WorldWideScience

Sample records for agriculture development mead

  1. Mead: The development of a long-term dispersion model for shelf seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term marine dispersion model, MEAD (Marine Environment Annual Dispersion), has been developed from the CUMBRIA model created by AEA Technology, UK MEAD includes improvements made to the parameterisation of some of the physical processes represented in CUMBRIA together with a new flowfield and model grid. Transport of pollutants (in this case radionuclides) in the model is defined to occur in three phases; dissolved in the water column and attached to suspended and deposited sediments. A spatially varying suspended particulate material (SPM) concentration field is included in MEAD and ionic exchange between the dissolved and deposited phases is parameterised. Initial comparisons of MEAD results with limited available observed data show good agreement indicating satisfactory representation of the physical processes by the model. (author)

  2. Was Mead Wrong about Coming of Age in Samoa? An Analysis of the Mead/Freeman Controversy for Scholars of Adolescence and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The controversy between Margaret Mead and Derek Freeman about Mead's work (1928) on coming of age in Samoa in the 1920s is analyzed. Freeman's claim to have refuted Mead's findings can be easily refuted itself. Mead's study, arguing that adolescent turmoil is not universal, stands the test of time. (SLD)

  3. Meads socialpsykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    2007-01-01

    Meads tænkning er interessant af flere grunde. Hans perspektiv er dynamisk med vægt på social interaktion og relationer. Herved danner hans tænkning afsæt for en socialkonstruktivistisk tænkning, men han drager ikke selv den konklusion og nøjes med at kalde sig socialbehaviorist. I artiklen...... argumenteres der for, at denne betegnelde ikke yder Mead fuld retfærdighed, og det bliver vist, hvordan Meads socialpsykologi leverer grundlaget for en konstruktivistisk forståelse....

  4. Agricultural Development Bank Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...

  5. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  6. Development of accelerated test design for service-life prediction of solar array at Mead, Nebraska. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, G.B.; Thomas, R.E.; Noel, G.T.; Shilliday, T.S.; Wood, V.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1978-11-03

    As a significant beginning in applying accelerated tests to solar arrays for life-prediction purposes, this study is directed toward (a) developing a plan for predicting the service life of a specific solar array in a specific geographic site - viz., the 25-KW flat-plate array installed near Mead, Nebraska, and (b) developing technical information from laboratory and field measurements for designing an accelerated test that can be carried out in 2 years and have predictive validity for a service life as long as 20 years. Status of the program is described.

  7. Developments in the fermentation process and quality improvement strategies for mead production

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Iglesias; Ananias Pascoal; Altino Branco Choupina; Carlos Alfredo Carvalho; Xesús Feás; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2014-01-01

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. Th...

  8. Developments in the fermentation process and quality improvement strategies for mead production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Antonio; Pascoal, Ananias; Choupina, Altino Branco; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo; Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2014-01-01

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads' quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies. PMID:25153872

  9. Development of an accelerated test design for predicting the service life of the solar array at Mead, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, G.B.; Thomas, R.E.; Noel, G.T.; Shilliday, T.S.; Wood, V.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1979-06-07

    This report describes an accelerated test which is designed to predict the life of the 25-kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. Emphasis is placed on the power-output degradation at the module level and on long-term degradation modes, as appropriate for life prediction of mature devices for which infant failures are few. A quantitative model for accelerating testing using multiple environmental stresses is used to develop the test design. The model accounts for the effects of thermal stress by a relation of the Arrhenius form. This relation is then corrected for the effects of nonthermal environmental stresses such as relative humidity, atmospheric pollutants, and ultraviolet radiation. The test conditions, measurements, and data analyses for the accelerated tests are presented for determining the predicted life of the modules in service at Mead. Constant-temperature, cyclic-temperature, and uv types of tests are specified, incorporating selected levels of relative humidity and chemical contamination and an imposed forward-bias current and static electric field. It is recommended that as a first step in test implementation, the model be selectively validated using identified portions of the accelerated test design.

  10. Developments in the Fermentation Process and Quality Improvement Strategies for Mead Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Iglesias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads’ quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies.

  11. Agriculture, Other, Ag land use, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Meade County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Other dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as 'Ag...

  12. Development of an accelerated test design for predicting the service life of the solar array at Mead, Nebraska. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, G.B.; Thomas, R.E.; Noel, G.T.; Shilliday, T.S.; Wood, V.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1979-02-06

    Economic viability requires that photovoltaic arrays should have a service life of 20 years or longer. Qualification and performance tests indicate that presently available photovoltaic modules provide acceptable performance at the time of installation. This study is being conducted as part of a program to develop and validate an accelerated test plan that can be used to predict the useful service life of present and future solar arrays. Previously a methodology was developed for designing an accelerated test program incorporating trade-offs between the cost of each test and its value in reducing the variance in the life prediction for that array. The objective of the present study is to apply this methodology to develop an accelerated test plan to predict the service life of the 25-kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. Potential long-term degradation modes for the two types of modules in the Mead array have been determined and judgments have been made as to those environmental stresses and combinations of stresses which accelerate the degradation of the power output. Hierarchical trees representing the severity of effects of stresses (test conditions) on eleven individual degradation modes have been constructed and have been pruned of tests judged to be nonessential. Composites of those trees have been developed so that there is now one pruned tree covering eight degradation modes, another covering two degradation modes, and a third covering one degradation mode. These three composite trees form the basis for selection of test conditions in the final test plan which is now being prepared.

  13. Agricultural Development in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Hampwaye, Godfrey; Phiri, Douglas

    Food processing is important to the Zambian economy and entails a set of options for local firms to grow and create employment given the growth potential the country possesses in agriculture. This policy brief summarizes the findings of a study of 38 Zambian owned firms in the food processing...

  14. G.H. Mead

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira da Silva, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    George Herbert Mead was born on 27 February 1863, in South Hadley, Massachusetts, the son of a clergyman, Hiram Mead. In 1869, the family moved to Oberlin, Ohio, where his father took a chair at the Theological Seminary of Oberlin College. Between 1880 and 1883, Mead studied in Oberlin College where he met two students from Hawaii, Henry and Helen Castle. In 1887, after brief work experience as a railway surveyor and a private tutor, Mead followed Henry Castle into Harvard University to study...

  15. Agriculture, Development and Urban Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk J. Bezemer; Headey, Derek

    2007-01-01

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction and structural transformation at early stages of development. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to discriminate against agricultural development in the poorest countries. This paper studies the causes and manifestations of this ‘urban bias’, including discrimination ...

  16. G.H. Mead: theorist of the social act

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Alex

    2005-01-01

    There have been many readings of Mead's work, and this paper proposes yet another: Mead, theorist of the social act. It is argued that Mead's core theory of the social act has been neglected, and that without this theory, the concept of taking the attitude of the other is inexplicable and the contemporary relevance of the concept of the significant symbol is obfuscated. The paper traces the development of the social act out of Dewey's theory of the act. According to Mead, Dewey's theory does ...

  17. Influence of Sweetness and Ethanol Content on Mead Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mead is a traditional alcoholic beverage obtained by fermenting mead wort; however, its production still remains frequently an empirical exercise. Different meads can be produced, depending on fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, to date few studies have been developed on factors that may influence mead quality. The main objective of this work was to study the influence of sweetness and ethanol content on mead acceptability. Different meads were produced with two sweetness levels (sweet and dry meads and three ethanol contents (18, 20, 22% (v/v, adjusted by brandy addition. Afterwards, meads acceptability was evaluated by sensory analysis through a consumers’ panel (n=108 along with chemical analysis by HPLC-RID of glucose, fructose, ethanol, glycerol and acetic acid. The sweet (75 gglucose+fructose/L and dry (23 gglucose+fructose/L meads presented glycerol contents equal to 5.10±0.54 and 5.96±0.95 g/L, respectively, that were desirable since glycerol improves mead quality. Low concentrations of acetic acid were determined (0.46±0.08 and 0.57±0.09 g/L, avoiding the vinegar off-character. Concerning sensory analysis, the alcohol content of mead had no effect on the sensory attributes studied, namely, aroma, sweetness, flavour, alcohol feeling and general appreciation. Regarding sweetness, the “sweet meads” were the most appreciated by the consumers (score of 5.4±2.56, whereas the “dry meads” (score of 2.7±2.23 showed low acceptability. In conclusion, this work revealed that sweetness is a sensory key attribute for mead acceptance by the consumers, whereas ethanol content (18 to 22% (v/v is not.

  18. Reclamations Mead Substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennet, N.B.

    1968-01-01

    This 35 million dollar facility will be a vital part of the Pacific Northwest-Southwest Intertie. It will be one of the four terminals in the project, involving ehv direct current transmission of power. After site preparation, construction began July 25 on the Bureau of Reclamations Mead Substation. This is a key dc, ac terminal of the Pacific Northwest-Southwest Intertie. The entire Mead Substation, fully equipped with both ac and dc facilities, is scheduled for completion by September 1971.

  19. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  20. General Situations of Development of Photovoltaic Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohang; ZHANG; Shoufu; CUI; Fuping; LIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced policy of photovoltaic agriculture in China. It discussed significance of developing photovoltaic agriculture. Then,it introduced progress in application of photovoltaic agriculture at both home and abroad. Finally,it pointed out existing problems in photovoltaic agriculture and came up with recommendations for development of photovoltaic agriculture in China.

  1. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  2. Port of Tillamook Bay (POTB); Methane Energy Agriculture Development (MEAD); Dairy Digester Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Crider

    2004-12-31

    The Tillamook Digester is a fully operational demonstration project that will identify the components necessary to bring the concept to a financially viable alternative for handling waste manure from dairy operations in Tillamook County.

  3. Facing the globalization of China's agricultural development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; LIU Chang

    2007-01-01

    This article discussed what economic globalization had brought to China's agricultural development and how to deal with the globalization of China's agricultural development after China's entry into WTO. This study expounded our opportunities and challenges under the new circumstance of China's accession to WTO on the agriculture and gave some measures to reduce the unfavorable impacts on the agriculture.

  4. Mead 25 kilowatt photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucciarelli, L.L.; Cremin, J.D.; Fenton, H.A.; Hopkinson, R.F.; Lyon, E.F.; Romaine, W.R.

    1978-06-05

    A 25 peak kW photovoltaic power system, presently the world's largest, has been installed at the University of Nebraska's Agricultural Research Station in Mead, Nebraska. The project goals include the collection of data on solar insolation, photovoltaic (PV) array performance, power conditioning equipment performance, and weather. A comprehensive system of sensors and data logging equipment has been installed for the purpose of collecting these data. The system allows for the automatic transmission of all accumulated data on a daily basis to Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts, for reduction and analysis. The data which have been gathered on the array during its initial operating period are summarized.

  5. A four-fold humanity: Margaret Mead and psychological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in 1933, while working in New Guinea, Margaret Mead developed her so-called squares hypothesis. Mead never published its terms, though she made a brief comment on it in her autobiography, Blackberry Winter (1972), and the arguments found in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935) and the research leading to Balinese Character (Bateson & Mead, 1942) bore its imprint. Beginning with William McDougall's distinction between temperament (innate predispositions) and character (learned organization of habit), Mead articulated a morphological approach to the interplay between biology and culture that yielded four primary and four intermediary personality types. Under specified but not inevitable circumstances, the conscious choices of a given people could render one or another of these types characteristic or predominantly stable within their population, giving each of the other types a definite relation to the dominant type and thereby the cultural ethos of its society. Persons of each type followed a developmental path specific to their type different both from that of other types and in its manifestations given the various relations of the individual's type to the dominant type. Mead's hypothesis was, therefore, a vision of the unity and diversity of a single human species as well as an approach to the differing psychological positioning of individuals in cultures. In examining Mead's hypothesis, this essay also takes up Mead's debts to several leading psychologists (McDougall, C. G. Jung, and Erik Erikson), and (provisionally) how her vision differed from that of Ruth Benedict. PMID:15048668

  6. Nelder-Mead Simplex Modifications for Simulation Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Russell R. Barton; John S. Ivey, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    When the Nelder-Mead method is used to optimize the expected response of a stochastic system (e.g., an output of a discrete-event simulation model), the simplex-resizing steps of the method introduce risks of inappropriate termination. We give analytical and empirical results describing the performance of Nelder-Mead when it is applied to a response function that incorporates an additive white-noise error, and we use these results to develop new modifications of Nelder-Mead that yield improve...

  7. Mead photovoltaic system controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millner, A.R.

    1979-01-31

    A system controller has been designed, built, tested, and in operation for one year at MIT/Lincoln Laboratory's 25-kW-peak Solar Photovoltaic Power System located at Mead, Nebraska. The controller allows the site to operate without human intervention, and has brought to light some of the problems of charge-control algorithms in a deep-discharge environment.

  8. George Herbert Mead

    OpenAIRE

    Quéré, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Resume Pour George Herbert Mead, penser c?est entretenir . Cette conception ne parait pas a premiere vue d?une originalite absolue. Ce qui la rend vraiment originale est l?approche dont elle fait partie, et notamment la double idee que la conversation dont il s?agit est une conversation de gestes ou d?attitudes, et que la pensee ainsi que l?intelligence reflexive naissent de l?internalisation d?un proc...

  9. G.H. Mead

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da

    2016-01-01

    G.H. Mead (1863-1931) oriented much of his intellectual efforts around three unavoidable questions for anyone living in a modern society: how are selfhood, knowledge, and politics understood and organized in such a society? Modern individuals continually seek answers to questions although nobody has ever come up with a definitive answer to them. Modernity, in other words, confronts us with inevitable problematics that fundamentally shape the way in which we think about certain topics. For the...

  10. AGRICULTURE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the agriculture sustainable development for poverty reduction and raising productivity in agriculture. Agriculture is one of way the vast majority of Bone District, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia that makes their living with its high multiplier affect across the wider economy. This sector also is most capable of growing the continent???s economy in the medium term. KKN PPM Dikti gives fund to manage research in all areas including agriculture and re...

  11. Extending west's analogy royce, mead, and american philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Marcelo Viale

    2008-01-01

    In The American Evasion of Philosophy Cornell West makes a comparison between the developments of European and classical American philosophies. Within West’s analogy, however, two important American figures are missing: Josiah Royce and George H. Mead. In the context of this framework, this article attempts to extend West’s analogy, speculating on the possible roles of Royce and Mead within it. The argumentation is developed in two parts: on the one hand, I show how secondary literature that ...

  12. A Century of Margaret Mead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes Margaret Mead's contributions, focusing on Mead as an anthropologist and educator. It discusses contradictions in her ethnographies and in her work on learning. The paper also discusses her beliefs about the problems of the contemporary United States, particularly her rarely noticed contributions to a theory of learning. (SM)

  13. Margaret Mead: Anthropological Perspective on Educational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Suzanne S.

    Anthropologist Margaret Mead focused much of her thinking, speaking, and writing on education and the impact of rapid change on educational theory and practice. The history of Mead's writings shows sensitivity to both tradition and change. A selection of 12 of Mead's publications provides insight into Mead's innovative and thought-provoking ideas.…

  14. Lake Mead--clear and vital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Stephen M.; Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    “Lake Mead – Clear and Vital” is a 13 minute documentary relating the crucial role of science in maintaining high water quality in Lake Mead. The program was produced coincident with release of the Lakes Mead and Mohave Circular a USGS publication covering past and on-going research in the lakes and tributaries of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

  15. Competitive development of the agricultural enterprises France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yushkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The stages which determine the development of agricultural enterprises in France are investigated in the article. In the course of implementation of Ukrainian-French programs of scientific and educational cooperation on the problems of the management of agricultural enterprises in State Educational Institutions training specialists (cities of Chartres and Vic–en Bigorre, France it was found that the major components of development of agricultural enterprises in France are as follows: agricultural policy, education, motivation, information and management. The problem of the diversified development in the context of transition to green economy and sustainable development is considered. It is determined that an example of competitive development of agricultural enterprises in France is the establishment and operation of professional associations, in particular, cooperatives and clusters. The priority directions of economic and ecological development of agricultural enterprises for Ukraine are offered in order to implement potential opportunities of agricultural enterprises and to relocate the resources into new kinds of agricultural and non-agricultural activities

  16. Genetically Modified Crops: Towards Agricultural Growth, Agricultural Development, or Agricultural Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...

