WorldWideScience

Sample records for agriculture forest service

  1. US Forest Service National Forest System Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents a...

  2. 75 FR 45656 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Forest is responsible for notifying the Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National Forest, Waldport, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice...

  3. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  4. FS National Forest Dataset (US Forest Service Proclaimed Forests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  5. US Forest Service Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...

  6. US Forest Service Healthy Forest Restoration Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...

  7. 78 FR 13621 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Forest Service San Bernardino National Forest; California; Omya Sentinel and Butterfield Quarry Expansion Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Bernardino National Forest (SBNF); and A Mining and...

  8. 78 FR 34128 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, San Juan National Forest has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and present-day Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations. Lineal descendants or......

  9. 78 FR 34125 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Juan National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, San Juan National Forest has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and associated funerary objects and present-day Indian tribes or......

  10. US Forest Service Recreation Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation opportunity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the public...

  11. Collaboration between the US Forest Service and the USDA Agricultural Research Service on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two USDA agencies, the Forest Service (USFS) and the Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) are cooperating on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR) native to the United States. The USFS manages 193 million acres of National Forest System lands in 43 states and provides suppo...

  12. US Forest Service Forest Health Protection Insect and Disease Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — This data is a compilation of forest insect, disease and abiotic damage mapped by aerial detection surveys on forested areas in the United States. US Forest Service,...

  13. 77 FR 11571 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest...; and Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service... Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items in...

  14. US Forest Service Regional Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by a Region. The area encompasses private lands, other governmental agency...

  15. Five challenges to reconcile agricultural land use and forest ecosystem services in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L R; Papworth, S K; Reed, J; Symes, W S; Ickowitz, A; Clements, T; Peh, K S-H; Sunderland, T

    2016-10-01

    Southeast Asia possesses the highest rates of tropical deforestation globally and exceptional levels of species richness and endemism. Many countries in the region are also recognized for their food insecurity and poverty, making the reconciliation of agricultural production and forest conservation a particular priority. This reconciliation requires recognition of the trade-offs between competing land-use values and the subsequent incorporation of this information into policy making. To date, such reconciliation has been relatively unsuccessful across much of Southeast Asia. We propose an ecosystem services (ES) value-internalization framework that identifies the key challenges to such reconciliation. These challenges include lack of accessible ES valuation techniques; limited knowledge of the links between forests, food security, and human well-being; weak demand and political will for the integration of ES in economic activities and environmental regulation; a disconnect between decision makers and ES valuation; and lack of transparent discussion platforms where stakeholders can work toward consensus on negotiated land-use management decisions. Key research priorities to overcome these challenges are developing easy-to-use ES valuation techniques; quantifying links between forests and well-being that go beyond economic values; understanding factors that prevent the incorporation of ES into markets, regulations, and environmental certification schemes; understanding how to integrate ES valuation into policy making processes, and determining how to reduce corruption and power plays in land-use planning processes.

  16. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  17. US Forest Service Land Utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture for conservation and utilization under Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm...

  18. US Forest Service Special Interest Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts National Forest System land parcels that have management or use limits placed on them by the Forest Service. Examples include:...

  19. US Forest Service Original Proclaimed National Forests and National Grasslands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  20. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations for...

  1. US Forest Service Land Status and Encumbrance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service designed to portray US Forest Service Land Status Record System data. The map service is for querying and displaying Land Status Record System...

  2. US Forest Service National Wilderness Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting parcels of Forest Service land congressionally designated as wilderness such as National Wilderness Areas. This map service...

  3. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails With Data Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. It also depicts the availability of trails...

  4. US Forest Service Timber Harvests

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts the area planned and accomplished acres treated as a part of the timber harvest program of work, funded through the budget...

  5. US Forest Service Stewardship Contracting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the locations of activities within the Stewardship Contracting Project Boundary. Activities are implemented through stewardship...

  6. US Forest Service National Grassland Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Grassland units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture and permanently held by the Department of Agriculture under...

  7. US Forest Service Recreation Area Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation area activity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the public...

  8. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  9. US Forest Service Special Status Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting land areas that have distinct management/use authorities or agreements for Forest Service action. Includes: Cost Share Agreement...

  10. US Forest Service Wilderness Areas: Legal Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting status of parcels for Forest Service land congressionally designated as wilderness such as National Wilderness Areas. This map...

  11. US Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) and High Priority Restoration (HRP) project accomplishments. These are ten...

  12. Balancing Ecosystem Services and Disservices: Smallholder Farmers' Use and Management of Forest and Trees in an Agricultural Landscape in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tola Gemechu Ango

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmers' practices in the management of agricultural landscapes influence biodiversity with implications for livelihoods, ecosystem service provision, and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we examined how smallholding farmers in an agriculture-forest mosaic landscape in southwestern Ethiopia manage trees and forests with regard to a few selected ecosystem services and disservices that they highlighted as "beneficial" or "problematic." Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from six villages, located both near and far from forest, using participatory field mapping and semistructured interviews, tree species inventory, focus group discussions, and observation. The study showed that farmers' management practices, i.e., the planting of trees on field boundaries amid their removal from inside arable fields, preservation of trees in semimanaged forest coffee, maintenance of patches of shade coffee fields in the agricultural landscape, and establishment of woodlots with exotic trees result in a restructuring of the forest-agriculture mosaic. In addition, the strategies farmers employed to mitigate crop damage by wild mammals such as baboons and bush pigs, e.g., migration and allocation of migrants on lands along forests, have contributed to a reduction in forest and tree cover in the agricultural landscape. Because farmers' management practices were overall geared toward mitigating the negative impact of disservices and to augment positive services, we conclude that it is important to operationalize ecosystem processes as both services and disservices in studies related to agricultural landscapes.

  13. US Forest Service Integrated Resource Restoration (IRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting activities funded through the Integrated Resource Restoration (IRR) NFRR Budget Line Item and reported through the U.S. Forest...

  14. Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.

    2009-04-01

    Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main

  15. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  16. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data and biophysical gradient layers using...

  17. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels (Generalized)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  18. US Forest Service Ranger District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundary that encompasses a Ranger District. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for...

  19. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  20. 75 FR 52716 - Transfer of Land to Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Transfer of Land to Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of land.... Department of Agriculture, and on March 16, 2010, the Deputy Chief of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of... Federally owned lands in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico from the Farm Service Agency to the Forest...

  1. US Forest Service Geopolitical Units adjusted within Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting geopolitical data for the entire area of the United States and territories. This includes States, Counties or Boroughs,...

  2. US Forest Service Purchase Units under the Weeks Law

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture or previously approved by the National Forest Reservation Commission for purposes...

  3. US Forest Service National Wilderness Areas 2 - Green Polygon Fill

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting parcels of Forest Service land congressionally designated as wilderness such as National Wilderness Areas. This map service...

  4. US Forest Service Land and Water Conservation Fund Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that displays LWCF projects for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), National Park Service (NPS), and U.S. Fish...

  5. 78 FR 59953 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Coconino National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ..., Southwestern Region, USDA Forest Service, 333 Broadway Blvd. SE., Albuquerque, NM 87102, telephone (505) 842...., Albuquerque, NM 87102, telephone (505) 842-3238, email fwozniak@fs.fed.us , by October 30, 2013. After...

  6. US Forest Service Other Surface Right

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas with a right to a surface resource, excluding rights of way. The purpose of the data is to provide display, identification,...

  7. US Forest Service Right of Way

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas with a privilege to pass over the land of another in some particular path; usually an easement over the land of another; a...

  8. US Forest Service Surface Drinking Water Importance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting watershed indexes to help identify areas of interest for protecting surface drinking water quality. The dataset depicted in this...

  9. US Forest Service Periodical Cicada Broods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting periodical cicada distribution and expected year of emergence by cicada brood and county. The periodical cicada emerges in massive...

  10. US Forest Service Current Invasive Plants Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the most recent measurement of Invasive Plant Infestation polygons collected by the National Invasive Plant Inventory Protocol....

  11. US Forest Service Brush Disposal Funded Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts the area of activities funded through BDBD and PPPP budget line item and reported through the FACTS database. The objective of...

  12. US Forest Service Hazardous Fuel Treatment Reduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting select activities that help reduce hazardous fuels on the landscape. This includes features representing Rx Fire, Wildfire,...

  13. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels, detailed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the surface estate. Each surface ownership parcel is tied to a particular legal transaction. The same...

  14. US Forest Service Corners and Monuments

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting land survey points from a GCDB LX file, survey plat, or captured from a CFF land net coverage. Includes points generated by...

  15. Agriculture, forest, and range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  16. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a township. Sections cover US Forest Service...

  17. Survey Boundaries maintained by the US Forest Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting surface management agency lines which are the surveyed boundary lines for which the Forest Service is responsible for making and...

  18. US Forest Service Motor Vehicle Use Map: Roads and Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Forest Service roads and trails that are designated for motor vehicle use under the official U.S. Government Code of Federal...

  19. 77 FR 13625 - Notice of Inventory Completion: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest... Agriculture, Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, has completed an inventory of human remains and... contact the Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY. Repatriation of the human remains to the...

  20. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of interim directive; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Forest Service is issuing an interim directive to guide its employees in revised procedures for...

  1. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Historical Fire Regimes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Historical fire regimes, intervals, and vegetation conditions are mapped using the Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool (VDDT). These data support fire and landscape...

  2. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Canopy Fuel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE canopy fuel data describe the composition and characteristics of wildland surface fuel and can be implemented within models to predict wildland fire...

  3. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Surface Fuel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE surface fuel data describe the composition and characteristics of wildland surface fuel and can be implemented within models to predict wildland fire...

  4. US Forest Service Wildfire Hazard Potential 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The wildfire hazard potential (WHP) is a raster geospatial product at 270-meter resolution covering all lands in the conterminous United States. It can help to...

  5. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Existing Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Existing Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data, satellite imagery and biophysical gradient layers...

  6. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Colorado Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www that depicts the boundaries of Roadless Areas designated by the Colorado Roadless Rule of 2012 and managed by the US Forest...

  7. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System...

  8. 77 FR 52055 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    .... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Natural History Museum of Los... this notice. ] History and Description of the Cultural Items In 1926, three unassociated funerary... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  9. 78 FR 18307 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register of January 31, 2013, concering a notice of meeting for the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee. The...

  10. US Forest Service National Forest Lands with Nationally Designated Management or Use Limitations 

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting an area depicting National Forest System land parcels that have management or use limits placed on them by legal authority....

  11. US Forest Service National Forest Lands with Nationally Designated Management or Use Limitations: Legal Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the status of areas showing National Forest System land parcels that have management or use limits placed on them by legal...

  12. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with Title II of the Act. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is to review proposals for forest projects...

  13. US Forest Service National Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated as Wild and Scenic Rivers. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for determining...

  14. US Forest Service Wild and Scenic Rivers: Legal Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the status of areas designated as Wild and Scenic Rivers. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools...

  15. US Forest Service Ranger District Boundaries (With Regions Table)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundary that encompasses a Ranger District. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for...

  16. US Forest Service Tribal Lands Ceded to the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts sixty-seven maps from Royce’s 1897 report that have been scanned, georeferenced in JPEG2000 format, and digitized to create...

  17. US Forest Service developed sites subject to regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts areas having regulations and/or restrictions related to existing buildings, structures, or resource activities such as a...

  18. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Townships

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System grid that are referenced by their tier and range numbers, and are normally...

  19. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Idaho Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www, that depicts the Inventoried Roadless Areas that were used in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the 2008...

  20. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data are...

  1. US Forest Service Survey parcels described by metes and bounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting survey parcels described by a metes and bounds description. Examples include: land lots, housing subdivision lots, mineral...

  2. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: 2001 Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www, that depicts the official data for the 2001 Roadless Area Conservation Rule (36 CFR 294, Subpart B). It contains the Inventoried...

  3. US Forest Service Motor Vehicle Use Map: Roads and Trails (With Labels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Forest Service roads and trails that are designated for motor vehicle use under the official U.S. Government Code of Federal...

  4. US Forest Service Wilderness Areas: Legal Status 2 - Grid Polygon Fill

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting status of parcels for Forest Service land congressionally designated as wilderness such as National Wilderness Areas. This map...

  5. A Study of Eco-service Valuation of Saihanba Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The study made a monetized valuation of eco-service provided by forests at Saihanba Mechanic Forest Farm in terms of water conservancy, soil conversation, carbon sequestration, micro-climate adjustment, air quality improvement, protection for agriculture, biodiversity maintenance, and landscape & recreation. The results revealed that the total value of various eco-services is 3.061 billion yuan/a, while the eco-services of unit area forest values at 42 300 yuan/(ha·a).

  6. US Forest Service Watershed Condition Class and Assessment Status 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The map contains the Watershed Condition Class and assessment status for the assessment year of 2011. The layer is symbolized by the Watershed Condition Class for...

  7. US Forest Service Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project maps the location, extent, and severity of all large fires in the conterminous United States (CONUS), Alaska,...

  8. US Forest Service FSTopo topographic quadrangle - vector data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The FSTopo cartographic database supports the creation of 1:24,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic PDF maps for the conterminous United States and Puerto Rico, and 15...

  9. US Forest Service Public and Private Forest Ownership Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The data are designed for strategic analyses at a national or regional scale which require spatially explicit information regarding the extent, distribution, and...

  10. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service 1996 annual report wetlands research related to the Pen Branch restoration effort on the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Kolka, R.K. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Trettin, C.C. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service and their collaborators (SRTC, SREL, and several universities) in wetlands monitoring and research on the Savannah River Site. This report describes the rationales, methods, and results (when available) of these studies and summarizes and integrates the available information through 1996.

  11. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  12. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  13. Examining shifts in Carabidae assemblages across a forest-agriculture ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T W; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Hulting, A G; Mortensen, D A; Fleischer, S J

    2014-02-01

    Northeastern U.S. farms are often situated adjacent to forestland due to the heterogeneous nature of the landscape. We investigated how forested areas influence Carabidae diversity within nearby crop fields by establishing transects of pitfall traps. Trapping extended across a forest-agriculture ecotone consisting of maize, an intermediate mowed grass margin, and a forest edge. Carabidae diversity was compared among the three habitats, and community and population dynamics were assessed along the transect. We used a principal response curve to examine and visualize community change across a spatial gradient. The highest levels of richness and evenness were observed in the forest community, and carabid assemblages shifted significantly across the ecotone, especially at the forest-grass interface. Despite strong ecotone effects, population distributions showed that some species were found in all three habitats and seemed to thrive at the ecotone. Based on similarity indices, carabid assemblages collected in maize adjacent to forest differed from carabid assemblages in maize not adjacent to forest. We conclude that forest carabid assemblages exhibit high degrees of dissimilarity with those found in agricultural fields and forested areas should thus be retained in agricultural landscapes to increase biodiversity at the landscape scale. However, ecotone species found at forest edges can still noticeably influence carabid community composition within neighboring agricultural fields. Further studies should determine how these shifts in carabid assemblages influence agroecosystem services in relation to ecosystem services observed in fields embedded in an agricultural matrix.

  14. Torrefaction process for agriculture and forest residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Pimchuai, A. [Burapha Univ., Chonburi (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 2 energy crops, notably agriculture and forest residues, were torrefied with subsequent analysis of the solid residues. The purpose of the study was to remove some disadvantages of agriculture residues as a fuel and to enhance their solid fuel qualities. The 5 agriculture residues studied were rice husk, sawdust, peanut husk, bagasse and water hyacinth. Temperature and residence time for the process was varied at 250, 270, 300 degrees C and 1, 1.5, 2 hours respectively. The torrefied products were then characterized in terms of yield, proximate analysis, heating value and hydrophobic properties. The optimum condition based on mass and energy balance for the torrefaction process was determined. The torrefied products were found to be more brown in colour and had lower moisture content and volatile matter. The fixed carbon content and energy density of the ash increased. The bagasse that was torrefied at 300 degrees C and 1.5 hours had the highest HHV content, comparable to that of lignite. Depending on the severity of the torrefaction conditions, the torrefied fuel can contain up to 98 per cent of the original energy content on a mass basis. It was concluded that the operating temperature is the most important parameter for producing a better torrefied product.

  15. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  16. US Forest Service Land and Water Conservation Fund: Proposed Land Purchases

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that displays Land and Water Conservation Fund. Created by Congress in 1964, the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) provides money to...

  17. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: 2001, Idaho, and Colorado Rules Combined

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www, that depicts the Inventoried Roadless Areas that were used in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the 2001...

  18. US Forest Service Parcels withdrawn from settlement, sale, mineral location, and/or entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting federal land parcels that are withdrawn from settlement, sale, location, or entry under some or all of the general land and...

  19. US Forest Service Historical Woodland Density of the Conterminous United States, 1873

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that includes polygons with a minimum of 40 acres of woodlands per square mile as depicted in William H. Brewer’s 1873 map of woodland...

  20. 78 FR 23885 - Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ..., Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, an... public interest to so license these inventions as Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg,...

  1. Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Swinton, Scott M. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039 (United States); Ricketts, Taylor H. [Conservation Science Program, World Wildlife Fund - U.S., Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Kremen, Claire [Department of Environmental Science Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114 (United States); Carney, Karen [U.S. Agency for International Development, Biodiversity and Forestry Team, Washington, DC 20523 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Agricultural ecosystems are actively managed by humans to optimize the provision of food, fiber, and fuel. These ecosystem services from agriculture, classified as provisioning services by the recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, depend in turn upon a web of supporting and regulating services as inputs to production (e.g., soil fertility and pollination). Agriculture also receives ecosystem dis-services that reduce productivity or increase production costs (e.g., herbivory and competition for water and nutrients by undesired species). The flows of these services and dis-services directly depend on how agricultural ecosystems are managed and upon the diversity, composition, and functioning of remaining natural ecosystems in the landscape. Managing agricultural landscapes to provide sufficient supporting and regulating ecosystem services and fewer dis-services will require research that is policy-relevant, multidisciplinary and collaborative. This paper focuses on how ecosystem services contribute to agricultural productivity and how ecosystem dis-services detract from it. We first describe the major services and dis-services as well as their key mediators. We then explore the importance of scale and economic externalities for the management of ecosystem service provision to agriculture. Finally, we discuss outstanding issues in regard to improving the management of ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. (author)

  2. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  3. 76 FR 14647 - Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting, Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)...

  4. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC,...

  5. Experimental assessment of ecosystem services in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Porter, John Roy; Wratten, Steve

    2013-01-01

    . Agricultural and urban areas are by far the largest users of ecosystems and their services and (for the first time) this book explores the role that ecosystem services play in these managed environments. The book also explores methods of evaluating ecosystem services, and discusses how these services can...... be maintained and enhanced in our farmlands and cities. This book will be useful to students and researchers from a variety of fields, including applied ecology, environmental economics, agriculture and forestry, and also to local and regional planners and policy makers....

  6. Consultancy Services in Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Žimbrek

    1997-12-01

    Meetings, lectures, practical demonstration of technology, mass media and introduction of computer technology are important aids which should be further developed as well as bigger financial aid for these purposes. Those depend on better future economic position of the agriculture and the economy in a whole.

  7. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  8. Compensation for forest ecological services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Can; Wang Sen; Zhang Wei; Liang Dan

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses methods to compensate for the costs incurred in the supply of forest ecological services (FES), i.e.government dominated and market-based instruments as well as progress made so far in China. Factors which constrain the supply of these services and potential policy improvements are presented.

  9. Conservation science and forest service policy for roadless areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James Morton

    2006-06-01

    Questions persist regarding whether the science of conservation biology can successfully affect environmental decision making. One of the most prominent fields of intersection between conservation science and environmental policy is public-lands debates in the United States. I reviewed the role of conservation science in the roadless-area policies of the U.S. Forest Service. Since 1971, the Forest Service has systematically evaluated roadless areas on national forests three times, most recently during the Clinton administration's Roadless Area Conservation Review (1998-2000) (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service 2000b). Drawing on the agency's environmental impact statements and supporting documents and the internal records of conservation organizations, I examined the changing goals, methodology, and outcome of roadless-area advocacy and policy Since the 1970s, conservation science has successfully informed public and administrative concern for roadless-area protection. Conservation science has transformed public discourse regarding roadless areas and has changed the scope and rationale of national conservation organizations' goals for roadless-area policy from protecting some to protecting all remaining national forest roadless areas. The Forest Service has increasingly drawn on the lessons of conservation biology to justify its methodology and its administrative recommendations to protect roadless areas. The 2000 Roadless Area Conservation Review resulted in a recommendation to protect all remaining national forest roadless areas, up from 22% of roadless areas in the first roadless review. Despite the scientific merits of recent roadless-area advocacy and policy, however such initiatives have faced political difficulties. The emphasis on large-scale, top-down, national approaches to conservation policy has rendered such policies politically problematic.

  10. Service network analysis for agricultural mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.

  11. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales.

  12. WEFES - Web explorer of forest ecosystems services under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Poster Climate change will change the dynamics of forest environmental services. All the change complexity involved is difficult to visualize under an easy and accessible information tool capable to integrate several services that forests can provide. A preliminary Web-Explorer of Forest Ecosystems Services was developed for New Zealand where forest managers and the general public can observe what are the predictions of the different forest environmental services under current and futu...

  13. 77 FR 5838 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest...

  14. 7 CFR 2.79 - Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. 2.79... for Marketing and Regulatory Programs § 2.79 Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. (a... the Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service: (1) Exercise the functions of the Secretary...

  15. 78 FR 44523 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Service is correcting a notice of interim directive that appeared in the Federal Register of June 6, 2013... Area Emergency Response revisions. This correction lists the Web site for the interim directive and...

  16. Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.; Doyle, Jamie K.; Schelhas, John

    1993-01-01

    Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

  17. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with different widths and agricultural surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Simões da Silva, Laura; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The riparian forests are essential to maintaining the quality of water resources, aquifer recharge and biodiversity. Due to the ecological services provided by riparian forests, these areas are considered by the law as Permanent Preservation Areas, being mandatory maintenance and restoration. However, the obligation of restoration and the extent of the Permanent Preservation Areas as defined by the Brazilian Forest Code, based on water body width, elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data on the influence of the size of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. Studies that evaluate the ideal width of riparian forests to guarantee their ecological functions are scarce and not conclusive, especially when we consider newly restored forests, located in agricultural areas. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests with different widths situated in agricultural areas. The two study areas are located in a Semideciduous Tropical Forest inserted in sugarcane landscapes of São Paulo state, Brazil. The installed plots had 60 and 100 m in length and the riparian forest has a width of 15, 30 and 50 m. The characteristics of the sediments inside the plots were evaluated by detailed morphological and micromorphological studies as well as physical characterization. The dynamics of deposition and the amount of deposited sediments have been assessed with graded metal stakes partially buried inside the plots. The intensity, frequency and distribution of rainfall, as well as the occurrence of extreme events, have been evaluated by data collected from rain gauges installed in the areas. We expect that smaller widths are not able to retain sediments originated from the adjacent sugarcane areas. We also believe that extreme events are responsible for generating most of the sediments. The results will be important to support the discussion about an

  18. UAV FOR GEODATA ACQUISITION IN AGRICULTUREAL AND FORESTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Reidelstürz

    2012-09-01

    The airframe´s wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly“ brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 –7. In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload – and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural, forest and geodata aquisition is desired.

  19. Current Status and Trend of Forest Hydrological Services Market Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Of the many services that forests provide, hydrological services are among the most valuable, and it becomes more scarce with the growing demands by human beings. As a kind of incentive measure for protecting forest, forest hydrological services markets have been developed in many countries around the world and some valuable experiences have been achieved. The paper reviews the experiments carried out in the world and their research findings on forest hydrological services market, and presents the issues to...

  20. A Forest Service Vision during the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Rains

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the history of the Forest Service, human activity has been the dominant influence on climate and the environment; the time being called the Anthropocene. As we look ahead and strive to continue our mission of sustaining the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation’s forests and grasslands to meet our current and future needs, we must be more flexible to focus our actions to better meet the contemporary conservation challenges now and ahead. During this era of intense human activity, a changing climate; development and loss of open space; resource consumption; destructive invasive species; and diversity in core beliefs and values will test our task relevant maturity—ability and willingness to meet the growing demands for services. The Forest Service is now on a transformative campaign to improve our abilities and meet these challenges, including forest resiliency through restorative actions. There are several things we must do to ensure we are brilliantly competitive to address the contemporary conservation needs along a complex rural to urban land gradient, now and ahead. The intent of this paper is to present one person’s view of what this “campaign of our campaign” should include.

  1. Research of Development of Agricultural Knowledge Service in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Tan, Cuiping; Zheng, Huaiguo; Sun, Sufen; Yu, Feng

    With the global development of knowledge economy, the knowledge requirement of farmers is more personalized and solution-oriented, so there is pressing needs to develop agricultural knowledge service. The paper analyzes characteristics of agricultural knowledge service, and summarizes typical cases of agricultural knowledge service development in China.

  2. Hydrological Services of Forests and Their Compensation Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrayanto Hendrayanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid decreas of natural forest, and more frequent disaster related to the roles of forest on precipitation, flood, drought, erosion, and sedimentation as well as landslides, biodiversity, and carbon sequestration have driven initiatives to find out economic instruments for raising incentives for better land rehabilitation and forest management. Payment or compensation for hydrological services of forest is one of economic instruments that was initiated  to address water availability, flood and drought, erosion, and sedimentation issues.  Hydrological services of forest to some extent are still debatable, and the magnitude of the services or influences of forest varies depending on the quality of forest cover and soil, climate, and physical characteristics of land. In most cases, payment or compensation schemes of forest services to the land owner or manager that have been implemented already, do not consider the actual forest hydrological services yet. Nevertheless, those payment schemes have been driving the activities of better land and forest uses, although they are still limited to small scales relative to the whole required area to produce forest hydrological services. This article reviews the hydrological services of forests and their compensation scheme developed in Indonesia.Keywords: forest, hydrological services, payment, compensation for environmental services

  3. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  4. Development history and bibliography of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator for forest health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, KaDonna C

    2013-06-01

    Comprehensive assessment of individual-tree crown condition by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has its origins in the concerns about widespread forest decline in Europe and North America that developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Programs such as the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, US National Vegetation Survey, Canadian Acid Rain National Early Warning System, and joint US-Canadian North American Sugar Maple Decline Project laid the groundwork for the development of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator. The crown-condition assessment protocols were selected and refined through literature review, peer review, and field studies in several different forest types during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Between 1980 and 2011, 126 publications relating specifically to the crown-condition indicator were added to the literature. The majority of the articles were published by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service or other State or Federal government agency, and more than half were published after 2004.

  5. Agricultural Abandonment, Suburban Growth, and Forest Expansion in Puerto Rico between 1991 and 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel K. Parés-Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of local economies to the globalization process can have a large effect on population and land-use dynamics. In countries with a high population density and relatively high levels of education, the globalization process has resulted in a shift in the local economy from agriculture to manufacturing, technology, and service sectors. This shift in the economy has impacted land-use dynamics by decreasing agricultural lands, increasing urban growth, and in some cases, increasing forest cover. This process of economic and forest transition has been well documented in Puerto Rico for the period 1950 to 1990, but some authors predicted that poor planning and continued urban growth would eliminate the gains in forest cover. To investigate the impacts of recent economic changes, we evaluated demographic and land-use changes for 880 "barrios" (i.e., neighborhoods, the smallest administrative unit, in Puerto Rico using government census data from 1990 and 2000 and land-cover classifications from 1991 and 2000. During this period, the population increased by 284 127 people (8.2%. Most of the growth was in the suburban barrios, whereas urban barrios lost population. This shift was reflected by the construction of more than 100 000 housing units in suburban barrios. Although urban sprawl is perceived as the major land-cover change, urban cover only increased from 10% to 11% between 1990 and 2000, whereas the increase in forest cover was much greater (28% to 40%. Grasslands and shrublands were the major sources of new urban and forest areas in 2000. Although these results are encouraging in terms of increasing forest cover, most of the new development has been concentrated in the coastal plains, which are the location of most of the remaining agricultural areas, a few protected areas, and threatened ecosystems (e.g., mangroves.

  6. Krishi-Services-Web Services Based solution for agricultural issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanshi Garg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Web Service is an emerging technology for the agricultural field to improve crop productivity in aspect of quality and quantity. India is known as an agricultural country and majority of Indian population lives in rural areas. The Indian Farmers are facing a lot of difficulties to increase production of crops. Now a day lots ofresearch has been done in this area, but still farmers are unable to achieve upper-bound yield due to lack of knowledge about this research. So to overcome this problem we are proposing a novel framework that is “Krishi-Services” to make various services and information available at their door steps. For the development of country and the betterment of rural people in the remote area, we are using information technology to collect information from various online sources and thereby making farmers aware of recent technologies.

  7. Current Status and Progress of Market for Forest Environmental Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; CHEN Jie

    2006-01-01

    With the analyses of the reasons for the emergence of domestic and overseas markets for forest environmental service and its significance, this paper summarizes the progress in the research on the market and reviews the operations of the markets for 4 kinds of forest environmental services that are watershed protection services, biodiversity protection services, carbon sequestration services and landscape services. At the end, the paper discusses the major problems arising in the creation of markets for environmental services and the developing tendency.

  8. 7 CFR 2.68 - Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2.68 Section 2.68 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.68 Administrator, National...

  9. A decision framework for identifying models to estimate forest ecosystem services gains from restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Zachary; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Verdone, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Restoring degraded forests and agricultural lands has become a global conservation priority. A growing number of tools can quantify ecosystem service tradeoffs associated with forest restoration. This evolving “tools landscape” presents a dilemma: more tools are available, but selecting appropriate tools has become more challenging. We present a Restoration Ecosystem Service Tool Selector (RESTS) framework that describes key characteristics of 13 ecosystem service assessment tools. Analysts enter information about their decision context, services to be analyzed, and desired outputs. Tools are filtered and presented based on five evaluative criteria: scalability, cost, time requirements, handling of uncertainty, and applicability to benefit-cost analysis. RESTS uses a spreadsheet interface but a web-based interface is planned. Given the rapid evolution of ecosystem services science, RESTS provides an adaptable framework to guide forest restoration decision makers toward tools that can help quantify ecosystem services in support of restoration.

  10. Comparative review of multifunctionality and ecosystem services in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiao; Tichit, Muriel; Poulot, Monique; Darly, Ségolène; Li, Shuangcheng; Petit, Caroline; Aubry, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Two scientific communities with broad interest in sustainable agriculture independently focus on multifunctional agriculture or ecosystem services. These communities have limited interaction and exchange, and each group faces research challenges according to independently operating paradigms. This paper presents a comparative review of published research in multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services. The motivation for this work is to improve communication, integrate experimental approaches, and propose areas of consensus and dialog for the two communities. This extensive analysis of publication trends, ideologies, and approaches enables formulation of four main conclusions. First, the two communities are closely related through their use of the term "function." However, multifunctional agriculture considers functions as agricultural activity outputs and prefers farm-centred approaches, whereas ecosystem services considers ecosystem functions in the provision of services and prefers service-centred approaches. Second, research approaches to common questions in these two communities share some similarities, and there would be great value in integrating these approaches. Third, the two communities have potential for dialog regarding the bundle of ecosystem services and the spectrum of multifunctional agriculture, or regarding land sharing and land sparing. Fourth, we propose an integrated conceptual framework that distinguishes six groups of ecosystem services and disservices in the agricultural landscape, and combines the concepts of multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services. This integrated framework improves applications of multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services for operational use. Future research should examine if the framework can be readily adapted for modelling specific problems in agricultural management.

  11. Book of Abstracts - Managing Forests to Promote Environmental Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book includes the abstracts of the oral and poster presentation of the conference ‘Managing Forests to Promote Environmental Services’, 3-5 November 2015, Copenhagen. The conference is arranged by the Centre of Advanced Research on Environmental Services from Nordic Forest Ecosystems (CAR......-ES II), funded by Nordic Forest Research (SNS) 2011-2015. This is an open network that brings together Nordic and Baltic forest researchers in order to provide scientific knowledge on the impacts of forest management on major environmental services for decision making within the forestry sector......-of-the-art and identify knowledge gaps. As seen from the abstracts in this book, the contributing researchers will present research on the interaction between forest management and environmental forest ecosystem services as a basis for making decisions about improved forest management in the future. Sessions focus...

  12. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E; Rabotyagov, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at $217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and $160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  13. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E.; Rabotyagov, Sergey S.

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at 217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and 160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  14. Uav for Geodata Acquisition in Agricultureal and Forestal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelstürz, P.; Schrenk, L.; Littmann, W.

    2011-09-01

    of German Armed Forces in Neubiberg/Munich and the well-established precision farming company "Konsultationszentrum Liepen" to develop an applicable UAV for precision farming purposes. Currently Cis GmbH and Technologie Campus Freyung, with intense contact to the „flying robot"- team of DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, collaborate to optimize the existing UAV and to extend the applications from data aquisition for biomass diversity up to detect the water supply situation in agricultural fields, to support pest management systems as much as to check the possibilities to detect bark beetle attacks in european spruce in an early stage of attack (green attack phase) by constructing and integrating further payload modules with different sensors in the existing UAV airframe. Also effective data processing workflows are to be worked out. Actually in the existing UAV autopilotsystem "piccolo" (cloudcaptech) is integrated and also a replaceable payload module is available, carrying a VIS and a NIR camera to calculate maps of NDVI diversity as indicator of biomass diversity. Further modules with a 6 channel multispectral still camera and with a spectrometer are planned. The airframe's wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly" brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 -7). In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload - and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural

  15. Epiphyte biodiversity in the coffee agricultural matrix: canopy stratification and distance from forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Leigh C; Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Quality of the agricultural matrix profoundly affects biodiversity and dispersal in agricultural areas. Vegetatively complex coffee agroecosystems maintain species richness at larger distances from the forest. Epiphytes colonize canopy trees and provide resources for birds and insects and thus effects of agricultural production on epiphytes may affect other species. We compared diversity, composition, and vertical stratification of epiphytes in a forest fragment and in two coffee farms differing in management intensity in southern Mexico. We also examined spatial distribution of epiphytes with respect to the forest fragment to examine quality of the two agricultural matrix types for epiphyte conservation. We sampled vascular epiphytes in a forest fragment, a shade polyculture farm, and a shade monoculture farm at 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m from the forest. Epiphyte and orchid richness was greater in the forest than in the monoculture but richness was similar in the forest and polyculture farm. Epiphyte species composition differed with habitat type, but not with distance from the forest. In the forest, epiphytes were distributed throughout tree canopies, but in the farms, epiphytes were primarily found on trunks and larger branches. Epiphyte richness and species similarity to forest species declined with distance from the forest fragment in the monoculture, but richness and similarity to forest species did not decline with distance from forest in the polyculture. This suggests polyculture coffee has greater conservation value. In contrast, monoculture coffee is likely a sink habitat for epiphytes dispersing from forests into coffee. Coffee farms differ from forests in terms of the habitat they provide and species composition, thus protecting forest fragments is essential for epiphyte conservation. Nonetheless, in agricultural landscapes, vegetatively complex coffee farms may contribute to conservation of epiphytes more than other agricultural land uses.

