption. Model estimates show that Bt adoption has increased the demand for hired labor by 55%. Manual harvesting, which is common in Pakistan, is a labor-intensive activity primarily carried out by female laborers. Accordingly, gender disaggregation shows that the employment-generating effects are particularly strong for women, who often belong to the most disadvantaged groups of rural societies. These results suggest that Bt technology can contribute to additional employment income for the poor and to more equitable rural development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Iranian Bt cotton on life table of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Alyrodidae and Cry 1Ab detection in the whitefly honeydew

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    Solmaz Azimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic cotton expressing the Cry 1Ab protein of Bacillus thuringiensis developing against Helocoverpa armigera may be affect on secondary pest such as Bemisia tabaci. In this study effects of Bt cotton on demographic parameters of B. tabaci were assessed and the data analyzed using the age specific, two-sex life table parameters. Results showed that getting to the adulthood stage, was faster on non-Bt cotton in comparison with Bt cotton. Also the fecundity was higher on non-Bt cotton than that on Bt cotton. Some of the population parameters (r, R0 and T of B. tabaci were affected by the Bt cotton significantly. The intrinsic rate of increase (r on Bt and non-Bt cotton was 0.07 day-1 and 0.1 day-1 , respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0 was 20.68 and 15.04 offspring/individual on Bt and non-Bt cotton, respectively. Mean generation time (T in non-Bt cotton was 27.22 and 34.62 days in Bt cotton. The results indicated that the life history of B. tabaci in the laboratory condition was influenced by host plant quality and Bt cotton was not a suitable host for B. tabaci. The western immunoblot method showed that the Cry protein detection in honeydew was positive which indicated that the Cry protein was ingested. Results revealed that the transgenic cotton could adversely affect the secondary pest and the natural enemies which feed on such pests as a host or their honeydew as a food source should be considered.

  10. Incipient resistance of Helicoverpa punctigera to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II cotton.

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    Sharon Downes

    Full Text Available Combinations of dissimilar insecticidal proteins ("pyramids" within transgenic plants are predicted to delay the evolution of pest resistance for significantly longer than crops expressing a single transgene. Field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt transgenic crops has been reported for first generation, single-toxin varieties and the Cry1 class of proteins. Our five year data set shows a significant exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in Australian field populations of Helicoverpa punctigera since the adoption of a second generation, two-toxin Bt cotton expressing this insecticidal protein. Furthermore, the frequency of cry2Ab resistance alleles in populations from cropping areas is 8-fold higher than that found for populations from non-cropping regions. This report of field evolved resistance to a protein in a dual-toxin Bt-crop has precisely fulfilled the intended function of monitoring for resistance; namely, to provide an early warning of increases in frequencies that may lead to potential failures of the transgenic technology. Furthermore, it demonstrates that pyramids are not 'bullet proof' and that rapid evolution to Bt toxins in the Cry2 class is possible.

  11. Impacto do algodoeiro Bt na dinâmica populacional do pulgão-do-algodoeiro em casa de vegetação Impact of Bt cotton on the population dynamics of the cotton aphid in greenhouse

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    Edison Ryoiti Sujii

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo experimental para avaliar o impacto do algodoeiro Bt na bionomia e na escolha de plantas para colonização pelo pulgão-do-algodoeiro (Aphis gossypii. A bionomia do pulgão foi avaliada em casa de vegetação com insetos criados em gaiolas individuais com plantas de algodão Bt, da variedade DP 404 BG (Bollgard, ou sua isolinha não transformada DP 4049. Gaiolas contendo vasos com plantas de algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt foram usadas como arena de escolha, para a avaliação de preferência de adultos alados. O período pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo, a longevidade, a curva de sobrevivência, a produção de prole total e diária por fêmea e a curva acumulada de produção de prole da população não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Não foi observada diferença na escolha de plantas para colonização por indivíduos alados, o que indica taxas equivalentes de colonização nas populações iniciais. O algodoeiro Bt não afeta a dinâmica populacional de A. gossypii e não aumenta seu potencial de risco como praga.The objective of this work was to develop an experimental protocol to assess the impact of Bt cotton on bionomics and on plant choice for Aphis gossypii colonization. The bionomics of the cotton aphid was assessed in greenhouse with insects reared in individual cages containing Bt cotton plants of the variety DP 404 BG (Bollgard or its nontransformed isoline DP 4049. Cages with Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton were used as choosing arena for evaluation of winged adults preference. There was no significant difference for pre-reproduction period (immature phase, reproduction period, longevity, survivorship curve total and daily production of offspring by female, and curve of accumulated production of offspring by the population. There was no preference of colonization for any plant by winged adults, which indicates equivalent rates of colonization of the initial populations. Bt

  12. Adoption of Bt Cotton: Threats and Challenges Adopción de Algodón Bt: Desafíos y Amenazas

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    Muhammad Faisal Bilal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adopting new technology always involves advantages and risks; Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is a new technology well known in developed countries for its many advantages, such as reduced pesticide application, better insect pest control, and higher lint yield. However, its success in developing countries is still a question mark. Global adoption of Bt cotton has risen dramatically from 0.76 million ha when introduced in 1996 to 7.85 million ha in the 2005 cotton-growing season where 54% of the cotton crops in the USA, 76% in China, and 80% in Australia were grown with single or multiple Bt genes. Bollworms are serious cotton pests causing 30-40% yield reduction in Pakistan and 20-66% potential crop losses in India. The major advances shown in this review include: (1 Evolution of Bt cotton may prove to be a green revolution to enhance cotton yield; (2 adoption of Bt cotton by farmers is increasing due to its beneficial environmental effects by reducing pesticide application: however, a high seed price has compelled farmers to use illegal non-approved Bt causing huge damage to crops because of low tolerance to insect pests; and (3 some factors responsible for changes in the efficiency of the Bt gene and Bt cotton yield include internal phenology (genetics, atmospheric changes (CO2 concentration, nutrition, insect pests, boll distribution pattern, disease and nematodes, removal of fruiting branch and/or floral bud, introduction of Bt gene, and terpenoids and tannin production in the plant body.La adopción de nueva tecnología siempre involucra ventajas y riesgos; algodón Bt (Gossypium hirsutum L. es una nueva tecnología bien conocida en países desarrollados por muchas ventajas como reducida aplicación de pesticidas, mejor control de insectos plaga, y mayor producción de fibra, pero su éxito en países en desarrollo aún conlleva dudas. La adopción global de algodón Bt ha aumentado dramáticamente de 0,76 millones de hectáreas en su

  13. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on physiology and insecticide activity in non-transgenic and Bt-transgenic cotton

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    Nhan eLe Van

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg·L−1 but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg·L−1. Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on Bt and non-BtCotton

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    TATIANA R. RODRIGUES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818 and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781 on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpalTM (non-Bt and DP90BTMBt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive, showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution.

  15. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-09-15

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ(13)C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure.

  16. Non-recessive Bt toxin resistance conferred by an intracellular cadherin mutation in field-selected populations of cotton bollworm.

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    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been planted widely to control insect pests, yet evolution of resistance by the pests can reduce the benefits of this approach. Recessive mutations in the extracellular domain of toxin-binding cadherin proteins that confer resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac by disrupting toxin binding have been reported previously in three major lepidopteran pests, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Here we report a novel allele from cotton bollworm with a deletion in the intracellular domain of cadherin that is genetically linked with non-recessive resistance to Cry1Ac. We discovered this allele in each of three field-selected populations we screened from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown intensively. We expressed four types of cadherin alleles in heterologous cell cultures: susceptible, resistant with the intracellular domain mutation, and two complementary chimeric alleles with and without the mutation. Cells transfected with each of the four cadherin alleles bound Cry1Ac and were killed by Cry1Ac. However, relative to cells transfected with either the susceptible allele or the chimeric allele lacking the intracellular domain mutation, cells transfected with the resistant allele or the chimeric allele containing the intracellular domain mutation were less susceptible to Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the intracellular domain of cadherin is involved in post-binding events that affect toxicity of Cry1Ac. This evidence is consistent with the vital role of the intracellular region of cadherin proposed by the cell signaling model of the mode of action of Bt toxins. Considered together with previously reported data, the results suggest that both pore formation and cell signaling pathways contribute to the efficacy of Bt toxins.

  17. Tri-trophic interactions between Bt cotton, the herbivore Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), and the predator Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Ying; Wan, Fang-Hao; Dong, Liang; Lövei, Gábor L; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2008-02-01

    Tri-trophic impacts of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton GK12 and NuCOTN 99B were studied using a predator, the great lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Rambur), and its prey, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, in laboratory feeding experiments. The parental nontransgenic cotton cultivar of GK12 was used as control. The predator was fed with uniform (aphids from a single cultivar) or mixed prey (aphids from the three cotton cultivars provided on alternate days). Mortality and development of the immature stages, pupal body mass, adult sex ratio, fecundity, and egg viability of C. pallens were measured. When fed GK12-originated aphid prey, pupal body mass of C. pallens was significantly higher than that of the control, more females emerged, and these females laid significantly more eggs. Other parameters were not impacted. Females emerging from larvae maintained on NuCOTN 99B-originated prey laid fewer eggs than those maintained on GK12. Other measurements did not differ significantly between the two Bt cotton cultivars. Compared with the control, mixed feeding significantly prolonged pupal development time and increased pupal body mass and percentage of females but did not affect other parameters. These results indicate that C. pallens is sensitive to aphid prey from different cotton cultivars. Transgenic Bt cotton GK12-originated aphid prey has no adverse impact on survival, development, and fecundity of C. pallens. Between the two Bt cotton cultivars, NuCOTN 99B-originated aphid prey provided to C. pallens in the larval stage may lower female fecundity. Mixed feeding of C. pallens with the two Bt cotton-originated prey and non-Bt prey may have some adverse impacts on pupal development.

  18. A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues

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    Obidimma Ezezika

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC2 auditing and which we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help to build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC2 issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.

  19. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  20. Multitrophic microbial interactions for eco- and agro-biotechnological processes: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Moe, Luke A

    2014-10-01

    Multitrophic level microbial loop interactions mediated by protist predators, bacteria, and viruses drive eco- and agro-biotechnological processes such as bioremediation, wastewater treatment, plant growth promotion, and ecosystem functioning. To what extent these microbial interactions are context-dependent in performing biotechnological and ecosystem processes remains largely unstudied. Theory-driven research may advance the understanding of eco-evolutionary processes underlying the patterns and functioning of microbial interactions for successful development of microbe-based biotechnologies for real world applications. This could also be a great avenue to test the validity or limitations of ecology theory for managing diverse microbial resources in an era of altering microbial niches, multitrophic interactions, and microbial diversity loss caused by climate and land use changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. From maturity to value-added innovation: lessons from the pharmaceutical and agro-biotechnology industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, James; Tait, Joyce; Wield, David

    2011-03-01

    The pharmaceutical and agro-biotechnology industries have been confronted by dwindling product pipelines and rapid developments in life sciences, thus demanding a strategic rethink of conventional research and development. Despite offering both industries a solution to the pipeline problem, the life sciences have also brought complex regulatory challenges for firms. In this paper, we comment on the response of these industries to the life science trajectory, in the context of maturing conventional small-molecule product pipelines and routes to market. The challenges of managing transition from maturity to new high-value-added innovation models are addressed. Furthermore, we argue that regulation plays a crucial role in shaping the innovation systems of both industries, and as such, we suggest potentially useful changes to the current regulatory system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Soil Water Deficit on Insecticidal Protein Expression in Boll Shells of Transgenic Bt Cotton and the Mechanism

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    Xiang Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil water deficit on insecticidal protein expression in boll shells of cotton transgenic for a Bt gene. In 2014, Bt cotton cultivars Sikang 1 (a conventional cultivar and Sikang 3 (a hybrid cultivar were planted in pots and five soil water content treatments were imposed at peak boll stage: 15% (G1, 35% (G2, 40% (G3, 60% (G4, and 75% field capacity (CK, respectively. Four treatments (G2, G3, G4, and CK were repeated in 2015 in the field. Results showed that the insecticidal protein content of boll shells decreased with increasing water deficit. Compared with CK, boll shell insecticidal protein content decreased significantly when soil water content was below 60% of maximum water holding capacity for Sikang 1 and Sikang 3. However, increased Bt gene expression was observed when boll shell insecticidal protein content was significantly reduced. Activity assays of key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism showed that boll shell protease and peptidase increased but nitrogen reductase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT decreased. Insecticidal protein content exhibited significant positive correlation with nitrogen reductase and GPT activities; and significant negative correlation with protease and peptidase activities. These findings suggest that the decrease of insecticidal protein content associated with increasing water deficit was a net result of decreased synthesis and increased decomposition.

  3. Survival and Development of Spodoptera frugiperda and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Cotton and Implications for Resistance Management Strategies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Bernardi, Oderlei; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) are important cotton pests and target of control of Bollgard II (Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab2) and WideStrike (Cry1Ac/Cry1F) cotton technologies. To subsidize an insect resistance management program, we conducted laboratory studies to evaluate the toxicity of these Bt cotton plants throughout larval development of S. frugiperda and C. includens. In bioassays with leaf disc, the efficacy of both Bt cotton plants against neonates was >80% for S. frugiperda and 100% for C. includens. However, S. frugiperda larvae that survived on Bt cotton had >76% of growth inhibition and stunting. In bioassays with S. frugiperda and C. includens larvae fed on non-Bt near-isoline during different time period (from 3 to 18 d) and then transferred to Bollgard II or WideStrike leaves showed that larval susceptibility decreased as larval age increased. For Bollgard II cotton, in all S. frugiperda instars, there were larvae that reached the pupal and adult stages. In contrast, on WideStrike cotton, a few larvae in fifth and sixth instar completed the biological cycle. For C. includens, some larvae in sixth instar originated adults in both Bt cotton plants. In conclusion, Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton technologies showed high efficacy against neonates of S. frugiperda and C. includens. However, the mortality of these species decreases as larval age increase, allowing insect survival in a possible seed mixture environment and favoring the resistance evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A comprehensive assessment of the effects of Bt cotton on Coleomegilla maculata demonstrates no detrimental effects by Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Li

    Full Text Available The ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer, is a common and abundant predator in many cropping systems. Its larvae and adults are predaceous, feeding on aphids, thrips, lepidopteran larvae and plant tissues, such as pollen. Therefore, this species is exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in insect-resistant, genetically engineered cotton expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. A tritrophic bioassay was conduced to evaluate the potential impact of Cry2Ab- and Cry1Ac-expressing cotton on fitness parameters of C. maculata using Bt-susceptible and -resistant larvae of Trichoplusia ni as prey. Coleomegilla maculata survival, development time, adult weight and fecundity were not different when they were fed with resistant T. ni larvae reared on either Bt or control cotton. To ensure that C. maculata were not sensitive to the tested Cry toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, C. maculata larvae were fed artificial diet incorporated with Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac or both at >10 times higher concentrations than in cotton tissue. Artificial diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. No differences were detected in any life-table parameters between Cry protein-containing diet treatments and the control diet. In contrast, larvae of C. maculata fed the E-64 could not develop to the pupal stage and the 7-d larval weight was significantly negatively affected. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources were confirmed by ELISA and sensitive-insect bioassays. Our results show that C. maculata is not affected by Bt cotton and is not sensitive to Cry2Ab and Cry1Ac at concentrations exceeding the levels in Bt cotton, thus demonstrating that Bt cotton will pose a negligible risk to C. maculata. More importantly, this study demonstrates a comprehensive system for assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non

  5. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-06-15

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread.

  6. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in

  7. The value of trust in biotech crop development: a case study of Bt cotton in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs have been recognized as having great potential in improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is much public skepticism about the use of GM (genetically modified crops and suspicion about private sector involvement in agbiotech projects. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton in Burkina Faso project by exploring practices and challenges associated with trust-building, and determining what makes these practices effective from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agbiotech PPPs. Relevant documents and articles were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust was operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data was analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We derived four key lessons from our findings. First, strong collaboration between research, industry and farmers greatly contributes to both the success of, and fostering of trust in, the partnership. Second, this case study also revealed the important, though often unrecognized, role of researchers as players in the communication strategy of the project. Third, effective and comprehensive communication takes into account issues such as illiteracy and diversity. Fourth, follow-up at the field level and the need for a multifaceted communications strategy is important for helping push the project forward. Conclusions Burkina Faso’s well-established and effective cotton selling system laid the foundation for the implementation of the Bt cotton project – particularly, the strong dialogue and the receptivity to collaboration

  8. Efficacy evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control and productivity evaluation of Bt cotton in Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kulvir; Rathore, Pankaj

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides for weed management in cotton. Highest seed cotton yield (3537.3 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in weed free plots followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre.em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (3318.9 kg ha") owing to improved number of bolls per plant and boll weight. Statistically least yield was recorded underweedy check (1435.4 kg ha(-1)). Application of pyrithiobac sodium could not express any visible toxic effect on crop indicating its selectivity for cotton, although none of the tested new chemicals i.e., pyrithiobac sodium@ 62.5g a.i ha(-1) and quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1) when applied alone could not outperform the existing recommended chemicals for weed management. Yield losses to the extent of 6.2-59.4% were recorded due to weed competition. Weed control efficiency (WCE) was highest under weed free check (86.8%) followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre. em.+quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1), at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (73.7%), whereas minimum values were for weedy check (24.7%). Though net returns (r94660 ha(-1)) were highest for weed free check but higher B:C ratio (2:11) was observed for pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage+one hoeing. Therefore, for reasons such as labor shortage besides their timely availability, using these herbicides in combination with cultural practices could be the practical solution foreconomically efficient and effective weed management.

  9. Harmonized biosafety regulations are key to trust building in regional agbiotech partnerships: the case of the Bt cotton project in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton public-private partnership (PPP project in East Africa was designed to gather baseline data on the effect of Bt cotton on biodiversity and the possibility of gene flow to wild cotton varieties. The results of the project are intended to be useful for Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania when applying for biosafety approvals. Using the backdrop of the different biosafety regulations in the three countries, we investigate the role of trust in the Bt cotton partnership in East Africa. Methods Data were collected by reviewing relevant project documents and peer-reviewed articles on Bt cotton in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda; conducting face-to-face interviews with key informants of the project; and conducting direct observations of the project. Data were analyzed based on recurring and emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We identified three factors that posed challenges to building trust in the Bt cotton project in East Africa: different regulatory regimes among the three countries; structural and management differences among the three partner institutions; and poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector. The structural and management differences were said to be addressed through joint planning, harmonization of research protocols, and management practices, while poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector were said to be addressed through open communication, sharing of resources, direct stakeholder engagement and awareness creation. The regulatory differences remained outside the scope of the project. Conclusions To improve the effectiveness of agbiotech PPPs, there is first a need for a regulatory regime that is acceptable to both the public and private sector partners. Second, early and continuous joint planning; sharing of

  10. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  11. Imidacloprid affects the functional response of predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, J B; Ramalho, F S; Omoto, C; Godoy, W A C; Silveira, R F

    2014-03-01

    Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is one of the most common asopine species in the neotropical region and its occurrence was reported in several countries of South and Central America, as an important biological control agent for many crops. This study was carried out to identify the imidacloprid impacts on the functional response of predator P. nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strain resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, on Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard(®)). Spodoptera frugiperda larvae were used in the following conditions: resistant (1) and susceptible (2) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on Bollgard(®) cotton leaves (DP 404 BG); and resistant (3) and susceptible (4) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on non-genetically modified cotton leaves (cultivar DP4049). The predatory behavior of P. nigrispinus was affected by imidacloprid and the type II asymptotic curve was the one that best described the functional response data. Handling time (T h ) of predator females did not differ among treatments in the presence of imidacloprid. The attack rate did decrease, however, due to an increase in the density of larvae offered. Regardless of the treatment (S. frugiperda strain or cotton cultivar), the predation of P. nigrispinus females on S. frugiperda larvae was significantly lower when exposed to imidacloprid, especially at a density of 16 larvae/predator. The predation behavior of P. nigrispinus on S. frugiperda larvae is affected by the insecticide imidacloprid showing that its applications should be used in cotton crop with caution.

  12. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crystal (Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem.

  13. Both point mutations and low expression levels of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β1 subunit are associated with imidacloprid resistance in an Aphis gossypii (Glover) population from a Bt cotton field in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuewei; Li, Fen; Chen, Anqi; Ma, Kangsheng; Liang, Pingzhuo; Liu, Ying; Song, Dunlun; Gao, Xiwu

    2017-09-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover is a destructive pest of numerous crops throughout the world. Although the expansion of Bt cotton cultivation has helped to control some insect pests, the damage from cotton aphids has not been mitigated. The evolution of aphid resistance to imidacloprid has made its chemical control more difficult since its introduction in 1991. Field populations of A. gossypii that were collected from different transgenic (Bt) cotton planting areas of China in 2014 developed different levels of resistance to imidacloprid. The IMI_R strain has developed high resistance to imidacloprid with the resistance ratio >1200-fold. Compared with the susceptible IMI_S strain, the IMI_R strain also developed a high level cross resistance to sulfoxaflor and acetamiprid. The limited synergism with either PBO or DEF suggests that resistance may be due to the site mutation of molecular target rather than to enhanced detoxification. Three target-site mutations within the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) β1 subunit were detected in the IMI_R strain. The R81T mutation has been reported to be responsible for imidacloprid resistance in A. gossypii and M. persicae. Both V62I and K264E were first detected in A. gossypii. These point mutations are also present in field populations, suggesting that they play a role in the resistance to imidacloprid. Furthermore, the expression level of transcripts encoding β1 subunit was decreased significantly in the IMI_R strain compared with the IMI_S strain, suggesting that both point mutations and the down-regulation of nAChR β1 subunit expression may be involved in the resistance mechanism for imidacloprid in A. gossypii. These results should be useful for the management of imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphids in Bt cotton fields in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A point mutation (L1015F) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene associated with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) population from the transgenic Bt cotton field of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Congai; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-02-01

    In China, the green mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), has caused severe economic damage to many kinds of crops, especially the cotton and jujubes. Pyrethroid insecticides have been widely used for controlling this pest in the transgenic Bt cotton field. Five populations of A. lucorum collected from cotton crops at different locations in China were evaluated for lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. The results showed that only the population collected from Shandong Province exhibited 30-fold of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin. Neither PBO nor DEF had obvious synergism when compared the synergistic ratio between SS and RR strain which was originated from the Shandong population. Besides, there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, or 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activities between the Shandong population and the laboratory susceptible strain (SS). The full-length sodium channel gene named AlVSSC encoding 2028 amino acids was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). One single point mutation L1015F in the AlVSSC was detected only in the Shandong population. Our results revealed that the L1015F mutation associated with pyrethroid resistance was identified in A. lucorum populations in China. These results will be useful for the rational chemical control of A. lucorum in the transgenic Bt cotton field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Re-skilling the social practices: open source and life-towards a commons-based peer production in agro-biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Guido; Ruivenkamp, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by the thinking of authors such as Andrew Feenberg, Tim Ingold and Richard Sennett, this article sets forth substantial criticism of the 'social uprooting of technology' paradigm, which deterministically considers modern technology an autonomous entity, independent and indifferent to the social world (practices, skills, experiences, cultures, etc.). In particular, the authors' focus on demonstrating that the philosophy,methodology and experience linked to open source technological development represent an emblematic case of re-encapsulation of the technical code within social relations (reskilling practices). Open source is discussed as a practice, albeit not unique, of community empowerment aimed at the participated and shared rehabilitation of technological production ex-ante. Furthermore, the article discusses the application of open source processes in the agro-biotechnological field, showing how they may support a more democratic endogenous development, capable of binding technological innovation to the objectives of social (reducing inequalities) and environmental sustainability to a greater degree.

  16. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  17. Spatial distribution of adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and buds with feeding punctures on conventional and Bt cottonDistribuição espacial de adultos e botões com orifício de alimentação de Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em algodoeiro convencional e Bt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogerio Beltramin da Fonseca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos arranjos de dispersão para adultos e botões com orifício de alimentação de Anthonomus grandis em cultivares de algodoeiro é necessário para aperfeiçoar o monitoramento e controle da praga. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo realizar análises probabilísticas dos padrões de distribuição espacial dos adultos e botões com orifícios de alimentação de A. grandis em duas cultivares de algodão Bt e não Bt. O estudo foi conduzido a campo em duas áreas experimentais, cada uma composta por 100 parcelas de sete linhas de sete metros de comprimento. Em 16 amostragens avaliaram-se cinco plantas por parcela através da contagem dos adultos e dos botões com orifício de alimentaçãoentre janeiro e maio de 2010. Foram calculados os índices de dispersão (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e as distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Não houve diferença estatística entre as cultivares avaliadas. A distribuição espacial dos adultos de A. grandis, nas cultivares Bt e não Bt, ajustou-se nos arranjos probabilísticos de distribuição binomial negativa (agregado e distribuição binomial positiva (uniforme, conforme os dias após a emergência do algodoeiro. As análises de dispersão para os botões com orifícios de alimentação nas culturas Bt e convencional mostraram os modelos espaciais de Poisson (aleatório, distribuição binomial negativa (agregado e distribuição binomial positiva (uniforme, em seqüência, durante o ciclo da cultura.Dispersion patterns of Anthonomus grandis adults and damaged squares with their feeding punctures are important to enhance pest monitoring and control on cotton. In this research we performed probabilistic analyses of the distribution patterns of adults and squares with feeding punctures of A. grandis on two cotton genotypes, Bt and non-Bt near isogenic lines. We conducted

  18. The economic impact and the distribution of benefits and risk from the adoption of insect resistant (Bt) cotton in West Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Falck-Zepeda, Jose; Horna, Daniela; Smale, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    "Cotton is the largest source of export receipts of several West African countries. Statistics however show a decreasing tendency in cotton yields and an increasing tendency in pesticide use. Under this circumstances there appear to be potential payoffs from the use of biotechnology products in the farming systems of the region. In this study we estimate different scenarios for the potential deployment of insect resistant cotton in selected countries in West Africa (WA). We use an economic su...

  19. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three transgenic cotton varieties (lines) were chosen for the study of inheritance and segregation of foreign Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) and tfdA genes in cotton. The transformed cotton varieties CCRI 30 and NewCott 33B expressing the Bt cryIA gene, and cotton line TFD expressing the tfdA gene were crossed with ...

  20. Assessment of Bollgard II cotton pollen mediated transgenes flow to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Bollgard II cotton pollen mediated transgenes flow to conventional cotton in the farming conditions of Burkina ... This has led to experiment on Bt cotton from 2003 to 2007. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  1. Reproduction of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... ELISA detected Bt protein in soil and roots of Bt cotton but not in HART 89M ... as the use of organic amendments and nematicides with other .... isogenic counterpart to test the effect of the Bt gene ..... Bendezu and Starr (2003) identified two types of RKN ... soil texture, temperature, moisture, aeration and.

  2. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felipe Farias, Davi; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F.; Carvalho, A.F.U.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular

  3. Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The "natural" refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005-2007 to 56% in 2008-2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  4. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  5. Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L LaReesa Wolfenbarger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uncertainty persists over the environmental effects of genetically-engineered crops that produce the insecticidal Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the abundance and interactions of arthropod non-target functional guilds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the abundance of predators, parasitoids, omnivores, detritivores and herbivores under scenarios in which neither, only the non-Bt crops, or both Bt and non-Bt crops received insecticide treatments. Predators were less abundant in Bt cotton compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls. As expected, fewer specialist parasitoids of the target pest occurred in Bt maize fields compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls, but no significant reduction was detected for other parasitoids. Numbers of predators and herbivores were higher in Bt crops compared to sprayed non-Bt controls, and type of insecticide influenced the magnitude of the difference. Omnivores and detritivores were more abundant in insecticide-treated controls and for the latter guild this was associated with reductions of their predators in sprayed non-Bt maize. No differences in abundance were found when both Bt and non-Bt crops were sprayed. Predator-to-prey ratios were unchanged by either Bt crops or the use of insecticides; ratios were higher in Bt maize relative to the sprayed non-Bt control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, we find no uniform effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the functional guilds of non-target arthropods. Use of and type of insecticides influenced the magnitude and direction of effects; insecticde effects were much larger than those of Bt crops. These meta-analyses underscore the importance of using controls not only to isolate the effects of a Bt crop per se but also to reflect the replacement of existing agricultural practices. Results will

  6. IT-BT convergence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  7. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  8. Synthetic Polymer Affinity Ligand for Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) Cry1Ab/Ac Protein: The Use of Biomimicry Based on the Bt Protein-Insect Receptor Binding Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Huang, Rong; Weisman, Adam; Yu, Xiaoyang; Lee, Shih-Hui; Chen, Yalu; Huang, Chao; Hu, Senhua; Chen, Xiuhua; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan; Chen, Hao; Shea, Kenneth J

    2018-05-24

    We report a novel strategy for creating abiotic Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) protein affinity ligands by biomimicry of the recognition process that takes place between Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins and insect receptor cadherin-like Bt-R 1 proteins. Guided by this strategy, a library of synthetic polymer nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared and screened for binding to three epitopes 280 FRGSAQGIEGS 290 , 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 and 436 FRSGFSNSSVSIIR 449 located in loop α8, loop 2 and loop 3 of domain II of Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins. A negatively charged and hydrophilic nanoparticle (NP12) was found to have high affinity to one of the epitopes, 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 . This same NP also had specific binding ability to both Bt Cry1Ab and Bt Cry1Ac, proteins that share the same epitope, but very low affinity to Bt Cry2A, Bt Cry1C and Bt Cry1F closely related proteins that lack epitope homology. To locate possible NP- Bt Cry1Ab/Ac interaction sites, NP12 was used as a competitive inhibitor to block the binding of 865 NITIHITDTNNK 876 , a specific recognition site in insect receptor Bt-R 1 , to 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 . The inhibition by NP12 reached as high as 84%, indicating that NP12 binds to Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins mainly via 368 RRPFNIGINNQQ 379 . This epitope region was then utilized as a "target" or "bait" for the separation and concentration of Bt Cry1Ac protein from the extract of transgenic Bt cotton leaves by NP12. This strategy, based on the antigen-receptor recognition mechanism, can be extended to other biotoxins and pathogen proteins when designing biomimic alternatives to natural protein affinity ligands.

  9. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  10. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  11. Evaluating potassium-use-efficiency of five cotton genotypes of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Z.U.; Kubar, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in Pakistani soils has been recently reported as the major limiting factor affecting sustainable cotton production. The present study was conducted to envisage how K nutrition affect the growth, biomass production, yield and K-use-efficiency of five cotton genotypes, NIBGE-3701, NIBGE-1524 (Bt-transgenic), Sadori, Sindh-1 and SAU-2 (non-Bt conventional), commonly grown in Pakistan. All five genotypes were raised at deficient and adequate K levels, i.e. 0 and 60 kg K/sub 2/O ha-1, respectively. The experiment was performed in plastic pots following a completely randomized factorial design with three repeats. Adequate K nutrition significantly increased various plant growth traits and yield of all cotton genotypes under study, viz. number of sympodia (21%), number of leaves (34%), leaf dry biomass (30%), shoot dry biomass (31%), number of bolls (50%) and yield of seed cotton (92%). Substantial variations were observed among cotton genotypes for their K-use-efficiency and K-response-efficiency. Sadori and SAU-2 were screened as most K-use-efficient cotton genotypes, while Sindh-1 and SAU-2 were ranked as the most K-responsive cotton genotypes. Interestingly, Sadori did not respond to K nutrition. Moreover, Bt cotton genotypes accumulated more K as compared to non-Bt genotypes. The cotton genotype SAU-2 was identified as efficient-response genotype for better adaptation for both low- and high-K-input sustainable cotton agriculture systems. (author)

  12. Integrating immunomarking with ecological and behavioural approaches to assess predation of Helicoverpa spp. larvae by wolf spiders in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) are abundant soil-dwelling predators found in cotton fields and can contribute important pest management services. These spiders can kill and consume larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) that survive foraging on Bt cotton and desce...

  13. LOBI test BT-15/BT-16 pre-test calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, B.J.

    1991-03-01

    LOBI is a higher pressure, electrically heated integral system facility simulating a KWU 1300 MW PWR scaled 1:712 by volume, although full scale has been maintained in the vertical direction. In order to complete the test programme before the facility is closed in 1991 a number of tests have been performed in tandem, where the test procedures were compatible. BT-15/BT-16 is one such composite test. In their original form both tests BT-15 and BT-16 simulated a loss of main feedwater transient with delayed auxiliary feedwater injection, with the pumps running in BT-15 and tripped in BT-16. The aim of each test was to investigate the loss of primary/secondary heat transfer as the steam generator secondary sides boiled down, and the subsequent recovery of heat transfer as the auxiliary feedwater was tripped on. Due to a re-scheduling of the test programme there was insufficient time to perform sensitivity studies and so only one, base case, calculation is presented. (author)

  14. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Carbon contributions from roots in cotton based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    Most research on the decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Australian cotton farming systems has focussed on the inputs from above-ground crop residues, with contribution from roots being less studied. This paper aims to outline the contribution of cotton roots and roots of other crops to soil carbon stocks in furrow-irrigated Vertisols in several cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-based rotations. Data was collected from cotton-based rotation systems: cotton monoculture, cotton-vetch (Vicia benghalensis) Roth.), cotton-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton-wheat-vetch, cotton-corn, corn-corn, cotton-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and from BollgardTM II (Bt) and non-Bt cotton. Land management systems were permanent beds, with or without standing stubble, and conventional tillage. Root growth in the surface 0.10 m was measured with the core-break method, and that in the 0.10 to 1.0 m depth with a minirhizotron and I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to derive root C added to soil through intra-seasonal root death (Clost), C in roots remaining at the end of season (Croot), and total root C added to soil (Ctotal = Croot + Clost). Ctotal in non-Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.9 t C/ha/year) was higher than in Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.6 t C/ha/year). Overall, Ctotal from cotton roots ranges between 0.5 to 5 t C/ha/year, with Clost contributing 25-70%. Ctotal was greater with vetch than with wheat and was in the order of vetch in cotton-wheat-vetch (5.1 t C/ha/year) > vetch in cotton-vetch (1.9 t C/ha/year) > wheat in cotton-wheat (1.6 t C/ha/year) = wheat in cotton-wheat-vetch (1.7 t C/ha/year). Intra-seasonal root mortality accounted for 12% of total root carbon in vetch and 36% in wheat. Average corn Ctotal with monoculture was 9.3 t/ha and with cotton-corn 5.0 t/ha. Ctotal averaged between both treatments was, thus, of the order of 7.7 t C/ha/year and average Clost 0.04 t/ha/yr. Sorghum roots contributed less carbon with conventional tillage (8.2 t

  16. Impact of Bollgard ® genetically modified cotton on the biodiversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using cotton cultivars that express a gene of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium producing a protein (Cry1Ac) with an insecticide effect on the Lepidoptera pests has made it possible to reduce the number of insecticide applications during the crop cycle. Thus, the objective was to determine, in the field during the ...