  17. Mead production: tradition versus modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalhosa, Elsa; Gomes, Teresa; Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-01-01

    Honey is a natural product with recognized physical and chemical properties, which contribute to its biological activity. However, honey is currently being sold at low prices, making it imperative to find alternatives to make apiculture a viable national enterprise. One of these alternatives could be mead production. Despite the excellent properties of honey, mead production faces several problems, namely, delays and "pouts" fermentations, lack of product uniformity, and production of yeast off-flavors. Many factors might be related with these problems, such as honey variety, temperature, medium composition (vitamin and nitrogen content), fermentative yeast, and pH. Due to all these factors, mead production has decreased over the years. To overcome this situation, more research is needed to optimize the production of this beverage. This chapter presents a comprehensive review of previous research on mead production. It will focus on honey characterization and mead production. The first section covers honey composition and the way this affects honey properties, as well as important parameters that are indicators of honey quality. The second section discusses mead production, including fermentative microorganisms, fermentation conditions, and required postfermentation adjustments and maturation conditions. The final section focuses on the problems that must be surpassed and what the future holds for mead production. PMID:21867893

  18. Agriculture for Development: Toward a New Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Byerlee, Derek; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental role that agriculture plays in development has long been recognized. In the seminal work on the subject, agriculture was seen as a source of contributions that helped induce industrial growth and a structural transformation of the economy. However, globalization, integrated value chains, rapid technological and institutional innovations, and environmental constraints have deeply changed the context for agriculture's role. We argue that a new paradigm is needed that recognizes ...

  19. Analysis and development of entrepreneurship in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf,; Schoorlemmer, H.B.; Smit, A B; Lauwere, de, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is an important issue in the Netherlands. A balance between People, Planet and Profit is necessary to create a sustainable agriculture. Entrepreneurial qualities are important for farmers to find this balance for his particular situation. Therefore, three research institutes of Wageningen UR have started a joint project to analyse and develop entrepreneurship in agriculture, being started in 2002 and ending in 2005. This project is linked to several existing farmers ne...

  20. Agriculture in African Development: Theories and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Douglas Gollin

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest sector in most sub-Saharan economies in terms of employment, and it plays an important role in supplying food and export earnings. Rural poverty rates remain high, and labor productivity is strikingly low. This article asks how these factors shape the role of agriculture in African development strategies. Is agricultural growth a prerequisite for growth in other sectors? Or will urbanization and nonagricultural export markets ultimately be the forces that pull the r...

  1. Mead production: selection and characterization assays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Estevinho, Letícia M

    2009-08-01

    Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. However, when it is produced in a homemade way, mead producers find several problems, namely, the lack of uniformity in the final product, delayed and arrested fermentations, and the production of "off-flavours" by the yeasts. These problems are usually associated with the inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavourable and stressful growth conditions. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from honey of the Trás-os-Montes (Northeast Portugal), to produce mead. Five strains from honey, as well as one laboratory strain and one commercial wine strain, were evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulphur dioxide and osmotic stress. All the strains showed similar behaviour in these conditions. Two yeasts strains isolated from honey and the commercial wine strain were further tested for mead production, using two different honey (a dark and a light honey), enriched with two supplements (one commercial and one developed by the research team), as fermentation media. The results obtained in this work show that S. cerevisiae strains isolated from honey, are appropriate for mead production. However it is of extreme importance to take into account the characteristics of the honey, and supplements used in the fermentation medium formulation, in order to achieve the best results in mead production. PMID:19481129

  2. Managing Agricultural Price Risk in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Dana; Gilbert, Christopher L.

    2008-01-01

    We survey the experience of risk management in developing country agricultural supply chains. We focus on exposure, instruments, impediments to access and developing country futures markets. We draw on lessons from experience over the past two decades.

  3. Richard Mead: one for the ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Richard Mead (1673-1754) was an important figure in the development of medical science and toxicology. He wrote the first book in the English Language solely devoted to poisons, was an advocate for evidence-based medicine, advanced the social role of physicians in serving the poor and disadvantaged, supported the wider medical and scientific communities, and serves as a life role model for any age. PMID:21288153

  4. Nuclear techniques and sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights the contribution to sustainable agricultural development of various nuclear techniques, and describes the methods developed and promoted by the IAEA's Laboratories at Seibersdorf and Vienna. After a general introduction to the applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture there follow sections devoted to soil fertility, irrigation and crop production; agrochemicals and residues; insect pest control; and plant breeding. A second article, to appear in the next edition of the IAEA Bulletin, will focus on environmental aspects of sustainable development

  5. Mead production: tradition versus modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalhosa, Elsa; Gomes, Teresa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2011-01-01

    Honey is a natural product with recognized physical and chemical properties, which contribute to its biological activity. However, honey is currently being sold at low prices, making it imperative to find alternatives to make apiculture a viable national enterprise. One of these alternatives could be mead production. Despite the excellent properties of honey, mead production faces several problems, namely, delays and “pouts” fermentations, lack of product uniformity, and production of yea...

  6. Gender impact strategy for agricultural development

    OpenAIRE

    Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This document provides projects funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation with a strategy to integrate gender into their work to improve agricultural development as a means of more effectively reducing hunger and poverty in developing countries. It outlines the expectations, tools, and necessary components required for an effective gender impact strategy. Specifically, the strategy focuses on engaging women as active participants and beneficiaries of agricultural...

  7. Model Driven Software Development for Agricultural Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The design and development of agricultural robots, consists of both mechan- ical, electrical and software components. All these components must be de- signed and combined such that the overall goal of the robot is fulfilled. The design and development of these systems require collaboration between...... processing, control engineering, etc. This thesis proposes a Model-Driven Software Develop- ment based approach to model, analyse and partially generate the software implementation of a agricultural robot. Furthermore, Guidelines for mod- elling the architecture of an agricultural robots are provided......, assisting with bridging the different engineering disciplines. Timing play an important role in agricultural robotic applications, synchronisation of robot movement and implement actions is important in order to achieve precision spraying, me- chanical weeding, individual feeding, etc. Discovering...

  8. Rural Roads and Agricultural Development in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay A. K.; Mukole Kongolo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the importance of managing and maintaining the quality of rural roads to support agricultural and rural development in the Kingdom of Swaziland, to facilitate the distribution of agricultural products and its accessibility to the population. A structured questionnaire survey was used to collect both secondary and primary data sources, to fill the key information gaps through random sampling method. The data collected were tabulated and analysed throu...

  9. Nuclear energy and Ecuadorian agriculture development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission has elaborated a plan for development of nuclear energy, the construction of a 1-3 MW Nuclear Reactor for Research and production of radioisotopes and of the related laboratories. Agriculture is a very important part of this plan, in the following areas: genetics, irrigation, plant and animal nutrition and metabolisms, and pest and disease control. Ecuadorian agriculture institutions have also been considered in this plan. (Author)

  10. Agriculture and the Clean Development Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F; Dinar, Ariel; Frisbie, J. Aapris

    2011-01-01

    Many experts believe that low-cost mitigation opportunities in agriculture are abundant and comparable in scale to those found in the energy sector. They are mostly located in developing countries and have to do with how land is used. By investing in projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), countries can tap these opportunities to meet their own Kyoto Protocol obligations. The...

  11. Mobile Applications for Agriculture and Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Christine Zhenwei; Kuek, Siou Chew; Dymond, Andrew; Esselaar, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic growth of mobile communications technology is creating opportunities for economic growth, social empowerment, and grassroots innovation in developing countries. One of the areas with the greatest potential impact is in the contribution that mobile applications can make to agricultural and rural development (ARD), by providing access to information, markets, and services to mill...

  12. Extending West's Analogy. Royce, Mead, and American Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Marcelo Viale

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In The American Evasion of Philosophy Cornell West makes a comparison between the developments of European and classical American philosophies. Within West’s analogy, however, two important American figures are missing: Josiah Royce and George H. Mead. In the context of this framework, this article attempts to extend West’s analogy, speculating on the possible roles of Royce and Mead within it. The argumentation is developed in two parts: on the one hand, I show how secondary literature that considers Royce-Mead ties reproduces Meadean statements on Royce –mainly presented in “The Philosophies of Royce, James and Dewey in their American Setting” (1930; on the other hand, I show a schematic analysis of Meadean statements on Royce from a historic as well as a systematic pragmatist perspective.

  13. Development Status Quo and Trend of Low-carbon Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Liming; Pan, Xiaohua; Li, Maobai

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon emission in agricultural production, this paper has discussed the development trend of low-carbon agriculture in terms of developing precision agriculture, improving the use efficiency of fertilizer, scientific use of pesticides, water-saving irrigation, ecological control of pests as well as energy conservation and emission reduction by agricultural machinery and other agricultural practices.

  14. Value and Development Countermeasures for Modern Agriculture in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong; JIN

    2013-01-01

    With advance of urbanization and industrialization, modern agricultural development in Chinas economic developed areas (CEDAs) is greatly restricted by traditional concept. To speed up the development of modern agriculture in CEDAs, this paper takes Suzhou City as an example from theories supporting modern agricultural development. It demonstrates agriculture in CEDAs plays an important role in adjusting supply of agricultural and sideline products, reserving rural labor employment, protecting ecological environment, increasing farmers income, and passing on agricultural culture. It contends that CEDAs should take reserving basic farmland as prerequisite; take adequate supply of primary agricultural products, protection of living environment, maintenance of agricultural landscape, and inheritance of farming culture as objectives; establish perfect modern agricultural system through firmly setting up modern agricultural value concept; increase local public finance input; increase agricultural functional value from technical and management levels, to realize increase of farmers income, promote sustainable development of agriculture, promote integrated urban and rural development, as well as harmonious development of human and nature.

  15. Approaches to Promote China's Low Carbon Agricultural Development%Approaches to Promote China's Low Carbon Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yao

    2012-01-01

    Low carbon agriculture is a new production mode of green agriculture development to face the challenge of the global climate change, and a kind of innovation on developing circular agriculture. Up to now, low carbon agricultural development approaches are lacking of deep and systematical researches. Therefore, the paper briefly analyzed the situation and the existing problems of China's low carbon agricultural development, and then put forward the approaches to promote the low carbon agricultural development.

  16. Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques' establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.

  17. Multifactorial Vector of Regional Agriculture Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Sergeyevna Shepitko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the agriculture development potential of the Volgograd region enabling to move to the stable type of reproduction as well as its factors: the natural conditions, location, technological types of production, agrarian structure, horizontal and vertical integration, state support. Methodological approach of the differentiation of green box subsidies is approved, the mechanism of its realization is proposed. The evidence base is substantiated by the long-term research of the soil intensification and soil quality factors influencing the soil productivity in the region. Within the boundaries of the existing natural areas, the following zones of territorial and economic development are allocated: the zones of competitive and efficient grain production; the zone of commercial sunflower production; the zones of territory and priority development. The criterion signs of their development are formulated. Alongside with the natural factor, the following factors were accepted as a criterion: the level of production adaptability and development of rural areas, displacement of population, customary lifestyle, arrangement of production infrastructure, resources, the structure of the agrarian economy. The evolutionary entrance of small agribusiness into the innovative economy have been reasoned as well as the creating on this basis of a special sector of agrarian economy — organic agriculture, which is reasonable to develop in the field of dairy cattlebreeding and vegetable-growing. A strategic analysis of the technological types of production existing in the regional agriculture in the context of organizational units and activities is presented. These are: industrial with innovative elements, extensive and intensive with innovative elements, extensive and intensive, extensive. They provide modernization as a factor of evolutionary formation of the innovative economy in the agrarian sector. Considering the global tendencies, the priorities

  18. WTO negotiations on agriculture and developing countries:

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, Anwarul; Gulati, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization’s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching implications for the trade and economic prospects of developing countries in the twenty-first century, it is critical for these countries to fully understand the issues involved in the negotiations on agriculture. However, there has been no authoritative an...

  19. Industrialized Development Models of Agricultural Scientific and Technological Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of China’s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be:( i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises;( ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and technological achievements and scientific research institutions as support;( iii) spindle type transformation;( vi) agricultural scientific and technological demonstration area;( v) technology extension network.

  20. The Influence of Agricultural Mechanization on the Development of Agricultural Economy in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsheng; QIU

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the agricultural mechanization development on the agricultural economy has caught public attention. In this paper,the role of the agricultural mechanization in the agricultural economic development of Chongqing is analyzed with the qualitative and quantitative methods based on econometrics and agricultural engineering theory,and its contribution rate is 30. 6%. Moreover,the development of agricultural mechanization of the agricultural economy will play a leading role in the 21 st century,and will change the traditional economic development mode featured by increasing agricultural labor and chemical fertilizer. The quality and quantity of agricultural labor force mastering modern science technology is the key to the development of modern agricultural economy.

  1. Environmentally Friendly Agriculture: Development Issues in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Melece, Ligita

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming as the method and organic food nowadays play more and more important role in supplying sustainable and environmentally friendly practices, support a high level of biodiversity, utilize natural processes and ensure appropriate animal welfare standards. The paper analyzes the development and issues of perspectives of organic farming in Latvia. Some findings on organic agriculture development are given, estimating the primary information on organic farming in Latvia regarding the...

  2. Factor Analysis of Agricultural Development Indicators from Iranian Agriculture Experts’ Viewpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri; Meysam Solouki

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture and its development is the foundation of development in Iran as a developing country. So, it can be regarded as the foundation for economical and social development. The capabilities of agriculture sector are limited and its efficiency is trivial because of neglecting agricultural development and keeping its support just as a slogan. The transformation of agriculture to a developed, dynamic, efficient environment depends not only on appropriate climate and ...

  3. Opportunities and challenges of sustainable agricultural development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Luo, Qishan; Deng, Hongbing; Yan, Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the concepts and aims of sustainable agriculture in China. Sustainable agricultural development comprises sustainability of agricultural production, sustainability of the rural economy, ecological and environmental sustainability within agricultural systems and sustainability of rural society. China's prime aim is to ensure current and future food security. Based on projections of China's population, its economy, societal factors and agricultural resources and inputs bet...

  4. Urban Agriculture:The Major Direction of Future Agricultural Development in Huainan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xing-ying

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of urban agriculture, this paper analyses the necessity of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City as follows: it is the need of transformation and upgrading of agricultural industry; it is the need of development of urban-rural integration; it is the need of sustainable urban development; it is the need of solving the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers effectively. Then this paper analyses the endowment of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City. And finally the basic conception in industrial form and spatial framework is put forward, to develop urban agriculture in Huainan City.

  5. Rural Poverty and Agricultural Development in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Dhas, Albert Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Tamil Nadu is basically an agricultural economy. Agriculture is the backbone of the development of the Tamil Nadu economy. The role of agriculture in shaping the economy could be reflected from the large proportion of population that depends on agriculture for their livelihood and the significant contribution of agriculture to the state income. Due to its predominance, any positive and negative aspects of developments in the state could be linked with the performance of the agricultural sec...