  16. Regional Differences in the Demand for Agricultural Socialized Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; LI

    2015-01-01

    With the gradual deepening of China’s agricultural modernization,establishing a sound agricultural socialized service system is of great significance to improving the efficiency of resource use and achieving sustainable agricultural development. On the basis of the micro survey data on China’s 12 provinces,we analyze the intensity of demand for agricultural socialized service in different regions as well as the main factors influencing farmers’ demand willingness. The results show that there are regional differences in farmers’ demand for agricultural socialized service,and among multiple factors affecting the demand willingness of agricultural socialized service,farmers’ individual characteristics,household economic characteristics and farmers’ social communication behavior have varying degrees of impact on farmers’ choice of service.

  17. Forest ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanisms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  18. Forest Ecosystem Services and Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  19. Atmospheric variables as driving variables of agricultural and forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mariani

    Full Text Available Atmospheric variables, which represent meteorology if seen in their instantaneous behavior or climatology if seen in their long time behavior, can be considered among the main driving variables of agricultural and forest ecosystems. In other words meteo-climatic variables determine productivity and quality and territorial specificity of agroforestry productions. On the base of this premise some significant examples are shown in order to describe how different modeling approaches (empirical and mechanistic can improve our degree of description of phenomena and the rationality of our approach to management of agro-ecosystem. The need of strict linkage among agrometeorology and other physical and biological sciences referred to agro-forestry ecosystems is also discussed.

  20. Pyrosequencing reveals changes in soil bacterial communities after conversion of Yungas forests to agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela S Montecchia

    Full Text Available The Southern Andean Yungas in Northwest Argentina constitute one of the main biodiversity hotspots in the world. Considerable changes in land use have taken place in this ecoregion, predominantly related to forest conversion to croplands, inducing losses in above-ground biodiversity and with potential impact on soil microbial communities. In this study, we used high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to assess whether land-use change and time under agriculture affect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities. We selected two areas dedicated to sugarcane and soybean production, comprising both short- and long-term agricultural sites, and used the adjacent native forest soils as a reference. Land-use change altered the composition of bacterial communities, with differences between productive areas despite the similarities between both forests. At the phylum level, only Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes changed in abundance after deforestation for sugarcane and soybean cropping, respectively. In cultivated soils, Verrucomicrobia decreased sharply (~80%, while Firmicutes were more abundant. Despite the fact that local diversity was increased in sugarcane systems and was not altered by soybean cropping, phylogenetic beta diversity declined along both chronosequences, evidencing a homogenization of soil bacterial communities over time. In spite of the detected alteration in composition and diversity, we found a core microbiome resistant to the disturbances caused by the conversion of forests to cultivated lands and few or none exclusive OTUs for each land-use type. The overall changes in the relative abundance of copiotrophic and oligotrophic taxa may have an impact in soil ecosystem functionality. However, communities with many taxa in common may also share many functional attributes, allowing to maintain at least some soil ecosystem services after forest conversion to croplands.

  1. Climate Risks and Their Impact on Agriculture and Forests in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrer, J.; Jasper, K. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Beniston, M.; Goyette, S. [Department of Geosciences, University of Fribourg, Fribourg (Switzerland); Fischlin, A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETHZ, Schlieren/Zurich (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETHZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Pfister, C. [Institute of History, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    There is growing evidence that, as a result of global climate change, some of the most severe weather events could become more frequent in Europe over the next 50 to 100 years. The paper aims to (1) describe observed trends and scenarios for summer heat waves, windstorms and heavy precipitation, based on results from simulations with global circulation models, regional climate models, and other downscaling procedures, and (2) discuss potential impacts on agricultural systems and forests in Switzerland. Trends and scenarios project more frequent heavy precipitation during winter corresponding, for example, to a three-fold increase in the exceedance of today's 15-year extreme values by the end of the 21st century. This increases the risk of large-scale flooding and loss of topsoil due to erosion. In contrast, constraints in agricultural practice due to waterlogged soils may become less in a warmer climate. In summer, the most remarkable trend is a decrease in the frequency of wet days, and shorter return times of heat waves and droughts. This increases the risk of losses of crop yield and forage quality. In forests, the more frequent occurrence of dry years may accelerate the replacement of sensitive tree species and reduce carbon stocks, and the projected slight increase in the frequency of extreme storms by the end of the century could increase the risk of windthrow. Some possible measures to maintain goods and services of agricultural and forest ecosystems are mentioned, but it is suggested that more frequent extremes may have more severe consequences than progressive changes in means. In order to effectively decrease the risk for social and economic impacts, long-term adaptive strategies in agriculture and silviculture, investments for prevention, and new insurance concepts seem necessary.

  2. Book of Abstracts - Managing Forests to Promote Environmental Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    forest management and environmental ecosystem services in a broader perspective, and overviews of ten years of CAR-ES integrated research on carbon sequestration, water protection, biodiversity, and soil quality in the Nordic – Baltic are presented. Frederiksberg, October 2015 Inge Stupak, Lars Högbom...... and for policy development. Amongst key environmental services provided by the Nordic and Baltic forests are carbon sequestration, water protection, biodiversity, and soil quality. All these environmental services are affected by various types of forest management, and knowledge on how the forest management can...... help maintain and enhance these services is crucial to sound decision making in the forest sector and in policy development. Such knowledge will support the forest management in adapting to new conditions in order to continue and increase the provisioning of valuable wood products and clean water...

  3. Which type of forest management provides most ecosystem services?

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Pukkala

    2016-01-01

    Background: Forest ecosystems are increasingly seen as multi-functional production systems, which should provide, besides timber and economic benefits, also other ecosystem services related to biological diversity, recreational uses and environmental functions of forests. This study analyzed the performance of even-aged rotation forest management (RFM), continuous cover forestry (CCF) and any-aged forestry (AAF) in the production of ecosystem services. AAF allows both even-aged an...

  4. Marketing Practice of Forest Environmental Services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses marketing practice of forest environmental services in China, in accordance with Pigou's tax, governmental measures and market-based instruments are analyzed. The constrains and opportunities are presented in the paper, and there is still a long way for China to establish better marketing practices for environmental services of forest resources.

  5. Research on 3G Terminal-Based Agricultural Information Service

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Nengfu; Zhang, Xuefu

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In order to solve the farmer’s agricultural production information’ acquisition problems with a 3G terminal, a 3G-terminial agricultural information service system method is proposed in the paper. With the advent of 3G and WLAN technologies, the rural and urban areas in which 3G coverage is complemented by WLAN deployments is becoming available. The agricultural information services limited by network bandwidth and geography will be changed completely. In the paper, we...

  6. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Francisco J; Kroeger, Timm; Wagner, John E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concepts of ecosystem services and disservices when assessing the efficacy of using urban forests for mitigating pollution. A brief review of the literature identifies some pollution mitigation ecosystem services provided by urban forests. Existing ecosystem services definitions and typologies from the economics and ecological literature are adapted and applied to urban forest management and the concepts of ecosystem disservices from natural and semi-natural systems are discussed. Examples of the urban forest ecosystem services of air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration are used to illustrate issues associated with assessing their efficacy in mitigating urban pollution. Development of urban forest management alternatives that mitigate pollution should consider scale, contexts, heterogeneity, management intensities and other social and economic co-benefits, tradeoffs, and costs affecting stakeholders and urban sustainability goals.

  7. Managing Forests for Water in the Anthropocene—The Best Kept Secret Services of Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena F. Creed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water and forests are inextricably linked. Pressures on forests from population growth and climate change are increasing risks to forests and their aquatic ecosystem services (AES. There is a need to incorporate AES in forest management but there is considerable uncertainty about how to do so. Approaches that manage forest ecosystem services such as fiber, water and carbon sequestration independently ignore the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their responses to management actions, with the potential for unintended consequences that are difficult to predict. The ISO 31000 Risk Management Standard is a standardized framework to assess risks to forest AES and to prioritize management strategies to manage risks within tolerable ranges. The framework consists of five steps: establishing the management context, identifying, analyzing, evaluating and treating the risks. Challenges to implementing the framework include the need for novel models and indicators to assess forest change and resilience, quantification of linkages between forest practice and AES, and the need for an integrated systems approach to assess cumulative effects and stressors on forest ecosystems and AES. In the face of recent international agreements to protect forests, there are emerging opportunities for international leadership to address these challenges in order to protect both forests and AES.

  8. Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw JD

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest Inventory and Analysis, previously known as Forest Survey, is one of the oldest research and development programs in the USDA Forest Service. Statistically-based inventory efforts that started in Scandinavian countries in the 1920s raised interest in developing a similar program in the U.S. The U.S. Congress established the research branch of the U.S. Forest Service in 1928, shortly after Dr. Yrjo Ilvessalo, leader of the first Finnish national forest inventory, met with President Calvin Coolidge. Congress charged the Forest Service to find "facts as may be necessary in the determination of ways and means to balance the timber budget of the United States". As a result, Forest Survey maintained a timber focus for much its history. As society's interest in forests changed over time, so did information needs. Conflicts over resource allocation and use could not be resolved without up-to-date knowledge of forest status and trends. In response to society's needs, the Forest Inventory and Analysis program has evolved from Forest Survey to address diverse topics such as forest health, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, air pollution, and invasive plants, while continuing its mandate to monitor the Nation's timber supply. The Forest Inventory and Analysis program collects data on all land ownerships on an annual basis. The data are used to develop reports on a regular basis; reports and raw data are available to the public at no cost. The data are also used by scientists in a growing number of applications. A short history of the Forest Survey is presented with several examples of current research based on Forest Inventory and Analysis data.

  9. Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest Inventory and Analysis, previously known as Forest Survey, is one of the oldest research and development programs in the USDA Forest Service. Statistically-based inventory efforts that started in Scandinavian countries in the 1920s raised interest in developing a similar program in the U.S. The U.S. Congress established the research branch of the U.S. Forest Service in 1928, shortly after Dr. Yrjö Ilvessalo, leader of the first Finnish national forest inventory, met with President Calvin Coolidge. Congress charged the Forest Service to find "facts as may be necessary in the determination of ways and means to balance the timber budget of the United States". As a result, Forest Survey maintained a timber focus for much its history. As society's interest in forests changed over time, so did information needs. Conflicts over resource allocation and use could not be resolved without up-to-date knowledge of forest status and trends. In response to society's needs, the Forest Inventory and Analysis program has evolved from Forest Survey to address diverse topics such as forest health, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, air pollution, and invasive plants, while continuing its mandate to monitor the Nation's timber supply. The Forest Inventory and Analysis program collects data on all land ownerships on an annual basis. The data are used to develop reports on a regular basis; reports and raw data are available to the public at no cost. The data are also used by scientists in a growing number of applications. A short history of the Forest Survey is presented with several examples of current research based on Forest Inventory and Analysis data.

  10. Agricultural Census 2012: Publishing Mashable GIS Big Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2012 Agricultural Census was released by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) on May 2nd 2014; published on a quinquennial basis covering all facets of American production agriculture. The Agricultural Census is a comprehensive source of uniform published agricultural data for every state and county in the US. This is the first Agricultural Census that is disseminated with web mapping services using REST APIs. USDA developed an open GIS mashable web portal that depicts over 250 maps on Crops and Plants, Economics, Farms, Livestock and Animals, and Operators. These mapping services written in JavaScript replace the traditional static maps published as the Ag Atlas. Web users can now visualize, interact, query, and download the Agricultural Census data in a means not previously discoverable. Stakeholders will now be able to leverage this data for activities such as community planning, agribusiness location suitability analytics, availability of loans/funds, service center locations and staffing, and farm programs and policies. Additional sites serving compatible mashable USDA Big Data web services are as follows: The Food Environment Atlas, The Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America, The Farm Program Atlas, SNAP Data System, CropScape, and VegScape. All portals use a similar data organization scheme of "Categories" and "Maps" providing interactive mashable web services for agricultural stakeholders to exploit.

  11. Forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Guofan(邵国凡); LI; Jing(李静); WU; Gang(吴钢); XIAO; Han(肖寒); ZHAO; Jingzhu(赵景柱)

    2002-01-01

    The forest ecosystem of the Changbai Mountain is the most typical upland temperate forest ecosystem in eastern Asia. It is also of the most primitive vegetation type that came into being through the natural succession of soil and vegetation following volcanic eruption. The forest ecosystem has great importance for maintaining the structures and functions of the watershed ecosystems of the Songhua River, the Yalu River and the Tumen River. We combined physical assessment method(PAM) with the value assessment method(VAM) to evaluate the forest ecosystem services of the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain, including eco-tourism, forest by-products, timber, soil and water conservation, air purification, and the recycling of nutritive elements. We also assessed the integrated forest ecosystem service and analyzed its dynamics. The service value provided by the Changbai Mountain forest ecosystem amounts up to RMB 3.38×1012 yuan, of which, water conservation is 66%, water conservation and air purification together make up 80%, while the timber value is only 7%. Therefore, developing the ecosystem services besides timber is the best way to exert the integrated value of the forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain.

  12. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests.

  13. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Planning: Addressing 21st-Century Public Health Challenges Seasonal Food Safety Fact Sheets Keep your food safe - prepare now ...

  14. An ontology-based collaborative service framework for agricultural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, China has developed modern agriculture energetically. An effective information framework is an important way to provide farms with agricultural information services and improve farmer's production technology and their income. The mountain areas in central China are dominated by agri...

  15. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  16. THE PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKET ADVISORY SERVICES IN MARKETING WHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Jirik, Mark A.; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Jackson, Thomas E.; Martines-Filho, Joao Gomes

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of agricultural market advisory services in marketing wheat. Two key performance questions are addressed: 1) Do market advisory services, on average, outperform an appropriate wheat market benchmark? and 2) Do market advisory services exhibit persistence in their wheat performance from year-to-year? Market advisory service recommendations for wheat are available from the AgMAS Project for the 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998 marketing years...

  17. 2008 USDA Forest Service Lidar: Sandy River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Sandy River study area in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service. The areas...

  18. Agricultural Service Jobs. World of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Milwaukee. Occupational Analysis Field Center.

    To aid in selection and placement of people for vocations in agribusiness, this brochure presents occupational information about a wide variety of service-oriented jobs, including artificial breeding, conservation, marketing, and veterinary medicine. Collected and reported by a research analyst, the materials focus on services related to…

  19. Lusus naturae:climate and invasions of plant pathogens modify agricultural and forest lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ragazzi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and economic sustainability of agricultural and forest systems of many advanced and underdeveloped Countries are strongly threatened by the increasing introduction of exotic plant pathogens. This article provides an overview of the main causes behind these invasions. Some important diseases caused by non native phytopathogens, whose arrival in the past century had a disastrous impact on the environment and economy of vast rural areas of our Country are reported. Some dangerous, emerging pathogens, which are literally destroying whole territories in various parts of the Planet, with severe damage to agricultural crops, landscape, economy and local tourism are also reported. Action strategies to prevent immigration of unwanted pathogens, and mitigation strategies, aimed at the development of various measures to mitigate the negative effects of plant parasites already established in the territory are then discussed. Finally, it is highlighted how such a far-reaching problem can be properly tackled only with the active contribution of governments, institutions responsible for plant health monitoring (warning services, research, and agricultural, tourism and transport operators.

  20. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  1. US Forest Service Region 3 Wilderness Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains a feature class depicting National Forest System land parcels that have a Congressionally designated boundary. Examples include National...

  2. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L. R.; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems. PMID:28218635

  3. Ecosystem Services and Forest Management in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna

    of several non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management and the extent of their integration into decision support was systematically reviewed in Paper I. The findings suggest an uneven and limited coverage of services in the reviewed literature. Existing assessments are in their majority......The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the impacts of forest management on provision of non-market ecosystem services and identify trade-offs and synergies for forestry decision-making in the Nordic countries. First, existing scientific literature on assessments...... confined to a single research domain and focus on a single non-market ecosystem service. The same trends have been revealed in studies on decision support. In the next three papers impacts of forest management on provision of different ecosystem services were investigated. In Paper II a structured expert...

  4. 75 FR 16719 - Information Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking...

  5. When the shifting agriculture is gone: functionality of Atlantic Coastal Forest in abandoned farming sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ribeiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn agriculture has been practiced for a very long time by the traditional populations (caiçaras on Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. After a few years of use the plots are abandoned to fallow. We examined the processes of litter production and decomposition and the relationships between forest lands used by caiçara populations and landscape functionality. Five and 25-year-old forests growing on areas once used for subsistence agriculture were compared to a near-climax forest site. No significant differences between the three areas were noted in terms of litter production over a 2-yr period; the average litter productions were 9,927, 8,707 and 10,031 kg/ha/yr for the 5-year, 25-year and climax forests respectively. N and K nutrient input through litter was greatest in the climax forest; P and Mg input was greatest in the 5-yr forest; and Na greatest in the 25-yr forest. Ground litter accumulation (3,040-3,730 kg/ha/yr was not significantly different in the three areas. Litter turnover times (1/K were 0.33, 0.42 and 0.38 for the 5-yr, 25-yr and climax forests respectively. These secondary forests cover almost all of Ilha Grande and demonstrate low species diversity, but they have production and decomposition systems similar to those of mature forests.

  6. Which type of forest management provides most ecosystem services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forest ecosystems are increasingly seen as multi-functional production systems, which should provide, besides timber and economic benefits, also other ecosystem services related to biological diversity, recreational uses and environmental functions of forests. This study analyzed the performance of even-aged rotation forest management (RFM, continuous cover forestry (CCF and any-aged forestry (AAF in the production of ecosystem services. AAF allows both even-aged and uneven-aged management schedules. The ecosystem services included in the analyses were net present value, volume of harvested timber, cowberry and bilberry yields, scenic value of the forest, carbon balance and suitability of the forest to Siberian jay. Methods: Data envelopment analysis was used to derive numerical efficiency ratios for the three management systems. Efficiency ratio is the sum of weighted outputs (ecosystem services divided by the sum of weighted inputs. The linear programing model proposed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes was used to derive the weights for calculating efficiency scores for the silvicultural systems. Results and conclusions: CCF provided more ecosystem services than RFM, and CCF was more efficient than RFM and AAF in the production of ecosystem services. Multi-objective management provided more ecosystem services (except harvested timber than single-objective management that maximized economic profitability. The use of low discount rate (resulting in low cutting level and high growing stock volume led to better supply of most ecosystems services than the use of high discount rate. RFM where NPV was maximized with high discount rate led to particularly poor provision of most ecosystem services. In CCF the provision of ecosystem services was less sensitive to changes in discount rate and management objective than in RFM. Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, Production efficiency, Multi-objective management, Multi-functional forestry

  7. Community Agricultural Processing Services: A Reflection of Urban Differentiation or County Agricultural Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Robert L.; Calloway, Michael O.

    Questionnaire data from 81 North Carolina communities were analyzed in 1981 to test the hypothesis that 5 institutional subcategories (education, general community services, transportation, agricultural services, and health and sanitation) exhibit the underlying characteristic of unidimensionality and that they reflect comparable levels of…

  8. a Study on the Document Information Service of the National Agricultural Library for Agricultural Sci-Tech Innovation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Meng, Xianxue

    This paper presents the significant function of the Chinese National Agricultural Library (CNAL) in the agricultural sci-tech innovation system in China, analyses the development of collection and service in the CNAL, explores the challenge towards sustain and develop information services for the agricultural sci-tech research and innovation, at last proposes the strategy for sci-tech document information service development.

  9. Theory into practice: implementing ecosystem management objectives in the USDA Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kelly F; Koontz, Tomas M

    2005-02-01

    In the United States and around the world, scientists and practitioners have debated the definition and merits of ecosystem management as a new approach to natural resource management. While these debates continue, a growing number of organizations formally have adopted ecosystem management. However, adoption does not necessarily lead to successful implementation, and theories are not always put into practice. In this article, we examine how a leading natural resource agency, the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, has translated ecosystem management theory into concrete policy objectives and how successfully these objectives are perceived to be implemented throughout the national forest system. Through document analysis, interviews, and survey responses from 345 Forest Service managers (district rangers, forest supervisors, and regional foresters), we find that the agency has incorporated numerous ecosystem management components into its objectives. Agency managers perceive that the greatest attainment of such objectives is related to collaborative stewardship and integration of scientific information, areas in which the organization has considerable prior experience. The objectives perceived to be least attained are adaptive management and integration of social and economic information, areas requiring substantial new resources and a knowledge base not traditionally emphasized by natural resource managers. Overall, success in implementing ecosystem management objectives is linked to committed forest managers.

  10. Improving Agricultural Productivity in Tonga through Ensuring Data Availability and Enhancing Agro-meteorological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The project was first conceived in the Global Framework for Climate Services Regional Consultation in the Cook Islands in March 2014. In this meeting, key officials from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Forests, and Fisheries and the Tonga Meteorological Services had a meeting with the APEC Climate Center scientists with the idea to collaborate on a joint project. The project evolved to include the following components: assessment of users' needs and capacities, development of an agricultural database, research on the core relationships between agriculture and climate through modeling and field trials, and the development and delivery of agro-meteorological services. Envisioned outputs include a 2-7 day warning for pests and diseases, a suite of tools supporting decisions on planting dates and crop varieties, and other advisory services derived from seasonal climate forecasts. As one of the climate adaptation projects under its Pacific Island portfolio, the project will deliver urgent information services for Tongan agricultural growers and exporters. The project comes into greater importance and urgency, as the 2014 drought event resulted in the destruction of 80% of squash in Tonga, a main export crop from which the country derives foreign exchange earnings. Since 2014, some of the project achievements include the first agro-met data collection in Tonga, the development of an agricultural DB management system that houses archived agriculture data, and key meetings with stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives and design with the interests of the Tongan government and other stakeholders. In addition, rigorous scientific research through modeling and field trials has been conducted to address the twin goals of supporting Tonga's economy as well as food security. Based on the findings from the research, tools will be developed to translate the science into knowledge that supports decisions on the farm scale.

  11. Responses of soil fungi to logging and oil palm agriculture in Southeast Asian tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K L; D'Angelo, H; Brearley, F Q; Gedallovich, S M; Babar, N; Yang, N; Gillikin, C M; Gradoville, R; Bateman, C; Turner, B L; Mansor, P; Leff, J W; Fierer, N

    2015-05-01

    Human land use alters soil microbial composition and function in a variety of systems, although few comparable studies have been done in tropical forests and tropical agricultural production areas. Logging and the expansion of oil palm agriculture are two of the most significant drivers of tropical deforestation, and the latter is most prevalent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to compare soil fungal communities from three sites in Malaysia that represent three of the most dominant land-use types in the Southeast Asia tropics: a primary forest, a regenerating forest that had been selectively logged 50 years previously, and a 25-year-old oil palm plantation. Soil cores were collected from three replicate plots at each site, and fungal communities were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Extracellular enzyme assays were assessed as a proxy for soil microbial function. We found that fungal communities were distinct across all sites, although fungal composition in the regenerating forest was more similar to the primary forest than either forest community was to the oil palm site. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are important associates of the dominant Dipterocarpaceae tree family in this region, were compositionally distinct across forests, but were nearly absent from oil palm soils. Extracellular enzyme assays indicated that the soil ecosystem in oil palm plantations experienced altered nutrient cycling dynamics, but there were few differences between regenerating and primary forest soils. Together, these results show that logging and the replacement of primary forest with oil palm plantations alter fungal community and function, although forests regenerating from logging had more similarities with primary forests in terms of fungal composition and nutrient cycling potential. Since oil palm agriculture is currently the mostly rapidly expanding equatorial crop and logging is pervasive across tropical ecosystems, these findings may have broad applicability.

  12. ATTITUDES OF VEGETABLE FARMERS TOWARDS PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tala Qtaishat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among vegetable farmers in Jordan, there are conflicting attitudes towards the extension activities provided by the public sector. Some farmers accept and adopt the recommendations of these activities; on the other hand, some people are not satisfied and consider these activities a waste of time for both the farmers and the government. This situation has serious impacts on the quality, duration and efficiency of the extension activities provided by government related agencies. Also, the situation will end in providing low-quality agricultural extension services to the farmers or providing these services in a non-productive manner. The actual attitudes of vegetable farmers towards Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES in the Dear Alla Area of Jordan were investigated in this study. A total of 80 vegetable farmers were selected for the study. A questionnaire consisting of two main parts was used for data collection; the first part was related to personal and socio-economic characteristics of the sample individuals. The second part was related to extension activities. A five-point Likert-type scale was used as an instrument to gather primary data. The farmers rated their attitudes toward Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES through 10 statements related carefully to the Public Agricultural Extension Services. Data analysis was done in two sections, consisting of data description and data inferential analysis. The results of the study revealed that the farmers’ overall attitude towards the public agricultural extension activities was negative. The farmers’ attitudes according to age, experience, educational level and frequency and type of contact with public extension services were also negative. The negative attitude of the participant farmers towards the Public Agricultural Extension Services means that the farmers were not satisfied with these services. Identifying the sources and types of public extension programs, the

  13. Theme: Innovative Curriculum Ideas and Practices in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen theme articles discuss the following: curriculum ideas and innovations in agricultural education, agricultural literacy, Supervised Agricultural Experience, active learning, locating agricultural education resources, distance and web-based instruction, principles of forest management, professional development, and service learning. (JOW)

  14. Human-driven topographic effects on the distribution of forest in a flat, lowland agricultural region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Dalgaard, Tommy;

    2014-01-01

    Complex topography buffers forests against deforestation in mountainous regions. However, it is unknown if terrain also shapes forest distribution in lowlands where human impacts are likely to be less constrained by terrain. In such regions, if important at all, topographic effects will depend...... on cultural-historical factors and thus be human-driven (anthropogenic) rather than natural, except in regions where the general climate or extreme soils limit the occurrence of forests. We used spatial regression modeling to assess the extent to which topographic factors explain forest distribution (presence......-absence at a 48×48 m resolution) in a lowland agricultural region (Denmark, 43,075 km2) at regional and landscape scales (whole study area and 10×10 km grid cells, respectively), how landscape-scale forest-topography relationships vary geographically, and which potential drivers (topographic heterogeneity, forest...

  15. 77 FR 260 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (FRCC) is filling eight vacant positions. Candidates who wish to be considered for membership on the Forest...

  16. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  17. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic,both in China and at abroad,but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods.Under the framework of evaluation criteria to be implemented for forest ecosystem services,years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Ecological Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network(CFERN),forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China.The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion(1.1449640×10 12 )RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan(1996―2000),and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively,during the 10th Five-year Plan(2001―2005).For Chinese pine forests,water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually,soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually,production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×10 20 , absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests,the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province;while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  18. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; WANG Bing; MA XiangQian; ZHAO GuangDong; LI ShaoNing

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic, both in China and at abroad, but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods. Under the framework of evaluation criteda to be implemented for forest ecosystem services, years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Eco-logical Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network (CFERN), forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China. The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion (1.1449640×1012) RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan (1996-2000), and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively, during the 10th Five-year Plan (2001-2005). For Chinese pine forests, water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually, soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually, production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×1020, absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests, the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province; while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  19. Soil and water related forest ecosystem services and resilience of social ecological system in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekalign, Meron; Muys, Bart; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In the central highlands of Ethiopia, deforestation and forest degradation are occurring and accelerating during the last century. The high population pressure is the most repeatedly mentioned reason. However, in the past 30 years researchers agreed that the absence of institutions, which could define the access rights to particular forest resources, is another underlying cause of forest depletion and loss. Changing forest areas into different land use types is affecting the biodiversity, which is manifested through not proper functioning of ecosystem services. Menagesha Suba forest, the focus of this study has been explored from various perspectives. However the social dimension and its interaction with the ecology have been addressed rarely. This research uses a combined theoretical framework of Ecosystem Services and that of Resilience thinking for understanding the complex social-ecological interactions in the forest and its influence on ecosystem services. For understanding the history and extent of land use land cover changes, in-depth literature review and a GIS and remote sensing analysis will be made. The effect of forest conversion into plantation and agricultural lands on soil and above ground carbon sequestration, fuel wood and timber products delivery will be analyzed with the accounting of the services on five land use types. The four ecosystem services to be considered are Supporting, Provisioning, Regulating, and Cultural services as set by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. A resilience based participatory framework approach will be used to analyze how the social and ecological systems responded towards the drivers of change that occurred in the past. The framework also will be applied to predict future uncertainties. Finally this study will focus on the possible interventions that could contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the forest. An ecosystem services trade-off analysis and an environmental valuation of the water

  20. Ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types: understanding the interactions and suggesting pathways for sustaining multiple ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Turton, Stephen M; Macgregor, Colin J; Pert, Petina L

    2016-10-01

    As ecosystem services supply from tropical forests is declining due to deforestation and forest degradation, much effort is essential to sustain ecosystem services supply from tropical forested landscapes, because tropical forests provide the largest flow of multiple ecosystem services among the terrestrial ecosystems. In order to sustain multiple ecosystem services, understanding ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types and identifying certain ecosystem services that could be managed to leverage positive effects across the wider bundle of ecosystem services are required. We sampled three forest types, tropical rainforests, sclerophyll forests, and rehabilitated plantation forests, over an area of 32,000m(2) from Wet Tropics bioregion, Australia, aiming to compare supply and evaluate interactions and patterns of eight ecosystem services (global climate regulation, air quality regulation, erosion regulation, nutrient regulation, cyclone protection, habitat provision, energy provision, and timber provision). On average, multiple ecosystem services were highest in the rainforests, lowest in sclerophyll forests, and intermediate in rehabilitated plantation forests. However, a wide variation was apparent among the plots across the three forest types. Global climate regulation service had a synergistic impact on the supply of multiple ecosystem services, while nutrient regulation service was found to have a trade-off impact. Considering multiple ecosystem services, most of the rehabilitated plantation forest plots shared the same ordination space with rainforest plots in the ordination analysis, indicating that rehabilitated plantation forests may supply certain ecosystem services nearly equivalent to rainforests. Two synergy groups and one trade-off group were identified. Apart from conserving rainforests and sclerophyll forests, our findings suggest two additional integrated pathways to sustain the supply of multiple ecosystem services from a

  1. Marketing and Distributive Education Curriculum Guide for Agricultural Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Vocational Education Studies.

    This curriculum guide provides curriculum coordinators with a basis for planning a comprehensive program in the career field of marketing agricultural services and allows marketing and distributive education teachers maximum flexibility. Introductory materials include information on use of the guide, information on careers in agricultural…

  2. Functional traits in agriculture: agrobiodiversity and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen A; Karp, Daniel S; DeClerck, Fabrice; Kremen, Claire; Naeem, Shahid; Palm, Cheryl A

    2015-09-01

    Functional trait research has led to greater understanding of the impacts of biodiversity in ecosystems. Yet, functional trait approaches have not been widely applied to agroecosystems and understanding of the importance of agrobiodiversity remains limited to a few ecosystem processes and services. To improve this understanding, we argue here for a functional trait approach to agroecology that adopts recent advances in trait research for multitrophic and spatially heterogeneous ecosystems. We suggest that trait values should be measured across environmental conditions and agricultural management regimes to predict how ecosystem services vary with farm practices and environment. This knowledge should be used to develop management strategies that can be easily implemented by farmers to manage agriculture to provide multiple ecosystem services.

  3. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7527] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger District, Coconino County, AZ AGENCY: Forest.... Forest Service (FS) will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposed action to...

  4. USDA forest service global change research program highlights: 1991-1995. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsey, R.; Mickler, R.; Sandberg, D.; Tinus, R.; Zerbe, J.

    1997-12-29

    The report summarizes research findings of the USDA Forest Service`s Global Change Research Program. Research highlights are presented at national and regional scales within the following topic areas: atmosphere/biosphere gas and energy exchange; ecosystem dynamics; disturbance ecology; and human activities and natural resource interactions. Selected topics are reviewed in depth with individual papers covering the global carbon cycle, climate scenarios, multiple stress studies, changes in vegetation distribution, the United States carbon budget, and the human dimensions of global change. Also included is a progress report on development of an integrated national model of the effects of global change on forests and people.

  5. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes.

  6. Spatial Aspects of the Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg

    The research objective of this thesis is to examine the importance of spatial landscape patterns for the provision of forest ecosystem services and the implications for effective land management and policy decisions. This thesis presents four papers providing different approaches to the incorpora......The research objective of this thesis is to examine the importance of spatial landscape patterns for the provision of forest ecosystem services and the implications for effective land management and policy decisions. This thesis presents four papers providing different approaches...... to the incorporation of spatial factors into cost and benefit evaluation of FES provision. Focus is on assessing where forest ecosystem provision should be undertaken, determinants of private stakeholder provision efforts and welfare consequences of changes in the provision level. Provision of carbon sequestration...

  7. Service Oriented Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, S. A.; Adinarayana, J.; Durbha, S. S.; Tripathy, A. K.; Sudharsan, D.

    2012-08-01

    Rapid advances in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for agricultural applications has provided a platform for better decision making for crop planning and management, particularly in precision agriculture aspects. Due to the ever-increasing spread of WSNs there is a need for standards, i.e. a set of specifications and encodings to bring multiple sensor networks on common platform. Distributed sensor systems when brought together can facilitate better decision making in agricultural domain. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) through Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) provides guidelines for semantic and syntactic standardization of sensor networks. In this work two distributed sensing systems (Agrisens and FieldServer) were selected to implement OGC SWE standards through a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. Online interoperable data processing was developed through SWE components such as Sensor Model Language (SensorML) and Sensor Observation Service (SOS). An integrated web client was developed to visualize the sensor observations and measurements that enables the retrieval of crop water resources availability and requirements in a systematic manner for both the sensing devices. Further, the client has also the ability to operate in an interoperable manner with any other OGC standardized WSN systems. The study of WSN systems has shown that there is need to augment the operations / processing capabilities of SOS in order to understand about collected sensor data and implement the modelling services. Also, the very low cost availability of WSN systems in future, it is possible to implement the OGC standardized SWE framework for agricultural applications with open source software tools.

  8. Parks and Recreation: Resource Limitations Affect Condition of Forest Service Recreation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    hereafter called districts.2 The Forest Service manages 149 national forests in the United State3 and Puerto Rico . Because the Forest Service’s day-to-day...meet the needs of people with disabilities. According to the questionnaire respondent in the Santa Lucia district of the Los Padres National Forest in

  9. An integrated approach to monitoring ecosystem services and agriculture: implications for sustainable agricultural intensification in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Melissa F; Bonham, Curan A; Dempewolf, Jan; Arakwiye, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the long-term sustainability of human and natural systems across agricultural landscapes requires an integrated, systematic monitoring system that can track crop productivity and the impacts of agricultural intensification on natural resources. This study presents the design and practical implementation of a monitoring framework that combines satellite observations with ground-based biophysical measurements and household surveys to provide metrics on ecosystem services and agricultural production at multiple spatial scales, reaching from individual households and plots owned by smallholder farmers to 100-km(2) landscapes. We developed a set of protocols for monitoring and analyzing ecological and agricultural household parameters within two 10 × 10-km landscapes in Rwanda, including soil fertility, crop yield, water availability, and fuelwood sustainability. Initial results suggest providing households that rely on rainfall for crop irrigation with timely climate information and improved technical inputs pre-harvest could help increase crop productivity in the short term. The value of the monitoring system is discussed as an effective tool for establishing a baseline of ecosystem services and agriculture before further change in land use and climate, identifying limitations in crop production and soil fertility, and evaluating food security, economic development, and environmental sustainability goals set forth by the Rwandan government.