  17. Distribution and Potential Impact of Feral Cotton on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic Bt cotton with insecticidal properties presents a potential solution to the bollworm infestation in Tanzania. However, concerns associated with transgenic crops viz.; transgene flow to wild and feral relatives, increased potential for resistance evolution, need to be addressed prior to adoption of any transgenic crop.

  18. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  19. WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BT CORN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Rice, Marlin E.

    2001-01-01

    A common perception is that the value of Bt corn arises from two components-Bt corn increases expected profit and reduces profit variability. This perception encourages farmers and the policy makers to add a risk benefit to estimates of the value of Bt corn to account for the variability reduction. However, a conceptual model generates a useful decomposition of the value of Bt corn and a condition determining the impact of Bt corn on profit variability. An empirical model finds that Bt corn i...

  20. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  1. analysis of adoption of agro-biotechnological innovations in pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adinya photo

    farmers on adoption of new technologies in pig production has positive influence on output of improved ... number of factors among which include non-adoption of ... I. B. Adinya, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Cross River University of Technology ... Theoretical framework on adoption behaviour of pig.

  2. Performance of some transgenic cotton cultivars against insect pest complex, virus incidence and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.K.; Karar, H.; Hasnain, M.; Saleem, M.; Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    Five cultivars of cotton i.e., IR4-NIBGE, IR5-NIBGE Bt-121, Sitara-10M and Sitara-11M were screened for resistance against insect pest complex and Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV) incidence in the research area of Cotton Research Station, Multan. The result depicted that the most resistant variety against jassids was IR4-NIBGE and Sitara-11M whereas IR4-NIBGE showed the maximum resistance against whitefly infestation. The least susceptible variety to the infestation of thrips was Sitara-10M. The most susceptible variety to the prevalence of Red Cotton Bug (RCB) was IR4-NIBGE. The genotype Bt-121 showed the attack of spotted bollworm. The high population of Dusky Cotton Bug (DCB) was observed on Bt-121 throughout the season. The incidence of virus percentage increased with the passage of time; however, the variety IR5-NIBGE exhibited maximum level of tolerance. Variety Bt-121 gave the maximum yield i.e., 1852 kg per acre followed by IR5-NIBGE, Sitara-11M, Sitara-10M 1584, 1503, 1466 kg per acre respectively. Our results suggest that IR4-NIBGE and Sitara -11M are comparatively tolerant to jassids and whitefly which are the yield losing pest. So IR4-NIBGE and Sitara -11M varieties can be included in IPM programme for the management of these voracious pests. (author)

  3. Heterosis and correlation in interspecific and intraspecific hybrids of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, S; Hussain, S B; Manzoor, H; Quereshi, M K; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Shehzad, A N; Rasul, S; Manzoor, S A

    2016-06-24

    Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids show varying degrees of heterosis for yield and yield components. Yield-component traits have complex genetic relationships with each other. To determine the relationship of yield-component traits and fiber traits with seed cotton yield, six lines (Bt. CIM-599, CIM-573, MNH-786, CIM-554, BH-167, and GIZA-7) and three test lines (MNH-886, V4, and CIM-557) were crossed in a line x tester mating design. Heterosis was observed for seed cotton yield, fiber traits, and for other yield-component traits. Heterosis in interspecific hybrids for seed cotton yield was more prominent than in intraspecific hybrids. The interspecific hybrid Giza-7 x MNH-886 had the highest heterosis (114.77), while among intraspecific hybrids, CIM-554 x CIM-557 had the highest heterosis (61.29) for seed cotton yield. A major trait contributing to seed cotton yield was bolls/plant followed by boll weight. Correlation studies revealed that bolls/plant, boll weight, lint weight/boll, lint index, seed index, lint/seed, staple length, and staple strength were significantly and positively associated with seed cotton yield. Selection based on boll weight, boll number, lint weight/boll, and lint index will be helpful for improving cotton seed yield.

  4. Evaluation of the Impact of Genetically Modified Cotton After 20 Years of Cultivation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G. Rocha-Munive

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than 20 years cotton has been the most widely sown genetically modified (GM crop in Mexico. Its cultivation has fulfilled all requirements and has gone through the different regulatory stages. During the last 20 years, both research-institutions and biotech-companies have generated scientific and technical information regarding GM cotton cultivation in Mexico. In this work, we collected data in order to analyze the environmental and agronomic effects of the use of GM cotton in Mexico. In 1996, the introduction of Bt cotton made it possible to reactivate this crop, which in previous years was greatly reduced due to pest problems, production costs and environmental concerns. Bt cotton is a widely accepted tool for cotton producers and has proven to be efficient for the control of lepidopteran pests. The economic benefits of its use are variable, and depend on factors such as the international cotton-prices and other costs associated with its inputs. So far, the management strategies used to prevent development of insect resistance to GM cotton has been successful, and there are no reports of insect resistance development to Bt cotton in Mexico. In addition, no effects have been observed on non-target organisms. For herbicide tolerant cotton, the prevention of herbicide resistance has also been successful since unlike other countries, the onset of resistance weeds is still slow, apparently due to cultural practices and rotation of different herbicides. Environmental benefits have been achieved with a reduction in chemical insecticide applications and the subsequent decrease in primary pest populations, so that the inclusion of other technologies—e.g., use of non-Bt cotton- can be explored. Nevertheless, control measures need to be implemented during transport of the bolls and fiber to prevent dispersal of volunteer plants and subsequent gene flow to wild relatives distributed outside the GM cotton growing areas. It is still necessary to

  5. Characterization of NCAM expression and function in BT4C and BT4Cn glioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Moran, N; Gaardsvoll, H

    1991-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, plays an important role in cell-cell adhesion. Therefore, we have studied NCAM expression in the glioma cell lines BT4C and BT4Cn. We demonstrate that the 2 cell lines differ in their metastatic ability; while BT4C cells have a very low capacity for produc...

  6. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  7. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  8. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control s...

  9. Field Performance of Bt Eggplants (Solanum melongena L. in the Philippines: Cry1Ac Expression and Control of the Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree M Hautea

    Full Text Available Plants expressing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, have become a major tactic for controlling insect pests in maize and cotton globally. However, there are few Bt vegetable crops. Eggplant (Solanum melongena is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia that is heavily treated with insecticides to control the eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (EFSB. Herein we provide the first publicly available data on field performance in Asia of eggplant engineered to produce the Cry1Ac protein. Replicated field trials with five Bt eggplant open-pollinated (OP lines from transformation event EE-1 and their non-Bt comparators were conducted over three cropping seasons in the Philippines from 2010-2012. Field trials documented levels of Cry1Ac protein expressed in plants and evaluated their efficacy against the primary target pest, EFSB. Cry1Ac concentrations ranged from 0.75-24.7 ppm dry weight with the highest in the terminal leaves (or shoots and the lowest in the roots. Cry1Ac levels significantly increased from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated excellent control of EFSB. Pairwise analysis of means detected highly significant differences between Bt eggplant lines and their non-Bt comparators for all field efficacy parameters tested. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated high levels of control of EFSB shoot damage (98.6-100% and fruit damage (98.1-99.7% and reduced EFSB larval infestation (95.8-99.3% under the most severe pest pressure during trial 2. Moths that emerged from larvae collected from Bt plants in the field and reared in their Bt eggplant hosts did not produce viable eggs or offspring. These results demonstrate that Bt eggplant lines containing Cry1Ac event EE-1 provide outstanding control of EFSB and can dramatically reduce the need for conventional insecticides.

  10. Bt crops producing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not harm the green lacewing, Chrysoperla rufilabris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ce Tian

    Full Text Available The biological control function provided by natural enemies is regarded as a protection goal that should not be harmed by the application of any new pest management tool. Plants producing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, have become a major tactic for controlling pest Lepidoptera on cotton and maize and risk assessment studies are needed to ensure they do not harm important natural enemies. However, using Cry protein susceptible hosts as prey often compromises such studies. To avoid this problem we utilized pest Lepidoptera, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, that were resistant to Cry1Ac produced in Bt broccoli (T. ni, Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab produced in Bt cotton (T. ni, and Cry1F produced in Bt maize (S. frugiperda. Larvae of these species were fed Bt plants or non-Bt plants and then exposed to predaceous larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris. Fitness parameters (larval survival, development time, fecundity and egg hatch of C. rufilabris were assessed over two generations. There were no differences in any of the fitness parameters regardless if C. rufilabris consumed prey (T. ni or S. frugiperda that had consumed Bt or non-Bt plants. Additional studies confirmed that the prey contained bioactive Cry proteins when they were consumed by the predator. These studies confirm that Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not pose a hazard to the important predator C. rufilabris. This study also demonstrates the power of using resistant hosts when assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms.

  11. A comparison of spider communities in Bt and non-Bt rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Yeon; Kim, Seung Tae; Jung, Jong Kook; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2014-06-01

    To assess the potential adverse effects of a Bt rice line (Japonica rice cultivar, Nakdong) expressing a synthetic cry1Ac1 gene, C7-1-9-1-B, which was highly active against all larval stages of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), we investigated the community structure of spiders in Bt and non-Bt rice fields during the rice-growing season in 2007 and 2008 in Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. Spiders were surveyed with a sweep net and suction device. Suction sampling captured more spiders, measured in terms of species level and abundance, than sweeping. Araneidae and Thomisidae were captured more by sweeping, and certain species were captured only by sweeping. These findings show that both suction and sweep sampling methods should be used because these methods are most likely complementary. In total, 29 species in 23 genera and nine families were identified from the 4,937 spiders collected, and both Bt and non-Bt rice fields showed a typical Korean spider assemblage. The temporal patterns of spider species richness and spider abundance were very similar between Bt and non-Bt rice, although significant differences in species richness were observed on a few occasions. Overall, spider community structure, including diversity, the dominant species, and abundance did not differ between Bt and non-Bt rice. The results of the study indicated that the transgenic Cry1Ac rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the spider community structure of the rice fields.

  12. Fitness costs associated with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-02-01

    Increasing adoption of transgenic crops expressing cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) represents an augmented risk for development of insect resistance. While fitness costs can greatly influence the rate of resistance evolution, most available data related to Bt resistance have been obtained from laboratory-selected insect strains. In this article, we test the existence of fitness costs associated with high levels of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize event TC1507 in a strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) originated from maize fields in Puerto Rico. Fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda were evaluated by comparing biological performance to susceptible insects when reared on meridic diet, maize or soybean leaf tissue, or cotton reproductive tissues. Parameters monitored included larval survival, larval and pupal weights, developmental time (larval and pupal), adult longevity, reproductive traits (fecundity and fertility), and sex ratio. We found that all monitored parameters were influenced to a similar extent by the host, independently of susceptibility to Bt maize. The only parameter that significantly differed between strains for all hosts was a longer larval developmental period in resistant S. frugiperda, which resulted in emergence asynchrony between susceptible and resistant adults. To test the relevance of fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda, we performed a selection experiment to monitor the stability of resistance in a heterogeneous strain through 12 generations of rearing on meridic diet. Our data demonstrate lack of fitness costs relevant to stability of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize and help explain reported stability of field-evolved resistance in Puerto Rican populations of S. frugiperda.

  13. Screening of cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) genotypes for heat tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, S.; Khan, M.A.; Sial, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton yield is highly affected due to biotic (diseases and pests) and abiotic (heat, dought and salinity) Stresses. Among them, high temperature is the main environmental constraint which adversely reduces cotton yield and quality. High temperature above 36 degree C affects plant growth and development especially during reproductive phase. Present studies were carried out to assess the tolerance of fifty-eight newly evolved cotton genotypes to heat stresses, based on agronomic and physiological characteristics. The genotypes were screened in field conditions under two temperature regimes. The studies were conducted at experimental farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam, Pakistan. The results showed that March sown crop experienced high temperature (i.e. > 44 degree C in May and June), which significantly affected crop growth and productivity. The genotypes were identified as heat-tolerant on the basis of relative cell injury percentage (RCI %), heat susceptibility index (HSI) values, boll retention and seed cotton yield (kg/ha). RCI level in cotton genotypes ranged from 39.0 to 86.0%. Out of 58, seventeen genotypes (viz.NIA-80, NIA-81, NIA-83, NIA-84, NIA-M-30, NIA-M31, NIA-HM-48, NIA-HM-327, NIA-H-32, NIA-HM-2-1, NIA-Bt1, NIA-Bt2, NIA-Perkh, CRIS-342, CRIS-134, NIAB-111 and check variety Sadori indicated high level of heat tolerance at both (heat-stressed and non-stressed) temperature regimes; as shown the lowest relative injury level and relatively heat resistant index (HSI<1) values. Such genotypes could be used as heattolerant genotypes under heat-stressed environments. (author)

  14. Superoleophobic cotton textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leng, B.; Shao, Z.; With, de G.; Ming, W.

    2009-01-01

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we

  15. Cotton trends in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Cotton trends in India. A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 Crs. Provides income to 60 million people. Crucial raw material for Rs 83000 Crores textile industry out of which Rs 45754 crores is exports. Approx. 20 Million acres of cotton provides ...

  16. The "Cotton Problem"

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2005-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop in many developing economies, supporting the livelihoods of millions of poor households. In some countries it contributes as much as 40 percent of merchandise exports and more than 5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The global cotton market, however, has been subject to numerous policy interventions, to the detriment of nonsubsidized producers. This ...

  17. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  18. [Research of the Bt crop biomass dynamics upon the invasion of Bt-resistant pests. A mathematical model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, A V; Medvinskiĭ, A B; Li, B -L; Gonik, M M

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulations of some consequences of the invasion of Bt-resistant pests into an agricultural ecosystem containing a Bt crop are presented. It is shown that the invasion of Bt-resistant pests leads to changes in the plant biomass dynamics, a decrease in the Bt crop production, and the deterioration of the predictability of the Bt crop production. We show that the parameter values at which the badly predictable Bt crop production takes place, occupy a minor area in the model parameter space. The size of the area depends on the insect reproduction period and the duration of the growing season.

  19. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... cultivars were identified as cost-effective, flexible, easily adoptable and ... Key words: Refugia, cost-benefit analysis, Bt-maize, insect pest resistance management. ..... Refugia are part of stewardship plan for the Bt maize.

  20. Binding and Oligomerization of Modified and Native Bt Toxins in Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Ocelotl

    Full Text Available Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers. In this study, we evaluated how Bt toxin Cry1Ac and its genetically engineered counterpart Cry1AcMod interact with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV from resistant and susceptible larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm, a global pest of cotton. Compared with Cry1Ac, Cry1AcMod lacks 56 amino acids at the amino-terminus including helix α-1; previous work showed that Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in vitro without cadherin and killed P. gossypiella larvae harboring cadherin mutations linked with >1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Here we found that resistance to Cry1Ac was associated with reduced oligomer formation and insertion. In contrast, Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in BBMV from resistant larvae. These results confirm the role of cadherin in oligomerization of Cry1Ac in susceptible larvae and imply that forming oligomers without cadherin promotes toxicity of Cry1AcMod against resistant P. gossypiella larvae that have cadherin mutations.

  1. Transgenic cotton coexpressing Vip3A and Cry1Ac has a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Lu, Guo-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Liu, Chen-Xi; Xiao, Yu-Tao; Xu, Chao; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Although farmers in China have grown transgenic Bt-Cry1Ac cotton to resist the major pest Helicoverpa armigera since 1997 with great success, many secondary lepidopteran pests that are tolerant to Cry1Ac are now reported to cause considerable economic damage. Vip3AcAa, a chimeric protein with the N-terminal part of Vip3Ac and the C-terminal part of Vip3Aa, has a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran pests and has no cross resistance to Cry1Ac. In the present study, we tested insecticidal activities of Vip3AcAa against Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera exigua, and Agrotis ipsilon, which are relatively tolerant to Cry1Ac proteins. The bioassay results showed that insecticidal activities of Vip3AcAa against these three pests are superior to Cry1Ac, and after an activation pretreatment, Vip3AcAa retained insecticidal activity against S. litura, S. exigua and A. ipsilon that was similar to the unprocessed protein. The putative receptor for this chimeric protein in the brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) in the three pests was also identified using biotinylated Vip3AcAa toxin. To broaden Bt cotton activity against a wider spectrum of pests, we introduced the vip3AcAa and cry1Ac genes into cotton. Larval mortality rates for S. litura, A. ipsilon and S. exigua that had fed on this new cotton increased significantly compared with larvae fed on non-Bt cotton and Bt-Cry1Ac cotton in a laboratory experiment. These results suggested that the Vip3AcAa protein is an excellent option for a "pyramid" strategy for integrated pest management in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. No evidence for change in oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalucki, M P; Cunningham, J P; Downes, S; Ward, P; Lange, C; Meissle, M; Schellhorn, N A; Zalucki, J M

    2012-08-01

    Cotton growing landscapes in Australia have been dominated by dual-toxin transgenic Bt varieties since 2004. The cotton crop has thus effectively become a sink for the main target pest, Helicoverpa armigera. Theory predicts that there should be strong selection on female moths to avoid laying on such plants. We assessed oviposition, collected from two cotton-growing regions, by female moths when given a choice of tobacco, cotton and cabbage. Earlier work in the 1980s and 1990s on populations from the same geographic locations indicated these hosts were on average ranked as high, mid and low preference plants, respectively, and that host rankings had a heritable component. In the present study, we found no change in the relative ranking of hosts by females, with most eggs being laid on tobacco, then cotton and least on cabbage. As in earlier work, some females laid most eggs on cotton and aspects of oviposition behaviour had a heritable component. Certainly, cotton is not avoided as a host, and the implications of these finding for managing resistance to Bt cotton are discussed.

  3. Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Tassawar Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is the world’s 4th largest producer of cotton. Cultivation along the Indus River extends across nearly 3 million hectares and serves as the backbone of the economy. Despite this importance, information on the cotton sector in Pakistan, in particular with regard to cotton oils, is scanty and not available from a single source. This review seeks to remedy that gap. Though cultivated mainly for fiber, its kernel seed oil is also used as an edible vegetable oil and accounts for a large share of the local oil industry; per capita consumption of edible oils is nearly 14 kg, which is much higher than consumption in countries at similar levels of economic development. Pakistan fulfills 17.7% of its demand for edible oils through cottonseed oil. Total demand for this purpose in 2029–30 is estimated at 5.36 million tons of which local production will be 1.98 million tons. Genetically modified (Bt cotton was introduced in Pakistan in 2010 to control three deleterious lepidopterous insects; it now accounts for more than 85% of the cotton cultivated. There is good scope for organic cotton production in Pakistan, especially in non-traditional cotton growing areas where there is less insect pressure. High temperature and water scarcity associated with climate change are a major concern, since current cultivation takes place in areas that already experience extremely high temperatures.

  4. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    Full Text Available Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50 of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  5. Practice Tests for the TOEFL iBT

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Practice Tests for the TOEFL iBT contains four TOEFL tests, with answer keys. Perfect for self-study and classrooms. Each TOEFL iBT Practice Test...* reflects the design of the official TOEFL internet-based test* tests academic English-language proficiency expected of university students in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Scotland and England* provides extra practice before you take the official TOEFL iBT* will help you identify those areas of academic English you need to improve for a higher TOEFL iBT score* will give you an unofficial, TOEFL iBT range score within

  6. BT's adoption of customer centric design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Mark; Esquivel, Jacqueline; Miller, Fiona; Patmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2010 BT underwent a major transformation from a company with a special section devoted to 'older and disabled consumers' to a company with an inclusive design strategy. The mainstreaming of these issues responded to a demand for better, more user-friendly communications products and growing awareness of the importance of previously marginalised consumer groups. It also took place alongside the development and publication of BS7000-6, a guide to inclusive design management. Based on several product design case studies, this paper reflects on how and why this transformation was seen as necessary for future success, and how the transformation was achieved. The evolution of BT's approach has continued since, but this paper looks back in time, and documents the transformation up to 2010 and reflects the state of the company in 2010 rather than at the time of publication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin contamination in Bt and non-Bt maize cultivated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Vinícius M; Rocha, Liliana O; Reis, Tatiana A; Reis, Gabriela M; Duarte, Aildson P; Michelotto, Marcos D; Correa, Benedito

    2017-05-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the main pathogens of maize, causing ear and stalk rots. This fungus is also able to produce high levels of fumonisins, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Previous studies have shown that maize hybrids genetically modified with the cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) presented lower incidence of F. verticillioides and fumonisin levels, presumably through the reduction of insects, which could act as vectors of fungi. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of F. verticillioides and the concentration of fumonisins in Bt and isogenic non-Bt hybrids (2B710Hx, 30F35YG, 2B710, and 30F35, respectively). The samples of 2B710Hx and 30F35YG presented lower F. verticillioides frequency than 2B710 and 30F35 samples. However, there was no statistical difference between fumonisin contamination when Bt and non-Bt samples were compared (P > 0.05). The results suggest that other environmental parameters could possibly trigger fumonisin production during plant development in the field; consequently, other management strategies should be applied to aid controlling fumonisin contamination in maize.

  8. Genetic Markers for Western Corn Rootworm Resistance to Bt Toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Flagel, Lex E.; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L.; Michel, Andrew P.; Head, Graham P.; Goldman, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genet...

  9. TOEFL strategies a complete guide to the iBT

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    TOEFL students all ask: How can I get a high TOEFL iBT score? Answer: Learn argument scoring strategies. Why? Because the TOEFL iBT recycles opinion-based and fact-based arguments for testing purposes from start to finish. In other words, the TOEFL iBT is all arguments. That's right, all arguments. If you want a high score, you need essential argument scoring strategies. That is what TOEFL STRATEGIES A COMPLETE GUIDE gives you, and more!

  10. cotton fabric 51

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    1Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, Kano – Nigeria. 2Department of ... its versatility were examined taken into consideration, the molecular structure. ... hemicelluloses, pectin, coloring matter and ash ... temperature for a fixed period of time. These processes rendered the cotton 99% cellulose in nature.

  11. Cotton, Prof. Frank Albert

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1985 Honorary. Cotton, Prof. Frank Albert. Date of birth: 9 April 1930. Date of death: 20 February 2007. Last known address: Department of Chemistry, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, U.S.A..

  12. Cotton regeneration in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. F. Sakhanokho and K. Rajasekaran Over the years, plant breeders have improved cotton via conventional breeding methods, but these methods are time-consuming. To complement classical breeding and, at times, reduce the time necessary for new cultivar development, breeders have turned to in vitro ...

  13. Exploring the Resilience of Bt Cotton's ‘Pro-Poor Success Story’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.

    2010-01-01

    Expectations play a powerful role in driving technological change. Expectations are often encapsulated in narratives of technological promise that emphasize potential benefits and downplay potential negative impacts. Genetically modified (GM, transgenic) crops have been framed by expectations that

  14. Is Bt Cotton a Pro-Poor Technology? A Review and Critique of the Empirical Record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.

    2010-01-01

    Policy makers, journalists and other commentators have hailed genetically modified (GM) crops as a ‘pro-poor’ success in the developing world. Their confidence appears to be justified by the encouraging conclusions reached by academic studies on the performance and impacts of GM crops, which seem to

  15. Exploring the resilience of Bt cotton's "pro-poor success story".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Expectations play a powerful role in driving technological change. Expectations are often encapsulated in narratives of technological promise that emphasize potential benefits and downplay potential negative impacts. Genetically modified (GM, transgenic) crops have been framed by expectations that they would be an intrinsically "pro-poor" innovation that would contribute powerfully to international agricultural development. However, expectations typically have to be scaled back in the light of experience. Published reviews of the socio-economic impacts of GM crops among poor, small-scale farmers in the developing world indicate that these effects have been very mixed and contingent on the agronomic, socio-economic and institutional settings where the technology has been applied. These conclusions should modulate expectations about the pro-poor potential of GM crop technology and focus attention on the conditions under which it might deliver substantial and sustainable benefits for poor farmers. However, the idea of GM crop technology as an intrinsically pro-poor developmental success story has been sustained in academic, public and policy arenas. This narrative depends upon an analysis that disembeds the technology from the technical, social and institutional contexts in which it is applied. Agricultural development policy should be based on a more rigorous and dispassionate analysis, rather than optimistic expectations alone.

  16. Emergence of controversy in technology transitions: Green revolution and Bt cotton in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramani, S.V.; Thutupalli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Technology transitions following radical technological breakthroughs are often marked by controversies and the transitions to Green Revolution (GR) and Genetically Modified (GM) seeds in India were no exceptions to this rule. Controversies can trigger social dilemmas, but in economics we do not yet

  17. Food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 mutant protein using Cry1Ac as a control Bt protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Santos, Vanessa Olinto; Pinto, Clidia Eduarda Moreira; Viana, Daniel Araújo; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2015-07-01

    Cry8Ka5 is a mutant protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that has been proposed for developing transgenic plants due to promising activity against coleopterans, like Anthonomus grandis (the major pest of Brazilian cotton culture). Thus, an early food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 protein could provide valuable information to support its use as a harmless biotechnological tool. This study aimed to evaluate the food safety of Cry8Ka5 protein following the two-tiered approach, based on weights of evidence, proposed by ILSI. Cry1Ac protein was used as a control Bt protein. The history of safe use revealed no convincing hazard reports for Bt pesticides and three-domain Cry proteins. The bioinformatics analysis with the primary amino acids sequence of Cry8Ka5 showed no similarity to any known toxic, antinutritional or allergenic proteins. The mode of action of Cry proteins is well understood and their fine specificity is restricted to insects. Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins were rapidly degraded in simulated gastric fluid, but were resistant to simulated intestinal fluid and heat treatment. The LD50 for Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac was >5000 mg/kg body weight when administered by gavage in mice. Thus, no expected relevant risks are associated with the consumption of Cry8Ka5 protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were ...

  19. Can Bt maize change the spatial distribution of predator Cycloneda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Bt crops is an important tactic in integrated pest management. The effect of Bt maize on arthropod predators needs to be investigated because of the important role of these natural enemies in the absence of target pests. The objective of the present study was to generate information on the distribution model of ...

  20. Evaluation of cotton stalks destroyers

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Aloisio; Borges, Pedro H. de M.

    2013-01-01

    The destruction of the cotton crop residues (cotton stalks) is a mandatory procedure in Brazil for prophylactic issues, but is a subject unexplored by the research and there are few studies that deal with this issue. However, this is not encouraged in recent decades, studies aimed at developing and evaluating equipment for this purpose. The present study had the objective to evaluate six methods for mechanical destruction of cotton crop residues. Each method was defined based on the principle...

  1. Biodiversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in genetically modified (Bt) and conventional (non-Bt) potato fields in Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalushkov, P.; Gueorguiev, B.; Spitzer, L.; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2009), s. 1346-1350 ISSN 1310-2818 Grant - others:Bulgarian National Research Fund(BG) B-1508; Bulgarian National Research Fund(BG) B-1105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : ground beetles * Bt potatoes * non-Bt potatoes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.291, year: 2009

  2. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the treatment with fluorinated or silicon compounds)1-4 and by enhancing the surface roughness with a fractal structure5-8. Cotton, a cellulose-based material, that is greatly hydrophilic, is more benefited when made hydrophobic. Modification of cotton...

  3. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Exhibits No Preference between Bt and Non-Bt Maize Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Carla C.; Koch, Robert L.; Burkness, Eric C.; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Joerg; Hutchison, William D.; Fernandes, Marcos G.

    2012-01-01

    A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE) maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as “refuge in a bag”, which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810), expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23–33 µg/g dry weight) and S. frugiperda (2.1–2.2 µg/g), while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01–0.2 µg/g). These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed. PMID:23024772

  4. Impact of Bollgard cotton on Indian cotton production and Income of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impact of Bollgard cotton on Indian cotton production and Income of cotton farmers. Presentation made in the Seventy Second Annual Meeting Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore at Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Indore 11th November 2006.

  5. Effects of ensiling of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize (MON810) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the degradation of the Bt protein (Cry1Ab) in Bt maize during ensiling and chemical composition of the silage. Two laboratory studies were conducted at the University of Fort Hare. One Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize cultivar (DKC80-12B) and its isoline (DKC80-10) in the 2008/2009 study and two Bt ...

  6. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize are susceptible to Bt pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-10-01

    Field-evolved resistance to maize event TC1507 expressing the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was detected in populations of Spodoptera frugiperda from Puerto Rico. We tested for cross-resistance to purified Cry1A toxins and commercial Bt pesticides in susceptible (Benzon) and TC1507-resistant (456) strains of S. frugiperda. Larvae from the 456 strain exhibited cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins, while no differences in susceptibility to XenTari WG and DiPel ES pesticides were detected. These data support cross-resistance to toxins that share binding sites with Cry1Fa and no cross-resistance to Bt pesticides in S. frugiperda with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing Analytic Rating Guides for "TOEFL iBT"® Integrated Speaking Tasks. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report, TOEFL iBT-20. ETS Research Report. RR-13-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Joan; Poonpon, Kornwipa

    2013-01-01

    Research and development of a new type of scoring rubric for the integrated speaking tasks of "TOEFL iBT"® are described. These "analytic rating guides" could be helpful if tasks modeled after those in TOEFL iBT were used for formative assessment, a purpose which is different from TOEFL iBT's primary use for admission…

  8. Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

    2014-02-01

    The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

  9. Gamma Greenhouse: A chronic facility for crops improvement and agro biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Gamma irradiation is one of the most common procedures in plant mutagenesis and agrobiotechnology activities. The procedures consist of chronic and acute gamma radiation. Generally, 60 Co and 137 Cs are gamma radiation sources for radiation processing with relatively high energy (half-life 5.27 years for 60 Co and 30.1 years for 137 Cs). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). The Gamma Green House (GGH) is the only chronic irradiation facility in Malaysia, located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). GGH is used for induction of mutation in plants and other biological samples at low dose radiation over period of time depending on the nature and sensitivity of the plant species. The GGH consist of circular green house with 30 meters radius, control room and irradiator with interlock system. The irradiator produces low dose gamma radiation derived from Caesium-137 radioactive source. The biological samples can be exposed to low dose radiation in days, weeks, months or years. The current irradiation rate for GGH is 2.67 Gy/ hr at 1 meter from the source. Chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for research and commercial values. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is its uses in research, educations and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbes. In generating awareness and attract users to the facility, Nuclear Malaysia provides wide range of irradiation services for plant species and mutagenesis consultancies to academicians, students scientists, and plant breeders, from local universities, other research institutes, and growers. Charges for irradiation and consultancy services are at nominal rates. The utilization activities of the gamma greenhouse mainly cover Research and Development, Research Collaboration, Exchange of Information, Irradiation Services, Training Programs, Education, Exchange of Scientists and Seminars/ Conferences. (author)

  10. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  11. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Li

    Full Text Available Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  12. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López-Hoffman

    Full Text Available Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  13. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  14. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  15. Bt rice in China - focusing the nontarget risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Qingsong; Meissle, Michael; Yang, Yan; Wang, Yanan; Hua, Hongxia; Chen, Xiuping; Peng, Yufa; Romeis, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Bt rice can control yield losses caused by lepidopteran pests but may also harm nontarget species and reduce important ecosystem services. A comprehensive data set on herbivores, natural enemies, and their interactions in Chinese rice fields was compiled. This together with an analysis of the Cry protein content in arthropods collected from Bt rice in China indicated which nontarget species are most exposed to the insecticidal protein and should be the focus of regulatory risk assessment. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Scoring Strategies for the TOEFL iBT A Complete Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    TOEFL students all ask: How can I get a high TOEFL iBT score? Answer: Learn argument scoring strategies. Why? Because the TOEFL iBT recycles opinion-based and fact-based arguments for testing purposes from start to finish. In other words, the TOEFL iBT is all arguments. That's right, all arguments. If you want a high score, you need essential argument scoring strategies. That is what Scoring Strategies for the TOEFL iBT gives you, and more!. TEST-PROVEN STRATEGIES. Learn essential TOEFL iBT scoring strategies developed in American university classrooms and proven successful on the TOEFL iBT. R

  17. Cotton : Market setting, trade policies, and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2004-01-01

    The value of world cotton production in 2000-01 has been estimated at about $20 billion, down from $35 billion in 1996-97 when cotton prices were 50 percent higher. Although cotton's share in world merchandise trade is insignificant (about 0.12 percent), it is very important to a number of developing countries. Cotton accounts for approximately 40 percent of total merchandise export earnin...

  18. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  19. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  20. Thwarting one of cotton's nemeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senft, D.

    1991-01-01

    There's not much good to be said for the pink bollworm, cotton's most destructive pest, except that it is being controlled to cut crop damage. Scientists have developed strategies, such as increasing native populations of predatory insects and pest-resistant cotton varieties. Thanks to research, growers today can also use cultural practices such as early plowdown of harvested cotton to break up stalks and bury overwintering pink bollworms. And they can disrupt normal mating by releasing sterile insects and using copies of natural compounds, called pheromones, that the pink bollworm uses to attract mates. Such strategies, together with judicious use of insecticides, put together in various combinations, form what is called an integrated pest management system

  1. Segregation and expression of transgenes in the progenies of Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... segregation was observed in BC1F1, BC1F2 and F2 populations derived .... randomly chosen at the tillering stage respectively and were ground .... Figure 2. Southern blot of Hind III-digested DNA from Bt transgenic rice line ...

  2. Gene pyramiding as a Bt resistance management strategy: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on the emergence of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxins have raised doubts on the sustainability of Bt-toxin based pest management technologies. Corporate industry has responded to this challenge with innovations that include gene pyramiding among others. Pyramiding entails stacking ...

  3. A biannual study on the environmental impact of Bt maize

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehnal, František; Habuštová, Oxana; Spitzer, L.; Hussein, Hany; Růžička, Vlastimil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2004), s. 147-160 [Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms. Praha, 26.11.2003-29.11.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Bt maize * GM crops * European corn borer Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  4. Evaluation of bioassays for testing Bt sweetpotato events against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetpotato weevil (Cylas puncticollis) Boheman is a serious pest throughout Sub-Saharan Africa region and is a big threat to sweetpotato cultivation. Ten transgenic sweetpotato events expressing Cry7Aa1, Cry3Ca1, and ET33-34 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were evaluated for resistance against C.