  6. Routing of biomass for sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetically derived biomass and residues, including waste products from food processing industries are renewable. They accumulate every year in large quantities, causing deterioration to the environment and loss of potentially valuable resources. The conserved energy is potentially convertible; thermodynamically the energy can be tapped into forms which are more amenable for value added agricultural applications or for other higher value products such as chemicals or their feedstocks. The forms and types in which this biomass has to be modified for the intended use depend on the costs or the respective alternatives. Under current situations, where chemical feedstocks are available in abundance at very competitive prices, biomass is obviously more suitably placed in the agro-industrial sector. Recycling of the biomass or residues into the soil as biofertilizers or for some other uses for agricultural applications requires less intense energy inputs for their improvements. Highly efficient biological processes with microorganisms as the primary movers in the production of the desired end products indeed require less capital costs than in most other industrial entities. In this paper, the various processes, which are potentially valuable and economically feasible in the conversion of biomass and residues for several products important in the agricultural sector, are described. Emphasis is given to the approach and the possible permutations of these processes to arrive at the desired good quality products for sustainable agricultural development. (Author)

  7. Strategies for Development of Shaanxi’s Agricultural Insurance Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces current situations of agricultural insurance market in Shaanxi Province. It is indicated that development of Shaanxi’s agricultural insurance industry is faced with following difficulties. First, risks of agricultural production are various, occurrence frequency is high and losses are great. Second, effective supply of commercial insurance companies for agriculture is seriously inadequate. Third, farmers’ demand for agricultural insurance is restricted by many factors. Fourth, government support for agricultural insurance is not generous. Then, it puts forward strategies for development of agricultural insurance in Shaanxi Province. These include: encourage commercial insurance companies to actively enter agricultural insurance market; establish perfect agricultural reinsurance system; strengthen propaganda of agricultural insurance and speed up agricultural industrialization; enhance policy support for agricultural insurance to promote its development.

  8. How Organic Agriculture Contributes to Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcher, Lukas

    2007-01-01

    Organic agriculture can contribute to meaningful socio-economic and ecologically sustainable development, especially in poorer countries. This is due on the one hand to the application of organic principles, which means efficient management of local resources (e.g. local seed varieties, manure, etc.) and therefore costeffectiveness. On the other hand, the market for organic products – at local and international level – has tremendous growth prospects and offers creative producers and exporter...

  9. Value and Development Countermeasures for Modern Agriculture in Suzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    With advance of urbanization and industrialization, modern agricultural development in China’s economic developed areas (CEDAs) is greatly restricted by traditional concept. To speed up the development of modern agriculture in CEDAs, this paper takes Suzhou City as an example from theories supporting modern agricultural development. It demonstrates agriculture in CEDAs plays an important role in adjusting supply of agricultural and sideline products, reserving rural labor employment, protec...

  10. Reinterpreting Internalization and Agency through G. H. Mead's Perspectival Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    2006-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, George Herbert Mead developed a theory of perspectives that may be used to reinterpret his social, developmental psychology. This paper attempts such a reinterpretation, leading to the emergence of a theory of perspective taking in early childhood that looks quite different from that which is assumed in most extant work…

  11. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... the timing of the construction. Immediate action is necessary to ensure the safety of commercial...

  12. 75 FR 13232 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... ensure the public's safety. Background and Purpose Vegas Tunnel Construction will be...

  13. Strategies for Cultivating New Peasants Based on Modern Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanxing; MENG; Jianguo; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Development of modern agriculture has higher and higher requirements on quality of peasants.This study,on the basis of connotations of modern agriculture,current situation and problems of Chinese peasants,and contradictions between modern agricultural development and peasants’ quality,specifies requirements of modern agriculture on new peasants,proposes corresponding suggestions to promote the cultivation of new Chinese peasants.

  14. Organic agriculture in a development policy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik; Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    Farmers growing food with high eco-efficiency may be seen cultivating peace by reducing competition among nations for oil and as producers of other public goods: biodiverse landscapes and ecosystem services with more soil fertility, less water use and less pollution. How does Organic agriculture...... (OA) fare globally on eco-efficiency? Are most African farmers eco-efficient – or may eco-efficient farmers be found everywhere? As OA develops throughout the planet, what does Denmark do beyond Europe? Is organic farming part of our development policy? Do we dilligently share our comparative...

  15. Research on Development Status and Countermeasures of Agricultural Cleaner Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the study,the connotation and objectives of agricultural cleaner production were introduced firstly,and then the development status of agricultural cleaner production in China was analyzed,and the problems existing in the development of agricultural cleaner production were pointed out.From the strategy of agricultural sustainable development,the necessity and feasibility of implementing agricultural cleaner production in China were discussed.Finally,some related countermeasures were put forward according...

  16. G.H. Mead: A Critical Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da

    2007-01-01

    G. H. Mead is rightly considered to be one of sociology's founding fathers, yet to date there have been surprisingly few books devoted to his life and work. This book fills the gap by introducing Mead's ideas to a younger generation of social scientists. Beginning with a biographical account of the main events in Mead's career, Filipe Carreira da Silva provides a thorough examination of Mead's social theory of the self, the reception of his ideas into sociology, and the relevance of his w...

  17. Diversification and Sustainable Development in Chinese Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Funing; Zhu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Feeding a growing population exceeding 1 billion is a big challenge to the Chinese government and has partly led to the self-sufficient policy in grain production and supply for decades. However, the efforts to push grain production everywhere have resulted in not only deterioration of the environment but also stagnation or even reduction in farmers'income as production costs continue to increase.This situation might be worsening after China's accession to the WTO that provides market access for bulk commodity imports. A sustainable development in Chinese agriculture depends on diversification, or structural adjustment, that allows Chinese farmers to fully utilize their comparative advantage in production of labor-intensive goods.Past experience has shown that diversification has contributed more than a half of the growth in Chinese agriculture during the reform period and reduced stresses on the environment at the same time. It is likely to contribute even more to Chinese agriculture in the future and in a sustainable manner.

  18. How to Develop Low-carbon Agriculture in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of low-carbon economy nowadays,the development of agriculture is necessary to adapt to the situation of global economic development,and transform the agricultural development models. This paper firstly gives an overview of low-carbon economy and lowcarbon agriculture,and then points out the possibility of developing the low-carbon agricultural economy in China,and describes the ways to develop the low-carbon agricultural economy. Finally,this paper puts forth the corresponding recommendations for the development of the lowcarbon agricultural economy.

  19. A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Turner, Kent; Goodbred, Steven L.; Miller, Jennell M.

    2012-01-01

    Lakes Mead and Mohave, which are the centerpieces of Lake Mead National Recreation Area, provide many significant benefits that have made the modern development of the Southwestern United States possible. Lake Mead is the largest reservoir by volume in the nation and it supplies critical storage of water supplies for more than 25 million people in three Western States (California, Arizona, and Nevada). Storage within Lake Mead supplies drinking water and the hydropower to provide electricity for major cities including Las Vegas, Phoenix, Los Angeles, Tucson, and San Diego, and irrigation of more than 2.5 million acres of croplands. Lake Mead is arguably the most important reservoir in the nation because of its size and the services it delivers to the Western United States. This Circular includes seven chapters. Chapter 1 provides a short summary of the overall findings and management implications for Lakes Mead and Mohave that can be used to guide the reader through the rest of the Circular. Chapter 2 introduces the environmental setting and characteristics of Lakes Mead and Mohave and provides a brief management context of the lakes within the Colorado River system as well as overviews of the geological bedrock and sediment accumulations of the lakes. Chapter 3 contains summaries of the operational and hydrologic characteristics of Lakes Mead and Mohave. Chapter 4 provides information on water quality, including discussion on the monitoring of contaminants and sediments within the reservoirs. Chapter 5 describes aquatic biota and wildlife, including food-web dynamics, plankton, invertebrates, fish, aquatic birds, and aquatic vegetation. Chapter 6 outlines threats and stressors to the health of Lake Mead aquatic ecosystems that include a range of environmental contaminants, invasive species, and climate change. Chapter 7 provides a more detailed summary of overall findings that are presented in Chapter 1; and it contains a more detailed discussion on associated

  20. Experience and Ways of Low-carbon Agriculture Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmin; ZHANG; Chunhong; QIN

    2013-01-01

    Firstly,the status quo of low-carbon agriculture development in China was analyzed,and then advanced experience of developed countries in low-carbon agriculture development was introduced,finally ways of developing low-carbon agriculture in China were put forward.

  1. Enhancing Sustainable Development of Diverse Agriculture in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Jahangir

    2005-01-01

    The report presents the current status of some selected CGPRT Crops (secondary crops) and examines their potentials in enhancing the sustainable development of diverse agriculture in Bangladesh. Agriculture in Bangladesh is composed of crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry subsectors. This study deals primarily with crop agriculture and the scope of diversification is limited to crop rather than agricultural diversification.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Beijing Modern Urban Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We analyze development situations of Beijing modern urban agriculture from agricultural distribution,agricultural foundation and agricultural industrial system.Our research on challenges and opportunities of Beijing modern urban agriculture indicates that challenges include short of resources,deterioration of environment,and high production cost,and opportunities include large market space,advanced agricultural industrial experience and many other development opportunities.On the basis of these,we put forward development thought of Beijing modern urban agriculture in " the Twelfth Five Plan" period.We must improve foundation,integration and demonstration of agriculture;orient towards market and satisfy medium and high end market demands;actively cultivate and strengthen agricultural industrial level;create unique product brand;and raise added value of agricultural products.

  3. Development paths of China's agricultural Pharmaceutical industry under Eco-agriculture background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei

    2014-07-01

    Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading. PMID:25016265

  4. Cluster Development of Zhengzhou Urban Agriculture Based on Diamond Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on basic theory of Diamond Model,this paper analyzes the competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture from production factors,demand conditions,related and supporting industries,business strategies and structure,and horizontal competition.In line with these situations,it introduces that the cluster development is an effective approach to lifting competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture.Finally,it presents following countermeasures and suggestions:optimize spatial distribution for cluster development of urban agriculture;cultivate leading enterprises and optimize organizational form of urban agriculture;energetically develop low-carbon agriculture to create favorable ecological environment for cluster development of urban agriculture.

  5. AGRICULTURAL INSURANCES MEANS OF DEVELOPPING THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE AMONG THE E.U. COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Georgiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the developed countries has shown that it is completely delusional to try and create a modern agriculture without the powerful development of agricultural insurances. Agriculture has always been one of the most important economic branches in Romania, as it has the highest value of all European countries by GDP (8-12%. This field represents an important direction in the economic development, especially due to the high potential of the agricultural development in the E.U. countries. The present paper tries to illustrate the potential of agricultural insurances, their necessity, the general presentation of the domestic agricultural insurance market and that of the European Unions as well as the search for viable solutions of development in agriculture by the aid of insurances.

  6. A Study of the Development of Agricultural Mechanization in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangyun; NING; Yulan; KUANG; Yonghua; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Kunming City has entered the rapid development stage of urbanization. In the course of building the urban modern agriculture, the agricultural mechanization of Kunming City is being faced with excellent development opportunity. In this paper, the author scientifically analyzed current development situations of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City and explored existing problems in the course of development. On the basis of analysis, the author put forward recommendations, including increasing scientific research input for agricultural machinery, supporting agricultural machinery enterprises, promoting scientific and technical innovation, taking characteristic industries (such as flowers and vegetables) as pillar industry, speeding up development of modern facility agriculture, and upgrading primary processing of agricultural products. These will play significant role in the development of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City.

  7. Ethical Consideration on Development of Modern Ecological Agriculture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zeng

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of ecological agriculture from the perspective of ecological ethics. Firstly, it proposes issues encountered in the development process of ecological agriculture in China. Secondly, it develops the ecological ethics implication of ecological agriculture that ecological agriculture implies respect towards ecological value, reflects pursuit on ecological benefit and emphasizes emphasis on ecological safety. Thirdly, it makes an analysis of the development pat...

  8. Enhancing Sustainable Development of Diverse Agriculture in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Anh, Dao The; Thinh, Le Duc; Bihn, Vu Trong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the socio-economic impacts of recent developments in the regional and global economic environment, including trade liberalization on upland agriculture at a village level and identifying constraints to the sustainable development of diversified agriculture, in particular upland agriculture based on CGPRT crops in Viet Nam.

  9. Introduction and summary of findings: Chapter 1 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kent; Rosen, Michael R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Miller, Jennell M.

    2012-01-01

    Lakes Mead and Mohave, which are the centerpieces of Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA), provide many significant benefits that have made the modern development of the Southwestern United States possible. Lake Mead is the largest reservoir by volume in the nation and it supplies critical storage of water supplies for more than 25 million people in three Western States (California, Arizona, and Nevada). Storage within Lake Mead supplies drinking water and the hydropower to provide electricity for major cities including Las Vegas, Phoenix, Los Angeles, Tucson, and San Diego, and irrigation of more than 2.5 million acres of croplands (National Park Service, 2010). Lake Mead is arguably the most important reservoir in the nation because of its size and the services it delivers to the Western United States (Holdren and Turner, 2010).

  10. Mead's Contributions to Learners' Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Gatt; Ignasi Puigdellívol; Silvia Molina

    2010-01-01

    El interaccionismo simbólico de Mead sirve tanto para entender cómo las y los estudiantes aprenden como para mejorar los entornos de aprendizaje. Este artículo revisa las contribuciones teóricas de este autor que están actualmente en la base de las actuaciones educativas de más éxito a nivel internacional. Se profundiza teóricamente en la visión interaccionista del aprendizaje, la dialogicidad constituyente de la persona, y la interacción mediada por el lenguaje verbal y los gestos. Estos ...

  11. Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin Xiang [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (China). Centre of Energy and Environmental Protection; Mang, H.P. [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering (China)]|[Centrum fuer Internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    China is still largely rural, with abundant biomass resources including agricultural residues, and animal wastes amounting to about 2.5 billion tons per annum. The first National Strategy for Renewable Rural Biomass Energy Development has developed a strategy which will provide a framework for a sustainable utilization of these resources as well as develop additional resources for renewable energy reduction. To comply with these regulations, under current economic and regulatory conditions, the least-cost response for mist agro-enterprises will be the installation of conventional, ''end of pipe'' waste treatment facilities. The results of an International Seminar on Biogas for Poverty and Sustainable Development in Beijing (Peoples Republic of China) in October 2005 came up with the following strategies for large scale biogas plant implementation: (a) Integration of biogas electricity generation in national feed-in-grid strategies and village electrification; (b) Create models for biogas grids; (c) Testing clear rules for Renewable Energy laws application; (d) Promotion of large scale industrial and community plants; (e) Integration of bio-organic waste and septic/faecal sludge collection system.

  12. Sustainable development of rainfed agriculture in India:

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Kerr

    1996-01-01

    India's agricultural growth has been sufficient to move the country from severe food crises of the 1960s to aggregate food surpluses today. Most of the increase in agricultural output over the years has taken place under irrigated conditions. The opportunities for continued expansion of irrigated area are limited, however, so Indian planners increasingly are looking to rainfed, or unirrigated agriculture to help meet the rising demand for food projected over the next several decades. Given th...

  13. Land development from agricultural land to land developed for construction

    OpenAIRE

    Grandovec, Tevž

    2012-01-01

    This Graduation Thesis represents basic concepts of real estate market and factors, affecting value of the landed property or real estate. It describes the development process of landed property - from agricultural land to urbanized land for construction with building permission. Landed property prices are analysed by the development stages and are based on The Surveying and Mapping Authority of the Republic of Slovenia's (Geodetska uprava Republike Slovenije - GURS) data. GURS divides landed...

  14. Developing conservation agriculture in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Manuel R. Reyes; Ella, Victor B.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes the implementation of Conservation Agriculture production practices in Claveria, Misamis, Philippines, as well as its impacts on soil conservation and marketable produce yields. This research was conducted by the SANREM CRSP Long Term Research Activity 12, Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines.

  15. HYDRAULICS, MEADE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  16. Mead, Nebraska, 25-kW photovoltaic power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaine, W.R.

