WorldWideScience

Sample records for agriculture forest service

  1. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Chattahoochee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,...

  2. 78 FR 11677 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... completion of an inventory of human remain under the control of the USDA, Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves... Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests and the Field Museum of Natural...

  3. 77 FR 32993 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, in cooperation with the...

  4. 78 FR 34125 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Juan National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Juan National Forest, Durango, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, San Juan National Forest has completed...

  5. 78 FR 34128 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, San Juan National Forest, Durango, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, San Juan National Forest has completed...

  6. 77 FR 39506 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Tongass National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Tongass National Forest, Craig Ranger District, Craig, AK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Tongass National Forest,...

  7. 75 FR 68000 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Hiawatha National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Hiawatha National Forest, Escanaba, MI and University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI... inventory of human remains in the control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,...

  8. 77 FR 68822 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark...: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis National Forests has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation...

  9. 77 FR 68821 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark...: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis National Forests has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation...

  10. 75 FR 44280 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    .... Officials of the American Museum of Natural History and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.... Officials of the American Museum of Natural History and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  11. 77 FR 68824 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Tongass National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Tongass National Forest, Juneau, AK, and the University of Alaska, Museum of the North, Fairbanks, AK... (USDA), Forest Service, Tongass National Forest, and the University of Alaska, Museum of the North,...

  12. 77 FR 52055 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, in.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Natural History Museum of...

  13. 77 FR 51562 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, in.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items located at the Natural History Museum of Utah...

  14. 77 FR 57113 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Arapaho and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forest and Pawnee National Grasslands, Fort Collins, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA),...

  15. US Forest Service National Forest System Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents...

  16. 75 FR 52014 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cherokee National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ..., Cherokee National Forest, Cleveland, TN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is... control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cherokee National Forest, Cleveland, TN... with the Cherokee Tribes. The Cherokee are represented by the Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma; Eastern...

  17. 78 FR 59953 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Coconino National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service..., Coconino National Forest, and the Sharlot Hall Museum have completed an inventory of human remains and... inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of the USDA Forest...

  18. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  19. 75 FR 70026 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Vancouver, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and...

  20. 76 FR 14068 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Sequoia National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Sequoia National Forest, Porterville, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice...), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects...

  1. FS National Forest Dataset (US Forest Service Proclaimed Forests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  2. 75 FR 45656 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the U.S... Manager, Siuslaw National Forest, 1130 Forestry Lane/PO Box 400, Waldport, OR 97394, telephone (541)...

  3. 77 FR 11584 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila... National Forest and the Field Museum of Natural History have completed an inventory of human remains, in...) published in the Federal Register for human remains and associated funerary objects from these sites (63...

  4. 76 FR 43718 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila... National Forest and the Field Museum of Natural History have completed an inventory of human remains and... Federal Register for these sites (63 FR 39293-39294, July 22, 1998; 70 FR 44686-44687, August 3, 2005;...

  5. US Forest Service Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...

  6. US Forest Service Healthy Forest Restoration Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...

  7. 78 FR 13621 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Forest Service San Bernardino National Forest; California; Omya Sentinel and Butterfield Quarry Expansion Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Bernardino National Forest (SBNF); and A Mining and...

  8. US Forest Service Recreation Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation opportunity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the public...

  9. 78 FR 2436 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark... Federal Register (77 FR 68819-68820, November 16, 2012; 77 FR 68822-68824, November 16, 2012). The use of.... Correction In the Federal Register (77 FR 68819-68820, November 16, 2012), paragraph seven, sentence one...

  10. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  11. US Forest Service Land Utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture for conservation and utilization under Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm...

  12. US Forest Service Special Interest Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts National Forest System land parcels that have management or use limits placed on them by the Forest Service. Examples include:...

  13. US Forest Service Original Proclaimed National Forests and National Grasslands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  14. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations...

  15. US Forest Service Land Status and Encumbrance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service designed to portray US Forest Service Land Status Record System data. The map service is for querying and displaying Land Status Record System...

  16. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails With Data Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. It also depicts the availability of trails...

  17. US Forest Service Stewardship Contracting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the locations of activities within the Stewardship Contracting Project Boundary. Activities are implemented through stewardship...

  18. US Forest Service Mineral Rights

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the subsurface estate representing mineral rights; it is collected only if the subsurface estate is...

  19. US Forest Service Hazardous Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting polygons representing FS land areas with a regulated use specification authorized by the Comprehensive Environmental Response,...

  20. US Forest Service Timber Harvests

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts the area planned and accomplished acres treated as a part of the timber harvest program of work, funded through the budget...

  1. US Forest Service Special Status Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting land areas that have distinct management/use authorities or agreements for Forest Service action. Includes: Cost Share Agreement...

  2. US Forest Service Recreation Area Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation area activity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the...

  3. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  4. US Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) and High Priority Restoration (HRP) project accomplishments. These are ten...

  5. Balancing Ecosystem Services and Disservices: Smallholder Farmers' Use and Management of Forest and Trees in an Agricultural Landscape in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tola Gemechu Ango

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmers' practices in the management of agricultural landscapes influence biodiversity with implications for livelihoods, ecosystem service provision, and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we examined how smallholding farmers in an agriculture-forest mosaic landscape in southwestern Ethiopia manage trees and forests with regard to a few selected ecosystem services and disservices that they highlighted as "beneficial" or "problematic." Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from six villages, located both near and far from forest, using participatory field mapping and semistructured interviews, tree species inventory, focus group discussions, and observation. The study showed that farmers' management practices, i.e., the planting of trees on field boundaries amid their removal from inside arable fields, preservation of trees in semimanaged forest coffee, maintenance of patches of shade coffee fields in the agricultural landscape, and establishment of woodlots with exotic trees result in a restructuring of the forest-agriculture mosaic. In addition, the strategies farmers employed to mitigate crop damage by wild mammals such as baboons and bush pigs, e.g., migration and allocation of migrants on lands along forests, have contributed to a reduction in forest and tree cover in the agricultural landscape. Because farmers' management practices were overall geared toward mitigating the negative impact of disservices and to augment positive services, we conclude that it is important to operationalize ecosystem processes as both services and disservices in studies related to agricultural landscapes.

  6. US Forest Service Integrated Resource Restoration (IRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting activities funded through the Integrated Resource Restoration (IRR) NFRR Budget Line Item and reported through the U.S. Forest...

  7. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  8. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data and biophysical gradient layers using...

  9. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Historical Fire Regimes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Historical fire regimes, intervals, and vegetation conditions are mapped using the Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool (VDDT). These data support fire and...

  10. US Forest Service Ranger District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundary that encompasses a Ranger District. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for...

  11. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  12. US Forest Service Geopolitical Units adjusted within Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting geopolitical data for the entire area of the United States and territories. This includes States, Counties or Boroughs,...

  13. US Forest Service Purchase Units under the Weeks Law

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture or previously approved by the National Forest Reservation Commission for...

  14. US Forest Service Land and Water Conservation Fund Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that displays LWCF projects for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), National Park Service (NPS), and U.S. Fish...

  15. Modeling the forest transition: forest scarcity and ecosystem service hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Akiko; Rudel, Thomas K

    2007-10-01

    An historical generalization about forest cover change in which rapid deforestation gives way over time to forest restoration is called "the forest transition." Prior research on the forest transition leaves three important questions unanswered: (1) How does forest loss influence an individual landowner's incentives to reforest? (2) How does the forest recovery rate affect the likelihood of forest transition? (3) What happens after the forest transition occurs? The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimum model of the forest transition to answer these questions. We assume that deforestation caused by landowners' decisions and forest regeneration initiated by agricultural abandonment have aggregated effects that characterize entire landscapes. These effects include feedback mechanisms called the "forest scarcity" and "ecosystem service" hypotheses. In the forest scarcity hypothesis, forest losses make forest products scarcer, which increases the economic value of forests. In the ecosystem service hypothesis, the environmental degradation that accompanies the loss of forests causes the value of ecosystem services provided by forests to decline. We examined the impact of each mechanism on the likelihood of forest transition through an investigation of the equilibrium and stability of landscape dynamics. We found that the forest transition occurs only when landowners employ a low rate of future discounting. After the forest transition, regenerated forests are protected in a sustainable way if forests regenerate slowly. When forests regenerate rapidly, the forest scarcity hypothesis expects instability in which cycles of large-scale deforestation followed by forest regeneration repeatedly characterize the landscape. In contrast, the ecosystem service hypothesis predicts a catastrophic shift from a forested to an abandoned landscape when the amount of deforestation exceeds the critical level, which can lead to a resource degrading poverty trap. These findings imply

  16. US Forest Service Periodical Cicada Broods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting periodical cicada distribution and expected year of emergence by cicada brood and county. The periodical cicada emerges in...

  17. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels, detailed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the surface estate. Each surface ownership parcel is tied to a particular legal transaction. The same...

  18. US Forest Service Hazardous Fuel Treatment Reduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting select activities that help reduce hazardous fuels on the landscape. This includes features representing Rx Fire, Wildfire,...

  19. US Forest Service Surface Drinking Water Importance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting watershed indexes to help identify areas of interest for protecting surface drinking water quality. The dataset depicted in this...

  20. US Forest Service Other Sub Surface Right

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas with ownership parcels of the subsurface estate, excluding mineral rights; it is collected only if the subsurface estate is...

  1. US Forest Service Brush Disposal Funded Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts the area of activities funded through BDBD and PPPP budget line item and reported through the FACTS database. The objective of...

  2. US Forest Service Right of Way

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas with a privilege to pass over the land of another in some particular path; usually an easement over the land of another; a...

  3. US Forest Service Motor Vehicle Use Map: Roads and Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Forest Service roads and trails that are designated for motor vehicle use under the official U.S. Government Code of Federal...

  4. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a township. Sections cover US Forest Service...

  5. Survey Boundaries maintained by the US Forest Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting surface management agency lines which are the surveyed boundary lines for which the Forest Service is responsible for making and...

  6. 77 FR 13625 - Notice of Inventory Completion: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest... Agriculture, Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, has completed an inventory of human remains and... collection stored at the Daniel Boone National Forest while doing a collections inventory. No...

  7. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Existing Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Existing Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data, satellite imagery and biophysical gradient layers...

  8. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Canopy Fuel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE canopy fuel data describe the composition and characteristics of wildland surface fuel and can be implemented within models to predict wildland fire...

  9. US Forest Service Wildfire Hazard Potential 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The wildfire hazard potential (WHP) is a raster geospatial product at 270-meter resolution covering all lands in the conterminous United States. It can help to...

  10. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Surface Fuel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE surface fuel data describe the composition and characteristics of wildland surface fuel and can be implemented within models to predict wildland fire...

  11. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest...

  12. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Colorado Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www that depicts the boundaries of Roadless Areas designated by the Colorado Roadless Rule of 2012 and managed by the US Forest...

  13. US Forest Service National Forest Lands with Nationally Designated Management or Use Limitations 

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting an area depicting National Forest System land parcels that have management or use limits placed on them by legal authority....

  14. 78 FR 18307 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register of January.... Correction In the Federal Register of January 31, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-02091, on page 6806, in the...

  15. 36 CFR 200.3 - Forest Service functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture, the broad responsibilities of the Forest Service are: (1) Leadership in forestry. The Forest Service provides overall leadership in forest and forest-range conservation, development, and use. This... Management Act of October 22, 1976 (16 U.S.C. 472a, 476, 500, 513-516, 521b; 576b, 1600-1602, 1604,...

  16. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with Title II of the Act. The... call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8:00 a.m. and 8:00...

  17. Conservation agriculture and ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Dillaha, Theo A.; Cheryl B. Heatwole Shenk; Moore, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation agriculture has many agricultural and food security benefits. In addition, conservation agriculture has potential on- and off-site ecosystem service benefits that are the focus of this paper. Ecosystem services provided by conservation agriculture fall into three main categories: provisioning services such as increased food production; regulating services such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation, reducing losses of soil, pesticides, nutrients and other potential contam...

  18. US Forest Service National Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated as Wild and Scenic Rivers. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for determining...

  19. US Forest Service Wild and Scenic Rivers: Legal Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the status of areas designated as Wild and Scenic Rivers. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools...

  20. 78 FR 34131 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects. Lineal.... ADDRESSES: Julie Coleman, Heritage Program Manager, San Juan National Forest, 15 Burnett Court, Durango, CO... National Forest, Durango, CO, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25...

  1. US Forest Service Survey parcels described by metes and bounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting survey parcels described by a metes and bounds description. Examples include: land lots, housing subdivision lots, mineral...

  2. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: 2001 Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www, that depicts the official data for the 2001 Roadless Area Conservation Rule (36 CFR 294, Subpart B). It contains the...

  3. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data...

  4. US Forest Service Tribal Lands Ceded to the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts sixty-seven maps from Royce’s 1897 report that have been scanned, georeferenced in JPEG2000 format, and digitized to create...

  5. US Forest Service National Wild and Scenic River Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts the river corridors of each Wild and Scenic River designated by Congress or the Secretary of the Interior for the United...

  6. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Idaho Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www, that depicts the Inventoried Roadless Areas that were used in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the 2008...

  7. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Townships

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System grid that are referenced by their tier and range numbers, and are normally...

  8. US Forest Service Wilderness Areas: Legal Status 2 - Grid Polygon Fill

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting status of parcels for Forest Service land congressionally designated as wilderness such as National Wilderness Areas. This map...

  9. US Forest Service Motor Vehicle Use Map: Roads and Trails (With Labels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Forest Service roads and trails that are designated for motor vehicle use under the official U.S. Government Code of Federal...

  10. A Study of Eco-service Valuation of Saihanba Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The study made a monetized valuation of eco-service provided by forests at Saihanba Mechanic Forest Farm in terms of water conservancy, soil conversation, carbon sequestration, micro-climate adjustment, air quality improvement, protection for agriculture, biodiversity maintenance, and landscape & recreation. The results revealed that the total value of various eco-services is 3.061 billion yuan/a, while the eco-services of unit area forest values at 42 300 yuan/(ha·a).

  11. Forest and agricultural resources and their conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballaire, P. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    Forest, hedges, isolated trees are the main sources of wood fuel in France, but wood wastes are coming to the bio-fuels market as well. The forest areas are regularly increasing and the unexploited potential is still very large, whereas bocage is becoming extinct. On top of that, land disuse, over production and the new EC agricultural policy are reasons to boost the search for new farming channels. (TEC). 1 fig.

  12. US Forest Service Watershed Condition Class and Assessment Status 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The map contains the Watershed Condition Class and assessment status for the assessment year of 2011. The layer is symbolized by the Watershed Condition Class for...

  13. US Forest Service Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project maps the location, extent, and severity of all large fires in the conterminous United States (CONUS), Alaska,...

  14. US Forest Service FSTopo topographic quadrangle - Map products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The FSTopo cartographic database supports the creation of 1:24,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic PDF maps for the conterminous United States and Puerto Rico, and 15...

  15. US Forest Service FSTopo topographic quadrangle - vector data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The FSTopo cartographic database supports the creation of 1:24,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic PDF maps for the conterminous United States and Puerto Rico, and 15...

  16. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service 1996 annual report wetlands research related to the Pen Branch restoration effort on the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Kolka, R.K. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Trettin, C.C. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service and their collaborators (SRTC, SREL, and several universities) in wetlands monitoring and research on the Savannah River Site. This report describes the rationales, methods, and results (when available) of these studies and summarizes and integrates the available information through 1996.

  17. Working group on agriculture and forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture and forest crops sustain the social and economic infrastructures of North America. These major renewable resources are particularly sensitive to a changing climate. A working group was held as part of the climate change conference to discuss impacts of global climatic change on agriculture and forests. The working group agreed on the following needs: to improve understanding of the sensitivity of crops and animals to changing climate; to identify the contribution of greenhouse gases from agriculture and forests to the atmosphere; to evaluate future water supply demands, especially the practicality of irrigation; to monitor changes in the soil resource base; to actively pursure the development of synthetic, hybrid or paleoclimate change analogues to complement general circulation models of the atmosphere; to develop potential genetic or biotechnology options within future envelopes of climate change and variability; to actively support agricultural and forestry opportunities as possible mitigating solutions to climate change; to develop scenarios that focus on global economic and international trade balances under climatic change; and to foster a proactive approach

  18. Torrefaction process for agriculture and forest residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Pimchuai, A. [Burapha Univ., Chonburi (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 2 energy crops, notably agriculture and forest residues, were torrefied with subsequent analysis of the solid residues. The purpose of the study was to remove some disadvantages of agriculture residues as a fuel and to enhance their solid fuel qualities. The 5 agriculture residues studied were rice husk, sawdust, peanut husk, bagasse and water hyacinth. Temperature and residence time for the process was varied at 250, 270, 300 degrees C and 1, 1.5, 2 hours respectively. The torrefied products were then characterized in terms of yield, proximate analysis, heating value and hydrophobic properties. The optimum condition based on mass and energy balance for the torrefaction process was determined. The torrefied products were found to be more brown in colour and had lower moisture content and volatile matter. The fixed carbon content and energy density of the ash increased. The bagasse that was torrefied at 300 degrees C and 1.5 hours had the highest HHV content, comparable to that of lignite. Depending on the severity of the torrefaction conditions, the torrefied fuel can contain up to 98 per cent of the original energy content on a mass basis. It was concluded that the operating temperature is the most important parameter for producing a better torrefied product.

  19. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  20. US Forest Service Land and Water Conservation Fund: Proposed Land Purchases

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that displays Land and Water Conservation Fund. Created by Congress in 1964, the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) provides money to...

  1. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: 2001, Idaho, and Colorado Rules Combined

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www, that depicts the Inventoried Roadless Areas that were used in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the 2001...

  2. US Forest Service Historical Woodland Density of the Conterminous United States, 1873

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that includes polygons with a minimum of 40 acres of woodlands per square mile as depicted in William H. Brewer’s 1873 map of woodland...

  3. US Forest Service Parcels withdrawn from settlement, sale, mineral location, and/or entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting federal land parcels that are withdrawn from settlement, sale, location, or entry under some or all of the general land and...

  4. Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Swinton, Scott M. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039 (United States); Ricketts, Taylor H. [Conservation Science Program, World Wildlife Fund - U.S., Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Kremen, Claire [Department of Environmental Science Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114 (United States); Carney, Karen [U.S. Agency for International Development, Biodiversity and Forestry Team, Washington, DC 20523 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Agricultural ecosystems are actively managed by humans to optimize the provision of food, fiber, and fuel. These ecosystem services from agriculture, classified as provisioning services by the recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, depend in turn upon a web of supporting and regulating services as inputs to production (e.g., soil fertility and pollination). Agriculture also receives ecosystem dis-services that reduce productivity or increase production costs (e.g., herbivory and competition for water and nutrients by undesired species). The flows of these services and dis-services directly depend on how agricultural ecosystems are managed and upon the diversity, composition, and functioning of remaining natural ecosystems in the landscape. Managing agricultural landscapes to provide sufficient supporting and regulating ecosystem services and fewer dis-services will require research that is policy-relevant, multidisciplinary and collaborative. This paper focuses on how ecosystem services contribute to agricultural productivity and how ecosystem dis-services detract from it. We first describe the major services and dis-services as well as their key mediators. We then explore the importance of scale and economic externalities for the management of ecosystem service provision to agriculture. Finally, we discuss outstanding issues in regard to improving the management of ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. (author)

  5. Valuing Forest Products and Services in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The country’s forest areas occupy 21.7 million ha (approximately 27.6 percent of its total surface area), and are inhabited by close to 10 percent of its total population. The forest sector generates a variety of timber and non-timber products and eco-services. The Turkish government has put great effort into reforestation and forest management, increasing the total area of forests. In the...

  6. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  7. Consultancy Services in Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Žimbrek

    1997-12-01

    Meetings, lectures, practical demonstration of technology, mass media and introduction of computer technology are important aids which should be further developed as well as bigger financial aid for these purposes. Those depend on better future economic position of the agriculture and the economy in a whole.

  8. Location-specific information services for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    AGCommons (Agricultural Geospatial Commons)

    2010-01-01

    This pamphlet describes the Africa-based service bureau, AGCommons (Agricultural Geospatial Commons), and the geospatial information technology services it provides. In sub-Saharan Africa the unpredictability of nature takes a huge toll on the agricultural sector. To promote successful farms in sub-Saharan Africa, this group offers location-specific information concerning pest control, market access, crop productivity and more. Using GPS, statistical data, maps, automation, and database stora...

  9. Identifying forest ecosystem regions for agricultural use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinsu Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Balancing agricultural needs with the need to protect biodiverse environments presents a challenge to forestry management. An imbalance in resource production and ecosystem regulation often leads to degradation or deforestation such as when excessive cultivation damages forest biodiversity. Lack of information on geospatial biodiversity may hamper forest ecosystems. In particular, this may be an issue in areas where there is a strong need to reassign land to food production. It is essential to identify and protect those parts of the forest that are key to its preservation. This paper presents a strategy for choosing suitable areas for agricultural management based on a geospatial variation of Shannon's vegetation diversity index (SHDI. This index offers a method for selecting areas with low levels of biodiversity and carbon stock accumulation ability, thereby reducing the negative environmental impact of converting forest land to agricultural use. The natural forest ecosystem of the controversial 1997 Ex-Mega Rice Project (EMRP in Indonesia is used as an example. Results showed that the geospatial pattern of biodiversity can be accurately derived using kriging analysis and then effectively applied to the delineation of agricultural production areas using an ecological threshold of SHDI. A prediction model that integrates a number of species and families and average annual rainfall was developed by principal component regression (PCR to obtain a geospatial distribution map of biodiversity. Species richness was found to be an appropriate indicator of SHDI and able to assist in the identification of areas for agricultural use and natural forest management.

  10. 7 CFR 2.43 - Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. 2.43... for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services § 2.43 Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. (a... Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service: (1) Coordinate the carrying out by Department agencies of...

  11. Challenges for Low-Carbon Agriculture and Forest Conservation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Britaldo Soares Filho; Letícia Lima; Maria Bowman; Letícia Viana

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the feedbacks between climate change, deforestation, and agricultural expansion and presents scenarios of agricultural demand and forest conservation and restoration policies in Brazil. In addition, it discusses the implications of these scenarios for food and befoul supply, the provision of ecosystem services, and climate change mitigation. Modeling these scenarios provides an integrated assessment of plausible pathways for achieving the goals of the National Climate Cha...

  12. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  13. 2006 Precision Agricultural Services Dealership Survey Results

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Whipker; jay Akridge

    2006-01-01

    Precision technologies are now well-integrated into the agricultural industry – both at the farm level and at the crop input dealer level. No longer are crop input dealers only using the technologies to bring new services to their customers, they are also utilizing the technology in their own businesses to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their business operations. In early 2006, Crop Life magazine and Purdue University’s Center for Food and Agricultural Business conducted a survey...

  14. 2008 PRECISION AGRICULTURAL SERVICES DEALERSHIP SURVEY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Whipker, Linda D.; Akridge, Jay T.

    2008-01-01

    Precision technologies are now well-integrated into the agricultural industry – both at the farm level and at the crop input dealer level. No longer are crop input dealers only using the technologies to bring new services to their customers, they are also utilizing the technology in their own businesses to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their operations. In early 2008, Crop Life magazine and Purdue University’s Center for Food and Agricultural Business conducted a survey for the ...

  15. Forests to fields. Restoring tropical lands to agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D

    1993-04-01

    In discussing land use in tropical forest regions, there is an emphasis on the following topics: the need for the expansion of cropping areas, the precedent for use of the tropical forest for cropping based on past use patterns, the pressure from conservationists against cropping, debunking the mythology that forests are "natural" and refuting the claims that forest clearance is not reversible, the archeological evidence of past forest use for agricultural purposes, abandonment of tropical land to forest, and rotation of forest and field. The assumption is that the way to stop food importation is to increase crop production in the tropics. Crop production can be increased through 1) land intensification or clearing new land, 2) output per unit of land increases, or 3) reallocation to agriculture land previously cleared and overgrown with tropical forest. "Temporary" reuse of land, which reverted back to tropical forest, is recommended. This reuse would ease population pressure, and benefit bioconservation, while populations stabilize and further progress is made in international plant breeding. The land would eventually be returned to a forest state. Conservation of tropical forest areas should be accomplished, after an assessment has been made of its former uses. Primary forests need to identified and conversion to farming ceased. Research needs to be directed to understanding the process of past forest regeneration, and to devising cropping systems with longterm viability. The green revolution is unsuitable for traditional cropping systems, is contrary to demands of international funding agencies for sustainability, and is not affordable by most poor farmers. Only .48 million sq. km of closed forest loss was in tropical rainforests; 6.53 million sq. km was lost from temperate forests cleared for intensive small-scale peasant farming. The use of tropical forest land for farming has some benefits; crops in the wetter tropics are perennial, which would "reduce

  16. Compensation for forest ecological services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Can; Wang Sen; Zhang Wei; Liang Dan

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses methods to compensate for the costs incurred in the supply of forest ecological services (FES), i.e.government dominated and market-based instruments as well as progress made so far in China. Factors which constrain the supply of these services and potential policy improvements are presented.

  17. Service network analysis for agricultural mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.

  18. Multiple-Use Zoning Model for Private Forest Owners in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Truax

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many small-scale private forest owners increasingly focus their management on amenity functions rather than on wood production functions. This paradigm shift is an opportunity to implement novel forestry management approaches, such as forested land zoning. Forest zoning consists in separating the land base in three zones that have different management objectives: (1 conservation zones; (2 ecosystem management zones; and (3 intensive production zones, which locally increase productivity, as a trade off to increase the land area dedicated to conservation and ecosystem management. We evaluate the ecological feasibility of implementing forest zoning on a private property (216 ha at St-Benoît-du-Lac, Québec (Canada characterised by agricultural and forest land uses. As a basis for delineating conservation and ecosystem management zones, historical and contemporary data and facts on forest composition and dynamics were reviewed, followed by a detailed forest vegetation analysis of forest communities. Delineating intensive production zones was straightforward, as fertile agricultural field margins located downslope were used to establish multifunctional hybrid poplar buffers. At St-Benoît-du-Lac, a realistic zoning scenario would consist of (1 conservation zones covering 25% of the forestland (37 ha; (2 ecosystem management zones covering 75% of the forestland (113 ha, including restoration zones on 24 ha; and (3 intensive production zones on 2.8 ha. Based on a yield projection of 13 t/ha/year for hybrid poplars, only 5.6% of agricultural field areas would need to be converted into agroforestry systems to allow for the loss of wood production in a conservation zone of 37 ha of forest. Ecosystem services provision following the implementation of zoning would include increased habitat quality, biodiversity protection and enhancement (by restoration of some tree species, carbon storage, non-point source aquatic pollution control, local biomass

  19. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  20. Agricultural and forest resource surveys from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on the use of spaceborne remote sensors as aid to agriculture and forestry for soil mapping, crop yield predictions, acreage determinations, damage assessment, and numerous other benefits. Some results obtained by ERTS 1 are discussed in terms of the significance of information derived and the potential use of these data for better management of our natural resources.

  1. 77 FR 11569 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated ] with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest...

  2. 7 CFR 2.79 - Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. 2.79... for Marketing and Regulatory Programs § 2.79 Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. (a... the Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service: (1) Exercise the functions of the Secretary...

  3. Experimental assessment of ecosystem services in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Porter, John Roy; Wratten, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems which benefit humankind (for example, pollination of crops by insects, or water filtration by wetlands). They underpin life on earth, provide major inputs to many economic sectors and support our lifestyles. Agricul...... maintained and enhanced in our farmlands and cities. This book will be useful to students and researchers from a variety of fields, including applied ecology, environmental economics, agriculture and forestry, and also to local and regional planners and policy makers....

  4. 76 FR 19952 - Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting, Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In accordance.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee...

  5. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with different widths and agricultural surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Simões da Silva, Laura; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The riparian forests are essential to maintaining the quality of water resources, aquifer recharge and biodiversity. Due to the ecological services provided by riparian forests, these areas are considered by the law as Permanent Preservation Areas, being mandatory maintenance and restoration. However, the obligation of restoration and the extent of the Permanent Preservation Areas as defined by the Brazilian Forest Code, based on water body width, elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data on the influence of the size of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. Studies that evaluate the ideal width of riparian forests to guarantee their ecological functions are scarce and not conclusive, especially when we consider newly restored forests, located in agricultural areas. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests with different widths situated in agricultural areas. The two study areas are located in a Semideciduous Tropical Forest inserted in sugarcane landscapes of São Paulo state, Brazil. The installed plots had 60 and 100 m in length and the riparian forest has a width of 15, 30 and 50 m. The characteristics of the sediments inside the plots were evaluated by detailed morphological and micromorphological studies as well as physical characterization. The dynamics of deposition and the amount of deposited sediments have been assessed with graded metal stakes partially buried inside the plots. The intensity, frequency and distribution of rainfall, as well as the occurrence of extreme events, have been evaluated by data collected from rain gauges installed in the areas. We expect that smaller widths are not able to retain sediments originated from the adjacent sugarcane areas. We also believe that extreme events are responsible for generating most of the sediments. The results will be important to support the discussion about an

  6. Current Status and Trend of Forest Hydrological Services Market Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Of the many services that forests provide, hydrological services are among the most valuable, and it becomes more scarce with the growing demands by human beings. As a kind of incentive measure for protecting forest, forest hydrological services markets have been developed in many countries around the world and some valuable experiences have been achieved. The paper reviews the experiments carried out in the world and their research findings on forest hydrological services market, and presents the issues to...

  7. Managing Forests for Water in the Anthropocene—The Best Kept Secret Services of Forest Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Creed, Irena F.; Marian Weber; Francesco Accatino; Kreutzweiser, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Water and forests are inextricably linked. Pressures on forests from population growth and climate change are increasing risks to forests and their aquatic ecosystem services (AES). There is a need to incorporate AES in forest management but there is considerable uncertainty about how to do so. Approaches that manage forest ecosystem services such as fiber, water and carbon sequestration independently ignore the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their responses to management act...

  8. UAV FOR GEODATA ACQUISITION IN AGRICULTUREAL AND FORESTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Reidelstürz

    2012-09-01

    The airframe´s wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly“ brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 –7. In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload – and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural, forest and geodata aquisition is desired.

  9. Hydrological Services of Forests and Their Compensation Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrayanto Hendrayanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid decreas of natural forest, and more frequent disaster related to the roles of forest on precipitation, flood, drought, erosion, and sedimentation as well as landslides, biodiversity, and carbon sequestration have driven initiatives to find out economic instruments for raising incentives for better land rehabilitation and forest management. Payment or compensation for hydrological services of forest is one of economic instruments that was initiated  to address water availability, flood and drought, erosion, and sedimentation issues.  Hydrological services of forest to some extent are still debatable, and the magnitude of the services or influences of forest varies depending on the quality of forest cover and soil, climate, and physical characteristics of land. In most cases, payment or compensation schemes of forest services to the land owner or manager that have been implemented already, do not consider the actual forest hydrological services yet. Nevertheless, those payment schemes have been driving the activities of better land and forest uses, although they are still limited to small scales relative to the whole required area to produce forest hydrological services. This article reviews the hydrological services of forests and their compensation scheme developed in Indonesia.Keywords: forest, hydrological services, payment, compensation for environmental services

  10. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  11. Supplying Forest Services and Products from Natural Forests and Plantations: Can We Meet the Challenge?

    OpenAIRE

    Bevege, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Sensible and equitable use of the world’s forests while ensuring sustainable delivery of forest-based goods and services devolves upon many interlinked social, economic, environmental and developmental issues. Increasing global population, rising standards of living with concomitant consumption of forest products, and widening expectations of the forests to provide environmental services and regulate water supplies, are placing huge demands on forest resources. While the yield from industrial...

  12. Agricultural Abandonment, Suburban Growth, and Forest Expansion in Puerto Rico between 1991 and 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Gould

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of local economies to the globalization process can have a large effect on population and land-use dynamics. In countries with a high population density and relatively high levels of education, the globalization process has resulted in a shift in the local economy from agriculture to manufacturing, technology, and service sectors. This shift in the economy has impacted land-use dynamics by decreasing agricultural lands, increasing urban growth, and in some cases, increasing forest cover. This process of economic and forest transition has been well documented in Puerto Rico for the period 1950 to 1990, but some authors predicted that poor planning and continued urban growth would eliminate the gains in forest cover. To investigate the impacts of recent economic changes, we evaluated demographic and land-use changes for 880 “barrios” (i.e., neighborhoods, the smallest administrative unit, in Puerto Rico using government census data from 1990 and 2000 and land-cover classifications from 1991 and 2000. During this period, the population increased by 284 127 people (8.2%. Most of the growth was in the suburban barrios, whereas urban barrios lost population. This shift was reflected by the construction of more than 100 000 housing units in suburban barrios. Although urban sprawl is perceived as the major land-cover change, urban cover only increased from 10% to 11% between 1990 and 2000, whereas the increase in forest cover was much greater (28% to 40%. Grasslands and shrublands were the major sources of new urban and forest areas in 2000. Although these results are encouraging in terms of increasing forest cover, most of the new development has been concentrated in the coastal plains, which are the location of most of the remaining agricultural areas, a few protected areas, and threatened ecosystems (e.g., mangroves.

  13. Current Status and Progress of Market for Forest Environmental Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; CHEN Jie

    2006-01-01

    With the analyses of the reasons for the emergence of domestic and overseas markets for forest environmental service and its significance, this paper summarizes the progress in the research on the market and reviews the operations of the markets for 4 kinds of forest environmental services that are watershed protection services, biodiversity protection services, carbon sequestration services and landscape services. At the end, the paper discusses the major problems arising in the creation of markets for environmental services and the developing tendency.

  14. Networking agricultural information systems and services in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, V.

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides an overview on the networking of the Agricultural Information Systems and Services in India. Covers a range of issues related to Agricultural Research Information System (ARIS) of ICAR in India. It discusses in detail the Agricultural Research Information System Network (ARISNET) for India and its modules consists of Agricultural Research Personnel Information System (ARPIS), Agricultural Research Financial Information System (ARFIS), Agricultural Research Library Informati...