  5. Insect communities on maize expressing a Bt-toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habuštová, Oxana; Sehnal, František; Hussein, Hany

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2005), s. 9-11 ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6007304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : GMO * arthropod communities * Bt maize Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. screening of new isolates of bt and cloning of their dna amplicons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEMAPPA

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... Nine new indigenous isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were characterized for their colony type, ... Bt. New gene sequences encoding more active toxins could be ..... Toxicity of a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis-like strain.

  7. Acute, sublethal, and combination effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis on the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Vojoudi, Samad; Mahdavi, Vahid; Parsaeyan, Ehsan

    2014-02-26

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan insect pest that causes damage to various plants. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner sub sp . kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were evaluated on third instar H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 12.95 and 96.8 µg a.i./mL, respectively. A total mortality of 56.7% was caused on third instar larvae when LC20 values of the insecticides were applied in combination with each other. The LT50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 4.8 and 3.6 days, respectively. The results of the sublethal study showed that the application of LC30 value of azadirachtin and Bt reduced the larval and pupal weight and increased larval and pupal duration of H. armigera. The longevity and fecundity of female adults were affected significantly by the insecticides. Female fecundity was reduced by the treatments, respectively. The lowest adult emergence ratio and pupation ratio were observed in the azadirachtin treatment. The results indicated that both insecticides have high potential for controlling of the pest. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  8. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, Sari J.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Nissinen, Anne; Stewart, C. Neal; Poppy, Guy M.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants

  9. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  10. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S

    2015-01-07

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Flagel et al.

  11. Test Takers' Attitudes about the TOEFL iBT[TM]. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-10-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Attali, Yigal

    2010-01-01

    The principal aims of this study, a conceptual replication of an earlier investigation of the TOEFL[R] computer-based test, or TOEFL CBT, in Buenos Aires, Cairo, and Frankfurt, were to assess test takers' reported acceptance of the TOEFL Internet-based test, or TOEFL iBT[TM], and its associations with possible determinants of this acceptance and…

  12. SNS ønsker kommentarer om oplysninger fra Syngenta Seeds vedr forurening med Bt10 i Bt11-majsen ændrer konklusionerne i risikovurderingen. Zea mays (Bt11) . Supplerende informationer om Bt11 - evt. konsekvenser for tidligere vurderinger. Modtaget 04-05-2005, deadline 06-06-2005, svar 24-05-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta

    2012-01-01

    "Vedr. oplysningerne om iblanding af Bt-10 majsen i Bt-11 viser det tilsendte materiale, at Syngenta har undersøgt og fået bekræftet at undersøgelserne til grundlag for risikovurderingen blev foretaget på Bt-11 majs. DMU ser derfor ingen grund til at ændre konklusionerne i den tidligere risikovur...

  13. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  14. FUM gene expression profile and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides inoculated in Bt and non-Bt maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Oliveira Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by F. verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710 were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides and analysed under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB¬1 and FB2 production and FUM1, FUM3, FUM6, FUM7, FUM8, FUM13, FUM14, FUM15 and FUM19 expression. 2B710 Hx and 30F35 YG kernel samples were virtually intact when compared to the non-Bt hybrids that came from the field. Statistical analysis showed that FB¬1 production was significantly lower in 30F35 YG and 2B710 Hx than in the 30F35 and 2B710 hybrids (P 0.05. The kernel injuries observed in the non-Bt samples have possibly facilitated F. verticillioides penetration and promoted FB1 production under controlled conditions. FUM genes were expressed by F. verticillioides in all of the samples. However, there was indication of lower expression of a few FUM genes in the Bt hybrids; and a weak association between FB1 production and the relative expression of some of the FUM genes were observed in the 30F35 YG hybrid.

  15. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  16. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region. Cotton-producing region means each of the following groups of cotton-producing States: (a) Southeast Region: Alabama...

  17. Predator Preference for Bt-Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Prey: Implications for Insect Resistance Management in Bt Maize Seed Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Z; Burkness, E C; Skoková Habuštová, O; Hutchison, W D

    2017-06-01

    Understanding indirect, trophic-level effects of genetically engineered plants, expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is essential to the ecological risk assessment process. In this study, we examine potential indirect, trophic-level effects of Bt-sensitive prey using the predator, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), feeding upon Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae, which had delayed development (lower body mass) following ingestion of Cry1Ab maize leaves. We found no adverse effects on development and survival when H. axyridis larvae were fed S. frugiperda larvae that had fed on Cry1Ab maize tissue. Presence of Cry1Ab in H. axyridis decreased considerably after switching to another diet within 48 h. In a no-choice assay, H. axyridis larvae consumed more Bt-fed S. frugiperda than non-Bt-fed larvae. Preference for S. frugiperda feeding on Bt maize was confirmed in subsequent choice assays with H. axyridis predation on Bt-fed, 1-5-d-old S. frugiperda larvae. We suggest that H. axyridis preferred prey, not based on whether it had fed on Bt or non-Bt maize, but rather on larval mass, and they compensated for the nutritional deficiency of lighter larvae through increased consumption. Pest larvae with variable levels of resistance developing on Bt diet are often stunted versus sensitive larvae developing on non-Bt diet. It is possible that such larvae may be preferentially removed from local field populations. These results may have implications for insect resistance management and may be played out under field conditions where seed blends of Bt and non-Bt hybrids are planted. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Calculation and Analysis of B/T (Burning and/or Transmutation Rate of Minor Actinides and Plutonium Performed by Fast B/T Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsodi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation and analysis of B/T (Burning and/or Transmutation rate of MA (minor actinides and Pu (Plutonium has been performed in fast B/T reactor. The study was based on the assumption that the spectrum shift of neutron flux to higher side of neutron energy had a potential significance for designing the fast B/T reactor and a remarkable effect for increasing the B/T rate of MA and/or Pu. The spectrum shifts of neutron have been performed by change MOX to metallic fuel. Blending fraction of MA and or Pu in B/T fuel and the volume ratio of fuel to coolant in the reactor core were also considered. Here, the performance of fast B/T reactor was evaluated theoretically based on the calculation results of the neutronics and burn-up analysis. In this study, the B/T rate of MA and/or Pu increased by increasing the blending fraction of MA and or Pu and by changing the F/C ratio. According to the results, the total B/T rate, i.e. [B/T rate]MA + [B/T rate]Pu, could be kept nearly constant under the critical condition, if the sum of the MA and Pu inventory in the core is nearly constant. The effect of loading structure was examined for inner or outer loading of concentric geometry and for homogeneous loading. Homogeneous loading of B/T fuel was the good structure for obtaining the higher B/T rate, rather than inner or outer loading

  19. Changes in bacillus thuringiensis tolerance levels due to hybridization of Bt-tolerant and susceptible silkworm populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begumad, H.A.; Hassana, E.; Dingleb, J.; Alshehic, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Males and females of a Bt-tolerant mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) population were crossed with females and males of a Bt-susceptible population, to produce Bt-tolerant silkworm hybrids, and to determine the expression of the Bt-tolerance pattern in the F 1 hybrids. It was observed that when a Bt-tolerant (42% larval mortality) female (BtT ) silkworm was crossed with a Bt-susceptible (85% larval mortality) male (BtS ), the resultant F 1 offspring showed lower levels of Bt-tolerance (87% larval mortality). On the other hand, when a Bt-tolerant male (BtT ) was crossed with a Bt-susceptible female (BtS ), the F 1 hybrid showed higher levels of Bt-tolerance (35% larval mortality) characteristic. The probit statistics showed that both hybrids expressed Bt-tolerance or susceptible levels similar to their male parents. These different patterns of Bt-tolerance in F 1 hybrids might be due to the transferring of a Bt-tolerant gene, from the parents to offspring, through the homozygotic male (ZZ) silkworm. (author)

  20. Investigating the Value of Section Scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® Test. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-21. ETS Research Report RR-13-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sinharay, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the value of reporting the reading, listening, speaking, and writing section scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® test, focusing on 4 related aspects of the psychometric quality of the TOEFL iBT section scores: reliability of the section scores, dimensionality of the test, presence of distinct score profiles, and the…

  1. Discourse Characteristics of Writing and Speaking Task Types on the "TOEFL iBT"® Test: A Lexico-Grammatical Analysis. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-19. Research Report. RR-13-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2013-01-01

    One of the major innovations of the "TOEFL iBT"® test is the incorporation of integrated tasks complementing the independent tasks to which examinees respond. In addition, examinees must produce discourse in both modes (speech and writing). The validity argument for the TOEFL iBT includes the claim that examinees vary their discourse in…

  2. Use of Industrial Components in SL/BT Equipment Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E

    1999-01-01

    The control system of all SPS target stations, beam absorbers and other aperture limiting devices is presently being refurbished, using solely standard industrial hardware and software components. SIEMENS Simatic S7-300 programmable logic controllers serve as equipment controllers. They are connected through Profibus to a WinNT front-end running the SIEMENS WinCC SCADA package which acts as local controller and gateway for remote access. A variant configuration, where the PLCs are directly linked to Ethernet, has been used for controlling the SPS Q measurement kickers. These and some other SL/BT projects will be reviewed where fully off-the-shelf components have been successfully integrated into the SL accelerator controls infrastructure. The arguments leading to the various technical choices will be laid down including a report of the experience gained. Finally, the presentation will address the perspective and current ideas for using industrial components in controlling SL/BT equipment during the LHC era.

  3. Marketingový plán pro BT SERVIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bilíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Předmětem diplomové práce je sestavení marketingového plánu pro společnost BT servis, která plánuje otevřít novou pobočku v Jihomoravském kraji. V první části jsou představena teoretická východiska, která se vztahují ke zkoumané problematice. Následuje analýza současného stavu podniku a jeho okolí. Získané informace jsou vyhodnoceny a poté je sestaven marketingový plán na období jednoho roku. The scope of this diploma thesis is the creation of a marketing strategy for the BT servis company...

  4. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yiyang, E-mail: yuanyy@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ke Xin, E-mail: xinke@sibs.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen Fajun, E-mail: fajunchen@njau.edu.cn [College of Plant Protection, Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Krogh, Paul Henning, E-mail: phk@dmu.dk [Department of Bioscience, University of Aarhus, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsoevej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Ge Feng, E-mail: gef@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: > We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. > The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. > Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. > The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. > Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  5. Dominant inheritance of field-evolved resistance to Bt corn in Busseolafusca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Campagne

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been adopted worldwide, notably in developing countries. In spite of their success in controlling target pests while allowing a substantial reduction of insecticide use, the sustainable control of these pest populations is threatened by the evolution of resistance. The implementation of the "high dose/refuge" strategy for managing insect resistance in transgenic crops aims at delaying the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in pest populations by promoting survival of susceptible insects. However, a crucial condition for the "high dose/refuge" strategy to be efficient is that the inheritance of resistance should be functionally recessive. Busseolafusca developed high levels of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry 1Ab expressed in Bt corn in South Africa. To test whether the inheritance of B. fusca resistance to the Bt toxin could be considered recessive we performed controlled crosses with this pest and evaluated its survival on Bt and non-Bt corn. Results show that resistance of B. fusca to Bt corn is dominant, which refutes the hypothesis of recessive inheritance. Survival on Bt corn was not lower than on non-Bt corn for both resistant larvae and the F1 progeny from resistant × susceptible parents. Hence, resistance management strategies of B. fusca to Bt corn must address non-recessive resistance.

  6. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yiyang; Ke Xin; Chen Fajun; Krogh, Paul Henning; Ge Feng

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: → We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. → The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. → Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. → The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. → Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  7. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S; Ward, Jason M; Levine, Steven L; Baum, James A; Vicini, John L; Hammond, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  8. The Food and Environmental Safety of Bt Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stephen Koch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safe use in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s. Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  9. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S.; Ward, Jason M.; Levine, Steven L.; Baum, James A.; Vicini, John L.; Hammond, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms. PMID:25972882

  10. Post test analysis of the LOBI BT17 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, I.T.; Hozer, Z.; Takacs, A.

    1994-12-01

    The LOBI experimental facility and the BT17 experiment. This experiment represents a loss-of-feedwater transient with feed and bleed procedure. The computational analysis has been performed by the CATHARE thermal hydraulic system code. The results of calculations are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental values. A comparison has been made with a Loss-of-Feedwater test performed on the PMK-2 facility. (author). 16 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; La Mantia, Fabio; Hu, Liangbing; Deshazer, Heather Dawn; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Cotton transformation via pollen tube pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Baohong; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    Although many gene transfer methods have been employed for successfully obtaining transgenic cotton, the major constraint in cotton improvement is the limitation of genotype because the majority of transgenic methods require plant regeneration from a single transformed cell which is limited by cotton tissue culture. Comparing with other plant species, it is difficult to induce plant regeneration from cotton; currently, only a limited number of cotton cultivars can be cultured for obtaining regenerated plants. Thus, development of a simple and genotype-independent genetic transformation method is particularly important for cotton community. In this chapter, we present a simple, cost-efficient, and genotype-independent cotton transformation method-pollen tube pathway-mediated transformation. This method uses pollen tube pathway to deliver transgene into cotton embryo sacs and then insert foreign genes into cotton genome. There are three major steps for pollen tube pathway-mediated genetic transformation, which include injection of -foreign genes into pollen tube, integration of foreign genes into plant genome, and selection of transgenic plants.

  14. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the phosphorus availability and yield of cotton (gossypium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Iqbal, A.; Qureshi, M.A.; Khan, K.H

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and plants have symbiotic relationship, as bacteria provide soluble phosphate for the plants and plants supply root borne carbon compounds which can be metabolized for bacterial growth. PSB solubilize the applied and fixed soil phosphorus resulting in higher crop yield. Intensive cropping has resulted in wide spread deficiency of Phosphorus in our soils and situation is becoming more serious because of a drastic increase in the cost of phosphatic fertilizers. Keeping in view the capabilities of microbes (Bacillus sp.), a field experiment was conducted on cotton at farmer field district Faisalabad in 2008. Effect of PSM (Bacillus spp.) was studied at three phosphorus levels i.e.20, 40 and 60 kg ha-l while N was applied at recommended dose (120 kg ha/sup -1/). Bacillus spp. was applied as seed coating to the cotton crop (Var. BT 121). Recommended plant protection measures were adopted. Results revealed that Bacillus spp. significantly increased the seed cotton yield; number of boll plant-I, boll weight, plant height, GOT (%), staple length, plant P and available P in the soil. Maximum seed cotton yield 4250 kg ha/sup -l/ was obtained with Bacillus inoculation along with 60 kg of P followed by 4162 kg ha/sup -1/ with Bacillus inoculation and 40 kg of P compared with their respective controls i.e.4093 and 3962 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively. Soil P was improved from 8.1 to 9.5 ppm by Bacillus inoculation. Phosphorus in plant matter was also higher (0.39%) as compare with control (0.36%). Rhizosphere soil pH was found slightly decreased (8.12 to 8.0) by Bacillus inoculation compare with control. It is concluded that PSB inoculation not only exerts beneficial effect on crop growth but also enhances the phosphorus concentration in the plant and soil. (author)

  15. Effects of Bt-maize material on the life cycle of the land snail Cantareus aspersus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramarz, Paulina; de Vaufleury, Annette; Gimbert, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    ). For snails not previously exposed to Bt material, hatchability of eggs was similar in the soils tested. The outcome of the experiments indicates that, in growing snails, long-term exposure is needed to reveal an effect of Bt-maize. The hazard analysis of Bt-maize which we performed, based on a worst......Insect resistant Bt-maize (MON 810) expresses active Cry1Ab endotoxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Snails constitute non-target soil species potentially exposed to Bt-toxin through consumption of plant material and soil in fields where transgenic plants have been grown. We studied...... the effect of the Cry1Ab toxin on survival, growth and egg hatchability of the snail Cantareus aspersus. From the age of 4 to 88 weeks, snails were fed either powdered Bt-maize or non-Bt-maize and exposed to soil samples collected after harvesting either the Bt-maize or non-Bt-maize. We applied four...

  16. Characteristics of a broad lytic spectrum endolysin from phage BtCS33 of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yihui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endolysins produced by bacteriophages lyse bacteria, and are thus considered a novel type of antimicrobial agent. Several endolysins from Bacillus phages or prophages have previously been characterized and used to target Bacillus strains that cause disease in animals and humans. B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 is a Siphoviridae family phage and its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. In the BtCS33 genome, orf18 was found to encode an endolysin protein (PlyBt33. Results Bioinformatic analyses showed that endolysin PlyBt33 was composed of two functional domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and the C-terminal cell wall binding domain. In this study, the entire endolysin PlyBt33, and both the N- and C-termini,were expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified. The lytic activities of PlyBt33 and its N-terminus were tested on bacteria. Both regions exhibited lytic activity, although PlyBt33 showed a higher lytic activity than the N-terminus. PlyBt33 exhibited activity against all Bacillus strains tested from five different species, but was not active against Gram-negative bacteria. Optimal conditions for PlyBt33 reactivity were pH 9.0 and 50°C. PlyBt33 showed high thermostability, with 40% of initial activity remaining following 1 h of treatment at 60°C. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 bound to B. thuringiensis strain HD-73 and Bacillus subtilis strain 168. This cell wall binding domain might be novel, as its amino acid sequence showed little similarity to previously reported endolysins. Conclusions PlyBt33 showed potential as a novel antimicrobial agent at a relatively high temperature and had a broad lytic spectrum within the Bacillus genus. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 might be a novel kind of cell wall binding domain.

  17. Passive and active protection of cotton textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochove, C. van

    1967-01-01

    In rotproofing of cotton a distinction is made between passive and active protection. In passive protection, the structure of the cotton fibre is modified in such a way that the fibre can longer be attacked. This modification of structure can be effected on different levels: microscopical,

  18. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  19. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  20. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  1. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana,

    Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation

    Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest

    control

  2. Post test analysis of the LOBI BT01 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Takacs, A.

    1994-12-01

    The LOBI experimental facility and the BT01 experiment is described. The experiment represents a small break transient in the secondary side (steam line) followed by special conditions for the establishment of pressurized thermal shock and accident management procedures. The computational analysis has been performed by the CATHARE thermal hydraulic system code. The results of calculations are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental values. A comparison has been made with a secondary side break test performed on the PMK-2 facility. (author). 14 refs., 26 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Susceptibility of Anthonomus grandis (cotton boll weevil) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) to a cry1ia-type toxin from a Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima; Quezado de Magalhaes, Mariana; Silva, Marilia Santos; Silva, Shirley Margareth Buffon; Dias, Simoni Campos; Nakasu, Erich Yukio Tempel; Brunetta, Patricia Sanglard Felipe; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Neto, Osmundo Brilhante de Oliveira; Sampaio de Oliveira, Raquel; Soares, Luis Henrique Barros; Ayub, Marco Antonio Zachia; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu; Figueira, Edson L Z

    2007-09-30

    Different isolates of the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce multiple crystal (Cry) proteins toxic to a variety of insects, nematodes and protozoans. These insecticidal Cry toxins are known to be active against specific insect orders, being harmless to mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Due to these characteristics, genes encoding several Cry toxins have been engineered in order to be expressed by a variety of crop plants to control insectpests. The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, are the major economically devastating pests of cotton crop in Brazil, causing severe losses, mainly due to their endophytic habit, which results in damages to the cotton boll and floral bud structures. A cry1Ia-type gene, designated cry1Ia12, was isolated and cloned from the Bt S811 strain. Nucleotide sequencing of the cry1Ia12 gene revealed an open reading frame of 2160 bp, encoding a protein of 719 amino acid residues in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 81 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Cry1Ia12 is 99% identical to the known Cry1Ia proteins and differs from them only in one or two amino acid residues positioned along the three domains involved in the insecticidal activity of the toxin. The recombinant Cry1Ia12 protein, corresponding to the cry1Ia12 gene expressed in Escherichia coli cells, showed moderate toxicity towards first instar larvae of both cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm. The highest concentration of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 tested to achieve the maximum toxicities against cotton boll weevil larvae and fall armyworm larvae were 230 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL, respectively. The herein demonstrated insecticidal activity of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 toxin against cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm larvae opens promising perspectives for the genetic engineering of cotton crop resistant to both these devastating pests in Brazil.

  4. Quantification of toxins in a Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton cultivar and its potential effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is increasingly planted throughout China. However, negative effects of this cultivar on the honey bee Apis mellifera L., the most important pollinator for cultivated ecosystem, remained poorly investigated. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential side effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen from cotton on young adult honey bees A. mellifera L. Two points emphasized the significance of our study: (1) A higher expression level of insecticidal protein Cry1Ac in pollen tissues was detected (when compared with previous reports). In particular, Cry1Ac protein was detected at 300 ± 4.52 ng g(-1) [part per billion (ppb)] in pollen collected in July, (2) Effects on chronic mortality and feeding behaviour in honey bees were evaluated using a no-choice dietary feeding protocol with treated pollen, which guarantee the highest exposure level to bees potentially occurring in natural conditions (worst case scenario). Tests were also conducted using imidacloprid-treated pollen at a concentration of 48 ppb as positive control for sublethal effect on feeding behaviour. Our results suggested that Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen carried no lethal risk for honey bees. However, during a 7-day oral exposure to the various treatments (transgenic, imidacloprid-treated and control), honey bee feeding behaviour was disturbed and bees consumed significantly less CCRI41 cotton pollen than in the control group in which bees were exposed to conventional cotton pollen. It may indicate an antifeedant effect of CCRI41 pollen on honey bees and thus bees may be at risk because of large areas are planted with transgenic Bt cotton in China. This is the first report suggesting a potential sublethal effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of risk assessment for bees as well as for directions of future work involving risk assessment of CCRI41 cotton.

  5. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  6. Cotton for removal of aquatic oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.W.; Fedler, C.B.; Heintz, C.E.; Nash, P.T.; Carr, D.L.; Lu, M.

    1992-01-01

    Raw cotton has considerable potential for selective removal of spilled oil and oil products from surface waters, since the natural waxes on the raw cotton make it preferentially oil wet. This potential was recognized in the early seventies at Texas Tech University. More recently other research workers have considered cotton as an adsorbent for spilled oil. The adsorbent market is now dominated by synthetic materials, such as air-blown polypropylene fiber, inorganic clays, and recycled paper and paper products. This paper further examines the potential of cotton in relation to these other adsorbents. Emphasis is placed on the potential for complete biodegradation of oil-soaked cotton adsorbents as a means avoiding the expense for incineration and/or the long-term environmental risk associated with placing the used adsorbents in landfills

  7. on microbial populations in the cotton rhizosphere

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swilla

    2016-05-25

    May 25, 2016 ... The binding of Bt toxin onto soil ... Monsanto Company to produce the Cry2Ab2 insect control protein, which provides effective .... analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal components analysis. (PCA). For ANOVA, the data ...

  8. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  9. Evaluation for the retention of reproductive structures by Bt and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The retention of the reproductive structures (bolls) was evaluated at 90,120 and 160 days of maturity in eight Bt and non-Bt hybrids from three Private R&D establishments on three dates of sowings (90,120 and 160 days of maturity) and two spacings of 67.5 x 60 cm and 100 x 30 cm. Ankur group Bt hybrids; 651, 2226 and ...

  10. Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics with enhanced stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bi, E-mail: xubi@dhu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Yinyan; Qu, Shaobo [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cai, Zaisheng, E-mail: zshcai@dhu.edu [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared. • Water and hexadecane contact angels reach to 164.4° and 156.3°, respectively. • Nanoporous organically modified silica alcogel particles were synthesized. • The superamphiphobic cotton fabrics exhibit enhanced stability against abrasion, laundering and acid. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared by alternately depositing organically modified silica alcogel (ormosil) particles onto chitosan precoated cotton fabrics and subsequent 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (PFOTMS) modification. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the ormosil particles display a fluffy, sponge-like nanoporous structure, and the entire cotton fiber surface is covered with highly porous networks. PFOTMS acts as not only a modifier to lower the surface energy of the cotton fabric but also a binder to enhance the coating stability against abrasion and washing. The treated cotton fabrics show highly liquid repellency with the water, cooking oil and hexadecane contact angels reaching to 164.4°, 160.1° and 156.3°, respectively. Meanwhile, the treated cotton fabrics exhibit good abrasion resistance and high laundering durability, which can withstand 10,000 cycles of abrasion and 30 cycles of machine wash without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. The superamphiphobic cotton fabric also shows high acid stability, and can withstand 98% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Moreover, the superamphiphobic coating has almost no influence on the other physical properties of the cotton fabrics including tensile strength, whiteness and air permeability. This durable non-wetting surface may provide a wide range of new applications in the future.

  11. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this section...

  12. Minimization of operational impacts on spectrophotometer color measurements for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key cotton quality and processing property that is gaining increasing importance is the color of the cotton. Cotton fiber in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd and +b. Rd and +b are specific to cotton fiber and are not typical ...

  13. Increasing cotton stand establishment in soils prone to soil crusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many factors can contribute to poor cotton stand establishment, and cotton is notorious for its weak seedling vigor. Soil crusting can be a major factor hindering cotton seedling emergence in many of the cotton production regions of the US and the world. Crusting is mainly an issue in silty soils ...

  14. (Pleurotus pulmonarius) grown on cotton waste and cassava peel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work evaluated the yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius on different mixtures of cotton waste and cassava peel. P. pulmonarius demonstrated significantly higher colonization rate on cotton waste substrate (100 g cotton waste) 3 weeks after inoculation of spawn than any other substrate mixtures. Cotton waste had the ...

  15. Two-step B/T (burning and/or transmutation) method for self-completed nuclear fuel cycle with thermal and fast B/T reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, A.; Mulyanto, M.R.; Marsodi, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The total cost minimization for P and T (partitioning and transmutation) treatment with appropriate recycle period through out-core optimization was examined in order to find the possibility of P and T treatment of minor actinides (MA) and/or long lived fission products (LLFP) and the technology to be improved and/or developed in self-completed nuclear fuel cycle. The P and T should be done for B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment based on three criteria, and the grouping was closely related to the effectiveness of Two-Step B/T Method in B/T treatment. (authors)

  16. Separation and recycling of cotton from cotton/PET blends by depolymerization of PET catalyzed by bases and ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Groeneveld, R.A.J. (Richard); Oelerich, J. (Jens)

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of post consumer cotton textile waste is highly requested, due to the high environmental impact of cotton production. Often cotton is mixed in blends with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the generation of high value products from recycled cotton, it essential that PET is

  17. Weed flora, yield losses and weed control in cotton crop

    OpenAIRE

    Jabran, Khawar

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important fiber crop of world and provides fiber, oil, and animals meals. Weeds interfere with the growth activities of cotton plants and compete with it for resources. All kinds of weeds (grasses, sedges, and broadleaves) have been noted to infest cotton crop. Weeds can cause more than 30% decrease in cotton productivity. Several methods are available for weed control in cotton. Cultural control carries significance for weed control up to a certain extent....

  18. Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.

  19. A brachytherapy photon radiation quality index Q(BT) for probe-type dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Ulrich; Kaulich, Theodor W; Álvarez-Romero, José T; Carlsson Tedgren, Sa; Enger, Shirin A; Medich, David C; Mourtada, Firas; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Rivard, Mark J; Zakaria, G Abu

    2016-06-01

    In photon brachytherapy (BT), experimental dosimetry is needed to verify treatment plans if planning algorithms neglect varying attenuation, absorption or scattering conditions. The detector's response is energy dependent, including the detector material to water dose ratio and the intrinsic mechanisms. The local mean photon energy E¯(r) must be known or another equivalent energy quality parameter used. We propose the brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT)(E¯), to characterize the photon radiation quality in view of measurements of distributions of the absorbed dose to water, Dw, around BT sources. While the external photon beam radiotherapy (EBRT) radiation quality index Q(EBRT)(E¯)=TPR10(20)(E¯) is not applicable to BT, the authors have applied a novel energy dependent parameter, called brachytherapy photon radiation quality index, defined as Q(BT)(E¯)=Dprim(r=2cm,θ0=90°)/Dprim(r0=1cm,θ0=90°), utilizing precise primary absorbed dose data, Dprim, from source reference databases, without additional MC-calculations. For BT photon sources used clinically, Q(BT)(E¯) enables to determine the effective mean linear attenuation coefficient μ¯(E) and thus the effective energy of the primary photons Eprim(eff)(r0,θ0) at the TG-43 reference position Pref(r0=1cm,θ0=90°), being close to the mean total photon energy E¯tot(r0,θ0). If one has calibrated detectors, published E¯tot(r) and the BT radiation quality correction factor [Formula: see text] for different BT radiation qualities Q and Q0, the detector's response can be determined and Dw(r,θ) measured in the vicinity of BT photon sources. This novel brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT) characterizes sufficiently accurate and precise the primary photon's penetration probability and scattering potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Assessing Potential Impact of Bt Eggplants on Non-Target Arthropods in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navasero, Mario V.; Candano, Randolph N.; Hautea, Desiree M.; Hautea, Randy A.; Shotkoski, Frank A.; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on potential adverse effects of genetically engineered crops are part of an environmental risk assessment that is required prior to the commercial release of these crops. Of particular concern are non-target organisms (NTOs) that provide important ecosystem services. Here, we report on studies conducted in the Philippines over three cropping seasons with Bt eggplants expressing Cry1Ac for control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis, to examine potential effects on field abundance, community composition, structure and biodiversity of NTO’s, particularly non-target arthropod (NTA) communities. We document that many arthropod taxa are associated with Bt eggplants and their non-Bt comparators and that the number of taxa and their densities varied within season and across trials. However, we found few significant differences in seasonal mean densities of arthropod taxa between Bt and non-Bt eggplants. As expected, a lower abundance of lepidopteran pests was detected in Bt eggplants. Higher abundance of a few non-target herbivores was detected in non-Bt eggplants as were a few non-target beneficials that might control them. Principal Response Curve (PRC) analyses showed no statistically significant impact of Bt eggplants on overall arthropod communities through time in any season. Furthermore, we found no significant adverse impacts of Bt eggplants on species abundance, diversity and community dynamics, particularly for beneficial NTAs. These results support our previous studies documenting that Bt eggplants can effectively and selectively control the main pest of eggplant in Asia, the EFSB. The present study adds that it can do so without adverse effects on NTAs. Thus, Bt eggplants can be a foundational component for controlling EFSB in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program and dramatically reduce dependence on conventional insecticides. PMID:27798662

  1. Examining cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops using natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper is to show the ability of remote sensing image analysis combined with statistical analysis to characterize the environmental risk assessment of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops in two ways: (1) description of rotation period of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops by the observational study or natural experiment; (2) analysis of rotation period calculation of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops. Natural experimental results show that this new method is very promising for determining crop rotation period for estimating regional averages of environmental risk. When it is applied to determining crop rotation period, two requested remote sensing images of regional crop are required at least.

  2. U.S. Cotton Prices and the World Cotton Market: Forecasting and Structural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Isengildina-Massa, Olga; MacDonald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze structural changes that took place in the cotton industry in recent years and develop a statistical model that reflects the current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes authorized the U.S. Department of Agriculture to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for the first time in 79 years. In addition, systematic problems have become apparent in the forecasting models used by USDA and elsewhere, highlighting the need for an updated review...

  3. Strong oviposition preference for Bt over non-Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda and its implications for the evolution of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Transgenic crops expressing Bt toxins have substantial benefits for growers in terms of reduced synthetic insecticide inputs, area-wide pest management and yield. This valuable technology depends upon delaying the evolution of resistance. The ‘high dose/refuge strategy’, in which a refuge of non-Bt plants is planted in close proximity to the Bt crop, is the foundation of most existing resistance management. Most theoretical analyses of the high dose/refuge strategy assume random oviposition across refugia and Bt crops. Results In this study we examined oviposition and survival of Spodoptera frugiperda across conventional and Bt maize and explored the impact of oviposition behavior on the evolution of resistance in simulation models. Over six growing seasons oviposition rates per plant were higher in Bt crops than in refugia. The Cry1F Bt maize variety retained largely undamaged leaves, and oviposition preference was correlated with the level of feeding damage in the refuge. In simulation models, damage-avoiding oviposition accelerated the evolution of resistance and either led to requirements for larger refugia or undermined resistance management altogether. Since larval densities affected oviposition preferences, pest population dynamics affected resistance evolution: larger refugia were weakly beneficial for resistance management if they increased pest population sizes and the concomitant degree of leaf damage. Conclusions Damaged host plants have reduced attractiveness to many insect pests, and crops expressing Bt toxins are generally less damaged than conventional counterparts. Resistance management strategies should take account of this behavior, as it has the potential to undermine the effectiveness of existing practice, especially in the tropics where many pests are polyvoltinous. Efforts to bring down total pest population sizes and/or increase the attractiveness of damaged conventional plants will have substantial benefits for slowing the

  4. Identification of a New Cotton Disease Caused by an Atypical Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrofoglio, Yamila C; Delfosse, Verónica C; Casse, María F; Hopp, Horacio E; Kresic, Iván Bonacic; Distéfano, Ana J

    2017-03-01

    An outbreak of a new disease occurred in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in northwest Argentina starting in the 2009-10 growing season and is still spreading steadily. The characteristic symptoms of the disease included slight leaf rolling and a bushy phenotype in the upper part of the plant. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two independent virus genomes isolated from cotton blue disease (CBD)-resistant and -susceptible cotton varieties. This virus genome comprised 5,866 nucleotides with an organization similar to that of the genus Polerovirus and was closely related to cotton leafroll dwarf virus, with protein identity ranging from 88 to 98%. The virus was subsequently transmitted to a CBD-resistant cotton variety using Aphis gossypii and symptoms were successfully reproduced. To study the persistence of the virus, we analyzed symptomatic plants from CBD-resistant varieties from different cotton-growing fields between 2013 and 2015 and showed the presence of the same virus strain. In addition, a constructed full-length infectious cDNA clone from the virus caused disease symptoms in systemic leaves of CBD-resistant cotton plants. Altogether, the new leafroll disease in CBD-resistant cotton plants is caused by an atypical cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

  5. Testing public Bt maize events for control of stem borers in the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays L), developed using modified genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), controls stem borers without observable negative effects to humans, livestock or the environment, and is now sown on 134 million hectares globally. Bt maize could contribute to increasing maize production in ...