    1979-01-05

    In 1977 MIT/Lincoln Laboratory designed, constructed, and put into operation a 25-kW-peak solar photovoltaic power system in Mead, Nebraska. This system was to be used to provide power to an agricultural test facility operated by the University of Nebraska. The initial application of the PV system was to provide power to irrigate an 80-acre cornfield. The photovoltaic power system is described as it existed at the time of its inauguration, and as it will exist following the completion of presently planned modifications, which include more fully automated control and addition of an uninterruptible power supply.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES ON DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKET IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica RUMANOVSKÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the situation of the agricultural land market in Slovakia and in selected region of the SR – Nitra region, on the application and development of agricultural land prices in Slovakia and on the factors that influence the decisions of agricultural enterprises on the market with agricultural land. In this paper were used primary data obtained with interview method realized within the research of Department of European policies, Slovak University of Agriculture during the period 2012 – 2013 in all districts of region Nitra. The evaluation of the impact of agricultural subject on agricultural land market in Slovakia was realized by using the method of regression analysis. Based on the results from the research we can state that entrepreneurs still prefer more to rent land then to purchase a land. The main factors influencing the decision-making process of agricultural subjects are ownership fragmentation, the fragmentation of agricultural plots and business's financial situation and profitability of the purchase. Many entrepreneurs pointed to this indicator as one of the most influential in terms of increasing the market price, respectively as a reason for not signing the lease agreement. The agricultural land market in Slovakia is emerging but still not sufficiently transparent. Further development of the market will continue to be marked by the overall economic situation in agriculture, relatively low competitiveness of Slovak farmers in the European market and reduced profitability. Research showed that the most pronounced effect on the price of agricultural land and the amount of rent for agricultural land has the number of enterprises. Growing number of farms will increase the price or amount of rent for agricultural land.

  18. Agricultural Education and Training; Annual Review of Selected Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This annual review of selected developments in agricultural education and training of the United Nations family presents economic and social progress reports of countries dependent upon agriculture. Topics covered are education and training in Africa, deep sea fishing training in Korea, correspondence courses in agriculture, national marketing…

  19. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  20. MEAD retrospective analysis report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Carstensen, J.; Frohn, L.M.;

    2003-01-01

    The retrospective analysis investigates links between atmospheric nitrogen deposition and algal bloom development in the Kattegat Sea from April to September 1989-1999. The analysis is based on atmospheric deposition model results from the ACDEP model,hydrodynamic deep-water flux results, phytopl...

  1. Study on Connotations and Development Strategies of Creative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangshan; YANG; Hailing; HE

    2013-01-01

    Creative agriculture is a new agricultural type with originality as a key element, integrating agricultural production activities into creative activities such as culture and art, broadening functions of agriculture and improving added value of agricultural products. Creative agriculture is characterized by external economy, technology integration, art appreciation, high efficiency and value, and it is significant for promoting inheritance of traditional culture, optimal allocation and regeneration of resources, optimal distribution of elements, expansion of agricultural functions, construction of beautiful countryside, cultural construction of rural areas, transformation of agricultural and rural economic growth mode. With agricultural resources as the foundation, sightseeing and leisure agriculture as the breakthrough point, by means of science and technology, many regions in China have explored products of creative agriculture and presented several typical cases of creative agriculture. However, these projects are mostly restricted by problems such as poor development concept, lack of supportive policies, and ineffective industrial integration. Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we proposed path choice, supportive system and relevant policy suggestions for the development of creative agriculture.

  2. Breaking Key Obstacles on Developing Circular Agriculture and Promoting Agricultural and Pasture Resources Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengcui; FAN; Yu; TIAN; Zhihong; LI; Jianming; JIA; Yufang; SHI

    2013-01-01

    The present situation,problems and constraints of the circular agriculture development in Hebei Province are systematically analyzed,the subject modes suitable for the development of circular agriculture and the value-added potential are described,and finally some proposals are put forward.

  3. Leasing as an instrument for innovative development of agricultural enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Prokopenko; V.A. Omelyanenko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is an analysis of technological aspects of leasing application for agricultural enterprises in the context of complex innovative development of agrarian sphere.The results of the analysis. It is shown that the latest technology and recovery techniques must be at all stages of the agricultural sector. The first stage is selection of breeding. The last is sale of agricultural products. Asset structure of agricultural enterprises occupies about one ...

  4. Agriculture in African Development: A Review of Theories and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Douglas Gollin

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest sector in most sub-Saharan economies in terms of employment, and it plays an important role in supplying food and export earnings. Rural poverty rates remain high, and labor productivity is strikingly low. This paper asks how these factors shape the role of agriculture in African development strategies. Is agricultural growth a prerequisite for growth in other sectors? Or will urbanization and non-agricultural export markets ultimately be the forces that pull the ru...

  5. MEAD retrospective analysis report

    OpenAIRE

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; CARSTENSEN J.; Frohn, L. M.; Gustafson, B.; Brandt, J.; Conley, D.; Geernaert, G.; Henriksen, P.; C. A. Skjøth; Johnsson, M.

    2003-01-01

    The retrospective analysis investigates links between atmospheric nitrogen deposition and algal bloom development in the Kattegat Sea from April to September 1989-1999. The analysis is based on atmospheric deposition model results from the ACDEP model,hydrodynamic deep-water flux results, phytoplankton abundance observations from Danish and Swedish marine monitoring stations and optical satellite data. Approximately 70 % of the atmospheric deposition consists of wet depostion of highly episod...

  6. Factor Analysis of Agricultural Development Indicators from Iranian Agriculture Experts’ Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and its development is the foundation of development in Iran as a developing country. So, it can be regarded as the foundation for economical and social development. The capabilities of agriculture sector are limited and its efficiency is trivial because of neglecting agricultural development and keeping its support just as a slogan. The transformation of agriculture to a developed, dynamic, efficient environment depends not only on appropriate climate and natural resources but also on human resource development in the relevant sector. The main purpose of the present research was to study and recognize agricultural development indicators from agriculture experts’ viewpoints (including researchers, trainers and extension experts in six provinces in Iran on the basis of Adjacent Provinces Plan. The study was designed with three phases of theoretical foundations, field operations and data analysis. The statistical population was 863 experts, out of which 198 experts were selected by stratified sampling. The validity and reliability of measurement tool (questionnaire was analyzed by SPSS software package. The study was a correlation-descriptive study in which factor analysis statistics was used in addition to descriptive statistics. Experts grouped indicators of future agricultural development in nine groups (access to inputs, application of technologies for the development of human resource and sustainability; reduction of losses; economical development; improvement of infrastructures; agricultural mechanization; social status; improvement of marketing; land reform; yield increase. Results about the difference in respondents’ viewpoints revealed significant differences in experts’ viewpoints in six studied province about relevant variables and in their viewpoints about the components of agricultural development (infrastructure improvement, marketing, optimum management and sustainability, human resource development and economical

  7. Building African Scientific Capacity for Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Eicher, Carl K.

    1990-01-01

    During Africa's first two decades of independence from 1960 to 1980, priority was given to increasing the size of national extension services because it was assumed that technology could be imported from industrial countries and the International Agricultural Research Centers. Over the past decade, donors have turned their attention to assisting national agricultural research systems (NARS). But many NARS are performing poorly and are faced with a high turnover of scientific staff and inadequ...

  8. Knowledge and innovation for agricultural development:

    OpenAIRE

    Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo; Davis, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    "Every day, millions of rural people who depend on agriculture confront technical, economic, social, cultural, and traditional obstacles to improving their livelihoods. To cope with these obstacles, the rural poor draw on indigenous knowledge and innovate through local experimentation and adaptation. Indigenous knowledge alone, however, is not enough to deal with the complex problems facing the agricultural sector. Emerging issues such as high food prices, climate change, and demands for biof...

  9. Agricultural Biotechnology : Transgenics in Agriculture and their Implications for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pehu, Eija; Ragasa, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Technological innovation in agriculture can bring enormous benefits to the poor. High-yielding varieties of staple food crops have improved agricultural productivity, raised incomes, and reduced food prices. Innovations in plant breeding research based on advances in genetics that make it possible to manipulate plant DNA. Referred to as 'biotechnology,' its use in agriculture is controversial, particularly with regard to the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), also k...

  10. Integrating climate change into agricultural research for development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Anderson, Simon

    2011-09-15

    African agriculture is already struggling to meet increasing demand for food. Climate change, which will alter agroecological conditions and looks set to arrest and decrease agricultural yields on the continent, will make it even harder to achieve food security. Boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, especially in the face of climate change, cannot be achieved without the benefits of cutting edge science. Advances in technology development and transfer, capacity building and policy research must be harnessed by developing and disseminating relevant strategies and technologies, and improving policy environments. The European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD), which facilitates and coordinates European policy and support for agricultural research for development, must integrate climate change into its activities and ensure that agricultural research for development and climate change adaptation are not disjointed. This demands a more strategic and coordinated approach from the initiative — one that reflects African realities, responds to African priorities for adaptation and development, and makes the best use of limited resources.

  11. Development of Urban Agriculture in Xixian New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinyan; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Short for Xi’an-Xianyang New Development area,Xixian New Area is a modern garden city and the development urban agriculture is its key and bright point.With the aid of SWOT method,this paper analyzes strength,weakness,opportunity and threat of urban agriculture in Xixian New Area.Combining actual conditions of developing urban agriculture in Xixian New Area,it discusses general and specific development modes of urban agriculture.It is concluded that urban agriculture in Xixian New Area should bring into play its strength and avoid its weakness,select suitable development mode and road.Besides,it should give into play multi-function of urban agriculture,so as to promote coordinated and sustainable development of economy,society,ecology and environment.

  12. The Development Model of Agricultural Insurance in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu; YOU

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural economy in Anhui Province is developing so fast,but farmers are severely affected by the frequent occurrence of natural disasters. The current agricultural insurance mode is not suitable,therefore,the research on agricultural insurance modes of Anhui Province helps to promote the steady development of the agricultural production. Starting from situation of agricultural insurance in Anhui Province,learning from both experience of foreign country and the latest successful domestic modes,we try to put forward agricultural insurance mode framework which is suitable for Anhui Province. Based on the actual situation of Anhui Province,it is necessary to adopt the mode of government leading combined with agricultural mutual aid rather than copy the existing mode.

  13. Social capital, agricultural innovation and the evaluation of agricultural development initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van F.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I show that social capital has an important role in the evaluation of development initiatives targeting agricultural innovation. Social capital and agricultural innovation are naturally linked from an innovation system perspective in which innovations result from the integration of k

  14. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  15. Cloud Computing and Agricultural Development of China: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxin Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technology has brought great opportunities to the development of China's agriculture; however it is also facing unprecedented challenges. According to the advantages of cloud computing, based on the status quo of China's agricultural development, the paper first discussed the impacts of cloud computing for China's agricultural development; and analyzed the field and the prospects of its possible applications in agriculture; then presented the application and promotion of cloud computing technology is a long-term system works, not only need to build the data center, integrate resources, enhance service capabilities, and also need to make information security.

  16. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING AND DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector, from past to present, had assumed very important duties on economic and social development of societies. It became a globally indispensable and strategic sector due to its various attributes such as: direct/indirect contributions to population nourishment, national income, employment, capital transfers, raw material supply for industry, exportation, biological diversity and ecological balance. Since the dawn of humankind, agricultural sector had gone through a variety of phases in terms of production activities and land proprietorship. Agricultural activities that emerged in the period of hunter-gatherer societies have been superseded by today’s specialized and planned agricultural enterprises utilizing information and technology. Agricultural accounting has also experienced a significant change in parallel with those improvements. This study aims to investigate historical development of agricultural accounting and difficulties encountered during its implementation. Research studies indicate that agricultural assets were initially recorded and inventory controls were performed by Sumerians. Until the Middle Ages, agricultural accounting did not experience any development, whereas it still encounters various difficulties eve

  17. The Reorganization of Agricultural Extension Toward Sustainable Agricultural Development in Eastern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadalla. A. E. Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of Sustainable agricultural development are to enhance food security; to increase productivity and competitiveness of the sector; to deepen linkages with other sectors; to create new sources of growth for the sector; and to conserve and utilize natural resources in a sustainable basis. The agricultural extension services can play a crucial role in providing this network of information on sustainable agricultural education. Thus, the role of agricultural extension is very important to support Sustainable agricultural development which is moving from production to a wider set of sustainability and environmental objectives may need to change their extension approach. To fulfill this objective, a sample of 46 Managers, Deputy Directors, respondents was selected through simple of sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research .A questionnaire was used to collect the data and Analysis of descriptive statistics. Results: According to factor analysis, the implications for sustainable agricultural development were categorized into two groups consisting: (a The Decentralization (b The Pluralism. That decentralization is high with Delegate the local committees (local leaders, farmers’ organizations and agricultural credit organizations for the dissemination of sustainable agricultural development programs and for the collection of taxes and financial charges from the farmers due to the extension services and loans of 67.4�0.While 69.6 �0of Managers and Deputy Directors mentioned that high performance of Pluralism is Providing training for farmers organizations’ staff. To achieve this participation, extension organizations would need to formally of decentralization and Pluralism or transfer the control of specific program planning and management functions to the system levels of local Agricultural extension, Private sector organizations, Farmers organizations and Education organizations where

  18. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  19. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  20. Agricultural Development Mode Transformation and Government Functions in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the brief account of the connotation of transforming economic development pattern and government functions,the thesis will introduce the development status of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:firstly,single agricultural industrial structure;secondly,large gap between urban and rural development;thirdly,low-level utilization of agricultural science and technology;fourthly,fierce contradiction between agricultural mode of production and ecological environment.Then it analyzes the basic requirements for government functions in transforming the development pattern of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:the first one is the function to guide sustainable development and the structural adjustment of agricultural production;the second is the function to coordinate urban-rural development and equally supply basic public goods;the third is the function to input science and technology to serve agriculture;the fourth one is the dominant function to promote the harmonious development of man and nature as well as to reduce the number of peasants.In order to promote the transformation of agricultural development mode and maintain the sound and rapid economic development,some corresponding measures and suggestions are proposed from the perspective of government functions:firstly,promoting the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure;secondly,the government should take the lead in providing rural public goods;thirdly,strengthening the skills training and technological education of rural labor force;fourthly,reducing the number of farmers and retaining the farmers.

  1. Cuckoo Search Inspired Hybridization of the Nelder-Mead Simplex Algorithm Applied to Optimization of Photovoltaic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, Raka; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2014-01-01

    A new hybridization of the Cuckoo Search (CS) is developed and applied to optimize multi-cell solar systems; namely multi-junction and split spectrum cells. The new approach consists of combining the CS with the Nelder-Mead method. More precisely, instead of using single solutions as nests for the CS, we use the concept of a simplex which is used in the Nelder-Mead algorithm. This makes it possible to use the flip operation introduces in the Nelder-Mead algorithm instead of the Levy flight wh...

  2. Managing Agricultural Production Risk : Innovations in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This document presents innovations in agricultural risk management for natural disaster risk, with the focus on defining practical roles for governments of developing countries and the World Bank in developing risk management strategies. The paper includes the following content: introduction; risk and risk management in agriculture, including informal and formal mechanisms; approaches to a...

  3. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...... or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  4. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

    OpenAIRE

    Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat) analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture ...

  5. AGRICULTURAL DIRECT MARKETING AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    RADULY ISTVAN; PARTENIE DUMBRAVA

    2009-01-01

    AAgricultural direct marketing implies the selling of agricultural, mainly horticultural products directly to the public either through on-farm markets (farm-shops), community-based farmers’ markets, or post, electronic mail and internet web order. These types of distribution channels can supply customers with fresh, ripen and healthy produce without the physical and social costs of transportation. In our view direct marketing alone is not competitive enough, as it should combine innovation w...

  6. COMBINED FORECASTING OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baydakov A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main statements of the methodology of forecasting of social-economic phenomena and processes in agriculture and the basic requirements to ensure realistic results of forecasting the development of the agrarian economy are considered in this work. The relevance of this topic conditioned on the need of developing a systematic and evidence-based development strategy for the agricultural sector of the country as a whole and on the regional level. In this regard, the study presents an analysis of the main indicators of the Program of development of agriculture of Russia and the Stavropol region, as well as their comparative characteristics, which allowed us to make conclusions about the region's share in the national indicators of agricultural development. The authors have conducted forecasting of the major indicators of Agriculture of Russia and the Stavropol region. The forecast covers such characteristics of agriculture, as the amount of output (production component, investments in fixed capital of agro industrial complex (investment component and balanced financial result (resultant component. The composed scenarios of development of agricultural production in Russia and the Stavropol region reflect possible trends: inertial development of the industry, based on maintaining the current dynamics of development; pessimistic scenario anticipating slow pace of development of investment activity in the agricultural sector; optimistic scenario, based on the assumption that the creation of fundamental conditions for public and private investment in agro industrial complex. The results are of interest to scientists studying the processes of development of agriculture, and for representatives of the agricultural business and government

  7. Assessment of developments in selected agricultural sector after EU accession

    OpenAIRE

    Volfová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses the development and issues of environmentally friendly agriculture in the Czech Republic, in particular after its entry to the European Union. It provides definitions for the basic concepts and conditions of environmentally friendly agriculture. It explores the history of and legislation regarding environmentally friendly agriculture and conditions for animal husbandry, plant cultivation and the attitude to the environment under the current regime. The thesis also descri...