  10. Forest Inventory and Analysis Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research program has been in existence since mandated by Congress in 1928. FIA's primary objective is to determine the...

  11. 77 FR 22755 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... approval of the Board's re-charter package submitted to the Secretary, U.S. Department of Agriculture...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meetings of the Black Hills National Forest Advisory...

  12. Nitrous oxide production and consumption potential in an agricultural and a forest soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kewei; Struwe, Sten; Kjøller, Annelise;

    2008-01-01

    Both a laboratory incubation experiment using soils from an agricultural field and a forest and field measurements at the same locations were conducted to determine nitrous oxide (N2O) production and consumption (reduction) potentials using the acetylene (C2H2) inhibition technique. Results from...... the laboratory experiment show that the agricultural soil had a stronger N2O reduction potential than the forest soil, as indicated by the N2O/N2 ratio in denitrification products. Without C2H2 inhibition, N2O could reach a maximum concentration of 51 and 296 ppmv in headspace of the agricultural and forest soil...... slurries, respectively. Addition of glucose decreased the maximum N2O concentration to 22 ppmv in headspace of the agricultural soil slurries, but increased to 520 ppmv in the forest soil slurries. Addition of exogenous N2O did not change such N2O accumulation maxima during the incubations. The field...

  13. 77 FR 42695 - Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County, CO; Eldora Mountain Resort Ski Area Projects; Correction AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA....

  14. 75 FR 66718 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Blackfoot travel planning...

  15. 78 FR 7391 - Motorized Travel Management Plan, Tonto National Forest; Gila, Maricopa, Pinal, and Counties, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Motorized Travel Management Plan, Tonto National Forest; Gila, Maricopa, Pinal, and Counties, AZ AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental...

  16. 76 FR 41196 - National Forests in Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Forests in Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Tombigbee and Holly...

  17. 76 FR 41195 - National Forests In Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Forests In Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Tombigbee and Holly...

  18. Improved agriculture and forest management in Africa through the AGRICAB project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydekerke, L.; Tote, C.; Jacobs, T.; Gilliams, S.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture and forestry are key economic sectors in many African countries. A sound management of these resources, in order to ensure stable food supply, is key for development. In many countries in Africa both forest and agricultural resources are under stress due to, among others, a growing population, land reforms, climate variability and change. Sound information is required to efficiently manage these resources. Remote sensing contributes significantly to these information needs and for this reason more and more institutes and agencies integrate this technology into their daily work. In this context, there is a growing need for enhancing remote sensing capacity in Africa and for this reason the European Commission launched the AGRICAB Project, funded by the FP7 Programme. The main focus of AGRICAB 'A Framework for enhancing earth observation capacity for agriculture and forest management in Africa as a contribution to GEOSS', is to link European and African research capacity in the use of earth observation technology for agriculture and forestry. The project consortium consists of 17 partners located in 12 different countries (5 in Europe, 10 in Africa and 1 in South America) and has three main components. Firstly, AGRICAB aims to ensure satellite data access, partly through GEONETCast. Secondly, AGRICAB will enhance research capacity through partnerships between African and European institutes in the following thematic areas (a) yield forecasting, (b) early warning and agricultural mapping of food crops, (c) agricultural statistics, (d) livestock and rangeland monitoring, and (e) forest and forest fire monitoring. Thirdly, a significant part is dedicated to training and building awareness concerning the advantage and benefits of the use of remote sensing in forest and agricultural management. AGRICAB intends to allow African partners: (i) to get exposed to state-of-the art techniques and models for agricultural and forest monitoring, (ii) to discover these

  19. Multifunctional Agriculture: Conducting an Ecosystem Service Assessment for an Agricultural Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Wilson, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    To meet the food production demands on a finite area of land for an exponentially growing, global population, intensive agricultural management practices are being used. The implications of this these practices lead to soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and decreased water quality depending on the level of conservation practices implemented in a watershed. To offset these negative environmental effects, ecosystem services should be analyzed for possible economic valuation to provide incentives for good land stewardship. In this study a Multifunctional Agriculture (MFA) evaluation in a representative agricultural watershed in Iowa was performed by assessing the ecosystem services of water quality, crop/grain production, carbon sequestration, reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and biodiversity for representative land covers (e.g., corn-soybean rotation, alfalfa, oats, and Conservation Reserve Program, or CRP). The services were analyzed using a geo-spatial platform that simulated carbon dynamics with the biogeochemical model, CENTURY, as well as soil erosion/deposition and surface runoff with the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). Economic values given to the various services were based on current grain prices, water treatment costs, and hypothetical carbon storage credits. Results showed that crop/grain production for the corn-soybean rotations provided the largest service for the study site, followed by alfalfa. CRP provided the largest decrease in surface water runoff and CO2 emissions, while alfalfa provided the largest form of plant species diversity. The largest sequestration of carbon came from the corn-soybean rotation due to large amounts dead plant material being incorporated into the soil through tillage. Overall the MFA assessment can provide a framework for payment of ecosystem services supplied by agroecosystems which promote more sustainable land management practices.

  20. A Performance Evaluation System for Agricultural Services in Agricultural Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangeneh Morteza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is comparing all possible scenarios to improve the performance of agricultural supply chain (ASC. For this purpose, at first all scenarios is discussed and the main constraints, i.e. available budget and time, is considered. In this study the drivers to improve the performance of ASC is select and distribute the best agricultural service packages in the target ASC. All discussed scenarios need a selection procedure. So a multilevel approach is developed to select the best service package for each scenario. All selection methods are based on performance measurement which had been selected in first level of the approach. Fuzzy decision making and Analytic Hierarchy Process have been used for the approach. A numerical example is solved at the end of the paper to show the capability of the approach and comparing the scenarios.

  1. Microsite-limited recruitment controls fern colonization of post-agricultural forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M

    2007-12-01

    Assessing the relative roles of dispersal limitation and environmental effects in population dynamics and community assembly is fundamental to understanding patterns of species distribution and diversity. In forests growing on abandoned agricultural lands, both legacies of vegetation disturbance and changes in the abiotic environment shape the diversity and composition of recovering communities. Here I specify how interactions among historical, environmental, and biological factors influence species distributions, focusing on three fern species with contrasting distributions across forests of different history in central New York, USA: Dryopteris carthusiana, Dryopteris intermedia, and Polystichum acrostichoides. Using population surveys, spore-trap and spore-bank studies, and a three-year field experiment, I compare demographic rates among species and between forest types to determine which life history stages limit colonization and which traits explain species distributions. Adult plants of all three species were larger and more likely to produce spores in post-agricultural forests than in adjacent, uncleared stands. Though lower population densities led to fewer spores in post-agricultural soils, spore availability still exceeded recruitment by four to five orders of magnitude. Sowing additional spores had relatively little effect, while microhabitat conditions had the greatest impact on establishment rates. Given similar microsites, the two forest types had equal rates of establishment, but some forest-floor features preferentially occupied by juvenile plants were less frequent in post-agricultural stands. The availability of suitable sites for establishment, created by small-scale heterogeneity on forest floors, thus limits both the growth of fern populations and the colonization of new habitats. In fact, reduced microtopographic variation in post-agricultural forests may represent a greater hindrance to plant establishment than changes in mean environmental

  2. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered.

  3. Agriculture Information Service Built on Interoperable Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, K.; Ines, A.; Han, E.; Seshimo, T.

    2015-12-01

    We are developing an agricultural information service platform called FieldTouch, that is built on an interoperable geospatial data infrastructure. More than 300 farmers in Hokkaido, Japan, are participating on this development and they are utilizing our services for optimizing their daily agricultural practices. FieldTouch integrates multi-scale sensor data for field monitoring, provides functionality for recording agricultural practices, then supports farmers in decision making. The platform has two layers. The base layer is interoperable geospatial data infrastructure for sensor networks, that provides updated sensor data to upper application layer via OGC( Open Geospatial Consortium) standard API. We are updating RapidEye satellite images every two weeks, and field sensor data from 50 nodes. Agro-Weather data generated by NIAES using national weather observation network; AMeDAS is also a data source at daily basis. We use "cloudSense" sensor backend service as the infrastructure that serves meta-data and data to the application layer via standard web service; SOS (Sensor Observation Service). SOS provides unified procedure to applications when they access different type of sensor platform, which brought us a great flexibility and automation in operating the system. We developed a crop simulation application in FieldTouch so that farmers are able to see the impact of different planting data on yield. Cultivar data of local wheat variety for DSSAT crop model was calibrated by data assimilation. We generate 100 of weather scenario by a weather generator to present the obtain distribution of yield in different planting options. We update the weather scenario day by day in order to reduce the uncertain of the prediction towards harvesting. Visualizing expected yield as distributions help farmers to understand the risks by weather variability as well as to optimize their works and investment.

  4. Biohydrogen production from forest and agricultural residues for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, forest residues (limbs, tops, and branches) and straw (from wheat and barley) are considered for producing biohydrogen in Western Canada for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands. Two types of gasifiers, namely, the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier are considered for biohydrogen production. Production costs of biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues from a BCL gasification plant with a capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day are 1.17 and 1.29/kg of H{sub 2}, respectively. For large-scale biohydrogen plant, GTI gasification is the optimum technology. The delivered-biohydrogen costs are 2.19 and 2.31/kg of H{sub 2} at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. Optimum capacity for biohydrogen plant is 3000 dry tonnes/day for both residues in a BCL gasifier. In a GTI gasifier, although the theoretical optimum sizes are higher than 3000 dry tonnes/day for both feedstocks, the cost of production of biohydrogen is flat above a plant size of 3000 dry tonnes/day. Hence, a plant at the size of 3000 dry tonnes/day could be built to minimize risk. Carbon credits of 119 and 124/tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent are required for biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. (author)

  5. Climate Change for Agriculture, Forest Cover and 3d Urban Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, M.; Bassir, D.

    2014-11-01

    This research demonstrates the important role of the remote sensing in finding out the different parameters behind the agricultural crop change, forest cover and urban 3D models. Standalone software is developed to view and analysis the different factors effecting the change in crop productions. Open-source libraries from the Open Source Geospatial Foundation have been used for the development of the shape-file viewer. Software can be used to get the attribute information, scale, zoom in/out and pan the shapefiles. Environmental changes due to pollution and population that are increasing the urbanisation and decreasing the forest cover on the earth. Satellite imagery such as Landsat 5(1984) to Landsat TRIS/8 (2014), Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and NDVI are used to analyse the different parameters that are effecting the agricultural crop production change and forest change. It is advisable for the development of good quality of NDVI and forest cover maps to use data collected from the same processing methods for the complete region. Management practices have been developed from the analysed data for the betterment of the crop and saving the forest cover

  6. Distribution and occurrence of myxomycetes on agricultural ground litter and forest floor litter in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hanh T M; Stephenson, Steven L; Hyde, Kevin D; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2008-01-01

    The ecological distribution and seasonal patterns of occurrence of myxomycetes associated with the microhabitats represented by agricultural ground litter and forest floor litter were investigated in six study sites in northern Thailand during Oct 2004-Oct 2005. Both specimens that developed under natural conditions in the field and specimens obtained in moist chamber cultures were considered. Agricultural study sites were a banana plantation, a mango orchard and a sweet corn farm, whereas forest study sites consisted of a lowland forest, a midelevation forest and a highland forest. Seventy species of myxomycetes representing 20 genera were collected, with 34 species recorded during the dry season and 58 species recorded during the rainy season. Distinct differences were apparent for numbers of positive moist chambers, numbers of species recorded from moist chambers, numbers of species recorded as field collections and numbers of field collections when data obtained for the two seasons were compared. In the dry season only three species were collected in the field, but the percentage of positive moist chamber cultures (129/180 or 72%) and number of species recorded (33) from these cultures were high. In contrast, during the rainy season, 52 species of myxomycetes were collected in the field but only 15 species were recorded from the much lower percentage (75/180 or 42%) of positive moist chambers cultures.

  7. Influence of agricultural environment on the plant mite community in forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR. Demite

    Full Text Available The mite community has been surveyed in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest with three types of surrounding agricultural environments to test the hypothesis that abundance and richness of mites in forest fragments are influenced by the type of agricultural environment. The survey has been carried out in six fragments, divided into sets of two fragments, each one neighboring one sort of agricultural environment: sugarcane crop (FS, orange crop (FO and pasture (FP. In each fragment, ten individuals of Actinostemon communis (Euphorbiaceae were selected, five at the edge and five within each fragment. Iphiseiodes zuluagai, often registered in orange crops, was more abundant in the fragments neighboring such crop, as well as some species of Tarsonemidae. In this study, the Phytoseiidae were more abundant in the fragments neighboring pasture, while sugarcane crops probably favored occurrence of phytophagous mites in the neighboring fragments. Tetranychidae were less abundant in FO, which can be explained by periodical use of pesticides in the orange crops. Forest fragments are important for colonies of predators in the neighboring crops, mainly for annual crops such as sugarcane, where the close perennial environment is very important for colonization of the crop. Maintenance of those areas, besides favoring preservation of wild species of mite, is very important to increase diversity of the neighboring agricultural ecosystems.

  8. Soil degradation processes in the Italian agricultural and forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo A.C. Costantini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of processes of degradation threaten soil functions. Ten of them are acknowledged by the European Union and fifteen by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, but at least another seven have been indicated by different authors in Italy and in other parts of the world. This short review paper summarizes the nature, economic relevance, and territorial impact of soil degradation in Italy, and with reference to Europe as a whole, and highlights the most relevant research needs in soil conservation. The direct annual costs of the main soil degradation processes are estimated to be over 38,000,000,000 euro per year in Europe as a whole, while in Italy, only for landslides, floods, and soil erosion, costs amount to 900,000,000 euro. Loss of the ability to produce food commodities because of soil degradation is particularly important in Italy, since selfsufficiency in food has recently decreased to less than 80% and Italian agricultural soils are hit by several problems, such as limited soil drainage, unfavorable texture and stoniness, shallow rooting depth, and poor chemical properties. On average, soil sealing, reduction in organic matter, and soil compaction in Italy are comparable with those of many other countries, but the occurrence of soil erosion, floods, and landslides is more widespread than in most parts of Europe, and also the presence of salt-affected soils is becoming a major worry. The fight against soil degradation in Italy is certainly more difficult than in other countries because of the high environmental variability. However, according to the current trends, Italy is mostly probably destined not to achieve the European objective to significantly reduce main soil degradation processes by the year 2020. There are several research needs in the field of soil conservation in Italy. These include: i a better basic knowledge about many soil degradation processes and of pedodiversity; ii reliable, sensitive

  9. Factors affecting songbird nest survival in riparian forests in a midwestern agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, R.G.; Thompson, F. R.; Shaffer, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting nest success of songbirds in riparian forest and buffers in northeastern Missouri. We used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning effects of nest-site, habitat-patch, edge, and temporal factors on nest success of songbirds in three narrow (55-95 m) and three wide (400-530 m) riparian forests with adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips and in three narrow and three wide riparian forests without adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips. We predicted that temporal effects would have the most support and that habitat-patch and edge effects would have little support, because nest predation would be great across all sites in the highly fragmented, predominantly agricultural landscape. Interval nest success was 0.404, 0.227, 0.070, and 0.186, respectively, for Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and forest interior species pooled (Acadian Flycatcher [Empidonax virescens], Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapillus], and Kentucky Warbler [Oporornis formosus]). The effect of nest stage on nest success had the most support; daily nest success for Gray Catbird and Indigo Bunting were lowest in the laying stage. We found strong support for greater nest success of Gray Catbird in riparian forests with adjacent buffer strips than in riparian forests without adjacent buffer strips. Patch width also occurred in the most-supported model for Gray Catbird, but with very limited support. The null model received the most support for Northern Cardinal. Riparian forests provided breeding habitat for area-sensitive forest species and grassland-shrub nesting species. Buffer strips provided additional breeding habitat for grassland-shrub nesting species. Interval nest success for Indigo Bunting and area-sensitive forest species pooled, however, fell well below the level that is likely necessary to balance juvenile

  10. MARKET BASED INSTRUMENTS APPLICATIONS TO NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Forests are fundamentally important in relation to the multitude of ecosystem services they provide. Many ecosystem services supplied by forests are positive externalities and public goods and they are considered “market failures”: people can benefit from them without contributing to their sustainment. The failure in assigning a proper value may lead to degradation of forest ecosystems, or to abandonment of forest management, resulting in a consequent under provision of the service, with s...

  11. Exploration and Practice of Customized Agricultural Meteorological Service Based on Short Message Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinqiang; CUI; Xuemei; GUO; Jun; TANG; Jing; XU; Min; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of main problems existing in current agricultural meteorological service in China,for the purpose of exploring a solution to the "last kilometer" problem in rural meteorological service,this article designed four short message service products with the business brand name "meteorology for agricultural condition",including "weather prediction for farming season","weather forecast for farming","weather alert",and "meteorological hazards of agriculture".By taking advantage of telecom operators’ market,these products have been spread to more than 1 million rural mobile phone users and widely welcomed.They also contributed enormously to disaster prevention and peasants’ income growth,and achieved good social and economic benefits.

  12. Skill Standards for Agriculture: John Deere Agricultural Equipment Technician, Agricultural & Diesel Equipment Mechanic, Irrigation Technologist, Turf Management Technician, Turf Equipment Service Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This document presents agriculture skill standards for programs to prepare Washington students for employment in the following occupations: John Deere agricultural equipment technician; agricultural and diesel equipment mechanic; irrigation technologist; turf management technician; and turf equipment service technician. The introduction explains…

  13. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  14. 76 FR 47353 - Final Directives for Forest Service Wind Energy Special Use Authorizations, Forest Service Manual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... area permits, given their long-term capital investments, the potential for interference with their... psychological benefit these areas confer on those who cherish the national forests. Another respondent... psychological, physical, and spiritual impacts on the next seven generations, as well as its impacts on...

  15. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions.

  16. Comparison of Organic Matter Composition in Agricultural versus Forest Affected Headwaters with Special Emphasis on Organic Nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Marlen; Graeber, Daniel; Zak, Dominik;

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural management practices promote organic matter (OM) turnover and thus alter both the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils and presumably also the export of DOM to headwater streams, which intimately connect the terrestrial with the aquatic environment. Size....... By comparing six agriculturally and six forest-impacted headwater streams, we demonstrated that agriculture promotes increased DOC and DON concentrations, entailing an even more pronounced effect on DON. The major part of DOC and DON in agricultural and forest reference streams is exported in the form of humic....... Altogether, DOM in agricultural headwaters is mainly complex-soil-derived and aromatic material with a low C:N ratio, which is more microbial processed than its counterpart from forest reference catchments. Our results emphasize the importance of agricultural land use on DOM loss from soils and identify...

  17. Amazon Forest maintenance as a source of environmental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forest produces environmental services such as maintenance of biodiversity, water cycling and carbon stocks. These services have a much greater value to human society than do the timber, beef and other products that are obtained by destroying the forest. Yet institutional mechanisms are still lacking to transform the value of the standing forest into the foundation of an economy based on maintaining rather than destroying this ecosystem. Forest management for commodities such as timber and non-timber forest products faces severe limitations and inherent contradictions unless income is supplemented based on environmenta lservices. Amazon forest is threatened by deforestation, logging, forest fires and climate change. Measures to avoid deforestation include repression through command and control, creation of protected areas, and reformulation of infrastructure decisions and development policies. An economy primarily based on the value of environmental services is essential for long-term maintenance of the forest. Much progress has been made in the decades since I first proposed such a transition, but many issues also remain unresolved. These include theoretical issues regarding accounting procedures, improved quantification of the services and of the benefits of different policy options, and effective uses of the funds generated in ways that maintain both the forest and the human population.A floresta amazônica produz serviços ambientais, tais como a manutenção da biodiversidade, da ciclagem de água e dos estoques de carbono. Estes serviços têm um valor muito maior para a sociedade humana do que a madeira, carne bovina e outros produtos que são obtidos destruindo a floresta. Mecanismos institucionais ainda estão faltando para transformar o valor da floresta em pé no alicerce de uma economia baseada em manter, em lugar de destruir, este ecossistema. Manejo florestal para madeira e para produtos florestais n

  18. Soil Properties in Natural Forest Destruction and Conversion to Agricultural Land,in Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Wasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Destruction of the Gunung Leuser National Park area of North Sumatera Province through land clearing and land cover change from natural forest to agricultural land. Less attention to land use and ecosystem carrying capacity of the soil can cause soil degradation and destruction of flora, fauna, and wildlife habitat destruction. Environmental damage will result in a national park wild life will come out of the conservation area and would damage the agricultural community. Soil sampling conducted in purposive sampling in natural forest and agricultural areas.  Observation suggest that damage to the natural forest vegetation has caused the soil is not protected so that erosion has occurred. Destruction of natural forest into agricultural are as has caused damage to soil physical properties, soil chemical properties, and biological soil properties significantly. Forms of soil degradation caused by the destruction of natural forests, which is an increase in soil density (density Limbak by 103%, a decrease of 93% organic C and soil nitrogen decreased by 81%. The main factors causing soil degradation is the reduction of organic matter and soil erosion due to loss of natural forest vegetation.  Criteria for soil degradation in Governance Regulation Number 150/2000 can be used to determine the extent of soil degradation in natural forest ecosystems.Keywords: Gunung Leuser National Park, natural forest, agricultural land, land damage, soil properties

  19. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  20. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pettenella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and carbon-related services.Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions.Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT, scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for different products/services.Main results: the estimated value ranges between €10,512 and €11,158 million (M. Wood products represent more than 85% of the total value. Within them, industrial timber is the most relevant component (65%. Figures for NWFPs are likely to be underestimated because data are available only for some products and countries. When using alternative estimates for pine nuts, pine resin and cork, figures show a €36.8-572 M increase. In geographical terms, the economic value of Mediterranean forests is highly concentrated: North-West Mediterranean countries account for 70%, and nearly 90% is in just four countries (France, Spain, Turkey and Italy.Research highlights: enhancing the offer of Mediterranean forest products and increasing their role in the rural economy could help to reduce the costs of forest protection: a well-structured forest economy ensuring stable flows of incomes can provide a fundamental set of public non-market services and social values to both local people and the whole community. Understanding the true value of natural resources, then, is an essential step for promoting their protection and sustainable use.Abbreviations: Bln: billion; CUM: cubic meter; EM: East Mediterranean; FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations; FRA: Forest Resource Assessment; ha: hectare; M: million; NEM: North-East Mediterranean; NWFP: non-wood forest product; NWM: North-West Mediterranean; SM: South Mediterranean. 

  1. Consequences of Environmental Service Payments for Forest Retention and Recruitment in a Costa Rican Biological Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Hollenhorst

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Compensation to landowners for forest-derived environmental services has gained international recognition as a mechanism to combat forest loss and fragmentation. This approach is widely promoted, although there is little evidence demonstrating that environmental service payments encourage forest stewardship and conservation. Costa Rica provides a unique case study in which a 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited forest conversion to other land uses. We examined these novel policies to determine their influence on landowner decisions that affect forest change, carbon services, and connectivity in a 2425 km² biological corridor. We used Landsat images to compare land-cover changes before and after 1996, and linked these data to landowner surveys investigating land-use decisions. Carbon stocks and storage in secondary forests were also examined. Forest change observations were corroborated by landowner survey data, indicating that the 1996 Forestry Law and environmental service payments contributed positively to forest retention and recruitment. Socioeconomic conditions also favored forest protection. Rates of natural forest loss declined from -1.43% to -0.10%/yr after 1996. Forest cover and connectivity were maintained through tree plantations and secondary forest recruitment, although forest heterogeneity increased as these forest types sometimes replaced natural forest. Carbon storage in secondary forest approached levels in primary forest after 25–30 yr of succession, although few landowners retained natural regeneration. Secondary forests will persist as minor landscape components without legal or financial incentives. The Costa Rican experience provides evidence that environmental service payments can be effective in retaining natural forest and recruiting tree cover within biological corridors.

  2. The Role Of Management Of The Field-Forest Boundary In Poland's Process Of Agricultural Restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woch, Franciszek; Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work described here has been to point to the relationships between the field-forest boundary and crop productivity as regards the present agrarian land-use structure in Poland, and to provide new opportunities for arranging the agrarian process and the spatial planning of the rural landscape in the context of the sustainable shaping of the field-forest boundary. Impacts of forests and woodlands on crop productivity have been assessed using available data from relevant Polish literature. An assessment of the plot-distribution pattern characterising farms in Poland was made on the basis of reference data from the Agency for the Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture. Finally, the possibility of afforestation of agricultural land has been evaluated within the existing legal framework, and on the basis of available data, with attention paid to the need to include organization of the field-forest boundary within the comprehensive management and planning of rural areas, and to preserve woody elements in patchy landscapes. This all creates an opportunity to test innovative approaches to integrated land use which combines the creation of public goods and local products based on participatory learning processes that bring in local stakeholders and decision-makers.

  3. CHANGES IN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF BROWN FOREST SOILS UNDER AGRICULTURAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozun Y. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use leads to a significant transformation of soils. The first to use the soil for cultivation react most sensitive biological indicators. The purpose of the study - to establish the effect of using the brown forest soils for planting apple orchards for their biological activity, in particular on the humus content, enzyme activity (catalase and dehydrogenase. For the control, we have selected forest area adjacent to arable land. Because of violations of the natural vegetation, there are changes in hydrothermal conditions of the soil. Humidity soil plowed off under forest, while temperatures gets considerably higher. Plowing, compared with the control, revealed significant loss of humus (50% in the upper most disturbed horizons. In the lower horizons of the values of this index were quite low (1.5% on all sections of the test. The decline in humus content, as well as overheating and draining soil tillage results in a change of enzymatic activity not only in the surface layers, but also in the whole profile. Due to the movement of the most favorable hydrothermal conditions in the underlying horizons, an increase of enzyme activity over control values in the deeper layers of the soil. The article shows a possibility of the use of biological indicators as indicators of changes in the brown forest soils as a result of agricultural use

  4. Consuming the forest in an environment of crisis: nature tourism, forest conservation and neoliberal agriculture in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Daniel; Münster, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    This article engages ethnographically with the neoliberalization of nature in the spheres of tourism, conservation and agriculture. Drawing on a case study of Wayanad district, Kerala, the article explores a number of themes. First, it shows how a boom in domestic nature tourism is currently transforming Wayanad into a landscape for tourist consumption. Second, it examines how tourism in Wayanad articulates with projects of neoliberalizing forest and wildlife conservation and with their contestations by subaltern groups. Third, it argues that the contemporary commodification of nature in tourism and conservation is intimately related to earlier processes of commodifying nature in agrarian capitalism. Since independence, forest land has been violently appropriated for intensive cash-cropping. Capitalist agrarian change has transformed land into a (fictitious) commodity and produced a fragile and contested frontier of agriculture and wildlife. When agrarian capitalism reached its ecological limits and entered a crisis of accumulation, farming became increasingly speculative, exploring new modes of accumulation in out-of-state ginger cultivation. In this scenario nature and wildlife tourism emerges as a new prospect for accumulation in a post-agrarian economy. The neoliberalization of nature in Wayanad, the authors argue, is a process driven less by new modes of regulation than by the agrarian crisis and new modes of speculative farming.

  5. A GIS approach for the quantification of forest and agricultural biomass in the Basilicata region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Statuto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the attention has been focused on the energy from biomass by-product, including forest biomass and agricultural production, waste and other sources of renewable energy, available in the Basilicata Region. In order to determine the quantity of extractable biomass from the forests of the region data from plans for forest management were used. These data were imported in a Geographic Information System, in order to determine in which part of the Region there is the possibility to find greater quantity of biomass. As for the determination of the quantities of agricultural biomass, the energy crops and the agricultural waste (such as crop residues, grass cuttings, pruning, manure, waste coming from agro-food industries, etc. were considered too. The reuse and exploitation of these wastes, while contributing to the solution of problems related to their disposal, promote their recovery as a primary source of energy. Once estimated the annual amount of biomass, the percentage of the annual energy contribution which this kind of by-product is able to ensure was determined; this renewable energy source may therefore significantly contribute to the development of the agro-forestry sector.

  6. FERTILIZERS SALES AND SERVICE. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING HIGH SCHOOL AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES, THIS MODULE WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE IS TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT IN FERTILIZER SALES AND SERVICE.…

  7. Forest development in Southeast Alaska: Issues concerning the Fish and Wildlife Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper provides an overview of forest development in southeast Alaska and examines the trends in FWS opportunities for affecting forest development decisions.

  8. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO2, for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less.

  9. Profiles of carbon stocks in forest, reforestation and agricultural land, Northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Pibumrung; N. Gajaseni; A. Popan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess carbon stocks in various forms and land-use types and reliably estimate the impact of land use on C stocks in the Nam Yao sub-watershed (19°05'10"N, 100°37'02"E), Thailand. The carbon stocks of aboveground, soil organic and fine root within primary forest, reforestation and agricultural land were estimated through field data collection. Results revealed that the amount of total carbon stock of forests (357.62 ± 28.51 Mg·ha-1, simplified expression of Mg (carbon)·ha-1) was significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (195.25 ±14.38 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (103.10±18.24 Mg·ha-1). Soil organic carbon in the forests (196.24 ±22.81 Mg·ha-1) was also significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (146.83± 7.22 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (95.09 ± 14.18 Mg·ha-1). The differences in carbon stocks across land-use types are the primary consequence of variations in the vegetation biomass and the soil organic matter. Fine root carbon was a small fraction of carbon stocks in all land-use types. Most of the soil organic carbon and fine root carbon content was found in the upper 40-cm layer and decreased with soil depth. The aboveground carbon(soil organic carbon: fine root carbon ratios (ABGC: SOC: FRC), was 5:8:1, 2:8:1, and 3:50:1 for the forest, reforestation and agricultural land, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively large proportion of the C loss is due to forest conversion to agricultural land. However, the C can be effectively recaptured through reforestation where high levels of C are stored in biomass as carbon sinks, facilitating carbon dioxide mitigation.

  10. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  11. Mitigation of agriculture emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector can reduce deforestation emissions as well as reducing emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics between 2000 and 2010 are 4.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (97 countries. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification, and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agriculture emissions on existing agriculture land, interventions that fall under climate-smart agriculture (CSA. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, where there is a potential for forest-sparing interventions, and where there is a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+, the potential to mitigate is 1.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data. For countries where we identify agriculture emissions as priority for mitigation, up to 1 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  13. Career opportunities for college graduates with the Agricultural Research Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service is the principal scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This agency employs more than 7,600 people working at various locations in the United States and U.S. territories. Careers for new scientists span a variety of disciplines such as c...

  14. Changes in Carbon Pools 50 Years after Reversion of a Landscape Dominated by Agriculture to Managed Forests in the Upper Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Trettin, C.; Parresol, B. R.; Li, C.

    2010-12-01

    The landscape of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina in the late 1940’s was typified by rural agricultural communities and farms comprising cleared fields and mixed-use woodlots. Approximately 80,000 ha of that landscape was appropriated by the US Government in the early 1950’s to form the Savannah River Site which is now managed by the US Dept. of Energy. The US Forest Service was engaged to reforest the agricultural parcels, 40% of the tract, and to develop sustainable management practices for the woodlots and restored areas. As part of the acquisition process in 1951, a complete inventory of the land and forest resources were conducted. In 2001, an intensive forest survey was conducted which encompassed 90% of the tract, detailing the above-ground biomass pools. We’ve used those inventories in conjunction with soil resource data to assemble a carbon balance sheet encompassing the above and belowground carbon pools over the 50 year period. We’ve also employed inventories on forest removals, forest burning and runoff to estimate fluxes from the landscape over the same period. There was a net sequestration of 5,486 Gg of C in forest vegetation over the 50 yr. period (1.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1), with carbon density increasing from 6.3 to 83.3 Mg ha-1. The reforestation of the agricultural land and the increased density of the former woodlots was the cause of the gain. Fifty years after imposition of silvicultural prescriptions, the forest composition has changed from being dominated by hardwoods to pine. The forest floor increased by 311 Gg carbon. Fluxes in form of harvested wood and oxidation from burning were 24% and 10% respectively of the net gain in vegetative biomass. These findings document real changes in carbon storage on a landscape that was changed from mixed agricultural use to managed forests, and they suggest responses that should be similar if reforestation for biofuels production is expanded.

  15. Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Zhang; Zhiwei Xu; Xiaomin Sun; Wenyi Dong; Deborah Ballantine

    2013-01-01

    The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations from shallow groundwater wells situated in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network field stations,representing typical agro-and forest ecosystems,were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010.Results from this assessment permit a national scale assessment of nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater,and allow linkages between nitrate concentrations in groundwater and broad land use categories to be made.Results indicated that most of the NO3--N concentrations in groundwater from the agro-and forest ecosystems were below the Class 3 drinking water standard stated in the Chinese National Standard:Quality Standard for Ground Water (< 20 mg/L).Over the study period,the average NO3--N concentrations were significantly higher in agro-ecosystems (4.1 ±-0.33 mg/L) than in forest ecosystems (0.5 + 0.04 mg/L).NO3--N concentrations were relatively higher (> 10 mg N/L) in 10 of the 43 wells sampled in the agricultural ecosystems.These elevated concentrations occurred mainly in the Ansai,Yucheng,Linze,Fukang,Akesu,and Cele field sites,which were located in arid and semiarid areas where irrigation rates are high.We suggest that improvements in N fertilizer application and irrigation management practices in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of China are the key to managing groundwater nitrate concentrations.

  16. Regional estimates of ecological services derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Waddle, Hardin; Keeland, Bobby D.; Walls, Susan C.; James, Dale; Moorman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the Nation?s largest floodplain and this once predominantly forested ecosystem provided significant habitat for a diverse flora and fauna, sequestered carbon in trees and soil, and stored floodwater, sediments, and nutrients within the floodplain. This landscape has been substantially altered by the conversion of nearly 75% of the riparian forests, predominantly to agricultural cropland, with significant loss and degradation of important ecosystem services. Large-scale efforts have been employed to restore the forest and wetland resources and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent some of the most extensive restoration programs in the MAV. The objective of the WRP is to restore and protect the functions and values of wetlands in agricultural landscapes with an emphasis on habitat for migratory birds and wetland-dependent wildlife, protection and improvement of water quality, flood attenuation, ground water recharge, protection of native flora and fauna, and educational and scientific scholarship.