  6. Delta's Key to the TOEFL iBT[R]: Advanced Skill Practice. Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Delta's Key to the TOEFL iBT: Advanced Skill Practice is a revised and updated edition of Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL Test. Since the introduction of the TOEFL iBT in 2005, there have been significant changes to some of the test questions, particularly the integrated writing and integrated speaking tasks. The new 2011 edition of…

  7. Interpreting the Relationships between TOEFL iBT Scores and GPA: Language Proficiency, Policy, and Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, April; Yan, Xun

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the predictive validity of the TOEFL iBT with respect to academic achievement as measured by the first-year grade point average (GPA) of Chinese students at Purdue University, a large, public, Research I institution in Indiana, USA. Correlations between GPA, TOEFL iBT total and subsection scores were examined on 1990 mainland…

  8. The Management of Insect Pests in Australian Cotton: An Evolving Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lewis J; Whitehouse, Mary E A; Herron, Grant A

    2018-01-07

    The Australian cotton industry progressively embraced integrated pest management (IPM) to alleviate escalating insecticide resistance issues. A systems IPM approach was used with core principles that were built around pest ecology/biology and insecticide resistance management; together, these were integrated into a flexible, year-round approach that facilitated easy incorporation of new science, strategies, and pests. The approach emphasized both strategic and tactical elements to reduce pest abundance and rationalize decisions about pest control, with insecticides as a last resort. Industry involvement in developing the approach was vital to embedding IPM within the farming system. Adoption of IPM was facilitated by the introduction of Bt cotton, availability of selective insecticides, economic validation, and an industry-wide extension campaign. Surveys indicate IPM is now embedded in industry, confirming the effectiveness of an industry-led, backed-by-science approach. The amount of insecticide active ingredient applied per hectare against pests has also declined dramatically. Though challenges remain, pest management has transitioned from reactively attempting to eradicate pests from fields to proactively managing them year-round, considering the farm within the wider landscape.

  9. Mutagenesis in naturally coloured cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatod, J.P.; Meshram, L.D.; Jain, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The seeds of naturally coloured cotton were treated with 15 kR, 20 kR doses of gamma rays and 0.5% Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) and their combinations. The M 1 and M 2 generations were studied for mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in inducing the useful mutants, spectrum of mutation and their effects on bract characters. Results obtained revealed that 15 kR and 20 kR doses were more effective in inducing the mutations. In G. hirsutum, significant differences were found for bract size and dry weight of bract was noted in 20 kR dose and low in 0.5% EMS in M 1 . In the M 2 generation increased ratio of bract surface area to lint weight per boll was noted in 20 kR + 0.5% EMS. (author)

  10. Regional pest suppression associated with widespread Bt maize adoption benefits vegetable growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Bean, Dick; Whalen, Joanne; Holmstrom, Kristian; Kuhar, Thomas P; Doughty, Hélène B; Patton, Terry; Cissel, William; Hutchison, William D

    2018-03-27

    Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976-2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States. We provide evidence for the regional suppression of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), European corn borer, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), corn earworm, populations in association with widespread Bt maize adoption (1996-2016) and decreased economic levels for injury in vegetable crops [peppers ( Capsicum annuum L.), green beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sweet corn ( Zea mays L., convar. saccharata )] compared with the pre-Bt period (1976-1995). Moth populations of both species significantly declined in association with widespread Bt maize (field corn) adoption, even as increased temperatures buffered the population reduction. We show marked decreases in the number of recommended insecticidal applications, insecticides applied, and O. nubilalis damage in vegetable crops in association with widespread Bt maize adoption. These offsite benefits to vegetable growers in the agricultural landscape have not been previously documented, and the positive impacts identified here expand on the reported ecological effects of Bt adoption. Our results also underscore the need to account for offsite economic benefits of pest suppression, in addition to the direct economic benefits of Bt crops.

  11. Producing Organic Cotton: A Toolkit - Crop Guide, Projekt guide, Extension tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The CD compiles the following extension tools on organic cotton: Organic Cotton Crop Guide, Organic Cotton Training Manual, Soil Fertility Training Manual, Organic Cotton Project Guide, Record keeping tools, Video "Organic agriculture in the Nimar region", Photos for illustration.

  12. Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm is a devastating pest controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein. However, fall armyworm populations ...

  13. Does Bt rice pose risks to non-target arthropods? Results of a meta-analysis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt rice expressing the protoxin proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been developed since 1989. Their ecological risks toward non-target organisms have been investigated. However, these studies were conducted individually, yielding inconsistent conclusions and u...

  14. Cotton Transportation and Logistics: A Dynamic System

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John R.; Park, John L.; Fuller, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the evolution of U.S. cotton transportation and logistics patterns over the last three decades. There have been many forces of change over this time period, with the largest change being a shift from primarily domestic market destinations to the international market. We describe the pre-1999 system and flow patterns when domestic consumption of U.S. cotton was dominant. We contrast this with current flow patterns as measured by available secondary export data and a sample of...

  15. Herbicide-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants: an alternative way of manual weed removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Ayesha; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Shahid, Naila; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Ashraf, Muhammad Aleem; Abbas, Malik Adil; Azam, Muhammad; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-09-17

    Cotton yield has been badly affected by different insects and weed competition. In Past Application of multiple chemicals is required to manage insects and weed control was achieved by different conventional means, such as hand weeding, crop rotation and polyculture, because no synthetic chemicals were available. The control methods shifted towards high input and target-oriented methods after the discovery of synthetic herbicide in the 1930s. To utilise the transgenic approach, cotton plants expressing the codon-optimised CEMB GTGene were produced in the present study. Local cotton variety CEMB-02 containing Cry1Ac and Cry2A in single cassette was transformed by synthetic codon-optimised 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene cloned into pCAMBIA 1301 vector under 35S promoter with Agrobacterium tumifaciens. Putative transgenic plants were screened in MS medium containing 120 µmol/L glyphosate. Integration and expression of the gene were evaluated by PCR from genomic DNA and ELISA from protein. A 1.4-kb PCR product for Glyphosate and 167-bp product for Cry2A were obtained by amplification through gene specific primers. Expression level of Glyphosate and Bt proteins in two transgenic lines were recorded to be 0.362, 0.325 µg/g leaf and 0.390, 0.300 µg/g leaf respectively. FISH analysis of transgenic lines demonstrates the presence of one and two copy no. of Cp4 EPSPS transgene respectively. Efficacy of the transgene Cp4 EPSPS was further evaluated by Glyphosate spray (41 %) assay at 1900 ml/acre and insect bioassay which shows 100 %mortality of insect feeding on transgenic lines as compared to control. The present study shows that the transgenic lines produced in this study were resistant not only to insects but also equally good against 1900 ml/acre field spray concentration of glyphosate.

  16. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  17. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  18. Susceptibility and aversion of Spodoptera frugiperda to Cry1F Bt maize and considerations for insect resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize was developed primarily for North American pests such as European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner). However, most Bt maize products also are cultivated outside of North America, where the primary pests are different and often have lower susceptibility to Bt to...

  19. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and validation of SUCROS-Cotton : A potential crop growth simulation model for cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Werf, van der W.; Cao, W.; Li, B.; Pan, X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A model for the development, growth and potential production of cotton (SUCROS-Cotton) was developed. Particular attention was given to the phenological development of the plant and the plasticity of fruit growth in response to temperature, radiation, daylength, variety traits, and management. The

  1. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders AGENCY... Assistance Program (EAAP) and clarifying the definition of ``active shipping order.'' DATES: Effective Date... address that matter this rule amends in the payment calculation for semi-processed and reginned motes in 7...

  2. 76 FR 32067 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... ``Any AUP cotton'' and replacing it with the phrase ``Mature AUP cotton'' to clarify the AUP cotton must be mature in order to calculate a conversion factor between AUP cotton and ELS cotton. List of... dividing Price A by 85 percent of Price B. * * * * * (f) Mature AUP cotton harvested or appraised from...

  3. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

  4. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Multi Stakeholders' Attitudes toward Bt rice in Southwest, Iran: Application of TPB and Multi Attribute Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Omid M; Ghanian, Mansour; Baradaran, Masoud; Azadi, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice. It is assumed and the results confirm that "attitudes toward GM crops" can be used as a bridge in the Attitude Model and the Behavioral Intention Model in order to establish an integrated model. To this end, a case study was made of the Southwest part of Iran in order to verify this research model. This study also revealed that as a part of the integrated research framework in the Behavior Intention Model both constructs of attitude and the subjective norm of the respondents serve as the predicting factors of stakeholders' intentions of working with Bt rice. In addition, the Attitude Model, as the other part of the integrated research framework, showed that the stakeholders' attitudes toward Bt rice can only be determined by the perceived benefits (e.g. positive outcomes) of Bt rice.

  6. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Voicu, Georgeta, E-mail: getav2001@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Madalina Georgiana [Department of Collagen, Branch of Leather and Footwear Research, National Institute of Research and Development for Textile and Leather, 93 I. Minulescu Street, RO-031215 Bucharest (Romania); Iordache, Florin [Department of Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Therapy, “Nicolae Simionescu” Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology of Romanian Academy, 8 B.P. Hasdeu Street, RO-050568 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  7. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  8. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yongbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Chao; Quan, Zhanjun; Li, Junsheng

    2016-01-01

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  9. Adsorption, desorption and biodegradation in soil of CrylAb toxin protein from Bt transgenic rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Ye Qingfu

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium adsorption and binding of CrylAb toxin from Bt transgenic rice, to 7 different soils and the biodegradation of the bound toxin were studied. The adsorption rate of Bt in soils improved with decreasing of the added Bt purified protein concentration. Adsorption rate (125 and 780 nm/ml) in powdery-muddy paddy soil, Fluvio-marine yellow loamy and Coastal saline soil were 24.85% and 40.81%, 9.1% and 31.67%, 12.47% and 30.75%, respectively. Desorption rate in the soils dropped with content of soil-absorbed protein decreased. Its adsorption ratio in powdery-muddy paddy soil was 12.95% and 5.88%, respectively. The relationship between adsorption amount and concentration of Bt purified protein in different soils was notably positive correlation (P 0 e -λt ); Half life of Bt protein in soils was among 15.2-97.6 d; Degradation of pruified Bt protein was rapid at the initial incubation time (30 d), but slow at 150d incubation; The degradation of purified Bt protein in Intertidal sandy soil was the slowest with half-life of 97.6d. The protein in the soil amended with 1.25 μg/g could be still detectable after incubation of 345d; the degradation of purified Bt protein in Coastal saline soil and Aquic light saline sandy soil were faster. Their half-lives were 19.6 d and 15.2 d, respecitvely. The residue time of Bt purified protein in the soils was all more than 150 d. (authors)

  10. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongbo, E-mail: liuyb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Chao [Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou 510380 (China); Quan, Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Junsheng, E-mail: lijsh@creas.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  11. Performance of novel vs traditional insecticides for the control of amrascs biguttula biguttula (homoptera, cicadellidae) on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karar, H.; Babar, T.K.; Shahzad, F.; Saleem, M.; Ali, A.; Akram, M.

    2013-01-01

    Amrasca biguttula biguttula (ishida) can reduce the yield of cotton approximately 25%. no potential predators have been recorded in the field for its control. to overcome this pest insecticides play significant role in the improvement of crop yields all over the world during the last four to five decades. to save the crop from this notorious pest, ten formulations of insecticides viz., acephate 75sp (acephate) at the rate 625g, imidacloprid 25wp (imidacloprid) at the rate188g, thiamethaxim 25wg (actara) at the rate 60g, imidacloprid 70wg (confidor) at the rate 43g, dimethoat e 40ec (sanitox) at the rate 1000 ml, nytonpyron 10sl (pyramid) at the rate 500ml, lambdacyhlothrin 2.5e (kango) at the rate 825 ml, thiachloprid 480sc (talent) at the rate 63 ml, imidacloprid 25sl (confidor) at the rate 500ml, and diafenthiuron 500sc (polo), at the rate 500ml, per hectare were sprayed in the field having maximum population of nymphs and adults of jassid at cotton research station, multan on cotton variety bt-886 in the month of july, 2011 and 2012. the maximum mortality of Jassid was observed in those treatments, where acephate was applied with 79, 72, 65 mortality, nytonpyron with 69, 63, 55 and imidacloprid 68, 63, 57 percent mortality after 24, 72 and 168 h of spray. minimum mortality of jassid was observed in the treatments where talent was applied having 25, 17 and 16 percent mortality 24, 72 and 168 h after spray. By the application of acephate, pyramid and confidor 25sl on cotton crop the yield can be increased. (author)

  12. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernanda F; Mendes, Simone M; Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Araújo, Octávio G; Oliveira, Eugenio E; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50-70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in these populations

  13. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Key Laboratory of Cotton Genetic Improvement of the Ministry of Agriculture, Cotton Research Institute, Chinese. Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang Henan 455 112, People's Republic of China. 2Institute ..... Athens, Greece. Xie D. X. ...

  14. Straight talk with...BT Slingsby. Interviewed by Cassandra Willyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, B T

    2013-12-01

    Japan boasts the second-largest pharmaceutical industry in the world. With its rich background in medical research, the country has turned its attention to diseases of the developing world with this year's launch of the Global Health Innovative Technology (GHIT) Fund--a new public-private partnership between five Japanese pharmaceutical companies, two government ministries and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In November, the Tokyo-based fund announced its first round of awards totaling $5.7 million. The six grants will go to partnerships aimed at developing new drugs and vaccines to fight malaria, tuberculosis and Chagas disease, a neglected disease endemic to Latin America. Leading the new $120 million, five-year initiative is BT Slingsby, a US-born scholar of the Japanese healthcare industry who most recently served as director of global partner solutions at Eisai, a Tokyo-based drugmaker. On a recent trip to New York, Slingsby, who serves as GHIT's executive director and CEO, met with Cassandra Willyard to discuss the new fund and how Japan can help drive development of medicines and vaccines for diseases of the developing world.

  15. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  16. PREDICTING DEMAND FOR COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAS-MOLINA Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting demand for fashion products is crucial for textile manufacturers. In an attempt to both avoid out-of-stocks and minimize holding costs, different forecasting techniques are used by production managers. Both linear and non-linear time-series analysis techniques are suitable options for forecasting purposes. However, demand for fashion products presents a number of particular characteristics such as short life-cycles, short selling seasons, high impulse purchasing, high volatility, low predictability, tremendous product variety and a high number of stock-keeping-units. In this paper, we focus on predicting demand for cotton yarns using a non-linear forecasting technique that has been fruitfully used in many areas, namely, random forests. To this end, we first identify a number of explanatory variables to be used as a key input to forecasting using random forests. We consider explanatory variables usually labeled either as causal variables, when some correlation is expected between them and the forecasted variable, or as time-series features, when extracted from time-related attributes such as seasonality. Next, we evaluate the predictive power of each variable by means of out-of-sample accuracy measurement. We experiment on a real data set from a textile company in Spain. The numerical results show that simple time-series features present more predictive ability than other more sophisticated explanatory variables.

  17. Effects of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on peripheral immune response and digestive fate of the cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Walsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate potential long-term (110 days and age-specific effects of feeding genetically modified Bt maize on peripheral immune response in pigs and to determine the digestive fate of the cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty day old pigs (n = 40 were fed one of the following treatments: 1 isogenic maize-based diet for 110 days (isogenic; 2 Bt maize-based diet (MON810 for 110 days (Bt; 3 Isogenic maize-based diet for 30 days followed by Bt maize-based diet for 80 days (isogenic/Bt; and 4 Bt maize-based diet (MON810 for 30 days followed by isogenic maize-based diet for 80 days (Bt/isogenic. Blood samples were collected during the study for haematological analysis, measurement of cytokine and Cry1Ab-specific antibody production, immune cell phenotyping and cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin detection. Pigs were sacrificed on day 110 and digesta and organ samples were taken for detection of the cry1Ab gene and the truncated Bt toxin. On day 100, lymphocyte counts were higher (P<0.05 in pigs fed Bt/isogenic than pigs fed Bt or isogenic. Erythrocyte counts on day 100 were lower in pigs fed Bt or isogenic/Bt than pigs fed Bt/isogenic (P<0.05. Neither the truncated Bt toxin nor the cry1Ab gene were detected in the organs or blood of pigs fed Bt maize. The cry1Ab gene was detected in stomach digesta and at low frequency in the ileum but not in the distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT, while the Bt toxin fragments were detected at all sites in the GIT. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Perturbations in peripheral immune response were thought not to be age-specific and were not indicative of Th 2 type allergenic or Th 1 type inflammatory responses. There was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or Bt toxin translocation to organs or blood following long-term feeding.

  18. Direct transcriptional activation of BT genes by NLP transcription factors is a key component of the nitrate response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Konishi, Mineko; Yoshioka, Nozomi; Sasaki, Yuki; Maeda, Haruna; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kato, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Junji; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2017-01-29

    Nitrate modulates growth and development, functioning as a nutrient signal in plants. Although many changes in physiological processes in response to nitrate have been well characterized as nitrate responses, the molecular mechanisms underlying the nitrate response are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that NLP transcription factors, which are key regulators of the nitrate response, directly activate the nitrate-inducible expression of BT1 and BT2 encoding putative scaffold proteins with a plant-specific domain structure in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the 35S promoter-driven expression of BT2 partially rescued growth inhibition caused by reductions in NLP activity in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, simultaneous disruption of BT1 and BT2 affected nitrate-dependent lateral root development. These results suggest that direct activation of BT1 and BT2 by NLP transcriptional activators is a key component of the molecular mechanism underlying the nitrate response in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn on soil Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida (Collembola), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acarina) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, X.; Krogh, P. H.

    The effects of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (corn variety Cascade Bt MON810 and DeKalb variety 618 Bt) were studied on survival and reproduction of the soil collembolan Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida, the collembolan predator mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and enchytraeids....... There was a weak significant reduction by 30% on the reproduction of F. fimetaria fed Bt corn in Petri dishes for 21 days. Likewise there was a weak significant reduction by 40% of the reproduction of H. aculeifer by Bt corn in amounts corresponding to 20 g plant material kg-1 soil in the two species soil......-litter microcosm systems. There were no effects of Bt corn materials on the reproduction of F. fimetaria and E. crypticus in the single species soil-litter microcosms. No effects of Bt corn materials on mortality of all the 4 species were observed in all treatments. The tendency of effects of the Bt corn...

  20. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda.

  1. Test Takers' Writing Activities during the "TOEFL iBT"® Writing Tasks: A Stimulated Recall Study. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-25. ETS Research Report No. RR-15-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the writing activities that test takers engage in when responding to the writing tasks in the "TOEFL iBT"[superscript R] test and to examine the effects of task type and test-taker English language proficiency (ELP) and keyboarding skills on the frequency and distribution of these activities. Each of 22 test…

  2. Stakeholders' Beliefs about the "TOEFL iBT"® Test as a Measure of Academic Language Ability. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-22. ETS Research Report. RR-14-42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Margaret E.; Montee, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The "TOEFL iBT"® test presents test takers with tasks meant to simulate the tasks required of students in English-medium universities. Research establishing the validity argument for the test provides evidence for score interpretation and the use of the test for university admissions and placement. Now that the test has been operational…

  3. The Effects of Different Levels of Performance Feedback on "TOEFL iBT"® Reading Practice Test Performance. TOEFL iBT Research Report. TOEFL iBT-29. ETS Research Report. RR-17-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine whether performance on the "TOEFL iBT"® Reading practice test is affected by 3 different levels of feedback provided to learners upon completion of reading exercises: (a) correctness of learner response (the knowledge of correct results [KCR] feedback), (b) KCR feedback and rationales for…

  4. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  5. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  6. IMPROVED SPECTROPHOTOMETER FIBER SAMPLING SYSTEM FOR COTTON FIBER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), and the parameters Rd and +b are used to designate color grades for cotton fiber. However, Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and the need existed to demonstrate the relationships of Rd and +b to...

  7. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... regulations to allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and... response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS will offer a futures classification option...

  8. Insecticide use and practices among cotton farmers in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop in Uganda. Insecticide application practices among cotton growers in northern Uganda were examined to determine the pests targeted and the compliance of control measures with the standards recommended by the Uganda's Cotton Development Organization ...

  9. Genetic transformation of cry1EC gene into cotton ( Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton is the chief fibre crop of global importance. It plays a significant role in the national economy. Cotton crop is vulnerable to a number of insect species, especially to the larvae of lepidopteron pests. 60% insecticides sprayed on cotton are meant to control the damage caused by bollworm complex. Transgenic ...

  10. MicroRNA expression profiling during upland cotton gland forming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... 2Key Laboratory of Cotton Genetic Improvement, Cotton Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural. Sciences, Ministry of ... terpenoid aldehyde biosynthesis pathway, genetic engineering and molecular breeding of cotton. ... toxic to non-ruminant animals and humans, which means that large ...

  11. THE ELASTICITY OF EXPORT DEMAND FOR US COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Houston, Jack E.; Adhikari, Murali; Devkota, Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    There exist conflicting views among the researchers about the magnitudes of US cotton export demand elasticity, ranging from the highly inelastic to highly elastic. An Armington model was used to analyze the export demand elasticity of US Cotton. Our analysis confirms an elastic nature of US cotton export demand.

  12. Changes in cotton gin energy consumption apportioned by ten functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The public is concerned about air quality and sustainability. Cotton producers, gin owners and plant managers are concerned about rising energy prices. Both have an interest in cotton gin energy consumption trends. Changes in cotton gins’ energy consumption over the past fifty years, a period of ...

  13. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore prescribed, separate samples, if desired, may be drawn and furnished to the owner of the cotton. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan... intentions to receive a loan deficiency payment on the identified commodity or (ii) A completed request for a... cotton based on a locked-in adjusted world price, provide identifying numbers for modules or other...

  15. CATEGORIZATION OF EXTRANEOUS MATTER IN COTTON USING MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) was developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory to identify and categorize extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneous matter calls assigned ...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION... Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31 following...

  17. farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and their

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    A survey of 337 cotton farmers in the three northern regions of Ghana was ... five applications were made during the season. ... Keywords: cotton, farmer knowledge and perception, insect pest control, Ghana. .... bordered on tests of farmers' knowledge of cotton insect pests, their damage ..... Agricultural Experiment Station.

  18. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  19. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton... must be either: (1) Baled lint, including baled lint classified by USDA's Agricultural Marketing..., under the provisions of this subpart, has been made available; (2) Imported ELS cotton; (3) Raw...

  20. Fourier transform infrared imaging of Cotton trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the identification of trash types comingled with cotton lint. A good understanding of the specific trash types present can lead to the fabrication of new equipment which can identify and sort cotton trash found with cotton fiber. Conventional methods, including the High Vo...

  1. Cotton Production in Mali: Subsidies or Sustainable Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Current trade rules concerning cotton subsidies are intricately linked with poverty and hunger in Mali. Over half of Mali's economy and over 30 million people depend directly on cotton. It is the main cash crop and the most important source of export revenue. Cotton also plays a key role in development policies and in the fight against poverty by…

  2. Impact of Bt crops on non-target organisms – 3 systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops producing Cry toxins, originating from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has raised environmental concerns over their sustainable use and consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural land. During the last two decades...

  3. Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: A meta-analysis (journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Uncertainty persists over the environmental effects of genetically-engineered crops that produce the insecticidal Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of...

  4. The effect of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G Buzoianu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on the intestinal microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty male pigs (∼40 days old were blocked by weight and litter ancestry and assigned to one of four treatments; 1 Isogenic maize-based diet for 110 days (Isogenic; 2 Bt maize-based diet (MON810 for 110 days (Bt; 3 Isogenic maize-based diet for 30 days followed by a Bt maize-based diet for 80 days (Isogenic/Bt; 4 Bt maize-based diet for 30 days followed by an isogenic maize-based diet for 80 days (Bt/Isogenic. Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus and total anaerobes were enumerated in the feces using culture-based methods on days 0, 30, 60 and 100 of the study and in ileal and cecal digesta on day 110. No differences were found between treatments for any of these counts at any time point. The relative abundance of cecal bacteria was also determined using high-throughput 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. No differences were observed in any bacterial taxa between treatments, with the exception of the genus Holdemania which was more abundant in the cecum of pigs fed the isogenic/Bt treatment compared to pigs fed the Bt treatment (0.012 vs 0.003%; P≤0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Feeding pigs a Bt maize-based diet for 110 days did not affect counts of any of the culturable bacteria enumerated in the feces, ileum or cecum. Neither did it influence the composition of the cecal microbiota, with the exception of a minor increase in the genus Holdemania. As the role of Holdemania in the intestine is still under investigation and no health abnormalities were observed, this change is not likely to be of clinical significance. These results indicate that feeding Bt maize to pigs in the context of its influence on the porcine intestinal microbiota is safe.

  5. Role and time of brachytherapy (BT) in the radiosurgical treatment of early endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitevin, A; Gerbaulet, A; Rey, A; Albano, M

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Endometrial carcinoma is the most frequent gynecological cancer in developed countries. Until the latest FIGO classification on 1988, the times of BT and surgery were uncertain for early stages. This paper reviews the results of the retrospective analysis of patients with early endometrial carcinoma (stages I and II) treated with pre- or postoperative BT +/- external radiotherapy (ERT) at the Institute Gustave Roussy from january 1985 to december 1989. Materials and Methods: 220 patients stage I and 21 patients stage II were eligible. The protocol was primary BT (106 patients) 50 Gy to the upper third of the vagina, an immediate radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node picking and according to the histological results, ERT (33 patients). After the surgical classification, postop BT was performed in 47 patients. 55 patients received another radiosurgical treatment. Results: With a follow-up of 3 years, the results were: after primary BT, the dose to pelvic walls, the kerma, the volume thickness and the reference isodose volume were higher. Surgery post BT was performed on a mean of 12 days, and postop BT on a mean of 97 days. Among 181 lymph node dissections, only 5 patients had N+, 38 histologies showed no myometrial invasion: 112, (1(3)); 64, (2(2)); and 20, (3(3)). The differentiation of the tumor was indirectly correlated with myometrial invasion. 88 patients received ERT, to a mean dose of 45 Gy. The overall survival was 91% at 2 years and 81% at 5 years. For patients with primary BT, the survival was 96% at 2 and 5 years. For primary surgery was 98 and 88% at 2 and 5 years DFS at 2 and 5 years for preop BT was 85% and 76%, for postop BT 95% and 92%, 5 patients had grade 3 complications. The metastases, including paraaortic lymph nodes were 6. 14 recurrences occurred, in external iliac nodes, common iliacs, pelvis, abdomen, and 4 in vagina. The prognostic factors were in univariate study, the surgical stage. In multivariate, myometrial invasion

  6. Development, survival and fitness performance of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in MON810 Bt field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T A; Dively, G P; Herbert, D A

    2003-06-01

    Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) development, survival, and feeding injury in MON810 transgenic ears of field corn (Zea mays L.) expressing Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki (Bt) Cry1Ab endotoxins were compared with non-Bt ears at four geographic locations over two growing seasons. Expression of Cry1Ab endotoxin resulted in overall reductions in the percentage of damaged ears by 33% and in the amount of kernels consumed by 60%. Bt-induced effects varied significantly among locations, partly because of the overall level and timing of H. zea infestations, condition of silk tissue at the time of egg hatch, and the possible effects of plant stress. Larvae feeding on Bt ears produced scattered, discontinuous patches of partially consumed kernels, which were arranged more linearly than the compact feeding patterns in non-Bt ears. The feeding patterns suggest that larvae in Bt ears are moving about sampling kernels more frequently than larvae in non-Bt ears. Because not all kernels express the same level of endotoxin, the spatial heterogeneity of toxin distribution within Bt ears may provide an opportunity for development of behavioral responses in H. zea to avoid toxin. MON810 corn suppressed the establishment and development of H. zea to late instars by at least 75%. This level of control is considered a moderate dose, which may increase the risk of resistance development in areas where MON810 corn is widely adopted and H. zea overwinters successfully. Sublethal effects of MON810 corn resulted in prolonged larval and prepupal development, smaller pupae, and reduced fecundity of H. zea. The moderate dose effects and the spatial heterogeneity of toxin distribution among kernels could increase the additive genetic variance for both physiological and behavioral resistance in H. zea populations. Implications of localized population suppression are discussed.

  7. Induced mutations for improvement of desi cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waghmare, V.N.; Mohan, Punit; Singh, Phundan; Gururajan, K.N.

    2000-01-01

    Desi cotton varieties of Gossypium arboreum have wide adaptability and are relatively tolerant to biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (moisture and salt) stresses. Desi varieties have got potential to yield even under adverse and low input situations. Most of them are synchronous in maturity and possess consistent fibre properties. Despite such merits, very little attention has been paid for improvement of desi cotton. The present area under arboreum varieties is 17.0% (15.30 lakh ha.) against 65% (35.75 lakh ha) during 1947-48. Deliberate attempts are required to improve G. arboreum for its economic and quality characters to compete with upland varieties in rainfed cotton ecology

  8. Potential factors impacting season-long expression of Cry1Ac in 13 commercial varieties of Bollgard® cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Adamczyk, Jr.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen commercial varieties of transgenic Cry1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt cotton were examined across two sites in 2000 for potential factors that impact endotoxin expression. In all cases, two varieties (NuCOTN 33B and DP 458B/RR, Delta and Pineland Co., Scott, MS expressed more Cry1Ac than the other 11 varieties in various plant structures. These two varieties share the same parental background (DP 5415. Furthermore, when the next generation of plants were tested in the greenhouse, the same varietal patterns were exhibited. These data strongly suggest that factors such as parental background had a stronger impact on the expression of Cry1Ac than the environment.

  9. Effects of seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice and its parental line on the population dynamics of target stemborers and leafrollers, and non-target planthoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Li, Li-Kun; Liu, Bin; Wang, Long; Parajulee, Megha N; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2018-01-24

    The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impacts on both target and non-target pests. In this study, we examined the potential effects of intra-specific seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice (Bt) and its parental non-transgenic line (Nt) (100% Bt rice [Bt 100 ], 5% Nt+95% Bt [Nt 05 Bt 95 ], 10% Nt+90% Bt [Nt 10 Bt 90 ], 20% Nt+80% Bt [Nt 20 Bt 80 ], 40% Nt+60% Bt [Nt 40 Bt 60 ] and 100% Nt rice [Nt 100 ]) on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China. The occurrence of target pests, Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, decreased with the increased ratio of Bt rice, and the mixture ratios with more than 90% Bt rice (Bt 100 and Nt 05 Bt 95 ) significantly increased the pest suppression efficiency, with the lowest occurrences of non-target planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera in Nt 100 and Nt 05 Bt 95 . Furthermore, there were no significant differences in 1000-grain dry weight and grain dry weight per 100 plants between Bt 100 and Nt 05 Bt 95 . Seed mixture sowing of Bt rice with ≤10% (especially 5%) of its parent line was sufficient to overcome potential compliance issues that exist with the use of block or structured refuge to provide most effective control of both target and non-target pests without compromising the grain yield. It is also expected that the strategy of seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice and the non-transgenic parental line would provide rice yield stability while decreasing the insecticide use frequency in rice production. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on

  11. Probabilistic, Multivariable Flood Loss Modeling on the Mesoscale with BT-FLEMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai

    2017-04-01

    Flood loss modeling is an important component for risk analyses and decision support in flood risk management. Commonly, flood loss models describe complex damaging processes by simple, deterministic approaches like depth-damage functions and are associated with large uncertainty. To improve flood loss estimation and to provide quantitative information about the uncertainty associated with loss modeling, a probabilistic, multivariable Bagging decision Tree Flood Loss Estimation MOdel (BT-FLEMO) for residential buildings was developed. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated losses to residential buildings per municipality. BT-FLEMO was applied and validated at the mesoscale in 19 municipalities that were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. Validation was undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with six deterministic loss models, including both depth-damage functions and multivariable models. On the other hand, the results were compared with official loss data. BT-FLEMO outperforms deterministic, univariable, and multivariable models with regard to model accuracy, although the prediction uncertainty remains high. An important advantage of BT-FLEMO is the quantification of prediction uncertainty. The probability distribution of loss estimates by BT-FLEMO well represents the variation range of loss estimates of the other models in the case study. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. An Empirical Assessment of Transgene Flow from a Bt Transgenic Poplar Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0% compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C. The survival rate of seedlings in the field was 0% without any treatment but increased to 1.7% under the addition of four treatments (cleaning and trimming, watering, weeding, and covering with plastic film to maintain moisture after being seeded in the field for eight weeks. The results of this study indicate that gene flow originating from the Bt poplar plantation occurred at an extremely low level through pollen or seeds under natural conditions. This study provides first-hand field data on the extent of transgene flow in poplar plantations and offers guidance for the risk assessment of transgenic poplar plantations.

  13. Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zue Teh; Zhou Rui Min

    1984-01-01

    Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters has been studied by using X-ray diffraction, an infrared spectrometer and a viscosimeter. Average molecular weight and crystallinity of short-cotton linters and the change of reducing sugar in γ-radiation degradation were examined. It was found that cellulosic saccharification in hydrolysis was enhanced with preirradiation of linter. This probably resulted from the radiation induced change of cellulosic structure. Sensitizers to promote radiation degradation effect were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride has been found to be effective. (author)

  14. Toxicological evaluation of genetically modified cotton (Bollgard) and Dipel WP on the non-target soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anibal R; Castro, Thiago R; Capalbo, Deise M F; Delalibera, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Insecticides derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and plants genetically modified (GM) to express B. thuringiensis toxins are important alternatives for insect pest control worldwide. Risk assessment of B. thuringiensis toxins to non-target organisms has been extensively studied but few toxicological tests have considered soil invertebrates. Oribatid mites are one of the most diverse and abundant arthropod groups in the upper layers of soil and litter in natural and agricultural systems. These mites are exposed to the toxic compounds of GM crops or pesticides mainly when they feed on vegetal products incorporated in the soil. Although some effects of B. thuringiensis products on Acari have been reported, effects on oribatid mites are still unknown. This study investigated the effects of the ingestion of Bt cotton Bollgard and of the B. thuringiensis commercial product Dipel WP on the pantropical species Scheloribates praeincisus (Scheloribatidae). Ingestion of Bollgard and Dipel did not affect adult and immature survivorship and food consumption (estimated by number of fecal pellets produced daily) or developmental time of immature stages of S. praeincisus. These results indicate the safety of Bollgard and Dipel to S. praeincisus under field conditions where exposition is lower and other food sources besides leaves of Bt plants are available. The method for toxicological tests described here can be adapted to other species of Oribatida, consisting on a new option to risk assessment studies.