  8. "Land Productivity and Economic Development: Caloric Suitability vs. Agricultural Suitability"

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Galor; Omer Ozak

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes that the Caloric Suitability Index (CSI) dominates the commonly used measure of agricultural suitability in the examination of the effect of land productivity on comparative economic development. The analysis demonstrates that the agricultural suitability index does not capture the large variation in the potential caloric yield across equally suitable land, reflecting the fact that land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for the most caloric-intensive ...

  9. LAND REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKETS IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Zvi; SHAGAIDA Natalya

    2005-01-01

    Russia has experienced dramatic changes in land ownership and land tenure since the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991: agricultural land has been largely privatized, individual landowners now have legal rights to most agricultural land in the country, and previous prohibitions on buying and selling of land have been removed by recent laws. The necessary preconditions for the development of agricultural land markets have been met and we are beginning to witness transactions th...

  10. POTENTIAL OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT TO INCREASE RURAL EMPLOYMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Carlisle A.; Mgonja, Mary A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper examined whether increasing agricultural output would lead to an expansion of employment in rural areas in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The paper found that the agricultural development problems in the Caribbean and SSA are very similar, especially, declining export demand for products, adverse trade policies and the actions of nature, causing damage to agricultural production. The simulations performed showed that in both regions, even a 4% annual increase in agricul...

  11. Selection Factors for Market Subjects of Agricultural Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The paper firstly analyzes selection factors for market subjects of agricultural industrial development in China. From the political aspect, it is required to take account of features of subjects of agricultural industrial development at current stage. From economic aspects, we should adheres to the two-tier management system that integrates unified with separate management on the basis of household contract management in the countryside, and cultivate and foster subject enterprises according to features of most important market subjects in market economy. From natural aspects, it is proposed to consider features of agricultural industry and inherent advantages of agricultural resources in China. From social aspects, it is essential to draw on successful experience of developed countries in developing market subjects of agricultural industry.

  12. Mead and Modernity. Science, Selfhood and Democratic Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da

    2008-01-01

    Filipe Carreira da Silva addresses the basic questions 'How should we read Mead?' and 'Why should we read Mead today' by showing that the history of ideas and theory-building are closely-related endeavors. Following a contextualist approach in exploring the meaning of Mead's writings, Carreira da Silva reads the entire corpus of Mead's published and unpublished writings in light of the context in which they were originally produced, from concrete events like the American involvement in World ...

  13. George Herbert Mead: contribuições para a história da psicologia social George Herbert Mead: contributions to history of the social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira de Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Com este artigo pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão histórica de um autor/personagem da Psicologia. Analisamos e acrescemos conhecimento sobre George Herbert Mead e os desdobramentos de sua teoria psicossocial. Para esse propósito, explicitaremos, no texto, uma das vertentes analíticas utilizadas em nossa dissertação, qual seja: por meio da abordagem social em história da psicologia, confrontamos a vida de Mead com momentos de constituição da psicologia, colocando em relevo aspectos centrais dessa interlocução nem sempre identificados. Correlacionamos a história de Mead com questões sociais, políticas, econômicas e científicas, assim como suas conexões com práticas e valores culturais específicos de sua época. Buscamos compreender sua limitada difusão na ciência psicológica, dando, assim, continuidade ao processo de (revolta do autor.This article intends to contribute to historical understanding of author/character of Psychology. We analyzed and enlarged knowledge about George Herbert Mead and the developing of his psychosocial theory. For this reason, we will explain in the text as analytical side used in our dissertation, in other words: through of the social approach in history of psychology we confront the life of Mead with facts of constitution of the psychology, emphasizing central aspects of this discussion not always identified. We correlate the history of Mead with social, politic, economic and scientific questions as well as his connections with practices and specific cultural values of his time. We look to understand his limited diffusion in the psychological science, giving, so, continuity to the process of returns of the author.

  14. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.;

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local, in...... characteristics into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production...

  15. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  16. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  17. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROBLEMS IN CHINA'S AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT: AGRICULTURE, RURAL AREAS AND FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Yongxin; Liu, Zeng-Rung

    2002-01-01

    China is the most populous country in the world. Of its 1.3 billion people, 22% of the world population, about 67% are living in rural areas. Although China is the third largest country in terms of area, the arable land is only 7% of the global amount. With relatively meager endowment, it is undoubtedly a daunting task for the agricultural sector to provide adequate supply to fulfil huge needs for food and other agricultural products. In addition, agriculture development in China confronts wi...

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Development of Agricultural Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of industrial division of China’s Securities Regulatory Commission,listed companies in the processing industry of agro-products and food production industry have also been incorporated into agricultural listed companies.Developmental discrepancy of agricultural listed companies is analyzed.The main manifestations are small population quantity,slow development,weak growing capacity,relatively poor rationality and unbalanced regional distribution.The internal causes of this kind of situation lie in the weak quality and inadequate developmental driving force of agricultural listed companies,while the external causes are the capital chasing and unbalanced political support of the country.Therefore,the key of quickening the development of agricultural listed companies is inner power and external competition.Thus,the political thoughts of the development of agricultural listed companies are proposed.

  20. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  1. Rural Development and Poverty Reduction: Is Agriculture Still Key?

    OpenAIRE

    Anriquez, Gustavo; Stamoulis, Kostas G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between rurality and poverty, and the role the agricultural sector can play in rural development, poverty reduction, and overall development. The historical views regarding the role of the primary sector in development are presented, and then using original data, the paper argues that there was an historical misjudgment against the primary sector that served as a foundation for anti-agricultural bias in public policy until the late 80’s. Finally, this pa...

  2. Diagnosis and Challenges of Sustainable Agricultural Development in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural development seeks not only to preserve and maintain natural resources, but also to develop them, as future generations would have much more demand quantity-wise and quality-wise for agricultural and food products. Such goals should ensure a balance with the development of livelihoods enjoyed by the individuals concerned. Livelihood should not be restricted to an indicator of sufficient income levels but should also include public health concerns and edu...

  3. The Development and Persistence of Agricultural Policy in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthou, Silas

    Abstract The analysis of which factors affect the development of European agricultural policy, the CAP, combines economic, political and historic methods to examine the interaction between politicians, farmers and voters/taxpayers. The objective of this PhD thesis is to examine the development...... and persistence of agricultural policy in the EU, based on the hypothesis that the political process and the agricultural structure are linked together. This is achieved through an examination of the foundation, the Danish farm household income and the future of agricultural support. The result of this study...... is that the foundation of agricultural policy in Europe depends on domestic policy, thus how the policy measures will affect voters. The farm households in Denmark have a living standard which is equal to rest of the society....

  4. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  5. FORECAST OF THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR THE AMUR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reymer V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the relevance of evaluation of agricultural growth, which can be achieved through the implementation of agricultural sectors’ innovative potential. The opportunities of agricultural growth are defined by the set of macroeconomic, sectoral and regional factors as well as the type of enterprises that have different levels of innovative susceptibility. The authors give an overview of the main methods of social and economic forecasting and justify the choice of the ARIMA (Autoregressive integrated moving average as a tool for forecasting regional development of agriculture. The article presents the experts’ estimatesbased values of integrated indicators of agricultural exogenous factors and the ARIMA-parameters based on the use of these indicators for time series prediction of agricultural production in the Amur region. The authors conclude that the time series ARIMA-model of the gross agricultural production, taking into account the influence of innovation potential factors, demonstrate a good approximation to the Amur region data. This article also compares the forecasts of agricultural production on inertial and innovative scenario for the Amur region, and provides an estimation of innovation potential growth of the agricultural branches

  6. Developing a Planning Framework for Accessible and Sustained Urban Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity threatens communities across the Tamilnadu States, characterized by environmental degradation, decreasing agricultural land, rising social inequities, skewed communities, and public health issues. Urban agriculture provides an opportunity to counteract food system problems and empower individuals. Urban agriculture is broadly defined as food production in urban spaces. Despite its benefits, urban agriculture is threatened by institutional barriers. Urban agriculture is not fully supported by municipal laws and policies, making it vulnerable and impermanent. Therefore, developing and implementing planning policies, laws, and programs to support urban agriculture will establish its practices and support its benefits. Research focuses on broad policies, comprehensive plans, zoning ordinances, and organizational infrastructure. Samples are drawn from cities across the Tamilnadu States, including San Francisco, Chicago, Boston, Cleveland, Seattle, and Chicago. Discussion, comparison, and evaluation are based on public input and comment. Because of the very recent and ongoing nature of urban agriculture planning measures, discussed policies, laws, and programs are sometimes incomplete or in the process of being adopted. This thesis establishes opportunities, examples, and boundaries for developing an urban agriculture planning framework and potential nationwide municipal application.

  7. Habermas e Honneth: leitores de Mead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA EUGÊNIA BUNCHAFFT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mead foi um filósofo pragmatista americano que desenvolveu uma linha de pensamento denominada como interacionismo simbólico. Para o psicólogo social, somente pode existir um sentido de "eu" se houver um senso correspondente de um "nós". A teoria de Mead é fundamental para Habermas e para Honneth, pois não recorre ao individualismo metodológico, explicando os fenômenos sociais e o comportamento social em uma perspectiva intersubjetiva. Defende-se que a preocupação fundamental de Habermas (2002; 2012, em sua releitura da psicologia social de Mead, se concentra em que o desenvolvimento do self alcance um nível de pós-convencionalidade. A preocupação de Honneth, ao resgatar Mead, vincula-se aos contextos de vulnerabilidade moral, ou seja, à possibilidade de evitar os danos que o self possa sofrer na formação da identidade pessoal. Sustenta-se, finalmente, que uma releitura da psicologia social de Mead com base no paradigma normativo da autorrealização não possui recursos teóricos com potencialidade para avaliar as injustiças contemporâneas e atender aos desafios propostos pelos novos movimentos sociais, porquanto a ampliação das dimensões de reconhecimento não pode basear-se em uma apologia da psicologia moral do sofrimento. Busca-se, portanto, apresentar um diálogo entre Habermas e Honneth sobre a psicologia social de Mead.

  8. George Herbert Mead on consciousness: antidote to Cartesian absurdities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    The article explicates George Herbert Mead's theory of consciousness as presented in Mind, Self and Society. According to Mead, the term consciousness may refer to three different sets of phenomena: (1) the environment as implied by our goal-directed action; Mead names this consciousness aspect...... experience; it is shared by humans and subhuman animals alike; (2) consciousness of environmental experience; Mead names this consciousness aspect awareness; it is exclusively human; (3) the peculiar sensed qualities attaching to consciousness, equalling what is today named qualia. Descartes......-inspired psychology makes the third consciousness aspect all-important. Within Mead's framework for a darwinistically inspired psycholgy, it becomes theoretically insignificant....

  9. Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Brooks; George Dyer; Ed Taylor

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodological framework for examining the distributional effects of alternative agricultural policies in less developed economies. The framework combines disaggregated household models with an explicit modelling of the linkages between product and factor markets.

  10. MEAD Marine Effects of Atmospheric Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jickells, T.; Spokes, L.

    2003-04-01

    The coastal seas are one of the most valuable resources on the planet but they are threatened by human activity. We rely on the coastal area for mineral resources, waste disposal, fisheries and recreation. In Europe, high population densities and high levels of industrial activity mean that the pressures arising from these activities are particularly acute. One of the main problems concerning coastal seas is the rapid increase in the amounts of nitrogen-based pollutants entering the water. They come from many sources, the most important ones being traffic, industry and agriculture. These pollutants can be used by algae as nutrients. The increasing concentrations of these nutrients have led to excessive growth of algae, some of which are harmful. When algae die and decay, oxygen in the water is used up and the resulting lower levels of oxygen may lead to fish kills. Human activity has probably doubled the amount of chemically and biologically reactive nitrogen present globally. In Europe the increases have been greater than this, leading to real concern over the health of coastal waters. Rivers have, until recently, been thought to be the most important source of reactive nitrogen to the coastal seas but we now know that inputs from the atmosphere are large and can equal, or exceed, those from the rivers. Our initial hypothesis was that atmospheric inputs are important and potentially different in their effect on coastal ecosystems to riverine inputs and hence require different management strategies. However, we had almost no information on the direct effects of atmospheric deposition on marine ecosystems, though clearly such a large external nitrogen input should lead to enhanced phytoplankton growth The aim of this European Union funded MEAD project has been to determine how inputs of nitrogen from the atmosphere affect the chemistry and biology of coastal waters. To try to answer this, we have conducted field experiments in the Kattegat, an area where we know

  11. Om at oversætte Mead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    2005-01-01

    George Herbert Mead har skrevet en rigtig dårlig bog, der dog også er en klassiker. "sindet, selvet og samfundet" er den blevet til i en udgivelsesklar dansk udgave- og oversættelsen er en historie i seig selv.......George Herbert Mead har skrevet en rigtig dårlig bog, der dog også er en klassiker. "sindet, selvet og samfundet" er den blevet til i en udgivelsesklar dansk udgave- og oversættelsen er en historie i seig selv....

  12. Habermas e Honneth: leitores de Mead

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA EUGÊNIA BUNCHAFFT

    2014-01-01

    Mead foi um filósofo pragmatista americano que desenvolveu uma linha de pensamento denominada como interacionismo simbólico. Para o psicólogo social, somente pode existir um sentido de "eu" se houver um senso correspondente de um "nós". A teoria de Mead é fundamental para Habermas e para Honneth, pois não recorre ao individualismo metodológico, explicando os fenômenos sociais e o comportamento social em uma perspectiva intersubjetiva. Defende-se que a preocupação fundamental de Habermas (2002...

  13. Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Assessing the Consequences for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Recent analyses suggest that the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on developing countries will be very uneven. Simulations suggest that the effects of agricultural trade liberalization will be small, overall, and are likely to be negative for a significant number of developing countries. The Doha Round focuses on tariff issues, but these countries currently have practically duty-free access to European and North American markets under preferential regimes. Multilateral liberalizati...

  14. Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Williamson, Virginia; Grove, James; Burry, Kristal; BARKER, S; Hamilton, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Food production in cities has long been a tradition in many countries around the world and a mainstream activity for many developed countries. While urban agriculture plays an important role in increasing food security and social well-being, it comes with significant costs and constraints. Here, we review the growth of urban agriculture throughout the developed world in order to clarify the different benefits, risks, and hindrances associated with the practice. Through this analysis, we ident...

  15. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    George, D.; Clewett, J.; Birch, C; Wright, A.; Allen, W

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other courses, and adversely affects the ability of graduating students to apply climate information. This paper presents evidence from a professional develop...

  16. Agricultural trade and rural development in the Middle East and North Africa: recent developments and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    DeRosa, Dean A.

    1997-01-01

    Despite petroleum's prominence in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), agriculture remains important to most to the region's economies. And more robust and more dynamic agricultural growth could significantly boost sustainable economic growth and rural development in those countries. An appropriate avenue for improving agricultural growth is to expand agricultural exports in MENA countries with appreciable-to-large agricultural sectors and comparative advantage in cereal grains, agricultu...