  15. USDA forest service global change research: Monitored ecosystems, northern linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foresters and natural resource managers have traditionally based long-term plans (i.e., 100+ year harvest cycles) on the assumption of stable landscapes and climate. Global climate change undercuts these assumptions and may alter or invalidate some accepted natural resource management practices and paradigms. Possible changes in biomass productivity, shifting of forest species' latitudinal or elevational limits, and rapid changes in forest community species and age class composition, all have major implications for management of the nation's forests. The USDA Forest Service is undertaking a national research program to assess rates, significant processes, and management implications of possible climatic change for the nation's forests and related resources. Pacific Region Forest Service global change research places major emphasis on understanding and monitoring forest processes in the northern boreal forest and the sub-arctic taiga of Alaska, which is potentially sensitive to climatic warming and to shifts in precipitation regime. A major terrestrial carbon pool, taiga forests and organic soils may also be important in the flux of greenhouse gases between landscape and atmosphere. Forest Service research emphasizes an ecosystem approach, incorporating landscape- and watershed-level field research with smaller-scale studies of forest ecosystem response mechanisms. Ecological monitoring is critical, and includes establishment of a monitoring mega-transect from northern latitudinal tree line to mediterranean/dry temperate forest/shrublands. Emphasis is placed on the most critical Pacific Region ecosystems: northern boreal forest (taiga), moist temperate forest, and mediterranean/dry temperate forest (chaparral/southern Ponderosa pine)

  16. A decision framework for identifying models to estimate forest ecosystem services gains from restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Zachary; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Verdone, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Restoring degraded forests and agricultural lands has become a global conservation priority. A growing number of tools can quantify ecosystem service tradeoffs associated with forest restoration. This evolving “tools landscape” presents a dilemma: more tools are available, but selecting appropriate tools has become more challenging. We present a Restoration Ecosystem Service Tool Selector (RESTS) framework that describes key characteristics of 13 ecosystem service assessment tools. Analysts enter information about their decision context, services to be analyzed, and desired outputs. Tools are filtered and presented based on five evaluative criteria: scalability, cost, time requirements, handling of uncertainty, and applicability to benefit-cost analysis. RESTS uses a spreadsheet interface but a web-based interface is planned. Given the rapid evolution of ecosystem services science, RESTS provides an adaptable framework to guide forest restoration decision makers toward tools that can help quantify ecosystem services in support of restoration.

  17. Bird and bat predation services in tropical forests and agroforestry landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, B; Karp, DS; Bumrungsri, S; Darras, K; Gonthier, D; Huang, JCC; Lindell, CA; Maine, JJ; Mestre, L; Michel, NL; Morrison, EB; Perfecto, I.; Philpott, SM; Şekercioğlu, ÇH; Silva, RM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society. Understanding distribution patterns and multitrophic interactions is critical for managing bat- and bird-mediated ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest and non-pest arthropods. Despite the ecological and economic importance of bats and birds in tropical forests, agroforestry systems, and agricultural systems mixed with natural forest, a systematic review of their impact is still missing. A growing number of bird and bat exclosure experiment...

  18. 7 CFR 2.68 - Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Education, and Economics: Review all proposed decisions having substantial economic policy implications. ... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.68 Administrator, National Agricultural..., Education, and Economics to the Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service: (1) Prepare...

  19. Forest restoration and forest communities: have local communities benefited from forest service contracting of ecosystem management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Cassandra; Reyes, Yolanda E

    2008-08-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively impacted by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article examines 12 years of Forest Service land management contracting in western Oregon, Washington, and northern California to evaluate if contractors located in communities near national forests have been awarded more land management contracts and contract value over time. We find that land management contracting spending has declined dramatically and, once we control for intervening factors, we find that local contractors have received a smaller proportion of land management contracts over time. PMID:18521660

  20. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E.; Rabotyagov, Sergey S.

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at 217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and 160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  1. [Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-02-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluated the economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China in 2003, based on the long-term and continuous observations of economic forest ecosystems in this country, the sixth China national forest resources inventory data, and the price parameter data from the authorities in the world, and by applying the law of market value, the method of substitution of the expenses, and the law of the shadow project. The results showed that in 2003, the total value of economic forest ecosystem services in China was 11763.39 x 10(8) yuan, and the total value of the products from economic forests occupied 19.3% of the total ecosystem services value, which indicated that the economic forests not only provided society direct products, but also exhibited enormous eco-economic value. The service value of the functions of economic forests was in the order of water storage > C fixation and O2 release > biodiversity conservation > erosion control > air quality purification > nutrient cycle. The spatial pattern of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China had the same trend with the spatial distribution of water and heat resources and biodiversity. To understand the differences of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China was of significance in alternating the irrational arrangement of our present forestry production, diminishing the abuses of forest management, and establishing high grade, high efficient, and modernized economic forests. PMID:19459385

  2. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: Analyzing ecosystem services and disservices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concepts of ecosystem services and disservices when assessing the efficacy of using urban forests for mitigating pollution. A brief review of the literature identifies some pollution mitigation ecosystem services provided by urban forests. Existing ecosystem services definitions and typologies from the economics and ecological literature are adapted and applied to urban forest management and the concepts of ecosystem disservices from natural and semi-natural systems are discussed. Examples of the urban forest ecosystem services of air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration are used to illustrate issues associated with assessing their efficacy in mitigating urban pollution. Development of urban forest management alternatives that mitigate pollution should consider scale, contexts, heterogeneity, management intensities and other social and economic co-benefits, tradeoffs, and costs affecting stakeholders and urban sustainability goals. - Environmental managers should analyze ecosystem services and disservices when developing urban forest management alternatives for mitigating urban pollution.

  3. Regional Differences in the Demand for Agricultural Socialized Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; LI

    2015-01-01

    With the gradual deepening of China’s agricultural modernization,establishing a sound agricultural socialized service system is of great significance to improving the efficiency of resource use and achieving sustainable agricultural development. On the basis of the micro survey data on China’s 12 provinces,we analyze the intensity of demand for agricultural socialized service in different regions as well as the main factors influencing farmers’ demand willingness. The results show that there are regional differences in farmers’ demand for agricultural socialized service,and among multiple factors affecting the demand willingness of agricultural socialized service,farmers’ individual characteristics,household economic characteristics and farmers’ social communication behavior have varying degrees of impact on farmers’ choice of service.

  4. Forest ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanisms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence. PMID:21882001

  5. Forest Ecosystem Services and Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  6. Uav for Geodata Acquisition in Agricultureal and Forestal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelstürz, P.; Schrenk, L.; Littmann, W.

    2011-09-01

    of German Armed Forces in Neubiberg/Munich and the well-established precision farming company "Konsultationszentrum Liepen" to develop an applicable UAV for precision farming purposes. Currently Cis GmbH and Technologie Campus Freyung, with intense contact to the „flying robot"- team of DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, collaborate to optimize the existing UAV and to extend the applications from data aquisition for biomass diversity up to detect the water supply situation in agricultural fields, to support pest management systems as much as to check the possibilities to detect bark beetle attacks in european spruce in an early stage of attack (green attack phase) by constructing and integrating further payload modules with different sensors in the existing UAV airframe. Also effective data processing workflows are to be worked out. Actually in the existing UAV autopilotsystem "piccolo" (cloudcaptech) is integrated and also a replaceable payload module is available, carrying a VIS and a NIR camera to calculate maps of NDVI diversity as indicator of biomass diversity. Further modules with a 6 channel multispectral still camera and with a spectrometer are planned. The airframe's wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly" brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 -7). In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload - and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural

  7. Book of Abstracts - Managing Forests to Promote Environmental Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -ES II), funded by Nordic Forest Research (SNS) 2011-2015. This is an open network that brings together Nordic and Baltic forest researchers in order to provide scientific knowledge on the impacts of forest management on major environmental services for decision making within the forestry sector and for...... help maintain and enhance these services is crucial to sound decision making in the forest sector and in policy development. Such knowledge will support the forest management in adapting to new conditions in order to continue and increase the provisioning of valuable wood products and clean water......This book includes the abstracts of the oral and poster presentation of the conference ‘Managing Forests to Promote Environmental Services’, 3-5 November 2015, Copenhagen. The conference is arranged by the Centre of Advanced Research on Environmental Services from Nordic Forest Ecosystems (CAR...

  8. Agricultural Supplies and Services. Program Planning Guide: Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Richard; Marks, Michael

    The program planning guide for agricultural supplies and services was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of agricultural chemicals, feeds, seeds, fertilizers, and…

  9. Hydrological Services of Forests and Their Compensation Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrayanto Hendrayanto; Sudarsono Soedomo

    2013-01-01

    Rapid decreas of natural forest, and more frequent disaster related to the roles of forest on precipitation, flood, drought, erosion, and sedimentation as well as landslides, biodiversity, and carbon sequestration have driven initiatives to find out economic instruments for raising incentives for better land rehabilitation and forest management. Payment or compensation for hydrological services of forest is one of economic instruments that was initiated  to address water availability, flood a...

  10. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Re-establishment of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture re-established the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee...

  11. Pyrosequencing reveals changes in soil bacterial communities after conversion of Yungas forests to agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela S Montecchia

    Full Text Available The Southern Andean Yungas in Northwest Argentina constitute one of the main biodiversity hotspots in the world. Considerable changes in land use have taken place in this ecoregion, predominantly related to forest conversion to croplands, inducing losses in above-ground biodiversity and with potential impact on soil microbial communities. In this study, we used high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to assess whether land-use change and time under agriculture affect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities. We selected two areas dedicated to sugarcane and soybean production, comprising both short- and long-term agricultural sites, and used the adjacent native forest soils as a reference. Land-use change altered the composition of bacterial communities, with differences between productive areas despite the similarities between both forests. At the phylum level, only Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes changed in abundance after deforestation for sugarcane and soybean cropping, respectively. In cultivated soils, Verrucomicrobia decreased sharply (~80%, while Firmicutes were more abundant. Despite the fact that local diversity was increased in sugarcane systems and was not altered by soybean cropping, phylogenetic beta diversity declined along both chronosequences, evidencing a homogenization of soil bacterial communities over time. In spite of the detected alteration in composition and diversity, we found a core microbiome resistant to the disturbances caused by the conversion of forests to cultivated lands and few or none exclusive OTUs for each land-use type. The overall changes in the relative abundance of copiotrophic and oligotrophic taxa may have an impact in soil ecosystem functionality. However, communities with many taxa in common may also share many functional attributes, allowing to maintain at least some soil ecosystem services after forest conversion to croplands.

  12. Pyrosequencing reveals changes in soil bacterial communities after conversion of Yungas forests to agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecchia, Marcela S; Tosi, Micaela; Soria, Marcelo A; Vogrig, Jimena A; Sydorenko, Oksana; Correa, Olga S

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Andean Yungas in Northwest Argentina constitute one of the main biodiversity hotspots in the world. Considerable changes in land use have taken place in this ecoregion, predominantly related to forest conversion to croplands, inducing losses in above-ground biodiversity and with potential impact on soil microbial communities. In this study, we used high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to assess whether land-use change and time under agriculture affect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities. We selected two areas dedicated to sugarcane and soybean production, comprising both short- and long-term agricultural sites, and used the adjacent native forest soils as a reference. Land-use change altered the composition of bacterial communities, with differences between productive areas despite the similarities between both forests. At the phylum level, only Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes changed in abundance after deforestation for sugarcane and soybean cropping, respectively. In cultivated soils, Verrucomicrobia decreased sharply (~80%), while Firmicutes were more abundant. Despite the fact that local diversity was increased in sugarcane systems and was not altered by soybean cropping, phylogenetic beta diversity declined along both chronosequences, evidencing a homogenization of soil bacterial communities over time. In spite of the detected alteration in composition and diversity, we found a core microbiome resistant to the disturbances caused by the conversion of forests to cultivated lands and few or none exclusive OTUs for each land-use type. The overall changes in the relative abundance of copiotrophic and oligotrophic taxa may have an impact in soil ecosystem functionality. However, communities with many taxa in common may also share many functional attributes, allowing to maintain at least some soil ecosystem services after forest conversion to croplands. PMID:25793893

  13. Services in the Agricultural Production System. Comparative Structural Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Alecu, Iulian; Marian CONSTANTIN

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic of services in agriculture and offers a description of the dynamics recorded by this sector in the Romanian economy. It is taken into account that services in agriculture have a set of peculiarities, depending on the characteristics of rural environment.

  14. Climate Risks and Their Impact on Agriculture and Forests in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrer, J.; Jasper, K. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Beniston, M.; Goyette, S. [Department of Geosciences, University of Fribourg, Fribourg (Switzerland); Fischlin, A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETHZ, Schlieren/Zurich (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETHZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Pfister, C. [Institute of History, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    There is growing evidence that, as a result of global climate change, some of the most severe weather events could become more frequent in Europe over the next 50 to 100 years. The paper aims to (1) describe observed trends and scenarios for summer heat waves, windstorms and heavy precipitation, based on results from simulations with global circulation models, regional climate models, and other downscaling procedures, and (2) discuss potential impacts on agricultural systems and forests in Switzerland. Trends and scenarios project more frequent heavy precipitation during winter corresponding, for example, to a three-fold increase in the exceedance of today's 15-year extreme values by the end of the 21st century. This increases the risk of large-scale flooding and loss of topsoil due to erosion. In contrast, constraints in agricultural practice due to waterlogged soils may become less in a warmer climate. In summer, the most remarkable trend is a decrease in the frequency of wet days, and shorter return times of heat waves and droughts. This increases the risk of losses of crop yield and forage quality. In forests, the more frequent occurrence of dry years may accelerate the replacement of sensitive tree species and reduce carbon stocks, and the projected slight increase in the frequency of extreme storms by the end of the century could increase the risk of windthrow. Some possible measures to maintain goods and services of agricultural and forest ecosystems are mentioned, but it is suggested that more frequent extremes may have more severe consequences than progressive changes in means. In order to effectively decrease the risk for social and economic impacts, long-term adaptive strategies in agriculture and silviculture, investments for prevention, and new insurance concepts seem necessary.

  15. Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw JD

    2008-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis, previously known as Forest Survey, is one of the oldest research and development programs in the USDA Forest Service. Statistically-based inventory efforts that started in Scandinavian countries in the 1920s raised interest in developing a similar program in the U.S. The U.S. Congress established the research branch of the U.S. Forest Service in 1928, shortly after Dr. Yrjo Ilvessalo, leader of the first Finnish national forest inventory, met with President Calv...

  16. Marketing Practice of Forest Environmental Services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses marketing practice of forest environmental services in China, in accordance with Pigou's tax, governmental measures and market-based instruments are analyzed. The constrains and opportunities are presented in the paper, and there is still a long way for China to establish better marketing practices for environmental services of forest resources.

  17. Evidence for atmospheric deposition of pesticides to forests bordering agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have evaluated the ability of a forested system to intercept herbicides from the air and deliver them directly by rainfall to the forest floor and then to a receiving stream within the forested area. The study was conducted over a four year period at a site in an agricultural watershed in Maryla...

  18. Effective radium concentration in agricultural versus forest topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Girault, Frédéric; Bouquerel, Hélène; Bollinger, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Effective radium-226 activity concentration (ECRa), the radon-222 source term, was measured in the laboratory with 724 topsoil samples collected over a ∼110 km(2) area located ∼20 km south of Paris, France. More than 2100 radon accumulation experiments were performed, with radon concentration measured using scintillation flasks, leading to relative uncertainties on ECRa varying from 10% for ECRa = 2 Bq⋅kg(-1) to less than 6% for ECRa > 5 Bq⋅kg(-1). Small-scale dispersion, studied at one location with 12 samples, and systematically at 100 locations with three topsoils separated by 1 m, was of the order of 7%, demonstrating that a single soil sample is reasonably representative. Agricultural topsoils (n = 540) had an average (arithmetic) ECRa of 8.09 ± 0.11 Bq⋅kg(-1), and a range from 2.80 ± 0.22 to 19.5 ± 1.1 Bq⋅kg(-1), while forest topsoils (n = 184), with an average of 3.21 ± 0.14 Bq⋅kg(-1) and a range from 0.45 ± 0.12 to 9.09 ± 0.55 Bq⋅kg(-1), showed a clear systematic reduction of ECRa when compared with the closest agricultural soil sample. Large-scale organization of ECRa was impressive for agricultural topsoils, with homogeneous domains of several kilometers size, characterized by smooth variations smaller than 10%. These patches emerged despite heavy human remodeling; they are controlled by the main geographical units, but do not necessarily coincide with them. Valleys were characterized by larger dispersion and less organization. This study illustrates how biosphere and anthroposphere modify the soil distribution inherited from geological processes, an important baseline needed for the study of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the observed depletion of forest topsoils suggests an atmospheric radon signature of deforestation. PMID:27176109

  19. Program of payments for forest environmental services in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Malavasi, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP) implemented in Costa Rica is an alternative approach to halt environmental degradation derived from deforestation in low income nations. In this system, land owners are contracted for the ecological services they produce when they adopt land uses and forest management activities that do not affect negatively the environment and maintain people's life quality. The Costa Rican program of environmental services aims to protect primary forest...

  20. Managing Forests for Water in the Anthropocene—The Best Kept Secret Services of Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena F. Creed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water and forests are inextricably linked. Pressures on forests from population growth and climate change are increasing risks to forests and their aquatic ecosystem services (AES. There is a need to incorporate AES in forest management but there is considerable uncertainty about how to do so. Approaches that manage forest ecosystem services such as fiber, water and carbon sequestration independently ignore the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their responses to management actions, with the potential for unintended consequences that are difficult to predict. The ISO 31000 Risk Management Standard is a standardized framework to assess risks to forest AES and to prioritize management strategies to manage risks within tolerable ranges. The framework consists of five steps: establishing the management context, identifying, analyzing, evaluating and treating the risks. Challenges to implementing the framework include the need for novel models and indicators to assess forest change and resilience, quantification of linkages between forest practice and AES, and the need for an integrated systems approach to assess cumulative effects and stressors on forest ecosystems and AES. In the face of recent international agreements to protect forests, there are emerging opportunities for international leadership to address these challenges in order to protect both forests and AES.

  1. Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw JD

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest Inventory and Analysis, previously known as Forest Survey, is one of the oldest research and development programs in the USDA Forest Service. Statistically-based inventory efforts that started in Scandinavian countries in the 1920s raised interest in developing a similar program in the U.S. The U.S. Congress established the research branch of the U.S. Forest Service in 1928, shortly after Dr. Yrjo Ilvessalo, leader of the first Finnish national forest inventory, met with President Calvin Coolidge. Congress charged the Forest Service to find "facts as may be necessary in the determination of ways and means to balance the timber budget of the United States". As a result, Forest Survey maintained a timber focus for much its history. As society's interest in forests changed over time, so did information needs. Conflicts over resource allocation and use could not be resolved without up-to-date knowledge of forest status and trends. In response to society's needs, the Forest Inventory and Analysis program has evolved from Forest Survey to address diverse topics such as forest health, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, air pollution, and invasive plants, while continuing its mandate to monitor the Nation's timber supply. The Forest Inventory and Analysis program collects data on all land ownerships on an annual basis. The data are used to develop reports on a regular basis; reports and raw data are available to the public at no cost. The data are also used by scientists in a growing number of applications. A short history of the Forest Survey is presented with several examples of current research based on Forest Inventory and Analysis data.

  2. Agricultural Census 2012: Publishing Mashable GIS Big Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2012 Agricultural Census was released by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) on May 2nd 2014; published on a quinquennial basis covering all facets of American production agriculture. The Agricultural Census is a comprehensive source of uniform published agricultural data for every state and county in the US. This is the first Agricultural Census that is disseminated with web mapping services using REST APIs. USDA developed an open GIS mashable web portal that depicts over 250 maps on Crops and Plants, Economics, Farms, Livestock and Animals, and Operators. These mapping services written in JavaScript replace the traditional static maps published as the Ag Atlas. Web users can now visualize, interact, query, and download the Agricultural Census data in a means not previously discoverable. Stakeholders will now be able to leverage this data for activities such as community planning, agribusiness location suitability analytics, availability of loans/funds, service center locations and staffing, and farm programs and policies. Additional sites serving compatible mashable USDA Big Data web services are as follows: The Food Environment Atlas, The Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America, The Farm Program Atlas, SNAP Data System, CropScape, and VegScape. All portals use a similar data organization scheme of "Categories" and "Maps" providing interactive mashable web services for agricultural stakeholders to exploit.

  3. Forest haulage accessories for agricultural tractors in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin is a review of hydraulic timber cranes, forest trailers and skidding grapples and winches available on the Finnish markets in autumn 1995 as accessories for mounting onto agricultural tractors. The information is mainly based on the responses of the manufacturers and distributors to a mail questionnaire. Ten producers make timber cranes and a total of 46 crane models are presented. Nearly all the cranes can be mounted onto either the 3-point hitching device, the connecting rail of a trailer/sled, or directly onto the tractor frame. The net lifting force of the cranes varies in between 19.9 - 40.0 kNm. The maximum reach of the cranes varies between 4.3 and 9.8 m. The mechanical twin-lever system has almost entirely replaced the conventional six-lever operating type. Electro-hydraulic pre-control is included in the accessories available for many of the cranes. There are twelve producers and 37 models of forestry trailers, with eight including power transmission. All these trailers are of the bogie type. Their carrying capacity varies between 6 000 - 12 500 kilos. Five manufacturers produce six models of 3-point hitchable hydraulic skidding grabbles were listed. all are provided with a frame joint easing the job of grasping and skidding of timber. Skidding winches mountable onto the 3-point hitching device are of three producers and seven models. The tractive force varies between 28 and 60 kN. All are provided with a disc clutch

  4. Nitrous oxide production and consumption potential in an agricultural and a forest soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kewei; Struwe, Sten; Kjøller, Annelise; Guanxiong, Chen

    Both a laboratory incubation experiment using soils from an agricultural field and a forest and field measurements at the same locations were conducted to determine nitrous oxide (N2O) production and consumption (reduction) potentials using the acetylene (C2H2) inhibition technique. Results from....... The field measurements show that average N2O emission rates were 0.56 and 0.59 kg N ha-1 in the agricultural field and forest, respectively. When C2H2 was provided in the field measurements, N2O emission rates from the agricultural field and forest increased by 38 and 51%, respectively. Nitrous oxide...

  5. Service network analysis for agricultural mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller Jeffrey D; Kelly Brian; Law Susan; Pollard Georgia; Fragar Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of men...

  6. An ontology-based collaborative service framework for agricultural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, China has developed modern agriculture energetically. An effective information framework is an important way to provide farms with agricultural information services and improve farmer's production technology and their income. The mountain areas in central China are dominated by agri...

  7. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Research Service....

  8. 2008 USDA Forest Service Lidar: Sandy River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Sandy River study area in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service. The areas...

  9. Marketing in the Forest Service :a focus on agency image

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Gwen N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of a popularly held negative image of the USDA Forest Service. Examples from a variety of media vehicles are included to support the claim that a negative image is prevalent. There is also considerable anecdotal evidence to suggest that many people have only the vaguest idea of what the Forest Service is all about. The adoption of a marketing perspective is proposed to increase awareness of the agency and its functions. An agency-wide customer serv...

  10. Expert Group and Workshop on Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    BARREDO CANO JOSE IGNACIO; SNOWDON Pat; VENTRUBOVA Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Forests create multiple benefits for the society, providing renewable raw materials and play an important role in human wellbeing, biological diversity, the global carbon cycle, water balance, erosion control, combating desertification and the prevention of natural hazards, among others. Forests contribute to environmental stability, economic prosperity and offer social, ecosystem and recreational services. The improve the knowledge about ecosystem services, its value and natural capital allo...

  11. Distributive Effects of Forest Service Attempts to Maintain Community Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Steven E.; Hyde, William F.; Wear, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Community stability is an objective of USDA Forest Service timber sales. This paper examines that objective, and the success the Forest Service can have in attaining it, through its intended maintenance of a constant volume timber harvest schedule. We apply a three-factor, two-sector modified general equilibrium model with empirical evidence from the timber-based counties of western Montana. Departure from a market responsive timber policy can have positive impacts on the wood products sector...

  12. Agrosystem Services: An Additional Terminology to Better Understand Ecosystem Services Delivered by Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Wiggering

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To discriminate between the contributions of ecosystems and the human subsidies to agricultural systems, we propose using an additional terminology to bring clarification into the controversial discussion about i ecosystems versus agrosystems and ii ecosystem services versus agrosystem services. A literature review revealed that with the exception of some very recent publications, this has not yet been sufficiently reflected, neither within the scientific nor in the policy discussion. The question remains whether to spoil the discussion with new terms again and again. We reason that it makes sense to underpin the case-specific share of agricultural inputs to the supply of agroecosystem services and to add “agro” to the terminology. We conclude, that there is a need to promote the new terminology of agrosystem services and to strengthen the use of the already established term agroecosystem services within this context. To emphasise the production patterns behind the multiple benefits agricultural systems provide to humans (commodity and non-commodity outputs and to guarantee a reasonable weighting of related externalities in policy processes, we suggest to introduce the term agrosystem services into the discussion on ecosystem services. Agrosystem services in this context describe the anthropogenic share of agroecosystem services’ generation. Agroecosystem services include multiple provisioning, regulating and cultural services from agricultural ecosystems. The inclusion of agrosystem services might accommodate the ecology-based ecosystem services concept to the specificity of managed agricultural ecosystems and therefore could be better implemented by mostly economy-driven agricultural production systems and agricultural policy.

  13. [Forest ecosystem service and its evaluation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jin; Lu, Shaowei; Yu, Xinxiao; Rao, Liangyi; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhag, Zhenming

    2005-08-01

    Facing the relative lag of forest ecosystem service and estimation in China, this paper proposed to quickly carry out the research on the evaluation of forest ecosystem service. On the basis of the classification of forest ecosystem types in China, the service of artificial and semi-artificial forest ecosystems was investigated, which was divided into eight types, i.e., timber and other products, recreation and eco-tourism, water storage, C fixation and O2 release, nutrient cycling, air quality purifying, erosion control, and habitat provision. According to the assessment index system for global ecosystem service proposed by Costanza et al., a series of assessment index system suitable for Chinese forest ecosystem service was set up, by which, the total value of forest ecosystem service in China was estimated to be 30 601.20 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), including direct and indirect economic value about 1 920.23 x 10(8) and 28 680.97 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), respectively. The indirect value was as 14.94 times as the direct one. The research aimed to bring natural resources and environment factors into the account system of national economy quickly, and to realize the green GDP at last, which would be helpful to realize sustainable development and environment protection. PMID:16262073

  14. Composition, Property Characterization and Application of Agricultural and Forest Biomass Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Chunsheng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Meicheng; Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Feng'e

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the compositions and basic properties of agricultural and forest biomass carbon, and used the pot method to study the influence of such element on the remediation of contaminated soils and growth of crops. Results show that agricultural and forest biomass carbon contains various nutrients that are necessary for crop growth, high specific surface area, and pore structure development. Cotton stalk charcoal can reduce bioavailability of Cadmium (Cd) in soil. Under mild Cd pollution, ...

  15. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  16. 75 FR 8645 - Public Meetings on the Development of the Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Forest Service Public Meetings on the Development of the Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule... to developing a new Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule (planning rule) through a..., 2009, the Forest Service formally announced the intent to prepare a new planning rule with...

  17. US Forest Service Region 3 Wilderness Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains a feature class depicting National Forest System land parcels that have a Congressionally designated boundary. Examples include National...

  18. Lusus naturae:climate and invasions of plant pathogens modify agricultural and forest lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ragazzi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and economic sustainability of agricultural and forest systems of many advanced and underdeveloped Countries are strongly threatened by the increasing introduction of exotic plant pathogens. This article provides an overview of the main causes behind these invasions. Some important diseases caused by non native phytopathogens, whose arrival in the past century had a disastrous impact on the environment and economy of vast rural areas of our Country are reported. Some dangerous, emerging pathogens, which are literally destroying whole territories in various parts of the Planet, with severe damage to agricultural crops, landscape, economy and local tourism are also reported. Action strategies to prevent immigration of unwanted pathogens, and mitigation strategies, aimed at the development of various measures to mitigate the negative effects of plant parasites already established in the territory are then discussed. Finally, it is highlighted how such a far-reaching problem can be properly tackled only with the active contribution of governments, institutions responsible for plant health monitoring (warning services, research, and agricultural, tourism and transport operators.

  19. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  20. Improving Agricultural Productivity in Tonga through Ensuring Data Availability and Enhancing Agro-meteorological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The project was first conceived in the Global Framework for Climate Services Regional Consultation in the Cook Islands in March 2014. In this meeting, key officials from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Forests, and Fisheries and the Tonga Meteorological Services had a meeting with the APEC Climate Center scientists with the idea to collaborate on a joint project. The project evolved to include the following components: assessment of users' needs and capacities, development of an agricultural database, research on the core relationships between agriculture and climate through modeling and field trials, and the development and delivery of agro-meteorological services. Envisioned outputs include a 2-7 day warning for pests and diseases, a suite of tools supporting decisions on planting dates and crop varieties, and other advisory services derived from seasonal climate forecasts. As one of the climate adaptation projects under its Pacific Island portfolio, the project will deliver urgent information services for Tongan agricultural growers and exporters. The project comes into greater importance and urgency, as the 2014 drought event resulted in the destruction of 80% of squash in Tonga, a main export crop from which the country derives foreign exchange earnings. Since 2014, some of the project achievements include the first agro-met data collection in Tonga, the development of an agricultural DB management system that houses archived agriculture data, and key meetings with stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives and design with the interests of the Tongan government and other stakeholders. In addition, rigorous scientific research through modeling and field trials has been conducted to address the twin goals of supporting Tonga's economy as well as food security. Based on the findings from the research, tools will be developed to translate the science into knowledge that supports decisions on the farm scale.

  1. Trends, drivers and impacts of changes in swidden cultivation in tropical forest-agriculture frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Mertz, Ole; Heinimann, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis of land-cover transformations of the past 10–15 years in tropical forest-agriculture frontiers world-wide shows that swidden agriculture decreases in landscapes with access to local, national and international markets that encourage cattle production and cash cropping, including...... biofuels. Conservation policies and practices also accelerate changes in swidden by restricting forest clearing and encouraging commercial agriculture. However, swidden remains important in many frontier areas where farmers have unequal or insecure access to investment and market opportunities, or where...

  2. The drivers of intellectual sustainability in a regional agriculture, cattle, and forest farmstead

    OpenAIRE

    I. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual capital drivers emerge in the national and regional economies as a key source of integrated sustainability. The company analyzed in the case study is the largest Portuguese agriculture, cattle, and forest farmstead, covering several marshlands. As the largest agricultural company, its primary mission is the cost effectiveness and efficient management of their agricultural and environmental heritage, in respect for biodiversity and for environmental values. Located in the region o...

  3. ATTITUDES OF VEGETABLE FARMERS TOWARDS PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tala Qtaishat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among vegetable farmers in Jordan, there are conflicting attitudes towards the extension activities provided by the public sector. Some farmers accept and adopt the recommendations of these activities; on the other hand, some people are not satisfied and consider these activities a waste of time for both the farmers and the government. This situation has serious impacts on the quality, duration and efficiency of the extension activities provided by government related agencies. Also, the situation will end in providing low-quality agricultural extension services to the farmers or providing these services in a non-productive manner. The actual attitudes of vegetable farmers towards Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES in the Dear Alla Area of Jordan were investigated in this study. A total of 80 vegetable farmers were selected for the study. A questionnaire consisting of two main parts was used for data collection; the first part was related to personal and socio-economic characteristics of the sample individuals. The second part was related to extension activities. A five-point Likert-type scale was used as an instrument to gather primary data. The farmers rated their attitudes toward Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES through 10 statements related carefully to the Public Agricultural Extension Services. Data analysis was done in two sections, consisting of data description and data inferential analysis. The results of the study revealed that the farmers’ overall attitude towards the public agricultural extension activities was negative. The farmers’ attitudes according to age, experience, educational level and frequency and type of contact with public extension services were also negative. The negative attitude of the participant farmers towards the Public Agricultural Extension Services means that the farmers were not satisfied with these services. Identifying the sources and types of public extension programs, the

  4. 76 FR 8333 - Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting, Cherokee National Forest Resource... Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,...

  5. Responses of soil fungi to logging and oil palm agriculture in Southeast Asian tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K L; D'Angelo, H; Brearley, F Q; Gedallovich, S M; Babar, N; Yang, N; Gillikin, C M; Gradoville, R; Bateman, C; Turner, B L; Mansor, P; Leff, J W; Fierer, N

    2015-05-01

    Human land use alters soil microbial composition and function in a variety of systems, although few comparable studies have been done in tropical forests and tropical agricultural production areas. Logging and the expansion of oil palm agriculture are two of the most significant drivers of tropical deforestation, and the latter is most prevalent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to compare soil fungal communities from three sites in Malaysia that represent three of the most dominant land-use types in the Southeast Asia tropics: a primary forest, a regenerating forest that had been selectively logged 50 years previously, and a 25-year-old oil palm plantation. Soil cores were collected from three replicate plots at each site, and fungal communities were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Extracellular enzyme assays were assessed as a proxy for soil microbial function. We found that fungal communities were distinct across all sites, although fungal composition in the regenerating forest was more similar to the primary forest than either forest community was to the oil palm site. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are important associates of the dominant Dipterocarpaceae tree family in this region, were compositionally distinct across forests, but were nearly absent from oil palm soils. Extracellular enzyme assays indicated that the soil ecosystem in oil palm plantations experienced altered nutrient cycling dynamics, but there were few differences between regenerating and primary forest soils. Together, these results show that logging and the replacement of primary forest with oil palm plantations alter fungal community and function, although forests regenerating from logging had more similarities with primary forests in terms of fungal composition and nutrient cycling potential. Since oil palm agriculture is currently the mostly rapidly expanding equatorial crop and logging is pervasive across tropical ecosystems, these findings may have broad applicability

  6. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic,both in China and at abroad,but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods.Under the framework of evaluation criteria to be implemented for forest ecosystem services,years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Ecological Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network(CFERN),forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China.The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion(1.1449640×10 12 )RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan(1996―2000),and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively,during the 10th Five-year Plan(2001―2005).For Chinese pine forests,water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually,soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually,production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×10 20 , absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests,the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province;while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  7. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; WANG Bing; MA XiangQian; ZHAO GuangDong; LI ShaoNing

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic, both in China and at abroad, but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods. Under the framework of evaluation criteda to be implemented for forest ecosystem services, years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Eco-logical Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network (CFERN), forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China. The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion (1.1449640×1012) RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan (1996-2000), and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively, during the 10th Five-year Plan (2001-2005). For Chinese pine forests, water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually, soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually, production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×1020, absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests, the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province; while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  8. No Free Lunch - Trading Away Ecosystem Services from Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D.; Foley, J.

    2008-12-01

    In the age of globalization, many crops and animal products are transported across the long distances for consumption elsewhere. The alteration of water, soil and climate systems from agricultural practices can be attributed to both exporting and importing countries. Quantities of water, carbon and nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus) can be tracked throughout the production process and be aggregated from field to table. The synthesis of this data can be used to inform markets to appropriately price the most ecologically efficient production.While agricultural land is undergoing changes around the world, the Brazilian Amazon has seen a dramatic conversion of forest and grassland due to the expanding agricultural frontier, and intense growth in the future has been predicted in the region. As a proof of concept, I plan to study the flow of ecosystem services from the Amazon rainforest basin to the world market. Cattle and soybeans are the two main agricultural products of the region and are produced for both internal consumption and for export. This work quantifies agricultural production and its associated ecosystem services using socio-economic and commodity trade data, numerical ecosystem models and remote sensing products.