  15. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Endogenous Sad1 Gene in Cotton: An Internal Control for Rapid Onsite GMO Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Monika; Bhoge, Rajesh K; Randhawa, Gurinderjit

    2018-04-20

    Background : Confirming the integrity of seed samples in powdered form is important priorto conducting a genetically modified organism (GMO) test. Rapid onsite methods may provide a technological solution to check for genetically modified (GM) events at ports of entry. In India, Bt cotton is the commercialized GM crop with four approved GM events; however, 59 GM events have been approved globally. GMO screening is required to test for authorized GM events. The identity and amplifiability of test samples could be ensured first by employing endogenous genes as an internal control. Objective : A rapid onsite detection method was developed for an endogenous reference gene, stearoyl acyl carrier protein desaturase ( Sad1 ) of cotton, employing visual and real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Methods : The assays were performed at a constant temperature of 63°C for 30 min for visual LAMP and 62ºC for 40 min for real-time LAMP. Positive amplification was visualized as a change in color from orange to green on addition of SYBR ® Green or detected as real-time amplification curves. Results : Specificity of LAMP assays was confirmed using a set of 10 samples. LOD for visual LAMP was up to 0.1%, detecting 40 target copies, and for real-time LAMP up to 0.05%, detecting 20 target copies. Conclusions : The developed methods could be utilized to confirm the integrity of seed powder prior to conducting a GMO test for specific GM events of cotton. Highlights : LAMP assays for the endogenous Sad1 gene of cotton have been developed to be used as an internal control for onsite GMO testing in cotton.

  16. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  17. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionys Forster

    Full Text Available The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010 of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008 for cotton (-29% and wheat (-27%, whereas in the 2(nd crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010 cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2. Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%, whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25% due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11% across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton

  18. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-01

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  19. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-11

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  20. Variation among conventional cultivars could be used as a criterion for environmental safety assessment of Bt rice on nontarget arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Dang, Cong; Chang, Xuefei; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zengbin; Chen, Yang; Ye, Gongyin

    2017-02-01

    The current difficulty facing risk evaluations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on nontarget arthropods (NTAs) is the lack of criteria for determining what represents unacceptable risk. In this study, we investigated the biological parameters in the laboratory and field population abundance of Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on two Bt rice lines and the non-Bt parent, together with 14 other conventional rice cultivars. Significant difference were found in nymphal duration and fecundity of N. lugens fed on Bt rice KMD2, as well as field population density on 12 October, compared with non-Bt parent. However, compared with the variation among conventional rice cultivars, the variation of each parameter between Bt rice and the non-Bt parent was much smaller, which can be easily seen from low-high bar graphs and also the coefficient of variation value (C.V). The variation among conventional cultivars is proposed to be used as a criterion for the safety assessment of Bt rice on NTAs, particularly when statistically significant differences in several parameters are found between Bt rice and its non-Bt parent. Coefficient of variation is suggested as a promising parameter for ecological risk judgement of IRGM rice on NTAs.

  1. Bistand til risikovurdering Supplerende oplysninger fra Syngenta Seeds om overvågningsplanen (evt. ændret risikovurdering). Zea mays (Bt11). Supplerende materiale om Bt11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Damgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    "Mail: Den supplerende information om Bt-11 majsen (C/F/96/05-10) der er modtaget d. 02-03-2005, indeholder en ny udgave af den generelle overvågningsplan med enkelte ændringer (forbedringer) i forhold til forrige udgave (kommenteret 24-02-2005). Vi har ikke fundet nogen nye oplysninger der ændre...

  2. Can interactions between Bt proteins be predicted and how should effects on non-target organisms of GM crops with multiple Bt Proteins be assessed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, De A.; Clercq, de P.; Booij, K.; Maagd, de R.A.; Frankenhuyzen, van K.

    2014-01-01

    Genes expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been incorporated into genetically modified (GM) plants to render these resistant to certain insect pests. Of particular interest have been the genes encoding Cry (Crystal) proteins, but also the gene encoding the vegetative insecticidal

  3. Does Content Knowledge Affect TOEFL iBT[TM] Reading Performance? A Confirmatory Approach to Differential Item Functioning. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-09-29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Schedl, Mary; Malloy, Jeanne; Kong, Nan

    2009-01-01

    The TOEFL iBT[TM] has increased the length of the reading passages in the reading section compared to the passages on the TOEFL[R] computer-based test (CBT) to better approximate academic reading in North American universities, resulting in a reduced number of passages in the reading test. A concern arising from this change is whether the decrease…

  4. Influence of Tencel/cotton blends on knitted fabric performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Arafa Badr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements in terms of wearing comfort with sportswear, underwear and outerwear are widely linked to the use of new fibers. Today, Tencel fiber is one of the most important developments in regenerated cellulosic fiber. However, the relation between Tencel fiber properties and fabric characteristics has not been enough studied in the literature especially the influence of fiber materials on mechanical, Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF and absorption properties. Therefore, in this study, knitted fabric samples were manufactured with eight different yarns with two fabric types (single jersey and single jersey with Lycra. 30/1-Ne yarns from natural and regenerated cellulosic fibers: 50% Tencel-LF/50% cotton, 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton, 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton, 70% bamboo/30% cotton, 100% bamboo, 100% Modal, 100% Micro-Modal and 100% cotton were employed. Then, all the produced fabrics were subjected to five cycles laundering and then flat dried. The results show that 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton has more flexural rigidity and withdrawing handle force than 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton fabric, while 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton has a merit of durability during bursting test. Blending Egyptian cotton fibers with bamboo and Tencel as in 70/30% bamboo/cotton and 50/50% Tencel-LF/cotton improve UPF of the produced fabric.

  5. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  7. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diqiu LIU; Xianlong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned and analyzed. On the other hand, identification of stress response genes expressed in cotton was performed by other research groups. The major stress factors were studied including the wilt pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxy-sporum f. sp. vasinfectum, bacterial blight, root-knot nematode, drought, and salt stress. What is more, a few genes related to the biosynthesis of gossypol, other sesquiterpene phytoalexins and the major seed oil fatty acids were isolated from cotton. In the present review, we focused on the major advances in cotton gene cloning and expression profiling in the recent years.

  8. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...

  9. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA

    OpenAIRE

    H.A., Reddy, K. and Pettigrew, W.T.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation on the soil fertility levels are limited. An irrigated soybean: cotton rotation experiment was conducted from 2012 through 2015 near Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA. The crop rotation sequences were included continuous cotton (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), cotton-soybean-cotton-soybean (CSCS), cotton-soybean-soybean-cotton (CSSC), soybean-cotton-cotton-soybean (SCCS), soybean-cotton-soybean-cotton (SCSC)....

  10. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  11. Pilot scale cotton gin trash energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, S.L. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    1993-12-31

    During the summer of 1992 a 520,000 kcal/h (2,064,400 Btu/hr) biomass combustor was installed at a cotton gin in southwestern Oklahoma. The gin has a capacity of approximately 35 bales per hour. Each bale of cotton ginned weighs about 227 kg (500 lb) and produces about 68 kg (150 lb) of trash. Therefore, this gin produces about 52,360 kg (115,500 lb) of trash per day during a typical ginning season. Approximately 2 million kg (4 million lb) of gin trash are produced at this site each year. Cotton must first be dried to about 3-5% moisture content before the ginning process is begun. To accomplish this at this gin, two six million Btu/hour direct fired gas heaters are used to heat air for drying the cotton. The biomass combustor was installed to operate in parallel with one of the heaters to supply heated air for the drying process. A pneumatic conveying system was installed to intercept a portion of the gin trash and divert it to the burner. The burner was operated during the 1992 ginning season, which lasted from September through November, with few problems.

  12. Satellite-based monitoring of cotton evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalezios, Nicolas; Dercas, Nicholas; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Water for agricultural use represents the largest share among all water uses. Vulnerability in agriculture is influenced, among others, by extended periods of water shortage in regions exposed to droughts. Advanced technological approaches and methodologies, including remote sensing, are increasingly incorporated for the assessment of irrigation water requirements. In this paper, remote sensing techniques are integrated for the estimation and monitoring of crop evapotranspiration ETc. The study area is Thessaly central Greece, which is a drought-prone agricultural region. Cotton fields in a small agricultural sub-catchment in Thessaly are used as an experimental site. Daily meteorological data and weekly field data are recorded throughout seven (2004-2010) growing seasons for the computation of reference evapotranspiration ETo, crop coefficient Kc and cotton crop ETc based on conventional data. Satellite data (Landsat TM) for the corresponding period are processed to estimate cotton crop coefficient Kc and cotton crop ETc and delineate its spatiotemporal variability. The methodology is applied for monitoring Kc and ETc during the growing season in the selected sub-catchment. Several error statistics are used showing very good agreement with ground-truth observations.

  13. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regrowth of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., can provide boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, with an extended opportunity to feed and reproduce beyond the production season. Effective methods for timely areawide detection of these potential host plants are critically needed to achieve eradicati...

  14. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  15. Integrated nutrients management for 'desi' cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, M.A.; Akram, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khattak, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive cropping with no return of crop residues and other organic inputs result in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient supply in (Desi) cotton-wheat cropping system in Pakistan. For appraisal of problem and finding solution to sustainability, we evaluated six treatments comprised of two fertilizer doses and three management techniques over a period of three years (2003-05) monitoring their effects on seed cotton yield and soil fertility. The techniques included chemical fertilizers, municipal solid waste manure (MSWM) integrated with chemical fertilizers in 1:4 ratios with, and without pesticides. The results revealed that cotton yields. Were enhanced by 19% due to site-specific fertilizer dose over conventional dose. Ignoring weeds control by means of herbicided application resulted in 5% decrease of seed cotton yield in IPNM technique positive effect of MSWM integration was noted on soil test phosphorus and SOM. Site-specific fertilizer application and integrated plant nutrient management by MSWM proved their suitability as the techniques not only improve soil quality in terms of sustained levels of organic matter and phosphorus but also provide a safe way of waste disposal. (author)

  16. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  17. PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION OF THE DRIDJI COTTON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ruud

    pesticide contamination in the Dridji cotton production area poses a risk to public ... the Kiti River as well as bean leaves grown near the river were sampled and ... Sediments were analysed at the Institute of Environmental Studies of the VU .... Empty bottles of pesticides were recycled to buy oil from the market and to bring.

  18. Locally Grown: Examining Attitudes and Perceptions About Organic Cotton Production and Manufacturing Between Mississippi Cotton Growers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes and perceptions about organic cotton of Mississippi cotton growers and producers in comparison to fashion-conscious consumers, including advantages/disadvantages of growing and production processes, quality control, consumer preferences, and competitive price structures/profit margins. A sample size of 16 local Mississippi growers and/or producers and 44 undergraduate students at a mid-major Southeastern university were chosen to participate in the study. Instruments were developed based on current research and the definition of organic cotton production defined by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results indicate 75% of growers and producers do not perceive a quality difference between organic and conventionally grown cotton, while 72.7% of the consumers report organically grown cotton is capable of producing a higher quality product compared to conventionally grown cotton. Even with an increase in organic cotton prices (25- 40% higher premium, only 25% of growers and producers would be willing to convert, while a majority (52.3% of consumers would not be willing to spend more than 25% extra for an organically grown cotton product. Consumers indicate the negative effects of conventionally grown cotton, yet many report little knowledge about organic cotton production, while growers/producers immediately dismiss organically grown cotton as a retail marketing strategy.

  19. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Meagher, Robert L; Reisig, Dominic D; Head, Graham P; Andow, David A; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293) Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  20. Resilient modulus of black cotton soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Mamatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus (MR values of pavement layers are the basic input parameters for the design of pavements with multiple layers in the current mechanistic empirical pavement design guidelines. As the laboratory determination of resilient modulus is costly, time consuming and cumbersome, several empirical models are developed for the prediction of resilient modulus for different regions of the world based on the database of resilient modulus values of local soils. For use of these relationships there is a need to verify the suitability of these models for local conditions. Expansive clay called black cotton soil (BC soil is found in several parts of India and is characterized by low strength and high compressibility. This soil shows swell – shrink behaviour upon wetting and drying and are problematic. The BC soil shows collapse behaviour on soaking and therefore the strength of the soil needs to be improved. Additive stabilization is found to be very effective in stabilizing black cotton soils and generally lime is used to improve the strength and durability of the black cotton soil. In this paper, the results of repeated load tests on black cotton soil samples for the determination of MR under soaked and unsoaked conditions at a relative compaction levels of 100% and 95% of both standard and modified proctor conditions are reported. The results indicate that the black cotton soil fails to meet the density requirement of the subgrade soil and shows collapse behaviour under soaked condition. To overcome this, lime is added as an additive to improve the strength of black cotton soil and repeated load tests were performed as per AASHTO T 307 - 99 for MR determination. The results have shown that the samples are stable under modified proctor condition with MR values ranging from 36 MPa to 388 MPa for a lime content of 2.5% and curing period ranging from 7 to 28 days. Also, it is observed that, the CBR based resilient modulus is not in agreement

  1. Effects of nematicides on cotton root mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R E; Carling, D E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L; Hightower, P

    2004-02-01

    Baseline information on the diversity and population densities of fungi collected from soil debris and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots was determined. Samples were collected from Tifton, GA, and Starkville, MS containing cotton field soil treated with the nematicides 1,3-dichloroproprene (fumigant) and aldicarb (granules). A total of 10,550 and 13,450 fungal isolates were collected from these two study sites, respectively. Of this total, 34 genera of plant pathogenic or saprophytic species were identified. Pathogenic root fungi included Fusarium spp. (40% of all isolations), Macrophomina, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium. Fusarium and Rhizoctonia were the most common fungal species identified and included F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides and F. solani, the three Fusarium species pathogenic on cotton plants. Population densities of Fusarium were not significantly different among locations or tissue types sampled. Macrophomina was isolated at greater numbers near the end of the growing seasons. Anastomosis groups of R. solani isolated from roots and soil debris included AG-3, -4, -7, 2-2, and -13 and anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia included CAG-2, -3, and -5. Occurrences and frequency of isolations among sampling dates were not consistent. Fluctuations in the frequency of isolation of Rhizoctonia did not correspond with changes in frequency of isolation of the biological control fungus, Trichoderma. When individual or pooled frequencies of the mycobiota were compared to nematicide treatments, no specific trends occurred between treatments, application methods or rates. Results from this study show that use of 1,3-D and aldicarb in cotton fields does not significantly impact plant pathogenic fungi or saprophytic fungal populations. Thus cotton producers need not adjust seedling disease control measures when these two nematicides are used.

  2. Test Review: Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM]--Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT[R])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the TOEFL iBT which is the latest version of the TOEFL, whose history stretches back to 1961. The TOEFL iBT was introduced in the USA, Canada, France, Germany and Italy in late 2005. Currently the TOEFL test is offered in two testing formats: (1) Internet-based testing (iBT); and (2) paper-based testing (PBT).…

  3. Processing and properties of PCL/cotton linter compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Elieber Barros; Franca, Danyelle Campos; Morais, Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Araujo, Edcleide Maria [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Rosa, Morsyleide de Freitas; Morais, Joao Paulo Saraiva [Embrapa Tropical Agroindustia, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Wellen, Renate Maria Ramos, E-mail: wellen.renate@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiaba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Biodegradable compounds of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/ cotton linter were melting mixed with filling content ranging from 1% to 5% w/w. Cotton linter is an important byproduct of textile industry; in this work it was used in raw state and after acid hydrolysis. According to the results of torque rheometry no decaying of viscosity took place during compounding, evidencing absence of breaking down in molecular weight. The thermal stability increased by 20% as observed in HDT for PCL/cotton nanolinter compounds. Adding cotton linter to PCL did not change its crystalline character as showed by XRD; however an increase in degree of crystallinity was observed by means of DSC. From mechanical tests in tension was observed an increase in ductility of PCL, and from mechanical tests in flexion an increase in elastic modulus upon addition of cotton linter, whereas impact strength presented lower values for PCL/cotton linter and PCL/cotton nanolinter compounds. SEM images showed that PCL presents plastic fracture and cotton linter has an interlacing fibril structure with high L/D ratio, which are in agreement with matrix/fibril morphology observed for PCL/cotton linter compounds. PCL/cotton linter compounds made in this work cost less than neat PCL matrix and presented improved properties making feasible its commercial use. (author)

  4. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  5. Effect of irradiation on physiological and biochemical properties of Bt rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhonghua; Chen Xiaojian; Bao Xusheng; Chen Yuling; Gu Qinqin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of two varieties of Bt rice were treated by 60 Co γ-rays at the doses of 50, 100, 150, 250 and 350 Gy, respectively, their original parent was used as control material. The seedlings cultured from above seeds were used to detect the root activity, seedling growth, chlorophyll content,activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and amylase to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment on the physiological and biochemical properties of Bt rice. The results showed that root activity, chlorophyll content, activities of PAL, PPO, CAT, SOD of Bt rice seedlings and amylase of germinating seeds were lower than those of the control group after irradiation treatment of < 250 Gy, but the differences were not significant, which was similar to those of original parent. Meanwhile, it was found that with dose increasing, the seedling height was increased, suggesting that irradiation treatment could stimulate the seedling growth. Therefore, Bt transgene can not change the irradiation sensitivity of rice and the conventional method of rice can be used in Bt rice irradiation mutation breeding. (authors)

  6. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 and PowerCore(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F. In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality in silks and grains was lower than 50 and 6%, respectively. In addition, more than 49% of the surviving larvae in silks and grains completed the biological cycle. However, all life table parameters were negatively affected in insects that developed in silks and grains of both Bt corn events. In summary, the low biological activity of Bt proteins expressed on silks and grains of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn can contribute to the resistance evolution in S. frugiperda populations.

  7. Dielectric properties of BNT-xBT prepared by hydrothermal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natheer B. Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The BNT ceramic sample might be a good replacement for PZT piezoelectric in industrial applications, especially in energy harvesting from crystal vibrations. In order to enhance the performance of BNT ceramic, the solid solution was chosen by substitution with Ba+2 at Morphtropic Phase Boundary (MPB. The BNT-xBT powders with x=1, 0.07, 0.06 and 0 were prepared by the hydrothermal method with average particle size (65–150nm at (90∘C/72h. The ceramic disc was sintered at (1150∘C/4h and showed excellent relative density of about 96%. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the MPB for x=0.06 and 0.07, while the BNT had a rhombohedral structure and BT had a tetragonal structure. The dielectric measurements showed that BNT, BNT-7BT, BNT-6BT behave as the relaxator ferroelectric and showed a strong dependence on frequency, especially in the MPB region while BT behaves as a normal ferroelectric. Both the Curie temperature and depolarization temperature decrease at the MPB region and showed strong dependency on frequency.

  8. Does transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton pollen affect hypopharyngeal gland development and midgut proteolytic enzyme activity in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    The transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) cotton cultivar CCRI41 is increasingly used in China and potential side effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L. have been documented recently. Two studies have assessed potential lethal and sublethal effects in young bees fed with CCRI41 cotton pollen but no effect was observed on learning capacities, although lower feeding activity in exposed honey bees was noted (antifeedant effect). The present study aimed at providing further insights into potential side effects of CCRI41 cotton on honey bees. Emerging honey bees were exposed to different pollen diets using no-choice feeding protocols (chronic exposure) in controlled laboratory conditions and we aimed at documenting potential mechanisms underneath the CCRI41 antifeedant effect previously reported. Activity of midgut proteolytic enzyme of young adult honey bees fed on CCRI41 cotton pollen were not significantly affected, i.e. previously observed antifeedant effect was not linked to disturbed activity of the proteolytic enzymes in bees' midgut. Hypopharyngeal gland development was assessed by quantifying total extractable proteins from the glands. Results suggested that CCRI41 cotton pollen carries no risk to hypopharyngeal gland development of young adult honey bees. In the two bioassays, honey bees exposed to 1 % soybean trypsin inhibitor were used as positive controls for both midgut proteolytic enzymes and hypopharyngeal gland proteins quantification, and bees exposed to 48 ppb (part per billion) (i.e. 48 ng g(-1)) imidacloprid were used as controls for exposure to a sublethal concentration of toxic product. The results show that the previously reported antifeedant effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees is not linked to effects on their midgut proteolytic enzymes or on the development of their hypopharyngeal glands. The results of the study are discussed in the framework of risk assessment of transgenic crops on honey bees.

  9. Plant Fitness Assessment for Wild Relatives of Insect Resistant Bt-Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Letourneau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When field tests of transgenic plants are precluded by practical containment concerns, manipulative experiments can detect potential consequences of crop-wild gene flow. Using topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvicide (Bt and larval additions, we measured fitness effects of reduced herbivory on Brassica rapa (wild mustard and Raphanus sativus (wild radish. These species represent different life histories among the potential recipients of Bt transgenes from Bt cole crops in the US and Asia, for which rare spontaneous crosses are expected under high exposure. Protected wild radish and wild mustard seedlings had approximately half the herbivore damage of exposed plants and 55% lower seedling mortality, resulting in 27% greater reproductive success, 14-day longer life-spans, and 118% more seeds, on average. Seed addition experiments in microcosms and in situ indicated that wild radish was more likely to spread than wild mustard in coastal grasslands.

  10. Engineered disease resistance in cotton using RNA-interference to knock down cotton leaf curl kokhran virus-Burewala and cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton Leaf Curl virus Disease (CLCuD) has caused enormous losses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) production in Pakistan. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging technique that could knock out CLCuD by targeting different regions of the pathogen genome that are important for replication, transcription...

  11. 75 FR 70850 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... dividing Price A by 85 percent of Price B. * * * * * (f) Any AUP cotton harvested or appraised from acreage... dividing the price per pound for AUP cotton by the price per pound for ELS cotton. The prices used for AUP...

  12. 77 FR 51867 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Advertising, Agricultural research, Cotton, Marketing agreements, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements... supplemental assessments collected for use by the Cotton Research and Promotion Program. An amendment is..., Chief, Research and Promotion Staff, Cotton and Tobacco Programs, AMS, USDA, 100 Riverside Parkway...

  13. Modern trends on development of cotton production and processing chain Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdimumin Alikulov

    2010-01-01

    The cotton production complex of Uzbekistan has high rating comparing other export oriented branches. Cotton fiber value in 2008 share made 12% from total export of the country. The paper observes some trends and policy developments in cotton industry development.

  14. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  15. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SN 2006bt: A PERPLEXING, TROUBLESOME, AND POSSIBLY MISLEADING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Narayan, Gautham; Challis, Peter J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Steele, Thea N.

    2010-01-01

    SN 2006bt displays characteristics unlike those of any other known Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We present optical light curves and spectra of SN 2006bt which demonstrate the peculiar nature of this object. SN 2006bt has broad, slowly declining light curves indicative of a hot, high-luminosity SN, but lacks a prominent second maximum in the i band as do low-luminosity SNe Ia. Its spectra are similar to those of low-luminosity SNe Ia, containing features that are only present in cool SN photospheres. Light-curve fitting methods suggest that SN 2006bt is reddened by a significant amount of dust; however, it occurred in the outskirts of its early-type host galaxy and has no strong Na D absorption in any of its spectra, suggesting a negligible amount of host-galaxy dust absorption. C II is possibly detected in our pre-maximum spectra, but at a much lower velocity than other elements. The progenitor was likely very old, being a member of the halo population of a galaxy that shows no signs of recent star formation. SNe Ia have been very successfully modeled as a one-parameter family, and this is fundamental to their use as cosmological distance indicators. SN 2006bt is a challenge to that picture, yet its relatively normal light curves allowed SN 2006bt to be included in cosmological analyses. We generate mock SN Ia data sets which indicate that contamination by similar objects will both increase the scatter of a SN Ia Hubble diagram and systematically bias measurements of cosmological parameters. However, spectra and rest-frame i-band light curves should provide a definitive way to identify and eliminate such objects.

  17. Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Aaron J.; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L.; Keweshan, Ryan S.; Dunbar, Mike W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are planted on millions of hectares annually, reducing the use of conventional insecticides and suppressing pests. However, the evolution of resistance could cut short these benefits. A primary pest targeted by Bt maize in the United States is the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Methodology/Principal Findings We report that fields identified by farmers as having severe rootworm feeding injury to Bt maize contained populations of western corn rootworm that displayed significantly higher survival on Cry3Bb1 maize in laboratory bioassays than did western corn rootworm from fields not associated with such feeding injury. In all cases, fields experiencing severe rootworm feeding contained Cry3Bb1 maize. Interviews with farmers indicated that Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in those fields for at least three consecutive years. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of years Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in a field and the survival of rootworm populations on Cry3Bb1 maize in bioassays. However, there was no significant correlation among populations for survival on Cry34/35Ab1 maize and Cry3Bb1 maize, suggesting a lack of cross resistance between these Bt toxins. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of field-evolved resistance to a Bt toxin by the western corn rootworm and by any species of Coleoptera. Insufficient planting of refuges and non-recessive inheritance of resistance may have contributed to resistance. These results suggest that improvements in resistance management and a more integrated approach to the use of Bt crops may be necessary. PMID:21829470

  18. Initial mechanisms for the decomposition of electronically excited energetic materials: 1,5′-BT, 5,5′-BT, and AzTT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Bing; Yu, Zijun; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of nitrogen-rich energetic materials 1,5′-BT, 5,5′-BT, and AzTT (1,5′-Bistetrazole, 5,5′-Bistetrazole, and 5-(5-azido-(1 or 4)H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)tetrazole, respectively), following electronic state excitation, is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The N 2 molecule is observed as an initial decomposition product from the three materials, subsequent to UV excitation, with a cold rotational temperature (<30 K). Initial decomposition mechanisms for these three electronically excited materials are explored at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level. Potential energy surface calculations at the CASSCF(12,8)/6-31G(d) level illustrate that conical intersections play an essential role in the decomposition mechanism. Electronically excited S 1 molecules can non-adiabatically relax to their ground electronic states through (S 1 /S 0 ) CI conical intersections. 1,5′-BT and 5,5′-BT materials have several (S 1 /S 0 ) CI conical intersections between S 1 and S 0 states, related to different tetrazole ring opening positions, all of which lead to N 2 product formation. The N 2 product for AzTT is formed primarily by N–N bond rupture of the –N 3 group. The observed rotational energy distributions for the N 2 products are consistent with the final structures of the respective transition states for each molecule on its S 0 potential energy surface. The theoretically derived vibrational temperature of the N 2 product is high, which is similar to that found for energetic salts and molecules studied previously

  19. A New Developed GIHS-BT-SFIM Fusion Method Based On Edge and Class Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehnavi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of image fusion (or sometimes pan sharpening is to produce a single image containing the best aspects of the source images. Some desirable aspects are high spatial resolution and high spectral resolution. With the development of space borne imaging sensors, a unified image fusion approach suitable for all employed imaging sources becomes necessary. Among various image fusion methods, intensity-hue-saturation (IHS and Brovey Transforms (BT can quickly merge huge amounts of imagery. However they often face color distortion problems with fused images. The SFIM fusion is one of the most frequently employed approaches in practice to control the tradeoff between the spatial and spectral information. In addition it preserves more spectral information but suffer more spatial information loss. Its effectiveness is heavily depends on the filter design. In this work, two modifications were tested to improve the spectral quality of the images and also investigating class-based fusion results. First, a Generalized Intensity-Hue-Saturation (GIHS, Brovey Transform (BT and smoothing-filter based intensity modulation (SFIM approach was implemented. This kind of algorithm has shown computational advantages among other fusion methods like wavelet, and can be extended to different number of bands as in literature discussed. The used IHS-BT-SFIM algorithm incorporates IHS, IHS-BT, BT, BT-SFIM and SFIM methods by two adjustable parameters. Second, a method was proposed to plus edge information in previous GIHS_BT_SFIM and edge enhancement by panchromatic image. Adding panchromatic data to images had no much improvement. Third, an edge adaptive GIHS_BT_SFIM was proposed to enforce fidelity away from the edges. Using MS image off edges has shown spectral improvement in some fusion methods. Fourth, a class based fusion was tested, which tests different coefficients for each method due to its class. The best parameters for vegetated areas was k1 = 0.6, k2

  20. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Ke, Xin; Chen, Fajun

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction...... was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed...

  1. An Assessment of Current Policy Initiatives in Zambia's Cotton Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Zulu, Ballard; Tschirley, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses three of these policy initiatives: input credit provision for smallholder producers of selected cash crops including cotton, the proposed creation of a Cotton Board, and the emergence in 2003 of District Council levies as a point of conflict between local governments and cotton companies. The purpose of the paper is to provide guidance to public and private decision makers regarding key modifications which may need to be made to these policies to ensure continued healthy d...

  2. Processing and Properties of PCL/Cotton Linter Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra,Elieber Barros; França,Danyelle Campos; Morais,Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Rosa,Morsyleide de Freitas; Morais,João Paulo Saraiva; Araújo,Edcleide Maria; Wellen,Renate Maria Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable compounds of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/ cotton linter were melting mixed with filling content ranging from 1% to 5% w/w. Cotton linter is an important byproduct of textile industry; in this work it was used in raw state and after acid hydrolysis. According to the results of torque rheometry no decaying of viscosity took place during compounding, evidencing absence of breaking down in molecular weight. The thermal stability increased by 20% as observed in HDT for PCL/cotton...

  3. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE: THE COTTON PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    2000-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations could have important implications for Southern Agriculture. This paper explores some of the issues surrounding the WTO negotiations for cotton. Specifically, this paper examines the impacts of the phase-out of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) on the location of textile production and cotton trade flows. Generally, it is believed that the WTO negotiations will have little direct impact on cotton, but will have indirect impacts through textile po...

  4. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurindah Nurindah; Dwi Adi Sunarto

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM) techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012...

  5. Screening Pakistani cotton for drought tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, M.H.; Markhand, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    The drought is one of the biggest abiotic stresses for crop production in arid and semi-arid agriculture. Thus it is a challenge for plant scientists to screen and develop the drought tolerant cotton lines. In this study, 31 cotton genotypes/cultivars were evaluated under two irrigation regimes i. e., seven irrigations (Control) and two irrigations (Stress), using split plot design with four replications. The crop growth, yield and some physiological parameters were studied. There were high inter-varietal differences for all the parameters under control as well as drought stress. Although all the varieties for all parameters were significantly affected by drought but however, CRIS-9, MARVI, CRIS-134, CRIS-126, CRIS-337, CRIS-355 and CRIS-377 maintained highest performance for all the parameters studied under high drought conditions. (author)

  6. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Griffiths, Bryan S; Caul, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorur...

  7. Cotton genotypes selection through artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, E G Silva; Cardoso, D B O; Reis, M C; Nascimento, A F O; Bortolin, D I; Martins, M R; Sousa, L B

    2017-09-27

    Breeding programs currently use statistical analysis to assist in the identification of superior genotypes at various stages of a cultivar's development. Differently from these analyses, the computational intelligence approach has been little explored in genetic improvement of cotton. Thus, this study was carried out with the objective of presenting the use of artificial neural networks as auxiliary tools in the improvement of the cotton to improve fiber quality. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, this research was carried out using the evaluation data of 40 genotypes. In order to classify the genotypes for fiber quality, the artificial neural networks were trained with replicate data of 20 genotypes of cotton evaluated in the harvests of 2013/14 and 2014/15, regarding fiber length, uniformity of length, fiber strength, micronaire index, elongation, short fiber index, maturity index, reflectance degree, and fiber quality index. This quality index was estimated by means of a weighted average on the determined score (1 to 5) of each characteristic of the HVI evaluated, according to its industry standards. The artificial neural networks presented a high capacity of correct classification of the 20 selected genotypes based on the fiber quality index, so that when using fiber length associated with the short fiber index, fiber maturation, and micronaire index, the artificial neural networks presented better results than using only fiber length and previous associations. It was also observed that to submit data of means of new genotypes to the neural networks trained with data of repetition, provides better results of classification of the genotypes. When observing the results obtained in the present study, it was verified that the artificial neural networks present great potential to be used in the different stages of a genetic improvement program of the cotton, aiming at the improvement of the fiber quality of the future cultivars.

  8. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  9. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Meisner

    Full Text Available Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  10. Ergonomic Evaluation of Battery Powered Portable Cotton Picker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A.; Manes, G. S.; Singh, A.; Prakash, A.; Mahal, J. S.

    2012-09-01

    Ergonomic evaluation of battery powered portable manual cotton picker was carried out on two subjects for three cotton varieties and was compared against manual method of picking. It is a hand operated machine and has a pair of chain with small sharp edged teeth and sprockets and is operated by a light weight 12 V battery. Cotton gets entangled with the chain and is collected and guided into the collection bag. Average heart rate, oxygen consumption, workload, energy expenditure was more in case of cotton picking by manual cotton picker as compared to manual picking for both the subjects for all three cotton variety types. Oxygen consumption varied from 0.81 to 0.97 l/min, workload varied from 36.32 to 46.16 W and energy expenditure varied from 16.83 to 20.33 kJ/min for both the subject in case of machine picking for all three cotton varieties. The maximum discomfort experienced by the subjects during picking cotton by manual cotton picker was in right wrist palm, right forearm, upper and lower back, left shoulder and in lower legs and both feet.

  11. Problems and achievements of cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. weeds control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Weed control in the cultivation of cotton is critical to the yield and quality of production. The influence of economically important weeds was studied. Chemical control is the most effective method of weed control in cotton but much of the information on it relates to primary weed infestation. Problems with primary weed infestation in cotton have been solved to a significant extent. The question of secondary weed infestation with annual and perennial graminaceous weeds during the period of cotton vegetation is also determined largely by the use of antigraminaceous herbicides. The data related to herbicides to effectively control secondary germinated broadleaf weeds in conventional technology for cotton growing are quite scarce, even globally. We are still seeking effective herbicides for control of these weeds in cotton crops. Studies on their influence on the sowing characteristics of cotton seed and the quality of cotton fiber are still insufficient. In the scientific literature there is not enough information on these questions. The combinations of herbicides, as well as their tank mixtures with fertilizers or plant growth regulators are more efficient than autonomous application. Often during their combined application higher synergistic effect on yield is produced. There is information about cotton cultivars resistant to glyphosate. These cultivars are GMO and they are banned within the European Union, including Bulgaria.

  12. Radiation synthesis of silver nanostructures in cotton matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, Dagmara; Sartowska, Bożena

    2012-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most popular natural fibres, composed mainly of cellulose, which finds a wide range of applications in paper, textile and health care products industry. Researchers have focused their interest on the synthesis of cotton nanocomposites, which enhances its mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties by the incorporation of various nanoparticles into the cotton matrix. Silver is one of the most popular antimicrobial agents with a wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal activity that results from a complex mechanism of its interactions with the cells of harmful microorganism. In this work, electron beam radiation was applied to synthesise silver nanostructures in cotton fibres. Investigations of the influence of the initial silver salt concentration on the size and distribution of the obtained silver nanostructures were carried out. A detailed characterisation of these nanocomposites with SEM-BSE and EDS methods was performed. TGA and DSC analyses were performed to assess the influence of different size silver nanoparticles and the effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties of cotton fibres. A microbiological investigation to determine the antibacterial activity of Ag-cotton nanocomposites was carried out. - Highlights: ► Ag NPs embedded in cotton matrix were synthesised by electron beam irradiation. ► Concentration of silver salt solution influences on size of silver nanoparticles. ► Silver content as well as irradiation affect thermal properties of cotton fabrics. ► Ag-cotton nanocomposites exhibit antibacterial activity against bacteria and fungi.