  17. Re-Examining Mead: G. H. Mead on the Material Reproduction of Society

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da

    2007-01-01

    Despite decades of scholarship on G.H. Mead (1863—1931), we are still far from an adequate estimate of the full scope of his contributions. In this article, I examine the standard caricature that portraits Mead as an essentially idealist thinker, without much to say on the `material conditions of reproduction' of modern industrialized societies. Focusing on Habermas's version of this interpretation, I try to show that if `science and democracy' is a common theme amongst classical pragmatists,...

  18. Export Market Development for Agricultural Commodity Promotion Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Karen J.

    1989-01-01

    Export market development activities are an integral part of today's agricultural marketing due to increasing competition worldwide. Marketing activities include promotion, advertising, and research financed by private and government-supported commodity groups. Cooperatives and private industry primarily market brand products but they also support generic promotion through legislated commodity programs. Federal and State agricultural commodity promotion programs are supported by growers and/o...

  19. Cluster Development of Zhengzhou Urban Agriculture Based on Diamond Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, De-hui

    2012-01-01

    Based on basic theory of Diamond Model, this paper analyzes the competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture from production factors, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, business strategies and structure, and horizontal competition. In line with these situations, it introduces that the cluster development is an effective approach to lifting competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture. Finally, it presents following countermeasures and suggestions: optimize spatial d...

  20. Production Function, Institutional Credit and Agricultural Development in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Habib A. Zuberi

    1989-01-01

    This study, based on the time-series data covering the period from 1956 to 1986, estimates production function in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. The strategy for agricultural development in the country has been based on greater utilization of "high pay-off low-cost technology. The government advanced loans through financial institutions to make it possible for the farmers to acquire this technology. Despite the infusion of seed-fertilizer technology, per acre yield of major crops like w...

  1. Cultivated Capital: Agriculture, Food Systems and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Webb

    2002-01-01

    Cultivated capital lies at the heart of concerns about sustainable development for 3 reasons: First, sustaining agricultural productivity is essential to meeting the world’s still growing demand for food. Without adequate food consumption, nutrition and labour productivity are impaired, which in turn limits the pace of economic growth and poverty alleviation. Second, removing poverty requires income growth among the rural poor, many of whom continue to rely on agriculture-based economic syste...

  2. LENDING PROJECT IMPACT ON AGRICULTURAL INDIVIDUAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia LITVIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic development within rural areas of the Republic of Moldova is affected by multiple issues which cross the agricultural individual sector development. One of the main factors that would influence positively the development of agriculture is investment. Investment plays an important role on the country's economy, representing the material support of its economic and social development. It ensures the permanent capital increase, advances the technical and economic efficiency of existing ones and creates new places of employment. In this context, investment is the decisive element of economic growth, of the intensive, qualitative and effective factors promotion.

  3. Satellite Observations of Drought and Falling Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin and Lake Mead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.

  4. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  5. AGRICULTURAL TOURISM FOR SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. SHEHRAWAT

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted during the year 2008 in the state of Haryana (India) by interviewing a total numbers of 80 farm and the study revealed that reasons for developing agri-tourism were easy to enter (62.50%), high profit (81.25%), employment opportunity (75.00%), no competition (37.50%). Promotion of agri-tourism were putting hoarding on roadsides (82.50%), through internet web sites (62.50%), advertisement in newspaper (37.50%), and local TV channel (18.75%).Agri-tourism contributes sustai...

  6. Sustainable Development of Agriculture from the Perspective of Rural Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,China’s economic construction enters into a new development period.The buyer’s market appears,structural demand of agricultural products becomes excessive,and the demand market becomes depressed.In the process of seeking approaches for expanding domestic demands,accelerating construction of small towns is a breakthrough point of rural population urbanization,and also an optimal approach for realizing transfer of rural surplus labor.Besides,accelerating construction of small towns is an inevitable path for intensive management of rural land implementing ecological agriculture,and also an optimal path for improving farmers’ quality and improving living conditions.In addition,it is an essential strategy for increasing consumption,expanding domestic demand,pulling rural economic and social development,and also a powerful measure for realizing sustainable development of agriculture.In the process of construction of rural urbanization,it is required to attach importance to strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.This is beneficial for the present generation and for descendants.Therefore,how to build small towns and how to solve many problems in sustainable development of agriculture have received much concern.

  7. Nuclear techniques for food and agricultural development: 1964-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 30 years, programmes of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have helped countries solve practical, and costly, problems in areas of soil fertility, irrigation, and crop production; plant breeding and genetics; animal production and health; insect and pest control; agrochemicals and residues; and food preservation. The Division's overall objectives are to exploit the potential for application of isotopes and radiation techniques in agricultural research and development; to increase and stabilize agricultural production; to reduce production costs; to improve the quality of food; to protect agricultural products from spoilage and losses; and to minimize pollution of food and the agricultural environment. On the occasion of the Joint Division's 30th anniversary year, this article highlights selected achievements over the past three decades

  8. Fitting Islamic Financial Contracts in Developing Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Shafiai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Islamic finance industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. However, many potential Muslim customers, particularly in rural areas, have unfulfilled banking needs and lack access to financing. Meanwhile, entrepreneurial projects in the agricultural sector are presumed to optimize economic growth. In addition, some scholars have expounded that the financial problems faced by the agricultural sector are caused by the risks of debt financing and lack of access to the capital market. In Islamic law, almuzara’ah and al-musaqah can be considered as forms of partnership contract in farming. Therefore, using descriptive analysis, this paper attempts to portray how Islamic financial principles are closely related to the agricultural sector in developing Islamic agricultural finance. This study found that the application of the modes of Islamic financing in the agricultural sector through financial institutions could be very effective in providing financing to ensure that the partnership progresses effectively and efficiently. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop a sound agricultural financial system based on Islamic contracts in order to increase and sustain the income of farmers and landowners and to reduce poverty.

  9. Considerations on Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in Dryland Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; TSUNEKAWA Atsushi; TSUBO Mitsuru; KOIKE Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Drylands of the world cover 41% of the Earth's land surface and are a direct source of livelihood for 6.5 billion people, especially in developing countries. However, nearly all drylands are at risk of land degradation as a result of human activities. Poverty and desertification in dryland areas are major problems threatening sustainable agriculture and rural development in dryland areas. Several topics that are significant for sustainable agriculture and rural development for food security and environmental rehabilitation in dryland areas were stressed in this paper.

  10. Notas sobre a presença de Mead na obra de Habermas Notes on Mead's presence in the work of Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aparecida de Araújo Penitente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Habermas pensa a questão da individuação e da socialização a partir dos estudos de George Hebert Mead, que, na sua concepção, foi o primeiro a refletir substancialmente sobre um modelo de eu produzido socialmente. Mead oferece todo subsídio teórico para o desenvolvimento de uma teoria da evolução humana que envolve o processo de individuação e de socialização. Pelo paradigma de intercompreensão, ou seja, da relação intersubjetiva de indivíduos que se socializam por meio da comunicação e se reconhecem mutuamente, Mead permite a mudança de paradigma da consciência de si, da autorreferência de um sujeito que age isoladamente para o indivíduo que processa trocas sociais mediante a linguagem. Portanto, um dos principais componentes da teoria de Mead, em que Habermas busca contribuição para sua Teoria da Ação Comunicativa, é o processo de constituição do "eu", sua identidade. Mead acredita ser a individuação representada como um processo que é linguisticamente mediador da socialização e da construção de uma história de vida, na qual os sujeitos são conscientes de si. É esse meio linguístico estabelecido entre os sujeitos e o meio do entendimento intrassubjetivo e histórico vital que possibilita a formação de uma identidade de sujeitos socializados. É o reconhecimento intersubjetivo e autoentendimento mediado intersubjetivamente que propicia a formação da identidade. Esse quadro conceitual será fundamental a Habermas, na sua acepção de eu pós-convencional.Habermas discusses the question of individualization and socialization on the basis of the studies of George Herbert Mead, who, in Habermas' view, was the first to reflect substantially on a model of the socially produced "I". Mead offers a theoretical basis for the development of a theory of human evolution that involves the process of individualization and socialization. Through the paradigm of mutual understanding, that is, the intersubjective

  11. Agriculture in the xxi century: transgenic plants role in agricultural sector´s technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Artunduaga Salas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The new advances in biotechnology, especially in the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana, genome sequence has profound implications for human health as well as plant biology and agriculture. It will permit us to know the action of all the genes involved in the key growing and development processes of plants. Modification of the structure of genes will allow the regulation of the expression of some characteristics such as the size of the leaves or the dynamics of the roots and fruits growth. In this way, the commercialization of the products of the new biotechnologies will influence in this century´s nations, agricultural production, productivity and food supply. The challenges and opportunities for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC are enormous, due to the rich base of their flora, fauna and microorganisms resources, which are essential to the pharmaceutical and feeding industries. The international Community recognizes the benefits of Biotechnology, but it also advocate more inquiry into the impacts of advanced agricultural biotechnologies on the environment, food system, structure of agriculture, rural communities, and population health.The countries of LAC should continue the development and improvement of the regulatory framework for preventing or minimizing the possible risks of the use and management of the transgenic organisms in their territory, and therefore, be able to make use of their potential benefits, ensuring the protection of public health and the environment.

  12. The Role of Agriculture in Iran’s Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Khorami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector as one of the most important sectors in the process of development has always had a special status in world economy. However, relative decrease of the share of agriculture over the recent decades often leads one to believe that agriculture can be ignored in favor of those sectors which have a faster progress, whereas, on the contrary, in order to accelerate favorable economic transition agriculture must be encouraged. Therefore, this research seeks to study the role and effect of the agricultural sector in comparison to other sectors such as industry, services, mining and commerce on variables such as GDP, the remnant of bank facilities and credit organizations, total petroleum exports in Iran during the past 15 years. Research methodology is applied and of descriptive-correlational type. Data collection tool is previous documents and evidence. Data analysis method is step-by-step regression. The results of the research indicate that in the first, second and third regression models agriculture respectively has the third, first and second status in regard to level of effectiveness.

  13. The role of community supported agriculture in the development of organic agriculture in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sarjanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Community supported agriculture (CSA refers to those agricultural activities that contrast with commercial agriculture. They consist of members who pay for fresh, untreated and locally grown food directly from farmers. In this way the risk is shared and the resellers are eliminated. This paper discusses the basic principles of CSA functioning and the historical circumstances of their development. Besides the economic dimension of the functioning of CSA groups, which is most important (ensuring of purchase, emphasis is also given to the social and cultural dimension of the groups activity. The basis of the work is the presentation of the functioning of CSA groups in Croatia and a comparison of social and economic characteristics of the group members and the farmers that collaborate to the groups with trends in the world. The results were collected by administering an online questionnaire among 46 group members and 5 famers. The survey has confirmed the starting hypothesis – that the group members are younger and highly educated persons who live in large cities or urbanized regions (Zagreb, Kvarner, Istria and are driven by eco-social motives (ecological consciousness, healthy food, cooperation with group members. Farmers who cooperate with CSA groups are practicing ecological agriculture on farms that are smaller than an average Croatian farm. They collaborate with the groups because of easier selling of the products and they find that the groups have a positive effect on their income and involvement in the local community.

  14. Developing Earth Observations Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Vermote, E.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing the dynamic nature of agricultural cultivation both within and between years and across the globe, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is developing an agricultural monitoring (GEO-GLAM) system with the goal of enhancing the availability and use of satellite and in situ Earth observations (EO) for the generation of timely and accurate information on national, regional, and global food supply. One of the key components of the GEO-GLAM system is the coordination of satellite observations so as to ensure sufficient and appropriate data volume and quality for agricultural monitoring. Therefore, it is essential that we develop EO requirements which articulate in a spatially explicit way where, when, how frequently, and at what spatial resolution satellite imagery must be acquired to meet the needs of a variety of agricultural monitoring applications. Accordingly, best-available cropland location information ('where?') in conjunction with ten years of MODIS surface reflectance data have been used to characterize the timing and duration of the agricultural growing season ('when?') in the form of agricultural growing season calendars (GSCs) for all major agricultural areas of the Earth. With respect to temporal resolution, we must first identify the frequency with which we require imagery inputs for monitoring applications such as crop condition, crop type, crop yield estimation, and planted and harvested area estimation. Members of the GEO Agriculture Monitoring Community of Practice - a group of international scientists - have combined their knowledge and expertise to articulate these general requirements. Second, we must determine how cloud cover impacts the ability of optical sensing systems to meet these established temporal resolution requirements. To this end, MODIS Terra (morning; 2000-2011) and Aqua (afternoon; 2002-2011) observations have been analyzed to derive probabilities of a cloud free clear view at different times of day throughout the

  15. COMPARISON OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT OF CROATIA, EU AND USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Babić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the usage of multiple sources of literature in this paper, a review of the most important characteristics is made along with the comparison of functions related to agricultural insurance in Croatia. Larger part of this paper is about comparison of offers and the ways agricultural insurance is being subsided in developed countries of the EU and USA on one hand, and Croatia on the other. Also, a display of risk coverage is made, along with the subsidization of the country and the way insurance system functions in Spain (country with the most developed security in Europe, Portugal, Italy, Austria and France. Main characteristic of the agricultural insurance in Croatia is a weak offer from the insurance companies, but also a weak demand. Therefore, only four companies can insure crops and plantations in Croatia. Although risk is unavoidable, negative impacts can be reduced with well-timed reaction and responsible organisation.

  16. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilisation on mead production

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, A.P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira, J. M.; Estevinho, L .M.; Faia, A. Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of diluted honey performed by yeasts. In this work the potential of application of immobilised yeast cells on single-layer Ca-alginate or double-layer alginateechitosan for mead production was assessed for the first time. The meads produced either with entrapped or free cells were evaluated in terms of quality and aroma profile. The immobilisation procedure had no adverse effect on cell viability, since minor differen...

  17. Mead production: selection and characterization assays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    de Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João Verdial; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2009-01-01

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink which results from the fermentation of diluted honey. Yeasts used in mead production are, usually, wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Most of these yeasts are not adapted to the conditions of mead production namely, high sugar levels, low pH values and reduced nitrogen concentrations. The inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavorable stressful growth conditions, leads to several problems, such as lack of uniformity of the final ...

  18. International Comparison and Implications of Agricultural Development in Foreign Low Latitude Plateau Regions for Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yan; Yan YANG; Chen, Rui; Wu, Wei; PENG, Ziyun; Chen, Liangzheng; Li, Xuelin

    2013-01-01

    Climatic characteristics of foreign low latitude plateau regions are firstly introduced. Then, experience and lessons of major foreign low latitude plateau countries in developing modern agriculture are analyzed, including Indian three agricultural revolutions and agricultural informationization development, application of agricultural biotechnology in Brazil, trade liberalization and economic de-agriculture of Mexico, and Argentina, Saudi Arabia and South Africa attaching great importance to...

  19. Sociological Consideration on the Development of Ecological Agriculture in Western China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guiting

    2009-01-01

    Development of ecological agriculture is the mainstream of the world's agricultural development, as well as the only way to change from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. This paper expatiates the connotation of ecological agriculture and its significance to the development of western China. There are problems in the development of ecological agriculture in western China, manifested mainly in insufficient subsequent supply, overextension of resources, lack of capital and technolog...

  20. When will Lake Mead go dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tim P.; Pierce, David W.

    2008-03-01

    A water budget analysis shows that under current conditions there is a 10% chance that live storage in Lakes Mead and Powell will be gone by about 2013 and a 50% chance that it will be gone by 2021 if no changes in water allocation from the Colorado River system are made. This startling result is driven by climate change associated with global warming, the effects of natural climate variability, and the current operating status of the reservoir system. Minimum power pool levels in both Lake Mead and Lake Powell will be reached under current conditions by 2017 with 50% probability. While these dates are subject to some uncertainty, they all point to a major and immediate water supply problem on the Colorado system. The solutions to this water shortage problem must be time-dependent to match the time-varying, human-induced decreases in future river flow.