  17. Forest Fragmentation in the Lower Amazon Floodplain: Implications for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Provision to Riverine Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Renó

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the process of forest fragmentation of a floodplain landscape of the Lower Amazon over a 30-year period and its implications for the biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services to the riverine population. To this end, we created a multi-temporal forest cover map based on Landsat images, and then analyzed the fragmentation dynamics through landscape metrics. From the analyses of the landscape and bibliographic information, we made inferences regarding the potential impacts of fragmentation on the biodiversity of trees, birds, mammals and insects. Subsequently, we used data on the local populations’ environmental perception to assess whether the inferred impacts on biodiversity are perceived by these populations and whether the ecosystem services related to the biodiversity of the addressed groups are compromised. The results show a 70% reduction of the forest habitat as well as important changes in the landscape structure that constitute a high degree of forest fragmentation. The perceived landscape alterations indicate that there is great potential for compromise of the biodiversity of trees, birds, mammals and insects. The field interviews corroborate the inferred impacts on biodiversity and indicate that the ecosystem services of the local communities have been compromised. More than 95% of the communities report a decreased variety and/or abundance of animal and plant species, 46% report a decrease in agricultural productivity, and 19% confirm a higher incidence of pests during the last 30 years. The present study provides evidence of an accelerated process of degradation of the floodplain forests of the Lower Amazon and indicate substantial compromise of the ecosystem services provision to the riverine population in recent decades, including reductions of food resources (animals and plants, fire wood, raw material and medicine, as well as lower agricultural productivity due to probable lack of pollination

  18. Payment for forest environmental services: a meta-analysis of successful elements

    OpenAIRE

    Gios G; Rizio D

    2013-01-01

    Forest ecosystems produce environmental services from which individuals benefit. In recent decades, interest in these services has significantly increased to meet the demand for new products and services related to landscape use and recreational activities. These new products and services are defined as Non-Wood Forest Products and Services (NWFP&Ss). There is the possibility, and in certain cases the need, to introduce a system of payment for these NWFP&Ss. However, the transformation of for...

  19. 36 CFR 200.3 - Forest Service functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 4, 5C, 6, 23, 27, 28, 30, 36, and 37; title 29 (Labor), chapter 17; and title 43 (Public Lands... and engineering, and (iv) Forest resource economics including forest survey, forest economics,...

  20. Application of PDA forest fire monitoring based on web service technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufei ZHOU; Pengju LIU; Xiaoming TANG

    2009-01-01

    The difficulty in information communication and sharing are major problems for forest fire monitoring and early warning in China. As authors, we applied web service technology to a personal digital assistant (PDA) forest fire monitoring system and propose the framework of a monitoring system based on service-oriented architecture (SOA). At the same time, we describe the composition and function of web services from a server side and a client side. The method for developing a web service invocation engine on the PDA is introduced in detail. Finally, an example of a fire danger rating and fire weather services system are established, based on the Beijing Forest Fire Control System. The results show that the PDA forest fire monitoring system based on web services can effectively take advantage of the existing fire protection decision information services, realize real-time information interaction and sharing, and improve the level of forest fire monitoring.

  1. How forest management affects ecosystem services, including timber production and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncker, Philipp S.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per;

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems deliver multiple goods and services and, traditionally, forest owners tend to have a high interest in goods in the form of merchantable wood. As a consequence, forest management often aims to increase timber production and economic returns through intervention into natural...

  2. Trends, drivers and impacts of changes in swidden cultivation in tropical forest-agriculture frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Mertz, Ole; Heinimann, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    biofuels. Conservation policies and practices also accelerate changes in swidden by restricting forest clearing and encouraging commercial agriculture. However, swidden remains important in many frontier areas where farmers have unequal or insecure access to investment and market opportunities, or where...... ultifunctionality of land uses has been preserved as a strategy to adapt to current ecological, economic and political circumstances. In some areas swidden remains important simply because intensification is not a viable choice, for example when population densities and/or food market demands are low...

  3. Integrating beneficiaries into assessment of ecosystem services from managed forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Caputo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forests contribute to human wellbeing through the provision of important ecosystem services. Methods: In this study, we investigated how the perceived importance of ecosystem services may impact the overall benefit provided by managed watersheds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest over a 45-year period, using standardized measures of service capacity weighted by service importance weights derived from a survey of beneficiaries. Results: The capacity of watersheds to regulate water flow and quality was high in all watersheds throughout the study period, whereas cultural services such as scenic beauty declined after harvest. Impacts on greenhouse gas regulation depended on the efficiency with which harvested biomass was used. Surveys revealed that stakeholders placed high value on all ecosystem services, with regulating and cultural services seen as more important than provisioning services. When service metrics were weighted by survey responses and aggregated into a single measure, total service provision followed the same overall trend as greenhouse gas regulation. Where biomass use was less efficient in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, harvesting resulted in an overall “ecosystem service debt”; where use was more efficient, this “ecosystem service debt” was reduced. Beneficiaries’ educational backgrounds significantly affected overall assessment of service provision. Beneficiaries with college or university degrees incurred smaller “ecosystem service debts” and were less negatively affected by harvesting overall. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of including empirical measures of beneficiary preference when attempting to quantify overall provision of ecosystem services to human beneficiaries over time. Keywords: Ecosystem services, Forests, Long-term ecological research, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Regulating services

  4. Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael K Didham

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could 'spare' further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables, and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone

  5. Integrated assessment of impacts of atmospheric deposition and climate change on forest ecosystem services in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Posch, M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bonten, L.T.C.; Mol, J.P.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Hettelingh, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Important forest ecosystem services are pollutant filtering relevant for an adequate water quality (regulating service), wood production (provisioning service) with related carbon (C) storage (regulating service) and the provision of a habitat for a diversity of plants and animals (supporting servic

  6. USDA Forest Service Roadless Areas: Potential Biodiversity Conservation Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby Loucks

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2001, approximately 23 x 106 ha of land in the U.S. National Forest System were slated to remain roadless and protected from timber extraction under the Final Roadless Conservation Rule. We examined the potential contributions of these areas to the conservation of biodiversity. Using GIS, we analyzed the concordance of inventoried roadless areas (IRAs with ecoregion-scale biological importance and endangered and imperiled species distributions on a scale of 1:24,000. We found that more than 25% of IRAs are located in globally or regionally outstanding ecoregions and that 77% of inventoried roadless areas have the potential to conserve threatened, endangered, or imperiled species. IRAs would increase the conservation reserve network containing these species by 156%. We further illustrate the conservation potential of IRAs by highlighting their contribution to the conservation of the grizzly bear (Ursos arctos, a wide-ranging carnivore. The area created by the addition of IRAs to the existing system of conservation reserves shows a strong concordance with grizzly bear recovery zones and habitat range. Based on these findings, we conclude that IRAs belonging to the U.S. Forest Service are one of the most important biotic areas in the nation, and that their status as roadless areas could have lasting and far-reaching effects for biodiversity conservation.

  7. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products §...

  8. 36 CFR 223.241 - Disposal of seized special forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of seized special forest products. 223.241 Section 223.241 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Award...

  9. Colour space influence for vegetation image classification application to Caribbean forest and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, M.; Grandchamp, E.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with a comparison of different colour space in order to improve high resolution images classification. The background of this study is the measure of the agriculture impact on the environment in islander context. Biodiversity is particularly sensitive and relevant in such areas and the follow-up of the forest front is a way to ensure its preservation. Very high resolution satellite images are used such as QuickBird and IKONOS scenes. In order to segment the images into forest and agriculture areas, we characterize both ground covers with colour and texture features. A classical unsupervised classifier is then used to obtain labelled areas. As features are computed on coloured images, we can wonder if the colour space choice is relevant. This study has been made considering more than fourteen colour spaces (RGB, YUV, Lab, YIQ, YCrCs, XYZ, CMY, LMS, HSL, KLT, IHS, I1I2I3, HSV, HSI, etc.) and shows the visual and quantitative superiority of IHS on all others. For conciseness reasons, results only show RGB, I1I2I3 and IHS colour spaces.

  10. Composition,Property Characterization and Application of Agricultural and Forest Biomass Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunsheng; LEI; Xiaofeng; ZHU; Meicheng; ZHOU; Yuting; LIANG; Feng’e; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the compositions and basic properties of agricultural and forest biomass carbon,and used the pot method to study the influence of such element on the remediation of contaminated soils and growth of crops.Results show that agricultural and forest biomass carbon contains various nutrients that are necessary for crop growth,high specific surface area,and pore structure development.Cotton stalk charcoal can reduce bioavailability of Cadmium(Cd) in soil.Under mild Cd pollution,soil treated with cotton stalk charcoal adsorbs Cd at a rapid rate.With increasing extent of Cd pollution,Cd adsorption rate gradually slows down and Cd adsorption amount gradually increases.In soil treated with cotton stalk charcoal,the amount of Cd accumulated in the edible portions and roots of Brassica chinensis significantly decrease.The Cd mass fraction of the edible portions and roots are reduced by 49.43%- 68.29%,64.14%- 77.66% respectively.Appropriately adding carbon cotton stalks increases crop biomass.At a certain range,increasing cotton stalk charcoal also promotes the absorption of major nutrients in Brassica chinensis.

  11. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  12. Evaluation on Phyllostachys Pubescens Forest Ecosystem Services Value in Suichang County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyun Hu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the ecological benefits of Moso bamboo forest (Phyllostachys pubescens, based on the method of “The assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China”, assessing Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value in Suichang County. Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value are divided into six groups: water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation in this study. Chinese Fir Plantation as the control was to compare. The results showed that: (1 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County was 1260.40 million yuan/a, services values of water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation were respectively 741.00 million yuan/a, 81.00 million yuan/a, 331.00 million yuan/a, 21.6 million yuan/a, 32.2 million yuan/a ,53.6 million yuan/a. (2 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County has increased 302.80 million yuan/a, the growth was about 31.62%. (3 In the six groups, all of Moso bamboo ecosystem services value more than the same area of Chinese Fir forest plantation. These provide a reference basis for the similar region to evaluate Moso bamboo ecosystem services value, demonstrating the important contribution of Moso bamboo to the forest ecosystem of Suichang County's sustainable development.

  13. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C.; Carter, Douglas R.; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production.

  14. Population dynamics of neotropical migratory birds using agriculture-forest mosaics in Campeche, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Berlanga, M.; Dawson, D.; Wood, P.; Sauer, J.; Robbins, C.S.; Wilson, Marcia H.; Sader, Steven A.

    1995-01-01

    In many areas of the tropics, forests are being converted to agriculture and other uses at a rapid rate. Previous research has documented that forest-breeding migratory birds are distributed across a wide variety of habitat types during midwinter. However, to evaluate the relative importance of different habitat types to wintering birds, we need to examine habitat-specific estimates of survival. During the winter of 1992-1993, mist nets, observations of individually marked birds and point counts were used to sample bird populations in a pasture-forest mosaic in southern Mexico. Sampling was conducted four times throughout the winter on a total of six grids. Twenty nets were run for two days in each grid. A total of 129 species were captured and 3,585 individuals banded. Neotropical migrants made up 31% of the species captured and 47% of the individuals banded. The banding data were used to estimate species richness for permanent and winter residents in different habitats and at different time periods. Capture-recapture models were used to estimate overwintering survival for selected species.

  15. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  16. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  17. Alternative stable states and the sustainability of forests, grasslands, and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kirsten A; Bauch, Chris T; Anand, Madhur

    2016-12-20

    Endangered forest-grassland mosaics interspersed with expanding agriculture and silviculture occur across many parts of the world, including the southern Brazilian highlands. This natural mosaic ecosystem is thought to reflect alternative stable states driven by threshold responses of recruitment to fire and moisture regimes. The role of adaptive human behavior in such systems remains understudied, despite its pervasiveness and the fact that such ecosystems can exhibit complex dynamics. We develop a nonlinear mathematical model of coupled human-environment dynamics in mosaic systems and social processes regarding conservation and economic land valuation. Our objective is to better understand how the coupled dynamics respond to changes in ecological and social conditions. The model is parameterized with southern Brazilian data on mosaic ecology, land-use profits, and questionnaire results concerning landowner preferences and conservation values. We find that the mosaic presently resides at a crucial juncture where relatively small changes in social conditions can generate a wide variety of possible outcomes, including complete loss of mosaics; large-amplitude, long-term oscillations between land states that preclude ecosystem stability; and conservation of the mosaic even to the exclusion of agriculture/silviculture. In general, increasing the time horizon used for conservation decision making is more likely to maintain mosaic stability. In contrast, increasing the inherent conservation value of either forests or grasslands is more likely to induce large oscillations-especially for forests-due to feedback from rarity-based conservation decisions. Given the potential for complex dynamics, empirically grounded nonlinear dynamical models should play a larger role in policy formulation for human-environment mosaic ecosystems.

  18. Rodent Fauna in Southeast Forest Region of Heilongjiang Province of China and Its Damage on Agriculture and Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Zhimin; Dong; Shipeng; Liu; Wenyang; Fu; Dahang; Zhu; Xianbing

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The paper was to understand the rodent fauna in southeast forest region of Heilongjiang Province and its harm to agriculture and forests.[Methods]The southeast forest region of Heilongjiang Province was surveyed from March2008 to December2013 using night trap method combined with integrated collation of literature. [Result]There were totally 21 species of rodents in southeast forest region of Heilongjiang Province,belonging to 16 genera,8 families,3orders,and the fauna was mainly consisted of palaearctic realm; in terms of captured number,Clethrionomys rufocanus was the dominant species in forest region,while Apodemus agrarius was the dominant species in fields. The number of rodents was closely related to stand age,and the density of rodents was lower in the forest land with longer stand age and greater density. Rodents caused greater harm to timber forest and middle-aged forest than economic forest and young forest,and their damage on newly planted seedlings was particularly greater. The number of rodent population was the highest in summer,but the smallest in spring,while its interannual changes were stable. [Conclusion]The study provided a scientific basis for forestry management and rodent control,which also offered the basic biological data for the study of rodents.

  19. Several Theoretical Issues on Agricultural Sci-tech Service and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In view of particularity and complexity of agricultural sci-tech service and management,this paper presents definition of basic concept of agricultural sci-tech service and management,sums up its basic characteristics,and discusses and analyzes its structural elements and functions. The agricultural sci-tech service and management plays an important role in speeding up rural construction and narrowing the gap between urban and rural areas. It ensures benign cycle of scientific and technological achievements and regional environment,and promotes development of agricultural industrialization.

  20. Evaluating the trade-off between food and timber resulting from the conversion of Miombo forests to agricultural land in Angola using multi-temporal Landsat data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneibel, Anne; Stellmes, Marion; Röder, Achim; Finckh, Manfred; Revermann, Rasmus; Frantz, David; Hill, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The repopulation of abandoned areas in Angola after 27years of civil war led to a fast and extensive expansion of agricultural fields to meet the rising food demand. Yet, the increase in crop production at the expense of natural resources carries an inherent potential for conflicts since the demand for timber and wood extraction are also supposed to rise. We use the concept of ecosystem services to evaluate the trade-off between food and woody biomass. Our study area is located in central Angola, in the highlands of the upper Okavango catchment. We used Landsat data (spatial resolution: 30×30m) with a bi-temporal and multi-seasonal change detection approach for five time steps between 1989 and 2013 to estimate the conversion area from woodland to agriculture. Overall accuracy is 95%, user's accuracy varies from 89-95% and producer's accuracy ranges between 92-99%. To quantify the trade-off between woody biomass and the amount of food, this information was combined with indicator values and we furthermore assessed biomass regrowth on fallows. Our results reveal a constant rise in agricultural expansion from 1989-2013 with the mean annual deforestation rate increasing from roughly 5300ha up to about 12,000ha. Overall, 5.6% of the forested areas were converted to agriculture, whereas the FAO states a national deforestation rate for Angola of 5% from 1990-2010 (FAO, 2010). In the last time step 961,000t per year of woodland were cleared to potentially produce 1240t per year of maize. Current global agro-economical projections forecast increasing pressure on tropical dry forests from large-scale agriculture schemes (Gasparri et al., 2015; Searchinger and Heimlich, 2015). Our study underlines the importance of considering subsistence-related change processes, which may contribute significantly to negative effects associated with deforestation and degradation of these forest ecosystems.

  1. Application Model of New Agricultural Hotline Sci-tech Information Service System in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To further promote information construction in rural areas and popularize agricultural information service,we introduced the content of new agricultural hotline sci-tech information service system construction,summed up application effect of the system,analyzed advantages and existing problems in the system development,and put forward countermeasures for its further development.

  2. 77 FR 47351 - Notification of Submission to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... Agriculture and Health and Human Services; Declaration of Prion as a Pest Under FIFRA; Related Amendments; and... submission to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. SUMMARY: This document notifies the public as required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) that the...

  3. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  4. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  5. Quantification of Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem Services in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Posch, M.; Reinds, G.J.; Hettelingh, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Important forest ecosystem services are the provision of a habitat for a diversity of plants and wildlife (habitat service), pollutant filtering relevant for an adequate water quality (regulating service) and wood production with the related carbon (C) storage (provisioning/regulating service). Nitr

  6. Impact of Agricultural Extension Services on Technology Adoption and Crops Yield: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab. The data for the study was collected from three main districts of central Punjab Province i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Hafizabad. In total 234 farmers were interviewed. The impact of agricultural extension services was estimated on adoption of new improved technologies and crop yields. The propensity score matching approach for impact evaluation was employed in the current study to correct for potential sample selection biasedness that may arise due to systematic differences between the farmers having benefited from agricultural extension services and not benefited from agricultural extension services. The empirical results indicate that agricultural extension services play a significant role in adoption of improved agricultural technologies like laser leveling, rice and wheat varieties. The farmers having benefitted from agricultural extension services were also getting higher rice and wheat yields. The results also indicates that mostly the large farmers are getting benefits from agricultural extension services and small scale farmers have less access to agricultural extension services.

  7. Suitability Evaluation on the Information Service System of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to carry out suitability evaluation on the information service system of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" in Sichuan Province, China. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and expert consultation method are used to determine the evaluation index system and index weight. Suitability effect of the information service system of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" is taken as the target layer. The five indices at criterion layer are the organizational mode of agricultural information service, the support system of agricultural information resources, the agricultural information transfer system, the capital source of agricultural information service, and the support system of agricultural information service. And the index layer includes the talent team of agent service, the interaction between the subject and object, the accuracy of agricultural information, the convenience of agricultural information transfer, the adequacy of fund, the efficiency in the use of fund, the status of information infrastructure and so on. Evaluation result shows that the information service system of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" in Sichuan Province is suitable for the rural economic development at present. The major factors restricting the information service system are the lack of continuity, the weak infrastructure of agricultural information infrastructure, and the relatively low education level of agricultural producers. Therefore, we should further explore and improve the operation mechanism of agricultural information service, expand the capital source of agricultural information service, strengthen the construction of agricultural infrastructure, and ensure the continuous operation of information service system.

  8. Assessing the ecosystem service potential of Tucson AZ's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2011-12-01

    canopy photos) to asses growth of the trees in the urban environment. These growth rates, and associated ecosystem services (C-sequestration, energy savings, pollution mitigation, etc.) are evaluated using US Forest Service models (Tree Carbon Calculator and i-tree software) to determine how the performance of trees in the Tucson urban environment perform vs. model predictions. We hypothesize that the models overestimate tree performance as Tucson differs in water availability relative to the cities the model was parameterized in (e.g. Glendale), both in terms of soil water holding capacities and also city "water culture." This preliminary study will provide a data collection framework for a citizen science urban forestry project which will provide data to improve environmental decision making related to the interaction of plants, water, and energy balance in this arid city.

  9. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Professionals' Attitudes toward Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarovic, Rosanne E.; Mueller, J. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 369 of 500 extension professionals reflected a shared vision for sustainable agriculture and recognition of a need for environmentally sound farming practices. There was less unanimity about endorsing the social aspects of sustainable agriculture, though they agreed on the need for more systems research. (SK)

  10. Soil micronutrients at the plot scale under agricultural and forest soil uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Días, Rosane; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; Marasca, Indiamara; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on the heavy metal extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study is to analyze long-term effects of land use on the supply, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients, which was undertaken by comparison of a forest and a cultivated stand, rich in organic matter content. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg/Kg), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg/Kg), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg/Kg), Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg/Kg). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg/Kg), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg/Kg), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg/Kg), Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg/Kg), Microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand, being Fe-DTPA the exception. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the study scale, nutrient management is the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions are probably driving the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the study nutrients at the small plot scale were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results are discussed in the frame of organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use.

  11. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  12. Forest Ecosystem Services: Issues and Challenges for Biodiversity, Conservation, and Management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vizzarri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although forest ecosystems are fundamental sources of services and global biodiversity, their capacity to maintain these benefits in the future is potentially threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as climate change, land use, and unsustainable management practices. Thus far, studies focusing on forests and their services have gained less attention compared with studies on other biomes. Additionally, management practices may potentially undermine the capacity of forests to sustain biodiversity conservation and services in the future, especially outside protected areas. This study linked the concepts of biodiversity and forest ecosystem services at the national level in Italy. Through a downscaled review, we first analyzed management issues, challenges, and needs within the context of forest ecosystem services. We then carried out a survey on protected areas. The results show that forest biodiversity supports the provision of other services and, hence, needs to be preserved and supported by adaptive management practices. Current research on forest ecosystem services must extend policy trajectories to protected areas (i.e., National Parks as centers of biodiversity and models of the sustainable use of resources.

  13. Potential for Hybrid Poplar Riparian Buffers to Provide Ecosystem Services in Three Watersheds with Contrasting Agricultural Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fortier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In temperate agricultural watersheds, the rehabilitation of tree vegetation in degraded riparian zones can provide many ecosystem services. This study evaluated ecosystem service provision potential following the conversion of non-managed herbaceous buffers to hybrid poplar (Populus spp. buffers in three watersheds (555–771 km2 of southern Québec (Canada, with contrasting agricultural land uses. To extrapolate services at the watershed level, total stream length where hybrid poplars could be established was calculated using GIS data from hydrological and land cover maps. After nine years, a 100% replacement of herbaceous buffers by hybrid poplar buffers along farm streams could lead to the production of 5280–76,151 tons of whole tree (stems + branches biomass, which could heat 0.5–6.5 ha of greenhouses for nine years, with the potential of displacing 2–29 million litres of fuel oil. Alternatively, the production of 3887–56,135 tons of stem biomass (fuelwood could heat 55–794 new farmhouses or 40–577 old farmhouses for nine years. Producing fuelwood in buffers rather than in farm woodlots could create forest conservation opportunities on 300–4553 ha. Replacing all herbaceous buffers by poplar buffers could provide potential storage of 2984–42,132 t C, 29–442 t N and 3–56 t P in plant biomass, if woody biomass is not harvested. The greatest potential for services provision was in the Pike River watershed where agriculture is the dominant land use. A review of the potential services of poplar buffers is made, and guidelines for managing services and disservices are provided.

  14. Neutralization of acidic raindrops on leaves of agricultural crop and boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Adams, C.M.; Gaber, B.A.

    1986-10-01

    The abilities of foliage of selected agricultural crop and native boreal forest species to neutralize acidic raindrops were compared. The species differed widely in their responses. Neutralization was influenced to a large extent by leaf wettability and was poorly related with species' susceptibility to foliar injury from acid rain sprayings. Little neutralization of pH 3.0 droplets occurred on very waxy leaves, e.g. cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), due to the small contact area between the leaf surface and raindrops. In contrast, on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves, which are pubescent and easily wettable, neutralization was considerable. For all agricultural crop species examined, the pH of droplets drying on cotyledons was consistently higher than on the leaves. The pH values of raindrops were also higher when the foliage was injured by the acid rain, probably due to leakage of cellular contents. Among boreal forest species examined, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) was particularly good at neutralizing natural acid rain, increasing the pH from 3.9 to 6.6 after 9 hr of foliar contact, while the response of other boreal species ranged from a final pH of 4.8 to 5.7 under the same conditions. Simulated raindrops on wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.) were never neutralized but increased in acidity as they evaporated. Chemical analyses of droplets collected from foliage showed calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) to be the major cations entering the neutralized droplets. Neutralization of acidic raindrops appears to occur through two processes; solubilization of alkaline dusts and exudates on the leaf surface, and ion exchange removal of H/sup +/ by the foliage. 14 references.

  15. Neutralization of acidic raindrops on leaves of agricultural crop and boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Adams, C.M.; Gaber, B.A.

    1986-11-01

    The abilities of foliage of selected agricultural crop and native boreal forest species to neutralize acidic raindrops were compared. The species differed widely in their responses. Neutralization was influenced to a large extent by leaf wettability and was poorly related with species' susceptibility to foliar injury from acid rain sprayings. Little neutralization of pH 3.0 droplets occurred on very waxy leaves, e.g. cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), due to the small contact area between the leaf surface and raindrops. In contrast, on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves, which are pubescent and easily wettable, neutralization was considerable. For all agricultural crop species examined, the pH of droplets drying on cotyledons was consistently higher than on the leaves. The pH values of raindrops were also higher when the foliage was injured by the acid rain, probably due to leakage of cellular contents. Among boreal forest species examined, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) was particularly good at neutralizing natural acid rain, increasing the pH from 3.9 to 6.6 after 9 hr of foliar contact, while the response of other boreal species ranged from a final pH of 4.8 to 5.7 under the same conditions. Simulated raindrops on wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.) were never neutralized but increased in acidity as they evaporated. Chemical analyses of droplets collected from foliage showed calcium and potassium to be the major cations entering the neutralized droplets. Neutralization of acidic raindrops appears to occur through two processes: solubilization of alkaline dusts and exudates on the leaf surface, and ion exchange removal of H/sup +/ by the foliage. 14 refs.

  16. Species composition and diversity of non-forest woody vegetation along roads in the agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Attila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-forest woody vegetation represents an important component of green infrastructure in the agricultural landscape, where natural and semi-natural forest cover has only a low land use proportion. This paper focuses on linear woody vegetation structures along roads in the agricultural landscape and analyses them in three study areas in the Nitra Region, Slovakia. We evaluate species composition and diversity, species occurrence frequency or spatial distribution, their structure according to relatively achievable age and origin. For the evaluation of occurrence frequency, a Frequency Factor was proposed and applied. This factor allows a better comparison of different study areas and results in more representative findings. The study areas were divided into sectors based on visual landscape features, which are easily identifiable in the field, such as intersections and curves in roads, and intersections of roads with other features, such as cadastral or land boundaries, watercourses, etc. Based on the species abundance, woody plants present within the sectors were categorised into 1 predominant, 2 complementary and 3 mixed-in species; and with regard to their origin into 1 autochthonous and 2 allochthonous. Further, trees were categorised into 1 long-lived, 2 medium-lived and 3 short-lived tree species. The main finding is that among trees, mainly allochthonous species dominated. Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the predominant tree species in all three study areas. It was up to 4 times more frequent than other predominant tree species. Introduced tree species prevailed also among complementary and mixed-in species. Among shrubs, mainly native species dominated, while non-native species had a significantly lower proportion and spatial distribution. Based on these findings, several measures have been proposed to improve the overall ecological stability, the proportion and spatial distribution of native woody plant species. The recommendations and

  17. Mobile Learning Bridging the Gap in Agricultural Extension Service Delivery: Experiences from Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Camilius; Mlozi, Malongo; Haug, Ruth; Tumbo, Siza

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of mobile phones offers a noble environment where farmers can learn informally anywhere, anytime and at any location. This is an innovative way to address some of the weakness of conventional agricultural extension service. Few empirical studies have reported on the development of mobile phone application to support blended…

  18. Household Land Management and Biodiversity: Secondary Succession in a Forest-Agriculture Mosaic in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Roy Chowdhury

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates anthropogenic and ecological dimensions of secondary forest succession in Mexico's southern Yucatán peninsular region, a hotspot of biodiversity and tropical deforestation. Secondary succession in particular constitutes an ecologically and economically important process, driven by and strongly influencing land management and local ecosystem structure and dynamics. As agents of local land management, smallholding farmers in communal, i.e., ejido lands affect rates of forest change, biodiversity, and sustainability within and beyond their land parcels. This research uses household surveys and land parcel mapping in two ejidos located along the buffer of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve to analyze how household socioeconomics and policy institutions drive allocations to successional forests in traditional crop fallows and in enriched fallows. Results indicate that household tenancy, livestock holdings, labor-consumer ratios, and receipts of agricultural subsidies are the strongest determinants of traditional fallow areas. Whereas the latter two factors also influence enriched successions, local agroforestry and reforestation programs were the strongest drivers of fallow enrichment. Additionally, the study conducts field vegetation sampling in a nested design within traditional and enriched fallow sites to comparatively assess biodiversity consequences of fallow management. Although enriched fallows display greater species richness in 10x10 m plots and 2x2 m quadrats, plot-scale data reveal no significant differences in Shannon-Wiener or Simpson's diversity indices. Traditional fallows display greater species heterogeneity at the quadrat scale, however, indicating a complex relationship of diversity to fallow management over time. The article discusses the implications of the social and ecological analyses for land change research and conservation policies.

  19. Coupling Path of China’s Modern Service Industry and Agriculture Based on Improved Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouwu JING; Yong XIA; Honghong CHEN

    2015-01-01

    The economic development of China has transformed from factor-driven type to innovation-driven type,and the upgrading of industrial structure is very important. In this paper,in order to explore the path of the coupling effect of modern service industry and agriculture,based on previous research and practical experience,we select 14 indicators,and then use the theory of dissipative structure,coupling degree and coupling coordination degree to measure the coupling phase of modern service industry and agriculture. On this basis,we use the spillover effect for the empirical testing of influence of modern service industry on agricultural development. The study shows that modern service industry and agriculture in our country are at the medium coupling,and in the early stage of development. The spillover effects of China’s modern service industry on China’s economic development and agricultural progress are significant. Finally,the policy recommendations are put forward from tourism,logistics and so on to promote the coupling of modern service industry and agriculture and provide a reference for promoting the coupling level of China’s modern service industry and agriculture.

  20. Carbon sequestration and water flow regulation services in mature Mediterranean Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguería, S.; Ovando, P.

    2015-12-01

    We develop a forestland use and management model that integrates spatially-explicit biophysical and economic data, to estimate the expected pattern of climate regulation services through carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in tree and shrubs biomass, and water flow regulation. We apply this model to examine the potential trade-offs and synergies in the supply of CO2 sequestration and water flow services in mature Mediterranean forest, considering two alternative forest management settings. A forest restoration scenario through investments in facilitating forest regeneration, and a forestry activity abandonment scenario as result of unprofitable forest regeneration investment. The analysis is performed for different discount rates and price settings for carbon and water. The model is applied at the farm level in a group of 567 private silvopastoral farms across Andalusia (Spain), considering the main forest species in this region: Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Pinus pinea, P. halepensis, P. pinaster and Eucalyptus sp., as well as for tree-less shrubland and pastures. The results of this research are provided by forest land unit, vegetation, farm and for the group of municipalities where the farms are located. Our results draw attention to the spatial variability of CO2 and water flow regulation services, and point towards a trade-off between those services. The pattern of economic benefits associated to water and carbon services fluctuates according to the assumptions regarding price levels and discounting rates, as well as in connection to the expected forest management and tree growth models, and to spatially-explicit forest attributes such as existing tree and shrubs inventories, the quality of the sites for growing different tree species, soil structure or the climatic characteristics. The assumptions made regarding the inter-temporal preferences and relative prices have a large effect on the estimated economic value of carbon and water services. These results

  1. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... computer files, indexes and abstracts, bibliographies, reviews and other analytical information tools. (87...). (90) Formulate, write, or prescribe bibliographic and technically related standards for the library..., agriculture, the environment, and other related areas. (93) Review cooperative research and...

  2. How (Un)Certain Is the Future in Forestry? A Comparative Assessment of Uncertainty in the Forest and Agricultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, M.A.; Schanz, H.

    2008-01-01

    Several authors have stated that, because of the long time horizons underlying forestry processes, the forest sector encounters far more uncertainty than is experienced by any other industrial or agricultural production processes, especially regarding the long future. To gain more insight into the e

  3. Non-market forest ecosystem services and decision support in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Strange, Niels; Löf, Magnus;

    2016-01-01

    The need to integrate non-market ecosystem services into decision-making is widely acknowledged. Despite the exponentially growing body of literature, trade-offs between services are still poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of published literature in the Nordic countries (Denmark......, Norway, Sweden and Finland) on the integration of non-market forest ecosystem services into decision-making. The aim of the review was two-fold: (1) to provide an overview of coverage of biophysical and socio-economic assessments of non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management; (2......) to determine the extent of the integration of biophysical and socio-economic models of these services into decision support models. Our findings reveal the need for wider coverage of non-market ecosystem services and evidence-based modelling of how forest management regimes affect ecosystem services...

  4. Soil Loss Vulnerability in an Agricultural Catchment in the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gotardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates soil loss vulnerability using field samples and spatial data in a 30 km² area in the Atlantic forest biome in southern Brazil. The anthropogenic part of the landscape consists mainly of small agricultural properties. Soil loss vulnerability was calculated using adaptations of the universal soil loss equation. The results were compared to sediment data collected during field surveys. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographical information system (GIS and fine resolution data (1 m. Both field and spatial analyses produced similar results, 5.390 tons of soil loss per year using field data and 5.691 tons per year using GIS. Using soil loss and sediment data related to the Concordia River, we estimate that of all the exported sediment 25% of the lost soil reaches the river. These data are an effective source of information for municipal administrators of the region, which consists of small agricultural catchments (dominated by small properties that comprise the regional economy. A thematic map was used to determine sub-drainage priority as information for public managers.

  5. An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

  6. Urban and agricultural soils: conflicts and trade-offs in the optimization of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setälä, H.; Bardgett, R.D.; Birkhofer, K.; Brady, M.; Byrne, L.; de Ruiter, P.C.; de Vries, F.T.; Gardi, C.; Hedlund, K.; Hemerik, L.; Hotes, S.; Liiri, M.; Mortimer, S.R.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Pouyat, R.; Tsiafouli, M.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    [KEYWORDS: Agriculture Ecosystem services Land use Management optimization Soil Urban Trade-off] On-going human population growth and changing patterns of resource consumption are increasing global demand for ecosystem services, many of which are provided by soils. Some of these ecosystem services a

  7. The Ecological Service Function Development of Urban Modern Agriculture in Tianjin City and Corresponding Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; QIN; Guoxing; SUN; Jin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current situation of ecological environment of agriculture in Tianjin City,we divide the ecological service function of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City into seven types: air regulation,climate regulation,water conservation,soil formation and protection, waste disposal,biodiversity conservation,and ecological entertainment. According to the method for assessing the value of natural ecosystem, coupled with the ecological service value equivalency factor table of China’s ecosystem formulated by domestic scholars,we estimate the ecological value in Tianjin City. The results show that the actual ecological value of agriculture in Tianjin City was 30. 752 billion yuan in 2010,close to the agricultural economic value ( 31. 733 billion yuan) in 2010. Finally we put forth the following countermeasures for the ecological function development of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City: strictly protecting arable land,and raising the standards of compensation for agricultural land requisition; actively and prudently developing facility agriculture,and preventing the blind scale expansion of facility agriculture to better give play to its ecological function; strengthening the construction of ecological agriculture,and promoting the market conversion of the ecological service value of agriculture; improving the environment,to form relatively complete agro-ecological system.