  13. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  14. Study of mungbean intercropping in cotton planted with different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Khaliq, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bio-economic efficiency of different cotton-based intercropping systems was determined at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, (Pakistan) during 1996-1997 and 1997-98. Cotton cultivar NIAB-78 was planted in 80-cm apart single rows and 120-cm spaced double row strips with the help of a single row hand drill. Intercropping systems were cotton alone and cotton + mungbean. Experiment was laid out in a RCBD with split arrangements in four replications. Planting patterns were kept in main plots and intercropping systems in sub-plots. Inter crop was sown in the space between 80-cm apart single rows as well as 120-cm spaced double row strips. Competition functions like relative crowding coefficient, competitive ratio, aggressivity, land equivalent ratio and area time equivalent ratio were calculated for the assessment of the benefits of the intercropping. Partial budget was prepared for determining net field benefits of the systems under study. Growing of cotton in 120-cm spaced double row strips proved superior to 80-cm spaced single rows. Intercropping decreased the seed cotton production significantly in both years, however, inter crop not only covered this loss but also increased overall productivity. Higher net field benefit (NFB) was obtained from cotton + mungbean than sole cropping of cotton. Farmers with small land holdings, seriously constrained by low crop income can adopt the practice of intercropping of mungbean in cotton. (author)

  15. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C W; Lam, Y L; Yuen, C W M; Luximon, A; Lau, K W; Chen, K S

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  16. BENDING BEHAVIOUR OF MAGNETIC COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Iuliana G.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic yarns are composite yarns, i.e. they combine elements of various natures and properties, with proven potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding. In this paper, different mixtures of hard and soft magnetic powder were chosen to cover materials made of cotton yarn. The physical properties and bending behavior of the produced composite yarns were investigated in order to evaluate the yarns for further textile processing.The cotton yarn used as base material was covered with hard (barium hexaferrite BaFe12O19 and soft (Black Toner magnetic particles. An in-house developed laboratory equipment has been used to cover the twist cotton yarns with seven mixtures having different amounts of magnetic powder (30% – 50%. The bending behavior of the coated yarns was evaluated based on the average width of cracks which appeared on the yarn surface after repeated flexural tests. The obtained results revealed that usage of a polyurethane adhesive in the coating solution prevents crack formation on the surface of hard magnetic yarns after flexural tests. At the same time, the higher the mass percentage of hard magnetic powder in the mixture, the higher was the cracks’ width. The soft magnetic yarns are more flexible and a smaller crack width is observed on their surface. Both the coating solution composition and the powder diameter are expected to influence the bending behavior of coated yarns.

  17. Genetic diversity in upland cotton for cotton leaf curl virus disease, earliness and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, F.; Farooq, J.; Mahmood, A.; Hussain, T.

    2014-01-01

    In Pakistan during last two decades the major factor limiting cotton production is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber related trait, staple length. Earliness related traits, like days taken to 1 square and days taken to 1 flower had positive correlation with each other and both these traits also showed their positive association with ginning out turn. The negative significant correlation of CLCuD was obtained with monopodial branches, sympodial branches and plant height. Principal component (PC) analysis showed first five PCs having eigen value >1 explaining 67.8% of the total variation with days to st 1 square and flowering along with plant height and sympodia plant which were being the most important characters in PC1. Cluster analysis classified 101 accessions into five divergent groups. The genotypes in st cluster 1 only showed reasonable values for days to 1 square and flower, sympodia per plant, ginning out turn, staple length and fiber fineness and the genotypes in cluster 5 showed promising values for the traits like cotton leaf curl virus, ginning out turn and fiber fineness. The genotypes in cluster 1 and 5 may be combined to obtain desirable traits related to earliness and better disease tolerance. Scatter plot and tree diagrams demonstrated sufficient diversity among the cotton accessions for various traits and some extent of association between various clusters. It is concluded that diversity among the genotypes could be utilized for the development of CLCuD resistant lines with increased seed

  18. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrago Carlos EG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV, a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

  19. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tatiane F; Romanel, Elisson A C; Andrade, Roberto R S; Farinelli, Laurent; Østerås, Magne; Deluen, Cécile; Corrêa, Régis L; Schrago, Carlos E G; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2011-08-24

    In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL) ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt) long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

  20. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    Full Text Available A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  1. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Tiantao; Bai, Shuxiong; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  2. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous

  3. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberger, S.; Leroch, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Wahl, M.; Neuhaus, H.E.; Tjaden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous

  4. Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Essential Grammar for the iBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Although the TOEFL iBT does not have a discrete grammar section, knowledge of English sentence structure is important throughout the test. Essential Grammar for the iBT reviews the skills that are fundamental to success on tests. Content includes noun and verb forms, clauses, agreement, parallel structure, punctuation, and much more. The book may…

  5. Changes in Actinomycetes community structure under the influence of Bt transgenic brinjal crop in a tropical agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kishore; Singh, Major; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2013-05-29

    The global area under brinjal cultivation is expected to be 1.85 million hectare with total fruit production about 32 million metric tons (MTs). Brinjal cultivars are susceptible to a variety of stresses that significantly limit productivity. The most important biotic stress is caused by the Brinjal fruit and shoot Borer (FSB) forcing farmers to deploy high doses of insecticides; a matter of serious health concern. Therefore, to control the adverse effect of insecticides on the environment including the soil, transgenic technology has emerged as the effective alternative. However, the reports, regarding the nature of interaction of transgenic crops with the native microbial community are inconsistent. The effect of a Bt transgenic brinjal expressing the bio-insecticidal protein (Cry1Ac) on the rhizospheric community of actinomycetes has been assessed and compared with its non-transgenic counterpart. Significant variation in the organic carbon observed between the crops (non-Bt and Bt brinjal) may be due to changes in root exudates quality and composition mediated by genetic attributes of Bt transgenic brinjal. Real time quantitative PCR indicated significant differences in the actinomycetes- specific 16S rRNA gene copy numbers between the non-Bt (5.62-27.86) × 1011 g-1 dws and Bt brinjal planted soil (5.62-24.04) × 1011 g-1 dws. Phylogenetic analysis indicated 14 and 11, actinomycetes related groups in soil with non-Bt and Bt brinjal crop, respectively. Micrococaceaea and Nocardiodaceae were the dominant groups in pre-vegetation, branching, flowering, maturation and post-harvest stage. However, Promicromonosporaceae, Streptosporangiaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Geodermatophilaceae, Frankiaceae, Kineosporaceae, Actisymmetaceae and Streptomycetaceae were exclusively detected in a few stages in non-Bt brinjal rhizosphere soil while Nakamurellaceae, Corynebactericeae, Thermomonosporaceae and Pseudonocardiaceae in Bt brinjal counterpart. Field trails envisage

  6. Field Comparison of Fertigation Vs. Surface Irrigation of Cotton Crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on previous results of the same nature, one nitrogen rate 180 kg N ha -1 was tested under two-irrigation methods, surface irrigation and drip fertigation of cotton (Cultivar Rakka-5) for two consecutive seasons 2000 and 2001. The study aimed to answer various questions regarding the applicability of drip fertigation at farm level and the effect of its employment on yield and growth parameters, compared to surface irrigation. Nitrogen fertilizer was either injected in eight equally split applications for the drip fertigated cotton or divided in four unequally split applications as recommend by Ministry of Agriculture (20% before planting, 40% at thinning, 20% after 60 days from planting and 20% after 75 days after planting). 15 N labeled urea was used to evaluate nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. The experimental design was randomized block design with seven replicates. Results showed that drip fertigation led to water saving exceeding 50% in some cases. Field germination percentage was highly increased under drip- fertigated cotton relative to surface-irrigated cotton. Dry matter and seed cotton yield of surface-irrigated cotton was slightly higher than that of drip-fertigated cotton in the first growing season. The reason for that was due to the hot spill that occurred in the region, which exposed the cotton crop to water stress and consequently pushed the cotton into early flowering. Lint properties were not affected by the introduction of drip-fertigation. Actually some properties were improved relative to the standard properties identified by the cotton Bureau.Nitrogen uptake was slightly increased under drip fertigation whereas nitrogen use efficiencies were not constant along the growing seasons. The reason for that could be lateral leaching and root proliferation into the labeled and unlabeled subplots. Field water use efficiency was highly increased for both growing seasons under drip fertigation practice. The rate of field water use efficiencies

  7. Detrimental effect of expression of Bt endotoxin Cry1Ac on in vitro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (50 U) of reverse transcriptase. This cDNA pool ... reverse primers for each and 0.2 μL Taq polymerase (1 U). The initial ..... learned from B.t. toxin genes; in Genetic engineering (ed) JK ... KO 2007 Improved drought tolerance without undesired.

  8. FORMING OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SLUGS OF TITANIC ALLOY BT23 AT THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhе changings of the initial plate structure of alloy BT23 at running of high-temperature thermal treatment of large-sized slugs with heating up to 650- 950 eC and cooling on air and in water and their influence on forming of complex of mechanical characteristics are examined.

  9. Responses by earthworms to reduced tillage in herbicide tolerant maize and Bt maize cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B.; Demsar, D.

    2007-01-01

    -toxin producing transgenic maize line MON810 was studied for 1 year. At a Danish study site, Foulum (Jutland), one year of Bt corn was followed by 2 years of herbicide tolerant corn. At the French study site the most prominent effects observed were due to the tillage method where RT significantly reduced...

  10. Stability of UV exposed RR-P3BT films by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diware, Mangesh S.; Byun, J. S.; Hwang, S. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, Y. D.

    2013-01-01

    Stability of regioregular poly(3-butylthiophene) (RR-P3BT) films under irradiation of ultra-violet (UV) light has been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature. Consistent decrease in dielectric function with UV exposure time showed the degree of degradation of polymer. This work suggests that, protective methods are mandatory to use this kind of material in optical devices.

  11. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  12. Tritrophic choice experiments with Bt plants, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, T.H.; Potting, R.P.J.; Denholm, I.; Clark, S.J.; Clark, A.J.; Stewart, C.N.; Poppy, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitoids are important natural enemies of many pest species and are used extensively in biological and integrated control programmes. Crop plants transformed to express toxin genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide high levels of resistance to certain pest species, which is likely

  13. Sixteen Years of Bt Maize in the EU Hotspot: Why Has Resistance Not Evolved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Castañera

    Full Text Available The majority of Bt maize production in the European Union (EU is concentrated in northeast Spain, which is Europe's only hotspot where resistance might evolve, and the main target pest, Sesamia nonagrioides, has been exposed to Cry1Ab maize continuously since 1998. The cropping system in northeast Spain has some similar characteristics to those that probably led to rapid resistance failures in two other target noctuid maize pests. These include repeated cultivation of Bt maize in the same fields, low use of refuges, recurring exposure of larvae to non-high dose concentrations of Cry1Ab toxin during the first years of cultivation, low migratory potential, and production concentrated in an irrigated region with few alternative hosts. Available data reveal no evidence of resistance in S. nonagrioides after 16 years of use. We explore the possible reasons for this resistance management success using evolutionary models to consider factors expected to accelerate resistance, and those expected to delay resistance. Low initial adoption rates and the EU policy decision to replace Event 176 with MON 810 Bt maize were key to delaying resistance evolution. Model results suggest that if refuge compliance continues at the present 90%, Bt maize might be used sustainably in northeast Spain for at least 20 more years before resistance might occur. However, obtaining good estimates of the present R allele frequency and level of local assortative mating are crucial to reduce uncertainty about the future success of resistance management.

  14. Developing Bt maize for resource-poor farmers – Recent advances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Economic impact assessment demonstrated that stem borers are major constraints and cause substantial losses. ... Environmental impact research indicate that build-up of resistance against the Bt genes has not developed after that sufficient natural refugia exist in most areas, but suitable ...

  15. Stacked Bt maize and arthropod predators: exposure to insecticidal Cry proteins and potential hazards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Zdeňka; Shu, Y.; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Romeis, J.; Meissle, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1859 (2017), č. článku 20170440. ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bt maize * Cry proteins * environmental risk assessment Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1859/20170440

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BT8B-1EN5B [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e>KGLKK----GTTLQ >H ---- > ATOM ...bChain>B 1BT8B KNMAPKGSAPERPT cture>H ...DChain> LVLKG--DKLAV >EEEE -- EEEE...ence>LVWDPLGKRINT >EEEE EEEEe> AT...re> ATOM 2237 CA LYS B 80 12.251 15.102 18.409 1.00 11.94 C

  17. IMPACT OF BT ( BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ) CROPS ON BAT ACTIVITY IN SOUTH TEXAS AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal crops raises concerns that nontarget species may be harmed and food webs disrupted. The goal of this research is to determine how transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops impact the activity of Brazilian freetailed bats (Tada...

  18. Soil microbes and fauna under Bt maize or an isogenic control, with and without additional insecticide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B. S.; Birch, A. N. E.; Caul, S.

    The experiment described is a component of the EU-funded project entitled 'Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops' (ECOGEN, www.ecogen.dk). The overall project has an emphasis on maize genetically modified to express the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt maize...

  19. Quantification of the histochemical reaction for alkaline phosphatase activity using the indoxyl-tetranitro BT method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Jonges, G. N.

    1987-01-01

    The indoxyl-tetranitro BT method for the demonstration of alkaline phosphatase activity has been optimized and its validity for quantitative histochemistry tested. The study has been performed with model films of polyacrylamide gel incorporating homogenate of rat liver and with cryostat sections

  20. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  1. Relationship of TOEFL iBT[R] Scores to Academic Performance: Some Evidence from American Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeonsuk; Bridgeman, Brent

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between scores on the TOEFL Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT[R]) and academic performance in higher education, defined here in terms of grade point average (GPA). The academic records for 2594 undergraduate and graduate students were collected from 10 universities in the United States. The data consisted of…

  2. Validating TOEFL[R] iBT Speaking and Setting Score Requirements for ITA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    Although the primary use of the speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT Speaking) is to inform admissions decisions at English medium universities, it may also be useful as an initial screening measure for international teaching assistants (ITAs). This study provides criterion-related…

  3. Construct Validity in TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks: Insights from Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…

  4. Investigating the Predictive Validity of "TOEFL iBT"® Test Scores and Their Use in Informing Policy in a United Kingdom University Setting. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-30. ETS Research Report. RR-17-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Claudia; Ushloda, Ema; Ladroue, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    The project examined the predictive validity of the "TOEFL iBT"® test with a focus on the relationship between TOEFL iBT scores and students' subsequent academic success in postgraduate studies in one leading university in the United Kingdom, paying specific attention to the role of linguistic preparedness as perceived by students and…

  5. A Study of the Use of the "TOEFL iBT"® Test Speaking and Listening Scores for International Teaching Assistant Screening. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-27. ETS Research Report. RR-16-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Although the speaking section of the "TOEFL iBT"® test is used by many universities to determine if international teaching assistants (ITAs) have the oral proficiency necessary to be classroom instructors, relatively few studies have investigated the validity of using TOEFL iBT scores for ITA screening. The primary purpose of this study…

  6. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  7. Surface chemistry of photoluminescent F8BT conjugated polymer nanoparticles determines protein corona formation and internalization by phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khanbeigi, Raha; Abelha, Thais Fedatto; Woods, Arcadia; Rastoin, Olivia; Harvey, Richard D; Jones, Marie-Christine; Forbes, Ben; Green, Mark A; Collins, Helen; Dailey, Lea Ann

    2015-03-09

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles are being developed for a variety of diagnostic and theranostic applications. The conjugated polymer, F8BT, a polyfluorene derivative, was used as a model system to examine the biological behavior of conjugated polymer nanoparticle formulations stabilized with ionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate; F8BT-SDS; ∼207 nm; -31 mV) and nonionic (pegylated 12-hydroxystearate; F8BT-PEG; ∼175 nm; -5 mV) surfactants, and compared with polystyrene nanoparticles of a similar size (PS200; ∼217 nm; -40 mV). F8BT nanoparticles were as hydrophobic as PS200 (hydrophobic interaction chromatography index value: 0.96) and showed evidence of protein corona formation after incubation with serum-containing medium; however, unlike polystyrene, F8BT nanoparticles did not enrich specific proteins onto the nanoparticle surface. J774A.1 macrophage cells internalized approximately ∼20% and ∼60% of the F8BT-SDS and PS200 delivered dose (calculated by the ISDD model) in serum-supplemented and serum-free conditions, respectively, while cell association of F8BT-PEG was minimal (<5% of the delivered dose). F8BT-PEG, however, was more cytotoxic (IC50 4.5 μg cm(-2)) than F8BT-SDS or PS200. The study results highlight that F8BT surface chemistry influences the composition of the protein corona, while the properties of the conjugated polymer nanoparticle surfactant stabilizer used determine particle internalization and biocompatibility profile.

  8. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  9. Preliminary assessments of portable color spectrophotometer measurements of cotton color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color with the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). It has been reported that some cotton bales, especially those transported overseas, appear to have changed significantly in color from their in...

  10. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 27 [AMS-CN-13-0043] RIN 0581-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known as ``registration'' by the U.S...

  11. Effect of nitrates on embryo induction efficiency in cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    cotton species (Zhang, 1994b). Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration systems have been established from cotton tissue, protoplasts and ovules (Zhang and Li,. 1992; Feng and Zhang, 1994; Zhang, 1995). Regeneration procedures have been used to obtain genetically modified plants after Agrobacterium- ...

  12. Ginning U.S. cotton for domestic and export markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. cotton crop is produced by a highly mechanized production system that seeks to minimize manual labor while maximizing fiber quality. It is estimated that a bale of U.S. cotton is produced using approximately three man hours of labor while foreign producers may utilize several hundred man h...

  13. Efficacy of some synthetic insecticides for control of cotton bollworms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Betsulfan at 3.2 l ha-1 recorded the highest and lowest yields, respectively. For effective control of cotton bollworms for maximum yield in the ecology, Thionex applied at 2.8 l ha-1 is recommended. Keywords: Control, cotton bollworms, efficacy, Ghana, synthetic insecticides. African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 20, No.

  14. Quantification and characterization of cotton crop biomass residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton crop residual biomass remaining in the field after mechanical seed cotton harvest is not typically harvested and utilized off-site thereby generating additional revenue for producers. Recently, interest has increased in utilizing biomass materials as feedstock for the production of fuel and ...

  15. Crop residue inventory estimates for Texas High Plains cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in the use of cotton crop by-products for the production of bio-fuels and value-added products is increasing. Research documenting the availability of cotton crop by-products after machine harvest is needed. The objectives of this work were to document the total biomass production for moder...

  16. Productivity and resource use in cotton and wheat relay intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Grain yield; lint yield; phenological delay; light use; nitrogen use; resource use efficiency; modelling; profitability; water productivity. From the early 1980s onwards, farmers in the Yellow River cotton producing region intercropped cotton and winter wheat; currently on more than 60% of

  17. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS; Thea; A

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our understanding of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a `white paper' published in 2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated upland cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degree

  18. Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that a large set of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across the At and ...

  19. Current university and USDA lab cotton contamination research

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. cotton is considered to have some of the lowest levels of contamination in the world. However, that reputation is in jeopardy as complaints of contamination from domestic and foreign mills are on the rise. Cotton contamination can be classified under four major categorizes: fabrics and strings ...

  20. Nitrogen economy in relay intercropping systems of wheat and cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.Z.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Werf, van der W.

    2008-01-01

    Relay intercropping of wheat and cotton is practiced on a large scale in China. Winter wheat is thereby grown as a food crop from November to June and cotton as a cash crop from April to October. The crops overlap in time, growing as an intercrop, from April till June. High levels of nitrogen are

  1. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, S.M.; Hansen, K.; Romanish, M.; Thorn, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia

  2. Governing the transnational organic cotton network from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Vodouhè, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to conceptualize the historical development and the governance structure of the transnational organic cotton network from Benin. We aim to discover how the organic cotton production-consumption network is governed locally and internationally. Existing bodies of literature

  3. Role of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in resistance to cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Disease percentage on six cotton varieties with respect to time for cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) was evaluated. In August 2007, the maximum disease was observed in CIM-506, CYTO-89 and BH-118. (susceptible), whereas CIM-443 was resistant with lower disease percentage. It was found that the leaf.

  4. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes of the Act, the classification of any cotton shall be determined by the quality of a sample in accordance... employees will determine all fiber property measurements using High Volume Instruments. The classification...

  5. Statistical behavior of the tensile property of heated cotton fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temperature dependence of the tensile property of single cotton fiber was studied in the range of 160-300°C using Favimat test, and its statistical behavior was interpreted in terms of structural changes. The tenacity of control cotton fiber was well described by the single Weibull distribution,...

  6. Fourier transform infrared macro-imaging of botanical cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The marketability of cotton fiber is directly tied to the trash comingled with it. Trash can contaminate cotton during harvesting, ginning, and processing. Thus, the removal of trash is important from field to fabric. An ideal prerequisite to removing trash from lint is identifying what trash types...

  7. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER...

  8. Cotton gin electrical energy use trends and 2009 audit results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton gin energy costs have risen more than other operating costs. Energy audits were conducted in twenty US cotton gins representing a range of capacities in six states. The average participating saw gin used 39.5 kWh to process a bale. The average roller gin used 62.6 kWh. Gins have become la...

  9. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... challenge to the provisions of this rule. Regulatory Flexibility Act Pursuant to requirements set forth in... currently part of the official USDA cotton classification. Accurate assignment of leaf grade is of economic... cost factor associated with its removal. Furthermore, since small leaf particles cannot always be...

  10. Laboratory microwave measurement of the moisture content in seed cotton and ginned cotton fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The timely and accurate measurement of cotton fiber moisture content is important, but the measurement is often performed by laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying methods. Microwave technology for measuring fiber moisture content directly (not for drying only) offers potential advantages...

  11. 77 FR 20503 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... measurements for other quality factors are performed by precise HVI measurements, manual determinations for.... Accurate assignment of leaf grade is of economic importance to all participants along the cotton supply... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Fees paid by users of the service are...

  12. A facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

    2012-11-01

    A facile and novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic cotton fabrics is described in the present work. The superhydrophobic surface has been prepared by utilizing cationic poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) and silica particles together with subsequent modification of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The size distribution of silica particles was measured by Particle Size Analyzer. The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, the superhydrophobic durability of coated cotton textiles has been evaluated by exposure, immersion and washing tests. The results show that the treated cotton fabrics exhibited excellent chemical stability and outstanding non-wettability with the WCA of 155 ± 2°, which offers an opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

  13. Combined influence of Bt rice and rice dwarf virus on biological parameters of a non-target herbivore, Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advent of genetically modified (GM) Bt rice creates the possibility of interactions among Bt crops, crop pathogens and non-target herbivores. In particular, information on how pathogen-infected Bt-expressing plants will influence non-target herbivores is necessary to predict the sustainability o...

  14. 3rd stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  15. 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  16. 1st stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  17. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in dry food packaging. 182.70 Section 182.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging that are generally recognized as safe for their intended use, within the meaning of...

  18. Progress of the BT-EdF-CEA project. The lithium polymer battery; Avancees du projet BT-EdF-CEA. Batterie lithium polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marginedes, D.; Majastre, H. [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Baudry, P.; Lascaud, S. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Bloch, D.; Lebrun, N. [CEA Grenoble, CEREM, 38 (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium-polymer energy storage technology requires the production of thin films of huge surface. The BT-EdF-CEA consortium has studied the various manufacturing techniques of these films and their assembly. The process was chosen according to its productivity, low expensiveness, ecological impact and energy performances with capacities reaching 40 Ah. This paper explains: the objectives and specifications of the project, the advantage of the consortium and the role of the different partners, the results (coating, dry extrusion and battery element manufacturing techniques), and the electrochemical performances of the elements. (J.S.)

  19. Progress of the BT-EdF-CEA project. The lithium polymer battery; Avancees du projet BT-EdF-CEA. Batterie lithium polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marginedes, D; Majastre, H [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Baudry, P; Lascaud, S [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Bloch, D; Lebrun, N [CEA Grenoble, CEREM, 38 (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium-polymer energy storage technology requires the production of thin films of huge surface. The BT-EdF-CEA consortium has studied the various manufacturing techniques of these films and their assembly. The process was chosen according to its productivity, low expensiveness, ecological impact and energy performances with capacities reaching 40 Ah. This paper explains: the objectives and specifications of the project, the advantage of the consortium and the role of the different partners, the results (coating, dry extrusion and battery element manufacturing techniques), and the electrochemical performances of the elements. (J.S.)

  20. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  1. Phosphorus response in two varieties of cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D K; Kumar, Vinod [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hissar (India)

    1974-09-01

    Phosphorus requirements of cotton varieties H-14 and J-34 were studied on seirozem soils of Hissar under greenhouse conditions. The dry matter yield of both the varieties increased significantly upto 120 kg/ha P after which dry matter yield decreased. Total P uptake also increased with the addition of P. The highest utilization of fertilizer P by H-14 and J-34 was observed at 240 kg and 120 kg/ha levels of applied P, respectively. H-14 utilized more native P than J-34 at all levels of P application.

  2. Enhancement in fluorescence quantum yield of MEH-PPV:BT blends for polymer light emitting diode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimith, K. M.; Satyanarayan, M. N.; Umesh, G.

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of blending electron deficient heterocycle Benzothiadiazole (BT) on the photo-physical properties of conjugated polymer Poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV). Quantum yield (QY) value has been found to increase from 37% for pure MEH-PPV to 45% for an optimum MEH-PPV:BT blend ratio of 1:3. This can be attributed to the efficient energy transfer from the wide bandgap BT (host) to the small bandgap MEH-PPV (guest). The FTIR spectrum of MEH-PPV:BT blended thin film indicates suppression of aromatic C-H out-of-plane and in-plane bending, suggesting planarization of the conjugated polymer chains and, hence, leading to increase in the conjugation length. The increase in conjugation length is also evident from the red-shifted PL spectra of MEH-PPV:BT blended films. Single layer MEH-PPV:BT device shows lower turn-on voltage than single layer MEH-PPV alone device. Further, the effect of electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS on the current-voltage characteristics is investigated in the PLED devices with MEH-PPV:BT blend as the active layer. PEDOT:PSS with higher conductivity as HIL reduces the turn on voltage from 4.5 V to 3.9 V and enhances the current density and optical output in the device.

  3. Recent advancement on chemical arsenal of Bt toxin and its application in pest management system in agricultural field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Pritam; Banerjee, Goutam

    2018-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, soil bacterium, which is very popular bio-control agent in agricultural and forestry. In general, B. thuringiensis secretes an array of insecticidal proteins including toxins produced during vegetative growth phase (such as secreted insecticidal protein, Sip; vegetative insecticidal proteins, Vip), parasporal crystalline δ-endotoxins produced during vegetative stationary phase (such as cytolytic toxin, Cyt; and crystal toxin, Cry), and β-exotoxins. Till date, a wide spectrum of Cry proteins has been reported and most of them belong to three-domain-Cry toxins, Bin-like toxin, and Etx_Mtx2-like toxins. To the best of our knowledge, neither Bt insecticidal toxins are exclusive to Bt nor all the strains of Bt are capable of producing insecticidal Bt toxins. The lacuna in their latest classification has also been discussed. In this review, the updated information regarding the insecticidal Bt toxins and their different mode of actions were summarized. Before applying the Bt toxins on agricultural field, the non-specific effects of toxins should be investigated. We also have summarized the problem of insect resistance and the strategies to combat with this problem. We strongly believe that this information will help a lot to the budding researchers in the field of modern pest control biotechnology.

  4. Study on kinetic degradation in soil and horizontal transfer of bt gene by 35S isotopic tracing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Zhang Yanfei; Ye Qingfu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 35 S isotopic tracing method was applied to investigate kinetic degradation of bt gene from Bt transgenic rice TT51 in two different soil and possibility of its horizontal transfer into soil bacteria as well. Results showed that, during 30 d of aerobic incubation, it was indicated that 35 S-Bt gene was not horizontally transferred into soil microorganisms. The aerobic soil degradation dynamics significantly followed a first-order dissipation pattern for bt gene. After 30 d of incubation, the amount of bt gene reached 9.32% of applied radioactivity for the fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil and 9.92% for the fluvio-aquatic soil, respectively. The half-lives in two soils were 3.53 d for the former soil and 5. 77 d for the latter soil, which means that bt gene was more easily degradable in the weak acidic soil. The use of 35 S labeling proved to be valuable; it served the purpose of validating the rigorousness of experimental protocols, and provided insights into the soil environmental safety assessment for Bt transgenic rice. (authors)

  5. Marketing policies and economic interests in the cotton sector of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report, which is based on field research carried out in 1988, examines the marketing arrangements for raw cotton, cotton lint and cotton seed in Kenya, as well as the relationships and conflicts between the actors involved. The report starts with the history of cotton production and marketing

  6. CCI and CI Join Hands:A Better Supply Chain with More Innovations on Cotton Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom; Xue

    2010-01-01

    Cotton Council International("CCI")and Cotton Incorporated("CI") joined forces again,from October 19-22,2010 at Intertextile Shanghai,to promote natural fiber-U.S.cotton.As global textile strategic partners,both organizations were bringing together alliances through the cotton

  7. Fourier-transform imaging of cotton and botanical and field trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical and field cotton trash comingled with cotton lint can greatly reduce the marketability and quality of cotton. Trash can be found comingled with cotton lint during harvesting, ginning, and processing, thus this study is of interest. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (A...

  8. 7 CFR 28.107 - Original cotton standards and reserve sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original cotton standards and reserve sets. 28.107... Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.107 Original cotton standards and reserve sets. (a) The containers of the original Universal Standards and other official cotton standards of the United...

  9. Effect of insertion of Bt gene in corn and different fumonisin content on growth performance of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of Bt corn and isogenic corn on the growth of weaned piglets. One hundred twenty-eight weaned piglets weighing 8.8 ±1.27 kg live weight were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 32 animals each (16 castrated males and 16 females. Bt corn (line MON810 and isogenic corn were produced at two farms located in the Lodi and Venezia provinces (northern Italy. Bt corn had the same chemical composition as the isogenic corn but a lower content of fumonisin B1 (FB1. The experimental period (35 days was divided into two phases: 0-14 d and 15-35 d. There was no significant difference in average daily gain (ADG among groups during the first feeding phase. Compared to animals fed isogenic corn, the piglets fed Bt maize gained more weight during the second feeding phase (Bt: 464.1 g/d, isogenic: 429.1 g/d; P < 0.05. Also, the ADG over the entire trial was higher in piglets fed Bt corn versus piglets fed isogenic corn (Bt: 396.4 g/d, isogenic: 374.1 g/d; P < 0.05. The ADG of the whole period decreased linearly (P<0.05 with respect to FB1 content of diet. Final weight was higher in piglets fed the diet containing Bt corn (Bt: 22.68 kg, isogenic: 21.83 kg; P < 0.05. No differences in feed intake and in the feed:gain ratio were observed, however a linear response between FB1 and feed:gain ratio in first 14 days of the experiment was detected.

  10. Engineering cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for resistance to cotton leaf curl disease using viral truncated AC1 DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Jamil A; Zafar, Yusuf; Arshad, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid; Asad, Shaheen

    2011-04-01

    Several important biological processes are performed by distinct functional domains found on replication-associated protein (Rep) encoded by AC1 of geminiviruses. Two truncated forms of replicase (tAC1) gene, capable of expressing only the N-terminal 669 bp (5'AC1) and C-terminal 783 bp (3'AC1) nucleotides cloned under transcriptional control of the CaMV35S were introduced into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using LBA4404 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to make use of an interference strategy for impairing cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) infection in transgenic cotton. Compared with nontransformed control, we observed that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing either N-terminal (5'AC1) or C-terminal (3'AC1) sequences confer resistance to CLCuV by inhibiting replication of viral genomic and β satellite DNA components. Molecular analysis by Northern blot hybridization revealed high transgene expression in early and late growth stages associated with inhibition of CLCuV replication. Of the eight T(1) transgenic lines tested, six had delayed and minor symptoms as compared to nontransformed control lines which developed disease symptoms after 2-3 weeks of whitefly-mediated viral delivery. Virus biological assay and growth of T(2) plants proved that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing 5'- and 3'AC1 displayed high resistance level up to 72, 81%, respectively, as compared to non-transformed control plants following inoculation with viruliferous whiteflies giving significantly high cotton seed yield. Progeny analysis of these plants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting and virus biological assay showed stable transgene, integration, inheritance and cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) resistance in two of the eight transgenic lines having single or two transgene insertions. Transgenic cotton expressing partial AC1 gene of CLCuV can be used as virus resistance source in cotton breeding programs aiming to improve virus resistance in cotton crop.

  11. Intercropping With Fruit Trees Increases Population Abundance and Alters Species Composition of Spider Mites on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqiang; Pan, Hongsheng; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Bing; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Yanhui

    2018-05-05

    With the recent increase in planting of fruit trees in southern Xinjiang, the intercropping of fruit trees and cotton has been widely adopted. From 2014 to 2016, a large-scale study was conducted in Aksu, an important agricultural area in southern Xinjiang, to compare the abundance and species composition of spider mites in cotton fields under jujube-cotton, apple-cotton, and cotton monocrop systems. The abundance of spider mites in cotton fields under both intercropping systems was generally higher than in the cotton monocrop. The species composition of spider mites also differed greatly between cotton intercropped with apple or jujube compared to the cotton monocrop. The relative proportion of Tetranychus truncates Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) in the species complex generally increased while that of another spider mite, Tetranychus dunhuangensis Wang (Acari: Tetranychidae), decreased under fruit tree-cotton systems. More attention should be paid to the monitoring and management of spider mites, especially T. truncates in this important region of China.