  1. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume IV. Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Neil; And Others

    This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…

  2. Mead und das Problem des gemeinsamen Wissens

    OpenAIRE

    Haferkamp, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Ausgangspunkt des Artikels ist die Handlungsrelevanz sozialer Vorstellungen. Verbreitete Konzeptualisierungen dieser Vorstellungen sind nicht zufriedenstellend. In Abschnitt 2 wird die dimensionale Analyse des Konzepts 'gemeinsames Wissen' durchgeführt, und in Abschnitt 3 werden Probleme und Perspektiven der Erklärung der Entstehung dieses Wissens analysiert. Sowohl für die Entwicklung des Konzepts wie der erklärungskräftigen Thesen erfolgt ein Rückgriff auf Mead. Eine Reihe seiner Ide...

  3. Dissemination of research and development results on agricultural informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Herdon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The information flows and relations in agri-industry are very complex if we consider the institutes, industrial and commercial companies, banks, governmental organizations, which are related to this sector. The higher education and research institutions play very important rule in research on ICT. In the innovation systems several actors are seen as relevant to agricultural innovation, including agricultural entrepreneurs, researchers, consultants, policy makers, supplier and processing industries, retail and customers. Forces at play in today's economic and social environment create a need for greater communication and cooperation among specialists in value-added partnerships. The Hungarian Association of Agricultural Informatics has been implemented „The dissemination of research and development on innovative information technologies in agriculture” project, which was a part of the Social Renewal Operational Program, New Hungary Development Plan. Within this national program the project helped the diffusion of R&D research results on ICT in agriculture. A scientific journal and an online portal have been implemented in the project. This article describes the main objectives, developments and tasks which were solved and the main results of the project.

  4. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  5. Considerations on innovation in the development of nuclear agricultural sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development status and existing problems in the field of nuclear agricultural sciences (NAS) are reviewed. Including the application of nuclear technology in mutation breeding by irradiation, isotopic technique application, food irradiation and sterile insect technique, etc. China has made great achievements in the research and application of nuclear technique in agriculture from 1950s to 1990s. Due to lack of enough financial support to the basic research and reformation of science and research system in China, the development of NAS now meets its tough time. Through analyzing the difference and reasons of NAS development between China and the USA, it is recognized that the innovation in research and scientific system is important for promoting the development speed and research level of NAS. (authors)

  6. Agriculture for development: New paradigm and options for success

    OpenAIRE

    de Janvry, Alain

    2009-01-01

    In the classical paradigm of development economics that prevailed in the 1960s, agricultural growth was held to be the key pillar for industrial growth, itself seen to be synonymous with economic development. The paradigm was anchored in telling success stories, from the long history of the “Western Experience” to the then-recent “Asian miracles”. And it was supported by rigorous modeling exercises. But, in spite of success stories, implementation of this paradigm was running into increasing ...

  7. Martin Qaim, Genetically Modified Crops and Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    SMYTH, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Qaim is a leading academic researcher on the global impacts of genetically modified crops and his diligence and thoroughness abound in his newest book, Genetically Modified Crops and Agricultural Development. Qaim’s objective is to inform the reader about the contribution that GM crops have, and can, make to improving economic circumstances and contribute to increased food security, particularly in developing countries. He accomplishes this objective through an artful blending of st...

  8. WTO Agricultural Negotiations and Developing Countries: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Costantini

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a broad overview of the main issues faced by developing countries in a context of trade liberalization as part of the multilateral agricultural trade negotiations in the WTO Doha Round. The bargaining positions of developing countries in the Doha Round are described. A comparison of empirical results on possible outcomes of a Doha Round agreement follows with a focus on impacts in terms of poverty reduction. Results are then analyzed using the main theoretical...

  9. Scaling up in agriculture, rural development, and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Linn, Johannes F;

    2012-01-01

    Taking successful development interventions to scale is critical if the world is to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and make essential gains in the fight for improved agricultural productivity, rural incomes, and nutrition. How to support scaling up in these three areas, however, is a major challenge. This collection of policy briefs is designed to contribute to a better understanding of the experience to date and the lessons for the future. Scaling up means expanding, replicating, a...

  10. Rethinking Agricultural Policy in Turkey: International Context and Domestic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Nil Doner

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a broad conceptual and historical outline of how rural development policies have been determined through technocratic policies in economic and political terms rather than participatory and transparent decision making processes. Given that the state and managerial expert groups have been the main architects of rural development and agricultural policies along with suprastate organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank, this study offers in-depth coverag...

  11. The Role of Organic Agriculture in Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Csaba Sarudi; Zoltán Szakály; Attila Máthé; Viktória Szente

    2003-01-01

    Rural development includes local population, its way of life, employment characteristics, income structure, dwelling conditions, service levels as well as cultural aspects just as traditional handcrafts, dishes, language, clothing and habits. Since agriculture is a historically determining economic activity in rural areas its effects primarily determines the rural ways of life. New rural development policy of EU can be featured by multisectoral and integrated approach. Organic farming is base...

  12. Agriculture for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Staatz, John M.; Dembélé, Niama Nango

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is growing in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the growth is precarious. In most countries, it has yet to reach the sustained 6% annual rate estimated by NEPAD as necessary to meet the Millennium Development Goal of cutting poverty in half by 2015. Growth needs to be accelerated, secured and used more effectively to promote broadly shared development. This requires two elements. The first is a reversal in the massive underinvestment and significant mis-investment that has taken place...

  13. Economic and Environmental Perspectives on Sustainable Agriculture Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    1995-01-01

    There is a great deal of concern today to ensure that economic development, including agricultural development, is sustainable. It is being increasingly emphasized that this sustainability requires care to be taken of the natural environment. This is because the natural environment is both the source of important resources that support economic activity and an avenue or sink for disposal of wastes from economic activity. Soil and water are for example, important natural resources used in agri...

  14. System analysis and path choice for modem agricultural development: a case study of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Rongxin; Liu Yansui

    2009-01-01

    From the view of.system theory,modern agriculture in a region embodies elements conformitv,structure optimization,multi-functionality and sustainable development.This paper first expounds on the relationship among agricultural elements,structure,function and development theoretically,compartmentalizes agriculture types based on human-land elements matching,and depicts the development path of agricultural multi-functionality.It shows that the matching of human-land elements is a key to agricultural types,and the multi:functionality is an indication of agricultural development stages.At last,as a case study of Suzhou in easteru coastal area,the paper analyzes the evolvement situation and developing mechanism and some typical models of modern agriculture which suit to agriculture system evolvement.The results show that in Suzhou the agriculture productivity has improved greatly,And along with the agriculture structure optimizing,agriculture function has translated from "production " to "nonproduction and production ".With simulation of agricultural trend in Suzhou,it is found that Suzhou has a LP,dependence (labor productivity) on agricultural element,so Suzhou will has much more potential in land productivity.Based on the above analysis on agricultural system,some typical patterns on modern agriculture in Suzhou are brought up,such as export-oriented agriculture,enterprises-leading agriculture,science and technology parks agriculture,stereoscopic agriculture,and tourism and sightseeing agriculture.

  15. Sustainable development in agriculture: is it really sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian agriculture has achieved remarkable success in the food grain production due to inception of 'rainbow revolution', which made the country self-sufficient in food production. Sustainable agriculture (SA) is an ongoing process, in which people take actions leading to development of agriculture that meets their current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It advocates avoiding all those actions, which reduce the ability of future generations to meet out the present generations. It is based on the optimal interaction between clean environment, healthy economy, and vital society by avoiding trade-off of problems to other regions on to the future. Moreover, sustainable agriculture is the function of people's progress and nature's capacity. In fact, SA commits us to considering the long-term effect and to recognize our place within the ecosystem. It encourages a continuous reflection on the implications of human activity on the ecosystem. Empirical evidences shows that in the race of self-sufficiency in food grain production, we compromised a lot on social and environmental fronts. The aftermath of green revolution is not so sustainable as it showed reverse side too, in the form of environmental degradation and ecological imbalances. Such threats have led to the need for promoting sustainable development in agriculture. Due to several unsustainable activities which resulted in resource degradation in the form of top soil loss, ground water depletion and forest degradation. The average soil loss is estimated to be over 16 tonnes/ha/year. The ground water depletion resulted in several blocks as 'grey blocks' and 'dark blocks'. This happened mainly due to increase in number of tube-wells and free supply of electricity making the cost of pumping water very low. Rate of human induced land degradation is very high. Out of total geographical area of 329.0 million ha, 187 million ha (57.0 %) are reported to have degraded, of

  16. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Professional Development Needs of Wyoming Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…

  17. SUSTAINABLE ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: OPPORTUNITY FOR THAI-RURAL FARMER DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed an opportunity of rural farmers in north of Thailand by interviewing 124 households which were 59 families from Tumbon-Santa Aumpor- Narnoi Nan province, 23 families from Tumbon-Banlao Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, 22 families from Tumbon-Sritoi Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, and 20 families from Tumbon-Parfak Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province during January 2012 – October 2012. Probit model was developed to answer some factors that impacted farm’s income. The results showed that the relationships between both organic and inorganic land and income level are positive. Most of the farmers were willing to change from conventional agricultures to organic agriculture but they did not have enough information and extension from government and private sectors. Comparing benefits and cost between conventional and organic agriculture found that organic agricultures provided better price and farmers will have better quality of live. Systems of knowledge and policies need to be developed and apply for peasants and farmers in north rural area in Thailand.

  18. PECULIARITIES OF AGRICULTURAL SERVICE COOPERATIVES DEVELOPMENT IN LVIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Tsymbalista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to study the recent trends and identify the main problems of the agricultural service cooperatives development. The processes of establishing and functioning of cooperatives in Lviv region are investigated. The dynamics of number of established cooperatives shows a gradual growth in recent year, while the share of operating units is rather low. The size structure of the agricultural service cooperatives in Lviv region proves that the rural population is insufficiently active in participating in cooperatives. The most popular sphere of activity of the cooperatives in the region is dairy production, while the most wide spread type of cooperative is a marketing cooperative. The analysis of the sales of agricultural products by the cooperatives of the region by distribution channels shows that on the present stage of their development service cooperatives can hardly cope with their main objective which is to overcome the monopoly power of commercial intermediaries. This is evidenced by the fact that the share of agricultural production sold by cooperatives to the intermediaries is still significant.

  19. Analysis on Relationship between Adjustment of Agricultural Structure and Urbanization Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua; TANG; Yinghui; LI; Hongxia; LI; Yilin; LIU; Gangqiang; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    As a part of certain region,agricultural development has inevitable connection with regional urbanization,and they are highly heterogeneous and complementary in space. Their internal relationship is manifested as agricultural structure suits demand of urbanization development through adjustment in the process of urbanization,while urbanization is based on development of regional agriculture. From history of world agriculture and urbanization development,agriculture firstly provides primitive accumulation for urbanization development,and drives regional urbanization through promoting agricultural development. When urbanization develops to certain stage,urbanization accumulation increases and reaches the goal of " boosting urbanization through agriculture". If urbanization develops slowly,agricultural adjustment will lack motive force. On the contrary,weak agricultural development will lead to stagnation of urbanization. Therefore,adjustment of agricultural structure and urbanization development are interconnected,mutually promoted and restricted,and interdependent.

  20. Three-year performance study of the Mead, Nebraska, 25-kWp photovoltaic power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullwinkel, H. J.; Hopkinson, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    During the past three years (1978 to 1980), a 25-kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar energy system has provided 107-MW hours of energy to the University of Nebraska's Agricultural Research Station in Mead, Nebraska. Electrical energy produced by the PV system has provided 100% of the power needed throughout the growing season to meet the irrigation requirements for an 80-acre cornfield, as well as significant portions of power required for PV-related crop-drying and fertilizer-manufacturing experiments. Annual array output averaged 21.4 kWh (1978), 20.4 kWh (1979) and 19.0 kWh (1980) for every 1.0 kWh/m/sup 2/ of insolation. Field data indicate that the PV system, developed and maintained jointly by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Lincoln Laboratory and the University of Nebraska under US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, has performed up to expectations, if due allowance is made for component degradation and seasonal soil/snow accumulation on the array.

  1. Remote sensing and GIS in support of sustainable agricultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Dennis Correa

    Over the coming decades it is expected that the vast amounts of area currently in agricultural production will face growing pressure to intensify as world populations continue to grow, and the demand for a more Western-based diet increases. Coupled with the potential consequences of climate change, and the increasing costs involved with current energy-intensive agricultural production methods, meeting goals of environmental and socioeconomic sustainability will become ever more challenging. At a minimum, meeting such goals will require a greater understanding of rates of change, both over time and space, to properly assess how present demand may affect the needs of future generations. As agriculture represents a fundamental component of modern society, and the most ubiquitous form of human induced landscape change on the planet, it follows that mapping and tracking changes in such environments represents a crucial first step towards meeting the goal of sustainability. In anticipation of the mounting need for consistent and timely information related to agricultural development, this thesis proposes several advances in the field of geomatics, with specific contributions in the areas of remote sensing and spatial analysis: First, the relative strengths of several supervised machine learning algorithms used to classify remotely sensed imagery were assessed using two image analysis approaches: pixel-based and object-based. Second, a feature selection process, based on a Random Forest classifier, was applied to a large data set to reduce the overall number of object-based predictor variables used by a classification model without sacrificing overall classification accuracy. Third, a hybrid object-based change detection method was introduced with the ability to handle disparate image sources, generate per-class change thresholds, and minimize map updating errors. Fourth, a spatial disaggregation procedure was performed on coarse scale agricultural census data to render

  2. Analysis on Function Orientation and Development Countermeasures of New Agricultural Business Entities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yang,; Wang Yan

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid advance of industrialization and urbanization process, fostering new agricultural business entities become inevitable for agricultural transformation and the construction of agricultural modernization in China. The status of the new agricultural business entities determines the level of modern agricultural development. In recent years, new agricultural business entities have grew rapidly. However, there are still many problems including the difficulties in financing loans, inadequate agricultural insurance system, bad implementation of agricultural subsidies, jagged agricultural talents and so on. In order to foster new agricultural business entities, countermeasures should be carried out to ensure financial support, perfect the agricultural insurance, strengthen the level of agricultural subsidies, strive to develop the degree of specialization agricultural operators and so on.

  3. Modern trends in the development of agriculture and demands on plant breeding and soil management

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević Dušan; Lazić Branka

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is usually developed as much and just society where there is a branch of the economy. Today, there are different directions from industry agriculture to many concepts based on ecological principles. Future of agriculture development in the XXI century will imply sustainable agriculture as the alternative to the industrial agriculture. Conventional agriculture as an intensive one has a duty to ensure maximum production in terms of quantity and qu...

  4. Development of Agricultural Industrialization under the Background of Socialist New Countryside Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zewen; Zhang, Chenghua

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between socialist new countryside construction and agricultural industrialization development in China is analyzed. On the one hand, socialist new countryside construction is the era background of agricultural industrialization development, offering a strong support for the development of agricultural industrialization. On the other hand, agricultural industrialization management is an important content of new countryside construction, offering basic economic guarantee for the co...

  5. 36 CFR 7.48 - Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 33 CFR 110.127. (2) Temple Bar landing strip, located at approximate latitude 36°01′ N... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Mead National Recreation... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.48 Lake Mead National Recreation...

  6. Mead production improvements after using a factorial desing

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Teresa; Barradas, Carla; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João Verdial; Morais, Jorge Sá; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2011-01-01

    ln the north of Portugal, and in particular in Trás-os-Montes region, there is sometimes an overproduction of honey. Mead is one of the possibilities to overcome this problem. However, most of the time, mead is not produced in a standardized, but empirical and handmade form.

  7. Agricultural Leadership Development: Insights and Experiences from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Corry; McLean, Scott

    2002-01-01

    In Canada, agriculture and its related industries are undergoing rapid and significant changes. Among the many issues facing farmers and other agri-business people are the development of biotechnologies, the decline of on-farm and rural populations, the emergence of new public policies, concerns over food safety, globalisation of markets, sensitivity to environmental issues, and the influence of regional and global trade agreements. Given the complexity of these issues, and the distinctivenes...