  8. Exploring the willingness to pay for forest ecosystem services by residents of the Veneto Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gatto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests produce a wide array of goods, both private and public. The demand for forest ecosystem services is increasing in many European countries, yet there is still a scarcity of data on values at regional scale for Alpine areas. A Choice Experiment survey has been conducted in order to explore preferences, uses and the willingness of the Veneto population to pay for ecosystem services produced by regional mountain forests. The results show that willingness to pay is significant for recreation and C-sequestration but not for biodiversity conservation, landscape and other ecosystem services. These findings question the feasibility of developing market-based mechanisms in Veneto at present and cast light on the possible role of public institutions in promoting policy actions to increase the general awareness of forest-related ecosystem services.

  9. The value of the flood control service of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, B.J.; Hein, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    To date there have been only few case studies that specify howhydrological processes regulated by forests convey into benefits for society. The objective of this paper is to analyse the relation between forest cover and the reduction of flood risks on Trinidad. Our hypothesis is that the relation

  10. Agricultural Extension: Farm Extension Services in Australia, Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald B.

    By analyzing the scope and structure of agricultural extension services in Australia, Great Britain, and the United States, this work attempts to set guidelines for measuring progress and guiding extension efforts. Extension training, agricultural policy, and activities of national, international, state, and provincial bodies are examined. The…

  11. U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes the U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program, which strongly encouraged employees to shut off their computers when leaving the office. The U.S. Forest Service first piloted the program on a voluntary basis in one region then implemented it across the agency's 43,000 computers as a joint effort by the Chief Information Office and Sustainable Operations department.

  12. TOWARDS THE LEGAL RECOGNITION AND GOVERNANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Norfolk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Mozambique, this paper examines the state of forest ecosystem services, the dependency of the population on these systems for their well-being, if an adaptive governance regime is being created which will ensure the resilience of the forest ecosystem services including the legal framework, the institutions operating within this framework, the tools available and their functioning, and how cooperative governance is operating.

  13. Capability Coordination in Agricultural Products Logistics Service Supply Chain with Revenue-sharing Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To solve the capability coordination in logistics service based on the agricultural products industry, a two-stage agricultural products Logistics Service Supply Chain (LSSC was established with one agricultural products logistics service integrator and one functional logistics service provider. Based on the non-storage property of logistics service capability, the revenue-sharing contract model was built under the uncertain demand. The optimal logistics capability order quantity and the revenue-sharing coefficient were calculated when the agricultural products LSSC achieved coordination. Revenue-sharing contract can coordinate the agricultural products LSSC effectively compared with no contract. A numerical simulation was taken by MATLAB 7.0. The change of purchase price has no influence on the optimal logistics capability order quantity and the expected profit of agricultural products LSSC. It achieves a redistribution of members’ profits. With the increases of penalty cost, the optimal logistics capability order quantity and the expected profit of provider increase, while the expected profit of integrator and agricultural products LSSC decrease.

  14. Cross-Sectoral Resource Management: How Forest Management Alternatives Affect the Provision of Biomass and Other Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Frank

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated forest management is faced with the challenge that the contribution of forests to economic and ecological planning targets must be assessed in a socio-ecological system context. This paper introduces a way to model spatio-temporal dynamics of biomass production at a regional scale in order to derive land use strategies that enhance biomass provision and avoid trade-offs for other ecosystem services. The software platform GISCAME was employed to bridge the gap between local land management decisions and regional planning by linking growth and yield models with an integrative mesoscale modeling and assessment approach. The model region is located in Saxony, Germany. Five scenarios were simulated, which aimed at testing different alternatives for adapted land use in the context of climate change and increasing biomass demand. The results showed, for example, that forest conversion towards climate-change-adapted forest types had positive effects on ecological integrity and landscape aesthetics. In contrast, negative impacts on landscape aesthetics must be expected if agricultural sites were converted into short rotation coppices. Uncertainties with stem from assumptions regarding growth and yield models were discussed. Future developmental steps which consider, for example, accessibility of the resources were identified.

  15. Practice and Exploration of Rural Sci-tech Service Supermarket:A Case Study of Jurong Economic Forest and Fruit Industrial Branch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weizhong; LIU; Yabo; LIU; Jianying; ZHANG; Nini; MAO; Zhijian; WANG

    2013-01-01

    The rural sci-tech supermarket in Jiangsu Province is an innovative model of rural sci-tech service. With reference to the concept of modern commodity supermarket, this model integrates variety, technology and achievement information into the sci-tech supermarket platform, provides various agricultural sci-tech services, and improves farmers recognition and acceptance of science and technology, so as to accelerate conversion of scientific and technological achievements and demonstration and popularization of new varieties, new technologies and new models. This paper analyzes practice of Jurong economic forest and fruit industrial branch and presents recommendations for building Jiangsu rural sci-tech service supermarket.

  16. Agricultural and Forest Land Use Potential for REDD+ among Smallholder Land Users in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divine O. Appiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with other benefits (REDD+ mechanism is supposed to address the reversal of forest-based land degradation, conservation of existing carbon stocks, and enhancement of carbon sequestration. The Bosomtwe District is predominantly agrarian with potentials for climate change mitigation through REDD+ mechanism among smallholder farmers. The limited knowledge and practices of this strategy among farmers are limiting potentials of mitigating climate change. This paper assesses the REDD+ potentials among smallholder farmers in the district. Using a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative design, 152 farmer-respondents were purposively sampled and interviewed, using snowballing method from 12 communities. Quantitative data gathered were subjected to the tools of contingency and frequencies analysis, embedded in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v.16. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Results indicate that respondents have knowledge of REDD+ but not the intended benefit sharing regimes that can accrue to the smallholder farmers. Farmers’ willingness to practice REDD+ will be based on the motivation and incentive potentials of the strategies. The Forestry Services Division should promote the practice of REDD+ among smallholder farmers through education, to whip and sustain interest in the strategy.

  17. 36 CFR 222.51 - National Forests in 16 Western States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forests in 16 Western States. 222.51 Section 222.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing Fees § 222.51 National Forests in 16 Western States. (a) Grazing fees...

  18. Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services and Benefit Sharing:A Case Study of Qingdao City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The forest ecosystem goods and services and the natural capital stocks that produce them make great contribution to national economy and human welfare both directly and indirectly. This paper evaluates the economic value of natural capital stock and the annual output flow of forest ecosystem goods and services taking Qingdao City and its eight districts as case study. The results of the valuation study showed, that the stock value of forest natural capital of Qingdao was RMB 13.46 billion at the end of 2007...

  19. Importance of Forest Ecosystem Services to Secondary School Students: a Case from the North-West Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Torkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Forest managers are facing challenges in balancing the demands for forest social services raised by the general public and forest productive services. Knowing local people’s attitudes, taking into account their needs and respecting their opinions, introducing social aspects should become a management priority to ensure success of conservational activities and sustainable use of natural resources. This study investigates the attitudes of one category from the general public which is secondary school students related to forest ecosystem services in order to determine and present a useful basis for further research of people’s attitudes towards forests and forest management. Materials and Methods: In 2013 and 2014 410 Slovenian students from secondary schools in the Vipava valley and Goriška area in northwestern Slovenia completed a questionnaire testing for the influence of gender and frequency of forest experiences on attitudes to forest ecosystem services. Students’ attitudes to forest ecosystem services were investigated via 15 statements about provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. The gathered data was analysed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, using ANOVA, Tukey post-hoc test, Spearman’s product moment correlation and the nonparametric Mann–Whitney (U test. Results and Conclusions: Students acknowledged the high benefits of ecosystem services provided by forests, though not all forest ecosystem services hold the same importance to secondary school students. Students placed the highest importance on supporting services; especially on the value of forests as habitats for animal and plant species. Also the importance of forests for clean air production was emphasized. Students with more frequent experiences in the forest environment placed more importance on cultural services as well as regulating services, especially for clean water and air production. Gender

  20. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  1. 36 CFR 211.6 - Cooperation in forest investigations or the protection, management, and improvement of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 5 CFR part 2635, and applicable Department of Agriculture regulations, in determining if a conflict... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation in forest... Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION...

  2. Sustainable carbon uptake - important ecosystem service within sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Anić, Mislav; Paladinić, Elvis; Alberti, Giorgio; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    Even-aged forest management with natural regeneration under continuous cover (i.e. close to nature management) is considered to be sustainable regarding the yield, biodiversity and stability of forest ecosystems. Recently, in the context of climate change, there is a raising question of sustainable forest management regarding carbon uptake. Aim of this research was to explore whether current close to nature forest management approach in Croatia can be considered sustainable in terms of carbon uptake throughout the life-time of Pedunculate oak forest. In state-owned managed forest a chronosequence experiment was set up and carbon stocks in main ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter and mineral soil layer), main carbon fluxes (net primary production, soil respiration (SR), decomposition) and net ecosystem productivity were estimated in eight stands of different age (5, 13, 38, 53, 68, 108, 138 and 168 years) based on field measurements and published data. Air and soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded on 7 automatic mini-meteorological stations and weekly SR measurements were used to parameterize SR model. Carbon balance was estimated at weekly scale for the growing season 2011 (there was no harvesting), as well as throughout the normal rotation period of 140 years (harvesting was included). Carbon stocks in different ecosystem pools change during a stand development. Carbon stocks in forest floor increase with stand age, while carbon stocks in dead wood are highest in young and older stands, and lowest in middle-aged, mature stands. Carbon stocks in mineral soil layer were found to be stable across chronosequence with no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Pedunculate Oak stand, assuming successful regeneration, becomes carbon sink very early in a development phase, between the age of 5 and 13 years, and remains carbon sink even after the age of 160 years. Greatest carbon sink was reached in the stand aged 53 years. Obtained results

  3. Allelopathic effects of Leucaena leucocephala leaf litter on some forest and agricultural crops grown in nursery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romel Ahmed; A. T. M. Rafiqul Hoque; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of leaf litter of Leucaena leucocephala on two forest crops Sada koroi (Albizia procera),Ipil ipil (L.leucocephala) and three agricultural crops Falen (Vigna unguiculata),Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Arhor (Cajanus cajan) in the nursery of the Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences,Chittagong University,Bangladesh,in a Randomized Block Design.Results suggested that leaf litters of L.leucocephala induced inhibitory effects on germination and growth of bioassay.It was also found that the effect depended on concentration of extract and litterfall,type of receptor species.Higher concentration of the materials had the higher effect and vice versa.Growth response of receptor crops varied with the variation of leaf litter application.The study revealed that application of low-dose leaf litter specially litter of 10 g(m-2 had stimulating effect on shoot growth of C.arietinum,V.unguiculata and A.procera.While in all other cases significant inhibitory effect was observed and it was significantly increased with the increase of leaf litter application.However,the trend of inhibition was uneven with treatments.Root growth was found to be more affected than shoot growth.

  4. Multi- and hyperspectral UAV imaging system for forest and agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkynen, Jussi; Saari, Heikki; Holmlund, Christer; Mannila, Rami; Antila, Tapani

    2012-06-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with light weight UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) platforms (SPIE Proc. 74741, 8186B2). The FPI based hyperspectral imager was used in a UAV imaging campaign for forest and agriculture tests during the summer 2011 (SPIE Proc. 81743). During these tests high spatial resolution Color-Infrared (CIR) images and hyperspectral images were recorded on separate flights. The spectral bands of the CIR camera were 500 - 580 nm for the green band, 580 - 700 nm for the red band and 700 - 1000 nm for the near infrared band. For the summer 2012 flight campaign a new hyperspectral imager is currently being developed. A custom made CIR camera will also be used. The system which includes both the high spatial resolution Color-Infrared camera and a light weight hyperspectral imager can provide all necessary data with just one UAV flight over the target area. The new UAV imaging system contains a 4 Megapixel CIR camera which is used for the generation of the digital surface models and CIR mosaics. The hyperspectral data can be recorded in the wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at a resolution of 10 - 30 nm at FWHM. The resolution can be selected from approximate values of 10, 15, 20 or 30 nm at FWHM.

  5. Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landis, D.A.; Gardiner, M.M.; Werf, van der W.; Swinton, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Increased demand for corn grain as an ethanol feedstock is altering U. S. agricultural landscapes and the ecosystem services they provide. From 2006 to 2007, corn acreage increased 19% nationally, resulting in reduced crop diversity in many areas. Biological control of insects is an ecosystem servic

  6. MECHANICAL POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION IN AGRICULTURAL…

  7. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

  8. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, OR SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN THE ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK…

  9. Survey of the World Agricultural Documentation Services, Draft; Prepared on Behalf of the FAO Panel of Experts on "AGRIS" (International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntrock, H.

    The purpose of the survey was: (1) to evaluate existing agricultural information services and (2) to propose possible frameworks for an improved world-wide agricultural information service. The principal statistical results of the survey are summarized in the following figures which are based on data collected in nearly all instances for the year…

  10. Avian research on U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges: Emergent themes, opportunities, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoleson, S.H.; King, D.I.; Tomosy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1908, U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges have been dedicated to long-term interdisciplinary research on a variety of ecological and management questions. They encompass a wide diversity of life zones and ecoregions, and provide access to research infrastructure, opportunities for controlled manipulations, and integration with other types of long-term data. These features have facilitated important advances in a number of areas of avian research, including furthering our understanding of population dynamics, the effects of forest management on birds, avian responses to disturbances such as fire and hurricanes, and other aspects of avian ecology and conservation. However, despite these contributions, this invaluable resource has been underutilized by ornithologists. Most of the Experimental Forests and Ranges have had no ornithological work done on them. We encourage the ornithological community, especially graduate students and new faculty, to take advantage of this largely untapped potential for long-term work, linkage with long-term data sets, multiple disciplines, and active forest management. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Westwide forest inventory data base: User`s manual. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woudenberg, S.W.; Farrenkopf, T.O.

    1995-06-01

    Describes the standard Westwide data base (WWDB) structure. This computer file structure was developed to provide consistent data on the forest resources of the Western United States. These data files are available to the public.

  12. Flora of the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, S.J.; Shepperd, W.D.; Reichert, D.W.; Cone, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    The report lists 441 vascular plant taxa in 228 genera and 63 families encountered on the 9,300-ha Fraser Experimental Forest in central Colorado. Synonyms appearing in previous publications and other works pertaining to the Fraser Experimental Forest, as well as appropriate Colorado floras and less-technical field guides, are included. Plant communities and habitats are discussed, and a list of 54 lichens is also presented. A glossary of related terms is included.

  13. A comparison of the spatial distribution of vadose zone water in forested and agricultural floodplains a century after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    To improve quantitative understanding of the long-term impact of historic forest removal on floodplain vadose zone water regime, a study was implemented in fall 2010, in the Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA. Automated, continuously logging capacitance-frequency probes were installed in a grid-like formation (n=6) and at depths of 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 cm within a historic agricultural field (Ag) and a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, and 2013 hydrologic years. Results showed volumetric water content (VWC) to be significantly different between sites (pagricultural systems, and point to the value of reestablishing floodplain forests for fresh water routing, water quality, and flood mitigation in mixed-land-use watersheds.

  14. Comparison of Hydrologic Dynamics in Forested and Agricultural Sub-watersheds of a Large Mixed-use Prairie Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, H.; Ali, G.

    2013-12-01

    The natural history of the Prairies includes the large-scale human modification of landscape biology and hydrology from first settlement to present. Forested land has been and continues to be lost and runoff is increasingly artificially drained in this intensively managed region. The impact of such modifications on hydrological dynamics has yet to be understood in such a way that measurable landscape alterations (i.e., area of forest loss, hydraulic capacity of artificial surface drains) can be linked to quantifiable alterations in event storm hydrographs or hydrological regimes. Here we focused on a large mixed-used watershed to compare the hydrological dynamics of forested sub-watersheds to those of neighboring deforested agricultural sub-watersheds within a similar geologic and pedologic setting. The chosen study site, the Catfish Creek watershed (CCW), drains a 600 km2 area located approximately 90 km north-east of Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) and has been extensively impacted by human activities including the continued clearing of forested land for cultivation. It is characterized as a low-relief, agro-forested watershed (~45% forest, ~40% crops, ~10% swamp, ~5% other). Surface runoff is managed in part by a network of artificial drains in both the forested and cultivated portions of this watershed. The lower CCW is naturally-vegetated by parkland forest and swamp. The eastern edge of the upper watershed is also forested and of greater relative relief; while to the west the landscape is dominated by intensive, large-scale agricultural operations on a near level landscape. Detailed topographic information was collected in 1 m LiDAR survey of the area. Through the spring of 2013, CCW was instrumented with thirteen water level recorders (15-minute frequency) and five weather stations (1-minute frequency) to monitor the precipitation-runoff dynamics from spring thaw to winter freeze-up. Water level gauging stations, 12 located in-stream and 1 located in swampland

  15. Assessing the Heavy Metal Content in Forest Dormouse (Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1778 from an Agricultural Region in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi G. Markov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals load in the forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula, inhabiting in forest shelter belts in the agricultural region was assessed. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (expressed in mg/kg of dry tissue were established in the liver, using an atomic-absorption analysis. The fact that the highly toxic metals (Cd and Pb were found in considerable concentrations together with other metals with concentration dependent toxic effect (Cu, Ni, Zn and Co in the liver of forest dormice, suggests that it is necessary to carry out regular assessment and forecasting of accumulation of these metals in species, which are not direct targets of cultivation and control activities in agricultural ecosystems. The obtained values were used to create a baseline for estimation of heavy metal accumulation in the internal organs of the forest dormouse, both in anthropogenically transformed habitats and natural biotopes, as well as for using this species as a monitor of environmental status.

  16. CHANGES IN THE LEVEL AND STRUCTURE OF UTILISATION OF SERVICES IN POLISH AND GERMAN AGRICULTURE IN 1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kołodziejczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the differences in the level and structure of utilisation of services in Polish and German agriculture. An attempt to define the factors influencing these values was also done. The research covered the share of agricultural services, veterinary expenses and financial intermediation services in intermediate consumption, the value of the studied services per 1 hectare of agricultural land, 1 AWU or 1 DJP, as well as services absorptivity of agricultural production. It was proved that although a significant difference between the role of these services in Poland and Germany still exists, in many cases in 2012 it was not so considerable as in 1998. It can be also assumed that further absorption of funds from the European Union will stimulate investment processes in Polish agriculture, and progressive improvement in utilisation of services by Polish agriculture.

  17. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  18. Assessment of the effects of forest land use strategies on the provision of ecosystem services at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Christine; Frank, Susanne; Witt, Anke; Koschke, Lars; Makeschin, Franz

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents results of a case study in Middle Saxony, Germany, where the impact of conversion, afforestation and alternatively introduction of short rotation coppice areas on the provision of ecosystem services was tested in a spatially inexplicit and a spatially explicit way to formulate recommendations for regional planning. While the spatially inexplicit testing did not lead to clear results regarding to what degree forests or short rotation coppice areas are desirable and applicable, the spatially explicit testing revealed that an increase in the forest area or area with short rotation coppice by 29.7% in unstructured agriculturally dominated Loess regions, 14.4% in more topographically structured parts in the North-East of the model region and 23.6% in its mountainous parts would be beneficial. Potentially resulting losses in the provision of bioresources and regional economy can be considerably reduced by replacing afforestation areas with short rotation coppice. In summary, we found that the spatially explicit analysis of land use scenarios in combination with a more detailed land use classification and including an assessment of changes in land use pattern gave us an improved basis for assessing different possible planning strategies and to enhance the communication between forest management planners and regional planners.

  19. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  20. Natural resource accounting for the national forests: A conceptual framework. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Bradley, D.P.; Jakes, P.J.

    1994-06-20

    The report summarizes the shortcomings of current natural resource accounting systems, outlines some of the features needed, and proposes an accounting framework that would help integrate economic and ecological factors. Such a system of forest resource accounting is urgently needed to achieve the sustainable goals of ecosystem management.

  1. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Steve M.; Robertson, Dale M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models. Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. We examined long-term (~20 years) time series of river export (annual mass yield, Y, and flow-weighted mean annual concentration, C) for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended sediment (TSS) from 54 catchments in Wisconsin, USA. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage (percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network). Mean annual export and interannual variability (CV) of export (for both Y and C) were higher in agricultural catchments relative to forested catchments for TP, TN, and TSS. In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. For TP and TSS, interannual variability in mass yield was often >50% higher than interannual variability in water yield, whereas TN variability more closely followed water (discharge) variability. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

  2. ADVANCED EARTH OBSERVATION APPROACH FOR MULTISCALE FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES MODELING AND MAPPING (MIMOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chirici

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade ecosystem services (ES have been proposed as a method for quantifying the multifunctional role of forest ecosystems. Their spatial distribution on large areas is frequently limited by the lack of information, because field data collection with traditional methods requires much effort in terms of time and cost.  In this contribution we propose a methodology (namely, MultIscale Mapping Of ecoSystem servicEs - MIMOSE based on the integration of remotely sensed images and field observation to produce a wall-to-wall geodatabase of forest parcels accompanied with several information useful as a basis for future trade-off analysis of different ES. Here, we present the application of the MIMOSE approach to a study area of 443,758 hectares  coincident with administrative Molise Region in Central Italy. The procedure is based on a local high resolution forest types map integrated with information on the main forest management approaches. Through the non-parametric k-Nearest Neighbors techniques, we produced a growing stock volume map integrating a local forest inventory with a multispectral satellite IRS LISS III imagery. With the growing stock volume map we derived a forest age map for even-aged forest types. Later these information were used to automatically create a vector forest parcels map by multidimensional image segmentation that were finally populated with a number of information useful for ES spatial estimation. The contribution briefly introduce to the MIMOSE methodology presenting the preliminary results we achieved which constitute the basis for a future implementation of ES modeling.

  3. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  4. Research on plant-parasitic nematode biology conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, David J

    2003-01-01

    The recent de-registration of several chemical nematicides and the impending loss of methyl bromide from the pest-control market necessitate the development of new methods for controlling nematode-induced crop damage. One approach for developing novel target-specific controls is by exploiting fundamental differences between the biological processes of nematodes and their host plants. Researchers of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the US Department of Agriculture are actively exploring these differences. Research accomplishments include the discovery of heat shock protein genes possibly involved in developmental arrest of the soybean cyst nematode, the identification of neuropeptides and female-specific proteins in the soybean cyst nematode, the disruption of nematode reproduction with inhibitors of nematode sterol metabolism, the development of novel morphological and molecular (heat shock protein genes and the D3 segment of large subunit ribosomal DNA) features useful for nematode identification and classification, and the elucidation of the population genetics of potato cyst nematode pathotypes. In addition, several ARS researchers are investigating biological determinants of nematode response to management strategies utilized in agricultural fields. These collective efforts should lead to new chemical and non-chemical alternatives to conventional nematode control strategies.

  5. Design of Internet of Things application and service detecting system in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Sijun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An intergrative detecting scheme is provided to the IoT application and service in agriculture.The application and service is ensured by detecting service in sensor layer,network layer and application layer respectively.In sensor layer,sensor devices are managed and the relationship between sensors and services are built,in order to trace back to the related device when there′s any problem.In network layer,automatic back-up and re-set is accomplished when network configuration,to ensure the transmission between sensor layer and network layer.In application layer,load test is applied in service support platform.The service is controlled by real-time monitoring to database in cloud platform.Through the global monitor,the service performance is ensured and user experience is improved,which will finally help the development of IoT in agricultue.

  6. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Elliott, E-mail: rekfh3@mail.missouri.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Hubbart, Jason A. [Water Resources Program, School of Natural Resources, Department of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ikem, Abua, E-mail: Ikema@lincolnu.edu [Lincoln University, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 204 Foster Hall, 904 Chestnut Street, Jefferson City, MO 65101 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  7. Development of Thermophilic Tailor-Made Enzyme Mixtures for the Bioconversion of Agricultural and Forest Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaouri, Anthi; Matsakas, Leonidas; Topakas, Evangelos; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Even though the main components of all lignocellulosic feedstocks include cellulose, hemicellulose, as well as the protective lignin matrix, there are some differences in structure, such as in hardwoods and softwoods, which may influence the degradability of the materials. Under this view, various types of biomass might require a minimal set of enzymes that has to be tailor-made. Partially defined complex mixtures that are currently commercially used are not adapted to efficiently degrade different materials, so novel enzyme mixtures have to be customized. Development of these cocktails requires better knowledge about the specific activities involved, in order to optimize hydrolysis. The role of filamentous fungus Myceliophthora thermophila and its complete enzymatic repertoire for the bioconversion of complex carbohydrates has been widely proven. In this study, four core cellulases (MtCBH7, MtCBH6, MtEG5, and MtEG7), in the presence of other four "accessory" enzymes (mannanase, lytic polyssacharide monooxygenase MtGH61, xylanase, MtFae1a) and β-glucosidase MtBGL3, were tested as a nine-component cocktail against one model substrate (phosphoric acid swollen cellulose) and four hydrothermally pretreated natural substrates (wheat straw as an agricultural waste, birch, and spruce biomass, as forest residues). Synergistic interactions among different enzymes were determined using a suitable design of experiments methodology. The results suggest that for the hydrolysis of the pure substrate (PASC), high proportions of MtEG7 are needed for efficient yields. MtCBH7 and MtEG7 are enzymes of major importance during the hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw, while MtCBH7 plays a crucial role in case of spruce. Cellobiohydrolases MtCBH6 and MtCBH7 act in combination and are key enzymes for the hydrolysis of the hardwood (birch). Optimum combinations were predicted from suitable statistical models which were able to further increase hydrolysis yields, suggesting that tailor

  8. EO Underpinning the Quality of Ecosystem Services with Geospatial Data- The Case of Sustainable Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite Eyre, Charles

    2010-12-01

    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an exciting and expanding opportunity for sustainably managed forests. PES are derived from a range of ecosystem benefits from forests including climate change mitigation through afforestation and avoided deforestation, green power generation, wetland and watershed rehabilitation, water quality improvement, marine flood defence and the reduction in desertification and soil erosion. Forests are also the ancestral home to many vulnerable communities which need protection. Sustainable forest management plays a key role in many of these services which generates a potentially critical source of finance. However, for forests to realise revenues from these PES, they must meet demanding standards of project validation and service verification. They also need geospatial data to manage and monitor operational risk. In many cases the data is difficult to collect on the ground - in some cases impossible. This will create a new demand for data that must be impartial, timely, area wide, accurate and cost effective. This presentation will highlight the unique capacity of EO to provide these geospatial inputs required in the generation of PES from forestry and demonstrate products with practical examples.

  9. Forestland prediction of China based on forest ecosystem services for the first half of 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ren-cai; CHEN Chun-di; DENG Hong-bing; ZHAO Jing-zhu

    2008-01-01

    A new model was developed to predict forestland demand of China during the years of 2010-2050 in terms of the concept of forest ecosystem services. On the basis of the relationship between forest ecosystem services and classified forest management, we hypothesized that the ecological-forest provides ecological services, whereas commercial-forest supplies wood and timber production, and the influences of the growth of population, social-economic development target, forest management methods and the technology changes on forest resources were also taken into account. The prediction reveals that the demand of total forestland of China will be 244.8, 261.2 and 362.2 million ha by the year 2010, 2020 and 2050, respectively. The results demonstrated that China will be confronted with a shortage of forest resources, especially with lack of ecological-oriented forests, in the future. It is suggested that sustainable management of forest resources must be reinforced and more attention should be drown no enhancing the service function of forest ecosystem.

  10. 76 FR 31887 - Procedures by Which the Agricultural Marketing Service Develops, Revises, Suspends, or Terminates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... CFR part 36). Background: AMS received a petition from the American Frozen Food Institute (AFFI... Frozen Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra. The standards for frozen okra would be changed from...

  11. Problems and Solutions of Chinese Agricultural Science and Technology Service System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doudou ZHANG; Pengling LIU

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Problems in agricultural science and technology service system were ana- lyzed, such as system problem, investment and worker quality, and based on this countermeasures were proposed, so as to promote the development of modern agri- culture and construction of new countryside.

  12. Payments for Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Sustainability: The Case of Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential impacts of payments for ecosystem services on poverty and sustainability of farm households, using the example of agricultural soil carbon sequestration. Economic analysis shows that there is a variety of technical and economic factors affecting adoption of practi

  13. THE EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE ON THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF TEFF (ERAGROSTISTEF PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asres Elias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teff (Eragrostistef is a major staple food crop in Ethiopia, but smallholder teff production is characterized by persistently low average yield. A major government effort aimed at raising the productivity and competitiveness of smallholder agriculture in Ethiopia involved reforming and implementing agricultural extension service known as Participatory Demonstration and Training Extension System (PADETES. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of agricultural extension service and others factors on the Technical Efficiency (TE of teff producers in northern Ethiopia. Using cross sectional data we compare TE level of teff producers who are participants and non-participants of Agricultural Extension (AE program. We address self-selection in to AE program participation using propensity score matching method. Trans-log stochastic frontier production function is used for TE analysis. The empirical results reveal that, AE program participants’ and non-participants’ farms have an average TE of 72 and 71% respectively. Both groups of farms have considerable overall technical inefficiencies, suggesting the existence of immense potentials for enhancing production through more efficient use of available technology and resources. Determinants of TE are explained significantly by livestock ownership, credit and improved seed. Based on the results, we derive policy recommendations to improve farmers’ teff production performance. These policy measures include the provision of extension services related to technical skill and farm management capacity of the farmers, demand driven livestock extension service, greater access to credit and increasing the availability, quality and adoption of improved seed.

  14. Optimized routing on agricultural fields by minimizing maneuvering and servicing time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekken, M.; Bruin, de S.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural machines spend a significant part of their time on non-productive operations such as maneuvering near the boundaries of the field and loading or offloading of inputs or outputs (here referred to as servicing). This paper integrates existing methods for route optimization so as to minimi

  15. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  16. Influence of voluntary coffee certifications on cooperatives’ advisory services and agricultural practices of smallholder farmers in Costa Rica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperat...

  17. Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, F A; Edwards, D P; Larsen, T H; Hsu, W W; Benedick, S; Chung, A; Vun Khen, C; Wilcove, D S; Hamer, K C

    2014-01-01

    Forests in Southeast Asia are rapidly being logged and converted to oil palm. These changes in land-use are known to affect species diversity but consequences for the functional diversity of species assemblages are poorly understood. Environmental filtering of species with similar traits could lead to disproportionate reductions in trait diversity in degraded habitats. Here, we focus on dung beetles, which play a key role in ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling and seed dispersal. We use morphological and behavioural traits to calculate a variety of functional diversity measures across a gradient of disturbance from primary forest through intensively logged forest to oil palm. Logging caused significant shifts in community composition but had very little effect on functional diversity, even after a repeated timber harvest. These data provide evidence for functional redundancy of dung beetles within primary forest and emphasize the high value of logged forests as refugia for biodiversity. In contrast, conversion of forest to oil palm greatly reduced taxonomic and functional diversity, with a marked decrease in the abundance of nocturnal foragers, a higher proportion of species with small body sizes and the complete loss of telecoprid species (dung-rollers), all indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of dung beetles within plantations. These changes also highlight the vulnerability of community functioning within logged forests in the event of further environmental degradation. PMID:25821399

  18. Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, F A; Edwards, D P; Larsen, T H; Hsu, W W; Benedick, S; Chung, A; Vun Khen, C; Wilcove, D S; Hamer, K C

    2014-04-01

    Forests in Southeast Asia are rapidly being logged and converted to oil palm. These changes in land-use are known to affect species diversity but consequences for the functional diversity of species assemblages are poorly understood. Environmental filtering of species with similar traits could lead to disproportionate reductions in trait diversity in degraded habitats. Here, we focus on dung beetles, which play a key role in ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling and seed dispersal. We use morphological and behavioural traits to calculate a variety of functional diversity measures across a gradient of disturbance from primary forest through intensively logged forest to oil palm. Logging caused significant shifts in community composition but had very little effect on functional diversity, even after a repeated timber harvest. These data provide evidence for functional redundancy of dung beetles within primary forest and emphasize the high value of logged forests as refugia for biodiversity. In contrast, conversion of forest to oil palm greatly reduced taxonomic and functional diversity, with a marked decrease in the abundance of nocturnal foragers, a higher proportion of species with small body sizes and the complete loss of telecoprid species (dung-rollers), all indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of dung beetles within plantations. These changes also highlight the vulnerability of community functioning within logged forests in the event of further environmental degradation.

  19. A review and evaluation of stemflow literature in the hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles of forested and agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis F.; Frost, Ethan E.

    2003-04-01

    Stemflow is a spatially localized point input of precipitation and solutes at the plant stem and is of hydrological and ecological significance in forested and agricultural ecosystems. The purpose of this review is to: (1) critically evaluate our current understanding of stemflow; (2) identify gaps in our present knowledge of stemflow; and (3) stimulate further research in areas where present knowledge is weak. The review begins by analyzing stemflow drainage and nutrient inputs under diverse vegetal cover. Stemflow inputs are then examined as a function of meteorological conditions, seasonality, interspecific and intraspecific differences among and within species, canopy structure, spatiality, and atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. Stemflow modeling studies are also reviewed and evaluated. Stemflow yield and chemistry are the result of the interaction of the many complex variables listed. By analyzing each separately, it may be possible to isolate their individual affects on stemflow production and chemistry. A comprehensive understanding of each influencing factor would enable the accurate modeling of stemflow water and nutrient inputs into agricultural and forest soils which may result in the optimization of timber and crop harvests. Some areas where present knowledge is particularly weak are: (1) stemflow production and nutrient transfers in northern boreal forests (aspen, birch, conifers) and desert cacti; (2) chemical enrichment of stemflow from live trees charred by forest fires; (3) stemflow yield and nutrient inputs during the winter season; (4) intraspecific variation in stemflow production and chemistry; (5) stemflow chemistry from standing dead trees; (6) influence of canopy structure on stemflow chemistry; (7) understory stemflow generation and nutrient transfer; and (8) stemflow enrichment associated with insect infestations.

  20. Forest owners' willingness to accept contracts for ecosystem service provision is sensitive to additionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2015-01-01

    A key prerequisite to ensure that payment for ecosystem services is effective is that the management measures landowners are paid to undertake are in fact additional to the status quo and hence bring about a change in provision. We investigated Danish forest owners' preferences for conditional...

  1. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  2. Sprinting, climbing and persisting: Light interception and carbon gain in a secondary tropical forest succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selaya Garvizú, N.G.

    2007-01-01

    In the tropics human induced forest disturbance, i.e. timber extraction or forest slash and burn for agriculture is leading to an increase of secondary forest area. Therefore, people in the tropics, especially the poor, will rely on secondary forests for good and services. Pioneer trees (short-and l

  3. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...

  4. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration...

  5. Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes: A Spatially Explicit Approach to Support Sustainable Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Forouzangohar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km2 in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation. We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes.

  6. Ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes: a spatially explicit approach to support sustainable soil management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzangohar, Mohsen; Crossman, Neville D; MacEwan, Richard J; Wallace, D Dugal; Bennett, Lauren T

    2014-01-01

    Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km(2) in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage) were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation). We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes.

  7. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongxing; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Björklund, Jesper; Tarvainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Kasimir, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring derived biomass data and measured 6 year abiotic data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the GHG fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m-2 yr-1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m-2 yr-1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m-2 yr-1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m-2 yr-1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha-1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha-1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. Model sensitivity analysis by changing initial soil C, drainage depth and initial soil C/N ratio also confirms that forests on drained agricultural peatland are a GHG source. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding both CO2 and N2O to the atmosphere.