  12. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  13. Bio-oil production from cotton stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jilu; Yi Weiming; Wang Nana

    2008-01-01

    Cotton stalk was fast pyrolyzed at temperatures between 480 deg. C and 530 deg. C in a fluidized bed, and the main product of bio-oil is obtained. The experimental result shows that the highest bio-oil yield of 55 wt% was obtained at 510 deg. C for cotton stalk. The chemical composition of the bio-oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS, and its heat value, stability, miscibility and corrosion characteristics were determined. These results showed that the bio-oil obtained can be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel can be refined to be used by vehicles. Furthermore, the energy performance of the pyrolysis process was analyzed. In the pyrolysis system used in our experiment, some improvements to former pyrolysis systems are done. Two screw feeders were used to prevent jamming the feeding system, and the condenser is equipped with some nozzles and a heat exchanger to cool quickly the cleaned hot gas into bio-oil

  14. TRACTION RESISTANCE IN CHITOSAN TREATED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOX Wouter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural products interest has increased. However, when some products are included on textile fibers, they have no affinity and need some binders or other kind of auxiliaries to improve the yeld of the process, and some of them are not so natural as the product which are binding and consequently the “bio” definition is missed as some of them can be considered as highly pollutant. Chitosan is a common used bonding agent for cotton. It improves the antimicrobial and antifungal activity, improves wound healing and is a non-toxic bonding agent. The biopolymer used in this work is chitosan, which is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. These properties depend on the amount of deacetylation (DD and the Molecular weight (MW. Along with these improving properties, as it requires some acid pH to ve solved the treatment with chitosan can have some decreasing mechanical properties. The aim of that paper is to evaluate the change in breaking force of the treated samples and a change in elongation of those samples. It compared different amounts of concentration of chitosan with non treated cotton. The traction resistance test were performed on a dynamometer. The test was conducted according to the UNE EN ISO 13934-1 standard.

  15. Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui

    2014-02-15

    Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N; Chen, J Y; Parikh, D V

    2009-12-01

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton fiber nonwoven. Their noise absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss were measured using the Brüel and Kjaer impedance tube instrument. Statistical significance of the differences between the composites was tested using the method of Duncan's grouping. The study concluded that the ACF composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with either glassfiber or cotton fiber. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the three composites still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite with the surface layer of cotton fiber nonwoven possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with glassfiber and ACF.

  17. Correlations and Correlated Responses in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echekwu, CA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders must be concerned with the total array of economic characters in their efforts to develop a crop variety acceptable to farmers. Their selection endeavours must therefore take into consideration how changes in one trait affect, simultaneously changes in other economic attributes. The importance of correlations and correlated responses is therefore self evident in plant breeding endeavours. In this study F3 progenies from a cross between two cotton lines SAMCOT-9 x Y422 were evaluated for two years and performance data were used to obtain correlations between nine agronomic and fibre quality traits in upland cotton. The results indicated that plant helght was significantly and positively correlated with seed cotton yield, number of sympodial and monopodial branches, seed index, fibre length and micronaire index. Positive and significant correlations were also obtained between : seed cotton yield, tint percent and fibre strength and fibre length. Significant negative correlations were obtained between : plant height and lint percent ; number of monopodial branches, sympodial branches and lint percent ; fibre length, fibre strength and micronaire index. The correlated responses in the other eight traits when selection was practiced for seed cotton yield in the present study shows that it might be more profitable to practice direct selection for seed cotton yield compared to selecting for seed cotton yield through any of the other traits.

  18. BT-Nurse: computer generation of natural language shift summaries from complex heterogeneous medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James; Freer, Yvonne; Gatt, Albert; Reiter, Ehud; Sripada, Somayajulu; Sykes, Cindy; Westwater, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The BT-Nurse system uses data-to-text technology to automatically generate a natural language nursing shift summary in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The summary is solely based on data held in an electronic patient record system, no additional data-entry is required. BT-Nurse was tested for two months in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh NICU. Nurses were asked to rate the understandability, accuracy, and helpfulness of the computer-generated summaries; they were also asked for free-text comments about the summaries. The nurses found the majority of the summaries to be understandable, accurate, and helpful (pgenerated summaries. In conclusion, natural language NICU shift summaries can be automatically generated from an electronic patient record, but our proof-of-concept software needs considerable additional development work before it can be deployed.

  19. Chloroplast localization of Cry1Ac and Cry2A protein- an alternative way of insect control in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Muzaffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects have developed resistance against Bt-transgenic plants. A multi-barrier defense system to weaken their resistance development is now necessary. One such approach is to use fusion protein genes to increase resistance in plants by introducing more Bt genes in combination. The locating the target protein at the point of insect attack will be more effective. It will not mean that the non-green parts of the plants are free of toxic proteins, but it will inflict more damage on the insects because they are at maximum activity in the green parts of plants. RESULTS: Successful cloning was achieved by the amplification of Cry2A, Cry1Ac, and a transit peptide. The appropriate polymerase chain reaction amplification and digested products confirmed that Cry1Ac and Cry2A were successfully cloned in the correct orientation. The appearance of a blue color in sections of infiltrated leaves after 72 hours confirmed the successful expression of the construct in the plant expression system. The overall transformation efficiency was calculated to be 0.7%. The amplification of Cry1Ac-Cry2A and Tp2 showed the successful integration of target genes into the genome of cotton plants. A maximum of 0.673 μg/g tissue of Cry1Ac and 0.568 μg/g tissue of Cry2A was observed in transgenic plants. We obtained 100% mortality in the target insect after 72 hours of feeding the 2nd instar larvae with transgenic plants. The appearance of a yellow color in transgenic cross sections, while absent in the control, through phase contrast microscopy indicated chloroplast localization of the target protein. CONCLUSION: Locating the target protein at the point of insect attack increases insect mortality when compared with that of other transgenic plants. The results of this study will also be of great value from a biosafety point of view.

  20. Effect of Bt maize on the plant-aphid-parasitoid tritrophic relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lumbierres, B.; Starý, Petr; Pons, X.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 133-143 ISSN 1386-6141 Grant - others:Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AGL2002-0204; Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2002-(4104) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : transgenic Bt maize * Aphididae * Rhopalosiphum padi Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2011

  1. Flexible Working in BT: An investigation into Motivation, Productivity and Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Harford, Anthony David

    2006-01-01

    British Telecommunications plc (BT) began introducing flexible working initiatives in the early 1990s. The uptake across the company has been varied as many individual and contextual factors have influenced the employee when deciding upon how and where to work. Much of the research on the matter appears to only assess impact and analysis up to 2002, and although internal surveys ( CARE ) have included question sets on flexible working little or no primary research has been undertaken specific...

  2. Management of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Maize in Argentina: A Multi-Institutional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Ana M.; Abratti, Gustavo; Grimi, Damián; Machado, Marcos; Bunge, Florencia F.; Parody, Betiana; Ramos, Laura; Cortese, Pablo; Vesprini, Facundo; Whelan, Agustina; Araujo, Mónica P.; Podworny, Mariano; Cadile, Alejandro; Malacarne, María F.

    2018-01-01

    Evolution of resistance to control measures in insect populations is a natural process, and management practices are intended to delay or mitigate resistance when it occurs. During the 2012/13 season the first reports of unexpected damage by Diatraea saccharalis on some Bt maize hybrids occurred in the northeast of San Luis province, Argentina. The affected Bt technologies were Herculex I® (HX-TC1507) and VT3PRO® (MON 89034 × MON 88017*). Event TC1507 expresses Cry1F and event MON 89034 expresses Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2, whichr are all Bt proteins with activity against the lepidopterans D. saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda (MON 88017 expresses the protein Cry3Bb1 for control of coleopteran insects and the enzyme CP4EPSPS for glyphosate tolerance). The affected area is an isolated region surrounded by sierra systems to the northeast and west, with a hot semi-arid climate, long frost-free period, warm winters, hot dry summers, and woody shrubs as native flora. To manage and mitigate the development of resistance, joint actions were taken by the industry, growers and Governmental Agencies. Hybrids expressing Vip3A protein (event MIR162) and/or Cry1Ab protein (events MON 810 and Bt11) as single or stacked events are used in early plantings to control the first generations of D. saccharalis, and in later plantings date's technologies with good control of S. frugiperda. A commitment was made to plant the refuge, and pest damage is monitored. As a result, maize production in the area is sustainable and profitable with yields above the average. PMID:29888224

  3. The Optimal Tax on Antebellum U.S. Cotton Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas A. Irwin

    2001-01-01

    The United States produced about 80 percent of the world's cotton in the decades prior to the Civil War. How much monopoly power did the United States possess in the world cotton market and what would have been the effect of an optimal export tax? This paper estimates the elasticity of foreign demand for U.S. cotton exports and uses the elasticity in a simple partial equilibrium model to calculate the optimal export tax and its effect on prices, trade, and welfare. The results indicate that t...

  4. The effect of dendrimer on cotton dyeability with direct dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakzar Bafrooei F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of cotton fabric with poly(propylene imine dendrimer enhanced its colour strength using C.I. Direct Red 81 and C.I. Direct Blue 78. Application of this dendrimer and the direct dye simultaneously on cotton fabric by the exhaust and the continuous dyeing method were studied; slight improvements in the dyeing results were obtained. Pretreatment of the cotton fabric with dendrimer in an emulsion form using the pad-dry method followed by continuous dyeing markedly increased the colour strength. In addition, level dyeing was obtained, and no negative effects on the fastness properties of the dyes used were observed.

  5. Performance enhancement of a solar still using cotton regenerative medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Gopal Sakthivel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of a single slope solar still using cotton cloth regenerative medium. The performance was evaluated under the metrological conditions of Chennai city in India during the summer months of 2016. Two single-slope solar stills are fabricated with an effective area of 0.5 m2 with various thicknesses (2, 4, 6, and 8 mm of cotton cloth were used for the performance comparison. The results showed, the solar still with 6 mm thick cotton assisted regenerative solar still has about 28% improved productivity when compared to conventional solar still.

  6. The permittivity and refractive index measurements of doped barium titanate (BT-BCN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Michael A.; Kundu, Souvik; Maurya, Deepam; Kang, Min-Gyu; Sosa, Alejandro; Mudiyanselage, Rathsara R. H. H.; Clavel, Michael; Gollapudi, Sreenivasulu; Hudait, Mantu K.; Priya, Shashank; Khodaparast, Giti A.

    2017-11-01

    While piezoelectric- ferroelectric materials offer great potential for nonvolatile random access memory, most commonly implemented ferroelectrics contain lead which imposes a challenge in meeting environmental regulations. One promising candidate for lead-free, ferroelectric material based memory is (1 - x) BaTiO3 - xBa(Cu1 / 3 Nb2 / 3) O3 (BT-BCN), x = 0.025 . The samples studied here were grown on a Si substrate with an HfO2 buffer layer, thereby preventing the interdiffusion of BT-BTCN into Si. This study provides further insight into the physical behavior of BT-BCN that will strengthen the foundation for developing switching devices. The sample thicknesses ranged from 1.5 to 120 nm, and piezoelectric force microscopy was employed in order to understand the local ferroelectric behaviors. Dielectric constant as a function of frequency demonstrated enhanced frequency dispersion indicating the polar nature of the composition. The relative permittivity was found to change significantly with varying bias voltage and exhibited a tunability of 82%. The difference in the peak position during up and down sweeps is due to the presence of the spontaneous polarization. Furthermore, reflectometry was performed to determine the refractive index of samples with differing thicknesses. Our results demonstrate that refractive indices are similar to that of barium titanate. This is a promising result indicating that improved ferroelectric properties are obtained without compromising the optical properties.

  7. Characterization of neutral lipase BT-1 isolated from the labial gland of Bombus terrestris males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Brabcová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to their general role in the hydrolysis of storage lipids, bumblebee lipases can participate in the biosynthesis of fatty acids that serve as precursors of pheromones used for sexual communication. RESULTS: We studied the temporal dynamics of lipolytic activity in crude extracts from the cephalic part of Bombus terrestris labial glands. Extracts from 3-day-old males displayed the highest lipolytic activity. The highest lipase gene expression level was observed in freshly emerged bumblebees, and both gene expression and lipase activity were lower in bumblebees older than 3 days. Lipase was purified from labial glands, further characterized and named as BT-1. The B. terrestris orthologue shares 88% sequence identity with B. impatiens lipase HA. The molecular weight of B. terrestris lipase BT-1 was approximately 30 kDa, the pH optimum was 8.3, and the temperature optimum was 50°C. Lipase BT-1 showed a notable preference for C8-C10 p-nitrophenyl esters, with the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl caprylate (C8. The Michaelis constant (Km and maximum reaction rate (Vmax for p-nitrophenyl laurate hydrolysis were Km = 0.0011 mM and Vmax = 0.15 U/mg. CONCLUSION: This is the first report describing neutral lipase from the labial gland of B. terrestris. Our findings help increase understanding of its possible function in the labial gland.

  8. Pulsed Dose Rate (PDR - BT) brachytherapy in treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (EBRT) of the conserved breast became widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of RT after breast conservation is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 45 to 50 Gy. Initially brachytherapy for breast cancer was used in addition of external radiation to boost a portion of the breast to higher doses. However, over the past 10 years, the application of brachytherapy in breast cancer has changed. In early stage breast cancer, research has shown that the area that requires radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from returning is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Because this typically includes only a part of the breast, brachytherapy is now being used to treat the targeted portion of the breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose so that treatment is completed in four to five days. Another indications for PDR - BT as a part of treatment in locally advanced breast cancer or as a palliative treatment are discussed in the paper, too. Preliminary results with PDR - BT boost technique are promising. However, more experience and longer follow-up are required to define whether these methods might improve local tumor control for breast cancer patients. In this article the current status, indications, technical aspects and published results of PDR brachytherapy (PDR - BT) in breast cancer treatment are reviewed. (author)

  9. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer fed on leaves of Bt maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins and its non-Bt isoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate, in controlled laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±2 °C, relative humidity of 60±10%, and 14/10 h L/D photoperiod, the larval development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1784 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae fed with leaves of Bt maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 insecticide proteins and its non-Bt isoline. Maize leaves triggered 100% of mortality on S. eridania larvae independently of being Bt or non-Bt plants. However, it was observed that in overall Bt maize (expressing a single or pyramided protein slightly affects the larval development of S. eridania, even under reduced leaf consumption. Therefore, these results showed that Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 can affect the larval development of S. eridania, although it is not a target pest of this plant; however, more research is needed to better understand this evidence. Finally, this study confirms that non-Bt maize leaves are unsuitable food source to S. eridania larvae, suggesting that they are not a potential pest in maize fields.

  10. Factors related to recurrence of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki Dong; Koo, Bong Sik; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Park, Byung Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Lee, Ki Nam; Lee, Young Il; Chung, Duck Hwan

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors related to the recurrence of TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) in the urinary bladder after transurethal resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients in whom TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) after TUR-BT had been confirmed. Recurrence was evaluated by US, CT, cystoscopy and urine smear during the follow-up period of 6 months. The multiplicity, shape, size, and calcification of TCC, as revealed by radiologic studies, were evaluated retrospectively before TUR-BT. After TUR-BT, the histologic grade and pathologic stage of TCC were evaluated. Radiologically, multiple and/or sessile type TCC had a higher recurrence rate than the single and/or pedunculated type. Pathologically, when the grade and stage of bladder tumor were higher, recurrent rates were higher. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Structure of BT-3984, a member of the SusD/RagB family of nutrient-binding molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakolitsa, Constantina; Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of BT-3984, a SusD-family protein, reveals a TPR N-terminal region providing support for a loop-rich C-terminal subdomain and suggests possible interfaces involved in sus complex formation. The crystal structure of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron protein BT-3984 was determined to a resolution of 1.7 Å and was the first structure to be determined from the extensive SusD family of polysaccharide-binding proteins. SusD is an essential component of the sus operon that defines the paradigm for glycan utilization in dominant members of the human gut microbiota. Structural analysis of BT-3984 revealed an N-terminal region containing several tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), while the signature C-terminal region is less structured and contains extensive loop regions. Sequence and structure analysis of BT-3984 suggests the presence of binding interfaces for other proteins from the polysaccharide-utilization complex

  12. Localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol and final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Frederiks, W. M.; Gossrau, R.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    We have detected xanthine oxidoreductase activity in unfixed cryostat sections of rat and chicken liver, rat duodenum, and bovine mammary gland using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol, the electron carrier 1-methoxyphenazine methosulfate, the final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT, and

  13. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Cotton Epicuticular Wax in Defense Against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Muzaffar, Adnan; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-12-01

    Gossypium arboreumis resistant to Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate Cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite ( CLCuBuV and CLCuMB ). However, the G. arboreum wax deficient mutant (GaWM3) is susceptible to CLCuV . Therefore, epicuticular wax was characterized both quantitatively and qualitatively for its role as physical barrier against whitefly mediated viral transmission and co-related with the titer of each viral component (DNA-A, alphasatellite and betasatellite) in plants. The hypothesis was the CLCuV titer in cotton is dependent on the amount of wax laid down on plant surface and the wax composition. Analysis of the presence of viral genes, namely alphasatellite, betasatellite and DNA-A, via real-time PCR in cotton species indicated that these genes are detectable in G. hirsutum , G. harknessii and GaWM3, whereas no particle was detected in G. arboreum . Quantitative wax analysis revealed that G. arboreum contained 183 μg.cm -2 as compared to GaWM3 with only 95 μg.cm -2 . G. hirsutum and G. harknessii had 130 μg.cm -2 and 146 μg.cm -2 , respectively. The GCMS results depicted that Lanceol, cis was 45% in G. harknessii . Heptadecanoic acid was dominant in G. arboreum with 25.6%. GaWM3 had 18% 1,2,-Benenedicarboxylic acid. G. hirsutum contained 25% diisooctyl ester. The whitefly feeding assay with Nile Blue dye showed no color in whiteflies gut fed on G. arboreum . In contrast, color was observed in the rest of whiteflies. From results, it was concluded that reduced quantity as well as absence of (1) 3-trifluoroacetoxytetradecane, (2) 2-piperidinone,n-|4-bromo-n-butyl|, (3) 4-heptafluorobutyroxypentadecane, (4) Silane, trichlorodocosyl-, (5) 6- Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (6) Heptadecanoicacid,16-methyl-,methyl ester in wax could make plants susceptible to CLCuV , infested by whiteflies.

  14. DeepCotton: in-field cotton segmentation using deep fully convolutional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Cremers, Armin B.

    2017-09-01

    Automatic ground-based in-field cotton (IFC) segmentation is a challenging task in precision agriculture, which has not been well addressed. Nearly all the existing methods rely on hand-crafted features. Their limited discriminative power results in unsatisfactory performance. To address this, a coarse-to-fine cotton segmentation method termed "DeepCotton" is proposed. It contains two modules, fully convolutional network (FCN) stream and interference region removal stream. First, FCN is employed to predict initially coarse map in an end-to-end manner. The convolutional networks involved in FCN guarantee powerful feature description capability, simultaneously, the regression analysis ability of neural network assures segmentation accuracy. To our knowledge, we are the first to introduce deep learning to IFC segmentation. Second, our proposed "UP" algorithm composed of unary brightness transformation and pairwise region comparison is used for obtaining interference map, which is executed to refine the coarse map. The experiments on constructed IFC dataset demonstrate that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches, either in different common scenarios or single/multiple plants. More remarkable, the "UP" algorithm greatly improves the property of the coarse result, with the average amplifications of 2.6%, 2.4% on accuracy and 8.1%, 5.5% on intersection over union for common scenarios and multiple plants, separately.

  15. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvobrata Majumder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jute (Corchorus sp. is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4. The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee, hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber.

  16. Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Six Practice Tests for the iBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Six Practice Tests for the iBT gives students plenty of practice as they prepare for the Internet-based TOEFL (iBT) or the new form of the institutional TOEFL (ITP). This new book/audio set contains a concise description of the TOEFL and the types of questions in each section, as well as six full-length tests that have not been published before.…

  17. Stable integration and expression of a cry1Ia gene conferring resistance to fall armyworm and boll weevil in cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carliane Rc; Monnerat, Rose; Lima, Liziane M; Martins, Érica S; Melo Filho, Péricles A; Pinheiro, Morganna Pn; Santos, Roseane C

    2016-08-01

    Boll weevil is a serious pest of cotton crop. Effective control involves applications of chemical insecticides, increasing the cost of production and environmental pollution. The current genetically modified Bt crops have allowed great benefits to farmers but show activity limited to lepidopteran pests. This work reports on procedures adopted for integration and expression of a cry transgene conferring resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm by using molecular tools. Four Brazilian cotton cultivars were microinjected with a minimal linear cassette generating 1248 putative lines. Complete gene integration was found in only one line (T0-34) containing one copy of cry1Ia detected by Southern blot. Protein was expressed in high concentration at 45 days after emergence (dae), decreasing by approximately 50% at 90 dae. Toxicity of the cry protein was demonstrated in feeding bioassays revealing 56.7% mortality to boll weevil fed buds and 88.1% mortality to fall armyworm fed leaves. A binding of cry1Ia antibody was found in the midgut of boll weevils fed on T0-34 buds in an immunodetection assay. The gene introduced into plants confers resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm. Transmission of the transgene occurred normally to T1 progeny. All plants showed phenotypically normal growth, with fertile flowers and abundant seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Theoretical and numerical evaluation of polarimeter using counter-circularly-polarized-probing-laser under the coupling between Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated an effect of an coupling between the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect to a measurement signal of the Dodel-Kunz method which uses counter-circular-polarized probing-laser for measuring the Faraday effect. When the coupling is small (the Faraday effect is dominant and the characteristic eigenmodes are approximately circularly polarized), the measurement signal can be algebraically expressed and it is shown that the finite effect of the coupling is still significant. When the Faraday effect is not dominant, a numerical calculation is necessary. The numerical calculation under an ITER-like condition (Bt = 5.3 T, Ip = 15 MA, a = 2 m, ne = 10(20) m(-3) and λ = 119 μm) showed that difference between the pure Faraday rotation and the measurement signal of the Dodel-Kunz method was an order of one degree, which exceeds allowable error of ITER poloidal polarimeter. In conclusion, similar to other polarimeter techniques, the Dodel-Kunz method is not free from the coupling between the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect.

  19. Conductive Cotton Fabrics for Motion Sensing and Heating Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyun Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conductive cotton fabric was prepared by coating single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs on a knitted cotton fabric surface through a “dip-and-dry” method. The combination of CNTs and cotton fabric was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The CNTs coating improved the mechanical properties of the fabric and imparted conductivity to the fabric. The electromechanical performance of the CNT-cotton fabric (CCF was evaluated. Strain sensors made from the CCF exhibited a large workable strain range (0~100%, fast response and great stability. Furthermore, CCF-based strain sensors was used to monitor the real-time human motions, such as standing, walking, running, squatting and bending of finger and elbow. The CCF also exhibited strong electric heating effect. The flexible strain sensors and electric heaters made from CCF have potential applications in wearable electronic devices and cold weather conditions.

  20. Assessment of Bollgard II cotton pollen mediated transgenes flow to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INERA05

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... insects such as honey bees, bumble bees and butterflies. Genetic materials ... cotton fields separated from the transgenes source by wide open space. In Boni ..... Breeding: new strategies in plant improvement. International ...

  1. Bleaching of hydroentangled greige cotton nonwoven fabrics without scouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated whether a hydroentangled greige cotton nonwoven fabric made at a relatively high hydroentangling water pressure, say, 135-bar, could be successfully bleached to attain the desired whiteness, absorbency and other properties without traditional scouring. Accordingly, the scoured...

  2. Aerial electrostatic spray deposition and canopy penetration in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray deposition on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces along with canopy penetration are essential for insect control and foliage defoliation in cotton production agriculture. Researchers have reported that electrostatically charged sprays have increased spray deposit onto these surfaces under widel...

  3. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring the Rio Grande Valley cotton stalk destruction program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A.J.; Gerbermann, A.H.; Summy, K.R.; Anderson, G.L. (Department of Agriculture, Weslaco, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Post harvest cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalk destruction is a cultural practice used in the Rio Grande Valley to suppress over wintering populations of boll weevils (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) without using chemicals. Consistent application of this practice could substantially reduce insecticide usage, thereby minimizing environmental hazards and increasing cotton production profits. Satellite imagery registered within a geographic information system was used to monitor the cotton stalk destruction program in the Rio Grande Valley. We found that cotton stalk screening procedures based on standard multispectral classification techniques could not reliably distinguish cotton from sorghum. Greenness screening for cotton plant stalks after the stalk destruction deadline was possible only where ground observations locating cotton fields were available. These findings indicate that a successful cotton stalk destruction monitoring program will require satellite images and earth referenced data bases showing cotton field locations.

  4. Study of gene flow from GM cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) varieties in El Espinal (Tolima, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rache Cardenal, Leidy Yanira; Mora Oberlaender, Julian; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM) cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia), however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise Remolinos Inc. located in El Espinal (Tolima) were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seed mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80.4 %) and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %), besides pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton.

  5. Utilization of cotton waste for regenerated cellulose fibres: Influence of degree of polymerization on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Rasike; Byrne, Nolene

    2017-10-15

    Cotton accounts for 30% of total fibre production worldwide with over 50% of cotton being used for apparel. In the process from cotton bud to finished textile product many steps are required, and significant cotton waste is generated. Typically only 30% of pre consumer cotton is recycled. Here we use cotton waste lint to produce regenerated cellulose fibres (RCF). We find the RCF from waste cotton lint had increased mechanical properties compared to RCF produced from wood pulp. We show that this is likely linked to the higher degree of polymerization (DP) of waste cotton lint. An ionic liquid is used to dissolve the cotton lint and the rheology of the spinning is measured. The properties of the RCF are characterized and compared to wood pulp RCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lithium/polymer batteries. Safety approach of the BT-EDF-CEA project; Accumulateurs lithium/polymere. Demarche securite du projet BT-EDF-CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascaud, S.; Baudry, P. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H. [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Bloch, D. [CEAGrenoble, CEREM, 38 (France)

    1996-12-31

    The BT-EdF-CEA consortium for the development and the performance improvement of lithium/polymer batteries has carried out a safety analysis of the industrial risk and the risk for users linked with this new technology. The process chosen for the manufacturing of lithium/polymer batteries does not generate any particular risk of personnel or environmental contamination. Security tests have permitted to observe and analyze the behaviour of 4 Ah elements during thermal shocks, perforation and crushing, and during external short-circuit on 20 Ah elements. These tests demonstrate the great thermal stability and the excellent behaviour of batteries in the case of partial destruction. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  7. Lithium/polymer batteries. Safety approach of the BT-EDF-CEA project; Accumulateurs lithium/polymere. Demarche securite du projet BT-EDF-CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascaud, S; Baudry, P [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Bloch, D [CEAGrenoble, CEREM, 38 (France)

    1997-12-31

    The BT-EdF-CEA consortium for the development and the performance improvement of lithium/polymer batteries has carried out a safety analysis of the industrial risk and the risk for users linked with this new technology. The process chosen for the manufacturing of lithium/polymer batteries does not generate any particular risk of personnel or environmental contamination. Security tests have permitted to observe and analyze the behaviour of 4 Ah elements during thermal shocks, perforation and crushing, and during external short-circuit on 20 Ah elements. These tests demonstrate the great thermal stability and the excellent behaviour of batteries in the case of partial destruction. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  8. Sustainability in the supply chain of organic cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Retamiro, Wiliam; Silva, José Luis Gomes da; Vieira, Edson Trajano

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to diagnose the application of sustainability concepts in the economic, spatial,ecological, social, cultural and politics in the productive chain of cotton. Explains about the cotton industry is free from all pesticides and their use in the textile production chain, increasing the value of the input, as well as products derived from this. Analyzed by the method of case studywith a qualitative approach in a bibliographic and documentary through to the collection of data,their...

  9. Biological Innovation and Productivity Growth in the Antebellum Cotton Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alan L. Olmstead; Paul W. Rhode

    2008-01-01

    The Cliometrics literature on slave efficiency has generally focused on static questions. We take a decidedly more dynamic approach. Drawing on the records of 142 plantations with 509 crops years, we show that the average daily cotton picking rate increased about four-fold between 1801 and 1862. We argue that the development and diffusion of new cotton varieties were the primary sources of the increased efficiency. These finding have broad implications for understanding the South's preeminenc...

  10. Cycling of fertilizer and cotton crop residue nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, I.J.; Constable, G.A.; MacLeod, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral nitrogen (N), nitrate and ammonium contents were monitored in N-fertilized soils supporting cotton crops to provide information on the nitrification, mineralization and immobilization processes operating in the soil. The relative contributions of fertilizer N, previous cotton crop residue N and indigenous soil N to the mineral N pools and to the current crop's N uptake were calculated. After N fertilizer (urea) application, the soil's mineral N content rose rapidly and subsequently declined at a slower rate. The recovery of 15 N-labelled urea as mineral N declined exponentially with time. Biological immobilization (and possibly denitrification to some extent) were believed to be the major processes reducing post-application soil mineral N content. Progressively less N was mineralized upon incubation of soil sampled through the growing season. Little soil N (either from urea or crop residue) was mineralized at crop maturity. Cycling of N was evident between the soil mineral and organic N pools throughout the cotton growing season. Considerable quantities of fertilizer N were immobilized by the soil micro biomass; immobilized N was remineralized and subsequently taken up by the cotton crop. A large proportion of the crop N was taken up in the latter part of the season when the soil mineral N content was low. It is suggested that much of the N taken up by cotton was derived from microbial sources, rather than crop residues. The application of cotton crop residue (stubble) slightly reduced the mineral N content in the soil by encouraging biological immobilization. 15 N was mineralized very slowly from the labelled crop residue and did not contribute significantly to the supply of N to the current crop. Recovery of labelled fertilizer N and labelled crop residue N by the cotton crop was 28% and 1%, respectively. In comparison, the apparent recovery of fertilizer N was 48%. Indigenous soil N contributed 68% of the N taken up by the cotton crop. 33 refs., 1 tab

  11. Genomic studies for drought tolerance in cotton (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob-ur-Rehman; Ullah, I.; Asir, M.; Zafar, Y.; Malik, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    The cotton germplasm developed in Pakistan has not been screened comprehensively for their response to water stress, which is a pre-requisite in exploring different metabolic pathways, development of genome maps, isolation of genes etc. The objectives of the study were to identify drought tolerant/sensitive cotton genotypes, development of genetic linkage maps, and to identify the most robust DNA markers leading towards marker-assisted selection (MAS). A field trial was conducted to investigate variation in gas exchange parameters and productivity traits in 32 cotton cultivars/promising strains under water stress environment and to ascertain association among these physiological and productivity traits. Photosynthetic rate (P), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) were significantly reduced under water stress. Substantial genotypic variation for gas exchange parameters especially photosynthetic rate were observed with a significant association with productivity traits under water-limited environment elucidating its use as an indirect selection criterion for seed cotton yield. Moreover, the genotypes FH-901 and CIM-1100 were found the most sensitive and tolerant cultivars, respectively. Four hundred eighty random primers were surveyed on different cotton genotypes involved in population development programs. Out of these, 32 polymorphic primers were identified which are being converted into sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs). Similarly, 25 out of 150 microstatellite loci (SSRs) were polymorphic among the cotton genotypes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting technique is being exploited to search for additional polymorphisms. The study will have impact on cotton breeding programme by reducing span to develop drought tolerant cotton varieties. (author)

  12. Study on Bleaching Technology of Cotton Fabric with Sodium Percarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhi; Wang Yanling; Wang Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Bleach cotton fabric with sodium percarbonate solution. Analyse of the effect of the concentration of sodium percarbonate solution, bleaching time, bleaching temperature and the light radiation on the bleaching effect of fabric.The result shows that increasing concentrations of percarbonate,increasing the bleaching time , raising the bleaching temperature and the UV irradiation may whiten the cotton fabric.The most suitable conditions for the bleaching process is concentration of sodium perca...

  13. Composting of cotton wastes; Compostaje de residuos de algodon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobao, M.M.; Tejada, M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J.L.

    1997-12-31

    In this article a study on the composting process of residuals of cotton gin is presented crushed and not crushed, previous. The analysis of correlation gotten for each one of the treatments reveals that although common correlations between the parameters studied for both treatment exist, they are presented a great number of correlations between this parameters for the treatment of cotton crushed residuals. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Limites du riz Bt dans le contexte entomologique de la riziculture en Afrique sub-saharienne et à Madagascar (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of Bt rice in the entomological rice cropping context in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. A review. In sub-Saharan African countries and Madagascar, rice crops host many insect species, which have been inventoried and studied for almost 40 years. Management of these rice pests using synthetic chemical pesticides is not common practice. In Asia, genetically modified rice varieties (Bt rice resistant to some insects were engineered in the 1990s. In 2009, two Bt rice varieties were authorized to be marketed in China. Bt rice is not grown in African countries. We therefore decided to analyze the published literature on Bt rice and to compare the findings with the current insect pest situation in African rice fields. The activity spectrum and the efficacy of Bt toxins represent the first limitation encountered in the use of currently available Bt rice varieties. For instance, the effect of Bt toxins against Diptera (Diopsidae species is unknown, since these species only occur in Africa. On the African continent and in Madagascar, it would be essential to enhance or promote taxonomic, biological and ecological knowledge concerning rice pests and to more accurately measure the impact of various insect species on crop yields. The broad range of rice insect pests, including insect vectors of disease, the risk of target insects developing resistance to Bt toxins and the lack of economic assessments suggest that, with the current state of knowledge in Africa, it would be inappropriate to introduce currently available Bt rice varieties there.

  15. Bromodomain proteins GTE9 and GTE11 are essential for specific BT2-mediated sugar and ABA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anjali; McKnight, Thomas D; Mandadi, Kranthi K

    2018-03-01

    Global Transcription Factor Group E proteins GTE9 and GTE11 interact with BT2 to mediate ABA and sugar responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. BT2 is a BTB-domain protein that regulates responses to various hormone, stress and metabolic conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss of BT2 results in plants that are hypersensitive to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars. Conversely, overexpression of BT2 results in resistance to ABA and sugars. Here, we report the roles of BT2-interacting partners GTE9 and GTE11, bromodomain and extraterminal-domain proteins of Global Transcription Factor Group E, in BT2-mediated responses to sugars and hormones. Loss-of-function mutants, gte9-1 and gte11-1, mimicked the bt2-1-null mutant responses; germination of all three mutants was hypersensitive to inhibition by glucose and ABA. Loss of either GTE9 or GTE11 in a BT2 over-expressing line blocked resistance to sugars and ABA, indicating that both GTE9 and GTE11 were required for BT2 function. Co-immunoprecipitation of BT2 and GTE9 suggested that these proteins physically interact in vivo, and presumably function together to mediate responses to ABA and sugar signals.

  16. Elemental analysis of cotton by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Emily R.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.