  9. Soil and water related forest ecosystem services and resilience of social ecological system in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekalign, Meron; Muys, Bart; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In the central highlands of Ethiopia, deforestation and forest degradation are occurring and accelerating during the last century. The high population pressure is the most repeatedly mentioned reason. However, in the past 30 years researchers agreed that the absence of institutions, which could define the access rights to particular forest resources, is another underlying cause of forest depletion and loss. Changing forest areas into different land use types is affecting the biodiversity, which is manifested through not proper functioning of ecosystem services. Menagesha Suba forest, the focus of this study has been explored from various perspectives. However the social dimension and its interaction with the ecology have been addressed rarely. This research uses a combined theoretical framework of Ecosystem Services and that of Resilience thinking for understanding the complex social-ecological interactions in the forest and its influence on ecosystem services. For understanding the history and extent of land use land cover changes, in-depth literature review and a GIS and remote sensing analysis will be made. The effect of forest conversion into plantation and agricultural lands on soil and above ground carbon sequestration, fuel wood and timber products delivery will be analyzed with the accounting of the services on five land use types. The four ecosystem services to be considered are Supporting, Provisioning, Regulating, and Cultural services as set by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. A resilience based participatory framework approach will be used to analyze how the social and ecological systems responded towards the drivers of change that occurred in the past. The framework also will be applied to predict future uncertainties. Finally this study will focus on the possible interventions that could contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the forest. An ecosystem services trade-off analysis and an environmental valuation of the water

  10. Farming for Ecosystem Services: An Ecological Approach to Production Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Robertson, G; Gross, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Landis, Douglas A.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Swinton, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other bi...

  11. Ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types: understanding the interactions and suggesting pathways for sustaining multiple ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Turton, Stephen M; Macgregor, Colin J; Pert, Petina L

    2016-10-01

    As ecosystem services supply from tropical forests is declining due to deforestation and forest degradation, much effort is essential to sustain ecosystem services supply from tropical forested landscapes, because tropical forests provide the largest flow of multiple ecosystem services among the terrestrial ecosystems. In order to sustain multiple ecosystem services, understanding ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types and identifying certain ecosystem services that could be managed to leverage positive effects across the wider bundle of ecosystem services are required. We sampled three forest types, tropical rainforests, sclerophyll forests, and rehabilitated plantation forests, over an area of 32,000m(2) from Wet Tropics bioregion, Australia, aiming to compare supply and evaluate interactions and patterns of eight ecosystem services (global climate regulation, air quality regulation, erosion regulation, nutrient regulation, cyclone protection, habitat provision, energy provision, and timber provision). On average, multiple ecosystem services were highest in the rainforests, lowest in sclerophyll forests, and intermediate in rehabilitated plantation forests. However, a wide variation was apparent among the plots across the three forest types. Global climate regulation service had a synergistic impact on the supply of multiple ecosystem services, while nutrient regulation service was found to have a trade-off impact. Considering multiple ecosystem services, most of the rehabilitated plantation forest plots shared the same ordination space with rainforest plots in the ordination analysis, indicating that rehabilitated plantation forests may supply certain ecosystem services nearly equivalent to rainforests. Two synergy groups and one trade-off group were identified. Apart from conserving rainforests and sclerophyll forests, our findings suggest two additional integrated pathways to sustain the supply of multiple ecosystem services from a

  12. 77 FR 260 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (FRCC) is filling eight vacant positions. Candidates who wish to be considered for membership on the Forest...

  13. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  14. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  15. Forest health monitoring by the Canadian Forest Service: now and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, the Canadian Forest Service initiated a national forest health monitoring program, the Acid Rain National Early Warning System (ARNEWS), to monitor the health of the forest and determine the effects of acid rain and regional air pollutants on the forest. Monitoring is done by personnel of the Forest Insect of Disease Survey, who are experienced in the evaluation of forest health. They assess trees in permanent sample plots for forest damage and identify the causes. Causes of tree mortality are also determined. If damage is found for which no apparent cause is evident, research is initiated to determine the source of the damage. To date, ARNEWS has reported on the health of 18 conifer and 9 hardwood species from across Canada, including areas known to receive some of the highest levels of atmospheric pollution in Canada. Results indicate that there is no large-scale decline in the health of our forests and, where pollution-like symptoms were observed, they could usually be accounted for by natural factors. Tree mortality in these natural stands is also normal. However, the monitoring system depends on being able to recognize damage and to determine the cause. The more easily this can be done, the more efficacious is the system. As our researchers assess the trees, they need to know what all type of damage looks like since many pollution symptoms are easily confused with natural effects. The research done on leaf cuticles should help expand this knowledge base. (orig.)

  16. Spectral tensor parameters for wind turbine load modeling from forested and agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Segalini, A.;

    2015-01-01

    A velocity spectral tensor model was evaluated from the single-point measurements of wind speed. The model contains three parameters representing the dissipation rate of specific turbulent kinetic energy, a turbulence length scale and the turbulence anisotropy. Sonic anemometer measurements taken...... over a forested and an agricultural landscape were used to calculate the model parameters for neutral, slightly stable and slightly unstable atmospheric conditions for a selected wind speed interval. The dissipation rate above the forest was nine times that at the agricultural site. No significant...... constant with height at the forest site, whereas the turbulence became more isotropic with height for the agricultural site. Using the three parameters as inputs, we quantified the performance of the model in coherence predictions for vertical separations. The model coherence of all the three velocity...

  17. UAV FOR GEODATA ACQUISITION IN AGRICULTUREAL AND FORESTAL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Reidelstürz, P.; Schrenk, L.; Littmann, W.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of precision-farming research, solutions are worked out to combine ecological and economical requirements in a harmonic way. Integrating hightech in agricultural machinery, natural differences in the fields (biodiversity) can be detected and considered to economize agricultural resources and to give respect to natural ecological variability at the same time. Using precision farming resources, machining – and labour time can be economized, productivness can be improved, envi...

  18. PECULIARITIES OF AGRICULTURAL SERVICE COOPERATIVES DEVELOPMENT IN LVIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Tsymbalista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to study the recent trends and identify the main problems of the agricultural service cooperatives development. The processes of establishing and functioning of cooperatives in Lviv region are investigated. The dynamics of number of established cooperatives shows a gradual growth in recent year, while the share of operating units is rather low. The size structure of the agricultural service cooperatives in Lviv region proves that the rural population is insufficiently active in participating in cooperatives. The most popular sphere of activity of the cooperatives in the region is dairy production, while the most wide spread type of cooperative is a marketing cooperative. The analysis of the sales of agricultural products by the cooperatives of the region by distribution channels shows that on the present stage of their development service cooperatives can hardly cope with their main objective which is to overcome the monopoly power of commercial intermediaries. This is evidenced by the fact that the share of agricultural production sold by cooperatives to the intermediaries is still significant.

  19. Impacts of Forest and Agricultural Land Use on Stream Dissolved Organic Carbon During Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N. H.; Shin, Y.; Jeon, Y. J.; Lee, E. J.; Eom, J. S.; Kim, B.

    2015-12-01

    Although many studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of land use on concentrations and compositions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and rivers, the relationships are still not clear. To elucidate the impacts of forest and agricultural land use on stream DOC during storm events, we investigated concentrations, optical properties, δ13C, and Δ 14C of DOC in forest and agriculture dominated headwater streams in South Korea. Stream DOC concentrations were the highest in a forested subwatershed, and a significant positive correlation was observed between stream DOC concentrations and the proportion of forested area in watersheds, which was strengthened by increased rain intensity. Four PARAFAC components were extracted including terrestrial humic substances, terrestrial fulvic acids, microbial organic matter, and protein-like organic matter, all of which showed a positive correlation with stream DOC concentration although relative proportion of components were dependent on land use. While DOC in a forest stream was mostly composed of terrestrially derived and 14C-enriched, DOC in an agricultural stream included aged DOC up to ~1,000 years old. Although the impacts of hydrological changes due to irrigation, fertilizer use, and selected crop species were not examined, the results of this study suggest that agricultural land use can be a source of aged terrestrial DOC to streams during summer monsoon storms, potentially changing the balance of the regional carbon cycle.

  20. Agencies' roles in ecosystem management: USDA Forest Service directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jack Ward

    1995-01-01

    The Forest Service has evolved to a new land ethic: preservation of the function, health, and productivity of ecosystems, including the production of goods and services for people. This evolution is the result of several converging streams including advances in scientific technology, emerging political directions, and realization that problems need to be addressed at the outset. A number of challenges are facing the move to ecosystem management (EM) including a number of statutory changes or ...

  1. Four decades of post-agricultural forest development have caused major redistributions of soil phosphorus fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijver, An De; Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, Karin Irene; Frenne, Pieter De; Augusto, Laurent; Achat, David Ludovick; Staelens, Jeroen; Baeten, Lander; Keersmaeker, Luc De; Neve, Stefaan De; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Fertilisation of agricultural land causes an accumulation of nutrients in the top soil layer, among which phosphorus (P) is particularly persistent. Changing land use from farmland to forest affects soil properties, but changes in P pools have rarely been studied despite their importance to forest......, slowly cycling P and occluded P); in particular, we addressed the timerelated alterations in the inorganic versus organic P fractions. In less than 40 years of oak forest development, significant redistributions have occurred between different P fractions. While both the labile and the slowly cycling...

  2. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes. PMID:26994316

  3. Forest floor spiders of woodlots in an agricultural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabelis, A.

    1996-01-01

    An inventory of spiders was made in woodlots, which are situated in an agricultural landscape in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Aim of the study was to test the hypotheses that good dispersers, like spiders, will be distributed randomly over habitat patches and consequently, that there will be

  4. Biomass production from the U.S. forest and agriculture sectors in support of a renewable electricity standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of renewable energy from biomass has been promoted as means to improve greenhouse gas balance in energy production, improve energy security, and provide jobs and income. However, uncertainties remain as to how the agriculture and forest sectors might jointly respond to increased demand for bioelectricity feedstocks and the potential environmental consequences of increased biomass production. We use an economic model to examine how the agriculture and forest sectors might combine to respond to increased demands for bioelectricity under simulated future national-level renewable electricity standards. Both sectors are projected to contribute biomass, although energy crops, like switchgrass, produced on agriculture land are projected to be the primary feedstocks. At the highest targets for bioelectricity production, we project increased conversion of forest to agriculture land in support of agriculture biomass production. Although land conversion takes place in response to renewable electricity mandates, we project only minor increases in forest and agriculture emissions. Similarly, crop prices were projected to generally be stable in the face of increased bioelectricity demand and displacement of traditional agriculture crops. - Highlights: ► We model the response of forest and agriculture to increased bioelectricity demand. ► The agriculture sector, through energy crop production, is the key biomass provider. ► Increased land exchange is projected for the highest bioelectricity demands. ► Land exchange from forest to agriculture yield the greatest changes in GHG flux. ► Agriculture and forestry must be accounted for when considering bioenergy policy

  5. Forest Inventory and Analysis Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research program has been in existence since mandated by Congress in 1928. FIA's primary objective is to determine the...

  6. Forest ecosystem services under climate change and air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cudlín, Pavel; Seják, J.; Pokorný, J.; Albrechtová, J.; Bastian, O.; Marek, Michal V.

    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2013 - (Matyssek, R.; Clarke, N.; CudlÍn, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Tuovinen, J.; Wieser, G.; Paoletti, E.), s. 521-546. (Developments in environmental science. 13). ISBN 978-0-08-098349-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Adaptive governance * Climate regulation * Forest ecosystem services * Gas exchange * Multi-stakeholder collaboration * Ozone * Sustainable forest management * Transpiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. 75 FR 53630 - Notice of Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Resource Advisory... of 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cherokee National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will meet for the first time as indicated below. DATES: The Cherokee National Forest...

  8. Multifunctional Agriculture: Conducting an Ecosystem Service Assessment for an Agricultural Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Wilson, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    To meet the food production demands on a finite area of land for an exponentially growing, global population, intensive agricultural management practices are being used. The implications of this these practices lead to soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and decreased water quality depending on the level of conservation practices implemented in a watershed. To offset these negative environmental effects, ecosystem services should be analyzed for possible economic valuation to provide incentives for good land stewardship. In this study a Multifunctional Agriculture (MFA) evaluation in a representative agricultural watershed in Iowa was performed by assessing the ecosystem services of water quality, crop/grain production, carbon sequestration, reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and biodiversity for representative land covers (e.g., corn-soybean rotation, alfalfa, oats, and Conservation Reserve Program, or CRP). The services were analyzed using a geo-spatial platform that simulated carbon dynamics with the biogeochemical model, CENTURY, as well as soil erosion/deposition and surface runoff with the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). Economic values given to the various services were based on current grain prices, water treatment costs, and hypothetical carbon storage credits. Results showed that crop/grain production for the corn-soybean rotations provided the largest service for the study site, followed by alfalfa. CRP provided the largest decrease in surface water runoff and CO2 emissions, while alfalfa provided the largest form of plant species diversity. The largest sequestration of carbon came from the corn-soybean rotation due to large amounts dead plant material being incorporated into the soil through tillage. Overall the MFA assessment can provide a framework for payment of ecosystem services supplied by agroecosystems which promote more sustainable land management practices.

  9. Agriculture Information Service Built on Interoperable Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, K.; Ines, A.; Han, E.; Seshimo, T.

    2015-12-01

    We are developing an agricultural information service platform called FieldTouch, that is built on an interoperable geospatial data infrastructure. More than 300 farmers in Hokkaido, Japan, are participating on this development and they are utilizing our services for optimizing their daily agricultural practices. FieldTouch integrates multi-scale sensor data for field monitoring, provides functionality for recording agricultural practices, then supports farmers in decision making. The platform has two layers. The base layer is interoperable geospatial data infrastructure for sensor networks, that provides updated sensor data to upper application layer via OGC( Open Geospatial Consortium) standard API. We are updating RapidEye satellite images every two weeks, and field sensor data from 50 nodes. Agro-Weather data generated by NIAES using national weather observation network; AMeDAS is also a data source at daily basis. We use "cloudSense" sensor backend service as the infrastructure that serves meta-data and data to the application layer via standard web service; SOS (Sensor Observation Service). SOS provides unified procedure to applications when they access different type of sensor platform, which brought us a great flexibility and automation in operating the system. We developed a crop simulation application in FieldTouch so that farmers are able to see the impact of different planting data on yield. Cultivar data of local wheat variety for DSSAT crop model was calibrated by data assimilation. We generate 100 of weather scenario by a weather generator to present the obtain distribution of yield in different planting options. We update the weather scenario day by day in order to reduce the uncertain of the prediction towards harvesting. Visualizing expected yield as distributions help farmers to understand the risks by weather variability as well as to optimize their works and investment.

  10. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. PMID:20036449

  11. Arthropod genomics research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: Current impacts and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the intramural research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which employs scientists to conduct basic and applied research aimed to develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority and to ensure food...

  12. Patterns of water infiltration and soil degradation over a 120-yr chronosequence from forest to agriculture in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nyberg; A. Bargués Tobella; Kinyangi, J.; Ilstedt, U

    2011-01-01

    Soil degradation is commonly reported in the tropics where forest is converted to agriculture. Much of the native forest in the highlands of western Kenya has been converted to agricultural land in order to feed the growing population, and more land is being cleared. In tropical Africa, this land use change results in progressive soil degradation, as the period of cultivation increases. Sites that were converted to agriculture at different times can be evaluated as a chronosequence; this can ...

  13. Economic Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services: Methodology and Monetary Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Chiabai, Aline; Travisi, C.M.; H. Ding; A Markandya; Nunes, P.A.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    By using ad hoc value transfer protocols, this paper offers a methodological contribution and provides accurate per hectare estimates of the economic value of some selected ecosystem services for all forest biomes in the world, identified following the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment taxonomy MEA. The research also estimates potential total economic losses from policy inaction in year 2050. Final results show that total losses are significant. The total figure is €78 billion, the greatest los...

  14. Exploration and Practice of Customized Agricultural Meteorological Service Based on Short Message Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinqiang; CUI; Xuemei; GUO; Jun; TANG; Jing; XU; Min; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of main problems existing in current agricultural meteorological service in China,for the purpose of exploring a solution to the "last kilometer" problem in rural meteorological service,this article designed four short message service products with the business brand name "meteorology for agricultural condition",including "weather prediction for farming season","weather forecast for farming","weather alert",and "meteorological hazards of agriculture".By taking advantage of telecom operators’ market,these products have been spread to more than 1 million rural mobile phone users and widely welcomed.They also contributed enormously to disaster prevention and peasants’ income growth,and achieved good social and economic benefits.

  15. Consequences of Environmental Service Payments for Forest Retention and Recruitment in a Costa Rican Biological Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Hollenhorst, Steven J.; Kathleen L. Kavanagh; Celia A. Harvey; Bryan Finegan; Sesnie, Steven E.; Schedlbauer, Jessica L.; Morse, Wayde C; Dietmar Stoian; J. D. Wulfhorst

    2009-01-01

    Compensation to landowners for forest-derived environmental services has gained international recognition as a mechanism to combat forest loss and fragmentation. This approach is widely promoted, although there is little evidence demonstrating that environmental service payments encourage forest stewardship and conservation. Costa Rica provides a unique case study in which a 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited forest conversion to other land uses. We exam...

  16. Climate Change for Agriculture, Forest Cover and 3d Urban Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, M.; Bassir, D.

    2014-11-01

    This research demonstrates the important role of the remote sensing in finding out the different parameters behind the agricultural crop change, forest cover and urban 3D models. Standalone software is developed to view and analysis the different factors effecting the change in crop productions. Open-source libraries from the Open Source Geospatial Foundation have been used for the development of the shape-file viewer. Software can be used to get the attribute information, scale, zoom in/out and pan the shapefiles. Environmental changes due to pollution and population that are increasing the urbanisation and decreasing the forest cover on the earth. Satellite imagery such as Landsat 5(1984) to Landsat TRIS/8 (2014), Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and NDVI are used to analyse the different parameters that are effecting the agricultural crop production change and forest change. It is advisable for the development of good quality of NDVI and forest cover maps to use data collected from the same processing methods for the complete region. Management practices have been developed from the analysed data for the betterment of the crop and saving the forest cover

  17. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  18. Overview of Mosquito Research Programs at the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), a U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service laboratory, was established in World War II to produce products to protect military personnel against insect vector of disease. Currently the mission of CMAVE is ...

  19. Study on Net Nitrogen Mineralization at Forest, Shrubland and Abandoned Agricultural Lands under Standard Laboratory Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tecimen, Hüseyin Barış

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Current study is based on the data collected in January 2010 from field under authorization of Çatalca-Karacaköy the Chief Forest Enterprise located in the northern Istanbul. Net nitrogen mineralization rates were estimated at soils taken from mixed and thicket age (1.30 m Ø ≈ 20 cm) Oak sp. (Quercus frainetto Ten., Q. cerris L., Q. robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein)) forest (OFL), shrub land (dominated with Cistus spp.) (SL), recently abandoned agricultural land (RAAL...

  20. Response of Agriculture and Forests to Climate Change in France: Assessment of Uncertainties and Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanaia, N.; Carrer, D.

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of the French research project ORACLE we examine the impact of climate change on agriculture and forests in France for two time horizons (2020-2050 and 2070-2100) in reference to the 1970-2000 period. The biophysical variables (leaf area index, equilibrium forest biomass, leaf onset and offset, ...) are produced by ISBA-A-gs forced by the atmospheric variables produced by differents climat models and scenarios. Their trends will be analyzed. The impact of uncertainties at various levels through multi-model and multi-scenario approaches will be assessed

  1. Amazon Forest maintenance as a source of environmental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forest produces environmental services such as maintenance of biodiversity, water cycling and carbon stocks. These services have a much greater value to human society than do the timber, beef and other products that are obtained by destroying the forest. Yet institutional mechanisms are still lacking to transform the value of the standing forest into the foundation of an economy based on maintaining rather than destroying this ecosystem. Forest management for commodities such as timber and non-timber forest products faces severe limitations and inherent contradictions unless income is supplemented based on environmenta lservices. Amazon forest is threatened by deforestation, logging, forest fires and climate change. Measures to avoid deforestation include repression through command and control, creation of protected areas, and reformulation of infrastructure decisions and development policies. An economy primarily based on the value of environmental services is essential for long-term maintenance of the forest. Much progress has been made in the decades since I first proposed such a transition, but many issues also remain unresolved. These include theoretical issues regarding accounting procedures, improved quantification of the services and of the benefits of different policy options, and effective uses of the funds generated in ways that maintain both the forest and the human population.A floresta amazônica produz serviços ambientais, tais como a manutenção da biodiversidade, da ciclagem de água e dos estoques de carbono. Estes serviços têm um valor muito maior para a sociedade humana do que a madeira, carne bovina e outros produtos que são obtidos destruindo a floresta. Mecanismos institucionais ainda estão faltando para transformar o valor da floresta em pé no alicerce de uma economia baseada em manter, em lugar de destruir, este ecossistema. Manejo florestal para madeira e para produtos florestais n

  2. Selected landscape-ecological limitations of development of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map the selected landscape-ecological limitations of development of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities on the territory of the Slovak Republic is shown. Suitability of location of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities was determined after assessment of three classes of landscape-ecological limitations as given by the types of abiotic complexes, nature protection of nature and natural resources, and the action of stress factors. Their interaction determines the number and class of limitations of agricultural and forest-economic activity. The procedure of processing used is similar to that applied to the maps 4 and 8. (authors)

  3. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pettenella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and carbon-related services.Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions.Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT, scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for different products/services.Main results: the estimated value ranges between €10,512 and €11,158 million (M. Wood products represent more than 85% of the total value. Within them, industrial timber is the most relevant component (65%. Figures for NWFPs are likely to be underestimated because data are available only for some products and countries. When using alternative estimates for pine nuts, pine resin and cork, figures show a €36.8-572 M increase. In geographical terms, the economic value of Mediterranean forests is highly concentrated: North-West Mediterranean countries account for 70%, and nearly 90% is in just four countries (France, Spain, Turkey and Italy.Research highlights: enhancing the offer of Mediterranean forest products and increasing their role in the rural economy could help to reduce the costs of forest protection: a well-structured forest economy ensuring stable flows of incomes can provide a fundamental set of public non-market services and social values to both local people and the whole community. Understanding the true value of natural resources, then, is an essential step for promoting their protection and sustainable use.Abbreviations: Bln: billion; CUM: cubic meter; EM: East Mediterranean; FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations; FRA: Forest Resource Assessment; ha: hectare; M: million; NEM: North-East Mediterranean; NWFP: non-wood forest product; NWM: North-West Mediterranean; SM: South Mediterranean. 

  4. Consequences of Environmental Service Payments for Forest Retention and Recruitment in a Costa Rican Biological Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Hollenhorst

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Compensation to landowners for forest-derived environmental services has gained international recognition as a mechanism to combat forest loss and fragmentation. This approach is widely promoted, although there is little evidence demonstrating that environmental service payments encourage forest stewardship and conservation. Costa Rica provides a unique case study in which a 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited forest conversion to other land uses. We examined these novel policies to determine their influence on landowner decisions that affect forest change, carbon services, and connectivity in a 2425 km² biological corridor. We used Landsat images to compare land-cover changes before and after 1996, and linked these data to landowner surveys investigating land-use decisions. Carbon stocks and storage in secondary forests were also examined. Forest change observations were corroborated by landowner survey data, indicating that the 1996 Forestry Law and environmental service payments contributed positively to forest retention and recruitment. Socioeconomic conditions also favored forest protection. Rates of natural forest loss declined from -1.43% to -0.10%/yr after 1996. Forest cover and connectivity were maintained through tree plantations and secondary forest recruitment, although forest heterogeneity increased as these forest types sometimes replaced natural forest. Carbon storage in secondary forest approached levels in primary forest after 25–30 yr of succession, although few landowners retained natural regeneration. Secondary forests will persist as minor landscape components without legal or financial incentives. The Costa Rican experience provides evidence that environmental service payments can be effective in retaining natural forest and recruiting tree cover within biological corridors.

  5. FERTILIZERS SALES AND SERVICE. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING HIGH SCHOOL AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES, THIS MODULE WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE IS TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT IN FERTILIZER SALES AND SERVICE.…

  6. Taxonomical and functional microbial responses to agriculture management of Amazon forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramae, Eiko; Navarrete, Acácio; Mendes, Lucas; de Hollander, Mattias; van Veen, Johannes; Tsai, Siu

    2013-04-01

    Land-use change is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity worldwide, and one of the most devastating changes in the use of land, especially in the tropics, is the conversion of forest to crop lands. Southeast Amazon region is considered the largest agricultural frontier in the world, where native forests are converted into soybean crop fields, a fact that highlights the social and economic importance of this system to Brazil. This study firstly, focused on the impact of land-use changes and agriculture management of Amazon forest soils on the size and composition of the acidobacterial community. Taxon-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene were applied to study the acidobacterial community in bulk soil samples from croplands, adjacent native forests and rhizosphere of soybean. Based on qPCR measurements, Acidobacteria accounted for 23%, 18% and 14% of the total bacterial signal in forest soils, cropland soils and soybean rhizosphere samples, respectively. From the sequences of Bacteria domain, the phylum Acidobacteria represented 28%, 16% and 17% of the sequences from forest soils, cropland soils and soybean rhizosphere samples, respectively. Acidobacteria subgroups 2-8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18, 22 and 25 were detected with subgroup 1 as dominant among them. Subgroups 4, 6 and 7 were significantly higher in cropland soils than in forest soils, which subgroups respond to decrease of soil Aluminium. Subgroups 6 and 7 respond to high content of soil Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe, Mn and B. The results showed differential response of the Acidobacteria subgroups to abiotic soil factors, and indicated acidobacterial subgroups as potential early-warning bio-indicators of agricultural soil management effects in the Amazon area. Secondly, using 454 pyrosequencing, we investigated the metabolic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the rhizosphere and the bulk soil associated to soybean. The rhizosphere presented an overrepresentation of

  7. Soil Properties in Natural Forest Destruction and Conversion to Agricultural Land,in Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Wasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Destruction of the Gunung Leuser National Park area of North Sumatera Province through land clearing and land cover change from natural forest to agricultural land. Less attention to land use and ecosystem carrying capacity of the soil can cause soil degradation and destruction of flora, fauna, and wildlife habitat destruction. Environmental damage will result in a national park wild life will come out of the conservation area and would damage the agricultural community. Soil sampling conducted in purposive sampling in natural forest and agricultural areas.  Observation suggest that damage to the natural forest vegetation has caused the soil is not protected so that erosion has occurred. Destruction of natural forest into agricultural are as has caused damage to soil physical properties, soil chemical properties, and biological soil properties significantly. Forms of soil degradation caused by the destruction of natural forests, which is an increase in soil density (density Limbak by 103%, a decrease of 93% organic C and soil nitrogen decreased by 81%. The main factors causing soil degradation is the reduction of organic matter and soil erosion due to loss of natural forest vegetation.  Criteria for soil degradation in Governance Regulation Number 150/2000 can be used to determine the extent of soil degradation in natural forest ecosystems.Keywords: Gunung Leuser National Park, natural forest, agricultural land, land damage, soil properties

  8. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for mapping forest, agricultural and soil resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degloria, S.; Benson, A.; Dummer, K.; Fakhoury, E.

    1985-01-01

    Color composite TM film products which include TM5, TM4, and a visible band (TM1, TM2, or TM3) are superior to composites which exclude TM4 for discriminating most forest and agricultural cover types and estimating area proportions for inventory and sampling purposes. Clustering a subset of TM data results in a spectral class map which groups diverse forest cover types into spectrally and ecologically similar areas suitable for use as a stratification base in traditional forest inventory practices. Analysis of simulated Thematic Mapper data indicate that the location and number of TM spectral bands are suitable for detecting differences in major soil properties and characterizing soil spectral curve form and magnitude.

  9. Climate Change for Agriculture, Forest Cover and 3d Urban Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, M.; Bassir, D.

    2014-01-01

    This research demonstrates the important role of the remote sensing in finding out the different parameters behind the agricultural crop change, forest cover and urban 3D models. Standalone software is developed to view and analysis the different factors effecting the change in crop productions. Open-source libraries from the Open Source Geospatial Foundation have been used for the development of the shape-file viewer. Software can be used to get the attribute information, scale, zoo...

  10. Laboratory measurements and modeling N mineralization potential in Virginia Coastal Plain agricultural, fallow, and forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, S; Mostaghimi, Saied; Burger, J A

    2000-01-01

    A long-term aerobic incubation and leaching technique was used to measure N mineralization of surface and subsurface soils (sandy loam) from agricultural,forest, and fallow sites in a Virginia Coastal Plain watershed. N mineralization potential was measured to refine models used to describe this process in a watershed-scale nutrient export assessment. Potentially mineralizable N (N-0) and reaction rate constants (k) were estimated using a first-order model and a nonlinear regression procedure...

  11. How forest management affects ecosystem services, including timber production and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncker, Philipp S.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per;

    2012-01-01

    processes. However, forests provide further services, including carbon sequestration, water quantity and quality, and preservation of biodiversity. In order to develop and implement strategies for sustainable forest management, it is important to anticipate the long-term effects of different forest......Forest ecosystems deliver multiple goods and services and, traditionally, forest owners tend to have a high interest in goods in the form of merchantable wood. As a consequence, forest management often aims to increase timber production and economic returns through intervention into natural...... management alternatives on the ability of the forest to provide ecosystem goods and services. Management objectives might emphasize economic interests at the expense of other services. Very few attempts have been made to illustrate and evaluate quantitatively the relationship between forest goods and...

  12. The Role Of Management Of The Field-Forest Boundary In Poland's Process Of Agricultural Restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woch, Franciszek; Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work described here has been to point to the relationships between the field-forest boundary and crop productivity as regards the present agrarian land-use structure in Poland, and to provide new opportunities for arranging the agrarian process and the spatial planning of the rural landscape in the context of the sustainable shaping of the field-forest boundary. Impacts of forests and woodlands on crop productivity have been assessed using available data from relevant Polish literature. An assessment of the plot-distribution pattern characterising farms in Poland was made on the basis of reference data from the Agency for the Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture. Finally, the possibility of afforestation of agricultural land has been evaluated within the existing legal framework, and on the basis of available data, with attention paid to the need to include organization of the field-forest boundary within the comprehensive management and planning of rural areas, and to preserve woody elements in patchy landscapes. This all creates an opportunity to test innovative approaches to integrated land use which combines the creation of public goods and local products based on participatory learning processes that bring in local stakeholders and decision-makers.

  13. Ecosystem Services and Forest Management in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna

    expert judgment method (the Delphi technique) was applied to preservation of biodiversity and habitat in the boreal zone. Results suggested that management intensity has a negative effect on the potential to preserve biodiversity and habitat. A wide range of estimates was provided by respondents for...... functional forms of relationships between preservation of biodiversity and forest characteristics, suggesting little agreement. The findings support the usefulness of the Delphi method as a complementary technique for in depth analysis of ecosystem services provision. A choice experiment approach was applied...

  14. Profiles of carbon stocks in forest, reforestation and agricultural land, Northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Pibumrung; N. Gajaseni; A. Popan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess carbon stocks in various forms and land-use types and reliably estimate the impact of land use on C stocks in the Nam Yao sub-watershed (19°05'10"N, 100°37'02"E), Thailand. The carbon stocks of aboveground, soil organic and fine root within primary forest, reforestation and agricultural land were estimated through field data collection. Results revealed that the amount of total carbon stock of forests (357.62 ± 28.51 Mg·ha-1, simplified expression of Mg (carbon)·ha-1) was significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (195.25 ±14.38 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (103.10±18.24 Mg·ha-1). Soil organic carbon in the forests (196.24 ±22.81 Mg·ha-1) was also significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (146.83± 7.22 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (95.09 ± 14.18 Mg·ha-1). The differences in carbon stocks across land-use types are the primary consequence of variations in the vegetation biomass and the soil organic matter. Fine root carbon was a small fraction of carbon stocks in all land-use types. Most of the soil organic carbon and fine root carbon content was found in the upper 40-cm layer and decreased with soil depth. The aboveground carbon(soil organic carbon: fine root carbon ratios (ABGC: SOC: FRC), was 5:8:1, 2:8:1, and 3:50:1 for the forest, reforestation and agricultural land, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively large proportion of the C loss is due to forest conversion to agricultural land. However, the C can be effectively recaptured through reforestation where high levels of C are stored in biomass as carbon sinks, facilitating carbon dioxide mitigation.

  15. Comparison of AVHRR classification and aerial photography interpretation for estimation of forest area. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lannom, K.B.; Evans, D.L.; Zhu, Z.

    1995-09-01

    The USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station`s Forest Inventory and Analysis (SO-FIA) unit uses a dot count method to estimate the percentage of forest area in counties or parishes from aerial photographs. The research reported in this paper was designed to determine whether Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data could be used to estimate forest area at the county or parish level. For this study, AVHRR data for three parishes in central Louisiana were extracted from a 1991 AVHRR forest type map of the United States. Photo interpretation data were obtained from a digital mosaic of aerial photography of the parishes. Forest area estimates obtained by means of photo interpretation did not differ significantly from those obtained by analyzing AVHRR data.

  16. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  17. Spatially explicit scenario analysis for hydrologic services in an urbanizing agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J.; Booth, E.; Carpenter, S. R.; Turner, M.

    2013-12-01

    The sustainability of hydrologic services (benefits to people generated by terrestrial ecosystem effects on freshwater) is challenged by changes in climate and land use. Despite the importance of hydrologic services, few studies have investigated how the provision of ecosystem services related to freshwater quantity and quality may vary in magnitude and spatial pattern for alternative future trajectories. Such analyses may provide useful information for sustaining freshwater resources in the face of a complex and uncertain future. We analyzed the supply of multiple hydrologic services from 2010 to 2070 across a large urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Upper Midwest of the United States, and asked the following: (i) What are the potential trajectories for the supply of hydrologic services under contrasting but plausible future scenarios? (ii) Where on the landscape is the delivery of hydrologic services most vulnerable to future changes? The Nested Watershed scenario represents extreme climate change (warmer temperatures and more frequent extreme events) and a concerted response from institutions, whereas in the Investment in Innovation scenario, climate change is less severe and technological innovations play a major role. Despite more extreme climate in the Nested Watershed scenario, all hydrologic services (i.e., freshwater supply, surface water quality, flood regulation) were maintained or enhanced (~30%) compared to the 2010 baseline, by strict government interventions that prioritized freshwater resources. Despite less extreme climate in the Investment in Innovation scenario and advances in green technology, only surface water quality and flood regulation were maintained or increased (~80%); freshwater supply declined by 25%, indicating a potential future tradeoff between water quality and quantity. Spatially, the locations of greatest vulnerability (i.e., decline) differed by service and among scenarios. In the Nested Watershed scenario, although

  18. Mitigation of agriculture emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector can reduce deforestation emissions as well as reducing emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics between 2000 and 2010 are 4.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (97 countries. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification, and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agriculture emissions on existing agriculture land, interventions that fall under climate-smart agriculture (CSA. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, where there is a potential for forest-sparing interventions, and where there is a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+, the potential to mitigate is 1.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data. For countries where we identify agriculture emissions as priority for mitigation, up to 1 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  20. Competing Ecosystem Services: an Assessment of Carbon and Timber in the Tropical Forests of Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Khatun, Kaysara

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005) has classified a number of ecosystems good and services (EGS) provided by tropical forests, namely cultural, provisioning, regulatory and support services. The primary focus of this paper is to carry out an economic assessment by comparing the financial costs and returns of selected EGS, namely carbon and timber in the tropical forests of Central America. Timber is unlike the other EGS provided by forests in that it competes with the other servic...