  8. Implications of agricultural land use change to ecosystem services in the Ganges delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-09-15

    Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh.

  9. Białystok inhabitants’ preferences concerning forest recreational services – the need for physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoleński Marcin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the market segmentation of recreational forest services using the concept of ‘sensation seeking’ for describing recreational expectations of town dwellers. The physical activity of town dwellers from the urban agglomeration of Białystok and the Knyszyn Forest (North-Eastern Poland during outdoor recreation was analysed using this concept. The results of this research suggest that less than thirty percent of inhabitants of the Białystok agglomeration tend to be physically active during outdoor recreation. This is evidence of a low level of physical culture within the part of the society analysed in this study. Amongst all participants, only seven percent use the Knyszyn Forest for recreational purposes based on physical activity. The limited interest in active recreation in forests that we observed can be attributed to two main causes: 1 the lack of acceptance of a closed forest landscape as a recreational area; 2 the lack of recreational facilities in the Knyszyn Forest that would encourage healthy behaviour during active outdoor recreation.

  10. Influence of forest management systems on natural resource use and provision of ecosystem services in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Ayron M; Rurai, Masegeri T; Almedom, Astier M

    2016-09-15

    Social, religious and economic facets of rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily dependent on natural resources, but improper resource management, drought, and social instability frequently lead to their unsustainable exploitation. In rural Tanzania, natural resources are often governed locally by informal systems of traditional resource management (TRM), defined as cultural practices developed within the context of social and religious institutions over hundreds of years. However, following independence from colonial rule, centralized governments began to exercise jurisdictional control over natural resources. Following decades of mismanagement that resulted in lost ecosystem services, communities demanded change. To improve resource protection and participation in management among stakeholders, the Tanzanian government began to decentralize management programs in the early 2000s. We investigated these two differing management approaches (traditional and decentralized government) in Sonjo communities, to examine local perceptions of resource governance, management influences on forest use, and their consequences for forest and water resources. While 97% of households understood the regulations governing traditionally-managed forests, this was true for only 39% of households for government-managed forests, leading to differences in forest use. Traditional management practices resulted in improved forest condition and surface water quality. This research provides an essential case study demonstrating the importance of TRM in shaping decision frameworks for natural resource planning and management.

  11. Possibilities of a Personal Laser Scanning System for Forest Mapping and Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlian Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A professional-quality, personal laser scanning (PLS system for collecting tree attributes was demonstrated in this paper. The applied system, which is wearable by human operators, consists of a multi-constellation navigation system and an ultra-high-speed phase-shift laser scanner mounted on a rigid baseplate and consisting of a single sensor block. A multipass-corridor-mapping method was developed to process PLS data and a 2,000 m2 forest plot was utilized in the test. The tree stem detection accuracy was 82.6%; the root mean square error (RMSE of the estimates of tree diameter at breast height (DBH was 5.06 cm; the RMSE of the estimates of tree location was 0.38 m. The relative RMSE of the DBH estimates was 14.63%. The results showed, for the first time, the potential of the PLS system in mapping large forest plots. Further research on mapping accuracy in various forest conditions, data correction methods and multi-sensoral positioning techniques is needed. The utilization of this system in different applications, such as harvester operations, should also be explored. In addition to collecting tree-level and plot-level data for forest inventory, other possible applications of PLS for forest ecosystem services include mapping of canopy gaps, measuring leaf area index of large areas, documenting and visualizing forest routes feasible for recreation, hiking and berry and mushroom picking.

  12. Possibilities of a personal laser scanning system for forest mapping and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinlian; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Wang, Yunsheng

    2014-01-10

    A professional-quality, personal laser scanning (PLS) system for collecting tree attributes was demonstrated in this paper. The applied system, which is wearable by human operators, consists of a multi-constellation navigation system and an ultra-high-speed phase-shift laser scanner mounted on a rigid baseplate and consisting of a single sensor block. A multipass-corridor-mapping method was developed to process PLS data and a 2,000 m2 forest plot was utilized in the test. The tree stem detection accuracy was 82.6%; the root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimates of tree diameter at breast height (DBH) was 5.06 cm; the RMSE of the estimates of tree location was 0.38 m. The relative RMSE of the DBH estimates was 14.63%. The results showed, for the first time, the potential of the PLS system in mapping large forest plots. Further research on mapping accuracy in various forest conditions, data correction methods and multi-sensoral positioning techniques is needed. The utilization of this system in different applications, such as harvester operations, should also be explored. In addition to collecting tree-level and plot-level data for forest inventory, other possible applications of PLS for forest ecosystem services include mapping of canopy gaps, measuring leaf area index of large areas, documenting and visualizing forest routes feasible for recreation, hiking and berry and mushroom picking.

  13. The Role of Phytodiversity in Riparian Alder Forests in Supporting the Provision of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariničová Patrícia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nature, ecosystems and biodiversity provide human society with many benefits known as ecosystem services. Functional diversity is an important aspect of biodiversity. In this paper, we applied inductive approach to the identification, mapping and evaluation of ecosystem services of the Aegopodio-Alnetum glutinosae community in Tribeč Mts. The results from 2015 show that the alder floodplain forest represents one of the most productive forest ecosystems with seasonal maximum production of 59.03 g m−2, species diversity of N0 = 40 and functional diversity of FD = 10. The forage potential of this community is medium, the melliferous potential is high and the therapeutic potential was estimated as extremely rich in medicinal plants. From the functional groups for providing ecosystem services, woody plants and hemicryptophytes play the most significant role.

  14. 77 FR 39987 - Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County, CO; Eldora Mountain Resort Ski Area Projects AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  15. 75 FR 68319 - Paulina Ranger District; Ochoco National Forest; Crook and Wheeler Counties, OR; Jackson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Paulina Ranger District; Ochoco National Forest; Crook and Wheeler Counties, OR; Jackson Vegetation Management Project EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare...

  16. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 171 (Friday, September 3, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 54085] [FR Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio...

  17. 75 FR 38768 - Ashley National Forest, UT, High Uintas Wilderness-Colorado River Cutthroat Trout Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ashley National Forest, UT, High Uintas Wilderness--Colorado River Cutthroat Trout Habitat Enhancement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental...

  18. 75 FR 6625 - Dixie National Forest, UT, Kitty Hawk Administrative Site Master Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Dixie National Forest, UT, Kitty Hawk Administrative Site Master Development Plan AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY:...

  19. Assessing Urban Forest Structure, Ecosystem Services, and Economic Benefits on Vacant Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An urban forest assessment is essential for developing a baseline from which to measure changes and trends. The most precise way to assess urban forests is to measure and record every tree on a site, but although this may work well for relatively small populations (e.g., street trees, small parks, it is prohibitively expensive for large tree populations. Thus, random sampling offers a cost-effective way to assess urban forest structure and the associated ecosystem services for large-scale assessments. The methodology applied to assess ecosystem services in this study can also be used to assess the ecosystem services provided by vacant land in other urban contexts and improve urban forest policies, planning, and the management of vacant land. The study’s findings support the inclusion of trees on vacant land and contribute to a new vision of vacant land as a valuable ecological resource by demonstrating how green infrastructure can be used to enhance ecosystem health and promote a better quality of life for city residents.

  20. Paying for water-related forest services: a survey on Italian payment mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secco L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the state of implementation of one of the most relevant mechanisms of payments for environmental services (PES in the forestry sector: the systems of payments for water-related forest services. Three water services with economic relevance are analyzed with reference to the Italian context: hydropower generation, tap-water supply and mineral water use by industry. Using the consolidated definition of PES as a basis for the analysis and considering the regulatory framework on water, we compared the three water-related services to describe the strengths and weaknesses in environmental services provision. From the analysis we deduced that pure PES schemes do not exist in the water sector in Italy, while PES-like schemes driven by public authorities have a relatively long and consolidated tradition, but need to be better oriented and more widely implemented in order to compensate the providers of the services.

  1. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  2. A Metagenomic Perspective on Changes to Nutrient-cycling Genes Following Forest-to-agriculture Conversion in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Womack, A. M.; Rodrigues, J.; Nüsslein, K.; Bohannan, B. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest-to-agriculture conversion has been shown to alter nutrient cycling and the community composition of soil microorganisms. However, few studies have looked simultaneously at how the abundance, composition, and diversity of microbial genes involved in nutrient cycling change with conversion. We used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to analyze soil from primary rainforest and converted cattle pasture sampled at the Fazenda Nova Vida in Rondônia, Brazil. The diversity, richness, and evenness of nutrient cycling genes were significantly higher in the pasture, and the composition of nutrient cycling communities differed significantly between land use types. These results largely mirror taxonomic shifts following Amazon rainforest conversion, which tends to increase diversity, richness, and evenness of soil microbial communities. The abundance of genes related to N cycling and methane flux differed between land use types. Methanotrophy genes decreased in abundance in the pasture, whereas methanogenesis genes were not significantly different between land use types. These changes could underlie the commonly observed shift from methane sink to source following forest-to-agriculture conversion. Multiple genes in the nitrogen cycle also differed with land use, including genes related to N-fixation and ammonification. Metagenomics provides a unique perspective on the consequences of land use change on microbial community structure and function.

  3. MAPPING SECONDARY FOREST SUCCESSION ON ABANDONED AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE POLISH CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolecka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015. This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  4. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecka, N.; Kozak, J.; Kaim, D.; Dobosz, M.; Ginzler, Ch.; Psomas, A.

    2016-06-01

    Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015). This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  5. Assessing the Impact of a Semester-Long Course in Agricultural Mechanics on Pre-Service Agricultural Education Teachers' Importance, Confidence, and Knowledge of Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiby, Brian L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Key, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the perceptions of Oklahoma pre-service agricultural education teachers regarding the importance of identified welding skills standards and their confidence to teach them, based on a semester-long course on metals and welding. This study also sought to determine pre-service teachers' knowledge of welding prior to and at…

  6. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  7. The Development of a Web-service-based On-demand Global Agriculture Drought Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M.; Di, L.; Han, W.; Yagci, A.; Peng, C.

    2011-12-01

    The growing demand on detailed and accurate assessments of agriculture drought from local to global scales has made drought monitoring and forecasting a hot research topic in recent years. However, many challenges in this area still remain. One of such challenges is to how to let world-wide decision makers obtain accurate and timely drought information. Current agriculture drought information systems in the world are limited in many aspects, such as only regional or country level coverage, very coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, no on-demand drought information product generation and download services, no online analysis tools, no interoperability with other systems, and ineffective agriculture drought monitoring and forecasting. Leveraging the latest advances in geospatial Web service, interoperability and cyber-infrastructure technologies and the availability of near real-time global remote sensing data, we aims at providing a solution to those problems by building an open, interoperable, standard-compliant, and Web-service-based global agriculture drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) (http://gis.csiss.gmu.edu/GADMFS/). GADMFS will provide world-wide users with timely, on-demand, and ready-to-use agricultural drought data and information products as well as improved global agriculture drought monitoring, prediction and analysis services. For the monitoring purpose, the system lively links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA and relies on drought related remotely sensed physical and biophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and drought-related vegetation indices (VIs, e.g., NDVI) to provide the current conditions of global agricultural drought at high resolutions (up to 500m spatial and daily temporal) to world-wide users on demand. For drought prediction, the system utilizes a neural network based modeling algorithm, trained with current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index

  8. Innovation behaviour and the use of research and extension services in small-scale agricultural holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmery Ramos-Sandoval

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ views on research and extension services (RES included in the Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System are rarely investigated. This study analyses the relationship between key factors of innovation behaviour (market orientation, learning orientation, and innovation attitude and the use of RES through structural equation modelling, focusing on small-scale agricultural holdings. Market orientation and learning orientation appear to be positively correlated, confirming that synergies between both factors provide a background for innovativeness. Learning orientation and farm-holders’ education level, improve knowledge exchange and make the agriculture innovation process more inclusive. However, farmers’ innovation attitude is not clearly correlated with the use of RES. Motivations about “the will to do innovations” are represented by a construct that does not appear to have a determinant effect as a mediator in farmer’s decisions about using RES.

  9. Succesional change and resilience of a very dry tropical deciduous forest following shifting agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrija Trejos, E.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Pérez-García, E.; Meave, J.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed successional patterns in a very dry tropical deciduous forest by using 15 plots differing in age after abandonment and contrasted them to secondary successions elsewhere in the tropics. We used multivariate ordination and nonlinear models to examine changes in composition and structure a

  10. Does Prior Experience in Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Affect Pre-Service Agricultural Education Teachers' Intentions to Enroll in Post-Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Coursework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Trent; Perry, Dustin K.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Shultz, Matthew J.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural mechanics coursework has historically been considered an important and necessary construct of the secondary agricultural education curriculum (Burris, Robinson, & Terry, 2005). With expectations of offering secondary agricultural mechanics coursework apparent, it is vital that agricultural education teachers be prepared to address…

  11. Land Management Agencies: Restoring Fish Passage Through Culverts on Forest Service and BLM Lands in Oregon and Washington Could Take Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    2,645 4,805 $331,042 aAccording to the Forest Service, the Umpqua , Wallow-Whitman, and Colville national forests did not provide estimates because...Action 20 Agency Comments 20 Appendix I Barrier Culvert Information by Bureau of Land Management District Office and National Forest 22 Bureau of Land...of public lands, managed by 9 regional offices that are responsible for supervising the operations of 155 national forests . BLM and the Forest Service

  12. Extension services and multifunctional agriculture. Lessons learnt from the French and Dutch contexts and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    Today's acknowledgement of the multifunctionality of agriculture (MFA) implies the production of new knowledge to integrate different functions at farm level (primary production, environmental protection, food safety, etc.). At the same time, agricultural sectors of European countries have recently faced changes in the organisation of their R&D activities, including a trend of commercialisation and privatisation of advisory services for farmers. To assess the consequences of these changes on support for innovations related to MFA, this paper explores the potential of combining two analytical frameworks: an institutional economic approach (IEA) and a sociological network approach (SNA). This potential is illustrated by a historical analysis of advisory services in France and The Netherlands from 1945 until now. This analysis stresses the importance of collective procedures for the accumulation of technical knowledge in agriculture. It also shows that these procedures could not be analysed from a strictly technical perspective. They are the expression of institutional arrangements involving social groups of farmers and the state, and are grounded in national contexts. A historical perspective also enables us to understand better why the privatisation of extension services cannot meet the requirements of support for farm innovations in the MFA context.

  13. Quantifying Forest Ecosystem Services Tradeoff—Coupled Ecological and Economic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.; Ling, P. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of the effect of carbon-related forestland management activities on ecosystem services is difficult, because knowledge about the dynamics of coupled social-ecological systems is lacking. Different forestland management activities, such as various amount, timing, and methods of harvesting, and natural disturbances events, such as wind and fires, create shocks and uncertainties to the forest carbon dynamics. A spatially explicit model, Landis-ii, was used to model the forest succession for different harvest management scenarios at the Grandfather District, North Carolina. In addition to harvest, the model takes into account of the impact of natural disturbances, such as fire and insects, and species competition. The result shows the storage of carbon in standing biomass and in wood product for each species for each scenario. In this study, optimization is used to analyze the maximum profit and the number of tree species that each forest landowner can gain at different prices of carbon, roundwood, and interest rates for different harvest management scenarios. Time series of roundwood production of different types were estimated using remote sensing data. Econometric analysis is done to understand the possible interaction and relations between the production of different types of roundwood and roundwood prices, which can indicate the possible planting scheme that a forest owner may make. This study quantifies the tradeoffs between carbon sequestration, roundwood production, and forest species diversity not only from an economic perspective, but also takes into account of the forest succession mechanism in a species-diverse region. The resulting economic impact on the forest landowners is likely to influence their future planting decision, which in turn, will influence the species composition and future revenue of the landowners.

  14. Modelling the role of forests on water provision services: a hydro-economic valuation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguería, S.; Campos, P.

    2015-12-01

    Hydro-economic models that allow integrating the ecological, hydrological, infrastructure, economic and social aspects into a coherent, scientifically- informed framework constitute preferred tools for supporting decision making in the context of integrated water resources management. We present a case study of water regulation and provision services of forests in the Andalusia region of Spain. Our model computes the physical water flows and conducts an economic environmental income and asset valuation of forest surface and underground water yield. Based on available hydrologic and economic data, we develop a comprehensive water account for all the forest lands at the regional scale. This forest water environmental valuation is integrated within a much larger project aiming at providing a robust and easily replicable accounting tool to evaluate yearly the total income and capital of forests, encompassing all measurable sources of private and public incomes (timber and cork production, auto-consumption, recreational activities, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, water production, etc.). We also force our simulation with future socio-economic scenarios to quantify the physical and economic efects of expected trends or simulated public and private policies on future water resources. Only a comprehensive integrated tool may serve as a basis for the development of integrated policies, such as those internationally agreed and recommended for the management of water resources.

  15. Understanding the Factors Influencing Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowner Interest in Supplying Ecosystem Services in Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Private forests provide a range of ecosystem services for society including provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. Sustaining the supply of such services depends on the interest of nonindustrial private forest (NIPF landowners in managing their forests for such services. Assessing factors that influence NIPF landowner intentions would be useful in identifying potential suppliers of ecosystem services and in designing and implementing outreach and education programs to elevate the interests of less interested landowners. Using data collected from a mail survey of NIPF landowners on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, this study examined how landowner interest in supplying ecosystem services was influenced by socio-demographic characteristics, economic and market factors, land management objectives, and ownership motivations. To that end, a multivariate logistic regression model was employed to analyze the supply of three types of ecosystem services: carbon storage (regulating service, water quality (provisioning service, and aesthetics (cultural service. Results revealed that landowner interest in managing forests for ecosystem services were significantly related to socio-demographic factors, management and ownership characteristics, and availability of financial incentives. These findings will improve the understanding of the market segment of landowners as related to ecosystem services. The findings may facilitate the development of market protocols and outreach programs that promote payments for ecosystem services in Tennessee and elsewhere.

  16. Managing Nitrogen in Croplands: Implications for Increasing Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L.

    2011-12-01

    Many agricultural landscapes in the temperate zone are dominated by agroecosystems that are managed with high inputs of agrochemicals, including synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers. The process of agricultural intensification increases crop production per unit area, but also often results in loss of environmental quality (such as N contamination of waters, eutrophication, atmospheric N deposition, and emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas). Loss of biodiversity and its 'functional homogenization' is another concern. Not only does little land in these landscapes remain in natural ecosystems, but there are negative off-site impacts of intensive agriculture on non-target organisms. Segregating agroecosystems with high-input agricultural production from natural ecosystems (land sparing) is one view to support both food security and biodiversity conservation. But proponents of land sparing rarely address the loss of other ecosystem services, such as those related to environmental quality, health, and human well-being (e.g., livelihoods and cultural values). An emerging view is that increased reliance on ecological processes in agroecosystems ('ecological intensification') is more feasible when the landscape mosaic includes planned and unplanned biodiversity. This requires research on how to support multiple ecosystem services through the integration of agricultural production and biodiversity conservation in the same landscape, and how ecological and physico-chemical processes at various spatial scales are interlinked. It is an enormous challenge to increase reliance on ecological processes for N availability for crop productivity. There are skeptics who think that this will be detrimental for food security, despite benefits for other types of ecosystem services. Using examples from agricultural landscapes in California, mechanisms for ecologically-based N cycling will be discussed, such as: 1) increasing the reservoir of soil organic N and the

  17. [Wildlife damage mitigation in agricultural crops in a Bolivian montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Eddy; Pacheco, Luis F

    2014-12-01

    Wildlife is often blamed for causing damage to human activities, including agricultural practices and the result may be a conflict between human interests and species conservation. A formal assessment of the magnitude of damage is necessary to adequately conduct management practices and an assessment of the efficiency of different management practices is necessary to enable managers to mitigate the conflict with rural people. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural management practices and controlled hunting in reducing damage to subsistence annual crops at the Cotapata National Park and Natural Area of Integrated Management. The design included seven fields with modified agricultural practices, four fields subjected to control hunting, and five fields held as controls. We registered cultivar type, density, frequency of visiting species to the field, crops lost to wildlife, species responsible for damage, and crop biomass. Most frequent species in the fields were Dasyprocta punctata and Dasypus novemcinctus. Hunted plots were visited 1.6 times more frequently than agriculturally managed plots. Crop lost to wildlife averaged 7.28% at agriculturally managed plots, 4.59% in plots subjected to hunting, and 27.61% in control plots. Species mainly responsible for damage were Pecari tajacu, D. punctata, and Sapajus apella. We concluded that both management strategies were effective to reduce damage by >50% as compared to unmanaged crop plots.

  18. 36 CFR 293.16 - Special provisions governing the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions governing the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. 293.16 Section 293.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE...

  19. Hydrological services and the role of forests: Conceptualization and indicator-based analysis with an illustration at a regional scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho-Santos, C.; Honrado, J.P.; Hein, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are among the most important ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services. These include water supply and water damage mitigation, in the dimensions of quantity, timing and quality. Although the hydrological role of forests is well documented in the literature, a conceptual framewor

  20. Assessment of landscape ecology of agricultural protection forest system at Beizang Town, Daxing County, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIChun-ping; GUANWen-bin; FANXiu-zhen; ZHAOTing-ning; CHENJian-gang; SUNBao-pina

    2003-01-01

    Based on theories of protective forests and landscape ecology, the reasonableness of structures and patterns of shelterbelt system at Beizang Town, Daxing County, Beijing were analyzed and assessed from the two scales of forest belts and networks, by integrating uses of field investigation, GIS and RS techniques. Results showed that the existent main belt (3-12 m in width) was too narrow, while the assistant belt (3-27.1 m in width) was too wide; the species composition of the existent shelterbelts was single, and the structures and patterns of the shelterbelt system were unreasonable. It is suggested that the structure of the main and the assistant belts should be changed, such as increasing the width of main belts, decreasing the width of assistant belt, and planting more mixed species, and the pattern with arbores in the middle and shrubs in the sides of belts could be taken into account. For the landscape structure of forest network after regenerating or reconstruction, the grid number of closed network should be 13 per km2 and the minimum number of belts should be 34 per km2, This study also testified that integrating GIS and remote technique with landscape ecology could provide an effective method for reasonable reconstruction of the structures and patterns of shelterbelts system.

  1. RED Versus REDD: The Battle Between Extending Agricultural Land Use and Protecting Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, Peter; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Rimmer, Maureen; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the complex battle between RED and REDD policies and the resulting global consequences on land use, agricultural production, international trade flows and world food prices. A key methodological challenge is the representation of land use and the possibility to convert forestry l

  2. Possible climate warming effects on vegetation, forests, biotic (insect, pathogene) disturbances and agriculture in Central Siberia for 1960- 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.; Lysanova, G. I.; Baranchikov, Y. N.; Kuzmina, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional Siberian studies have already registered climate warming over the last half a century (1960-2010). Our analysis showed that winters are already 2-3°C warmer in the north and 1-2°C warmer in the south by 2010. Summer temperatures increased by 1°C in the north and by 1-2°C in the south. Change in precipitation is more complicated, increasing on average 10% in middle latitudes and decreasing 10-20% in the south, promoting local drying in already dry landscapes. Our goal was to summarize results of research we have done for the last decade in the context of climate warming and its consequences for biosystems in Central Siberia. We modeled climate change effects on vegetation shifts, on forest composition and agriculture change, on the insect Siberian moth (Dendrolimus suprans sibiricus Tschetv) and pathogene (Lophodermium pinastri Chev) ranges in Central Siberia for a century (1960-2050) based on historical climate data and GCM-predicted data. Principal results are: In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over 50% of central Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats; At least half of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture at the end of the century although potential croplands would be limited by the availability of suitable soils agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming Crop production may twofold increase as climate warms during the century; traditional crops (grain, potato

  3. Vulnerability to climate-induced changes in ecosystem services of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Maria; Rankinen, Katri; Aalto, Tuula; Akujärvi, Anu; Nadir Arslan, Ali; Liski, Jari; Markkanen, Tiina; Mäkelä, Annikki; Peltoniemi, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forests provide an array of ecosystem services. They regulate climate, and carbon, water and nutrient fluxes, and provide renewable raw material, food, and recreational possibilities. Rapid climate warming is projected for the boreal zone, and has already been observed in Finland, which sets these services at risk. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409, 2.9.2013 - 1.9.2017) is a project funded by EU Life programme about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone Applying Innovative Observation and Modeling Techniques. The coordinating beneficiary of the project is the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Associated beneficiaries are the Natural Resources Institute Finland, the Finnish Environment Institute and the University of Helsinki. In the MONIMET project, we use state-of-the-art models and new monitoring methods to investigate the impacts of a warming climate on the provision of ecosystem services of boreal forests. This poster presents results on carbon storage in soil and assessment of drought indices, as a preparation for assessing the vulnerability of society to climate-induced changes in ecosystem services. The risk of decreasing provision of ecosystem services depends on the sensitivity of the ecosystem as well as its exposure to climate stress. The vulnerability of society, in turn, depends on the risk of decreasing provision of a certain service in combination with society's demand for that service. In the next phase, we will look for solutions to challenges relating to the quantification of the demand for ecosystem services and differences in spatial extent and resolution of the information on future supply and demand.

  4. The spatial extent of change in tropical forest ecosystem services in the Amazon delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Barbosa, C. C.; Atkinson, P.; Dearing, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas hold major economic potential due their strategic location, close to seas and inland waterways, thereby supporting intense economic activity. The increasing pace of human development activities in coastal deltas over the past five decades has also strained environmental resources and produced extensive economic and sociocultural impacts. The Amazon delta is located in the Amazon Basin, North Brazil, the largest river basin on Earth and also one of the least understood. A considerable segment of the population living in the Amazon delta is directly dependent on the local extraction of natural resources for their livelihood. Areas sparsely inhabited may be exploited with few negative consequences for the environment. However, increasing pressure on ecosystem services is amplified by large fluxes of immigrants from other parts of the country, especially from the semi-arid zone in Northeast Brazil to the lowland forests of the Amazon delta. Here we present partial results from a bigger research project. Therefore, the focus will be on presenting an overview of the current state, and the extent of changes on forest related ecosystem services in the Amazon delta over the last three decades. We aggregated a multitude of datasets, from a variety of sources, for example, from satellite imagery such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climate datasets at meteorological station level from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) and social and economic statistics data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA). Through analysis of socioeconomic and satellite earth observation data we were able to produce and present spatially-explicit information with the current state and transition in forest cover and its impacts to forest

  5. Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schröter

    Full Text Available Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone or partially restricted (partial use zone. Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2% and the non-use zone (+3.2%. Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%, which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1% of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

  6. Hybrid MCDA Methods to Integrate Multiple Ecosystem Services in Forest Management Planning: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Britta; Andreas Hahn, W.; Griess, Verena C.; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision aid frequently used in the field of forest management planning. It includes the evaluation of multiple criteria such as the production of timber and non-timber forest products and tangible as well as intangible values of ecosystem services (ES). Hence, it is beneficial compared to those methods that take a purely financial perspective. Accordingly, MCDA methods are increasingly popular in the wide field of sustainability assessment. Hybrid approaches allow aggregating MCDA and, potentially, other decision-making techniques to make use of their individual benefits and leading to a more holistic view of the actual consequences that come with certain decisions. This review is providing a comprehensive overview of hybrid approaches that are used in forest management planning. Today, the scientific world is facing increasing challenges regarding the evaluation of ES and the trade-offs between them, for example between provisioning and regulating services. As the preferences of multiple stakeholders are essential to improve the decision process in multi-purpose forestry, participatory and hybrid approaches turn out to be of particular importance. Accordingly, hybrid methods show great potential for becoming most relevant in future decision making. Based on the review presented here, the development of models for the use in planning processes should focus on participatory modeling and the consideration of uncertainty regarding available information.

  7. From Forest Landscape to Agricultural Landscape in the Developing Tropical Country of Malaysia: Pattern, Process, and Their Significance on Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops—rubber and oil palm plantations—has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900-1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s-1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s-1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country’s “health” and sustainability

  8. From forest landscape to agricultural landscape in the developing tropical country of Malaysia: pattern, process, and their significance on policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops--rubber and oil palm plantations--has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900--1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s--1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s--1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country's "health" and sustainability. The

  9. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  10. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yu-lin; Wang Yu-kuan; Peng Pei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  11. Ottawa's urban forest: A geospatial approach to data collection for the UFORE/i-Tree Eco ecosystem services valuation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael D.

    The i-Tree Eco model, developed by the U.S. Forest Service, is commonly used to estimate the value of the urban forest and the ecosystem services trees provide. The model relies on field-based measurements to estimate ecosystem service values. However, the methods for collecting the field data required for the model can be extensive and costly for large areas, and data collection can thus be a barrier to implementing the model for many cities. This study investigated the use of geospatial technologies as a means to collect urban forest structure measurements within the City of Ottawa, Ontario. Results show that geospatial data collection methods can serve as a proxy for urban forest structure parameters required by i-Tree Eco. Valuations using the geospatial approach are shown to be less accurate than those developed from field-based data, but significantly less expensive. Planners must weigh the limitations of either approach when planning assessment projects.

  12. Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert

    2016-08-01

    In many parts of the world forest disturbance regimes have intensified recently, and future climatic changes are expected to amplify this development further in the coming decades. These changes are increasingly challenging the main objectives of forest ecosystem management, which are to provide ecosystem services sustainably to society and maintain the biological diversity of forests. Yet a comprehensive understanding of how disturbances affect these primary goals of ecosystem management is still lacking. We conducted a global literature review on the impact of three of the most important disturbance agents (fire, wind, and bark beetles) on 13 different ecosystem services and three indicators of biodiversity in forests of the boreal, cool- and warm-temperate biomes. Our objectives were to (i) synthesize the effect of natural disturbances on a wide range of possible objectives of forest management, and (ii) investigate standardized effect sizes of disturbance for selected indicators via a quantitative meta-analysis. We screened a total of 1958 disturbance studies published between 1981 and 2013, and reviewed 478 in detail. We first investigated the overall effect of disturbances on individual ecosystem services and indicators of biodiversity by means of independence tests, and subsequently examined the effect size of disturbances on indicators of carbon storage and biodiversity by means of regression analysis. Additionally, we investigated the effect of commonly used approaches of disturbance management, i.e. salvage logging and prescribed burning. We found that disturbance impacts on ecosystem services are generally negative, an effect that was supported for all categories of ecosystem services, i.e. supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural services (P < 0.001). Indicators of biodiversity, i.e. species richness, habitat quality and diversity indices, on the other hand were found to be influenced positively by disturbance (P < 0.001). Our analyses thus

  13. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions, and management. In this regional-scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): home garden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across 4 climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of home garden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture SOC stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in home garden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  14. Determinants, attitudes and willingness of private forest owners to produce goods and services: a review of the international literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozzato D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinants, attitudes and willingness of private forest owners to produce goods and services: a review of the international literature. There is an information gap in the Italian literature with regards to private forest ownership, while several analysis are available on the characteristics and the management systems of public forest ownership. To address this gap, this paper presents the characteristics of private forest owners and their evolution in time by reviewing the international literature in the last three decades. The examined studies are reported according to four perspectives: (i the available classifications and/or typologies of private forest owners; (ii the determinants of different forest owners’ behaviors, especially in relation to their objectives; (iii the attitudes of forest owners and the motivations behind their management decisions; (iv the valuation of the willingness to accept monetary compensations in return for the provision of ecosystem services. The results show a very complex picture, varying both in space and time. However, some recurring features can be identified: (i not only are forest owners motivated by timber production goals, but also by other reasons, often very diversified and detached from market considerations; (ii a “multi-functional” forest owner is by no means less active, but, conversely, is more active than a forest owner whose sole objective is timber production; (iii in general, the active owner is a farmer whose family has owned the forest for many generations (and in this case he/she is more market-oriented, or is a new entry in the forestry sector; (iv the “passive” owner is usually elderly, non-farmer and resides far from the property. In addition, the “absent” owner is a common problem to several of the examined geographical contexts. Although the results of the review cannot be transferred as such, they represent a useful starting point for similar analyses in the Italian

  15. Ecosystem services provided by agricultural terraces in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Díaz, Asunción; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Since ancient times, agricultural terraces are common features throughout the world, especially on steep slope gradients. Nowadays many terraces have been abandoned or removed and few new terraces are build due to increased mechanisation and intensification of agriculture. However, terraces are amongst the most effective soil conservation practices, reducing the slope gradient and slope length, as well as runoff rate and soil erosion, and without terraces, it would be impossible to cultivate on many hillslopes. Moreover, their scenic interest is undeniable, as in some cases, terraced slopes have even become part of UNESCO World Heritage. In order to highlight the potential benefits, requirements and limitations of terraces, we reviewed different types of sustainable land management practices related to terraces and characterised their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We centred our review on terraces in semi-arid environments worldwide, as were documented in the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. Our results show that the most important ecosystem services provided by terraces relate to regulation of the on-site and off-site effects of runoff and erosion, and maintenance of soil fertility and vegetation cover. The presence of terraces also favours the provision of food, fiber, and clean water. In short, our results stress the crucial environmental, geomorphological and hydrological functions of terraces that directly relate to improving the quality of life of the people that use them. These results highlight the need for renewed recognition of the value of terraces for society, their preservation and maintenance.

  16. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated

  17. Sensor Observation Service API for Providing Gridded Climate Data to Agricultural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassarin Chinnachodteeranun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We developed a mechanism for seamlessly providing weather data and long-term historical climate data from a gridded data source through an international standard web API, which was the Sensor Observation Service (SOS defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC. The National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO Japan has been providing gridded climate data consisting of nine daily meteorological variables, which are average, minimum, maximum of air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, solar radiant exposure, downward longwave radiation, precipitation and wind speed for 35 years covering Japan. The gridded data structure is quite useful for spatial analysis, such as developing crop suitability maps and monitoring regional crop development. Individual farmers, however, make decisions using historical climate information and forecasts for an incoming cropping season of their farms. In this regard, climate data at a point-based structure are convenient for application development to support farmers’ decisions. Through the proposed mechanism in this paper, the agricultural applications and analysis can request point-based climate data from a gridded data source through the standard API with no need to deal with the complicated hierarchical data structure of the gridded climate data source. Clients can easily obtain data and metadata by only accessing the service endpoint. The mechanism also provides several web bindings and data encodings for the clients’ convenience. Caching, including the pre-caching mechanism, was developed and evaluated to secure an effective response time. The mechanism enhances the accessibility and usability of the gridded weather data source, as well as SOS API for agricultural applications.

  18. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  19. Influence of Voluntary Coffee Certifications on Cooperatives' Advisory Services and Agricultural Practices of Smallholder Farmers in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole; Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand; Faure, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperatives interviewing twenty interviewed cooperative…

  20. Cooperative Agreement Between the United States Department of the Interior and the State of Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An agreement for assistance with forest fire detection, suppression and presuppression services on wildlife refuge lands by the Florida Division of Forestry. The...