  17. Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimar Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in the production of colored and organic cotton, may result in reduction of water use, and consequent reduction in the disposal of effluents in nature. As the colored and organic cotton is produced by small farmers, governmental agencies need to participate in the effort of improving its production and distribution, providing the needed infrastructure to meet the increasing market. This would slowly encourage the reduction of white cotton consumption in exchange for this naturally colored product. The water used, and consequent polluted discharge in the use of colored cotton in the textile industry might be reduced by 70%, assuming a reduction of environmental impact of 5% per year would represent expressive numbers in the next ten years. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  18. Asymmetric evolution and domestication in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy plays a major role in genome evolution, which corresponds to environmental changes over millions of years. The mechanisms of genome evolution, particularly during the process of domestication, are of broad interest in the fields of plant science and crop breeding. Upland cotton is derived from the hybridization and polyploidization of its ancient A and D diploid ancestors. As a result, cotton is a model for polyploid genome evolution and crop domestication. To explore the genomic mysteries of allopolyploid cotton, we investigated asymmetric evolution and domestication in the A and D subgenomes. Interestingly, more structural rearrangements have been characterized in the A subgenome than in the D subgenome. Correspondingly, more transposable elements, a greater number of lost and disrupted genes, and faster evolution have been identified in the A subgenome. In contrast, the centromeric retroelement (RT-domain related sequence of tetraploid cotton derived from the D subgenome progenitor was found to have invaded the A subgenome centromeres after allotetrapolyploid formation. Although there is no genome-wide expression bias between the subgenomes, as with expression-level alterations, gene expression bias of homoeologous gene pairs is widespread and varies from tissue to tissue. Further, there are more positively selected genes for fiber yield and quality in the A subgenome and more for stress tolerance in the D subgenome, indicating asymmetric domestication. This review highlights the asymmetric subgenomic evolution and domestication of allotetraploid cotton, providing valuable genomic resources for cotton research and enhancing our understanding of the basis of many other allopolyploids.

  19. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics using crosslinking polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Chen, Zhenxing; Sun, Yongli; Yang, Huawei; Zhang, Hongjie; Dou, Haozhen; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-05-01

    With the aim of removing and recycling oil and organic solvent from water, a facile and low-cost crosslinking polymerization method was first applied on surface modification of cotton fabrics for water/oil separation. Micro-nano hierarchical rough structure was constructed by triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) that formed a polymeric layer on the surface of the fabric and anchored Al2O3 nanoparticles firmly between the fabric surface and the polymer layer. Superhydrophobic property was further obtained through self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups on the rough surface. The as-prepared cotton fabric exhibited superoleophilicity in atmosphere and superhydrophobicity both in atmosphere and under oil with the water contact angle of 153° and 152° respectively. Water/oil separation test showed that the as-prepared cotton fabric can handle with various oil-water mixtures with a high separation efficiency over 99%. More importantly, the separation efficiency remained above 98% over 20 cycles of reusing without losing its superhydrophobicity which demonstrated excellent reusability in oil/water separation process. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton fabric possessed good contamination resistance ability and self-cleaning property. Simulation washing process test showed the superhydrophobic cotton fabric maintained high value of water contact angle above 150° after 100 times washing, indicating great stability and durability. In summary, this work provides a brand-new way to surface modification of cotton fabric and makes it a promising candidate material for oil/water separation.

  20. The change and relationship of several endogenesis hormone in different organs of cotton plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Zhiqiang; Zhang Baoming; Liu Fang; Song Guoqi

    2005-01-01

    The changes of endogenesis hormone in young leaves (02)/functional leaves (04)/old leaves (08)/root tissue and root sap in different developing stages of Bt transgenic cotton GK-12 were investigated in 2002 at CAAS. The results showed that: 1) iPA + iP contents in young leaves/functional leaves/old leaves and root tissue changed with the changes of ZR + Z contents in different developing stages, but the changes trends were in other way round. The function of iPA + iP and ZR + Z were corresponding and complementary. Both the changes trends of iPA + iP and ZR + Z were single apex curves. 2) GA 3 and GA 4 , the two members of gibberellic acid, were also measured in this study. The change trends of GA 3 and GA 4 in young leaves/functional leaves/old leaves and root tissue were same. GA 3 was mainly regulating the construction and function of leaves and roots, GA 4 was mainly regulating consenescence of leaves. 3) The change trends of IAA and ABA in young leaves/functional leaves/old leaves and root tissue were different in different developing stage. The content of IAA and ABA in young leaves/functional leaves increased, and the content of IAA and ABA in old leaves and root tissue decreased with the development. ABA start-up senescence process of leaf and root, and then content of ABA declined. 4) The change trends of iPA + iP/ZR + Z/GA 3 /GA 4 /IAA and ABA content in root sap were single apex curve. (authors)

  1. Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus with intact or mutant transcriptional activator proteins: complexity of cotton leaf curl disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Alok, Anshu; Lalit, Adarsh; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Roy, Joy K; Singh, Sudhir P

    2015-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton on the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, three cotton leaf curl viruses, cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) and cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), and their associated satellites, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA), were detected. CLCuBuV with either intact (CLCuBuV-1) or mutant (CLCuBuV-2) transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) were detected in different plants. Agroinoculation with CLCuBuV-1 or CLCuBuV-2 together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, resulted in typical leaf curling and stunting of tobacco plants. Inoculation with CLCuKoV or an isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-2), together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, induced severe leaf curling, while the other isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-1), which was recombinant in origin, showed mild leaf curling in tobacco. To investigate the effect of intact or mutant TrAP and also the recombination events, CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2, CLCuMV-1 or CLCuMV-2 together with the satellites (CLCuMA and CLCuMB) were transferred to cotton via whitefly-mediated transmission. Cotton plants containing CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2 or CLCuMV-2 together with satellites showed curling and stunting, whereas the plants having CLCuMV-1 and the satellites showed only mild and indistinguishable symptoms. CLCuBuV-1 (intact TrAP) showed severe symptoms in comparison to CLCuBuV-2 (mutant TrAP). The present study reveals that two types of CLCuBuV, one with an intact TrAP and the other with a mutant TrAP, exist in natural infection of cotton in India. Additionally, CLCuMuV-1, which has a recombinant origin, induces mild symptoms in comparison to the other CLCuMV isolates.

  2. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    cotton fibers, which are of both biological and industrial importance. To this end, we attempted to study cotton fiber characteristics together with glycan arrays using regression based approaches. Taking advantage of the comprehensive microarray polymer profiling technique (CoMPP), 32 cotton lines from...... different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength...

  3. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  4. Multi-state trials of Bt sweet corn varieties for control of the corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, A M; Olmstead, D L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Dively, G; Welty, C; Sparks, A N

    2013-10-01

    Field tests in 2010-2011 were performed in New York, Minnesota, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia to compare Bt sweet corn lines expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab with their non-Bt isolines, with and without the use of foliar insecticides. The primary insect pest in all locations during the trial years was Heliocoverpa zea (Boddie), which is becoming the most serious insect pest of sweet corn in the United States. At harvest, the ears were measured for marketability according to fresh market and processing standards. For fresh market and processing, least squares regression showed significant effects of protein expression, state, and insecticide frequency. There was a significant effect of year for fresh market but not for processing. The model also showed significant effects of H. zea per ear by protein expression. Sweet corn containing two genes (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2) and a single gene (Cry1Ab) provided high marketability, and both Bt varieties significantly outperformed the traditional non-Bt isolines in nearly all cases regardless of insecticide application frequency. For pest suppression of H. zea, plants expressing Bt proteins consistently performed better than non-Bt isoline plants, even those sprayed at conventional insecticide frequencies. Where comparisons in the same state were made between Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants for fresh market, the product expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 provided better protection and resulted in less variability in control. Overall, these results indicate Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants are suitable for fresh market and processing corn production across a diversity of growing regions and years. Our results demonstrate that Bt sweet corn has the potential to significantly reduce the use of conventional insecticides against lepidopteran pests and, in turn, reduce occupational and environmental risks that arise from intensive insecticide use.

  5. Sublethal effects of Cry 1F Bt corn and clothianidin on black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Sears, Mark K; Schaafsma, Arthur W

    2011-04-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an occasional pest of maize (corn), Zea mays L., that may cause severe stand losses and injury to corn seedlings. The efficacy of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin at two commercially available rates and their interaction with a transgenic corn hybrid (Bt corn), trait expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis variety aizawai insecticidal toxin Cry 1Fa2, against black cutworm larvae was investigated. Clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) on Bt corn increased larval mortality and reduced larval weight gains additively. In contrast, weights of larvae fed non-Bt corn seedlings treated with clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) increased significantly, suggesting either compensatory overconsumption, hormesis, or hormoligosis. Both Bt corn alone and clothianidin at a rate of 125 mg kernel(-1) applied to non-Bt corn seedlings caused increased mortality and reduced larval weight gains. In two field trials, plots planted with Bt corn hybrids consistently had the highest plant populations and yields, regardless of whether they were treated with clothianidin at the lower commercial rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) The use of Bt corn alone or in combination with the low rate of clothianidin (25 mg kernel(-1)) seems suitable as a means of suppressing black cutworm in no-tillage cornfields, although rescue treatments may still be necessary under severe infestations. Clothianidin alone at the low rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) is not recommended for black cutworm control until further studies of its effects on larval physiology and field performance have been completed.

  6. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen P Hendriksma

    Full Text Available The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  7. Testing Pollen of Single and Stacked Insect-Resistant Bt-Maize on In vitro Reared Honey Bee Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P.; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops. PMID:22194811

  8. Apparent digestibility coefficients and consumption of corn silage with and without Bt gene in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn silage is the most important preserved food for ruminants. The transgenic corn was inserted into the genetic code Bt gene (Bacillus thuringiensis that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillars pests of maize, reducing production costs. To evaluate the varieties of plant corn silage DKB and AG with or without the Bt gene on the voluntary intake of DM (g/day and apparent digestibility coefficients (CDA of nutrients in sheep, the experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used 20 sheep and the experimental design was randomized blocks in scheme factorial type 2x2 (two varieties of plant corn to silage, with the presence or absence of Bt gene, with five animals per treatment. These animals were housed in metabolism cages, with collector and separator feces and urine for 21 days, comprising 8 days for diet adaptation and 7 days for determination of intake, followed by 6 days of collection of feces, to measure DMI (g/day, CDA DM, CP and NDF. Samples of feed offered, leftovers and feces were identified and placed in a circulating air oven maintained at 55°C to constant weight. The analyses were performed in Bromatological Analysis Laboratory of the Institute of Animal Science. To CTMS (g/day was interaction effect (p<0.05 than in the variety AG (779.36 was greater than DKB (637.52, because the DM content of the sheet AG (31.09 was superior to DKB (29.17. The AG (779.36 was higher than your counterpart isogenic without the gene (575.15 p<0.05. The DKB without the gene (637.52 did not differ (p>0.05 from your counterpart DKBBt with the gene (590.78. The lowest total DM intake in g/day was observed for varieties with Bt gene insertion (genetically modified organism - GMO and a possible explanation is the higher value of NDF in the silages of variety with the Bt gene in relation to their isogenic counterparts without the gene. The CDA, DM and NDF no had interaction effect between varieties factors and GMO (p>0

  9. Tensile Properties of Single Jersey and 1×1 Rib Knitted Fabrics Made from 100% Cotton and Cotton/Lycra Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereje Berihun Sitotaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tensile properties such as tensile strength which is measured as breaking force in Newton (N and elongation percent (% at break of single jersey and 1×1 rib (knitted with full needles knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra yarns (5% Lycra yarn content in 95% combed cotton yarn are investigated in this research. The sample fabrics are conditioned for 24 hours at 20±1°C temperature and 65±2% relative humidity before testing. Ten specimens (five for lengthwise and five for widthwise have been taken from each of the two knitted structures, those made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra (at 95/5 percent ratio blend yarns. According to the discussion and as found from the investigations, the tensile properties of single jersey and 1×1 rib knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra yarns are significantly different from each other and both of the knitted fabrics have high elongation percent at break with cotton/Lycra blend yarns as compared to 100% cotton yarn. Knitted fabrics made from cotton/Lycra blended yarn have low breaking force and high elongation percent at break relative to knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton yarns.

  10. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  11. Bt-transgenic oilseed rape hybridization with its weedy relative, Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Millwood, Reginald J; Raymer, Paul L; Stewart, C Neal

    2002-10-01

    The movement of transgenes from crops to weeds and the resulting consequences are concerns of modern agriculture. The possible generation of "superweeds" from the escape of fitness-enhancing transgenes into wild populations is a risk that is often discussed, but rarely studied. Oilseed rape, Brassica napus (L.), is a crop with sexually compatible weedy relatives, such as birdseed rape (Brassica rapa (L.)). Hybridization of this crop with weedy relatives is an extant risk and an excellent interspecific gene flow model system. In laboratory crosses, T3 lines of seven independent transformation events of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) oilseed rape were hybridized with two weedy accessions of B. rapa. Transgenic hybrids were generated from six of these oilseed rape lines, and the hybrids exhibited an intermediate morphology between the parental species. The Bt transgene was present in the hybrids, and the protein was synthesized at similar levels to the corresponding independent oilseed rape lines. Insect bioassays were performed and confirmed that the hybrid material was insecticidal. The hybrids were backcrossed with the weedy parent, and only half the oilseed rape lines were able to produce transgenic backcrosses. After two backcrosses, the ploidy level and morphology of the resultant plants were indistinguishable from B. rapa. Hybridization was monitored under field conditions (Tifton, GA, USA) with four independent lines of Bt oilseed rape with a crop to wild relative ratio of 1200:1. When B. rapa was used as the female parent, hybridization frequency varied among oilseed rape lines and ranged from 16.9% to 0.7%.

  12. Density Dependence and Growth Rate: Evolutionary Effects on Resistance Development to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jeannette C; Caprio, Michael A; Friedenberg, Nicholas A

    2018-02-09

    It has long been recognized that pest population dynamics can affect the durability of a pesticide, but dose remains the primary component of insect resistance management (IRM). For transgenic pesticidal traits such as Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)), dose (measured as the mortality of susceptibles caused by a toxin) is a relatively fixed characteristic and often falls below the standard definition of high dose. Hence, it is important to understand how pest population dynamics modify durability and what targets they present for IRM. We used a deterministic model of a generic arthropod pest to examine how timing and strength of density dependence interacted with population growth rate and Bt mortality to affect time to resistance. As in previous studies, durability typically reached a minimum at intermediate doses. However, high population growth rates could eliminate benefits of high dose. The timing of density dependence had a more subtle effect. If density dependence operated simultaneously with Bt mortality, durability was insensitive to its strengths. However, if density dependence was driven by postselection densities, decreasing its strength could increase durability. The strength of density dependence could affect durability of both single traits and pyramids, but its influence depended on the timing of density dependence and size of the refuge. Our findings suggest the utility of a broader definition of high dose, one that incorporates population-dynamic context. That maximum growth rates and timing and strength of interactions causing density dependent mortality can all affect durability, also highlights the need for ecologically integrated approaches to IRM research. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Nye oplysninger om effekter af Bt-majs på sommerfugle. MON810, BT11. Brev fra Greenpeace til Miljøministeren. Modtaget 17-12-2004, deadline 22-12-2004, svar 22-12-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Morten Tune; Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    "De nye oplysninger medfører ingen væsentlige ændringer af DMUs tidligere risikovurdering af Bt-11 majsen (C/F/96.05.10, mail pr. 28-08-2003). Dog har vi en tilføjelse vedrørende behov for specifik overvågning (se nedenfor). Vi har ikke tidligere foretaget nogen konkret risikovurdering af MON810...... arters fortsatte forekomst. Derfor har DMU ved tidligere risikovurdering af Bt-majslinier til dyrkning (majslinie 1507 og Bt-11) foreslået at der indføres en 5 m dyrkningsfri bufferzone til naturhabitater hvor larver af truede/sjældne sommerfugle findes. En andet virkemiddel kunne være at omgive randen...... af Bt-majsmarker med et værnebælte af konventionel majs. På grund af den usikkerhed der findes på området vil det indtil der foreligger et bedre vidensgrundlag være relevant med en specifik overvågning af truede eller sjældne sommerfuglearter hvor der er habitater for disse i nærheden af Bt...

  14. Improvement of growth and productivity of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. through foliar applications of naphthalene acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Parveen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators like naphthalene acetic acid (NAA positively affect the growth and yield of crop plants. An experiment was conducted to check the foliar application of NAA on growth and yield components of cotton variety Bt.121 under field condition at research area of agriculture farm near Cholistan Institute of Desert Studies (CIDS, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The experiment was comprised of foliar application of NAA (1% viz. T0 (control, T1 (One spray of NAA, T2 (Two sprays of NAA, T3 (Three sprays of NAA, T4 (Four sprays of NAA. The first foliar spray was applied at 45 days after sowing (DAS and later on it was continued with 15 days interval with skilled labour by hand pump sprayer. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and each treatment was replicated three times. Data recorded on growth, chlorophyll contents, yield and yield components showed a significant increase with the application of NAA. Furthermore, earliness index, mean maturity date and production rate index were also influenced with foliar application of NAA. On the basis of growth and yield parameters it can be concluded that four spray of NAA (1% can be applied commercially under field conditions.

  15. Measurement of B(t --> Wb)/B(t--> Wq) at the collider detector at fermilab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Arguin, J-F; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barker, G J; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Casarsa, M; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chuang, S; Chung, K; Chung, W-H; Chung, Y S; Cijliak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A G; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cranshaw, J; Cuevas, J; Cruz, A; Culbertson, R; Currat, C; Cyr, D; Dagenhart, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; de Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Donini, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Erdmann, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H-C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R D; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D W; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, D; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hoffman, K D; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M A; Huffman, B T; Huang, Y; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Issever, C; Ivanov, A; Iwata, Y; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Unel, M Karagoz; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kong, D J; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P M; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, L; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P A Movilla; Muelmenstaedt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, T; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Napora, R; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohsugi, T; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Orejudos, W; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, M A; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Ray, H; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ruiz, A; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stadie, H; Stanitzki, M; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takano, H; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Varganov, A; Vejcik, S; Velev, G; Veszpremi, V; Veramendi, G; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; von der Mey, M; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wolter, M; Worcester, M; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wyatt, A; Yagil, A; Yamashita, T; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2005-09-02

    We present a measurement of the ratio of top-quark branching fractions R = B(t --> Wb)/B(t --> Wq), where q can be a b, s, or a d quark, using lepton-plus-jets and dilepton data sets with an integrated luminosity of approximately 162 pb(-1) collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab during Run II of the Tevatron. The measurement is derived from the relative numbers of tt events with different multiplicity of identified secondary vertices. We set a lower limit of R > 0.61 at 95% confidence level.

  16. Exploring potential and opportunities for pakistan cotton export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, G. S.; Tariq, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is the single largest shareholder to GDP an employment to labour force. It has major share in export but unfortunately unable to meet international standards. This study aims to analyze the pattern of Pakistan cotton export, and to explore sector's export potential and opportunities. This new research endeavor with well-tested analytical tools enabled the trade experts and policy makers to explore the answer of lackness for diversification in export, HS-2- digits aggregated data for cotton sub-sectors have been used with latest data from 2004 to 2013 for the panel 39 countries. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and gravity model approach was employed considering country and time specific fixed effect. The RCA index revealed that cotton sub-sectors have comparative advantage in export and there is gradual gain in the competitiveness with time. The opportunity exists in the markets of low, lower-middle and upper middle income countries and countries those have fair trade (low tariff and non-tariff barriers) for cotton export. Greater export potential lies with malaysia, kenya jordan, thailand, mauritius, netherlands norway, Australia and russian federation for export of cotton, however, export potential for cotton has been exhausted with canada, france, india, iran and saudi arabia. The study provide the policy information that countries of Latin america, eastern europe, central asia and northern africa are virgin for export. Therefore, pakistan should penetrate in these markets for export of cotton and other agricultural products. cognizant to new trade theories, pakistan focus on quality to gain maximum trade volume in the markets of high income countries, Pakistan may develop trade agreement with ASEAN, SAFTA, and EU-27 for export of agricultural products. (author)

  17. Genetically modified rice Bt-Shanyou63 expressing Cry1Ab/c protein does not harm Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Ruqing; Fang, Zhixiang; Liu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice Bt-ShanYou63 (Bt-SY63) received an official biosafety certificate while its safety remained in dispute. In a lifelong study, Daphnia magna were experimentally fed a basal diet of rice flours from Bt-SY63 or its parental rice ShanYou63 (SY63) at concentrations of 0.2mg, 0.3mg, or 0.4mgC (per individual per day). Overall the survival, body size, and reproduction of the animals were comparable between Bt-SY63 and ShanYou63.. The results showed that no significant differences were observed in growth and reproduction parameters between D. magna fed GM and non-GM flour and no dose-related changes occurred in all the values. Based on the different parameters assessed, the GM rice Bt-SY63 is a safe food source for D. magna that does not differ in quality from non-GM rice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Rodrigues, João V C; Souza, Thadeu C; Tavares, Clébson S; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul N C; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2015-12-17

    Transgenic crop "pyramids" producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the "pyramid" resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to Cry1F maize with Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab maize for ten generations produced resistance that allowed the larvae to colonize and complete the life cycle on these Bt maize plants. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the resistance was completely recessive (Dx = 0), incomplete, autosomal, and without maternal effects or cross-resistance to the Vip3Aa20 toxin produced in other Bt maize events. This profile of resistance supports some of the assumptions of the pyramid strategy for resistance management. However, laboratory experiments with purified Bt toxin and plant leaf tissue showed that resistance to Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 maize further increased resistance to Cry1Fa, which indicates that populations of fall armyworm have high potential for developing resistance to some currently available pyramided maize used against this pest, especially where resistance to Cry1Fa was reported in the field.

  19. Susceptibility and aversion of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1F Bt maize and considerations for insect resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Rachel R; Coats, Joel; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize was developed primarily for North American pests such as European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)). However, most Bt maize products are also cultivated outside of North America, where the primary pests may be different and may have lower susceptibility to Bt toxins. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith) is an important pest and primary target of Bt maize in Central and South America. S. frugiperda susceptibility to Cry1F (expressed in event TC1507) is an example of a pest-by-toxin interaction that does not meet the high-dose definition. In this study, the behavioral and toxic response of S. frugiperda to Cry1F maize was investigated by measuring the percentage of time naive third instars spent feeding during a 3-min exposure. S. frugiperda also were exposed as third instars to Cry1F maize for 14 d to measure weight gain and survival. S. frugiperda demonstrated an initial, postingestive aversive response to Cry1F maize, and few larvae survived the 14 d exposure. The role of susceptibility and avoidance are discussed in the context of global IRM refuge strategy development for Bt products.

  20. Microbial contamination of water-soaked cotton gauze and its cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oie, S; Yoshida, H; Kamiya, A

    2001-01-01

    Seven in-use cotton gauze samples and three cotton balls soaked in sterile distilled water in canisters were investigated 7 days after they were prepared in hospital. All samples were contaminated with bacteria including 10(6) to 10(7) colony forming units/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro viability tests using cotton gauze and cotton balls soaked in sterile distilled water revealed rapid proliferation of P. aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Candida albicans. Since the cotton gauze and the cotton balls were soaked in water containing nutrients, such as protein and glucose, these materials may be readily contaminated with bacteria including P. aeruginosa. Thus, when using cotton gauze and cotton balls containing water, microbial contamination should be expected.

  1. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  2. Responses of reniform nematode and browntop millet to tillage, cover crop, and herbicides in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropping practices that reduce competition from reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and browntop millet (Urochlora ramosum) may help minimize losses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The impacts of tillage, rye cover crop, and preemergence and postemergence herbicides on cotton yields, renifo...

  3. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P rye or wheat cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  4. Cotton nanofibers obtained by different acid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Eliangela de M.; Oliveira, Caue Ribeiro de; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Correa, Ana Carolina; Palladin, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stability of cellulose nanofibers is related to their application and especially to polymer processing which temperatures of processing are around 200 deg C. In this work, nanofibers of commercial cotton were obtained by acid hydrolysis employing different acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture (2:1; sulfuric acid: hydrochloric acid).The morphology of the nanofibers were characterized by transmission microscopy (TEM), crystallinity by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal stability in air atmosphere by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated a very similar morphology and crystallinity among them. The main differences were relative to aggregation state e and thermal stability. The aggregation state of the suspensions decreases in the order HCl 2 SO 4 :HCl 2 SO 4- . The hydrolysis with a mix of HCl and H 2 SO 4 resulted in cellulose nanofibers with higher thermal stability than those hydrolyzed with H 2 SO 4 . The hydrolysis employed with a mixture of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids also showed a better dispersion than those suspensions of nanofibers obtained by hydrolysis with only HCl. (author)

  5. Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanyou; Yu, John Z; Cho, Jaemin; Yu, Jing; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G

    2010-12-16

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop plant that is widely grown to produce both natural textile fibers and cottonseed oil. Cotton fibers, the economically more important product of the cotton plant, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that large numbers of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across At and Dt subgenomes of tetraploid AD cottons. In the present study, the organization and evolution of the fiber development genes were investigated through the construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of fiber development genes whose functions have been verified and confirmed. A total of 535 cotton fiber development genes, including 103 fiber transcription factors, 259 fiber development genes, and 173 SSR-contained fiber ESTs, were analyzed at the subgenome level. A total of 499 fiber related contigs were selected and assembled. Together these contigs covered about 151 Mb in physical length, or about 6.7% of the tetraploid cotton genome. Among the 499 contigs, 397 were anchored onto individual chromosomes. Results from our studies on the distribution patterns of the fiber development genes and transcription factors between the At and Dt subgenomes showed that more transcription factors were from Dt subgenome than At, whereas more fiber development genes were from At subgenome than Dt. Combining our mapping results with previous reports that more fiber QTLs were mapped in Dt subgenome than At subgenome, the results suggested a new functional hypothesis for tetraploid cotton. After the merging of the two diploid Gossypium genomes, the At subgenome has provided most of the genes for fiber development, because it continues to function similar to its fiber producing diploid A genome ancestor. On the other hand, the Dt subgenome, with its non-fiber producing D genome ancestor

  6. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F1 crosses were similar (LC50s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g, which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance (h decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue (h = 0.02, but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant (h = 0.98 on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold, Cry1Ac (0.8-fold, Cry1F (0.9-fold, and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold. The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  7. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqin; Yang, Jing; Quan, Yudong; Wang, Zhenying; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2017-06-07

    A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR) after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F₁ crosses were similar (LC 50 s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g), which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance ( h ) decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue ( h = 0.02), but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant ( h = 0.98) on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold), Cry1Ac (0.8-fold), Cry1F (0.9-fold), and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold). The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  8. Radiation-induced frequency transients in AT, BT, and SC cut quartz resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier studies of transient frequency changes in high-purity swept AT quartz resonators led to the conclusion that impurity-induced effects were small, while the observed changes were qualitatively and quantitatively well characterized in terms of the time changing temperature of the vibrating quartz and its effect on frequency. 5 MHz, AT cut fifth overtone, and BT and SC cut third overtone resonators were prepared from a single stone of Sawyer swept Premium-Q quartz. The resonators were operated in precision ovenized oscillators at or near their turnover temperatures. Pulsed irradiation, at dose levels of the order of 10 4 rads (Si) per pulse, was accomplished at Sandia. The experimental data display negative frequency transients for the AT cut resonators, positive frequency transients for the BT cut resonators, and very small transient effects for the SC cut resonators. From these experimental results, it is concluded that no measurable impurity-induced frequency changes are observed in this high-purity swept-quartz and that the frequency transients are accurately modelled in terms of transient temperature effects stemming from the thermal characteristics of the resonator structure

  9. Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoff, Sarah N; Zukoff, Anthony L

    2017-01-01

    Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technology, the stack of both Bt and RNAi, or the isoline of these. The behavior of the rootworm larvae indicated a significant host preference response to all corn hybrids (with or without insecticidal traits) compared to the filter paper and oat roots. A weaker host response to the RNAi corn roots was observed in the susceptible larvae when compared to the resistant larvae, but not for the Bt + RNAi vector stack. Additionally, the resistant larvae demonstrated a weaker host response to the isoline corn roots when compared to the susceptible larvae. Although weaker, these host responses were significantly different from those observed in the negative controls, indicating that all hybrids tested do contain the contact cues necessary to elicit a host preference response by both Cry3Bb1-resistant and Cry3Bb1-susceptible larvae that would work to hinder resistance development in refuge in a bag fields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. Cry1Ab protein from Bt transgenic rice does not residue in rhizosphere soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Ye Qingfu; Wang Wei; Wu Licheng; Wu Weixiang

    2006-01-01

    Expression of Cry1Ab protein in Bt transgenic rice (KMD) and its residue in the rhizosphere soil during the whole growth in field, as well as degradation of the protein from KMD straw in five soils under laboratory incubation were studied. The residue of Cry1Ab protein in KMD rhizosphere soil was undetectable (below the limit of 0.5 ng/g air-dried soil). The Cry1Ab protein contents in the shoot and root of KMD were 3.23-8.22 and 0.68-0.89 μg/g (fresh weight), respectively. The half-lives of the Cry1Ab protein in the soils amended with KMD straw (4%, w/w) ranged from 11.5 to 34.3 d. The residence time of the protein varied significantly in a Fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil amended with KMD straw at the rate of 3, 4 and 7%, with half-lives of 9.9, 13.8 and 18 d, respectively. In addition, an extraction method for Cry1Ab protein in soil was developed, with extraction efficiencies of 46.4-82.3%. - Cry1Ab protein was not detected in the rhizosphere soil of field-grown Bt transgenic rice

  11. Developmental immunotoxicity is not associated with the consumption of transgenic Bt rice TT51 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Liang, Chunlai; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiannan; Cui, Wenming; Yu, Zhou

    2018-04-01

    TT51 is a transgenic strain of Bt rice generated by fusing a synthetic CryAb/Ac gene into MingHui rice. In this study, rats from F0, F1, and F2 generations were fed a diet with 60% TT51 rice, MingHui rice, or nominal-origin rice. The study focused on developmental immunotoxicity in F1 and F2 offspring after long-term consumption of TT51. A wide range of immunological parameters was monitored in this two-generation study on reproductive toxicity. The experiments were performed on F1 and F2 offspring at postnatal days 21 and 42. No adverse clinical effects were observed in any of the experimental groups. In addition, histopathology observations and immunotoxicity tests, including hematological indicators, spleen lymphocyte subsets, natural killer cell activity, lymphoproliferative response, and plaque-forming cell assay, revealed no significant difference between the groups. These results indicated that developmental immunotoxicity was not associated with a diet of transgenic Bt rice TT51, compared to the parental MingHui rice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic and Stochastic Structures of U.S. Cotton Exports and Mill Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.

    2006-01-01

    This study employs a structural time-series method to model and estimate U.S. cotton exports and mill use. The results show that the stochastic process governing cotton export fluctuations is transitory, while the process pertaining to mill use has transitory, seasonal, and secular origins. The estimated structural relationships after accounting for the unobserved components indicate U.S. cotton exports respond directly to higher international price relative to domestic price of cotton, while...

  13. ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATE LINKED SUBSIDIES FOR NON-PRICE EXPORT PROMOTION: THE CASE OF COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2002-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement framework was developed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate linked subsidies for non-price export promotion for US cotton. Study results show that an increase in promotion expenditure increased the dollar value and producer welfare of cotton growers. The gross gain to the domestic cotton producers from the exchange-rate linked subsidy scheme was positive. These evidences support exchange rate linked subsidies for US cotton export promotion.

  14. Finding the moral fiber: Why reform is urgently needed for a fair cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, K.; Kripke, G.; Alpert, E.

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record US subsidies have led to depressed world cotton prices, which in turn have cost countries in Africa millions of dollars in lost export earnings. Oxfam estimates that sub-Saharan African countries lost $305 million due to US subsidies in crop year 2001. Because cotton is an important livelihood for millions of poor people, Oxfam believes action is urgently needed to reform the distortions in cotton trade that undermine the value of cotton to developing countries. The ce...

  15. POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF TEXTILE TRADE MANAGEMENT AND THE U.S. COTTON INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Shui, Shangnan; Wohlgenant, Michael K.; Beghin, John C.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates the effects on the U.S. cotton industry of textile trade liberalization using a multi-market equilibrium displacement model. The simulation results suggest that textile trade liberalization would induce small changes in the total demand for U.S. cotton but would affect considerable y U.S. cotton demand structure, making U. S, cotton growers more dependent on world markets. The welfare analyses reveal that textile trade liberalization would result in a small welfare los...

  16. Cotton Trade Liberalizations and Domestic Agricultural Policy Reforms: A Partial Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effects of trade liberalizing reforms in the world cotton market using a partial equilibrium model. The simulation results indicated that a removal of domestic subsidies and border tariffs for cotton would increase the amount of world cotton trade by an average of 4% in the next five years and world cotton prices by an average of 12% over the same time horizon. The findings indicated that under the liberalization policy, the United States would lose part of its export ...

  17. A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati

    2017-06-01

    It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.

  18. Effect of low doses gamma irradiation of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Khalifa, Kh.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments and then large scale application of irradiated cotton seeds (C.V. Aleppo-40) were carried out during three seasons (1986, 1987 and 1988) for field experiment at ACSAD Station in Dier-Ezzor and 1988, 1989 and 1990 for large scale application at Euphrate's Basin, Al-Ghab and Salamia, farmers farms. The above areas were selected as they represent major cotton production areas in Syria. The aims of the experiments were to study the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy on cotton yield and to look for the optimum dose of gamma irradiation to obtain best results. The results show that, there were positive effect (P<0.95) for doses 5-30 Gy in increasing cotton yield. The highest increase was at dose of 10 Gy. which as 19.5% higher than control. For the large scale application using 10 Gy the increase in cotton yield varied from 10-39% compared to control. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  19. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment for Grey Cotton Knitted Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-wai Kan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 100% grey cotton knitted fabric contains impurities and yellowness and needs to be prepared for processing to make it suitable for coloration and finishing. Therefore, conventionally 100% grey cotton knitted fabric undergoes a process of scouring and bleaching, which involves the use of large amounts of water and chemicals, in order to remove impurities and yellowness. Due to increased environmental awareness, pursuing a reduction of water and chemicals is a current trend in textile processing. In this study, we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasma as a dry process to treat 100% grey cotton knitted fabric (single jersey and interlock before processing. Experimental results reveal that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively remove impurities from 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics and significantly improve its water absorption property. On the other hand, if 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics are pretreated with plasma and then undergo a normal scouring process, the treatment time is reduced. In addition, the surface morphological and chemical changes in plasma-treated fabrics were studied and compared with the conventionally treated fabrics using scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The decrease in carbon content, as shown in XPS, reveal the removal of surface impurities. The oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios of the plasma treated knitted fabrics reveal enhanced hydrophilicity.

  20. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.