  1. Regional estimates of ecological services derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Waddle, Hardin; Keeland, Bobby D.; Walls, Susan C.; James, Dale; Moorman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the Nation?s largest floodplain and this once predominantly forested ecosystem provided significant habitat for a diverse flora and fauna, sequestered carbon in trees and soil, and stored floodwater, sediments, and nutrients within the floodplain. This landscape has been substantially altered by the conversion of nearly 75% of the riparian forests, predominantly to agricultural cropland, with significant loss and degradation of important ecosystem services. Large-scale efforts have been employed to restore the forest and wetland resources and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent some of the most extensive restoration programs in the MAV. The objective of the WRP is to restore and protect the functions and values of wetlands in agricultural landscapes with an emphasis on habitat for migratory birds and wetland-dependent wildlife, protection and improvement of water quality, flood attenuation, ground water recharge, protection of native flora and fauna, and educational and scientific scholarship.

  2. Changes in Carbon Pools 50 Years after Reversion of a Landscape Dominated by Agriculture to Managed Forests in the Upper Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Trettin, C.; Parresol, B. R.; Li, C.

    2010-12-01

    The landscape of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina in the late 1940’s was typified by rural agricultural communities and farms comprising cleared fields and mixed-use woodlots. Approximately 80,000 ha of that landscape was appropriated by the US Government in the early 1950’s to form the Savannah River Site which is now managed by the US Dept. of Energy. The US Forest Service was engaged to reforest the agricultural parcels, 40% of the tract, and to develop sustainable management practices for the woodlots and restored areas. As part of the acquisition process in 1951, a complete inventory of the land and forest resources were conducted. In 2001, an intensive forest survey was conducted which encompassed 90% of the tract, detailing the above-ground biomass pools. We’ve used those inventories in conjunction with soil resource data to assemble a carbon balance sheet encompassing the above and belowground carbon pools over the 50 year period. We’ve also employed inventories on forest removals, forest burning and runoff to estimate fluxes from the landscape over the same period. There was a net sequestration of 5,486 Gg of C in forest vegetation over the 50 yr. period (1.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1), with carbon density increasing from 6.3 to 83.3 Mg ha-1. The reforestation of the agricultural land and the increased density of the former woodlots was the cause of the gain. Fifty years after imposition of silvicultural prescriptions, the forest composition has changed from being dominated by hardwoods to pine. The forest floor increased by 311 Gg carbon. Fluxes in form of harvested wood and oxidation from burning were 24% and 10% respectively of the net gain in vegetative biomass. These findings document real changes in carbon storage on a landscape that was changed from mixed agricultural use to managed forests, and they suggest responses that should be similar if reforestation for biofuels production is expanded.

  3. Application of PDA forest fire monitoring based on web service technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufei ZHOU; Pengju LIU; Xiaoming TANG

    2009-01-01

    The difficulty in information communication and sharing are major problems for forest fire monitoring and early warning in China. As authors, we applied web service technology to a personal digital assistant (PDA) forest fire monitoring system and propose the framework of a monitoring system based on service-oriented architecture (SOA). At the same time, we describe the composition and function of web services from a server side and a client side. The method for developing a web service invocation engine on the PDA is introduced in detail. Finally, an example of a fire danger rating and fire weather services system are established, based on the Beijing Forest Fire Control System. The results show that the PDA forest fire monitoring system based on web services can effectively take advantage of the existing fire protection decision information services, realize real-time information interaction and sharing, and improve the level of forest fire monitoring.

  4. Cultivation of Pleurotus floridaon Forest and Agricultural Wastes By Leaves of Tree and Wood Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin SİVRİKAYA

    1999-01-01

    Some forest and agricultural wastes of Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey were subjected to mushroom ( Pleurotus florida) cultivation in this study. 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 (w:w) mixtures were prepared mainly by tree leaves wood wastes of timber work shops, cupola of nut trees (NC) and leaves (NL), corn stalks (CS), waste tea leaves (WTL) of tea factories, wheat straw (WS) and waste paper(WP). P.floridaof which the strain was numbered darmycel by Fungi Perfect co. (USA) was used in inoculations of p...

  5. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chiarello, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), th...

  6. 农田防护林更新造林%The reforestation of agricultural protection forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐春雨; 魏大伟; 胡延军; 王明学

    2015-01-01

    The reforestation of agricultural protection forest technology of western of Jilin province was introduced briefly. The species were mainly on Populus X whose adaptation was extensive.It emphasized on secondary watering seedling meth-od for afforestation to make sure the rate of survival.%本文简要介绍了吉林省西部农田防护林更新造林技术,树种仍以适应性广泛的小黑杨为主,强调采用二次浇水植苗方法造林,以确保成活率。

  7. Quantifying nitrogen leaching from diffuse agricultural and forest sources in a large heterogeneous catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Posch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, 1-3 (2013), s. 149-165. ISSN 0168-2563. [ASLO 2013. New Orleans, 17.02.2013-22.02.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 - REFRESH Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reactive nitrogen * mass budgets * agricultural land * forest * modelling Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2013

  8. Ecosystem Services and Opportunity Costs Shift Spatial Priorities for Conserving Forest Biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroter, M.; Rusch, G.M.; Barton, D.N.; Blumentrath, S.; Nordén, B.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints

  9. Forest haulage of longwood and small-diameter whole trees using an agricultural tractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TTS Institute's Forestry Department conducted a work study on the forest haulage of delimbed and non-delimbed small-diameter wood intended for energy generation. The study was a part of the TTS Institute's research project titled 'The Energy-wood Harvesting Techniques Used by Forest Owners' (1996-98). The research project belongs to the Bioenergy Research Programme. When hauling fuelwood longwood, the agricultural tractor used was a Massey-Ferguson 575 equipped with a KO-PA 3000 hydraulic crane with a maximum reach of 6 m. The crane was mounted on the shaft of the trailer. The bogie trailer was a home-made one. The length of the wood hauled was 4-4.5 m and the load size was 3.9 m3. The volume of wood accumulated was 7.8 m3 per 100 m of strip road. On the site where small-diameter whole trees were harvested, the agricultural tractor used was a Valmet 6600. The hydraulic crane was a Kronos 4000 with a maximum reach of 6.5 m. The crane was mounted on the tractor's 3-point linkage. The bogie trailer used was a home-made one. The length of the wood hauled was 5-6 m and the load size was 3.3 m3. The volume of wood accumulated was 4.4 m3 per 100 m of strip road. The productivity of forest haulage of fuelwood longwood was 6.1-7.4 m3 per effective hour with the haulage distance varying between 100 and 400 m. The productivity of forest haulage of small-diameter whole trees over the same haulage distance was 4.1-5.4 m3 per effective hour. Forest transport of fuelwood longwood cost FIM 19-23 per m3 and that of small-diameter whole trees FIM 27-35 per m3, while the cost per operating hour of the machine combination was FIM 125. The examined machine combinations were well suited for forest haulage. Productivity can be improved by extending the size of the load space, for instance. The cheapest way of achieving this is by extending the length of the bolsters by means of steel pipes. This is advantageous especially when hauling non-delimbed wood. (orig.)

  10. USDA Forest Service Roadless Areas: Potential Biodiversity Conservation Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Cesareo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2001, approximately 23 x 106 ha of land in the U.S. National Forest System were slated to remain roadless and protected from timber extraction under the Final Roadless Conservation Rule. We examined the potential contributions of these areas to the conservation of biodiversity. Using GIS, we analyzed the concordance of inventoried roadless areas (IRAs with ecoregion-scale biological importance and endangered and imperiled species distributions on a scale of 1:24,000. We found that more than 25% of IRAs are located in globally or regionally outstanding ecoregions and that 77% of inventoried roadless areas have the potential to conserve threatened, endangered, or imperiled species. IRAs would increase the conservation reserve network containing these species by 156%. We further illustrate the conservation potential of IRAs by highlighting their contribution to the conservation of the grizzly bear (Ursos arctos, a wide-ranging carnivore. The area created by the addition of IRAs to the existing system of conservation reserves shows a strong concordance with grizzly bear recovery zones and habitat range. Based on these findings, we conclude that IRAs belonging to the U.S. Forest Service are one of the most important biotic areas in the nation, and that their status as roadless areas could have lasting and far-reaching effects for biodiversity conservation.

  11. Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael K Didham

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could 'spare' further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables, and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone

  12. 77 FR 50979 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., 1994, for Amendments to the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents within the...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Solicitation of nominees to the Northwest Forest Plan...

  13. Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-based mechanisms for conservation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Pagiola, S. (ed.); Bishop, J. T. (ed.); Landell-Mills, N. (ed.)

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Forest destruction throughout the world poses significant risks. Not only are forests a source of valuable timber and non-timber products, but they also provide important environmental services that help sustain life on earth. Only rarely do beneficiaries pay for the services they receive, however, resulting in low incentives to conserve forests, and limiting opportunities for rural development. Market-based approaches are thought to offer considerable promise as a mea...

  14. College of Natural Resources to premiere Forest Service film in Southwest Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    The College of Natural Resources at Virginia Tech in collaboration with the U.S.D.A. Forest Service will premiere the Forest Service centennial film, The Greatest Good, at 2:30 to 4:30 p.m. today (Feb. 15) in the Fralin Biotechnology Center's auditorium.

  15. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C; Carter, Douglas R; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production. PMID:27263100

  16. Forest Service Career Guide. Professional Opportunities in Natural Resource Management, Planning, and Research. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The guide provides information on professional opportunities in natural resource management, planning, and research. Reasons for careers in forest service are presented and a brief description of the forest service is provided. Career opportunities in the following areas are described: forestry, engineering, geology, hydrology, landscape…

  17. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C.; Carter, Douglas R.; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production.

  18. Prebiotic carbohydrate-related research within the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is interested in the development of prebiotic carbohydrates for a number of reasons. Many of the novel carbohydrates used or proposed for use as prebiotics are made from agricultural commodities such as milk, cornstarch, sugar,...

  19. Application Model of New Agricultural Hotline Sci-tech Information Service System in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To further promote information construction in rural areas and popularize agricultural information service,we introduced the content of new agricultural hotline sci-tech information service system construction,summed up application effect of the system,analyzed advantages and existing problems in the system development,and put forward countermeasures for its further development.

  20. Application Model of New Agricultural Hotline Sci-tech Information Service System in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Cheng-zhong; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Zheng; Luo, Chang-shou; Geng, Dong-mei

    2012-01-01

    To further promote information construction in rural areas and popularize agricultural information service, we introduced the content of new agricultural hotline sci-tech information service system construction, summed up application effect of the system, analyzed advantages and existing problems in the system development, and put forward countermeasures for its further development.

  1. Composition,Property Characterization and Application of Agricultural and Forest Biomass Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunsheng; LEI; Xiaofeng; ZHU; Meicheng; ZHOU; Yuting; LIANG; Feng’e; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the compositions and basic properties of agricultural and forest biomass carbon,and used the pot method to study the influence of such element on the remediation of contaminated soils and growth of crops.Results show that agricultural and forest biomass carbon contains various nutrients that are necessary for crop growth,high specific surface area,and pore structure development.Cotton stalk charcoal can reduce bioavailability of Cadmium(Cd) in soil.Under mild Cd pollution,soil treated with cotton stalk charcoal adsorbs Cd at a rapid rate.With increasing extent of Cd pollution,Cd adsorption rate gradually slows down and Cd adsorption amount gradually increases.In soil treated with cotton stalk charcoal,the amount of Cd accumulated in the edible portions and roots of Brassica chinensis significantly decrease.The Cd mass fraction of the edible portions and roots are reduced by 49.43%- 68.29%,64.14%- 77.66% respectively.Appropriately adding carbon cotton stalks increases crop biomass.At a certain range,increasing cotton stalk charcoal also promotes the absorption of major nutrients in Brassica chinensis.

  2. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  3. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  4. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  5. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations. PMID:10959107

  6. Building Blocks for a Data Infrastructure and Services to Empower Agricultural Research Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Geser, Y. Jaques, N. Manouselis, V. Protonotarios, J. Keizer, M. Sicilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The agINFRA project aims to provide the agricultural research communities with e-infrastructure and services for open data access, sharing and re-use. This paper introduces the project’s objectives and data principles, presents the data resources that are covered, and illustrates agINFRA services with examples from the area of agricultural statistics. Finally, it summarises how agricultural research institutions and other stakeholders can participate in, and benefit from, the project.

  7. Management Tools for improving Forest Ecosystem Services and promoting Sustainable Forest Management at Local Level

    OpenAIRE

    Santopuoli, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    After the Brundtland report and the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992, the concept of sustainable development was adopted in the forest arena, recognizing the importance of forest to the whole world. As a consequence, forest management was changed going from sustainability, in terms of sustainable use of the timber production, to the multifunctional role of forests and up to the definition of the concept of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). The ack...

  8. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  9. Rodent Fauna in Southeast Forest Region of Heilongjiang Province of China and Its Damage on Agriculture and Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Zhimin; Dong; Shipeng; Liu; Wenyang; Fu; Dahang; Zhu; Xianbing

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The paper was to understand the rodent fauna in southeast forest region of Heilongjiang Province and its harm to agriculture and forests.[Methods]The southeast forest region of Heilongjiang Province was surveyed from March2008 to December2013 using night trap method combined with integrated collation of literature. [Result]There were totally 21 species of rodents in southeast forest region of Heilongjiang Province,belonging to 16 genera,8 families,3orders,and the fauna was mainly consisted of palaearctic realm; in terms of captured number,Clethrionomys rufocanus was the dominant species in forest region,while Apodemus agrarius was the dominant species in fields. The number of rodents was closely related to stand age,and the density of rodents was lower in the forest land with longer stand age and greater density. Rodents caused greater harm to timber forest and middle-aged forest than economic forest and young forest,and their damage on newly planted seedlings was particularly greater. The number of rodent population was the highest in summer,but the smallest in spring,while its interannual changes were stable. [Conclusion]The study provided a scientific basis for forestry management and rodent control,which also offered the basic biological data for the study of rodents.

  10. Evaluating the trade-off between food and timber resulting from the conversion of Miombo forests to agricultural land in Angola using multi-temporal Landsat data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneibel, Anne; Stellmes, Marion; Röder, Achim; Finckh, Manfred; Revermann, Rasmus; Frantz, David; Hill, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The repopulation of abandoned areas in Angola after 27years of civil war led to a fast and extensive expansion of agricultural fields to meet the rising food demand. Yet, the increase in crop production at the expense of natural resources carries an inherent potential for conflicts since the demand for timber and wood extraction are also supposed to rise. We use the concept of ecosystem services to evaluate the trade-off between food and woody biomass. Our study area is located in central Angola, in the highlands of the upper Okavango catchment. We used Landsat data (spatial resolution: 30×30m) with a bi-temporal and multi-seasonal change detection approach for five time steps between 1989 and 2013 to estimate the conversion area from woodland to agriculture. Overall accuracy is 95%, user's accuracy varies from 89-95% and producer's accuracy ranges between 92-99%. To quantify the trade-off between woody biomass and the amount of food, this information was combined with indicator values and we furthermore assessed biomass regrowth on fallows. Our results reveal a constant rise in agricultural expansion from 1989-2013 with the mean annual deforestation rate increasing from roughly 5300ha up to about 12,000ha. Overall, 5.6% of the forested areas were converted to agriculture, whereas the FAO states a national deforestation rate for Angola of 5% from 1990-2010 (FAO, 2010). In the last time step 961,000t per year of woodland were cleared to potentially produce 1240t per year of maize. Current global agro-economical projections forecast increasing pressure on tropical dry forests from large-scale agriculture schemes (Gasparri et al., 2015; Searchinger and Heimlich, 2015). Our study underlines the importance of considering subsistence-related change processes, which may contribute significantly to negative effects associated with deforestation and degradation of these forest ecosystems. PMID:26803737

  11. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  12. Impact of Agricultural Extension Services on Technology Adoption and Crops Yield: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab. The data for the study was collected from three main districts of central Punjab Province i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Hafizabad. In total 234 farmers were interviewed. The impact of agricultural extension services was estimated on adoption of new improved technologies and crop yields. The propensity score matching approach for impact evaluation was employed in the current study to correct for potential sample selection biasedness that may arise due to systematic differences between the farmers having benefited from agricultural extension services and not benefited from agricultural extension services. The empirical results indicate that agricultural extension services play a significant role in adoption of improved agricultural technologies like laser leveling, rice and wheat varieties. The farmers having benefitted from agricultural extension services were also getting higher rice and wheat yields. The results also indicates that mostly the large farmers are getting benefits from agricultural extension services and small scale farmers have less access to agricultural extension services.

  13. Assessing the ecosystem service potential of Tucson AZ's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2011-12-01

    canopy photos) to asses growth of the trees in the urban environment. These growth rates, and associated ecosystem services (C-sequestration, energy savings, pollution mitigation, etc.) are evaluated using US Forest Service models (Tree Carbon Calculator and i-tree software) to determine how the performance of trees in the Tucson urban environment perform vs. model predictions. We hypothesize that the models overestimate tree performance as Tucson differs in water availability relative to the cities the model was parameterized in (e.g. Glendale), both in terms of soil water holding capacities and also city "water culture." This preliminary study will provide a data collection framework for a citizen science urban forestry project which will provide data to improve environmental decision making related to the interaction of plants, water, and energy balance in this arid city.

  14. WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE OF FOREST TREES BY COOPERATE ORGANISATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle, M.F.; Adedokun, M.O.; Adedoja, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Payments for environmental services (PES) especially of the forests are considered a potential instrument to mitigate environment and development challenges faced in many tropical countries. The success of any PES scheme is highly dependent on reliable economic data and monetary values of the services provided by the forest trees and vegetation. Hence the relevance of this study which adopted the contingent valuation method (CVM) to derive a monetary valuation for the environmental service fu...

  15. Suitability Evaluation on the Information Service System of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to carry out suitability evaluation on the information service system of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" in Sichuan Province, China. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and expert consultation method are used to determine the evaluation index system and index weight. Suitability effect of the information service system of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" is taken as the target layer. The five indices at criterion layer are the organizational mode of agricultural information service, the support system of agricultural information resources, the agricultural information transfer system, the capital source of agricultural information service, and the support system of agricultural information service. And the index layer includes the talent team of agent service, the interaction between the subject and object, the accuracy of agricultural information, the convenience of agricultural information transfer, the adequacy of fund, the efficiency in the use of fund, the status of information infrastructure and so on. Evaluation result shows that the information service system of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" in Sichuan Province is suitable for the rural economic development at present. The major factors restricting the information service system are the lack of continuity, the weak infrastructure of agricultural information infrastructure, and the relatively low education level of agricultural producers. Therefore, we should further explore and improve the operation mechanism of agricultural information service, expand the capital source of agricultural information service, strengthen the construction of agricultural infrastructure, and ensure the continuous operation of information service system.

  16. Patterns of water infiltration and soil degradation over a 120-yr chronosequence from forest to agriculture in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nyberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is commonly reported in the tropics where forest is converted to agriculture. Much of the native forest in the highlands of western Kenya has been converted to agricultural land in order to feed the growing population, and more land is being cleared. In tropical Africa, this land use change results in progressive soil degradation, as the period of cultivation increases. Sites that were converted to agriculture at different times can be evaluated as a chronosequence; this can aid in our understanding of the processes at work, particularly those in the soil. Both levels and variation of infiltration, soil carbon and other parameters are influenced by management within agricultural systems, but they have rarely been well documented in East Africa. We constructed a chronosequence for an area of western Kenya, using two native forest sites and six fields that had been converted to agriculture for varying lengths of time.

    We assessed changes in infiltrability (the steady-state infiltration rate, soil C and N, bulk density, δ13C, and the proportion of macro- and microaggregates in soil along a 119 yr chronosequence of conversion from natural forest to agriculture. Infiltration, soil C and N, decreased rapidly after conversion, while bulk density increased. Median infiltration rates fell to about 15 % of the initial values in the forest and C and N values dropped to around 60 %, whilst the bulk density increased by 50 %. Despite high spatial variability in infiltrability, these parameters correlated well with time since conversion and with each other.

    Our results indicate that landscape planners should include wooded elements in the landscape in sufficient quantity to ensure water infiltration at rates that prevent runoff and erosion. This should be the case for restoring degraded landscapes, as well as for the development of new agricultural areas.

  17. Environmental Services from Agricultural Stormwater Detention Systems in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Knowles, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural Stormwater Detention Areas (ADAs) commonly exist for the purpose of downstream flood protection in high water table regions of Florida. In addition to flood protection, they are also considered an important Best Management Practice due to their presumed effectiveness in reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades (KLE) ecosystem. The KLE ecosystem has been adversely impacted due to excessive P loads. Despite their presumed water quality effectiveness, limited data exist on actual N and P treatment efficiencies. A study was conducted at two ADAs (ADA 1 and ADA 2) located in two row crop farms to quantify the total N and P treatment efficiencies. Water, N, and P inflow and outflows at both ADAs were monitored for a year. Results from ADA 1 suggested that P treatment efficiency was below zero indicating that the ADA was a source of P rather than a sink. On the other hand, N treatment efficiency was found to be 20%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 1 were 1.6 and 1.4 mg/l respectively, indicating a 9% reduction. Mean inflow and outflow P concentrations were 0.04 and 0.06 mg/l respectively, showing an increase of 67%. Although ADA 1 was effective in retaining N it was not for P. In contrast to ADA 1, the P treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was positive (20%). Nitrogen treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was 22%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 2 were 4.0 and 2.0 mg/l respectively, indicating 50% reduction. A reduction of 32% was observed for P concentrations with mean inflow and outflow P concentrations of 0.5 and 0.3 mg/l respectively. No P retention at ADA 1 was mainly due to low P adsorption capacity of the soil. Analysis of surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20 cm) soil P retention characteristics suggested that ADA 1 had no remaining P storage capacity which resulted in it being a source of P. At ADA 2, a large fraction of the area still had P storage capacity which resulted in

  18. Status Check of the Mining Hub of India: Examining the LandUse Pattern Observed in the ForestAgricultural Ecosystem of Dhanbad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareena Begum Irfan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the ecosystem based hotspot identification and the pattern of land use change in Forest-agricultural Ecosystem using the land use dynamic degree model. Geological Information on the agricultural ecosystem is obtained by the remote sensing images for the identification of land change. Ecosystem wherein both the agricultural and forest ecosystem coexist is known as forest-agricultural ecosystem. Area is based on the agricultural activities and the forest ecosystem. Hotspot is selected based on the intersection of anthropogenic activities like mining with the forest and agricultural ecosystem. With this hotspot identification it brings a clear picture of how to look into a new definition of hotspots, which identifies a region or specific area and how each area could be identified as a hotspot. Geographic Information System images were used to analyze the changes in land over specific time period.

  19. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, James R.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  20. Multimodeling Framework for Predicting Water Quality in Fragmented Agriculture-Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J. B.; Guber, A.; Porter, W. F.; Williams, D.; Tamrakar, S.; Dechen Quinn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Both livestock and wildlife are major contributors of nonpoint pollution of surface water bodies. The interactions among them can substantially increase the chance of contamination especially in fragmented agriculture-forest landscapes, where wildlife (e.g. white tailed deer) can transmit diseases between remote farms. Unfortunately, models currently available for predicting fate and transport of microorganisms in these ecosystems do not account for such interactions. The objectives of this study are to develop and test a multimodeling framework that assesses the risk of microbial contamination of surface water caused by wildlife-livestock interactions in fragmented agriculture-forest ecosystems. The framework consists of a modified Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), KINematic Runoff and EROSion model (KINEROS2) with the add-on module STWIR (Microorganism Transport with Infiltration and Runoff), RAMAS GIS, SIR compartmental model and Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment model (QMRA). The watershed-scale model SWAT simulates plant biomass growth, wash-off of microorganisms from foliage and soil, overland and in-stream microbial transport, microbial growth, and die-off in foliage and soil. RAMAS GIS model predicts the most probable habitat and subsequent population of white-tailed deer based on land use and crop biomass. KINEROS-STWIR simulates overland transport of microorganisms released from soil, surface applied manure, and fecal deposits during runoff events at high temporal and special resolutions. KINEROS-STWIR and RAMAS GIS provide input for an SIR compartmental model which simulates disease transmission within and between deer groups. This information is used in SWAT model to account for transmission and deposition of pathogens by white tailed deer in stream water, foliage and soil. The QMRA approach extends to microorganisms inactivated in forage and water consumed by deer. Probabilities of deer infections and numbers of infected animals are computed

  1. Potential for Hybrid Poplar Riparian Buffers to Provide Ecosystem Services in Three Watersheds with Contrasting Agricultural Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fortier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In temperate agricultural watersheds, the rehabilitation of tree vegetation in degraded riparian zones can provide many ecosystem services. This study evaluated ecosystem service provision potential following the conversion of non-managed herbaceous buffers to hybrid poplar (Populus spp. buffers in three watersheds (555–771 km2 of southern Québec (Canada, with contrasting agricultural land uses. To extrapolate services at the watershed level, total stream length where hybrid poplars could be established was calculated using GIS data from hydrological and land cover maps. After nine years, a 100% replacement of herbaceous buffers by hybrid poplar buffers along farm streams could lead to the production of 5280–76,151 tons of whole tree (stems + branches biomass, which could heat 0.5–6.5 ha of greenhouses for nine years, with the potential of displacing 2–29 million litres of fuel oil. Alternatively, the production of 3887–56,135 tons of stem biomass (fuelwood could heat 55–794 new farmhouses or 40–577 old farmhouses for nine years. Producing fuelwood in buffers rather than in farm woodlots could create forest conservation opportunities on 300–4553 ha. Replacing all herbaceous buffers by poplar buffers could provide potential storage of 2984–42,132 t C, 29–442 t N and 3–56 t P in plant biomass, if woody biomass is not harvested. The greatest potential for services provision was in the Pike River watershed where agriculture is the dominant land use. A review of the potential services of poplar buffers is made, and guidelines for managing services and disservices are provided.

  2. EUFODOS: European Forest Downstream Services - Improved Information on Forest Structure and Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmugl, M.; Gallaun, H.; Wack, R.; Granica, K.; Schardt, M.

    2013-05-01

    Forests play a key role in the European economy and environment. This role incorporates ecological functions which can be affected by the occurrence of insect infestations, forest fire, heavy snowfall or windfall events. Local or Regional Authorities (LRAs) thus require detailed information on the degradation status of their forests to be able to take appropriate measures for their forest management plans. In the EUFODOS project, state-of-the-art satellite and laser scanning technologies are used to provide forest authorities with cost-effective and comprehensive information on forest structure and damage. One of the six test sites is located in the Austrian province of Styria where regional forest authorities have expressed a strong need for detailed forest parameters in protective forest. As airborne laser-scanning data is available, it will be utilized to derive detailed forest parameters such as the upper forest border line, tree height, growth classes, forest density, vertical structure or volume. At the current project status, the results of (i) the forest border line, (ii) the segmentation of forest stands and (iii) the tree top detection are available and presented including accuracy assessment and interim results are shown for timber volume estimations. The final results show that the forest border can be mapped operationally with an overall accuracy of almost 99% from LiDAR data. For the segmentation of forest stands, a comparison of the automatically derived result with visual-manual delineation showed in general a more detailed segmentation result, but for all visual-manual segments a congruence of 87% within a 4 m buffer. Tree top detections were compared to stem numbers estimated based on angle-count samplings in a field campaign, which led to a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.79.

  3. Soil Properties in Natural Forest Destruction and Conversion to Agricultural Land,in Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatera Province

    OpenAIRE

    Basuki Wasis

    2012-01-01

    Destruction of the Gunung Leuser National Park area of North Sumatera Province through land clearing and land cover change from natural forest to agricultural land. Less attention to land use and ecosystem carrying capacity of the soil can cause soil degradation and destruction of flora, fauna, and wildlife habitat destruction. Environmental damage will result in a national park wild life will come out of the conservation area and would damage the agricultural community. Soil sampling conduct...

  4. Carbon sequestration and water flow regulation services in mature Mediterranean Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguería, S.; Ovando, P.

    2015-12-01

    We develop a forestland use and management model that integrates spatially-explicit biophysical and economic data, to estimate the expected pattern of climate regulation services through carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in tree and shrubs biomass, and water flow regulation. We apply this model to examine the potential trade-offs and synergies in the supply of CO2 sequestration and water flow services in mature Mediterranean forest, considering two alternative forest management settings. A forest restoration scenario through investments in facilitating forest regeneration, and a forestry activity abandonment scenario as result of unprofitable forest regeneration investment. The analysis is performed for different discount rates and price settings for carbon and water. The model is applied at the farm level in a group of 567 private silvopastoral farms across Andalusia (Spain), considering the main forest species in this region: Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Pinus pinea, P. halepensis, P. pinaster and Eucalyptus sp., as well as for tree-less shrubland and pastures. The results of this research are provided by forest land unit, vegetation, farm and for the group of municipalities where the farms are located. Our results draw attention to the spatial variability of CO2 and water flow regulation services, and point towards a trade-off between those services. The pattern of economic benefits associated to water and carbon services fluctuates according to the assumptions regarding price levels and discounting rates, as well as in connection to the expected forest management and tree growth models, and to spatially-explicit forest attributes such as existing tree and shrubs inventories, the quality of the sites for growing different tree species, soil structure or the climatic characteristics. The assumptions made regarding the inter-temporal preferences and relative prices have a large effect on the estimated economic value of carbon and water services. These results

  5. Soil micronutrients at the plot scale under agricultural and forest soil uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Días, Rosane; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; Marasca, Indiamara; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on the heavy metal extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study is to analyze long-term effects of land use on the supply, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients, which was undertaken by comparison of a forest and a cultivated stand, rich in organic matter content. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg/Kg), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg/Kg), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg/Kg), Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg/Kg). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg/Kg), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg/Kg), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg/Kg), Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg/Kg), Microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand, being Fe-DTPA the exception. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the study scale, nutrient management is the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions are probably driving the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the study nutrients at the small plot scale were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results are discussed in the frame of organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use.

  6. Agricultural extension services and gender equality: An institutional analysis of four districts in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Marc J.; Lemma, Mamusha

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized delivery of public services has been promoted as a means to enhance citizen voice and make service provision more responsive to users. Ethiopia has undertaken two rounds of decentralization, making first the regional states and then the district governments responsible for providing key public services. This paper explores whether decentralization has improved the quality of service delivery and citizen satisfaction with the services provided, focusing on agricultural extension....

  7. The US Forest Service Framework for Climate Adaptation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, D.

    2013-12-01

    Public lands are changing in response to climate change and related stressors such that resilience-based management plans that integrate climate-smart adaptation are needed. The goal of these plans is to facilitate land managers' consideration of a range of potential futures while simplifying the complex array of choices and assumptions in a rigorous, defensible manner. The foundation for climate response has been built into recent Forest Service policies, guidance, and strategies like the climate change Roadmap and Scorecard; 2012 Planning Rule; Cohesive Wildland Fire Management strategy; and Inventory, Monitoring & Assessment strategy. This has driven the need for information that is relevant, timely, and accessible to support vulnerability assessments and risk management to aid in designing and choosing alternatives and ranking actions. Managers must also consider carbon and greenhouse gas implications as well as understand the nature and level of uncertainties. The major adjustments that need to be made involve: improving risk-based decision making and working with predictive models and information; evaluating underlying assumptions against new realities and possibilities being revealed by climate science; integrating carbon cycle science and a new ethic of carbon stewardship into management practices; and preparing systems for inevitable changes to ameliorate negative effects, capture opportunities, or accept different and perhaps novel ecosystem configurations. We need to avoid waiting for complete science that never arrives and take actions that blend science and experience to boost learning, reduce costs and irreversible losses, and buy lead time.

  8. Economic Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services Losses: Cost of Policy Inaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chiabai, Aline; Travisi, Chiara; Markandya, Anil; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D.; Ding, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a bottom-up methodological framework for estimating some of the key ecosystem services provided by forests biomes worldwide. We consider the provision of wood and non-wood forest products, recreation and passive use, and forests’ contribution to climate regulation in terms of carbon sequestration capacity. The valuation framework derives per hectare estimates by applying meta-analysis, value transfer and scaling up procedures in order to control for existing heterogen...

  9. Non-market forest ecosystem services and decision support in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Strange, Niels; Löf, Magnus;

    2016-01-01

    The need to integrate non-market ecosystem services into decision-making is widely acknowledged. Despite the exponentially growing body of literature, trade-offs between services are still poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of published literature in the Nordic countries (Denmark......, Norway, Sweden and Finland) on the integration of non-market forest ecosystem services into decision-making. The aim of the review was two-fold: (1) to provide an overview of coverage of biophysical and socio-economic assessments of non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management; (2) to...... determine the extent of the integration of biophysical and socio-economic models of these services into decision support models. Our findings reveal the need for wider coverage of non-market ecosystem services and evidence-based modelling of how forest management regimes affect ecosystem services...

  10. Species composition and diversity of non-forest woody vegetation along roads in the agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Attila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-forest woody vegetation represents an important component of green infrastructure in the agricultural landscape, where natural and semi-natural forest cover has only a low land use proportion. This paper focuses on linear woody vegetation structures along roads in the agricultural landscape and analyses them in three study areas in the Nitra Region, Slovakia. We evaluate species composition and diversity, species occurrence frequency or spatial distribution, their structure according to relatively achievable age and origin. For the evaluation of occurrence frequency, a Frequency Factor was proposed and applied. This factor allows a better comparison of different study areas and results in more representative findings. The study areas were divided into sectors based on visual landscape features, which are easily identifiable in the field, such as intersections and curves in roads, and intersections of roads with other features, such as cadastral or land boundaries, watercourses, etc. Based on the species abundance, woody plants present within the sectors were categorised into 1 predominant, 2 complementary and 3 mixed-in species; and with regard to their origin into 1 autochthonous and 2 allochthonous. Further, trees were categorised into 1 long-lived, 2 medium-lived and 3 short-lived tree species. The main finding is that among trees, mainly allochthonous species dominated. Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the predominant tree species in all three study areas. It was up to 4 times more frequent than other predominant tree species. Introduced tree species prevailed also among complementary and mixed-in species. Among shrubs, mainly native species dominated, while non-native species had a significantly lower proportion and spatial distribution. Based on these findings, several measures have been proposed to improve the overall ecological stability, the proportion and spatial distribution of native woody plant species. The recommendations and

  11. Gender and Governance in Agricultural Extension Services : Insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Madhvani, Sonia; Pehu, Eija

    2010-01-01

    The gender and governance in rural services insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia report aims to generate policy-relevant knowledge on strategies for improving agricultural service delivery, with a focus on providing more equitable access to these services, especially for women. The project has been implemented in India, Ghana, and Ethiopia. These countries were chosen to capture variat...