  1. Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew J; Stringer, Lindsay C; Leventon, Julia; Riddell, Mike; Rueff, Henri; Spracklen, Dominick V; Butt, Edward

    2012-11-19

    Climate finance investments and international policy are driving new community-based projects incorporating payments for ecosystem services (PES) to simultaneously store carbon and generate livelihood benefits. Most community-based PES (CB-PES) research focuses on forest areas. Rangelands, which store globally significant quantities of carbon and support many of the world's poor, have seen little CB-PES research attention, despite benefitting from several decades of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects. Lessons from CBNRM suggest institutional considerations are vital in underpinning the design and implementation of successful community projects. This study uses documentary analysis to explore the institutional characteristics of three African community-based forest projects that seek to deliver carbon-storage and poverty-reduction benefits. Strong existing local institutions, clear land tenure, community control over land management decision-making and up-front, flexible payment schemes are found to be vital. Additionally, we undertake a global review of rangeland CBNRM literature and identify that alongside the lessons learned from forest projects, rangeland CB-PES project design requires specific consideration of project boundaries, benefit distribution, capacity building for community monitoring of carbon storage together with awareness-raising using decision-support tools to display the benefits of carbon-friendly land management. We highlight that institutional analyses must be undertaken alongside improved scientific studies of the carbon cycle to enable links to payment schemes, and for them to contribute to poverty alleviation in rangelands.

  2. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of agric

  3. 75 FR 62755 - Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange AGENCY: Forest... land. The acquisition of the wetlands at Cooper Spur and the easement on the wetlands at...

  4. Seasonal agricultural youth workers' concerns on development - growth in adolescence period and utilization of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep simsek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull

  5. Factors controlling phosphorus export from agricultural/forest and residential systems to rivers in eastern China, 1980-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Hu, Minpeng; Wang, Jiahui; Guo, Yi; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2016-02-01

    This study quantified long-term response of riverine total phosphorus (TP) export to changes in land-use, climate, and net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs to agricultural/forest (NAPIAF) and residential (NAPIR) systems for the upper Jiaojiang watershed in eastern China. Annual NAPIAF rose by 73% in 1980-1999 followed by a 41% decline in 2000-2011, while NAPIR continuously increased by 122% over the 1980-2011 period. Land-use showed a 63% increase in developed land area (D%) and a 91% increase in use of efficient drainage systems on agricultural land area (AD%) over the study period. Although no significant trends were observed in annual river discharge or precipitation, the annual number of storm events rose by 90% along with a 34% increase in the coefficient of variation of daily rainfall. In response to changes of NAPIAF, NAPIR, land-use and precipitation patterns, riverine TP flux increased 16.0-fold over the 32-year record. Phosphorus export via erosion and leaching was the dominant pathway for P delivery to rivers. An empirical model incorporating annual NAPIAF, NAPIR, precipitation, D%, and AD% was developed (R2 = 0.96) for apportioning riverine TP sources and predicting annual riverine TP fluxes. The model estimated that NAPIAF, NAPIR and legacy P sources contributed 19-56%, 16-67% and 13-32% of annual riverine TP flux in 1980-2011, respectively. Compared to reduction of NAPIAF, reduction of NAPIR was predicted to have a greater immediate impact on decreasing riverine TP fluxes. Changes in anthropogenic P input sources (NAPIAF vs. NAPIR), land-use, and precipitation patterns as well as the legacy P source can amplify P export from landscapes to rivers and should be considered in developing P management strategies to reduce riverine P fluxes.

  6. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future.

  7. Allelopathic effects of leaf litters of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on some forest and agricultural crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romel Ahmed; A. T. M. Rafiqul Hoque; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Allelopathic effects of different doses of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litters were investigated through an experiment in the green house of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Three popular agricultural crops: Falen (Vigna unguiculata), Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), Arhor (Cajanus cajan) and two widely used plantation trees: Sada koroi (Albizia procera) and Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) were selected as bioassay species. Experiment was set on tray at room temperature 27℃. The effects of different doses of leaf litter extracts were compared to the control. Results suggest that leaf litters of E. camaldulesis induced inhibitory effects. It was also found that the effect depend on concentration of extract and litterfall, type of receiver species. Higher concentration of the materials had the higher effect and vice versa. Though all the bioassay species were suppressed some of them showed better performance. Vigna unguiculata, Cicer arietinum are recommended in agroforestry based on this present Experiment output. In mixed plantation, Leucaena leucochephala is a better choice while compared to Albizia procera.

  8. Groundwater uptake of forest and agricultural land covers in regions of recharge and discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móricz N

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater uptake of vegetation in discharge regions is known to play an important role, e.g., in the Hungarian Great Plain. Nevertheless, only little detailed monitoring of water table fluctuations and groundwater uptake (ETgw were reported under varying hydrologic conditions and vegetation cover. In this study, results of water table monitoring under forest plantations and adjacent corn plots in discharge and recharge regions were analyzed to gain better understanding of the relation of vegetation cover to groundwater uptake. A poplar (Populus tremula plantation and adjacent corn field plot were surveyed in a local discharge area, while a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia plantation and adjacent corn field plot were analyzed in a recharge area. The water table under the poplar plantation displayed a night-time recovery in the discharge region, indicating significant groundwater supply. In this case an empirical version of the water table fluctuation method was used for calculating the ETgw that included the groundwater supply. The mean ETgw of the poplar plantation was 3.6 mm day-1, whereas no water table fluctuation was observed at the nearby corn plot. Naturally, the root system of the poplar was able to tap the groundwater in depths of 3.0-3.3 m while the shallower roots of the corn did not reach the groundwater reservoir in depths of 2.7-2.8 m. In the recharge zone the water table under the black locust plantation showed step-like changes referring to the lack of groundwater supply. The mean ETgw was 0.7 mm day-1 (groundwater depths of 3.0-3.2 m and similarly no ETgw was detected at the adjacent corn plot with groundwater depths between 3.2 and 3.4 m. The low ETgw of the young black locust plantation was due to the lack of groundwater supply in recharge area, but also the shallow root system might have played a role. Our results suggest that considerations should be given to local estimations of ETgw from water table measurements that

  9. Adoption of land uses compatible with the water ecosystem service in agricultural farms in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Meza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of trees in the farms is typically considered a good practice in water shed management. Therefore, it was examined the voluntary adoption of land uses considered more compatible with the water ecosystem service (shade coffee and woodland in the region of Trifinio (located in Honduras and Guatemala, where there is not given any incentives or payment for this environmental service. It was observed low adoption of these land uses on small farms. In practice, participation of small farms in conservation programs are subject to certain factors beyond the control of the producers such as minimum area of the farm. But, other factors such as perceived importance of land use has on food security and future motivation for adopting a production system can be more easily manipulated, although, in practical terms it is not always possible. Thus, for a spontaneous adoption of the trees and the forest should also influence cultural factors, even if the changes in this dimension generally take longer to be observed than the lifetime of the conservation projects.

  10. Human uses of forested watersheds and riparian corridors: hazard mitigation as an ecosystem service, with examples from Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Humans have long favored settlement along rivers for access to water supply for drinking and agriculture, for transport corridors, and for food sources. Additionally, settlement in or near montane forests include benefits such as food sources, wood supply, esthetic values, and high quality water resources derived from watersheds where upstream human disturbance and environmental degradation is generally reduced. However, the advantages afforded by these riparian and montane settings pose episodic risks for communities located there as floods, landslides, and wildfires cause loss of life, destroy infrastructure, and damage or destroy crops. A basic understanding of flood probability and magnitude as well as hillslope stability by residents in these environments can mitigate these risks. Early humans presumably developed some degree of knowledge about these risks by means of their long periods of occupation in these environments and their observations of seasonal and storm rainfall patterns and river discharge, which became more refined as agriculture developed over the past 10,000 years. Modern global urbanization, particularly in regions of rapid economic growth, has resulted in much of this "organic" knowledge being lost, as rural populations move into megacities, many of which encroach on floodplains and mountain fronts. Moreover, the most likely occupants of these hazardous locations are often economically constrained, increasing their vulnerabity. Effective stewardship of river floodplains and upstream montane forests yields a key ecosystem service, which in addition to the well-known services, ie. water, hydroelectric energy, etc., provides a risk mitigation service, by reducing hazard and vulnerability. Puerto Rico, Panama, and Venezuela illustrate a range of practices and results, providing useful examples for planners and land use managers.

  11. A career in government: my experiences working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural sector provides highly diverse career opportunities that include private companies, academic institutions, non-government organizations, and government agencies. One possible career path is with the Federal government which is one of the largest employers of scientists and engineers...

  12. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997–2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR active fire data prior to MODIS (1997–2000 and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr−1 with significant interannual variability during 1997–2001 (2.8 Pg yr−1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg yr−1 in 2001. Emissions during 2002–2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg yr−1 before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg yr−1 and 2009 (1.5 Pg yr−1 partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002–2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001–2009, most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44

  13. Remote sensing based evapotranspiration and runoff modeling of agricultural, forest and urban flux sites in Denmark: From field to macro-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, E.; Poulsen, R.N.; Butts, M.

    2009-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (RT) was modeled for the island of Sjælland (≈7330 km2) in Denmark at multiple spatial scales encompassing agricultural, forest and urban land surfaces. National data were used to represent spatial variations in climate, soil properties and lower boundary......–Monteith equation, and (c) the impervious land cover fraction of urban regions. At field level, the use of local-scale model parameters, NDVI time series and site-specific methodologies to simulate E of the 3 major land surface types (agricultural land, forests and urban regions) explained 67–79% of the observed...... variability in eddy covariance latent heat fluxes. The “effective” spatial resolution needed to adopt local-scale model parameters for spatial-deterministic hydrological modeling was assessed using a high-spatial resolution (30 m) variogram analysis of the NDVI. The use of the NDVI variogram to evaluate land...

  14. 25 CFR 163.83 - Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. 163.83... FORESTRY REGULATIONS Program Assessment § 163.83 Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of the Interior may ask the Secretary of Agriculture, through the Forest Service, on...

  15. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Hahn, JangHo

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information from 1,039,823 records mapped to rice, Arabidopsis, and Chinese cabbage. PMID:21887015

  16. Investigating Effect of Development of Agricutural, Industrial, Service and Oil Revenue to ICOR ofAgricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyeh Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, considering the importance of incremental capital output ratio (ICOR in agriculture Investment capital and self-sufficiency in this sector in order to grow and being influenced by the past and previous relationships strong agricultural sector productivity growth in other sectors of the economy, especially the effect of oil revenues, was trying to, long-term relationships as well as their adjustment process described by the Autoregressive-Distributed Lag model (ARDL to investigate.The results also confirm the long-run relationship between the variables of the model show that oil revenues in appropriate path to growth agricultural productivity have beentoo much attention to the industry and imports of agricultural products decreased investment in agricultural productivity. However, the service sector growth by improving marketing activities and financing farmers to improve venture capital productivity in the agricultural sector operates. In the long run, adjusting the intersection, the model indicates improved productivity in the agricultural sector is of capital. Shown the necessary support to the agricultural sector in the short term.

  17. FOREST-BASED MEDICINAL PLANTS RENDERING THEIR SERVICES TO THE RURAL COMMUNITY OF ASSAM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratul Arya Baishya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the main biological resource areas from where reportedly 80% of the medicinal plants are collected by the rural communities of the state. Traditional folk medicines, mainly based on plants, occupy a significant position today, especially in the developing countries, where modern health care service is limited. Medicinal plants are gaining global importance owing to the fact that herbal drugs are cost-effective, easily available and most reportedly, with negligible side effects. Safe, effective and inexpensive indigenous remedies had been practiced by the people of both tribal and rural society of Assam from time immemorial. Therefore, the need of the hour is to harness this natural resource sustainably for the socio-economic development of the indigenous communities. Hence, a strategy for sustainable harvesting practice needs to be developed that would ensure preservation of the valuable medicinal plants in situ while addressing the needs of the rural communities. The present study is, thus, an attempt to highlight the common medicinal plants of forested region as used by the rural poor community for different kinds of treatment as the rural local healers usually practice for treatment of diseases in their locality.

  18. U.S. Forest Service Leads Climate Change Adaptation in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Effective climate change engagement on public lands is characterized by (1) an enduring science-management partnership, (2) involvement of key stakeholders, (3) consideration of broad landscapes with multiple landowners, (4) science-based, peer-reviewed assessments of sensitivity of natural resources to climate change, (5) adaptation strategies and tactics developed by resource managers, (6) leadership and a workforce motivated to implement climate-smart practices in resource planning and project management. Using this approach, the U.S. Forest Service, in partnership with other organizations, has developed climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans for diverse ecosystems and multiple resources in national forests and other lands in the western United States, although implementation (step 6) has been slow in some cases. Hundreds of meetings, strategies, plans, and panels have focused on climate change adaptation over the past decade, but only direct engagement between scientists and resource managers (less research, less planning, more action) has resulted in substantive outcomes and increased organizational capacity for climate-smart management.

  19. Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and Grasslands under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; Sun, Shanlei; Caldwell, Peter V.; Cohen, Erika C.; McNulty, Steven G.; Aldridge, Heather D.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The 170 National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the conterminous United States are public lands that provide important ecosystem services such as clean water and timber supply to the American people. This study investigates the potential impacts of climate change on two key ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield and ecosystem productivity) using the most recent climate projections derived from 20 Global Climate Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that future climate change may result in a significant reduction in water yield but an increase in ecosystem productivity in NFs. On average, gross ecosystem productivity is projected to increase by 76 ~ 229 g C m-2 yr-1 (8% ~ 24%) while water yield is projected to decrease by 18 ~ 31 mm yr-1 (4% ~ 7%) by 2100 as a result of the combination of increased air temperature (+1.8 ~ +5.2 °C) and precipitation (+17 ~ +51 mm yr-1). The notable divergence in ecosystem services of water supply and carbon sequestration is expected to intensify under higher greenhouse gas emission and associated climate change in the future, posing greater challenges to managing NFs for both ecosystem services.

  20. Current United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on understanding agrochemical fate and transport to prevent and mitigate adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Rice, Clifford P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Schmidt, Walter F; McCarty, Gregory W; Starr, James L; Rice, Pamela J; Angier, Jonathan T; Harman-Fetcho, J A

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally and economically viable agriculture requires a variety of cultivation practices and pest management options as no one system will be appropriate for every situation. Agrochemicals are some of the many pest control tools used in an integrated approach to pest management. They are applied with the intent of maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-site movement; however, their judicious use demands a practical knowledge of their fate and effects in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Agrochemical distribution into environmental compartments is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the agrochemical and environmental conditions, ie soil type and structure, and meteorological conditions. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) researchers working in the area of agrochemical fate have focused on accurately describing those processes that govern the transport, degradation and bioavailability of these chemicals under conditions reflecting actual agronomic practices. Results from ARS research concerning the environmental fate and effects of agrochemicals have led to the development of science-based management practices that will protect vulnerable areas of the ecosystem. The new challenge is to identify these vulnerable areas and the temporal and spatial variations prior to use of the chemical by predicting how it will behave in environmental matrices, and using that information, predict its transport and transformation within an air- or watershed. With the development of better predictive tools and GIS (Geographic Information System)-based modeling, the risks of agricultural management systems can be assessed at the watershed and basin levels, and management strategies can be identified that minimize negative environmental impacts.

  1. Integrating land use and climate change scenarios and models into assessment of forested watershed services in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Eawpanich, Piyathip; Kalliola, Risto

    2016-05-01

    The Thadee watershed, covering 112km(2), is the main source of water for agriculture and household consumption in the Nakhon Srithammarat Province in Southern Thailand. As the natural forests upstream have been largely degraded and transformed to fruit tree and rubber plantations, problems with landslides and flooding have resulted. This research attempts to predict how further land-use/land-cover changes during 2009-2020 and conceivable changes in rainfall may influence the future levels of water yield and sediment load in the Thadee River. Three different land use scenarios (trend, development and conservation) were defined in collaboration with the local stakeholders, and three different rainfall scenarios (average rainfall, climate change and extreme wet) were determined on the basis of literature sources. Spatially explicit empirical modelling was employed to allocate future land demands and to assess the contributions of land use and rainfall changes, considering both their separate and combined effects. The results suggest that substantial land use changes may occur from a large expansion of rubber plantations in the upper sub-watersheds, especially under the development land use scenario. The reduction of the current annual rainfall by approximately 30% would decrease the predicted water yields by 38% from 2009. According to the extreme rainfall scenario (an increase of 36% with respect to current rainfall), an amplification of 50% of the current runoff could result. Sensitivity analyses showed that the predicted soil loss is more responsive to changes in rainfall than to the compared land use scenarios alone. However, very high sediment load and runoff levels were predicted on the basis of combined intensified land use and extreme rainfall scenarios. Three conservation activities-protection, reforestation and a mixed-cropping system-are proposed to maintain the functional watershed services of the Thadee watershed region.

  2. Notice on Organizing College Graduates to Help in Education, Agriculture, Medical Service, and Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Three Assistances and One Alleviation Plan issued in 2006 is an expansion of the Western China Program issued in 2003. Voluntary services in agricultural, educational, and medical areas by college graduates are organized through the implementation of this policy. The plan aims to recruit 20,000 graduates per year and has provided more detailed…

  3. Migrant and Seasonal Workers in Michigan's Agriculture: A Study of Their Contributions, Characteristics, Needs, and Services. Research Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochin, Refugio I.; Santiago, Anne M.; Dickey, Karla S.

    This study examines the characteristics and needs of Michigan's migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The study was based on census data, state agency records, and a statewide survey of service providers. Results indicate that neither mechanization nor other structural changes in Michigan's agricultural economy have diminished the industry's…

  4. Trade in Educational Services: An Overview of GATS and Policy Implications for Higher Agricultural Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soam, S. K.; Sastry, R. Kalpana; Rashmi, H. B.

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is a service that contributes to national development, integration and regional cohesion. Agricultural education in particular has been viewed in many developing countries as a significant contributor to sustainable development and poverty alleviation. In view of its public mandate, higher education in most countries is regulated…

  5. The valuation of forest carbon services by Mexican citizens: the case of Guadalajara city and La Primavera biosphere reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, A.; MacMillan, D.C.; Skutsch, M.; Lovett, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate demand for, and recognition of, forest carbon services is critical to success of market mechanisms for forestry-based conservation and climate change mitigation. National and voluntary carbon-offsetting schemes are emerging as alternatives to international compliance markets. We developed a

  6. Dynamics of ecosystem services provided by subtropical forests in Southeast China during succession as measured by donor and receiver value

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trends in the provision of ecosystem services during restoration and succession of subtropical forests and plantations were quantified, in terms of both receiver and donor values, based on a case study of a 3-step secondary succession series that included a 400-year-old subtr...

  7. 77 FR 12792 - Notice of Forest Service Land Management Plans To Be Amended To Incorporate Greater Sage-Grouse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Incorporate Greater Sage-Grouse Conservation Measures AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice, Request... statements to incorporate greater sage-grouse conservation measures into land use plans and land management... related to the greater sage-grouse planning effort by any of the following methods: Rocky Mountain...

  8. Agricultural machinery service in urgency in the development of agricultural mechanization%农机服务在农业机械化发展中的紧迫性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文永明

    2014-01-01

    农机服务在农业发展中越发重要,农机服务在农业机械化发展中的紧迫性备受关注,关注完善的农机社会化服务体系的建立可推动农业产业化的进一步发展,有助于给农业机械化的发展开辟更加广阔的发展空间。%The agricultural machinery service is more important in agricultural development, agricultural machinery service urgency has attracted much attention in the development of agricultural mechanization, focus on the establishment of the perfect farm machinery socialization service system can promote the further development of agricultural industrialization, help to the development of agricultural mechanization more broad space for development.

  9. Evaluation of the Soil Conservation Service curve number methodology using data from agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Mohan; Mishra, S. K.; Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, R. P.; Meena, P. K.; Chaudhary, Anubhav; Jha, Ranjit Kumar; Shreevastava, Ajit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra

    2016-08-01

    The Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method, also known as the Natural Resources Conservation Service curve number (NRCS-CN) method, is popular for computing the volume of direct surface runoff for a given rainfall event. The performance of the SCS-CN method, based on large rainfall (P) and runoff (Q) datasets of United States watersheds, is evaluated using a large dataset of natural storm events from 27 agricultural plots in India. On the whole, the CN estimates from the National Engineering Handbook (chapter 4) tables do not match those derived from the observed P and Q datasets. As a result, the runoff prediction using former CNs was poor for the data of 22 (out of 24) plots. However, the match was little better for higher CN values, consistent with the general notion that the existing SCS-CN method performs better for high rainfall-runoff (high CN) events. Infiltration capacity (fc) was the main explanatory variable for runoff (or CN) production in study plots as it exhibited the expected inverse relationship between CN and fc. The plot-data optimization yielded initial abstraction coefficient (λ) values from 0 to 0.659 for the ordered dataset and 0 to 0.208 for the natural dataset (with 0 as the most frequent value). Mean and median λ values were, respectively, 0.030 and 0 for the natural rainfall-runoff dataset and 0.108 and 0 for the ordered rainfall-runoff dataset. Runoff estimation was very sensitive to λ and it improved consistently as λ changed from 0.2 to 0.03.

  10. Forty years of hydrometeorological data from the Fernow experimental forest, West Virginia. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.B.; Kochenderfer, J.N.; Wood, F.; Angradi, T.R.; Edwards, P.

    1994-03-01

    Hydrometeorological data have been collected on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia since 1951. The publication summarizes these data, describes their collection, and provides other information that characterizes the Fernow. The value and utility of long-term data sets are discussed.

  11. What Images Show That Words Do Not: Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Depictions of Effective Agricultural Education Teachers in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. Shane; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Terry, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    One of the intended outcomes of agricultural teacher education programs is the progressive development and refinement of students' professional identity. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which pre-service agriculture teachers' mental models, depicting the roles and responsibilities of school-based agriculture teachers,…

  12. What Can a Borich Needs Assessment Model Tell Us about In-Service Training Needs of Faculty in a College of Agriculture? The Case of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshani, Kiumars; Baygi, Amir Hossein Ali

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to determine current in-service needs of agricultural faculties at Razi University in Kermanshah province in Iran. A descriptive research methodology design was used to conduct the study. The target population of the study consisted of all agricultural faculties in College of Agriculture at Razi…

  13. Agricultural activities of the malayali tribal for subsistence and economic needs in the mid elevation forest of pachamalai hills, eastern ghats, Tamil nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to study the Agricultural activities of the Malayali Tribal for Subsistence and Economic needs in the mid elevation forest of Pachamalai Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil nadu. About 8 percent of the Indian population belongs to a category listed as “Scheduled Tribes” enumerated in the Schedule to Article 342 of the Constitution of India. Tribal people has been seen to be strongly associated with the forests, hills and remote areas, practicing a unique life style, having a unique set of cultural and religious beliefs. For millennia, tribal communities have lived in forests and survived on hunting and gathering. However, with growing population and resource pressure, it is now witnessing that a rise in livelihoods based on settled farming. In the study area, cereals are the major crop cultivated for their edible grains. The tribal people living in the hills tops of the study area were cultivated 11 major agricultural crops. They are, Eleusine coracana, Panicum miliare, Oryza sativa (verity I (Mara Nellu, Oryza sativa (verity II, Manihot esculenta, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Sesamum orientale, Paspalum sp, Pennisetum americanum and Setaria italica. Among them, Paspalum sp gives the maximum yield with 655 kg acre-1.

  14. Ecosystem Services Mapping for Sustainable Agricultural Water Management in California's Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matios, Edward; Burney, Jennifer

    2017-02-24

    Accurate information on agricultural water needs and withdrawals at appropriate spatial and temporal scales remains a key limitation to joint water and land management decision-making. We use InVEST ecosystem service mapping to estimate water yield and water consumption as functions of land use in Fresno County, a key farming region in California's Central Valley. Our calculations show that in recent years (2010-2015), the total annual water yield for the county has varied dramatically from ∼0.97 to 5.37 km(3) (all ±17%; 1 MAF ≈ 1.233 km(3)), while total annual water consumption has changed over a smaller range, from ∼3.37 to ∼3.98 km(3) (±20%). Almost all of the county's water consumption (∼96% of total use) takes place in Fresno's croplands, with discrepancy between local annual surface water yields and crop needs met by surface water allocations from outside the county and, to a much greater extent, private groundwater irrigation. Our estimates thus bound the amount of groundwater needed to supplement consumption each year (∼1.76 km(3) on average). These results, combined with trends away from field crops and toward orchards and vineyards, suggest that Fresno's land and water management have become increasingly disconnected in recent years, with the harvested area being less available as an adaptive margin to hydrological stress.

  15. The Influence of Groundwater Depletion from Irrigated Agriculture on the Tradeoffs between Ecosystem Services and Economic Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant

    2016-01-01

    An irrigated agricultural landscape experiencing groundwater overdraft generates economic returns and a suite of ecosystem services (in particular, groundwater supply, greenhouse gases reduction, and surface water quality). Alternative land cover choices indicate tradeoffs among the value of ecosystem services created and the economic returns. These tradeoffs are explored using efficiency frontiers that determine the least value in ecosystem services that must be given up to generate additional economic returns. Agricultural producers may switch to irrigation with surface water using on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery systems in response to groundwater overdraft, and this has consequences for the bundle of ecosystem service values and economic returns achievable from the landscape. Planning that accounts for both ecosystem service value and economic returns can achieve more value for society, as does the adoption of reservoirs though lowering the costs of irrigation, increasing groundwater levels, and reducing fuel combustion and associated GHG emissions from groundwater pumping. Sensitivity analyses of per unit value of ecosystem services, crop prices, and the groundwater and water purification model parameters indicate tradeoff among ecosystems service values, such as the use of a high-end social cost of carbon ultimately lowers groundwater supply and water purification value by more than 15%. PMID:28033405

  16. Cyclope 2003: the world markets: raw materials, currencies, services, agriculture, energy, finance, industry; Cyclope 2003: les marches mondiaux: matieres premieres, monnaies, services, agriculture, energie, finance, industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmin, Ph.

    2003-07-01

    The Cyclope book is a collective annual publication made by an international team of economists, journalists and specialists of geopolitics. The 2003 issue analyzes the consequences of the war in Iraq on the energy markets and on the international negotiations of the world trade organization (WTO) which took place at Cancun in September 2003. It analyses also the growth of the Chinese markets, the sustainable development concept in vogue, the Johannesburg conference and the reform of the common agricultural policy. (J.S.)

  17. Crop Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Extension Services in Bangladesh: Cases of Selected Villages in Two Important Agro-Ecological Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ektear MD.; Gao, Qijie; Mamun-Ur-Rashid, MD.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Globally, many extension professionals and policy-makers are advocating fee based services, in addressing the fund shortage and sustainable provision of agricultural advisory services. Hence, the article attempts to expose the farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) as agricultural extension in Bangladesh is experiencing chronic fund crisis.…

  18. Institutional, Individual, and Socio-Cultural Domains of Partnerships: A Typology of USDA Forest Service Recreation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Cerveny, Lee K.; McCreary, Allie

    2011-09-01

    Federal land management agencies, such as the USDA Forest Service, have expanded the role of recreation partners reflecting constrained growth in appropriations and broader societal trends towards civic environmental governance. Partnerships with individual volunteers, service groups, commercial outfitters, and other government agencies provide the USDA Forest Service with the resources necessary to complete projects and meet goals under fiscal constraints. Existing partnership typologies typically focus on collaborative or strategic alliances and highlight organizational dimensions (e.g., structure and process) defined by researchers. This paper presents a partner typology constructed from USDA Forest Service partnership practitioners' conceptualizations of 35 common partner types. Multidimensional scaling of data from unconstrained pile sorts identified 3 distinct cultural dimensions of recreation partners—specifically, partnership character, partner impact, and partner motivations—that represent institutional, individual, and socio-cultural cognitive domains. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis provides further insight into the various domains of agency personnel's conceptualizations. While three dimensions with high reliability (RSQ = 0.83) and corresponding hierarchical clusters illustrate commonality between agency personnel's partnership suppositions, this study also reveals variance in personnel's familiarity and affinity for specific partnership types. This real-world perspective on partner types highlights that agency practitioners not only make strategic choices when selecting and cultivating partnerships to accomplish critical task, but also elect to work with partners for the primary purpose of providing public service and fostering land stewardship.

  19. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protected areas in conserving both habitat and ecosystem services. Selected areas for conserving habitat had an overlap of carbon and soil ecosystem services. Yet, selected areas for water yield did not have this overlap. Furthermore, selected areas with relatively high overlap of ecosystem services tended to be inside protected areas; however, other important areas for ecosystem services (i.e., central highlands do not have legal protection, revealing the importance of enforcing existing environmental regulations in these areas.

  20. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  1. Exclusion of agricultural lands in spatial conservation prioritization strategies: consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem service representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, América P; Duffy, James P; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-10-01

    Agroecosystems have traditionally been considered incompatible with biological conservation goals, and often been excluded from spatial conservation prioritization strategies. The consequences for the representativeness of identified priority areas have been little explored. Here, we evaluate these for biodiversity and carbon storage representation when agricultural land areas are excluded from a spatial prioritization strategy for South America. Comparing different prioritization approaches, we also assess how the spatial overlap of priority areas changes. The exclusion of agricultural lands was detrimental to biodiversity representation, indicating that priority areas for agricultural production overlap with areas of relatively high occurrence of species. By contrast, exclusion of agricultural lands benefits representation of carbon storage within priority areas, as lands of high value for agriculture and carbon storage overlap little. When agricultural lands were included and equally weighted with biodiversity and carbon storage, a balanced representation resulted. Our findings suggest that with appropriate management, South American agroecosystems can significantly contribute to biodiversity conservation.

  2. Anthropogenic Decline of Ecosystem Services Threatens the Integrity of the Unique Hyrcanian (Caspian Forests in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardavan Zarandian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique Hyrcanian (Caspian forests of northern Iran provide vital ecosystem services for local and global communities. We assess the status and trends of key ecosystem services in this region where native forest conversion has accelerated to make way for housing and farm development. This is a mountainous forested area that is valuable for both conservation and multiple human uses including recreation and farming. It contains globally significant natural habitats for in situ conservation of biological diversity. A rapid, qualitative, and participatory approach was used including interviews with local households and experts in combination with assessment of land use/cover remote sensing data to identify and map priority ecosystem services in the Geographic Information System (GIS. Based on the interests of the beneficiaries, eight priority services (food production, water supply, raw materials, soil conservation, water regulation, climate regulation, biodiversity, and recreation were identified and mapped. The results indicate the current typical spatial distribution of the provided services based on structural characteristics of the study landscape and their changing trends through a comparison of past, present and future land use, and land cover. Although food production and recreation have greatly increased in recent decades, the other services, in particular timber production, biodiversity, and water purification and supply are being gradually lost. The results of this study and of others elsewhere should raise awareness of ecosystem service status and trends and the value of examining these since they provide much of the information to inform natural resources policy and decision making. The declines in supply of key ecosystem services both within and outside the protected area are creating conflicts within communities as well as impacting on the integrity of the area and careful planning and conservation is required to provide win

  3. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service: Summary Tables & Figures: Seney NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following are summary tables and figures associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Seney...

  4. Rapid Ecological Assessment Methods for Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service Midwest Region - Survey Protocol Framework: First Edition (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting Inventories of forests at multiple stations within a region. During 2010 and 2011, six refuges of the...

  5. 78 FR 37781 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator,...

  6. Diversified Native Species Restoration for Recovery of Multiple Ecosystem Services in a Highly Disturbed Tropical Dry Forest Landscape of Southwestern Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Guillen, K.; Otterstrom, S.; Perla, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have been reduced to a fraction of their original extent in the Neotropics due to conversion to agriculture and cattle pasture. While TDF can recover via natural regeneration, resulting forests are dominated by wind-dispersed pioneer species of limited value for frugivorous wildlife. Additionally, passive restoration can be perceived as "abandonment" resulting in neighbors casually invading property to rear livestock and extract timber. In 2007, the NGO Paso Pacífico initiated restoration in a highly degraded tropical dry forest landscape of southwestern Nicaragua; funded by an ex-ante carbon purchase, the project was designed to integrate multiple native tree species known to provide resources used by local wildlife. We restored roughly 400 hectares spanning a rainfall gradient from dry to transitional moist forest, using reforestation (planting 70 species of tree seedlings in degraded pastures on a 4x4 m grid, leaving occurring saplings) and assisted regeneration (clearing vines and competing vegetation from saplings in natural regeneration and strategically managing canopy cover). In just over seven years, mean carbon increased nearly threefold, from to 21.5±5.0 to 57.9±9.6 SE tonnes/ha. Current carbon stocks match those of 20-year-old forests in the area, accumulated in less than a decade. Stem density per 15-m radius plot decreased from 16.3±2.3 to 12.5±0.9 SE, while species richness increased from 3.9±0.4 to 18.4±1.4 SE. Alpha richness of woody stems across plots increased from 36 to 94 species, and over 20 tree species established as a result of natural dispersal and recruitment. We have observed sensitive species such as spider monkeys and parrots foraging in restoration areas. Managed reforestation is a highly effective method for rapidly restoring the functionality of multiple ecosystem services in degraded TDF, particularly when social and political realities force restoration to coexist with human productive activities

  7. Restructuring U.S. Agriculture: Implications for Rural Education and Other Community Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Alan R.

    Restructuring of U.S. agriculture ("neoindustrialization") is having important effects on rural residents, requiring adaptations of supporting institutions such as education. Neoindustrialization involves concentration, specialization, and vertical and horizontal integration of agricultural production and marketing, as well as further reduction of…

  8. The diffusion of mobile agricultural information services in Ghana : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, B.; Aarnoudse, R.; Stroek, C.

    2013-01-01

    Dissemination of information has always been an important topic in agriculture as information educates farmers and helps them to make the right decisions on agricultural practices and marketing. The main objective of this research is to explore how social networks could be deployed in order to stimu

  9. Agricultural Extension Services and Market Regulation: Learning from a Comparison of Six EU Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Catherine; Cerf, Marianne; Labarthe, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    If farmers are to meet the new challenges facing agriculture (environment, rural development, etc.), appropriate knowledge has to be produced. But observations in six EU countries (France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) show that unexpected problems arise when technical support for agriculture is linked to market regulation,…

  10. Assessing the changes in land use and ecosystem services in an oasis agricultural region of Yanqi Basin, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuixian; Wu, Bin; Yang, Pengnian

    2014-12-01

    The Yanqi Basin, one of the most productive agricultural areas, has a high population density in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Land use changes, mainly driven by oasis expansion, significantly impact ecosystem services and functions, but these effects are difficult to quantify. The valuation of ecosystem services is important to clarify the ecological and environmental changes caused by agriculturalization of oasis. This study aimed to investigate variations in ecosystem services in response to land use changes during oasis agricultural expansion activities in the Yanqi Basin from 1964 to 2009. The methods used were based on formula of ecosystem service value (ESV) and ESV coefficients. Satellite data were combined with the ESV coefficients to quantify land use changes and ecosystem service changes in the study area. Sensitivity analysis determined the effect of manipulating the coefficients on the estimated values. The results show that the total ESVs in the Yanqi Basin were $1,674, $1,692, $1,471, $1,732, and $1,603 million in 1964, 1973, 1989, 1999, and 2009, respectively. The net deline in ESV was $71 million in the past 46 years, but the ESVs of each types of landscape changed significantly. The aggregated ESVs of water areas and wetlands were approximately 80 % of the total ESV. Water supply and waste treatment were the two largest service functions and contributed approximately 65 % of the total ESV. The estimated ESVs in this study were elastic with respect to the value coefficients. Therefore, the estimations were robust in spite of uncertainties on the value coefficients. These significant changes in land use occur within the entire basin over the study period. These changes cause environmental problems, such as land degradation, vegetation degeneracy, and changes in aquatic environment.