  12. The Ecological Service Function Development of Urban Modern Agriculture in Tianjin City and Corresponding Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; QIN; Guoxing; SUN; Jin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current situation of ecological environment of agriculture in Tianjin City,we divide the ecological service function of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City into seven types: air regulation,climate regulation,water conservation,soil formation and protection, waste disposal,biodiversity conservation,and ecological entertainment. According to the method for assessing the value of natural ecosystem, coupled with the ecological service value equivalency factor table of China’s ecosystem formulated by domestic scholars,we estimate the ecological value in Tianjin City. The results show that the actual ecological value of agriculture in Tianjin City was 30. 752 billion yuan in 2010,close to the agricultural economic value ( 31. 733 billion yuan) in 2010. Finally we put forth the following countermeasures for the ecological function development of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City: strictly protecting arable land,and raising the standards of compensation for agricultural land requisition; actively and prudently developing facility agriculture,and preventing the blind scale expansion of facility agriculture to better give play to its ecological function; strengthening the construction of ecological agriculture,and promoting the market conversion of the ecological service value of agriculture; improving the environment,to form relatively complete agro-ecological system.

  13. Household Land Management and Biodiversity: Secondary Succession in a Forest-Agriculture Mosaic in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Roy Chowdhury

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates anthropogenic and ecological dimensions of secondary forest succession in Mexico's southern Yucatán peninsular region, a hotspot of biodiversity and tropical deforestation. Secondary succession in particular constitutes an ecologically and economically important process, driven by and strongly influencing land management and local ecosystem structure and dynamics. As agents of local land management, smallholding farmers in communal, i.e., ejido lands affect rates of forest change, biodiversity, and sustainability within and beyond their land parcels. This research uses household surveys and land parcel mapping in two ejidos located along the buffer of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve to analyze how household socioeconomics and policy institutions drive allocations to successional forests in traditional crop fallows and in enriched fallows. Results indicate that household tenancy, livestock holdings, labor-consumer ratios, and receipts of agricultural subsidies are the strongest determinants of traditional fallow areas. Whereas the latter two factors also influence enriched successions, local agroforestry and reforestation programs were the strongest drivers of fallow enrichment. Additionally, the study conducts field vegetation sampling in a nested design within traditional and enriched fallow sites to comparatively assess biodiversity consequences of fallow management. Although enriched fallows display greater species richness in 10x10 m plots and 2x2 m quadrats, plot-scale data reveal no significant differences in Shannon-Wiener or Simpson's diversity indices. Traditional fallows display greater species heterogeneity at the quadrat scale, however, indicating a complex relationship of diversity to fallow management over time. The article discusses the implications of the social and ecological analyses for land change research and conservation policies.

  14. 77 FR 32989 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, San Juan National Forest, Durango...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... inventory of human remains in the control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, San Juan National Forest... (73 FR 49485-49486, August 21, 2008). The same human remains in this notice were the subject of two... (66 FR 51472-51474, October 9, 2001, stating that the human remains were under the control of...

  15. An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

  16. The value of the flood control service of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, B.J.; Hein, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    To date there have been only few case studies that specify howhydrological processes regulated by forests convey into benefits for society. The objective of this paper is to analyse the relation between forest cover and the reduction of flood risks on Trinidad. Our hypothesis is that the relation

  17. Exploring the willingness to pay for forest ecosystem services by residents of the Veneto Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gatto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests produce a wide array of goods, both private and public. The demand for forest ecosystem services is increasing in many European countries, yet there is still a scarcity of data on values at regional scale for Alpine areas. A Choice Experiment survey has been conducted in order to explore preferences, uses and the willingness of the Veneto population to pay for ecosystem services produced by regional mountain forests. The results show that willingness to pay is significant for recreation and C-sequestration but not for biodiversity conservation, landscape and other ecosystem services. These findings question the feasibility of developing market-based mechanisms in Veneto at present and cast light on the possible role of public institutions in promoting policy actions to increase the general awareness of forest-related ecosystem services.

  18. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WEED SCIENTISTS IN THE USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the agency that conducts in-house research within the United States Department of Agriculture. ARS conducts a broad research portfolio covering over 1200 projects at over 100 locations across the country. Weed science research is conducted on a range of t...

  19. U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes the U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program, which strongly encouraged employees to shut off their computers when leaving the office. The U.S. Forest Service first piloted the program on a voluntary basis in one region then implemented it across the agency's 43,000 computers as a joint effort by the Chief Information Office and Sustainable Operations department.

  20. European Forests and Carbon Sequestration Services: An Economic Assessment of Climate Change Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Helen; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Sonja S. Teelucksingh

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an original economic valuation of the impact of climate change on the provision of forest regulating services in Europe. To the authors' knowledge the current paper represents the first systematic attempt to estimate human well-being losses with respect to changes in biodiversity and forest regulating services that are directly driven by climate change. First, selected 34 European countries are grouped by their latitude intervals to capture the differentiated regional effec...

  1. TOWARDS THE LEGAL RECOGNITION AND GOVERNANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Norfolk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Mozambique, this paper examines the state of forest ecosystem services, the dependency of the population on these systems for their well-being, if an adaptive governance regime is being created which will ensure the resilience of the forest ecosystem services including the legal framework, the institutions operating within this framework, the tools available and their functioning, and how cooperative governance is operating.

  2. INVASIVE SPECIES RESEARCH IN THE USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive pests cause huge losses to both agricultural production systems and to the natural environment through displacing native species and decreasing biodiversity. It is now estimated that many thousand exotic insects, weeds and pathogens have been established in the United States and that these...

  3. Bank tending of subjects of agricultural services: problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Vdovenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and agro industry is a strategically important sector of the economy depends on the development of the level of food and national securityof Ukraine. In this context, improving the financial security needs of agricultural production through the mechanism of effective bank lending.Today lending industry is reduced due to the impact of the global financial crisis on lending due to liquidity problems in the banking system ofUkraine, was the rise in price of bank loans have become more stringent conditions for the creditworthiness of borrowers, collateral, a limited numberof loan programs for small and medium business and risk industry (the share of problem loans in the agricultural loan portfolio of domesticbanks reaches 10% led to banks reluctant cooperation with farmers.Solving the problems of the agricultural sector lending in Ukraine depends on the effective activity of creating the State Land Bank, the lifting of themoratorium on the sale of land, which would allow the agrarian sector to attract credit resources on the security of land.

  4. Capability Coordination in Agricultural Products Logistics Service Supply Chain with Revenue-sharing Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To solve the capability coordination in logistics service based on the agricultural products industry, a two-stage agricultural products Logistics Service Supply Chain (LSSC was established with one agricultural products logistics service integrator and one functional logistics service provider. Based on the non-storage property of logistics service capability, the revenue-sharing contract model was built under the uncertain demand. The optimal logistics capability order quantity and the revenue-sharing coefficient were calculated when the agricultural products LSSC achieved coordination. Revenue-sharing contract can coordinate the agricultural products LSSC effectively compared with no contract. A numerical simulation was taken by MATLAB 7.0. The change of purchase price has no influence on the optimal logistics capability order quantity and the expected profit of agricultural products LSSC. It achieves a redistribution of members’ profits. With the increases of penalty cost, the optimal logistics capability order quantity and the expected profit of provider increase, while the expected profit of integrator and agricultural products LSSC decrease.

  5. Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Landis, D.A.; Gardiner, M. M.; Werf, van der, M.J.; Swinton, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Increased demand for corn grain as an ethanol feedstock is altering U. S. agricultural landscapes and the ecosystem services they provide. From 2006 to 2007, corn acreage increased 19% nationally, resulting in reduced crop diversity in many areas. Biological control of insects is an ecosystem service that is strongly influenced by local landscape structure. Here, we estimate the value of natural biological control of the soybean aphid, a major pest in agricultural landscapes, and the economic...

  6. The Ecological Service Function Development of Urban Modern Agriculture in Tianjin City and Corresponding Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Jing; Li, Jin; Sun, Guoxing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current situation of ecological environment of agriculture in Tianjin City, we divide the ecological service function of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City into seven types: air regulation, climate regulation, water conservation, soil formation and protection, waste disposal, biodiversity conservation, and ecological entertainment. According to the method for assessing the value of natural ecosystem, coupled with the ecological service value equivalency factor table of Chin...

  7. The place of agricultural sciences in the literature on ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Tancoigne, Elise; Barbier, Marc; Cointet, Jean-Philippe; Richard, Guy

    2014-01-01

    International audience We performed a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the scientific literature on ecosystem services in order to help tracing a research agenda for agricultural sciences. The ecosystem services concept now lies at the heart of current developments to address global environmental change. Do agricultural sciences generate knowledge that covers this emerging theme? An analysis of scientific production allowed us to return to the ecological origins of this concept and...

  8. Spatial Aspects of the Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg

    estimates for the U.S. counties of the cost of carbon sequestration from afforestation (conversion of non-forest land to forest), when afforestation is restricted by Holdridge zone climatic conditions. Aside from assessing the overall marginal cost schedule, the spatial distribution of these are examined...... of land for conservation into systematic conservation planning. Finally, the fourth paper uses a choice experiment to test whether people’s WTA for restricted access is influenced by spatial heterogeneity in local forest conditions. In addition, the paper assesses the potential for self...

  9. Forest owners' willingness to accept contracts for ecosystem service provision is sensitive to additionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2015-01-01

    eliciting current practice prior to a choice experiment on contracts. For most of these ecosystem services, owners differentiate their WTA significantly according to their current management. Owners who did not provide extended access had a mean WTA of €14/ha/year for accepting access up to 15 m from roads...... contracts for the provision of ecosystem services in Natura 2000 policies in a sample covering 12.5% of the total private forest area. This involves allowing old trees to decay naturally, setting aside forest areas, accepting a fixed percentage of broadleaves and increasing access for the public. Forest...... and paths and €28/ha/year for accepting access everywhere in their forest. However, forest owners who already allow extended access have a mean WTA around zero....

  10. Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services and Benefit Sharing:A Case Study of Qingdao City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The forest ecosystem goods and services and the natural capital stocks that produce them make great contribution to national economy and human welfare both directly and indirectly. This paper evaluates the economic value of natural capital stock and the annual output flow of forest ecosystem goods and services taking Qingdao City and its eight districts as case study. The results of the valuation study showed, that the stock value of forest natural capital of Qingdao was RMB 13.46 billion at the end of 2007...

  11. Practice and Exploration of Rural Sci-tech Service Supermarket:A Case Study of Jurong Economic Forest and Fruit Industrial Branch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weizhong; LIU; Yabo; LIU; Jianying; ZHANG; Nini; MAO; Zhijian; WANG

    2013-01-01

    The rural sci-tech supermarket in Jiangsu Province is an innovative model of rural sci-tech service. With reference to the concept of modern commodity supermarket, this model integrates variety, technology and achievement information into the sci-tech supermarket platform, provides various agricultural sci-tech services, and improves farmers recognition and acceptance of science and technology, so as to accelerate conversion of scientific and technological achievements and demonstration and popularization of new varieties, new technologies and new models. This paper analyzes practice of Jurong economic forest and fruit industrial branch and presents recommendations for building Jiangsu rural sci-tech service supermarket.

  12. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  13. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  14. Forest statistics for East Oklahoma counties, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains the statistical tables and figures derived from data obtained during a recent inventory of east Oklahoma. The multiresource inventory included 18 counties and two survey regions. Data on forest acreage and timber volume involved a three-step procedure. First, estimate of forest acreage were made for each county using aerial photographs. Classification of forest-nonforest points was accomplished, each representing approximately 230 acres. Second, these estimates were adjusted based on ground observations at 2,762 sample locations. Finally, field measurements were made at forest locations on the intersections of grid lines spaced 3 miles apart. At each forest location, per-acre estimates were obtained from trees measured on ten 37.5 basal area factor prism points

  15. 36 CFR 261.18 - National Forest Wilderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest Wilderness. 261.18 Section 261.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... except as authorized by Federal Law or regulation. (b) Possessing or using a hang glider or bicycle....

  16. Agricultural and Forest Land Use Potential for REDD+ among Smallholder Land Users in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divine O. Appiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with other benefits (REDD+ mechanism is supposed to address the reversal of forest-based land degradation, conservation of existing carbon stocks, and enhancement of carbon sequestration. The Bosomtwe District is predominantly agrarian with potentials for climate change mitigation through REDD+ mechanism among smallholder farmers. The limited knowledge and practices of this strategy among farmers are limiting potentials of mitigating climate change. This paper assesses the REDD+ potentials among smallholder farmers in the district. Using a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative design, 152 farmer-respondents were purposively sampled and interviewed, using snowballing method from 12 communities. Quantitative data gathered were subjected to the tools of contingency and frequencies analysis, embedded in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v.16. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Results indicate that respondents have knowledge of REDD+ but not the intended benefit sharing regimes that can accrue to the smallholder farmers. Farmers’ willingness to practice REDD+ will be based on the motivation and incentive potentials of the strategies. The Forestry Services Division should promote the practice of REDD+ among smallholder farmers through education, to whip and sustain interest in the strategy.

  17. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land with LiDAR Point Clouds and Terrestrial Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kolecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary forest succession on abandoned agricultural land has played a significant role in land cover changes in Europe over the past several decades. However, it is difficult to quantify over large areas. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for mapping forest succession patterns using vegetation structure information derived from LiDAR data supported by national topographic vector data. This work was performed in the Szczawnica commune in the Polish Carpathians. Using object-based image analysis segments of no vegetation, and sparse/dense low/medium/high vegetation were distinguished and subsequently compared to the national topographic dataset to delineate agricultural land that is covered by vegetation, which indicates secondary succession on abandoned fields. The results showed that 18.7% of the arable land and 40.4% of grasslands, that is 31.0% of the agricultural land in the Szczawnica commune, may currently be experiencing secondary forest succession. The overall accuracy of the approach was assessed using georeferenced terrestrial photographs and was found to be 95.0%. The results of this study indicate that the proposed methodology can potentially be applied in large-scale mapping of secondary forest succession patterns on abandoned land in mountain areas.

  18. [Evaluation of ecological services of Populus simonii forest on Heerqin sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengrui; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhao, Liya; Yasuhito, Shirato

    2003-10-01

    The main ecological services of the sand-fixed forest are windbreak, soil erosion control, and atmospheric dust retention. In this paper, the ecological services of Populus simonii forest were assessed by simultaneous measurements of wind speeds, daily amount of soil surface wind erosion, and amount of atmospheric dust deposition at different observation sites located within and outside the forestland. The results showed that compared with the control site (mobile sand dune), the daily mean wind velocity at 2 m height was reduced by 18.3, 31.6, 66.1, 66.0, 62.3 and 45.2% for the observation sites over the distances of 6 and 3 H (H meant average tree height) from forest edge of the windward side, forest center, and observation sites over the distances of 0, 6 and 8 H from forest edge of the leeward side, respectively. The greatest reduction in daily mean wind velocity was occurred in both forest center and forest edge of the leeward side. There was a significant positive relationship between leaf area index of the forest and monthly declining index of mean wind speed. The monthly declining index of mean wind speed increased with increasing the forest leaf area index by a cubic function. The daily wind erosion rates of soil surface in observation sites at 6 and 3 H from forest edge of the windward side, forest center, and at 0, 6 and 8 H from forest edge of the leeward side were reduced by as much as 85.2%-99.9%, in comparison with the control site. The greatest reduction in daily wind erosion rate of soil surface occurred in forest edge of the leeward side, followed in decreasing order by forest center, 6 and 8 H from forest edge of the leeward side, 3 and 6 H from forest edge of the windward side. During the observation period, the daily mean dust deposition within the forestland was 13.2 kg.hm-2, compared with 9.9 kg.hm-2 outside the forestland, with a 33% increase. All these results suggested that the poplar forest played an important role in reducing damaging

  19. Sustainable carbon uptake - important ecosystem service within sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Anić, Mislav; Paladinić, Elvis; Alberti, Giorgio; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    Even-aged forest management with natural regeneration under continuous cover (i.e. close to nature management) is considered to be sustainable regarding the yield, biodiversity and stability of forest ecosystems. Recently, in the context of climate change, there is a raising question of sustainable forest management regarding carbon uptake. Aim of this research was to explore whether current close to nature forest management approach in Croatia can be considered sustainable in terms of carbon uptake throughout the life-time of Pedunculate oak forest. In state-owned managed forest a chronosequence experiment was set up and carbon stocks in main ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter and mineral soil layer), main carbon fluxes (net primary production, soil respiration (SR), decomposition) and net ecosystem productivity were estimated in eight stands of different age (5, 13, 38, 53, 68, 108, 138 and 168 years) based on field measurements and published data. Air and soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded on 7 automatic mini-meteorological stations and weekly SR measurements were used to parameterize SR model. Carbon balance was estimated at weekly scale for the growing season 2011 (there was no harvesting), as well as throughout the normal rotation period of 140 years (harvesting was included). Carbon stocks in different ecosystem pools change during a stand development. Carbon stocks in forest floor increase with stand age, while carbon stocks in dead wood are highest in young and older stands, and lowest in middle-aged, mature stands. Carbon stocks in mineral soil layer were found to be stable across chronosequence with no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Pedunculate Oak stand, assuming successful regeneration, becomes carbon sink very early in a development phase, between the age of 5 and 13 years, and remains carbon sink even after the age of 160 years. Greatest carbon sink was reached in the stand aged 53 years. Obtained results

  20. A microeconomic analysis of household forest plantation in the northern uplands of Vietnam : contributions to payments for environmental services policy

    OpenAIRE

    Manasboonphempool, Areeya

    2014-01-01

    It is uncontested that forests are imperative for environmental conservation and economic development. Benefits from forests are immense and multidimensional: Forests can support local livelihoods, assist poverty alleviation, and provide environmental services for local communities and greater society. Over the past 50 years, about half of the worlds original forest cover has been lost. Vietnam is among the countries where forest degradation is a serious issue. Several measures have been impl...

  1. Survey of the World Agricultural Documentation Services, Draft; Prepared on Behalf of the FAO Panel of Experts on "AGRIS" (International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntrock, H.

    The purpose of the survey was: (1) to evaluate existing agricultural information services and (2) to propose possible frameworks for an improved world-wide agricultural information service. The principal statistical results of the survey are summarized in the following figures which are based on data collected in nearly all instances for the year…

  2. Wildfires, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity in Tropical Dry Forest in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerbeck, Joachim; Fiener, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This review is intended to contribute to the understanding of the interlinkage between wildfire in India's tropical dry forest (TDF) and selected ecosystem services (ES), namely forest provisioning and water regulating services, as well as biodiversity. TDF covers approximately 146,000 km2 (4.4 %) of India, whereas according to the MODIS fire product about 2200 km2 (1.4 %) burns per year. As studies on wildfire effects upon ESs and biodiversity in Indian TDFs are rare we partly transferred findings from other (dry) forest areas to the environmental situation in India. In India (intentionally lit) wildfires have a very important connection to local livelihoods and the availability of non-wood forest products. Very important adverse long-term effects are the deterioration of forest ecosystems and soil degradation. The potential for TDF to regulate hydrological cycles is expected to be greater in the absence of fire than with it. A general judgment on the effect of fire on biodiversity is difficult as it depends on the community and species involved but a loss of biodiversity under regular burnings is apparent. Consequently, forest managers need sound knowledge regarding the interplay of wildfires and ecosystem behavior in general and more specific knowledge regarding the effects on taxa being considered for conservation efforts. Generally, much more research is needed to understand the trade-offs between the short-term benefits gained from forest provisioning services and long-term adverse effects.

  3. Comparison of Organic Matter Composition in Agricultural versus Forest Affected Headwaters with Special Emphasis on Organic Nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Marlen; Graeber, Daniel; Zak, Dominik;

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural management practices promote organic matter (OM) turnover and thus alter both the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils and presumably also the export of DOM to headwater streams, which intimately connect the terrestrial with the aquatic environment. Size....... Altogether, DOM in agricultural headwaters is mainly complex-soil-derived and aromatic material with a low C:N ratio, which is more microbial processed than its counterpart from forest reference catchments. Our results emphasize the importance of agricultural land use on DOM loss from soils and identify......-exclusion chromatography, in combination with absorbance and emission matrix fluorometry, was applied to assess how agricultural land use alters the amount and composition of DOM, as well as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) forms in headwater streams, including temporal variations, in a temperate region of NE Germany. By...

  4. Avian research on U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges: Emergent themes, opportunities, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoleson, S.H.; King, D.I.; Tomosy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1908, U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges have been dedicated to long-term interdisciplinary research on a variety of ecological and management questions. They encompass a wide diversity of life zones and ecoregions, and provide access to research infrastructure, opportunities for controlled manipulations, and integration with other types of long-term data. These features have facilitated important advances in a number of areas of avian research, including furthering our understanding of population dynamics, the effects of forest management on birds, avian responses to disturbances such as fire and hurricanes, and other aspects of avian ecology and conservation. However, despite these contributions, this invaluable resource has been underutilized by ornithologists. Most of the Experimental Forests and Ranges have had no ornithological work done on them. We encourage the ornithological community, especially graduate students and new faculty, to take advantage of this largely untapped potential for long-term work, linkage with long-term data sets, multiple disciplines, and active forest management. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Multi- and hyperspectral UAV imaging system for forest and agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkynen, Jussi; Saari, Heikki; Holmlund, Christer; Mannila, Rami; Antila, Tapani

    2012-06-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with light weight UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) platforms (SPIE Proc. 74741, 8186B2). The FPI based hyperspectral imager was used in a UAV imaging campaign for forest and agriculture tests during the summer 2011 (SPIE Proc. 81743). During these tests high spatial resolution Color-Infrared (CIR) images and hyperspectral images were recorded on separate flights. The spectral bands of the CIR camera were 500 - 580 nm for the green band, 580 - 700 nm for the red band and 700 - 1000 nm for the near infrared band. For the summer 2012 flight campaign a new hyperspectral imager is currently being developed. A custom made CIR camera will also be used. The system which includes both the high spatial resolution Color-Infrared camera and a light weight hyperspectral imager can provide all necessary data with just one UAV flight over the target area. The new UAV imaging system contains a 4 Megapixel CIR camera which is used for the generation of the digital surface models and CIR mosaics. The hyperspectral data can be recorded in the wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at a resolution of 10 - 30 nm at FWHM. The resolution can be selected from approximate values of 10, 15, 20 or 30 nm at FWHM.

  6. Forest statistics for southeast Oklahoma counties, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabulated results were derived from data obtained during the 1993 forest inventory of southeast Oklahoma counties. Field work for the southeastern unit was completed in late 1992. Core tables (1 through 25) are compatible among Forest Inventory and Analysis units in the Eastern United States. Supplemental tables (26 through 43) provide information beyond that provided by the core tables. Comparisons are made between results of the 1993 inventory and previous inventories conducted in 1986 and 1975

  7. Soil type as factor controlling the effects of forest transformation to agricultural use in soil aggregation and related properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrenková, Katarína; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Dlapa, Pavel; Arcenegui, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    The stability of aggregates has an important role in soil functioning and its behavior to avoid erosion and degradation, the ability to transfer liquids and gases, which are important features for crop production and ecosystem health (Tisdall and Oades, 1982). It's also a property that is highly influenced by land use and management (Angers et al., 1993). The stability of aggregates provides key information about the capacity of soil functions that defines the soil quality. This study has aimed to identify the long-term effects of forest transformation on agricultural use on soil structure and related properties. For the research was chosen seven localities in the Alicante Province (E Spain) with different soil types in all cases to compare how the land use changes can affect as a function of soil type and characteristics. In every site, samples were collected from agricultural land use (dry crops with tillage management), and in forest areas close to them with similar soil type that are used as references. On the samples, selected physical and chemical properties were analyzed such as Soil aggregate stability (AS), Organic matter (OM), Mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates and Water repellency (WR). As expected, in all cases the AS was significant lower in agricultural sites than in forest. But in some cases the differences were much higher than in others. In forest sites the AS varied between 46 to 82% while in agricultural sites ranged between 14 to 45%. The results showed strong positive correlation of AS with OM. The lowest initial values of AS were found in wettable sandy soils. The agricultural land use lead to relative decrease in AS by 39 to 79% compared to forest soils, indicating that some soils are much more vulnerable to land use than others. These differences can be explained mainly because intrinsic soil properties, such as OM content, texture, and WR. Particularly, the decrease in OM content and absence of WR are responsible for the decrease in

  8. Transformations in soil organic matter and aggregate stability after conversion of Mediterranean forest to agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio Vázquez, Lorena; Almendros, Gonzalo; Carral, Pilar; Knicker, Heike; González Pérez, José Antonio; González Vila, Francisco Javier

    2013-04-01

    Conversion of forest ecosystems into croplands often leads to severe decrease of the soil organic matter (SOM) levels with the concomitant deterioration of soil structure. The present research focuses on the effects of cultivation on the stability of soil macroaggregates, as well as on the total quantity and quality of SOM. Three representative soils from central Spain (i.e., Petric Calcisol, Cutanic Luvisol and Calcic Vertisol) were sampled. Each site had natural vegetation (NV) dominated either by characteristic Mediterranean forest (dehesa) or cereal crops (CC) under conventional tillage. For each site, three spatial replicates of the NV and CC were sampled. Soil aggregate stability was measured by the wet sieving method. The structural stability index was then calculated as the mass of aggregated soil (>250 μm) remaining after wet sieving, as a percent of total aggregate weight. The analytical characterization of the SOM was carried out after chemical fractionation for quantifying the different organic pools: free organic matter (FOM), humic acids (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (H). Furthermore, whole soil samples pretreated with 10 % HF solution were analyzed by CP-MAS 13C NMR and the purified HA fraction was characterized by elementary analysis, visible and infrared spectroscopies and Py-GC/MS. A marked reduction in the proportion of stable aggregates when the natural ecosystem was converted to agriculture was observed. Values of the structural stability index (%) changed over from 96.2 to 38.1, 95.1 to 83.7 and 98.5 to 60.6 for the Calcisol, Luvisol and Vertisol respectively. Comparatively higher contents of SOM were found in the soils under NV (11.69 to 0.93, 3.29 to 2.72 and 9.51 to 0.79 g C100 g-1soil) even though a quantitative rearrangement of the SOM pools was noticed. In all sites, the relative contribution of the labile C (FOM) to the total SOM content decreased when the forest soils were converted into croplands, whereas the proportion of both

  9. An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetland, and Urban Land Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the discrimination of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers is conducted using a scene of data collected over Arkansas and Tennessee. A classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is compared with a classification of TM data for the same area. Results from this comparative analysis show that the multitemporal MSS classification produced an overall accuracy of 80.91% while the TM classification yields an overall classification accuracy of 97.06% correct.

  10. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  11. Project risk and appeals in U.S. Forest Service planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires U.S. Forest Service planning processes to be conducted by interdisciplinary teams of resource specialists to analyze and disclose the likely environmental impacts of proposed natural resource management actions on Forest Service lands. Multiple challenges associated with these processes have been a source of frustration for the agency. One of these challenges involves administrative appeals through which public entities can challenge a Forest Service decision following a NEPA process. These appeals instigate an internal review process and can result in an affirmation of the Forest Service decision, a reversal of that decision, or additional work that re-initiates all or part of the NEPA process. We examine the best predictors of appeals and their outcomes on a representative sample of 489 Forest Service NEPA processes that were decided between 2007 and 2009. While certain factors associated with pre-existing social contexts (such as a history of controversy) or pre-determined elements of a proposed action (such as the extraction of forest products) predispose certain processes to a higher risk of appeals, other practices and process-related strategies within the control of the agency also appear to bear meaningful influence on the occurrence of appeals and their outcomes. Appeals and their outcomes were most strongly related to programmatic, structural (turnover of personnel in particular), and relationship risks (both internal and external) within the processes, suggesting the need for greater focus within the agency on cultivating positive internal and external relationships to manage the risk of appeals. -- Highlights: ► We examined appeals and their outcomes on 489 U.S. Forest Service NEPA processes. ► Project type, context, team turnover, and personal relationships predicted appeals. ► External relationship management and staff turnover best predicted appeal outcomes. ► Positive internal and

  12. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  13. CHANGES IN THE LEVEL AND STRUCTURE OF UTILISATION OF SERVICES IN POLISH AND GERMAN AGRICULTURE IN 1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kołodziejczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the differences in the level and structure of utilisation of services in Polish and German agriculture. An attempt to define the factors influencing these values was also done. The research covered the share of agricultural services, veterinary expenses and financial intermediation services in intermediate consumption, the value of the studied services per 1 hectare of agricultural land, 1 AWU or 1 DJP, as well as services absorptivity of agricultural production. It was proved that although a significant difference between the role of these services in Poland and Germany still exists, in many cases in 2012 it was not so considerable as in 1998. It can be also assumed that further absorption of funds from the European Union will stimulate investment processes in Polish agriculture, and progressive improvement in utilisation of services by Polish agriculture.

  14. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... level. 2523.4--Suppression-Damaged Areas Clarified that costs for suppression-damage rehabilitation... Response activities on National Forest System lands. Agency regulations at 36 CFR 220.6(d)(2) (73 FR 43093... cost-effective response actions. This interim directive supersedes the existing directive located...

  15. 7 CFR 2.60 - Chief, Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... established pursuant to the following: (i) Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment, and the Federal Facility Compliance Act (42..., managing, and utilizing forest and rangeland renewable resources in rural, suburban, and urban areas in...

  16. A comparison of the spatial distribution of vadose zone water in forested and agricultural floodplains a century after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    To improve quantitative understanding of the long-term impact of historic forest removal on floodplain vadose zone water regime, a study was implemented in fall 2010, in the Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA. Automated, continuously logging capacitance-frequency probes were installed in a grid-like formation (n=6) and at depths of 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 cm within a historic agricultural field (Ag) and a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, and 2013 hydrologic years. Results showed volumetric water content (VWC) to be significantly different between sites (pfloodplain forests for fresh water routing, water quality, and flood mitigation in mixed-land-use watersheds. PMID:26519576

  17. Comparaison of agricultural and forest biomass with regards to biological processes for bioethanol production of second generation.

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Perez, Denilson; Briand, Sarah; Laboubée, Céline; Chabbert, Brigitte; Leygue, Jean-Philippe; Cadoux, Stéphane; LABALETTE, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the comparison between agricultural and forest resources related to the needs of biochemical processes. Recommendations and exchanges with future users (IFP, ARD) were used in this study. 234 samples from two years (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) were selected and analysed. Various species were analysed for their chemical composition, especially the content of fermentable sugars. Then the results were shown for homogeneous species groups: annuals immature, annuals mature, fo...

  18. Participatory Goal Programming in Forest Management: An Application Integrating Several Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Aldea; Fernando Martínez-Peña; Carlos Romero; Luis Diaz-Balteiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose a procedure for integrating several ecosystem services into forest management by using the well-known multi-criteria approach called goal programming. It shows how interactions with various stakeholders are essential in order to choose the goal programming model applied, as well as some of its basic components (variant, targets, preferential weights, etc.). This methodology has been applied to a real forest management case where five criteria have been selected: timb...

  19. ECONOMIC VALUE OF THE CARBON SINK SERVICES OF TROPICAL SECONDARY FORESTS AND ITS MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Octavio A.; Carpio, Carlos E.; Ortiz, Rosalba; Finnegan, Brian

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the economic feasibility secondary forest regeneration and conservation as an alternative to help address global warming. Detailed measurements of tropical secondary forests through time, in different ecological zones of Costa Rica, are used for estimating carbon storage models. The paper addresses key issues in the international discussion about cross- and within-country compensation for carbon storage services and illustrates a method to compute/predict their economic va...

  20. Analysis of the year 2008 fires in the forest lands of the Muğla Regional Forest Service by using drought indices

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Türkeş; Gökhan Altan

    2012-01-01

    Muğla district is existed among the most risky areas of Turkey in terms of forest fires. In every year, Muğla Regional Forest Service faces significant level of economic losses associated with disappearance of the forest lands and degradation of the ecosystem services due to the forest fires occurred within its regional boundaries. In this study, by using long-term meteorological data recorded at the Muğla meteorology station, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) ar...

  1. Large-scale trade-off between agricultural intensification and crop pollination services

    OpenAIRE

    Jono, Clémentine; Baude, Mathilde; henry, Mickaël; Julliard, Romain; Fontaine, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented growth in human populations has required the intensification of agriculture to enhance crop productivity, but this was achieved at a major cost to biodiversity. There is abundant local-scale evidence that both pollinator diversity and pollination services decrease with increasing agricultural intensification. This raises concerns regarding food security, as two-thirds of the world’s major food crops are pollinator-dependent. Whether such local findings scale up and affect ...

  2. Agriculture, Environmental Services and Agro-Tourism in the Dominican Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Catalino, Alejandro Herrera; Lizardo, Magdalena

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the links between agriculture and tourism. A contingent valuation study assesses tourist's willingness to pay (WTP) for agro-tourism and agriculture's positive environmental services and related positive externalities. The paper analyzes factors influencing tourist preferences in the Dominican Republic (DR) -- tourist income, the local tourist destination, sex, and nationality stand out among these factors. Estimates are given for different WTP scenarios according to farmi...

  3. Economic Value of the Carbon Sink Services of Tropical Secondary Forests and Its Management Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the economic feasibility of secondary forest regeneration and conservation as an alternative in the campaign addressing the problem of global warming. Detailed measurements of tropical secondary forests over time, in different ecological zones of Costa Rica, are used to evaluate carbon storage models. The paper addresses key issues in the international discussion about cross- and within-country compensation for carbon storage services and illustrates a method to compute/predict their economic value over time under a variety of scenarios. The procedure is applicable to other developing countries where secondary forest growth is increasingly important

  4. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Jennifer C.; Newton, Adrian C.; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-01-01

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of ...

  5. Do riparian forest fragments provide ecosystem services or disservices in surrounding oil palm plantations?

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural expansion across tropical regions is causing declines in biodiversity and altering ecological processes. However, in some tropical agricultural systems, conserving natural habitat can simultaneously protect threatened species and support important ecosystem services. Oil palm cultivation is expanding rapidly throughout the tropics but the extent to which non-crop habitat supports biodiversity and ecosystem services in these landscapes is poorly documented. We investigated whether...

  6. ESTIMATION OF SOIL-PROTECTIVE SYSTEM WITH USE OF BIORESOURCES OF AGRICULTURE ON THE BASIS OF USE OF AGROCENOSIS ON THE GREY FOREST SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina RUSAKOVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data of long-term researches establishing high efficiency of soil-protective system of agriculture with use of bioresources on biological and humus in condition of arable grey forest soil has been presented.

  7. ESTIMATION OF SOIL-PROTECTIVE SYSTEM WITH USE OF BIORESOURCES OF AGRICULTURE ON THE BASIS OF USE OF AGROCENOSIS ON THE GREY FOREST SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina RUSAKOVA

    2013-01-01

    The experimental data of long-term researches establishing high efficiency of soil-protective system of agriculture with use of bioresources on biological and humus in condition of arable grey forest soil has been presented.

  8. 36 CFR 211.6 - Cooperation in forest investigations or the protection, management, and improvement of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation in forest... Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION Cooperation § 211.6 Cooperation in forest investigations or the protection, management, and improvement of...

  9. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.3...

  10. 75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest... statement for the Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Reduction Project (Salt Project). A...

  11. 77 FR 19177 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Jefferson Ranger District, Montana, Boulder River Salvage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...-commercially thin Douglas-fir and burn slash on 8,212 acres within 102 units. Approximately 210 miles of...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Jefferson Ranger...

  12. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A; Ikem, Abua

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p<0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. PMID:26005752

  14. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

    2003-01-01

    A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying. PMID:12846320

  15. Hydrological Consequences of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the Amazon Agricultural Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M. T.; Macedo, M.; Silverio, D. V.; Panday, P. K.; Brando, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the tropics causes important changes in the energy and water balance because pasturelands and croplands generally have a higher albedo and decreased water demand, evapotranspiration, and atmospheric turbulence compared to the forests they replace. These changes to the water and energy balance work at a variety of time and space scales and the combined influences on regional hydrology are complex. Field observations, satellite data products and a suite of numerical ecosystem models have been used to document and understand changes to the energy and water balances at micro (radiation and evapotranspiration and increased surface temperature, sensible heat flux, soil moisture, stream flow and stream temperature. These changes result from the increased albedo, reduced leaf area index, altered phenology, decreased root density and depth, and total water demand of the pasture and crops compared to the native vegetation. Global and meso-scale climate model applications indicate that continued deforestation may significantly reduce regional precipitation because of decreases in the net surface radiation, surface roughness, moisture convergence over the basin, and water recycling. Future changes brought about by deforestation may be of a scale to negatively impact ecosystem services such as hydropower generation and crop productivity.

  16. Design of Internet of Things application and service detecting system in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Sijun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An intergrative detecting scheme is provided to the IoT application and service in agriculture.The application and service is ensured by detecting service in sensor layer,network layer and application layer respectively.In sensor layer,sensor devices are managed and the relationship between sensors and services are built,in order to trace back to the related device when there′s any problem.In network layer,automatic back-up and re-set is accomplished when network configuration,to ensure the transmission between sensor layer and network layer.In application layer,load test is applied in service support platform.The service is controlled by real-time monitoring to database in cloud platform.Through the global monitor,the service performance is ensured and user experience is improved,which will finally help the development of IoT in agricultue.

  17. Multiple-Use Zoning Model for Private Forest Owners in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Truax; Daniel Gagnon; France Lambert; Julien Fortier

    2015-01-01

    Many small-scale private forest owners increasingly focus their management on amenity functions rather than on wood production functions. This paradigm shift is an opportunity to implement novel forestry management approaches, such as forested land zoning. Forest zoning consists in separating the land base in three zones that have different management objectives: (1) conservation zones; (2) ecosystem management zones; and (3) intensive production zones, which locally increase productivity, as...

  18. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  19. Facilitating agricultural technology adoption among the poor: The role of service delivery through mobile phones

    OpenAIRE

    Baumüller, Heike

    2012-01-01

    The use of mobile phones in poverty reduction and development has ignited much interest over the past decade. To take advantage of the rapid expansion of mobile phones in developing countries, businesses, government agencies and non-governmental organisations are increasingly turning their attention to the delivery of services through mobile phones in areas such as health, education and agriculture. This paper examines how such m-services could be and are already being used to facilitate agri...

  20. Utilization of Forest Products and Services for Livelihoods among Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document the utilization of forest resources for livelihoods in Zambia based on an analysis of data from the ILUA survey. The analysis of the ILUA data in which households indicated the types of forest products and services they obtained from woodlands in their area show that majority households (25% fetched fuelwood, followed by construction materials such as poles and thatching grass (19%. A good number (16% derived plant foods such as fruits and nuts as well as mushrooms. Equally, a considerable proportion of households (11% were harvesting medicinal plants for household use and sale. Some households were producing charcoal (5%, sawn or industrial timber (5% and wood carvings (4% from the local forests. A number of households also obtained important animal products such as honey and bee wax (4% and game meat and other edible animal products (5%. These results from the ILUA survey clearly show that indigenous forests and woodland resources are important sources of household energy and provide other important livelihood products and services for most rural households These findings also indicate that forests and woodland resources are critical to household food security especially during stressful conditions (drought and floods and they are a “drug store” and ‘insurance” for the rural poor and underscore the need to ensure that these forest resources are sustainably managed.

  1. AGROCHEMICAL SERVICE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: PAST AND PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara LEAH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the brief history of the agrochemical service development and its importance for Moldovan agriculture. According to this study, agrochemical service assisted methodical agriculture in the period 1956-1990. In this period were created 33 specialized laboratories were established long- and short-term experiments to test the mineral and organic fertilizers, were performed 4 cycles agrochemical soil mapping. According to the results was determined the balance of nutrients in soils, were developed soil agrochemical research for farms. After 1990 agrochemical cyclic mapping is not performed, the soils are fragmented into many plots, land degradation has accelerated. In this context agricultural policies are targeted at land consolidation, implementing action plans include measures to halt land degradation and land protection.

  2. Forestland prediction of China based on forest ecosystem services for the first half of 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ren-cai; CHEN Chun-di; DENG Hong-bing; ZHAO Jing-zhu

    2008-01-01

    A new model was developed to predict forestland demand of China during the years of 2010-2050 in terms of the concept of forest ecosystem services. On the basis of the relationship between forest ecosystem services and classified forest management, we hypothesized that the ecological-forest provides ecological services, whereas commercial-forest supplies wood and timber production, and the influences of the growth of population, social-economic development target, forest management methods and the technology changes on forest resources were also taken into account. The prediction reveals that the demand of total forestland of China will be 244.8, 261.2 and 362.2 million ha by the year 2010, 2020 and 2050, respectively. The results demonstrated that China will be confronted with a shortage of forest resources, especially with lack of ecological-oriented forests, in the future. It is suggested that sustainable management of forest resources must be reinforced and more attention should be drown no enhancing the service function of forest ecosystem.

  3. The soil moisture regimes beneath forest and an agricultural crop in southern India--Measurement and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental effects of plantations of fast growing tree species has been a subject of some controversy in recent years. Extensive soil moisture measurements were made at three sites in Karnataka, southern India. At each site measurements were made beneath a number of vegetation types. These included fast growing tree species (Eucalyptus, Casuarina and Leucaena), degraded natural forest and an agricultural crop (ragi). The measurements indicate that beneath mature forest the available soil water is exhausted towards the end of the dry season, usually by March. The soil only becomes completely wetted if the subsequent monsoon has above average rainfall; during the weak monsoon of 1989 the soil remained approximately 150 mm below field capacity. After the monsoon (and during breaks in the monsoon) soil moisture depletion is between three and five mm per day. This rate decreases as the soil drys out. All the mature forest types show a similar soil water regime. This contrasts strongly with that of the agricultural crop, which shows much smaller changes. A range of soil water accounting models was applied to these data. The most successful are those which use the Penman formulation to estimate the potential evaporation and include a two-layer soil water depletion model. The more general Penman-Monteith formulation was also tested

  4. Effect of modifying land cover and long-term agricultural practices on the soil characteristics in native forest-land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, Ceyhun; Dengiz, Orhan

    2008-09-01

    Natural forestland soils in the high land mountain ecosystems on the eastern Black sea region of Turkey are being seriously degraded and destructed due to intensive agricultural practices. In this study we examined four soil profiles selected from four sites in each of three adjacent land use types which are native forest, pasture and cultivated fields with corn and hazelnut to compare the soil physical, chemical and morphological properties modified after natural forestland transformation into cultivated land. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from four sites. The effects of agricultural practices on soil properties taken from each three adjacent land use types were most clearly detected in the past 50 years with the land use change. Land use change and subsequent tillage practices resulted in significant decreases in organic matter, total porosity, total nitrogen and reduced soil aggregates stability. However, contents of available P were improved by application of phosphorous fertilizers in cultivated system. There was also a significant change in bulk density among cultivated, pasture and natural forest soils. Depending upon the increase in bulk density and disruption of pores by cultivation, total porosity decreased accordingly. The data show that long term continuous cultivation of the natural forest soils resulted in changes in physical and chemical characteristics of soils. PMID:19295064

  5. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  6. Methanotrophic Communities in Brazilian Ferralsols from Naturally Forested, Afforested, and Agricultural Sites▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Dörr, Nicole; Glaser, Bruno; Kolb, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of forests to farmland permanently lowers atmospheric methane consumption due to unresolved reasons. Alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs were predominant in forested soils and gammaproteobacterial species were predominant in farmland soils of subtropical ferralsols in Brazil. The capability of atmospheric methane consumption was obliterated in farmland soils, suggesting a shift from oligotrophic to copiotrophic species.

  7. Human-driven topographic effects on the distribution of forest in a flat, lowland agricultural region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Dalgaard, Tommy;

    2014-01-01

    Complex topography buffers forests against deforestation in mountainous regions. However, it is unknown if terrain also shapes forest distribution in lowlands where human impacts are likely to be less constrained by terrain. In such regions, if important at all, topographic effects will depend on...

  8. PREFER: a European service providing forest fire management support products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftychidis, George; Laneve, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Sebastian Lopez, Ana; Lourenco, Louciano; Clandillon, Stephen; Tampellini, Lucia; Hirn, Barbara; Diagourtas, Dimitris; Leventakis, George

    2015-06-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus project of the EC-FP7 program which aims developing spatial information products that may support fire prevention and burned areas restoration decisions and establish a relevant web-based regional service for making these products available to fire management stakeholders. The service focuses to the Mediterranean region, where fire risk is high and damages from wildfires are quite important, and develop its products for pilot areas located in Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and Greece. PREFER aims to allow fire managers to have access to online resources, which shall facilitate fire prevention measures, fire hazard and risk assessment, estimation of fire impact and damages caused by wildfire as well as support monitoring of post-fire regeneration and vegetation recovery. It makes use of a variety of products delivered by space borne sensors and develop seasonal and daily products using multi-payload, multi-scale and multi-temporal analysis of EO data. The PREFER Service portfolio consists of two main suite of products. The first refers to mapping products for supporting decisions concerning the Preparedness/Prevention Phase (ISP Service). The service delivers Fuel, Hazard and Fire risk maps for this purpose. Furthermore the PREFER portfolio includes Post-fire vegetation recovery, burn scar maps, damage severity and 3D fire damage assessment products in order to support relative assessments required in context of the Recovery/Reconstruction Phase (ISR Service) of fire management.

  9. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Elliott, E-mail: rekfh3@mail.missouri.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Hubbart, Jason A. [Water Resources Program, School of Natural Resources, Department of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ikem, Abua, E-mail: Ikema@lincolnu.edu [Lincoln University, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 204 Foster Hall, 904 Chestnut Street, Jefferson City, MO 65101 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  10. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  11. Tourists’ Satisfaction on Kilim River Mangrove Forest Ecotourism Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zaki Ayob

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism is a revenue generator for many countries, especially those endowed with natural attractions.  In order to sustain industry growth, its players are looking for essential factors contributing towards tourists’ satisfaction. This paper presents findings of a micro study on Langkawi mangrove forest ecotourism site along the Kilim River estuary.  Four theoretical models were constructed and analyzed using Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. The Baseline Comparisons, Parsimony Adjusted Measures, and the RMSEA were used to evaluate good model fit and Model 3 was found to fulfill that fit.  The overall tourist satisfaction index was found to be 79.1 of a possible 100 points.  Significant contributing factors towards tourists’ satisfaction consist of marketing practices (42.1 percent, business ethics (23.9 percent, environmental management (14.5 percent, and business management/operational systems (7.8 percent.

  12. Effect of reduction in acid rain on phosphate loss-phosphate leached from agriculture soil and Al leaked from upstream acid forest soil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis was an integrated part of EUTROPIA. The specific aim of this present study is to enhance our understanding of the effects of reduction in acid rain on P-loss from agriculture soil due to reduced co-precipitation between P leached from agriculture soil and Al leaked from upstream acid forest soils. The study was carried out at two watersheds: Dalen, which is an aluminium rich, acidic forest stream water catchment upstream, and Støa1, which is a P-loaded agricultural water ca...

  13. Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes: A Spatially Explicit Approach to Support Sustainable Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Forouzangohar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km2 in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation. We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes.

  14. Effects of climate change on agriculture, forests and rural communities : submission to the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of climate change are already being felt in Saskatchewan. Trend data for the twentieth century showed an increase in mean yearly temperature of 1 to 1.5 degrees C on the prairies. Major droughts are disastrous to Saskatchewan's agriculture and forestry sectors, to rural water availability and to the economy in general. Saskatchewan's strategy to manage the effects of climate change from increasing levels of greenhouse gases is based on adaptation research to maximize biological and geological sinks and to explore cost-effective emission reduction initiatives. The province is a world leader in research and development in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from fossil-fuel fired electricity generation and sequestration of CO2 in underground geological formations. The research has the potential to greatly reduce world greenhouse gas emissions by turning coal and other fossil fuels into zero emission sources of energy. The efforts that Saskatchewan has taken to reduce agricultural emissions was also described along with beneficial management practices, such as soil conservation and biological sinks. Saskatchewan is concerned that it may be unfairly affected by Canada's Kyoto commitment because of its emission intensive economy. The province would like recognition of the economic importance of its forestry sector and its potential to reduce carbon emissions and as a carbon sink

  15. A review and evaluation of stemflow literature in the hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles of forested and agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis F.; Frost, Ethan E.

    2003-04-01

    Stemflow is a spatially localized point input of precipitation and solutes at the plant stem and is of hydrological and ecological significance in forested and agricultural ecosystems. The purpose of this review is to: (1) critically evaluate our current understanding of stemflow; (2) identify gaps in our present knowledge of stemflow; and (3) stimulate further research in areas where present knowledge is weak. The review begins by analyzing stemflow drainage and nutrient inputs under diverse vegetal cover. Stemflow inputs are then examined as a function of meteorological conditions, seasonality, interspecific and intraspecific differences among and within species, canopy structure, spatiality, and atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. Stemflow modeling studies are also reviewed and evaluated. Stemflow yield and chemistry are the result of the interaction of the many complex variables listed. By analyzing each separately, it may be possible to isolate their individual affects on stemflow production and chemistry. A comprehensive understanding of each influencing factor would enable the accurate modeling of stemflow water and nutrient inputs into agricultural and forest soils which may result in the optimization of timber and crop harvests. Some areas where present knowledge is particularly weak are: (1) stemflow production and nutrient transfers in northern boreal forests (aspen, birch, conifers) and desert cacti; (2) chemical enrichment of stemflow from live trees charred by forest fires; (3) stemflow yield and nutrient inputs during the winter season; (4) intraspecific variation in stemflow production and chemistry; (5) stemflow chemistry from standing dead trees; (6) influence of canopy structure on stemflow chemistry; (7) understory stemflow generation and nutrient transfer; and (8) stemflow enrichment associated with insect infestations.

  16. Implications of agricultural land use change to ecosystem services in the Ganges delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-09-15

    Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. PMID:25516384

  17. The Role of Sandwich In-Service Program in Developing Agricultural Science Teachers in Delta State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeoji, Canice N.; Agwubike, Christian C.; Ideh, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of the sandwich in-service educational program of Delta State University, Abraka in developing agricultural science teachers in the state. Data were collected from 895 agricultural science teachers who completed the program between 1989-2004. However, response to the questionnaire was by 391 in-service agricultural…

  18. 78 FR 49722 - Tongass National Forest Wrangell Ranger District; Alaska; Wrangell Island Project Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... sustainable forest industry based on young-growth management. The need is to provide an economic timber supply...-use goals and objectives of the Tongass Land and Resource Management Plan (Forest Plan). This would...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Tongass National Forest Wrangell Ranger District; Alaska;...

  19. Possibilities of a personal laser scanning system for forest mapping and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinlian; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Wang, Yunsheng

    2013-01-01

    A professional-quality, personal laser scanning (PLS) system for collecting tree attributes was demonstrated in this paper. The applied system, which is wearable by human operators, consists of a multi-constellation navigation system and an ultra-high-speed phase-shift laser scanner mounted on a rigid baseplate and consisting of a single sensor block. A multipass-corridor-mapping method was developed to process PLS data and a 2,000 m2 forest plot was utilized in the test. The tree stem detection accuracy was 82.6%; the root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimates of tree diameter at breast height (DBH) was 5.06 cm; the RMSE of the estimates of tree location was 0.38 m. The relative RMSE of the DBH estimates was 14.63%. The results showed, for the first time, the potential of the PLS system in mapping large forest plots. Further research on mapping accuracy in various forest conditions, data correction methods and multi-sensoral positioning techniques is needed. The utilization of this system in different applications, such as harvester operations, should also be explored. In addition to collecting tree-level and plot-level data for forest inventory, other possible applications of PLS for forest ecosystem services include mapping of canopy gaps, measuring leaf area index of large areas, documenting and visualizing forest routes feasible for recreation, hiking and berry and mushroom picking. PMID:24434879

  20. Possibilities of a Personal Laser Scanning System for Forest Mapping and Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlian Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A professional-quality, personal laser scanning (PLS system for collecting tree attributes was demonstrated in this paper. The applied system, which is wearable by human operators, consists of a multi-constellation navigation system and an ultra-high-speed phase-shift laser scanner mounted on a rigid baseplate and consisting of a single sensor block. A multipass-corridor-mapping method was developed to process PLS data and a 2,000 m2 forest plot was utilized in the test. The tree stem detection accuracy was 82.6%; the root mean square error (RMSE of the estimates of tree diameter at breast height (DBH was 5.06 cm; the RMSE of the estimates of tree location was 0.38 m. The relative RMSE of the DBH estimates was 14.63%. The results showed, for the first time, the potential of the PLS system in mapping large forest plots. Further research on mapping accuracy in various forest conditions, data correction methods and multi-sensoral positioning techniques is needed. The utilization of this system in different applications, such as harvester operations, should also be explored. In addition to collecting tree-level and plot-level data for forest inventory, other possible applications of PLS for forest ecosystem services include mapping of canopy gaps, measuring leaf area index of large areas, documenting and visualizing forest routes feasible for recreation, hiking and berry and mushroom picking.

  1. Influence of forest management systems on natural resource use and provision of ecosystem services in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Ayron M; Rurai, Masegeri T; Almedom, Astier M

    2016-09-15

    Social, religious and economic facets of rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily dependent on natural resources, but improper resource management, drought, and social instability frequently lead to their unsustainable exploitation. In rural Tanzania, natural resources are often governed locally by informal systems of traditional resource management (TRM), defined as cultural practices developed within the context of social and religious institutions over hundreds of years. However, following independence from colonial rule, centralized governments began to exercise jurisdictional control over natural resources. Following decades of mismanagement that resulted in lost ecosystem services, communities demanded change. To improve resource protection and participation in management among stakeholders, the Tanzanian government began to decentralize management programs in the early 2000s. We investigated these two differing management approaches (traditional and decentralized government) in Sonjo communities, to examine local perceptions of resource governance, management influences on forest use, and their consequences for forest and water resources. While 97% of households understood the regulations governing traditionally-managed forests, this was true for only 39% of households for government-managed forests, leading to differences in forest use. Traditional management practices resulted in improved forest condition and surface water quality. This research provides an essential case study demonstrating the importance of TRM in shaping decision frameworks for natural resource planning and management. PMID:27203700

  2. Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kirui, Oliver K.; Okello, Julius Juma; Nyikal, Rose Adhiambo

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-ba...

  3. Forest haulage of longwood and small-diameter whole trees using and agricultural tractor; Rangan ja pienkokopuun metsaekuljetus maataloustraktorilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihonen, M.

    1998-12-31

    The Forestry Dept. of the TTS Institute conducted a work study on the forest haulage of delimbed and non-delimbed small-diameter wood intended for energy generation. The study was a part of the TTS Institute`s research project titled `The energy-wood harvesting techniques used by forest owners` (1996-1998). The project is a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. When hauling fuel longwood, the agricultural tractor used was a Massey-Ferguson 575 equipped with a KO-PA 3000 hydraulic crane with maximum reach of 6 m. The crane was mounted on the shaft of the trailer. The bogie trailer was a home-made one. The length of the wood hauled was 4.0-4.5 m and the load size 3.9 m{sup 3}. The volume of wood accumulated was 7.8 m{sup 3} per 100 m of strip road. On the side where small-diameter whole trees were harvested, the agricultural tractor used was a Valmet 6600. The hydraulic crane was a Kronos 4000 with a maximum reach of 6.5 m. The crane was mounted on the tractor`s 3-point linkage. The bogie trailer used was a home made one. The length of the wood hauled was 5.0-6.0 m and the load size was 3.3 m{sup 3}. The volume of wood accumulated was 4.4 m{sup 3} per 100 m of strip road. The productivity of forest haulage of fuel longwood was 6.1-7.4 m{sup 3} per effective hour with the haulage distance varying between 100 and 400 m. The productivity of forest haulage of small-diameter whole trees over the same haulage distance was 4.1-5.4 m{sup 3} per effective hour. Forest transport of fuel longwood cost 19-23 FIM/M{sup 3}, and that of small-diameter whole trees 27-35 FIM/m{sup 3}, while the cost per operating hours of the machine combination was 125 FIM. The examined machine combinations were well suited for forest haulage. Productivity can be improved e.g. by extending the size of the load space. The cheapest way to achieving this is by extending the length of the bolsters by the means of steel pipes. This is advantageous especially when hauling non-delimbed wood 5

  4. Forest haulage of longwood and small-diameter whole trees using an agricultural tractor; Rangan ja pienkokopuun metsaekuljetus maataloustraktorilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihonen, M

    1998-07-01

    The TTS Institute's Forestry Department conducted a work study on the forest haulage of delimbed and non-delimbed small-diameter wood intended for energy generation. The study was a part of the TTS Institute's research project titled 'The Energy-wood Harvesting Techniques Used by Forest Owners' (1996-98). The research project belongs to the Bioenergy Research Programme. When hauling fuelwood longwood, the agricultural tractor used was a Massey-Ferguson 575 equipped with a KO-PA 3000 hydraulic crane with a maximum reach of 6 m. The crane was mounted on the shaft of the trailer. The bogie trailer was a home-made one. The length of the wood hauled was 4-4.5 m and the load size was 3.9 m{sup 3}. The volume of wood accumulated was 7.8 m{sup 3} per 100 m of strip road. On the site where small-diameter whole trees were harvested, the agricultural tractor used was a Valmet 6600. The hydraulic crane was a Kronos 4000 with a maximum reach of 6.5 m. The crane was mounted on the tractor's 3-point linkage. The bogie trailer used was a home-made one. The length of the wood hauled was 5-6 m and the load size was 3.3 m{sup 3}. The volume of wood accumulated was 4.4 m{sup 3} per 100 m of strip road. The productivity of forest haulage of fuelwood longwood was 6.1-7.4 m{sup 3} per effective hour with the haulage distance varying between 100 and 400 m. The productivity of forest haulage of small-diameter whole trees over the same haulage distance was 4.1-5.4 m{sup 3} per effective hour. Forest transport of fuelwood longwood cost FIM 19-23 per m{sup 3} and that of small-diameter whole trees FIM 27-35 per m{sup 3}, while the cost per operating hour of the machine combination was FIM 125. The examined machine combinations were well suited for forest haulage. Productivity can be improved by extending the size of the load space, for instance. The cheapest way of achieving this is by extending the length of the bolsters by means of steel pipes. This is advantageous

  5. Forest haulage of longwood and small-diameter whole trees using an agricultural tractor; Rangan ja pienkokopuun metsaekuljetus maataloustraktorilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihonen, M.

    1998-12-31

    The TTS Institute`s Forestry Department conducted a work study on the forest haulage of delimbed and non-delimbed small-diameter wood intended for energy generation. The study was a part of the TTS Institute`s research project titled `The Energy-wood Harvesting Techniques Used by Forest Owners` (1996-98). The research project belongs to the Bioenergy Research Programme. When hauling fuelwood longwood, the agricultural tractor used was a Massey-Ferguson 575 equipped with a KO-PA 3000 hydraulic crane with a maximum reach of 6 m. The crane was mounted on the shaft of the trailer. The bogie trailer was a home-made one. The length of the wood hauled was 4-4.5 m and the load size was 3.9 m{sup 3}. The volume of wood accumulated was 7.8 m{sup 3} per 100 m of strip road. On the site where small-diameter whole trees were harvested, the agricultural tractor used was a Valmet 6600. The hydraulic crane was a Kronos 4000 with a maximum reach of 6.5 m. The crane was mounted on the tractor`s 3-point linkage. The bogie trailer used was a home-made one. The length of the wood hauled was 5-6 m and the load size was 3.3 m{sup 3}. The volume of wood accumulated was 4.4 m{sup 3} per 100 m of strip road. The productivity of forest haulage of fuelwood longwood was 6.1-7.4 m{sup 3} per effective hour with the haulage distance varying between 100 and 400 m. The productivity of forest haulage of small-diameter whole trees over the same haulage distance was 4.1-5.4 m{sup 3} per effective hour. Forest transport of fuelwood longwood cost FIM 19-23 per m{sup 3} and that of small-diameter whole trees FIM 27-35 per m{sup 3}, while the cost per operating hour of the machine combination was FIM 125. The examined machine combinations were well suited for forest haulage. Productivity can be improved by extending the size of the load space, for instance. The cheapest way of achieving this is by extending the length of the bolsters by means of steel pipes. This is advantageous especially when hauling

  6. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongxing; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Björklund, Jesper; Tarvainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Kasimir, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring derived biomass data and measured 6 year abiotic data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the GHG fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m‑2 yr‑1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m‑2 yr‑1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m‑2 yr‑1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m‑2 yr‑1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha‑1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha‑1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. Model sensitivity analysis by changing initial soil C, drainage depth and initial soil C/N ratio also confirms that forests on drained agricultural peatland are a GHG source. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding both CO2 and N2O to the atmosphere.

  7. Assessing Urban Forest Structure, Ecosystem Services, and Economic Benefits on Vacant Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An urban forest assessment is essential for developing a baseline from which to measure changes and trends. The most precise way to assess urban forests is to measure and record every tree on a site, but although this may work well for relatively small populations (e.g., street trees, small parks, it is prohibitively expensive for large tree populations. Thus, random sampling offers a cost-effective way to assess urban forest structure and the associated ecosystem services for large-scale assessments. The methodology applied to assess ecosystem services in this study can also be used to assess the ecosystem services provided by vacant land in other urban contexts and improve urban forest policies, planning, and the management of vacant land. The study’s findings support the inclusion of trees on vacant land and contribute to a new vision of vacant land as a valuable ecological resource by demonstrating how green infrastructure can be used to enhance ecosystem health and promote a better quality of life for city residents.

  8. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  9. Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert

    2016-08-01

    In many parts of the world forest disturbance regimes have intensified recently, and future climatic changes are expected to amplify this development further in the coming decades. These changes are increasingly challenging the main objectives of forest ecosystem management, which are to provide ecosystem services sustainably to society and maintain the biological diversity of forests. Yet a comprehensive understanding of how disturbances affect these primary goals of ecosystem management is still lacking. We conducted a global literature review on the impact of three of the most important disturbance agents (fire, wind, and bark beetles) on 13 different ecosystem services and three indicators of biodiversity in forests of the boreal, cool- and warm-temperate biomes. Our objectives were to (i) synthesize the effect of natural disturbances on a wide range of possible objectives of forest management, and (ii) investigate standardized effect sizes of disturbance for selected indicators via a quantitative meta-analysis. We screened a total of 1958 disturbance studies published between 1981 and 2013, and reviewed 478 in detail. We first investigated the overall effect of disturbances on individual ecosystem services and indicators of biodiversity by means of independence tests, and subsequently examined the effect size of disturbances on indicators of carbon storage and biodiversity by means of regression analysis. Additionally, we investigated the effect of commonly used approaches of disturbance management, i.e. salvage logging and prescribed burning. We found that disturbance impacts on ecosystem services are generally negative, an effect that was supported for all categories of ecosystem services, i.e. supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural services (P paradox', documenting that disturbances can put ecosystem services at risk while simultaneously facilitating biodiversity. A detailed investigation of disturbance effect sizes on carbon storage and

  10. Change is in the air: future challenges for applied forest research

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubini P; Tognetti R

    2009-01-01

    Forests provide a wide range of benefits to people. Forest plantations on former agricultural land for commercial and restoration purposes may enhance ecosystem services, including biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration. Incorporating these ecosystem services into resource management decisions is of paramount importance. Efforts towards the sustainable management of forest ecosystems for climate change mitigation give opportunities to establish a new relationship between researche...

  11. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    .... Forest Service (USFS) planning regulations (36 CFR part 219) as allowed by the transition provision of the 2012 forest planning regulations. The 1982 planning regulations are available at http://www.fs.fed...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan...

  12. Agricultural Policies Exacerbate Honeybee Pollination Service Supply-Demand Mismatches Across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Tom D.; Vaissière, Bernard E.; Bommarco, Riccardo; Petanidou, Theodora; Seraphides, Nicos; Kozák, Lajos; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Kleijn, David; Gyldenkærne, Steen; Moretti, Marco; Holzschuh, Andrea; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Pärtel, Meelis; Zobel, Martin; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Declines in insect pollinators across Europe have raised concerns about the supply of pollination services to agriculture. Simultaneously, EU agricultural and biofuel policies have encouraged substantial growth in the cultivated area of insect pollinated crops across the continent. Using data from 41 European countries, this study demonstrates that the recommended number of honeybees required to provide crop pollination across Europe has risen 4.9 times as fast as honeybee stocks between 2005 and 2010. Consequently, honeybee stocks were insufficient to supply >90% of demands in 22 countries studied. These findings raise concerns about the capacity of many countries to cope with major losses of wild pollinators and highlight numerous critical gaps in current understanding of pollination service supplies and demands, pointing to a pressing need for further research into this issue. PMID:24421873

  13. A Metagenomic Perspective on Changes to Nutrient-cycling Genes Following Forest-to-agriculture Conversion in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Womack, A. M.; Rodrigues, J.; Nüsslein, K.; Bohannan, B. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest-to-agriculture conversion has been shown to alter nutrient cycling and the community composition of soil microorganisms. However, few studies have looked simultaneously at how the abundance, composition, and diversity of microbial genes involved in nutrient cycling change with conversion. We used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to analyze soil from primary rainforest and converted cattle pasture sampled at the Fazenda Nova Vida in Rondônia, Brazil. The diversity, richness, and evenness of nutrient cycling genes were significantly higher in the pasture, and the composition of nutrient cycling communities differed significantly between land use types. These results largely mirror taxonomic shifts following Amazon rainforest conversion, which tends to increase diversity, richness, and evenness of soil microbial communities. The abundance of genes related to N cycling and methane flux differed between land use types. Methanotrophy genes decreased in abundance in the pasture, whereas methanogenesis genes were not significantly different between land use types. These changes could underlie the commonly observed shift from methane sink to source following forest-to-agriculture conversion. Multiple genes in the nitrogen cycle also differed with land use, including genes related to N-fixation and ammonification. Metagenomics provides a unique perspective on the consequences of land use change on microbial community structure and function.

  14. Hydrological services and biodiversity conservation under forestation scenarios: comparing options to improve watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Gonçalves, João; Pradinho Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Humans rely on ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services, namely water supply and water damage mitigation, and promoting forests is a widely used management strategy for the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to model how forests will contribute for this provision, taking into account the environmental characteristics of each region, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of societal demand. In addition, ensuring forest protection and the delivery of forest ecosystem services is one of the aims included in the European Union biodiversity strategy to 2020. On the other hand, forest management for hydrological services must consider possible trade-offs with other services provision, as well as with biodiversity conservation. Accurate modeling and mapping of both hydrological services and biodiversity conservation value is thus important to support spatial planning and land management options involving forests. The objectives of this study were: to analyze the provision and spatial dynamics of hydrological services under two forest cover change scenarios (oak and eucalyptus/pine) compared to the current shrubland-dominated landscape; and to evaluate their spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value. The Vez watershed (250km2), in northwest Portugal, was used as case-study area. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was applied to simulate the provision of hydrological services (water supply quantity, timing and quality; soil erosion and flood regulation), and was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments, nitrates and evapotranspiration. Good agreement was obtained between model predictions and field measurements. The maps for each service under the different scenarios were produced at the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) level. Biodiversity conservation value was based on nature protection regimes and on expert valuation applied to a land cover map. Statistical correlations between hydrological services provision

  15. Potential for Hybrid Poplar Riparian Buffers to Provide Ecosystem Services in Three Watersheds with Contrasting Agricultural Land Use

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Fortier; Benoit Truax; Daniel Gagnon; France Lambert

    2016-01-01

    In temperate agricultural watersheds, the rehabilitation of tree vegetation in degraded riparian zones can provide many ecosystem services. This study evaluated ecosystem service provision potential following the conversion of non-managed herbaceous buffers to hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) buffers in three watersheds (555–771 km2) of southern Québec (Canada), with contrasting agricultural land uses. To extrapolate services at the watershed level, total stream length where hybrid poplars could ...

  16. Enterprise-Oriented IoT Name Service for Agricultural Product Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Liu; He Wang; Junyu Wang; Kan Qian; Ning Kong; Kaijiang Wang; Lirong Zheng; Yiwei Shi; Engels, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have a great potential to improve the safety and quality of agricultural products. By providing near continuous monitoring from planting through harvesting and to our homes, IoT technologies are able to provide farm to fork visibility with all of the resulting benefits that accrue from that visibility. Unique identification provides the foundation of these benefits with a name service enabling efficient storage and retrieval of the data associated with ea...

  17. How to implement biodiversity-based agriculture to enhance ecosystem services: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Duru, Michel; Therond, Olivier; Martin, Guillaume; Martin-Clouaire, Roger; Magne, Marie-Angélina; Justes, Eric; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Aubertot, Jean-Noel; Savary, Serge; Bergez, Jacques-Eric; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agriculture has led to several drawbacks such as biodiversity loss, climate change, erosion, and pollution of air and water. A potential solution is to implement management practices that increase the level of provision of ecosystem services such as soil fertility and biological regulation. There is a lot of literature on the principles of agroecology. However, there is a gap of knowledge between agroecological principles and practical applications. Therefore, we review here agroeco...

  18. Exploitation of soil biota ecosystem services in agriculture: a bioeconomic approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Foudi, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the interactions between soil biota and agricultural practices in the exploitation of soil ecosystem services. A theoretical bioeconomic model stylized this set of interactions and combined a production function approach with optimal control theory. In the model, a farmer decides his optimal use of external input and land use given that (i) land uses modify soil biota composition, (ii) the external input reduces soil biota population. The results show how the combination o...

  19. Optimizing intermediate ecosystem services in agriculture using rules based on landscape composition and configuration indices

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Ekroos, Johan; Smith, Henrik G.; Brady, Mark V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Important intermediate ecosystem services (ES) such as crop pollination and biological control of pests, which underpin the final ES agricultural yields, are mediated by mobile organisms that depend on availability of habitat and its arrangement in the landscape. It has been suggested that landscape-scale management (LSM) of habitat in a multi-farm setting results in higher provisioning of such ES compared to farm-scale management (FSM). However, to achieve the LSM solution, farmers'...