  11. Assessing the Recreation Value of Urban Woodland Using the Ecosystem Service Approach in Two Forests in the Munich Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Lupp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recreation is considered an important ecosystem services (ES in urban woodlands and puts pressure on other ES. Visitor management strategies can be tools to safeguard biodiversity and ES. On-site data are necessary to evaluate the demand for outdoor recreation opportunities in urban woodlands, but also for providing more reliable values for monetization as a basis for multifunctional forest management, and for raising awareness for the importance of urban proximate forests. Such information can also be used for the assessment and monetization of socio-cultural ES, and hence, contribute to developing market-based mechanisms or to promoting these ES. In our paper, we demonstrate methods to describe recreational demand by collecting data from interviews and using camera traps in two forests in the north of Munich for visitor counting. Visitor numbers in the forests were much greater than rough estimations; visitors also had quite long travelling distances to the forests. Jogging or Nordic walking were proven to be important recreational activities. In some of the monitored locations, almost half of the recreationists carried out these sports. Depending on the method chosen, the calculative monetary value of recreation reached up to 15,440 Euro per hectare per year.

  12. Modeling GHG Emissions and Carbon Changes in Agricultural and Forest Systems to Guide Mitigation and Adaptation: Synthesis and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production systems and land use change for agriculture and forestry are important sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recent commitments by the European Union, the United States, and China to reduce GHG emissions highlight the need to improve estimates of current em...

  13. Trade-offs between ecosystem services and alternative pathways toward sustainability in a tropical dry forest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mora

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of strategies aimed at sustainable resource management requires an understanding of the trade-offs between the ecosystem services at stake, to determine appropriate ways in which to navigate them. We assess trade-offs between forage production for cattle ranching and the maintenance of carbon stocks or tree diversity in a Mexican tropical dry forest. Trade-offs between pairs of services were assessed by identifying their efficiency frontiers at both site and landscape scales. We also estimated service outcomes under current and hypothetical land-management conditions. We found stark trade-offs between fodder and carbon stocks and between fodder and tree species richness at the site scale. At the landscape scale, the efficiency frontier was concave, with a much less pronounced trade-off in the fodder-species richness case. Our estimates of current service supply levels showed a reduction of 18-21% for C stock and 41-43% for fodder biomass, relative to the maximum feasible values along the efficiency frontier. Choice of the optimum management strategy to reduce such inefficiency depended on deforestation level: secondary forest regeneration was most suitable when deforestation is low, whereas increased fodder productivity in the pastures is best when deforestation is high. Pasture enrichment with forage trees and secondary forest growth are potential management alternatives for achieving sustainability given the range of enabling ecological factors and to balance ecological and social sustainability given the requirements and preferences of local stakeholders. Given that analogous trade-offs are found across the tropics, this work contributes to reconciling tropical forest maintenance and its use for sustainable rural livelihoods.

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  15. Comparison of Leaf Breakdown for Native and Non-native Riparian Species in Streams Draining Urban, Agricultural, and Forested Land Cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, M. D.; Benfield, E. F.

    2005-05-01

    Organic matter breakdown rates in streams vary among riparian tree species and are dependent on a variety of in-stream biological, chemical, and physical factors. These factors and the composition and distribution of riparian vegetation are changed by anthropogenic modification of the landscape. This may result in altered energy flow through stream ecosystems that is reflected in changes in organic matter input and breakdown. The goal of this study was to compare leaf breakdown rates between a native (box elder, Acer negundo) and non-native (weeping willow, Salix babylonica) species among three land cover categories: urban, agricultural, and forested. We conducted this study over 14 weeks in 13 streams near Roanoke, Virginia. Box elder occurs naturally along disturbed riparian corridors in this region, while weeping willow has been actively planted for its aesthetic value. Our results indicate weeping willow breakdown rates were faster than box elder across all land cover categories. Breakdown rates for both species were slowest in the urban streams, intermediate in agricultural streams, and fastest in forested streams.

  16. Forest cover from landsat thematic mapper data for use in the Catahoula Ranger District geographic information system. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    A forest cover classification of the Kisatchie National Forest, Catahoula Ranger District, was performed with Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Data base retrievals and map products from this analysis demonstrated used of Landsat for forest management decisions.

  17. Reducing forest emissions in Southeast Asia: A review of drivers of land-use change and how payments for environmental services (PES) schemes can affect them

    OpenAIRE

    S. Wertz-Kanounnikoff; M. Kongphan-Apirak

    2008-01-01

    Southeast Asia witnesses high rates of deforestation and forest degradation. Large-scale deforestation for agriculture (notably oil palm) is driven by international market demand. Small-scale deforestation is partly driven by: market opportunities for typical smallholder crops like rubber; land races to gain or secure property rights; and in marginalised, remote areas of the countries also by poverty and population growth. Forest degradation is primarily a consequence of logging activities, e...

  18. Domestic Forests: A New Paradigm for Integrating Local Communities' Forestry into Tropical Forest Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Verdeaux

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of confrontation between forest agencies and forest people, "indigenous" or "local" practices are increasingly considered as a viable alternative of forest management. This paper is a synthesis derived from various long-term research programs carried out by the authors in Southeast Asia and Africa on forests managed by farmers. These researches looked at local practices and underlying science, including their social, political, and symbolic dimensions. They also addressed evolutionary trends and driving forces, as well as potential and limits for forest conservation and development, mitigation of deforestation, biodiversity conservation, and poverty alleviation in a context of global environmental, political, and social change. We discuss how forest management by local communities, contrary to the unified models of professional forest management, exhibits a high historical and geographical diversity. The analysis we draw from the various examples we studied reveals several invariants, which allows proposing the unifying paradigm of "domestic forest." The first universal feature concerns the local managers themselves, who are, in their vast majority, farmers. Management practices range from local interventions in the forest ecosystem, to more intensive types of forest culture, and ultimately to permanent forest plantation. But in all cases, forest management is closely integrated with agriculture. The second universal feature concerns the conceptual continuity of planted forests with the natural forest, in matters of vegetation's structure and composition as well as economic traits and ecosystem services. The resulting forest is uneven-aged, composed of several strata, harboring a large diversity of species, and producing a wide range of products, with timber seldom being the dominant one. The term "domestic forest" aims at highlighting the close relationship the domestication process establishes between a specific human

  19. Understanding Multifunctional Agricultural Land by Using Low Cost and Open Source Solutions to Quantify Ecosystem Function and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsmoo, Joel; Anderson, Karen; Brazier, Richard; Macleod, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to advance our understanding of how the spatial structure of farmed landscapes contributes to the provision of functions and services. Agricultural land is of critical importance in NW Europe, covering large parts of NW Europe's temperate land. Moreover, these agricultural areas are primarily intensively managed, with a focus on maximizing food and fibre production. Such landscapes therefore can provide a wealth of ecosystem goods and services (ESs) including regulation of climate, erosion regulation, hydrology, water quality, nutrient cycling and biodiversity conservation. However, it has been shown they are key sources of sediment, phosphorous, nitrogen and storm runoff contributing to flooding, and therefore it is likely that most agricultural landscapes do not maximize the services or benefits that they might provide. The focus of this study is the spatio-temporal assessment of carbon sequestration (particularly through proxies such as above-ground biomass) and hydrological processes on agricultural land. Understanding and quantifying both of these is important to (a) inform payments for ecosystem services frameworks, (b) evaluate and improve carbon sequestration models, (c) manage the flood risk, (d) downstream water security and (e) water quality. Quantifying both of these ESs is dependent on data describing the fine spatial and temporal structure and function of the landscape. Common practice has been to use remote sensing techniques, e.g. satellites, providing coarse spatial resolution (around 30cm at 20° off nadir) and/or temporal resolution (around 5 days revisit time at UAVs) can be used to generate structure from motion (SFM) products describing the very fine detailed (UAVs). We furthermore draw attention to the influence post-processing solutions have on the accuracy of the final product, the digital surface model (DSM), by using recently acquired data. Specifically, when applied in a structurally complex field site with irregular

  20. Ecosystem services and agricultural land-use practices: a case study of the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Rasul

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation due to inappropriate agricultural activities, as well as the environmental and social effects associated with these practices, is accelerating in many developing regions of the world. This trend underlines the importance of measuring environmental costs and benefits to improve policy making with respect to land use and agriculture. Using nonmarket valuation techniques, this article estimates the value of environmental services associated with four agricultural land-use systems in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh and compares their relative profitability from private and social perspectives. The financial analysis reveals that annual cash crops are the most profitable short-term land use and agroforestry is the least profitable, with horticulture and farm forestry providing benefits intermediate between these two systems. However, the relatively larger returns from annual cash cropping lead to higher environmental costs such as soil erosion, forfeited carbon sequestration, and biodiversity loss. When the environmental costs are taken into account, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, with agroforestry and farm forestry becoming more profitable. The findings demonstrate the tradeoffs and synergies between relatively more environmentally sustainable and harmful land-use practices. Financial incentives to encourage more prudent agricultural activities are needed to transform tradeoffs into synergies. This article examines different financial incentive mechanisms—including payments for environmental services—and makes several policy recommendations.

  1. The Transition Away From Swidden Agriculture and Trends in Biomass Accumulation in Fallow Forests: Case Studies in the Southern Chin Hills of Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyein Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Swidden farmers are rapidly transitioning to other types of land use. This study was conducted in 2 villages (T village and P village in southern Chin State, Myanmar. The number of swidden-cultivating households decreased by 50% in T village over 2003–2013, and varied over 2004–2013 in P village; 21% and 13% of the total population in T and P villages, respectively, have out-migrated for employment. In addition, the introduction of terrace farming, development of animal husbandry, marketing of non-timber forest products, and other activities that generate cash income have reduced dependency on swidden agriculture. Remittances from out-migrated family members also contribute significantly to household incomes. As a result, the area devoted to swidden agriculture has decreased. By establishing site-specific allometries and applying best-fit allometry coefficients, total aboveground biomass was estimated for both villages. Generally, the aboveground biomass increased with the age of the fallow. Out-migration, insufficient crop productivity, and the development of alternative income sources resulted in the decrease in swidden agriculture in the areas studied. Further biomass regrowth can be expected in both villages in the future.

  2. 77 FR 53839 - Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; East McCloud Plantations Thinning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; East McCloud Plantations... such as drought, insect and disease infestations and severe wildfire. Treatments would include..., California, on the northeast corner of the Shasta- McCloud Management Unit of the Shasta-Trinity...

  3. Development of the Land-use and Agricultural Management Practice web-Service (LAMPS) for generating crop rotations in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The Land-use and Agricultural Management Practices web-Service (LAMPS) provides crop rotation and management information for user-specified areas within...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Services Market-Based Programs Web Service, U.S., 2016, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service contains layers depicting market-based programs and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. Layers...

  5. THE PRIVATE SECTOR APPROACH TO GRAIN MARKETING: THE CASE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKET ADVISORY SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Jackson, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pricing performance and behavior of market advisory services in corn and soybeans. Data on corn and soybean net price received for advisory services, as reported by the AgMAS Project, are available for the 1995, 1996 and 1997 marketing years. Performance test results suggest that, on average, market advisory services exhibit a small ability to "beat the market". This conclusion is somewhat sensitive to the type of performance test and market ben...

  6. Kriging direct and indirect estimates of sulfate deposition: A comparison. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reams, G.A.; Huso, M.M.P.; Vong, R.J.; McCollum, J.M.

    1997-08-01

    Due to logistical and cost constraints, acidic deposition is rarely measured at forest research or sampling locations. A crucial first step to assessing the effects of acid rain on forests is an accurate estimate of acidic deposition at forest sample sites. The authors examine two methods (direct and indirect) for estimating sulfate deposition at atmospherically unmonitored forest sites. The direct method only uses directly measured deposition data, while the indirect method additionally incorporates precipitation measurements from a spatially denser network of monitoring sites. Sulfate deposition values were estimated by point kriging using both the direct and indirect methods. By using the supplemental data from the precipitation monitoring network, estimates of sulfate deposition improved substantially, particularly at sites that are relatively isolated to the acid deposition monitoring network. Cross-validated procedures indicate that by using the indirect method, a reduction of approximately 20 to 25 percent in the predicted error sum of squares occurred.

  7. An integrated method for estimating compensations for environmental services of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Xiao-bo; DAI Li-min; HU Xiao-fei

    2005-01-01

    The values of non-marketable forest products have largely been ignored, which made the conservation of the natural resources increasingly more economically difficult. Based on the previous studies, compensation subsidy for the values of non-marketable forest products was computed with a method of compensation coefficient that combines the Engel Coefficient and Logistic Curve. The method was applied in Changbai Mountain area. The total value of the compensation subsidy in 1999 was supposed to 637.93 Yuan·hm-2, of which 70% would be paid directly to the local stakeholders and is much higher than the compensation subsidy previously computed (75Yuan·hm-2·year-1). It is currently impossible for the central government to bear all the costs and investment of natural forest protection. A practical solution is that the local government should invest in forest and put the compensation subsidy into the current revenue.

  8. Back-trajectories show export of airborne fungal spores (Ganoderma sp.) from forests to agricultural and urban areas in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadyś, M.; Skjøth, C. A.; Kennedy, R.

    2014-02-01

    We propose here the hypothesis that all of United Kingdom (UK) is likely to be affected by Ganoderma sp. spores, an important plant pathogen. We suggest that the main sources of this pathogen, which acts as a bioaerosol, are the widely scattered woodlands in the country, although remote sources must not be neglected. The hypothesis is based on related studies on bioaerosols and supported by new observations from a non-forest site and model calculations to support our hypothesis.

  9. Valuing Supporting Soil Ecosystem Services in Agriculture: A Natural Capital Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brady, M.V.; Hedlund, K.; Cong, R.G.; Hemerik, L.; Hotes, S.; Machado, S.; Mattson, L.; Schulz, E.; Thomsen, I.K.

    2015-01-01

    Soil biodiversity through its delivery of ecosystem functions and attendant supporting ecosystem services—benefits soil organisms generate for farmers—underpins agricultural production. Yet lack of practical methods to value the long-term effects of current farming practices results, inevitably, in

  10. 7 CFR 2.16 - Under Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maps of latest coverage; (D) Promoting interchange of technical information and techniques to develop....), except those functions delegated in § 2.21(a)(8)(xi). (xiii) Administer energy management activities as... reimbursable agreements relating to agricultural research, extension, or teaching activities (7 U.S.C....

  11. A living demonstration of certified organic farming by Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...

  12. Farmers as Consumers of Agricultural Education Services: Willingness to Pay and Spend Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Papadaki-Klavdianou, Afroditi; Michailidis, Anastasios

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed farmers' willingness to pay for and spend time attending an Agricultural Educational Program (AEP). Primary data on the demographic and socio-economic variables of farmers were collected from 355 farmers selected randomly from Northern Greece. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis methods were used in order to meet…

  13. Nieuwe diensten in de multifunctionele landbouw = New services within multifunctional agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron-Flinterman, J.F.; Alebeek, van F.A.N.; Jong, de D.

    2010-01-01

    Dit rapport beoogt in kaart te brengen welke mogelijke nieuwe ontwikkelingen binnen de multifunctionele landbouw zich op termijn zouden kunnen doorontwikkelen tot een perspectiefvolle nieuwe sector of deelsector.This report aims to explore what new developments within multifunctional agriculture hav

  14. Assessment of Ecosystem Services in a Semi-arid Agriculture-dominant Area: Framework and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, R.; Chen, Y.; Maltos, R.; Sivakumaran, K.; Aguilar, A.; Harmon, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    California's Central Valley (CV) water crisis has increased in severity due to a prolonged drought. The drought is directly contributing to the overexploitation of groundwater, along with deficiency in agricultural, recreational and aesthetic water services. The population of the CV, home to about 6.5 million people, is projected to be 12 million by 2040. Balancing water demand between municipal use, agricultural supply, and other ecosystem services, will be challenging for this region in perpetuity. In the heart of CV lies the San Joaquin River (SJR) where Friant Dam is the main low-elevation reservoir regulating water release. The Friant Dam's reservoir fulfills agricultural, municipal and industrial water needs through the Friant-Kern and Madera canals, as well as through the mainstem SJR. The SJR restoration project (SJRRP) is a recent development that is imposing additional demands on water releases in order to restore sustainable aquatic habitat for Chinook salmon and other species on the mainstem below the Friant Dam. The Chinook require adequate flow to moderate river temperature, particularly during hot summer and fall months. Temperatures on CV rivers exhibit strong diurnal and seasonal patterns, and can rise to harmful levels when flows are inadequate. In this study, we developed a framework that allows for assessing the effectiveness and implied costs of ecosystem services provided by a restored SJR in a semi-arid agriculture-dominant area. This is done by explicitly linking economics-based farmers' model with a reduced-form hydrological model that is loosely coupled to a physical-based stream-temperature model, specifically CE-QUAL-W2. The farmers' model is based on positive mathematical program approach calibrated with twenty proxy crops for year 2005. The river-hydrology is simulated by a vector autoregression model that incorporates daily flow variability. We study the mandated release policies by the SJR restoration project, along with hypothetical

  15. Urban and agricultural soils: conflicts and trade-offs in the optimization of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setälä, H.; Bardgett, R.D.; Birkhofer, K.; Brady, M.; Byrne, L.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Vries, de F.T.; Gardi, C.; Hedlund, K.; Hemerik, A.; Hotes, S.; Liiri, M.; Mortimer, S.R.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Pouyat, R.; Tsiafouli, M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2014-01-01

    On-going human population growth and changing patterns of resource consumption are increasing global demand for ecosystem services, many of which are provided by soils. Some of these ecosystem services are linearly related to the surface area of pervious soil, whereas others show non-linear relation

  16. 77 FR 51753 - Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Forest Service Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... public may inspect comments received at Daniel Boone National Forest, 1700 Bypass Road,...

  17. The uses of ERTS-1 imagery in the analysis of landscape change. [agriculture, strip mining forests, urban-suburban growth, and flooding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of strip mining from ERTS-1 data has resulted in the mapping of landscape changes for the Cumberland Plateau Test Site. Several mapping experiments utilizing ERTS-1 data have been established for the mapping of state-wide land use regions. The first incorporates 12 frames of ERTS-1 imagery for the generalized thematic mapping of forest cover for the state of Tennessee. In another mapping effort, 14 ERTS-1 images have been analyzed for plowed ground signatures to produce a map of agricultural regions for Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern portions of Mississippi and Alabama. Generalized urban land use categories and transportation networks have been determined from ERTS-1 imagery for the Knoxville Test Site. Finally, through the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery, short-lived phenomena such as the 1973 spring floods on the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, have been detected, monitored, and mapped.

  18. Protocol for monitoring forest-nesting birds in National Park Service parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Deanna K.; Efford, Murray G.

    2013-01-01

    These documents detail the protocol for monitoring forest-nesting birds in National Park Service parks in the National Capital Region Network (NCRN). In the first year of sampling, counts of birds should be made at 384 points on the NCRN spatially randomized grid, developed to sample terrestrial resources. Sampling should begin on or about May 20 and continue into early July; on each day the sampling period begins at sunrise and ends five hours later. Each point should be counted twice, once in the first half of the field season and once in the second half, with visits made by different observers, balancing the within-season coverage of points and their spatial coverage by observers, and allowing observer differences to be tested. Three observers, skilled in identifying birds of the region by sight and sound and with previous experience in conducting timed counts of birds, will be needed for this effort. Observers should be randomly assigned to ‘routes’ consisting of eight points, in close proximity and, ideally, in similar habitat, that can be covered in one morning. Counts are 10 minutes in length, subdivided into four 2.5-min intervals. Within each time interval, new birds (i.e., those not already detected) are recorded as within or beyond 50 m of the point, based on where first detected. Binomial distance methods are used to calculate annual estimates of density for species. The data are also amenable to estimation of abundance and detection probability via the removal method. Generalized linear models can be used to assess between-year changes in density estimates or unadjusted count data. This level of sampling is expected to be sufficient to detect a 50% decline in 10 years for approximately 50 bird species, including 14 of 19 species that are priorities for conservation efforts, if analyses are based on unadjusted count data, and for 30 species (6 priority species) if analyses are based on density estimates. The estimates of required sample sizes are

  19. Do Relocated Villages Experience More Forest Cover Change? Resettlements, Shifting Cultivation and Forests in the Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boillat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationships between forest cover change and the village resettlement and land planning policies implemented in Laos, which have led to the relocation of remote and dispersed populations into clustered villages with easier access to state services and market facilities. We used the Global Forest Cover Change (2000–2012 and the most recent Lao Agricultural Census (2011 datasets to assess forest cover change in resettled and non-resettled villages throughout the country. We also reviewed a set of six case studies and performed an original case study in two villages of Luang Prabang province with 55 households, inquiring about relocation, land losses and intensification options. Our results show that resettled villages have greater baseline forest cover and total forest loss than most villages in Laos but not significant forest loss relative to that baseline. Resettled villages are consistently associated with forested areas, minority groups, and intermediate accessibility. The case studies highlight that resettlement coupled with land use planning does not necessarily lead to the abandonment of shifting cultivation or affect forest loss but lead to a re-spatialization of land use. This includes clustering of forest clearings, which might lead to fallow shortening and land degradation while limited intensification options exist in the resettled villages. This study provides a contribution to studying relationships between migration, forest cover change, livelihood strategies, land governance and agricultural practices in tropical forest environments.

  20. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  1. Evaluation of MODIS Albedo Product (MCD43A) over Grassland, Agriculture and Forest Surface Types During Dormant and Snow-Covered Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhousen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Chopping, Mark J.; Roman, Miguel O.; Shuai, Yanmin; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Hollinger, David Y.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/albedo 8 day standard product and products from the daily Direct Broadcast BRDF/albedo algorithm, and shows that these products agree well with ground-based albedo measurements during the more difficult periods of vegetation dormancy and snow cover. Cropland, grassland, deciduous and coniferous forests are considered. Using an integrated validation strategy, analyses of the representativeness of the surface heterogeneity under both dormant and snow-covered situations are performed to decide whether direct comparisons between ground measurements and 500-m satellite observations can be made or whether finer spatial resolution airborne or spaceborne data are required to scale the results at each location. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) data are used to generate finer scale representations of albedo at each location to fully link ground data with satellite data. In general, results indicate the root mean square errors (RMSEs) are less than 0.030 over spatially representative sites of agriculture/grassland during the dormant periods and less than 0.050 during the snow-covered periods for MCD43A albedo products. For forest, the RMSEs are less than 0.020 during the dormant period and 0.025 during the snow-covered periods. However, a daily retrieval strategy is necessary to capture ephemeral snow events or rapidly changing situations such as the spring snow melt.

  2. Réseaux de capteurs sans fil et approches contextuelles au service de l'agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In the coming years, the agricultural sector will face many challenges : increase production to cope with the population growth, increase the quality to meet consumer demand, preserve natural resources and biodiversity, and be economically viable for all players. This requires many changes, some of which will be made possible or facilitated by the digital revolution : Internet of Things, Big Data, artificial intelligence... The decision process will be able to mobilize a lot of data from mult...

  3. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  4. 75 FR 54542 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... correction; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is proposing to make administrative corrections affecting Big Creek Fringe, French Creek, Placer Creek,...

  5. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the existence of inadequate or unsanitary warehouse and other supporting facilities; (C) The total... that efficiency and cost-savings justify use of types of ocean service that would not involve...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Potentially Restorable Wetlands on Agricultural Land - Contiguous United States Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The EnviroAtlas Potentially...

  7. 农业机械远程信息服务系统研究%Research on Remote Information Service System of Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪杰; 刘俊峰; 冯晓静; 李建平; 高波

    2013-01-01

    Remote information service system of agricultural machinery is important assure of playing agricultural machinery’s role fully and raising agriculture machinery operation efficiency .Based on internet remote service and infor-mation sharing function , establish major agricultural machinery manufacturers ’ classification database ,repair and mainte-nance services database,remote security service system of agricultural machinery operation and agricultural Mechaniza-tion Management Information System ,which provide technical support and information for the efficient operation of agri-cultural machinery ,make up for the agricultural machinery industry network information resources extremely deficient cur -rent situation ,better service agriculture machinery ’ s operation .%  农业机械作业远程信息服务是充分发挥农业机械作用、提高农业机械作业效率的重要保证。基于网络远程服务和信息共享功能,建立了主要农业机械品种厂家分类数据库、维修保养服务数据库和农机作业远程保障服务体系等农业机械化信息管理系统,为农业机械高效作业提供技术保障和信息查询,弥补农业机械行业网络信息资源极度不足的现状,更好地服务农机作业。

  8. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  9. Impact of a community-based payment for environmental services intervention on forest use in Menabe, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Matthew; Milner-Gulland, E J; Rahajaharison, Michael; Jones, Julia P G

    2010-12-01

    Despite the growing interest in conservation approaches that include payments for environmental services (PES), few evaluations of the influence of such interventions on behaviors of individuals have been conducted. We used self-reported changes in six legal and illegal forest-use behaviors to investigate the way in which a PES for biodiversity conservation intervention in Menabe, Madagascar, influenced behavior. Individuals (n =864) from eight intervention communities and five control communities answered questions on their forest-use behaviors before and after the intervention began, as well as on their reasons for changing and their attitudes to various institutions. The payments had little impact on individuals' reported decisions to change behaviors, but it had a strong impact on individuals' attitudes. Payments appeared to legitimize monitoring of behaviors by the implementing nongovernmental organization (NGO), but did not act as a behavioral driver in their own right. Although there were no clear differences between changes in behaviors in the intervention and control communities, the intervention did influence motivations for change. Fear of local forest associations and the implementing NGO were strong motivators for changing behavior in communities with the PES intervention, whereas fear of the national government was the main reason given for change in control communities. Behavioral changes were most stable where fear of local organizations motivated the change. Our results highlight the interactions between different incentives people face when making behavioral decisions and the importance of considering the full range of incentives when designing community-based PES interventions.

  10. Analysis of the Standard on Agricultural Machinery Maintenance Service Based on Modern Agriculture%基于现代农业视角下的农机维修服务标准探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴继勇; 霍家佳; 云振宇

    2016-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the relationship between modern agriculture and agricultural mechanization, the connotation of agricultural machinery maintenance, summarizes the development situation of agricultural machinery maintenance industry at home and abroad, analyzes the existing problems in the agricultural machinery maintenance industry in China, and presents some suggestions and measures. It not only can regulate and guide the healthy development of agricultural machinery maintenance services industry, but also can support the transformation of traditional agriculture to modern agriculture.%文章简要描述了现代农业与农业机械化之间的关系及农机维修的内涵,梳理出国内外农机维修行业的发展现状,剖析了我国农机维修行业存在的问题,提出了几点建议和对策。这不仅能有效规范和引导农机维修服务业的健康发展,而且能支撑保障传统农业向现代农业的转变。

  11. Evaluating management tradeoffs between economic fiber production and other ecosystem services in a Chinese-fir dominated forest plantation in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Seely, Brad; Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John; Zheng, Dexiang; Chen, Pingliu; Wang, Tongli; Li, Qinglin

    2016-07-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is not only a valuable timber species, but also plays an important role in the provision of ecosystem services. Forest management decisions to increase the production of fiber for economic gain may have negative impacts on the long-term flow of ecosystem services from forest resources. Such tradeoffs should be taken into account to fulfill the requirements of sustainable forest management. Here we employed an established, ecosystem-based, stand-level model (FORECAST) in combination with a simplified harvest-scheduling model to evaluate the potential tradeoffs among indicators of provisional, regulating and supporting ecosystem services in a Chinese-fir-dominated landscape located in Fujian Province as a case study. Indicators included: merchantable volume harvested, biomass harvested, ecosystem carbon storage, CO2 fixation, O2 released, biomass nitrogen content, pollutant absorption, and soil fertility. A series of alternative management scenarios, representing different combinations of rotation length and harvest intensity, were simulated to facilitate the analysis. Results from the analysis were summarized in the form of a decision matrix designed to provide a method for forest managers to evaluate management alternatives and tradeoffs in the context of key indicators of ecosystem services. The scenario analysis suggests that there are considerable tradeoffs in terms of ecosystem services associated with stand and landscape-level management decisions. Longer rotations and increased retention tended to favor regulating and supporting services while the opposite was true for provisional services.

  12. Knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ict utilization in agricultural extension service delivery in Gazipur district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Prodhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the study was to assess the extent of knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization and to determine the relationship between the selected characteristics of the respondents and knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization in extension service delivery. The study was conducted in Gazipur district and comprised proportionate random sample of 90 extension workers from five upazila of Gazipur district. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. To measure the knowledge on ICT utilization 35 statements were selected regarding 7 ICT with five possible answer of each tools and a score of one was given to the right answer and zero to the wrong answer alternatively to measure the perception of the respondents rated each of 10 statements ICT utilization in agriculture on a 5-point Likert type scale and the total of these ratings formed perception index. The result of the study showed that out of seven ICT tools the knowledge of extension workers was highest in case of MS Word this was followed by internet/ web service and the lowest knowledge was found in case of Geographical Information System. It is observed that an overwhelming majority (88.9% of agricultural extension workers in the study area had low to medium knowledge towards ICT utilization. Findings reveal that the respondents had top most perception on the ICT utilization in respect of ‘Extension work can be greatly enhanced by ICT’ followed by on ‘The benefits of ICT use outweigh the financial burden involved’. The result also indicated that more than fourth-fifth (84.4% of the respondents had medium to high perception towards ICT utilization. There were significant relationship between service experience and use of the information sources of the respondents with their knowledge towards ICT utilization conversely innovativeness, cosmopoliteness and job satisfaction of the

  13. Current Situation and Prospects of Application of Mobile Agricultural Information Service Platform%农业移动信息服务平台的应用现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋林; 张培松; 罗微

    2012-01-01

    通过对农业移动信息服务平台应用的简介.分析农业移动信息服务平台的特点和不足之处性的建议,最后对农业移动信息服务平台的发展前景进行展望。%The agricultural mobile information service platform is to improve agricultural resources information popularization rate and utilization rate, the collection of agricultural information transmitted to the user via the mobile platform service platform. Agricultural information service platform by using the advanced network communication technology, users through SMS technology to gain the scientific agricultural technical knowledge. This article through to the agricultural information service platform for the application of brief introduction, analyzed a .g.ricultural information service platform advantages and disadvantages, it puts forward some suggestions on agriculture, the mobile information service platform development prospect.

  14. 76 FR 5778 - Public Availability of the Department of Agriculture FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Procurement and Property Management, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public availability of FY 2010 Service Contract... actions over $25,000 that were made in FY 2010. The information is organized by function to show how... with guidance issued on ] November 5, 2010 by the Office of Management and Budget's Office of...

  15. Global power production scenarios to 2100 and the dual role of forests: accelerated climate damage or regulating and provisioning ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    on bioelectricity from forest biomass and the associated environmental impacts are outlined using LCA unit process data. The power production is used as a simplified proxy for the global energy supply. It is assumed that the most suitable land under each scenario is reserved for food production, and that changes......, including non-renewable and renewable energy sources, the potential role of forest biomass is investigated. The demands for forest ecosystem services imposed by the global power production are assessed in the present study. Three global power supply scenarios to 2050 with different emphasis...

  16. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture.

  17. Smoothing point data into maps using SAS/GRAPH (trade name) software. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnacky, D.C.; Rubey, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Point of plot data are commonly available for mapping forest landscapes. Because such data are sampled, mapping a complete coverage usually requires some type of interpolation between plots. SAS/GRAPH software includes the G3GRID procedure for interpolating or smoothing this type of data to map with G3D or GCONTOUR procedures. However, the smoothing process in G3GRID is not easily controlled, nor can it be used to display missing data within rectangular grid maps. These shortcomings motivated development of SAS code that prepares point data for display in mapping units. This code links well with the rest of the SAS system to allow for powerful, easily controlled data analysis within mapping units. Examples are given for mapping forest vegetation with the GMAP procedure.

  18. Agricultural cropland mapping using black-and-white aerial photography, Object-Based Image Analysis and Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, M. F. A.; de Jong, S. M.; Sterk, G.; Addink, E. A.

    2017-02-01

    Land-use and land-cover (LULC) conversions have an important impact on land degradation, erosion and water availability. Information on historical land cover (change) is crucial for studying and modelling land- and ecosystem degradation. During the past decades major LULC conversions occurred in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America as a consequence of a growing population and economy. Most distinct is the conversion of natural vegetation into cropland. Historical LULC information can be derived from satellite imagery, but these only date back until approximately 1972. Before the emergence of satellite imagery, landscapes were monitored by black-and-white (B&W) aerial photography. This photography is often visually interpreted, which is a very time-consuming approach. This study presents an innovative, semi-automated method to map cropland acreage from B&W photography. Cropland acreage was mapped on two study sites in Ethiopia and in The Netherlands. For this purpose we used Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) and a Random Forest classification on a set of variables comprising texture, shape, slope, neighbour and spectral information. Overall mapping accuracies attained are 90% and 96% for the two study areas respectively. This mapping method increases the timeline at which historical cropland expansion can be mapped purely from brightness information in B&W photography up to the 1930s, which is beneficial for regions where historical land-use statistics are mostly absent.

  19. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  20. What is the future of the ecosystem services of the Alpine forest against a backdrop of climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Courbaud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain forests produce a large number of ecosystem services that are going to be affected by climate change. We are expecting an increase in high altitude species that could result in the decrease in resinous and subalpine species. These changes in species could adversely affect biodiversity and timber production. However, we also observe an increase in productivity that favours the production of energy wood and, at least temporarily, timber, as well as carbon storage. Given the possible rise in extreme climatic events, changes in vegetation could be marked by periods of decline, which will be very detrimental to the economic system, protection against natural hazards and biodiversity. Climate change will also have an indirect effect on the forest by increasing the demand for renewable energy and carbon storage. There is a lot of uncertainty about vegetation change predictions and this makes it difficult to define forest management adaptation strategies. Effective crisis management, monitoring of natural transformations of the forest based on the interaction between research and management (adaptive management and the explicit factoring in of the concept of uncertainty appear to be essential to the maintenance of the ecosystem services provided by the forest.La forêt de montagne produit de nombreux services écosystémiques qui vont être affectés par les changements climatiques. On attend une remontée des essences en altitude qui pourrait conduire à une diminution des résineux et des espèces du subalpin. Ces changements d’essences pourraient avoir un impact négatif sur la biodiversité et sur la production de bois d’œuvre. On observe cependant également une augmentation de la productivité favorable à la production de bois énergie et au moins temporairement de bois d’œuvre, ainsi qu’au stockage de carbone. Face à une augmentation possible des évènements climatiques extrêmes, les changements de végétation pourront