  20. The Impact of Agricultural Extension Services: The Case of Grape Production in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Cerdán-Infantes; Alessandro Maffioli; Diego Ubfal

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the impact of the provision of agricultural extension services to grape producers in Mendoza, Argentina, on yield and grape quality. Using fixed effects and matching techniques, we show that despite non-significant average treatment effects on yield, the program has large positive effects on productivity for producers who were in the bottom of the productivity distribution before launching of the program. There is also evidence of increased quality of their grapes, e...

  1. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

  2. Forest statistics for the northern coastal plain of South Carolina, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986, the area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina increased by 3 percent to 4.7 million acres. Nonindustrial private forest landowners control 67 percent of the region's timberland. Area classified as a pine type remained stable at 1.9 million acres. More than 116,000 acres were harvested annually, while 177,000 acres were regenerated by artificial and natural means. The volume of softwood growing stock decreased 26 percent to 2.5 billion cubic feet. The volume of hardwood growing stock declined 13 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet. Extremely high mortality drove net growth downward. Net annual growth of softwoods declined 84 percent to 28 million cubic feet. Hardwood growth dropped 77 percent to 23 million cubic feet. Annual removals of softwood growing stock increased 9 percent to 175 million cubic feet; hardwood removals jumped 18 percent to 87 million cubic feet. Annual mortality of softwood growing stock was up eight times the level recorded in 1986, whereas hardwood mortality was up four times the previous level

  3. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  4. Assessing effects of mitigation strategies for global climate change with an intertemporal model of the U.S. forest and agriculture sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of product and land markets in US forest and agricultural sectors is used to examine the private forest management, land use, and market implications of carbon sequestration policies implemented in a 'least social cost' fashion. Results suggest: policy-induced land use changes may generate compensating land use shifts through markets; land use shifts to meet policy targets need not be permanent; implementation of land use and management changes in a smooth or regular fashion over time may not be optimal; and primary forms of adjustment to meet carbon policy targets involve shifting of land from agriculture to forest and more intensive forest management in combinations varying with the policy target. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 22 refs

  5. Managing Nitrogen in Croplands: Implications for Increasing Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L.

    2011-12-01

    Many agricultural landscapes in the temperate zone are dominated by agroecosystems that are managed with high inputs of agrochemicals, including synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers. The process of agricultural intensification increases crop production per unit area, but also often results in loss of environmental quality (such as N contamination of waters, eutrophication, atmospheric N deposition, and emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas). Loss of biodiversity and its 'functional homogenization' is another concern. Not only does little land in these landscapes remain in natural ecosystems, but there are negative off-site impacts of intensive agriculture on non-target organisms. Segregating agroecosystems with high-input agricultural production from natural ecosystems (land sparing) is one view to support both food security and biodiversity conservation. But proponents of land sparing rarely address the loss of other ecosystem services, such as those related to environmental quality, health, and human well-being (e.g., livelihoods and cultural values). An emerging view is that increased reliance on ecological processes in agroecosystems ('ecological intensification') is more feasible when the landscape mosaic includes planned and unplanned biodiversity. This requires research on how to support multiple ecosystem services through the integration of agricultural production and biodiversity conservation in the same landscape, and how ecological and physico-chemical processes at various spatial scales are interlinked. It is an enormous challenge to increase reliance on ecological processes for N availability for crop productivity. There are skeptics who think that this will be detrimental for food security, despite benefits for other types of ecosystem services. Using examples from agricultural landscapes in California, mechanisms for ecologically-based N cycling will be discussed, such as: 1) increasing the reservoir of soil organic N and the

  6. An analysis of farm services centre (fsc) approach launched for agricultural extension in NWFP, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural extension services have a pivotal role in agricultural and rural development. It is the major source of technology dissemination and helps the farmers to rationalize the use of natural resources for a sustainable agricultural development. Globally, public-private partnership approach in Agricultural Extension is considered more effective, efficient, and responsive to different categories of farmers. In Pakistan, government of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) has initiated a public-private partnership Extension Programme in the province. This is locally called as Farm Services Centre (FSC). This approach has the inbuilt mechanism of inputs delivery, market facilitation, exchange of experiences and diffusion of knowledge and technology. However, the extent to which this public-private partnership is instrumental in achieving aforementioned objectives is yet to be established. The present study was an attempt to analyze this public-private partnership approach by measuring its strengths and weaknesses. For this purpose, out of 24 districts of NWFP, two districts namely Swabi and Lakimarwat were selected randomly. From these two districts, 491 FSC's member farmers were selected as respondents for interview on random basis. The analysis showed that the most prominent strength of FSC was farmers empowerment with mean 4.05 and SD 1.29, while that of Agriculture Extension Department (AED) was effective message delivery. As per respondents, the major weakness of both (FSC and AED) systems was no marketing facility with mean 4.12 and 4.13 and SD 1.22 and 1.01 respectively. It is essential that the government should ensure the mandated activities at FSC forum particularly the facilitation by line agencies and NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. It should be a forum of technology dissemination, agricultural surplus produce marketing and cooperative farming. Agricultural Extension Department should provide more facilities to the staff indulged in FSC

  7. Butternut: Strategies for managing a threatened tree. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostry, M.E.; Mielke, M.E.; Skilling, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea) is being killed throughout its range in North America by Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum, a fungus of unknown origin causing multiple branch and stem cankers that eventually girdle infected trees (USDA Forest Service 1993). Sprouts, if they develop, are also infected and killed usually within the first few years. The fungus was described as a new species in 1979 (Nair et al. 1979) and only butternut is known as its natural host.

  8. Understanding risk in forest ecosystem services: implications for effective risk management, communication and planning

    OpenAIRE

    Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Wallin, Annika; Vareman, Niklas; Persson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty, insufficient information or information of poor quality, limited cognitive capacity and time, along with value conflicts and ethical considerations, are all aspects that make risk management and risk communication difficult. This paper provides a review of different risk concepts and describes how these influence risk management, communication, and planning in relation to forest ecosystem services. Based on the review and results of empirical studies, we suggest that person...

  9. Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Dougill; Lindsay C. Stringer; Leventon, Julia; Riddell, Mike; Rueff, Henri; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Butt, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Climate finance investments and international policy are driving new community-based projects incorporating payments for ecosystem services (PES) to simultaneously store carbon and generate livelihood benefits. Most community-based PES (CB-PES) research focuses on forest areas. Rangelands, which store globally significant quantities of carbon and support many of the world's poor, have seen little CB-PES research attention, despite benefitting from several decades of community-based natural re...

  10. Understanding risk in forest ecosystem services : implications for effective risk management, communication and planning

    OpenAIRE

    Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Wallin, Annika; Vareman, Niklas; Persson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty, insufficient information or information of poor quality, limited cognitive capacity and time, along withvalue conflicts and ethical considerations, are all aspects thatmake risk managementand riskcommunication difficult.This paper provides a review of different risk concepts and describes how these influence risk management,communication and planning in relation to forest ecosystem services. Based on the review and results of empiricalstudies, we suggest that personal assessment ...

  11. [The role of national rural organization and agricultural extension services in relation to women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius Von Harder, G

    1985-01-01

    Rural extension services are designed to provide rural dwellers with information needed to further technical or social development and to solve problems. Extension agents should be fully aware of their responsibility for the advice they provide. The number of rural and agricultural development and extension agencies has multiplied greatly in the past 2 decades. Agricultural extension is the principal component of most rural development strategies. Training given to men is usually economic, while that for women is devoted to household and social functioning. Programs for women usually lag general development programs. Training of women is usually not included in agricultural extension programs, especially in countries practicing segregation of the sexes. Agricultural extension programs are generally limited to cultivation techniques and neglect transformation and storage of crops and seed preparation for increased production. Measures that could improve productivity of women's agriculture-related work are expected to be delivered through the intermediacy of their husbands, but the husbands may not appreciate the import of such messages if they are not familiar with their wives' work. Agricultural training should consider all stages of production, should be delivered to the individuals actually performing the tasks, and should be ecologically appropriate. The overall objective of agricultural extension is to increase production, but most programs do not specify who is to use the surplus or to benefit from it. The rural population or the urban population may be the prime beneficiary, or cash crops may be produced for export. Although increased production should benefit the rural population through a better food supply, in reality most extension programs are devoted to cash crops for export and are less than fully successful because of problems of crop distribution and marketing and other shortcomings. Where men and women perform the same agricultural work, it should

  12. Analysis of the year 2008 fires in the forest lands of the Muğla Regional Forest Service by using drought indices

    OpenAIRE

    Türkeş, Murat; ALTAN, Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    Muğla district is among the most risky areas of Turkey in terms of forest fires. Muğla Regional Forest Service meets the great economic losses and high amounts of vegetation at forest fires occurred within its boundaries. In this study, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) Aridity Index and the Erinç’s Drought Index values were calculated and climate types were determined by using the long-term meteorological data of the Mugla meteorological station. In addition, to...

  13. Linking Farmer, Forest and Watershed: Agricultural Systems and Natural Resources Management Along the Upper Njoro River, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Krupnik, Timothy J.; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes subsistence farmers’ agricultural and natural resource management techniques and perceptions in the upper catchment of the River Njoro, Kenya and explores their implications for further research and action by watershed managers and policy makers. In East Africa and elsewhere in developing countries, small-scale poor farming households often form a critical group in the link between upland natural resource conditions and watershed services. A small-scale pilot study of a...

  14. 76 FR 32135 - National Forest System Invasive Species Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC77 National Forest System Invasive Species Management... Service Manual (FSM) 2900 for invasive species management. The proposed invasive species management directive will provide foundational comprehensive guidance for the management of invasive species on...

  15. Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture - an initiative of the University of West Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Cs.; Berki, I.; Drüszler, A.; Eredics, A.; Galos, B.; Moricz, N.; Rasztovits, E.

    2012-04-01

    In whole Central Europe agricultural production is highly vulnerable and sensitive to impacts of projected climatic changes. The low-elevation regions of the Carpathian Basin (most of the territory of Hungary), where precipitation is the minimum factor of production, are especially exposed to climatic extremes, especially to droughts. Rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry on nature-close pastures and nature-close forestry are the most sensitive sectors due to limited possibilities to counterbalance moisture supply constraints. These sectors have to be best prepared to frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses. So far, there is a lack of information about the middle and long term consequences on regional and local level. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimation is increasing. The aim of the initiative is to set up a fine-scale, GIS-based, complex, integrated system for the definition of the most important regional and local challenges and tasks of climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and also nature protection. The Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture is planned to provide the following services: § Complex, GIS-supported database, which integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions; § Evaluation of existing satellite-based and earth-based monitoring systems; § GIS-supported information about the future trends of climate change impacts on the agroecological potential and sensitivity status on regional and local level (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.) in fine-scale horizontal resolution, based first of all on natural produce, including also social and economic consequences; § Complex decision supporting system on

  16. Characterization of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS Image Quality for Interpretation of Agricultural and Forest Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    Systematic analysis of both image and numeric data shows that the overall spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data are excellent. Spectral variations in fallow fields are due to the vaiability in soil moisture and surface roughness resulting from the various stages of field preparation for small grains production. Spectrally, the addition of the first TM short wave infrared band (Band 5) significantly enhanced ability to discriminate different crop types. Bands 1, 5, and 6 contain saturated pixels due to high albedo effects, low moisture conditions, and high radiant temperatures of granite and dry, bare soil on south facing slopes, respectively. Spatially, the two fold decrease in interpixel distance and four fold decrease in area per pixel between the TM and MSS allow for improved discrimination of small fields, boundary conditions, road and stream networks in rough terrain, and small forest clearings resulting from various forest management practices.

  17. Spatially explicit scenario analysis for reconciling agricultural expansion, forest protection, and carbon conservation in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Lian Pin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil is the world's most important vegetable oil in terms of production quantity. Indonesia, the world's largest palm-oil producer, plans to double its production by 2020, with unclear implications for the other national priorities of food (rice) production, forest and biodiversity protection, and carbon conservation. We modeled the outcomes of alternative development scenarios and show that every single-priority scenario had substantial tradeoffs associated with other priorities. The exc...

  18. Household Land Management and Biodiversity: Secondary Succession in a Forest-Agriculture Mosaic in Southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rinku Roy Chowdhury

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates anthropogenic and ecological dimensions of secondary forest succession in Mexico's southern Yucatán peninsular region, a hotspot of biodiversity and tropical deforestation. Secondary succession in particular constitutes an ecologically and economically important process, driven by and strongly influencing land management and local ecosystem structure and dynamics. As agents of local land management, smallholding farmers in communal, i.e., ejido lands affect rates of ...

  19. Slash and burn agriculture in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Kanmegne, J.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: crop yields, earthworm cast, Inga edulis , land use, nutrient flows, nutrient stocks, nutrient management, slash and burnA field study was conducted on acid soils in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, to characterize the traditional slash-and-burn land uses, assess the major effects of land use change on soil nutrient stocks, flows, and soil biological quality, and to explore alternatives for sustainable land management. The typical land use chronosequence in the area after...

  20. Vulnerability to climate-induced changes in ecosystem services of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Maria; Rankinen, Katri; Aalto, Tuula; Akujärvi, Anu; Nadir Arslan, Ali; Liski, Jari; Markkanen, Tiina; Mäkelä, Annikki; Peltoniemi, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forests provide an array of ecosystem services. They regulate climate, and carbon, water and nutrient fluxes, and provide renewable raw material, food, and recreational possibilities. Rapid climate warming is projected for the boreal zone, and has already been observed in Finland, which sets these services at risk. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409, 2.9.2013 - 1.9.2017) is a project funded by EU Life programme about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone Applying Innovative Observation and Modeling Techniques. The coordinating beneficiary of the project is the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Associated beneficiaries are the Natural Resources Institute Finland, the Finnish Environment Institute and the University of Helsinki. In the MONIMET project, we use state-of-the-art models and new monitoring methods to investigate the impacts of a warming climate on the provision of ecosystem services of boreal forests. This poster presents results on carbon storage in soil and assessment of drought indices, as a preparation for assessing the vulnerability of society to climate-induced changes in ecosystem services. The risk of decreasing provision of ecosystem services depends on the sensitivity of the ecosystem as well as its exposure to climate stress. The vulnerability of society, in turn, depends on the risk of decreasing provision of a certain service in combination with society's demand for that service. In the next phase, we will look for solutions to challenges relating to the quantification of the demand for ecosystem services and differences in spatial extent and resolution of the information on future supply and demand.

  1. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Pettenella; Laura Secco; Mauro Masiero

    2016-01-01

    Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs), and carbon-related services.Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions.Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT), scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for ...

  2. The spatial extent of change in tropical forest ecosystem services in the Amazon delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Barbosa, C. C.; Atkinson, P.; Dearing, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas hold major economic potential due their strategic location, close to seas and inland waterways, thereby supporting intense economic activity. The increasing pace of human development activities in coastal deltas over the past five decades has also strained environmental resources and produced extensive economic and sociocultural impacts. The Amazon delta is located in the Amazon Basin, North Brazil, the largest river basin on Earth and also one of the least understood. A considerable segment of the population living in the Amazon delta is directly dependent on the local extraction of natural resources for their livelihood. Areas sparsely inhabited may be exploited with few negative consequences for the environment. However, increasing pressure on ecosystem services is amplified by large fluxes of immigrants from other parts of the country, especially from the semi-arid zone in Northeast Brazil to the lowland forests of the Amazon delta. Here we present partial results from a bigger research project. Therefore, the focus will be on presenting an overview of the current state, and the extent of changes on forest related ecosystem services in the Amazon delta over the last three decades. We aggregated a multitude of datasets, from a variety of sources, for example, from satellite imagery such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climate datasets at meteorological station level from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) and social and economic statistics data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA). Through analysis of socioeconomic and satellite earth observation data we were able to produce and present spatially-explicit information with the current state and transition in forest cover and its impacts to forest

  3. 77 FR 4757 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; McKay Fuels and Vegetation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... burning (210 acres), thinning with fire (853 acres), and hardwood and riparian vegetation enhancement (12...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; McKay Fuels and Vegetation Management Project EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. Economies of Scope in the Agricultural Provision of Ecosystem Services: An Application to a High Cost Production Region

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Robert; Lehmann, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Joint production of agriculture commodities and environmental goods and services is a key attribute of multifunctionality. However, complex natural and economic interactions make a sound analysis difficult. In this regard, the concept of economies of scope provides a simple policy oriented indicator of jointness. Thus, the existence of economies of scope can be regarded as a precondition for the implementation of agricultural policies with respect to environmental goods and services. We apply...

  5. Mutagenic potency in Salmonella typhimurium of organic extracts of soil samples originating from urban, suburban, agricultural, forest and natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courty, Benoit; Le Curieux, Frank; Belkessam, Laurence; Laboudigue, Agnès; Marzin, Daniel

    2008-05-31

    The purpose of the present work was to assess the mutagenic potency of soil samples presumably not contaminated by industrial wastes and discharges. A set of 51 soil samples was collected from areas considered as not contaminated by a known industrial activity: 11 urban samples (collected in cities), 15 suburban samples (collected in villages), 7 agricultural samples, and 18 forest or natural samples. Each soil sample was collected at the surface (0-5cm deep), dried, sieved (2mm), homogenized before organic extraction (dichloromethane/acetone 1/1 (v/v), 37 degrees C, 4h, soil/solvent ratio 1/2, m/v), solvent exchange to DMSO and sterilizing filtration. The micro-method adaptation of the standard bacterial mutagenicity test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was performed with and without a metabolic activation system (rat-liver homogenate S9), and thus detected the effect of pro-mutagens and direct mutagens, respectively. The use of a pre-incubation method increased the sensitivity of the assay. The results obtained showed a wide range of effect levels, from no effect to clear mutagenicity. In particular, the extract of all 11 urban soil samples demonstrated mutagenic activity, while the extracts of 10 of the 15 suburban samples showed mutagenicity. On the other hand, the extract of only one of the 7 agricultural samples studied induced mutations, and none of the 18 natural or forest-soil samples investigated produced mutagenic extracts. These findings seem to indicate the crucial influence of the diffuse pollution originating from different human activities on the mutagenic potency of urban soil samples. These findings make it possible to classify the soils according to their mutagenic potency. No clear correlation was found between the mutagenicity detected in soil extracts and the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the soils investigated. PMID:18440855

  6. Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest are subject to many direct and indirect influences, apart from atmospheric pollutants and the potential effects of climatic changes, timber production and hunting have a major impact in the Austrian forests. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, inorganic fluoride, chloride compounds, heavy metals (cadmium and lead), organic pollutants (chlorinated hydrocarbons, trichloroacetic acid and nitrophenols), acidifying compounds and eutrophying compounds are the main forest pollutants. As forests cover nearly 50 % of the Austrian territory, changes affecting them constitute a potentially significant parameter in the national greenhouse gas balance. Carbon stocks and the annual carbon balance were calculated and a estimation of the potential impact of climate change by means of dynamic computer simulation and risk assesment were performed. The results are illustrated in a cartographic chart. Other topics discussed in this chapter are forest management, forest damage (game, cattle, abiotic and biotic influences), changes in land use, biodiversity, crown condition and long-term monitoring to determine the impact of environmental stress. Figs. 2, Table 1. (nevyjel)

  7. Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schröter

    Full Text Available Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone or partially restricted (partial use zone. Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2% and the non-use zone (+3.2%. Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%, which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1% of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

  8. Hybrid MCDA Methods to Integrate Multiple Ecosystem Services in Forest Management Planning: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Britta; Andreas Hahn, W.; Griess, Verena C.; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision aid frequently used in the field of forest management planning. It includes the evaluation of multiple criteria such as the production of timber and non-timber forest products and tangible as well as intangible values of ecosystem services (ES). Hence, it is beneficial compared to those methods that take a purely financial perspective. Accordingly, MCDA methods are increasingly popular in the wide field of sustainability assessment. Hybrid approaches allow aggregating MCDA and, potentially, other decision-making techniques to make use of their individual benefits and leading to a more holistic view of the actual consequences that come with certain decisions. This review is providing a comprehensive overview of hybrid approaches that are used in forest management planning. Today, the scientific world is facing increasing challenges regarding the evaluation of ES and the trade-offs between them, for example between provisioning and regulating services. As the preferences of multiple stakeholders are essential to improve the decision process in multi-purpose forestry, participatory and hybrid approaches turn out to be of particular importance. Accordingly, hybrid methods show great potential for becoming most relevant in future decision making. Based on the review presented here, the development of models for the use in planning processes should focus on participatory modeling and the consideration of uncertainty regarding available information.

  9. Forest Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Ecosystem services, feedback and evolution in developing mountainous catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Larry

    2010-05-01

    Mountain watersheds provide significant ecosystem services both locally and for surrounding regions, including the provision of freshwater, hydropower, carbon sequestration, habitat, forest products and recreational/aesthetic opportunities. The hydrologic connectivity along hillslopes in sloping terrain provides an upslope subsidy of water and nutrients to downslope ecosystem patches, producing characteristic ecosystem patterns of vegetation density and type, and soil biogeochemical cycling. Recent work suggests that optimal patterns of forest cover evolve along these flowpaths which maximize net primary productivity and carbon sequestration at the hillslope to catchment scale. These watersheds are under significant pressure from potential climate change, changes in forest management, increasing population and development, and increasing demand for water export. As water balance and flowpaths are altered by shifting weather patterns and new development, the spatial distribution and coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling will spur the evolution of different ecosystem patterns. These issues have both theoretical and practical implications for the coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling at the landscape level, and the potential to manage watersheds for bundled ecosystem services. If the spatial structure of the ecosystem spontaneously adjusts to maximize landscape level use of limiting resources, there may be trade-offs in the level of services provided. The well known carbon-for-water tradeoff reflects the growth of forests to maximize carbon uptake, but also transpiration which limits freshwater availability in many biomes. We provide examples of the response of bundled ecosystem services to climate and land use change in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of the United States. These mountains have very high net primary productivity, biodiversity and water yields, and provide significant freshwater resources to surrounding regions. There has been a

  10. In Australia’s services-dominated economy, should policymakers take any notice of agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Mick

    2006-01-01

    At the start of the twentieth century, agriculture was a very significant sector of the Australian economy, both in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and export terms. By the middle of that century, manufacturing had become dominant. By the end of the century, both had been overshadowed by the services sector, which since the 1970s has progressively expanded to the point where it is claimed to now account for almost 70% of national economic output, four out of every five jobs, and one fifth of exp...

  11. New trailer for agricultural tractors for forest haulage of energy wood and pulpwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together with Karelian Puu ja Metalli Oy and Meter Ky, the TTS Institute has developed a forestry trailer for year-round use. The trailer's load-platform width can be adjusted steplessly between 200 cm and 400 cm by means of a hydraulically actuated sliding bunk structure. When hauling logging residues, the platform is set to its maximum width giving a load space of 30 m3. When hauling whole trees or industrial wood, the platform space is narrowed to appropriate widths to match the prevailing conditions (terrain, strip-road width). At its smallest, the load space is 15 m3. Productivity per effective hour in forest haulage of logging residues varied between 6.4 - 7.6 m3 when using the trailer in its narrow setting and between 8.1 - 9.2 m3 when using the wide setting, with logging residue moisture being 52 % and the forest haulage distance 63 - 66 m. When hauling whole trees with the trailer in its narrow setting, productivity varied between 2.9 - 4.9 m3, with the moisture level of the material being 54 % and the forest haulage distance 103 - 736 m. When hauling pulpwood productivity was 5.1 m3 per operating hour with the haulage distance being 618 m. The operating cost per hour of the combination of tractor and trailer was FIM 165. This includes FIM 55 of the operator's hourly wages with social security costs. The costs of hauling logging residues using the narrow trailer setting varied between FIM 22 - 26 per m3 and when using the wide trailer setting between FIM 18 - 21 per m3. Whole-tree haulage costs varied between FIM 34 - 56 per m3 while pulpwood haulage cost FIM 28 per m3. These costs were computed for part-time forest haulage in which annual operating hours amount to 1000 hours. The developed trailer is terrain-worthy and the adjustability of its platform space is a clear advantage. However it would be useful to equip the trailer with an articulated draw bar and a load-compacting facility. (orig.)

  12. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengYu-Lin; WangYu-kuan; PengPei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  13. Movement of nitrogen through a riparian forest in a tropical, agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Riparian zones have been widely reported to function as effective buffers, removing nitrate (NO₃⁻) from groundwater before it is discharged into adjacent streams. This is particularly important in agricultural catchments where additional nitrogen (N) from fertilisers may be leached into groundwater. On coastal plains, NO₃⁻ in groundwater discharged into streams can potentially enrich coastal waters. The permanent removal of NO₃⁻ through denitrification can improve water quality, however incom...

  14. Investigation of stream water quality in an agricultural and a forested watershed in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Winsnes, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Nepal has long faced difficulties regarding population growth and food production, and intensified agriculture with expansion to the steep hills has led to erosion, soil degradation and water pollution; compromising both soil and water quality. Two watersheds with different land use pattern in the Middle hills of Nepal are investigated to assess the impact of land use differences. The study is based on stream water quality in Mahadev Khola (MK), a water resource for Bhaktapur m...

  15. Examining soil erosion and nutrient accumulation in forested and agriculture lands of the low mountainous area of Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, A. T.; Gomi, T.; Takahisa, F.; Phung, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    We examined soil erosion and nutrient accumulations in the Xuanmai area located in the low mountainous region of Northern Vietnam, based on field investigations and remote sensing approaches. The study area had been degraded by land-use change from forest to agriculture in the last 20 years. In contrast, around the study area, the Vietnam government promoted reforestation projects. Such changes in land-use conditions, which may or may not be associated with vegetation ground cover conditions, potentially alter soil erosion and nutrient accumulation. We selected 10 dominant land-use types including forested land (e.g., Pinus massoniana and Acacia mangium plantation) agriculture land (e.g., Cassava), and bare land. We established three 1 x 1 m plots in each land-use type in September 2010. Vegetation biomass, litter cover, soil erosion (height of soil pedestal), and soil physical (soil bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical properties (Total soil carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus) were measured. Height of soil pedestal can be a record of soil erosion by rain splash during rainy periods from April to August (prior to our field study). We also conducted remote sensing analysis using Landsat TM images obtained in 1993, 2000, and 2007 for identifying temporal patterns of land-use types. We found that the intensity of soil erosion depended primary on current vegetation ground cover condition with no regard of land-use. Hence, nutrient accumulation varied among vegetation ground cover and soil erosion. Remote sensing analysis suggested that shrub and bare lands had been altered from forested land more recently. Our finding suggested that variability of soil nutrient conditions can be associated with long-term soil erosion and production processes. Findings of our study are that: (1) current vegetation and litter ground cover affected the amount of surface soil erosion, and (2) legacy of land-use can be more critical for soil nutrient accumulation. Both

  16. Analysis of the year 2008 fires in the forest lands of the Muğla Regional Forest Service by using drought indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Muğla district is existed among the most risky areas of Turkey in terms of forest fires. In every year, Muğla Regional Forest Service faces significant level of economic losses associated with disappearance of the forest lands and degradation of the ecosystem services due to the forest fires occurred within its regional boundaries. In this study, by using long-term meteorological data recorded at the Muğla meteorology station, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD aridity index and Erinç’s drought index values were calculated along with determination of the climate types. In addition, in order to assess the year 2008 forest fires, the Keetch-Byram drought index were calculated, and its capture rates of forest fires were determined, by making use of the 2008 daily data. Some findings reached in this study can be summarized as follows: (i Arid climate conditions are seen in Muğla during the period between the months of the July and the September according to the UNCCD aridity index.(ii Arid conditions are found to have been effective between the months of the June and the September in terms of the Erinç’s drought index.(iii In the year of 2008, the Keetch-Byram drought index was over the high index level with a 600 value during the period between the days of 27.06.2008 and 19.11.2008.(iv The Keetch-Byram drought index caught 69% of the 348 forest fires occurred at Muğla in the year of 2008 with a certain level of fire occurrence.(v Results of the Keetch-Byram drought index that were calculated for the year of 2008 have shown higher relationships between the events of forest fires and the weather and climate conditions in comparison with the UNCCD aridity and Erinç’s drought indices.

  17. From Forest Landscape to Agricultural Landscape in the Developing Tropical Country of Malaysia: Pattern, Process, and Their Significance on Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops—rubber and oil palm plantations—has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900-1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s-1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s-1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country’s “health” and sustainability

  18. From forest landscape to agricultural landscape in the developing tropical country of Malaysia: pattern, process, and their significance on policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops--rubber and oil palm plantations--has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900--1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s--1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s--1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country's "health" and sustainability. The

  19. Ecosystem services provided by agricultural terraces in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Díaz, Asunción; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Since ancient times, agricultural terraces are common features throughout the world, especially on steep slope gradients. Nowadays many terraces have been abandoned or removed and few new terraces are build due to increased mechanisation and intensification of agriculture. However, terraces are amongst the most effective soil conservation practices, reducing the slope gradient and slope length, as well as runoff rate and soil erosion, and without terraces, it would be impossible to cultivate on many hillslopes. Moreover, their scenic interest is undeniable, as in some cases, terraced slopes have even become part of UNESCO World Heritage. In order to highlight the potential benefits, requirements and limitations of terraces, we reviewed different types of sustainable land management practices related to terraces and characterised their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We centred our review on terraces in semi-arid environments worldwide, as were documented in the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. Our results show that the most important ecosystem services provided by terraces relate to regulation of the on-site and off-site effects of runoff and erosion, and maintenance of soil fertility and vegetation cover. The presence of terraces also favours the provision of food, fiber, and clean water. In short, our results stress the crucial environmental, geomorphological and hydrological functions of terraces that directly relate to improving the quality of life of the people that use them. These results highlight the need for renewed recognition of the value of terraces for society, their preservation and maintenance.

  20. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  1. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions, and management. In this regional-scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): home garden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across 4 climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of home garden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture SOC stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in home garden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  2. Cooperative Agreement Between the United States Department of the Interior and the State of Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An agreement for assistance with forest fire detection, suppression and presuppression services on wildlife refuge lands by the Florida Division of Forestry. The...

  3. Seasonal agricultural youth workers' concerns on development - growth in adolescence period and utilization of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep simsek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull

  4. Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew J; Stringer, Lindsay C; Leventon, Julia; Riddell, Mike; Rueff, Henri; Spracklen, Dominick V; Butt, Edward

    2012-11-19

    Climate finance investments and international policy are driving new community-based projects incorporating payments for ecosystem services (PES) to simultaneously store carbon and generate livelihood benefits. Most community-based PES (CB-PES) research focuses on forest areas. Rangelands, which store globally significant quantities of carbon and support many of the world's poor, have seen little CB-PES research attention, despite benefitting from several decades of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects. Lessons from CBNRM suggest institutional considerations are vital in underpinning the design and implementation of successful community projects. This study uses documentary analysis to explore the institutional characteristics of three African community-based forest projects that seek to deliver carbon-storage and poverty-reduction benefits. Strong existing local institutions, clear land tenure, community control over land management decision-making and up-front, flexible payment schemes are found to be vital. Additionally, we undertake a global review of rangeland CBNRM literature and identify that alongside the lessons learned from forest projects, rangeland CB-PES project design requires specific consideration of project boundaries, benefit distribution, capacity building for community monitoring of carbon storage together with awareness-raising using decision-support tools to display the benefits of carbon-friendly land management. We highlight that institutional analyses must be undertaken alongside improved scientific studies of the carbon cycle to enable links to payment schemes, and for them to contribute to poverty alleviation in rangelands. PMID:23045714

  5. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Hahn, JangHo

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information...

  6. Energetic utilisation of agricultural and forestal biomass - fields of application, economic efficiency, experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass as a solid fuel is mainly used to cover the low temperature heat demand. Based on a biomass that is offered free of cost and on the spot an economic operation is possible if heat demand over the whole year guarantees a high utilisation factor. For example in Baden-Wuerttemberg the technical energy potential gained from agricultural and forestall recyclings amounts to approximately 7 billion kWh per year. The present experiences of the EVS in Baden-Wuerttemberg reveal that merely the existing recyclings will be able to cover the realistically usable potential of power-heat-coupling plants, the heat demand of larger single consumers as well as the direct heating supply unit the year 2010. (orig./HW)

  7. Campers’ Characteristic, Recreation Activities and Related Forest Camping Attributes in Shah Alam Agriculture Park, Selangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to identify the campers’ backgrounds and their recreation participation pattern in camping site at Shah Alam Agriculture Park, Selangor. The study has found that the campers were comprised of well-educated youths with tertiary education background. They usually came during festive holiday break with their friends and most of them are the first time visitors. The results also indicated that most of them valued the natural beauty, cleanliness and maintenance in campsite, safety and friendly staff of the park. The main purpose of camping is to enjoy and experiencing nature, escape from daily stress and learning of new experience. In overall, it shows that the campers’ dynamics where their emphasis on the naturalness, cleanliness as well as provision of more activities (especially activities involving family recreation or group leadership camping programs and facilities (using actually tent instead of chalet would be the criteria to attract campers to this park.

  8. Use of ERTS data for a multidisciplinary analysis of Michigan resources. [forests, agriculture, soils, and landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, A. L.; Myers, W. L.; Safir, G.; Whiteside, E. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The results of this investigation of ratioing simulated ERTS spectral bands and several non-ERTS bands (all collected by an airborne multispectral scanner) indicate that significant terrain information is available from band-ratio images. Ratio images, which are based on the relative spectral changes which occur from one band to another, are useful for enhancing differences and aiding the image interpreter in identifying and mapping the distribution of such terrain elements as seedling crops, all bare soil, organic soil, mineral soil, forest and woodlots, and marsh areas. In addition, the ratio technique may be useful for computer processing to obtain recognition images of large areas at lower costs than with statistical decision rules. The results of this study of ratio processing of aircraft MSS data will be useful for future processing and evaluation of ERTS-1 data for soil and landform studies. Additionally, the results of ratioing spectral bands other than those currently collected by ERTS-1 suggests that some other bands (particularly a thermal band) would be useful in future satellites.

  9. 78 FR 69814 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for El Yunque National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... 2012 Forest Planning Rule (36 CFR part 219), the planning process encompases three-stages: Assessment... Pedro Rios, Forest Planning Team Leader, at the address identified above, or by sending an email to...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for El Yunque National...

  10. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future. PMID:20643935

  11. Factors controlling phosphorus export from agricultural/forest and residential systems to rivers in eastern China, 1980-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Hu, Minpeng; Wang, Jiahui; Guo, Yi; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2016-02-01

    This study quantified long-term response of riverine total phosphorus (TP) export to changes in land-use, climate, and net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs to agricultural/forest (NAPIAF) and residential (NAPIR) systems for the upper Jiaojiang watershed in eastern China. Annual NAPIAF rose by 73% in 1980-1999 followed by a 41% decline in 2000-2011, while NAPIR continuously increased by 122% over the 1980-2011 period. Land-use showed a 63% increase in developed land area (D%) and a 91% increase in use of efficient drainage systems on agricultural land area (AD%) over the study period. Although no significant trends were observed in annual river discharge or precipitation, the annual number of storm events rose by 90% along with a 34% increase in the coefficient of variation of daily rainfall. In response to changes of NAPIAF, NAPIR, land-use and precipitation patterns, riverine TP flux increased 16.0-fold over the 32-year record. Phosphorus export via erosion and leaching was the dominant pathway for P delivery to rivers. An empirical model incorporating annual NAPIAF, NAPIR, precipitation, D%, and AD% was developed (R2 = 0.96) for apportioning riverine TP sources and predicting annual riverine TP fluxes. The model estimated that NAPIAF, NAPIR and legacy P sources contributed 19-56%, 16-67% and 13-32% of annual riverine TP flux in 1980-2011, respectively. Compared to reduction of NAPIAF, reduction of NAPIR was predicted to have a greater immediate impact on decreasing riverine TP fluxes. Changes in anthropogenic P input sources (NAPIAF vs. NAPIR), land-use, and precipitation patterns as well as the legacy P source can amplify P export from landscapes to rivers and should be considered in developing P management strategies to reduce riverine P fluxes.

  12. Human uses of forested watersheds and riparian corridors: hazard mitigation as an ecosystem service, with examples from Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Humans have long favored settlement along rivers for access to water supply for drinking and agriculture, for transport corridors, and for food sources. Additionally, settlement in or near montane forests include benefits such as food sources, wood supply, esthetic values, and high quality water resources derived from watersheds where upstream human disturbance and environmental degradation is generally reduced. However, the advantages afforded by these riparian and montane settings pose episodic risks for communities located there as floods, landslides, and wildfires cause loss of life, destroy infrastructure, and damage or destroy crops. A basic understanding of flood probability and magnitude as well as hillslope stability by residents in these environments can mitigate these risks. Early humans presumably developed some degree of knowledge about these risks by means of their long periods of occupation in these environments and their observations of seasonal and storm rainfall patterns and river discharge, which became more refined as agriculture developed over the past 10,000 years. Modern global urbanization, particularly in regions of rapid economic growth, has resulted in much of this "organic" knowledge being lost, as rural populations move into megacities, many of which encroach on floodplains and mountain fronts. Moreover, the most likely occupants of these hazardous locations are often economically constrained, increasing their vulnerabity. Effective stewardship of river floodplains and upstream montane forests yields a key ecosystem service, which in addition to the well-known services, ie. water, hydroelectric energy, etc., provides a risk mitigation service, by reducing hazard and vulnerability. Puerto Rico, Panama, and Venezuela illustrate a range of practices and results, providing useful examples for planners and land use managers.

  13. Optimizing intermediate ecosystem services in agriculture using rules based on landscape composition and configuration indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Ekroos, Johan; Smith, Henrik G.;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Important intermediate ecosystem services (ES) such as crop pollination and biological control of pests, which underpin the final ES agricultural yields, are mediated by mobile organisms that depend on availability of habitat and its arrangement in the landscape. It has been suggested that...... landscape-scale management (LSM) of habitat in a multi-farm setting results in higher provisioning of such ES compared to farm-scale management (FSM). However, to achieve the LSM solution, farmers' land-use decisions need to be coordinated. To this end, we develop rules based on novel landscape composition...... and configuration indices. We model farmers' interdependencies through ES in an agent-based model (ABM) and optimize land use at both the farm and landscape scales for comparison. Our analysis is based on a simple artificial landscape with homogeneous soil quality and uses crop pollination as an...

  14. Forest and Well-Being Services for Tourists : Case:Nuuksio

    OpenAIRE

    Nenonen, Sami; Iivari, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Well-being and the health effects of forests and nature have gained research interest during recent years. Forest therapy is a therapeutic method which prevents and cures different kinds of diseases through the help of nature. Forest therapy is focused not only for healthy people to strengthen them physically and fight against stress and fatigue, but also for the sick. The treatment of forest therapy consists mainly in walking trails, jogging and exercising in the middle of forests. Forest th...

  15. Ecological Recycling Agriculture to Enhance Agro-Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea Region: Guidelines for Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Stein-Bachinger; Moritz Reckling; Johann Bachinger; Johannes Hufnagel; Wijnand Koker; Artur Granstedt

    2015-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by agriculture is an increasing ecological threat to the Baltic Sea. Modern, resource-efficient farming systems based on integrated plant and animal production, effective nutrient recycling and low external inputs can enhance multiple agro-ecosystem services, resulting in reduced pollution. Practical examples of such farming systems are not widespread. Therefore, the Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) Implementation project aimed to foster t...

  16. Investigation of East Azerbaijan Researchers and Extension Agents’ View about the Role of Extension Services on Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Mahmoodi Karamjavan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigation of East Azerbaijan researchers and extension agents’ view about the role of extension services on agricultural development. The methodology was descriptive-correlation which is carried out by survey method. In this study, the sample population was 335 people including all researchers and extension agents working in the agricultural sector. To assess the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used and level over 0.75 for...

  17. Remote sensing applications in agriculture and forestry. Applications of aerial photography and ERTS data to agricultural, forest and water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being used in Minnesota to study: (1) forest disease detection and control; (2) water quality indicators; (3) forest vegetation classification and management; (4) detection of saline soils in the Red River Valley; (5) corn defoliation; and (6) alfalfa crop productivity. Results of progress, and plans for future work in these areas, are discussed.

  18. Groundwater uptake of forest and agricultural land covers in regions of recharge and discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móricz N

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater uptake of vegetation in discharge regions is known to play an important role, e.g., in the Hungarian Great Plain. Nevertheless, only little detailed monitoring of water table fluctuations and groundwater uptake (ETgw were reported under varying hydrologic conditions and vegetation cover. In this study, results of water table monitoring under forest plantations and adjacent corn plots in discharge and recharge regions were analyzed to gain better understanding of the relation of vegetation cover to groundwater uptake. A poplar (Populus tremula plantation and adjacent corn field plot were surveyed in a local discharge area, while a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia plantation and adjacent corn field plot were analyzed in a recharge area. The water table under the poplar plantation displayed a night-time recovery in the discharge region, indicating significant groundwater supply. In this case an empirical version of the water table fluctuation method was used for calculating the ETgw that included the groundwater supply. The mean ETgw of the poplar plantation was 3.6 mm day-1, whereas no water table fluctuation was observed at the nearby corn plot. Naturally, the root system of the poplar was able to tap the groundwater in depths of 3.0-3.3 m while the shallower roots of the corn did not reach the groundwater reservoir in depths of 2.7-2.8 m. In the recharge zone the water table under the black locust plantation showed step-like changes referring to the lack of groundwater supply. The mean ETgw was 0.7 mm day-1 (groundwater depths of 3.0-3.2 m and similarly no ETgw was detected at the adjacent corn plot with groundwater depths between 3.2 and 3.4 m. The low ETgw of the young black locust plantation was due to the lack of groundwater supply in recharge area, but also the shallow root system might have played a role. Our results suggest that considerations should be given to local estimations of ETgw from water table measurements that

  19. Diet of paca (Cuniculus paca using indirect methods in an agricultural area in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zucaratto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent that feeds on fruits according to their availability. This study describes the consumption of fruit by paca in an area of shaded cultivation of cocoa in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out by the search for tracks left by these animals, such as marks of incisors found in fruits, in order to recognize the fruits consumed. We recorded 12 species consumed by the pacas, belonging to 10 families and 10 genera. The list included six native species and six exotic species. Some fruits were eaten as a whole, while others had their exocarp or seeds discarded. The indirect methods showed suitability to characterize the diet of this species, and they could complement conventional research methods such as direct sighting and analyses of stomachal or fecal contents. The occurrence of pacas in the agricultural area shows the plasticity of their diet and the possibility of conserving populations of this species in disturbed areas outside nature reserves.

  20. Analysis of the year 2008 fires in the forest lands of the Muğla Regional Forest Service by using drought indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Muğla district is among the most risky areas of Turkey in terms of forest fires. Muğla Regional Forest Service meets the great economic losses and high amounts of vegetation at forest fires occurred within its boundaries. In this study, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD Aridity Index and the Erinç’s Drought Index values were calculated and climate types were determined by using the long-term meteorological data of the Mugla meteorological station. In addition, to assess the year 2008 forest fires, the Keetch-Byram Drought Index were calculated by using daily data of the year 2008, and capture rates for forest fires were determined. Some results reached in the study can be summarized as follows:(i Arid climate conditions are seen during the period between the months of the July and the September according to the UNCCD aridity index in Muğla.(ii On the other hand, arid conditions are found between the months of the June and  the September in the Erinç’s drought index.(iii The Keetch-Byram drought index is over the value of 600 during the period between the days of 27.06.2008 and 19.11.2008.(iv The Keetch-Byram drought index caught the 69% of the 348 forest fires occurred in Muğla at the certain level of fire occurrence.(v The Keetch-Byram drought index results calculated for the year of 2008 indicated much stronger relationships between the events of forest fires and the weather and climate conditions in comparison with the UNCCD and Erinç aridity indices.

  1. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997–2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR active fire data prior to MODIS (1997–2000 and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr−1 with significant interannual variability during 1997–2001 (2.8 Pg yr−1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg yr−1 in 2001. Emissions during 2002–2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg yr−1 before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg yr−1 and 2009 (1.5 Pg yr−1 partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002–2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001–2009, most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44

  2. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Mu, M.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

    2010-12-01

    New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) active fire data prior to MODIS (1997-2000) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr-1 with significant interannual variability during 1997-2001 (2.8 Pg/yr in 1998 and 1.6 Pg/yr in 2001). Emissions during 2002-2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg/yr) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg/yr) and 2009 (1.5 Pg/yr) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002-2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001-2009), most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20%), woodland fires

  3. 25 CFR 163.83 - Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. 163.83... FORESTRY REGULATIONS Program Assessment § 163.83 Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of the Interior may ask the Secretary of Agriculture, through the Forest Service, on...

  4. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1994. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the annual report 1994 of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed. The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. (vhe)

  5. Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the EURO Working Group on Operational Research (OR) in Agriculture and Forest Management (EWG-ORAFM)

    OpenAIRE

    Pla, L. M.; Sandars, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    This working group, which is concerned with operational research methods and applications to agricultural science in its broad meaning (i.e. including Forest Management and Fisheries), was formed in 2003 within the European Association of Operational Research Societies (EURO). The first meeting of the group was held at the former Silsoe Research Institute in 2004. The group intends to have regular meetings in Europe at approximately yearly intervals, usually within the EURO ...

  6. Investigating Effect of Development of Agricutural, Industrial, Service and Oil Revenue to ICOR ofAgricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyeh Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, considering the importance of incremental capital output ratio (ICOR in agriculture Investment capital and self-sufficiency in this sector in order to grow and being influenced by the past and previous relationships strong agricultural sector productivity growth in other sectors of the economy, especially the effect of oil revenues, was trying to, long-term relationships as well as their adjustment process described by the Autoregressive-Distributed Lag model (ARDL to investigate.The results also confirm the long-run relationship between the variables of the model show that oil revenues in appropriate path to growth agricultural productivity have beentoo much attention to the industry and imports of agricultural products decreased investment in agricultural productivity. However, the service sector growth by improving marketing activities and financing farmers to improve venture capital productivity in the agricultural sector operates. In the long run, adjusting the intersection, the model indicates improved productivity in the agricultural sector is of capital. Shown the necessary support to the agricultural sector in the short term.

  7. FOREST-BASED MEDICINAL PLANTS RENDERING THEIR SERVICES TO THE RURAL COMMUNITY OF ASSAM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratul Arya Baishya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the main biological resource areas from where reportedly 80% of the medicinal plants are collected by the rural communities of the state. Traditional folk medicines, mainly based on plants, occupy a significant position today, especially in the developing countries, where modern health care service is limited. Medicinal plants are gaining global importance owing to the fact that herbal drugs are cost-effective, easily available and most reportedly, with negligible side effects. Safe, effective and inexpensive indigenous remedies had been practiced by the people of both tribal and rural society of Assam from time immemorial. Therefore, the need of the hour is to harness this natural resource sustainably for the socio-economic development of the indigenous communities. Hence, a strategy for sustainable harvesting practice needs to be developed that would ensure preservation of the valuable medicinal plants in situ while addressing the needs of the rural communities. The present study is, thus, an attempt to highlight the common medicinal plants of forested region as used by the rural poor community for different kinds of treatment as the rural local healers usually practice for treatment of diseases in their locality.

  8. Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and Grasslands under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; Sun, Shanlei; Caldwell, Peter V.; Cohen, Erika C.; McNulty, Steven G.; Aldridge, Heather D.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The 170 National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the conterminous United States are public lands that provide important ecosystem services such as clean water and timber supply to the American people. This study investigates the potential impacts of climate change on two key ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield and ecosystem productivity) using the most recent climate projections derived from 20 Global Climate Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that future climate change may result in a significant reduction in water yield but an increase in ecosystem productivity in NFs. On average, gross ecosystem productivity is projected to increase by 76 ~ 229 g C m−2 yr−1 (8% ~ 24%) while water yield is projected to decrease by 18 ~ 31 mm yr−1 (4% ~ 7%) by 2100 as a result of the combination of increased air temperature (+1.8 ~ +5.2 °C) and precipitation (+17 ~ +51 mm yr−1). The notable divergence in ecosystem services of water supply and carbon sequestration is expected to intensify under higher greenhouse gas emission and associated climate change in the future, posing greater challenges to managing NFs for both ecosystem services. PMID:27100360

  9. Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and Grasslands under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; Sun, Shanlei; Caldwell, Peter V.; Cohen, Erika C.; McNulty, Steven G.; Aldridge, Heather D.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The 170 National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the conterminous United States are public lands that provide important ecosystem services such as clean water and timber supply to the American people. This study investigates the potential impacts of climate change on two key ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield and ecosystem productivity) using the most recent climate projections derived from 20 Global Climate Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that future climate change may result in a significant reduction in water yield but an increase in ecosystem productivity in NFs. On average, gross ecosystem productivity is projected to increase by 76 ~ 229 g C m‑2 yr‑1 (8% ~ 24%) while water yield is projected to decrease by 18 ~ 31 mm yr‑1 (4% ~ 7%) by 2100 as a result of the combination of increased air temperature (+1.8 ~ +5.2 °C) and precipitation (+17 ~ +51 mm yr‑1). The notable divergence in ecosystem services of water supply and carbon sequestration is expected to intensify under higher greenhouse gas emission and associated climate change in the future, posing greater challenges to managing NFs for both ecosystem services.

  10. 76 FR 75860 - National Forest System Invasive Species Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC77 National Forest System Invasive Species Management... invasive species management. This final invasive species management directive will provide foundational comprehensive guidance for the management of invasive species on aquatic and terrestrial areas of the...

  11. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AB86 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction... Register, on April 9, 2012 (77 FR 21162). DATES: These corrections are effective April 19, 2013. ADDRESSES... Register, page 21162, April 9, 2012, (77 FR 21162) the United States Department of Agriculture...

  12. Past and future impacts of land use and climate change on agricultural ecosystem services in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorencová, E.; Frélichová, J.; Nelson, E.; Vačkář, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, JUL (2013), s. 183-194. ISSN 0264-8377 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * scenarios * land use change * ecosystem services * agriculture * assessment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.134, year: 2013

  13. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew L. Clark; Andrea E. Izquierdo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan) to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield) in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protecte...

  14. Integrating land use and climate change scenarios and models into assessment of forested watershed services in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Eawpanich, Piyathip; Kalliola, Risto

    2016-05-01

    The Thadee watershed, covering 112km(2), is the main source of water for agriculture and household consumption in the Nakhon Srithammarat Province in Southern Thailand. As the natural forests upstream have been largely degraded and transformed to fruit tree and rubber plantations, problems with landslides and flooding have resulted. This research attempts to predict how further land-use/land-cover changes during 2009-2020 and conceivable changes in rainfall may influence the future levels of water yield and sediment load in the Thadee River. Three different land use scenarios (trend, development and conservation) were defined in collaboration with the local stakeholders, and three different rainfall scenarios (average rainfall, climate change and extreme wet) were determined on the basis of literature sources. Spatially explicit empirical modelling was employed to allocate future land demands and to assess the contributions of land use and rainfall changes, considering both their separate and combined effects. The results suggest that substantial land use changes may occur from a large expansion of rubber plantations in the upper sub-watersheds, especially under the development land use scenario. The reduction of the current annual rainfall by approximately 30% would decrease the predicted water yields by 38% from 2009. According to the extreme rainfall scenario (an increase of 36% with respect to current rainfall), an amplification of 50% of the current runoff could result. Sensitivity analyses showed that the predicted soil loss is more responsive to changes in rainfall than to the compared land use scenarios alone. However, very high sediment load and runoff levels were predicted on the basis of combined intensified land use and extreme rainfall scenarios. Three conservation activities-protection, reforestation and a mixed-cropping system-are proposed to maintain the functional watershed services of the Thadee watershed region. PMID:26915561

  15. Trade-offs between three forest ecosystem services across the state of New Hampshire, USA: timber, carbon, and albedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, David A; Burakowski, Elizabeth A; Murphy, Mackenzie B; Borsuk, Mark E; Niemiec, Rebecca M; Howarth, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Forests are more frequently being managed to store and sequester carbon for the purposes of climate change mitigation. Generally, this practice involves long-term conservation of intact mature forests and/or reductions in the frequency and intensity of timber harvests. However, incorporating the influence of forest surface albedo often suggests that long rotation lengths may not always be optimal in mitigating climate change in forests characterized by frequent snowfall. To address this, we investigated trade-offs between three ecosystem services: carbon storage, albedo-related radiative forcing, and timber provisioning. We calculated optimal rotation length at 498 diverse Forest Inventory and Analysis forest sites in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We found that the mean optimal rotation lengths across all sites was 94 yr (standard deviation of sample means = 44 yr), with a large cluster of short optimal rotation lengths that were calculated at high elevations in the White Mountain National Forest. Using a regression tree approach, we found that timber growth, annual storage of carbon, and the difference between annual albedo in mature forest vs. a post-harvest landscape were the most important variables that influenced optimal rotation. Additionally, we found that the choice of a baseline albedo value for each site significantly altered the optimal rotation lengths across all sites, lowering the mean rotation to 59 yr with a high albedo baseline, and increasing the mean rotation to 112 yr given a low albedo baseline. Given these results, we suggest that utilizing temperate forests in New Hampshire for climate mitigation purposes through carbon storage and the cessation of harvest is appropriate at a site-dependent level that varies significantly across the state. PMID:27039516

  16. The valuation of forest carbon services by Mexican citizens: the case of Guadalajara city and La Primavera biosphere reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, A.; MacMillan, D.C.; Skutsch, M.; Lovett, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate demand for, and recognition of, forest carbon services is critical to success of market mechanisms for forestry-based conservation and climate change mitigation. National and voluntary carbon-offsetting schemes are emerging as alternatives to international compliance markets. We developed a

  17. 77 FR 12792 - Notice of Forest Service Land Management Plans To Be Amended To Incorporate Greater Sage-Grouse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Incorporate Greater Sage-Grouse Conservation Measures AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice, Request... statements to incorporate greater sage-grouse conservation measures into land use plans and land management... related to the greater sage-grouse planning effort by any of the following methods: Rocky Mountain...

  18. Empirical Research on County Agriculture Information Service%县域农业信息服务实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘崇欣; 张应; 陈一铭

    2014-01-01

    以竹山为例,从农业信息服务的受体和供体2个角度,通过调查走访、问卷分析、座谈等方式了解当前农民以及信息服务机构的现状,对农民信息来源的渠道、需求、整体认知以及农业服务机构实施信息服务的途径、效果、服务人员素质等方面进行了实证分析。根据目前存在的问题,提出了构建先进、高效的农业信息服务体系的思路,包括渠道建设、内容建设、公益性信息服务平台建设及经营性服务机制建设,促进县域特别是经济不发达地区农业信息服务发展。%As an example of Zhushan County, the survey, questionnaire analysis, panel discussion and other ways were used to know the farmers, and the present situation of agricultural information service from the receptor and donor. The channel, requirements and the whole cognition of information sources for farmers, and the approach, effect and personnel quality etc. of information service for agricultural in-formation service organization were analyzed statistically and empirically. According to the existing problems, an idea was given to build the advanced and high efficient agricultural information service system including the construction of channel, content, public information service platform and business service mechanism. It promotes the development of county agricultural information service, especially in underdeveloped areas.

  19. Determinants of Pre-Service Students' Choice to Teach Secondary Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Rebecca G.; Torres, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain and predict the factors that influence senior-level agricultural education students' choice to become a secondary agriculture teacher. The study focused on the extent to which beliefs and attitudes toward teaching influenced students' intent to select teaching secondary agricultural education as a career.…

  20. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet via teleconference every month on... conference call will be posted to the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site,...

  1. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator; by phone...

  2. Perception and attitudes of local people concerning ecosystem services of culturally protected forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ouyang, Z.; Zheng, H.; Bluemling, B.

    2013-01-01

    Culturally protected forests (CPFs) can be defined as forest areas preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, and these forests have been maintained for decades or even centuries without much disturbance or change. Most of them are natural growt

  3. Crop Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Extension Services in Bangladesh: Cases of Selected Villages in Two Important Agro-Ecological Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ektear MD.; Gao, Qijie; Mamun-Ur-Rashid, MD.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Globally, many extension professionals and policy-makers are advocating fee based services, in addressing the fund shortage and sustainable provision of agricultural advisory services. Hence, the article attempts to expose the farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) as agricultural extension in Bangladesh is experiencing chronic fund crisis.…

  4. Institutional, Individual, and Socio-Cultural Domains of Partnerships: A Typology of USDA Forest Service Recreation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Cerveny, Lee K.; McCreary, Allie

    2011-09-01

    Federal land management agencies, such as the USDA Forest Service, have expanded the role of recreation partners reflecting constrained growth in appropriations and broader societal trends towards civic environmental governance. Partnerships with individual volunteers, service groups, commercial outfitters, and other government agencies provide the USDA Forest Service with the resources necessary to complete projects and meet goals under fiscal constraints. Existing partnership typologies typically focus on collaborative or strategic alliances and highlight organizational dimensions (e.g., structure and process) defined by researchers. This paper presents a partner typology constructed from USDA Forest Service partnership practitioners' conceptualizations of 35 common partner types. Multidimensional scaling of data from unconstrained pile sorts identified 3 distinct cultural dimensions of recreation partners—specifically, partnership character, partner impact, and partner motivations—that represent institutional, individual, and socio-cultural cognitive domains. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis provides further insight into the various domains of agency personnel's conceptualizations. While three dimensions with high reliability (RSQ = 0.83) and corresponding hierarchical clusters illustrate commonality between agency personnel's partnership suppositions, this study also reveals variance in personnel's familiarity and affinity for specific partnership types. This real-world perspective on partner types highlights that agency practitioners not only make strategic choices when selecting and cultivating partnerships to accomplish critical task, but also elect to work with partners for the primary purpose of providing public service and fostering land stewardship.

  5. Agricultural activities of the malayali tribal for subsistence and economic needs in the mid elevation forest of pachamalai hills, eastern ghats, Tamil nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to study the Agricultural activities of the Malayali Tribal for Subsistence and Economic needs in the mid elevation forest of Pachamalai Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil nadu. About 8 percent of the Indian population belongs to a category listed as “Scheduled Tribes” enumerated in the Schedule to Article 342 of the Constitution of India. Tribal people has been seen to be strongly associated with the forests, hills and remote areas, practicing a unique life style, having a unique set of cultural and religious beliefs. For millennia, tribal communities have lived in forests and survived on hunting and gathering. However, with growing population and resource pressure, it is now witnessing that a rise in livelihoods based on settled farming. In the study area, cereals are the major crop cultivated for their edible grains. The tribal people living in the hills tops of the study area were cultivated 11 major agricultural crops. They are, Eleusine coracana, Panicum miliare, Oryza sativa (verity I (Mara Nellu, Oryza sativa (verity II, Manihot esculenta, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Sesamum orientale, Paspalum sp, Pennisetum americanum and Setaria italica. Among them, Paspalum sp gives the maximum yield with 655 kg acre-1.

  6. Do Relocated Villages Experience More Forest Cover Change? Resettlements, Shifting Cultivation and Forests in the Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Boillat; Corinna Stich; Joan Bastide; Michael Epprecht; Sithong Thongmanivong; Andreas Heinimann

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between forest cover change and the village resettlement and land planning policies implemented in Laos, which have led to the relocation of remote and dispersed populations into clustered villages with easier access to state services and market facilities. We used the Global Forest Cover Change (2000–2012) and the most recent Lao Agricultural Census (2011) datasets to assess forest cover change in resettled and non-resettled villages throughout the count...

  7. Do relocated villages experience more forest cover change? Resettlements, shifting cultivation and forests in the Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Boillat, Sébastien; Stich, Corinna; Bastide, Joan; Epprecht, Michael; Thongmanivong, Sithong; Heinimann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between forest cover change and the village resettlement and land planning policies implemented in Laos, which have led to the relocation of remote and dispersed populations into clustered villages with easier access to state services and market facilities. We used the Global Forest Cover Change (2000–2012) and the most recent Lao Agricultural Census (2011) datasets to assess forest cover change in resettled and non-resettled villages throughout the count...

  8. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protected areas in conserving both habitat and ecosystem services. Selected areas for conserving habitat had an overlap of carbon and soil ecosystem services. Yet, selected areas for water yield did not have this overlap. Furthermore, selected areas with relatively high overlap of ecosystem services tended to be inside protected areas; however, other important areas for ecosystem services (i.e., central highlands do not have legal protection, revealing the importance of enforcing existing environmental regulations in these areas.

  9. Changes of crop rotation in Iowa determined from the United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service cropland data layer product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan J.; Doraiswamy, Paul C.; Raymond Hunt, E.

    2012-01-01

    Crop rotation is one of the important decisions made independently by numerous farm managers, and is a critical variable in models of crop growth and soil carbon. In Iowa and much of the Midwestern United States (US), the typical management decision is to rotate corn and soybean crops for a single field; therefore, the land-cover changes each year even though the total area of agricultural land-use remains the same. The price for corn increased from 2001 to 2010, which increased corn production in Iowa. We tested the hypothesis that the production increase was the result of changes in crop rotation in Iowa using the annual remote sensing classification (the cropland data layer) produced by the United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. It was found that the area planted in corn increased from 4.7 million hectares in 2001 to 5.7 million hectares in 2007, which was correlated with the market price for corn. At the county level, there were differences in how the increase in corn production was accomplished. Northern and central counties had little land to expand cultivation and generally increased corn production by converting to a corn-corn rotation from the standard corn-soybean rotation. Southern counties in Iowa increased corn production by expanding into land that was not under recent cultivation. These changes affect the amount of soil carbon sequestration.

  10. Recharge as an Ecosystem Service and Disservice in a Midwestern, Urbanizing, Agricultural Watershed with an Increasing Precipitation Trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, E. G.; Zipper, S. C.; Loheide, S. P.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is typically viewed as a beneficial ecosystem service as it relates to replenishing groundwater supplies for human use and groundwater-dependent ecosystems that have been diminished due to pumping. However, groundwater flooding - a condition caused by increased groundwater recharge - can cause damages to infrastructure and agricultural crops as elevated water tables lead to surface flooding and oxygen stress for unadapted plants such as corn. The Yahara River watershed - an urbanizing, agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin - is an exemplar for such disparate views of recharge. The basin has experienced a significantly increasing trend in annual precipitation since 1930 and groundwater flooding has been especially pervasive in the last decade in the northern rural part of the basin. Agricultural productivity has declined in areas affected by groundwater flooding. At the same time, the expansion of the Madison metropolitan area has led to increased groundwater pumping, more variable baseflows, and likely decreased flow to urban wetlands. Infiltration practices on new developments are required through local municipal ordinances to promote groundwater recharge in urban areas and help offset the effects of pumping. A comprehensive analysis of ecosystem services - which includes provisioning services such as freshwater supply and crop production and regulating services such as flood regulation - must take into account the differential impacts of recharge.

  11. Point-source effects on N and P uptake in a forested and an agricultural Mediterranean streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merseburger, Gora; Martí, Eugènia; Sabater, Francesc; Ortiz, Jesús D

    2011-02-01

    We examined the effect of point-source inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) on in-stream uptake of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate and compared it between two streams draining catchments with contrasting land use. The selected streams were La Tordera and Gurri (NE Spain), draining a forest- and an agriculture-dominated catchment, respectively. In each stream, we compared nutrient uptake metrics, estimated from nutrient additions, between two reaches located upstream and downstream of a WWTP input. Measurements were done on 8-9 dates during 2002-2003. In La Tordera, the point-source increased concentrations of all studied nutrients; whereas in Gurri, this effect was less evident. Point-source effects on nutrient uptake differed between the two streams, and among solutes. In La Tordera, uptake lengths (S(w)) of ammonium and phosphate averaged hundreds of meters above the point-source, and increased (i.e., decreased uptake efficiency) 4 and 5 times, respectively, below the point-source. S(w) of nitrate was ≥2km regardless of reach location. In Gurri, S(w) of all studied nutrients was within the km range in the two reaches. In this stream, diffuse nutrient inputs from adjacent fields may overwhelm the local effect of the point-source input. Uptake velocities (v(f)) of the studied nutrients ranged between 10EXP(-6) and 10EXP(-4)m/s in the two streams, and were similar between the two reaches in each stream. However, phosphate v(f) decreased under increasing concentrations following a power function. This trend remained significant when combining our results with those compiled from literature, suggesting the efficiency loss response may be a general trend for phosphate across streams. The relative increases in uptake rates (U) below the point-source were proportional to the relative point-source contribution to downstream nutrient loads, especially for ammonium and nitrate. However, the increases in U were not enough to compensate for the increases in

  12. Anthropogenic Decline of Ecosystem Services Threatens the Integrity of the Unique Hyrcanian (Caspian Forests in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardavan Zarandian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique Hyrcanian (Caspian forests of northern Iran provide vital ecosystem services for local and global communities. We assess the status and trends of key ecosystem services in this region where native forest conversion has accelerated to make way for housing and farm development. This is a mountainous forested area that is valuable for both conservation and multiple human uses including recreation and farming. It contains globally significant natural habitats for in situ conservation of biological diversity. A rapid, qualitative, and participatory approach was used including interviews with local households and experts in combination with assessment of land use/cover remote sensing data to identify and map priority ecosystem services in the Geographic Information System (GIS. Based on the interests of the beneficiaries, eight priority services (food production, water supply, raw materials, soil conservation, water regulation, climate regulation, biodiversity, and recreation were identified and mapped. The results indicate the current typical spatial distribution of the provided services based on structural characteristics of the study landscape and their changing trends through a comparison of past, present and future land use, and land cover. Although food production and recreation have greatly increased in recent decades, the other services, in particular timber production, biodiversity, and water purification and supply are being gradually lost. The results of this study and of others elsewhere should raise awareness of ecosystem service status and trends and the value of examining these since they provide much of the information to inform natural resources policy and decision making. The declines in supply of key ecosystem services both within and outside the protected area are creating conflicts within communities as well as impacting on the integrity of the area and careful planning and conservation is required to provide win

  13. A Forest Management Map of European Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel van den Wyngaert; Markus Didion; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Clerkx, A. P. P. M. (Sandra); Mart-Jan Schelhaas

    2012-01-01

    Forest management to a large extent determines the possible services that the forest can provide. Different objectives in forest management determine the rotation length and valuation of different stages in forest succession. We present a method of mapping potential forest management at 1-km resolution to inform policy, land use modeling, and forest resource projections. The presented method calculates the suitability of a location to different forest management alternatives based on biotic, ...

  14. Rehabilitation techniques after a nuclear accident, in agricultural and forest environments: summary of the work conducted at IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Sante Nucleaire) (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination techniques, in agricultural and forest environments, in laboratory and in the field in France were studied and some of them were tested in the field at Chernobyl area to assess their efficiency and practical application. In this first paper, the techniques tested at Chernobyl area are presented. The contaminating vegetal network technique and then the use of the turf harvester can reach decontamination factor of 97% for both 137Cs and 90Sr. Tree leaves show a high level of interception of the radioactive deposition and wood contamination was caused primarily by leaf transfer during the first year after the accident. Then progressively, most of the forest soil contamination was concentrated in the bed. Removing this bed with a brushing-machine could not reach decontamination efficiencies greater than 30%, due to the weak efficiency of the brush gathering, but the technique can be improved. (Author) 5 tabs., 5 figs., 11 refs

  15. Rapid Ecological Assessment Methods for Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service Midwest Region - Survey Protocol Framework: First Edition (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting Inventories of forests at multiple stations within a region. During 2010 and 2011, six refuges of the...

  16. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service: Summary Tables & Figures: Seney NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following are summary tables and figures associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Seney...

  17. 76 FR 70955 - Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Executive Order 13352-Facilitation of Cooperative Conservation. Purpose and Need for Action Forest... Forest Service Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY:...

  18. 77 FR 40565 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Forest Service Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... of Decision for Amendments to the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents... provide advice and recommendations to promote better integration of forest management activities...

  19. Diversified Native Species Restoration for Recovery of Multiple Ecosystem Services in a Highly Disturbed Tropical Dry Forest Landscape of Southwestern Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Guillen, K.; Otterstrom, S.; Perla, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have been reduced to a fraction of their original extent in the Neotropics due to conversion to agriculture and cattle pasture. While TDF can recover via natural regeneration, resulting forests are dominated by wind-dispersed pioneer species of limited value for frugivorous wildlife. Additionally, passive restoration can be perceived as "abandonment" resulting in neighbors casually invading property to rear livestock and extract timber. In 2007, the NGO Paso Pacífico initiated restoration in a highly degraded tropical dry forest landscape of southwestern Nicaragua; funded by an ex-ante carbon purchase, the project was designed to integrate multiple native tree species known to provide resources used by local wildlife. We restored roughly 400 hectares spanning a rainfall gradient from dry to transitional moist forest, using reforestation (planting 70 species of tree seedlings in degraded pastures on a 4x4 m grid, leaving occurring saplings) and assisted regeneration (clearing vines and competing vegetation from saplings in natural regeneration and strategically managing canopy cover). In just over seven years, mean carbon increased nearly threefold, from to 21.5±5.0 to 57.9±9.6 SE tonnes/ha. Current carbon stocks match those of 20-year-old forests in the area, accumulated in less than a decade. Stem density per 15-m radius plot decreased from 16.3±2.3 to 12.5±0.9 SE, while species richness increased from 3.9±0.4 to 18.4±1.4 SE. Alpha richness of woody stems across plots increased from 36 to 94 species, and over 20 tree species established as a result of natural dispersal and recruitment. We have observed sensitive species such as spider monkeys and parrots foraging in restoration areas. Managed reforestation is a highly effective method for rapidly restoring the functionality of multiple ecosystem services in degraded TDF, particularly when social and political realities force restoration to coexist with human productive activities

  20. Opportunities, constraints and challenges to the introduction of ICT services for sustainable agricultural development in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Linus

    2015-01-01

    The application of information and communication technology (ICT) in socioeconomic development often referred to as “ICT for development” (ICT4D) is an increasingly relevant concern both academically as well as within development organisations on all levels.   This master thesis project has explored opportunities, constraints and challenges to designing and implementing mobile phone based ICT services for an organisation working with sustainable agricultural development in West Bengal, India....