  8. Sustainable development in agriculture: a socio-ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Castro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a perspective on sustainability in agriculture - which derives from a notion of development tied to the idea of growth - supported by technological advances aimed at ensuring sustainable management of natural resources. In this sense, we consider here a socio-ecological approach in order to bring together the individual and their environment, showing that this relationship is fundamental for a process of coevolution, where nature and human being together can define the organization society.

  9. Urban agriculture in the developing world: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Francesco; Kahane, Remi; Nono-Womdim, Remi; Gianquinto, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    International audience The year 2007 marked a critical event in the world history. For the first time, more than half of the world population now lives in cities. In many developing countries, the urbanization process goes along with increasing urban poverty and polluted environment, growing food insecurity and malnutrition, especially for children, pregnant and lactating women; and increasing unemployment. Urban agriculture represents an opportunity for improving food supply, health condi...

  10. Developing sustainable conservation agriculture for smallholder farmers in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eash, Neal S.; Walker, Forbes; Thierfelder, Christian; Marake, Makoala V.; Wilcox, M; Lambert, D; Basson, A.

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record This presentation was given at the Soil Science Society of America annual meeting on October 22nd, 2012 in Cincinnati, Ohio at 11:10 in the morning. Conservation agricultural practices were used in Southern Africa's cropping system to improve soil nutrient, improve food security, sequester carbon, and mitigate green house gases. LTRA-9 (Developing sustainable CAPS for smallholder farmers in Southern Africa)

  11. The role of organic agriculture in networks for rural development

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Prof. Dr. Martina

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results on the societal contributions of organic agriculture that go beyond environmental benefits derived from organic standards of production. Based on a survey and case studies, the differing contributions toward rural development by organic farms in Brandenburg (Germany) are demonstrated, including their social and regional engagement, building of bridges between urban and rural areas, and promotion of regional marketing and tourism. Further, the paper highlights the o...

  12. How can Organic Agriculture contribute to Sustainable Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcher, Lukas

    2006-01-01

    Organic agriculture can, especially in poorer countries, contribute to meaningful socioeconomical and ecologically sustainable development. On the one hand, this is due to the organic practice, which means management of local resources (e.g. local seed varieties, dung, etc.) and therefore cost effectiveness. On the other hand, the market for organic products — at local and international level — has tremendous prospects for growth and offers to creative producers and exporters from the south s...

  13. G. H. Mead in the history of sociological ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Filipe Carreira

    2006-01-01

    My aim is to discuss the history of the reception of George Herbert Mead's ideas in sociology. After discussing the methodological debate between presentism and historicism, I address the interpretations of those responsible for Mead's inclusion in the sociological canon: Herbert Blumer, Jürgen Habermas, and Hans Joas. In the concluding section, I assess these reconstructions of Mead's thought and suggest an alternative more consistent with my initial methodological remarks. In particular, I advocate a reconstruction of Mead's ideas that apprehends simultaneously its evolution over time and its thematic breadth. Such a historically minded reconstruction can be not only a useful corrective to possible anachronisms incurred by contemporary social theorists, but also a fruitful resource for their theory-building endeavors. Only then can meaningful and enriching dialogue with Mead begin. PMID:16345008

  14. Analysis of the Price of Development Right of Agricultural Land in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Nan; Chen, Shuhui

    2011-01-01

    According to the viewpoints of predecessors, we define the signification of development right of agricultural land and connotation of the price of development right of agricultural land as follows, the development right of agricultural land is to change the former use nature of agricultural land, so as to become the right of construction Use land; the price of development right of agricultural land refers to the price that is difference between the price of construction use land, and summatio...

  15. 33 CFR 165.T11-281 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV. 165.T11-281 Section 165.T11-281 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  16. The Dualistic Model of European Agriculture: a Theoretical Framework for the Endogenous Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SORTINO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The European model of agriculture refers to a multifunctional andvirtuous model of agriculture that is progressively substituting the productivistmodel of agriculture, that, in the recent past, has been supported by agriculturalcommunity policies. However, the European model of agriculture comprisesheterogeneous realities and economic actors characterised by different localconducts. Schematizing this model, we can distinguish two agriculturetypologies: modernised agriculture and traditional agriculture. In this article, wewill develop a theoretical framework which encompasses the different patternsof endogenous development in both agriculture typologies. Through this article,we aim to create the theoretical basis necessary to undertake the study of thedualistic model of European agriculture.

  17. Leasing as an instrument for innovative development of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Prokopenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is an analysis of technological aspects of leasing application for agricultural enterprises in the context of complex innovative development of agrarian sphere.The results of the analysis. It is shown that the latest technology and recovery techniques must be at all stages of the agricultural sector. The first stage is selection of breeding. The last is sale of agricultural products. Asset structure of agricultural enterprises occupies about one third of machines and equipment, which are now physically and morally outdated. Authors of the article analyze the technological aspect of leasing and prove that leasing of biological assets and leasing equipment should be considered separately, which are more consistent with the structure of the innovation needs of agricultural businesses (purchase of machinery and equipment, research and development, acquisition software and industrial design. Innovative technologies and leasing are proposed to be considered in the context of the eco-village system to ensure maximum utilization of all natural resources: low-temperature heat of the earth, air and water (heat pumps, alternative energy (solar, biomass, wind, water, etc., not carbon motor fuel (biogas, air, electricity, new modes, innovative agricultural technologies, safe disposal of solid waste of local wastewater treatment (biological, resonance, mechanical, technologies in the construction and infrastructure development. Stability of eco-village is affected by a lot of factors, including: economic (existence of a business within the eco-village and use the most cost-effective technologies; social (creating conditions for the development of human capital; technological (business uses the most effective technologies; environment (rational use of natural resources; political (agreement with the objectives of the state and its support; information (high level of information and transport connectivity. New

  18. AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND INNOVATIONS FOR TECHNOLOGY DISSEMINATION AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    Achieving food security and environmental issues become greatest challenge of humankind. Further, natural resources are almost reaching its limit and hence there is a global call for optimum utilisation and also conservation of natural resources. In this existing scenario, sustainable natural resources management heavily relies on sound sustainable agricultural practices. The sustainable agricultural practices dissemination, diffusion and adoption depend on agricultural knowledge information ...

  19. Development and Application of Agricultural Composting Reactor Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizong Jiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the development and application of agricultural composting reactor experimental apparatus. In agriculture, conversion of straw, sludge and other junk to agricultural fertilizer have a broad market prospect, it not only benefit solid waste recycling but also increase food production and food quality. Currently, the existing composting reactor had several shortcomings in practical application process, such as uneven mixing, long composting reaction cycle, producing odor and low maturity. Considering of materials and spatial structure, ventilation system, stirring system, we designed and developed a new experimental device aerobic composting reactor with relatively simple structure. We used the material in experimental device to doing a series of experiments, it include stir even, temperature changes, moisture changes, changes of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen change, change of nitrate nitrogen, PH values and so on. Experimental results showed that standard organic fertilizer could be produced by the device. Moreover, it had more complete degradation of organic matter to improve the quality of the compost product. Experiments also showed that compared with other existing devices, using the device could ferment evenly, increase the speed of biochemical reactions and reduce the fermentation time.

  20. Impacts of Intensified Agriculture Developments on Marsh Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Luan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatiotemporal analysis on the changes in the marsh landscape in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar reserve, and the surrounding farms in the core area of the Sanjiang Plain during the past 30 years was conducted by integrating field survey work with remote sensing techniques. The results indicated that intensified agricultural development had transformed a unique natural marsh landscape into an agricultural landscape during the past 30 years. Ninety percent of the natural marsh wetlands have been lost, and the areas of the other natural landscapes have decreased very rapidly. Most dry farmland had been replaced by paddy fields during the progressive change of the natural landscape to a farm landscape. Attempts of current Chinese institutions in preserving natural wetlands have achieved limited success. Few marsh wetlands have remained healthy, even after the establishment of the nature reserve. Their ecological qualities have been declining in response to the increasing threats to the remaining wetland habitats. Irrigation projects play a key role in such threats. Therefore, the sustainability of the natural wetland ecosystems is being threatened by increased regional agricultural development which reduced the number of wetland ecotypes and damaged the ecological quality.

  1. Lake water quality: Chapter 4 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Todd; Holdren, G. Chris; Rosen, Michael R.; Veley, Ronald J.; Moran, Michael J.; Vanderford, Brett; Wong, Wai Hing; Drury, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of the availability and quality of water in Lake Mead, it has become one of the most intensely sampled and studied bodies of water in the United States. As a result, data are available from sampling stations across the lake (fig. 4-1 and see U.S. Geological Survey Automated Water-Quality Platforms) to provide information on past and current (2012) water-quality conditions and on invasive species that influence—and are affected by—water quality. Water quality in Lakes Mead and Mohave generally exceeds standards set by the State of Nevada to protect water supplies for public uses: drinking water, aquatic ecosystem health, recreation, or agricultural irrigation. In comparison to other reservoirs studied by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for a national lake assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010), Lake Mead is well within the highest or ‘good’ category for recreation and aquatic health (see U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Lakes Assessment and Lake Mead for more details). While a small part of the lake, particularly Las Vegas Bay, is locally influenced by runoff from urbanized tributaries such as Las Vegas Wash, contaminant loading in the lake as a whole is low compared to other reservoirs in the nation, which are influenced by runoff from more heavily urbanized watersheds (Rosen and Van Metre, 2010).

  2. Development Mode and Recommendations for Industrialization of Tropical Agricultural Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    QIU, Meihuan; LIN, Minxia; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongyi; WANG, Zhunian

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology is an essential part of tropical agricultural technological innovation. This paper firstly analyzed development mode of industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology in Chin and then came up with recommendations for developing industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology.

  3. Development Mode and Recommendations for Industrialization of Tropical Agricultural Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihuan; QIU; Minxia; LIN; Xiaodong; ZHANG; Hongyi; ZHANG; Zhunian; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology is an essential part of tropical agricultural technological innovation.This paper firstly analyzed development mode of industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology in Chin and then came up with recommendations for developing industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology.

  4. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  5. Adapting the innovation systems approach to agricultural development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friederichsen, Rupert; Thai, Thi Minh; Neef, Andreas;

    2013-01-01

    Competing models of innovation informing agricultural extension, such as transfer of technology, participatory extension and technology development, and innovation systems have been proposed over the last decades. These approaches are often presented as antagonistic or even mutually exclusive....... This article shows how practitioners in a rural innovation system draw on different aspects of all three models, while creating a distinct local practice and discourse. We revisit and deepen the critique of Vietnam’s “model” approach to upland rural development, voiced a decade ago in this journal. Our...

  6. Necessity and Feasibility of Developing Low Carbon Agriculture in Xuzhou City

    OpenAIRE

    QIANG, Chengkui; QIN, Yuehua; Wang, Shengyong; Zhou, Baoya; Feng, Wujian; Wang, Songsong

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of low carbon economy and low carbon agriculture at home and abroad, and combining with actual situations of agricultural development in Xuzhou City, the necessity of developing low carbon agriculture in Xuzhou City is analyzed by the perspectives of its agricultural production conditions, agricultural modernization, comprehensive competitive power, ecological civilization and low carbon economy. Simultaneously, the feasibility of developing low carbon agricul...

  7. The Research on Countermeasures of Green Agricultural Development in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Firstly,the thesis introduces the connotation of green agriculture,indicating that the green agriculture has 4 characteristics,namely openness,continuity,high efficiency and standardization,compared with the traditional agricultural development model.Secondly,the advantages of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are discussed,namely rich agricultural resources,notable technological advantage,solid agricultural foundation,high quality of agricultural products,great market prospect of green consumption,and notable policy advantage.In view of the increasing shortage of natural resources,increasing restriction of rural labor force,increasing deterioration of rural environment,inadequate popularization of green agriculture,and fierce competition at home and abroad,the restricted factors of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are introduced.Finally,in view of the agricultural concept innovation,green agricultural system innovation,agricultural technology innovation,agricultural management innovation,operation system innovation,ecological system innovation,development of tourism agriculture and regional differentiation development strategy,the relevant countermeasures and suggestions are put forward,in order to explore a new agricultural development model for Jiangsu’s modern agricultural development.

  8. Analysis of Constrains Facing Urban Agriculture Development in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Pourjavid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify the constrainsaffecting urban agriculture in Tehran, Iran. The statisticalpopulation of this study consisted of city dwellers within the 22municipal districts of Tehran out of which 320 individuals wereselected as the sample of the study. Cochran’s formula was usedto determine the sampling size based on stratified samplingmethod. A panel of experts confirmed the validity of the questionnaireused in this study. The calculated Cronbach’s alpha forthe main sections of the questionnaire was 0.95 and 0.93. Resultsof the ranking of constrains and challenges revealed that “highstart-up costs” and “lack of knowledge among managers andauthorities” were among the most important constrains. Theresults of factor analysis revealed that 7 factors including “education-research”, “infrastructure”, “support”, “regulations andpolicy making”, “technical”, “financial-economic” and “cultural”explained 67.36 of the variance. Although list of constrainsrevealed is not perfect, this work paves the way for furtherresearch regarding factors influencing urban agriculture. It alsoprovides interesting information for planners about the challengesof urban agriculture development.

  9. Research on Urban Agricultural Scientific Development Path of the Construction of Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehui; WU

    2014-01-01

    The significance of developing characteristic agriculture in Central Economic Zone was elaborated from four aspects of three modernizations coordinated development,guaranteeing city supply of agricultural products,creating more jobs for farmers,making agriculture more significant. The existing problems in urban agriculture development were analyzed,such as understanding deviation,extensive development,market confusion,short industrial chain,low degree of specialization,harsh environment. Several corresponding countermeasures were put forward,including giving full play to the role of government’s macro-control; perfecting compensation mechanism of urban agriculture,developing characteristic agriculture,promoting deep processing of agricultural products; advancing scientific innovation,improving production efficiency;operating sustainable ecological agricultural development road; relying on traffic advantage,promoting industrialization operation and urban agricultural logistics development.

  10. Analysis of the Price of Development Right of Agricultural Land in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the viewpoints of predecessors, we define the signification of development right of agricultural land and connotation of the price of development right of agricultural land as follows: the development right of agricultural land is to change the former use nature of agricultural land, so as to become the right of construction use land; the price of development right of agricultural land refers to the price that is difference between the price of construction use land, and summation of the price of former agricultural land, the expense of developing agricultural land, the expense of management, and profit, after the agricultural land is transformed into non-agricultural construction use land. By using the principle of economics of land, this paper expounds the generation mechanism of the price of development right of agricultural land, namely the diversity of agricultural land use and the change of demand and supply of development right of agricultural land. The influencing factors of the development right of agricultural land are analyzed, and there are mainly the price of agricultural land, the price of construction use land, the contradiction of demand and supply of urban land, land use, and agricultural land.

  11. Linkages amongst Government Spending, Stock Market Development and Output in Nigeria Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Omigie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the nexus amongst government agricultural spending and its inherent volatility level, total capital employed and turnover of the agricultural sector of the stock market and agricultural output in Nigeria. Time series data from 1978-2008 were employed. Data were analyzed using square of mean-adjusted relative change volatility estimation method, co-integration and error correction model and two-stage-least squares regression technique. There is the existence of a long-run relationship amongst government agricultural spending, total capital employed and turnover of the agricultural sector of the stock market and agricultural output. Government agricultural spending is influenced by its lag (0.42 and agricultural output (-1.94. Total capital employed in the agricultural sector of the stock market is influenced by government agricultural spending (0.15. Total turnover of the agricultural sector of the stock market is influenced by the total capital employed in the sector and the volatility level in government agricultural spending (-0.03. Agricultural output is influenced by government agricultural spending (0.09 and total turnover of the agricultural sector of the stock market (0.23. Government agricultural spending stimulates the development of the agricultural sector of the stock market, while its volatility is an impediment. The agricultural sector of the stock market is an effective window policy makers can exploit to increase agricultural output.

  12. Necessity and Feasibility of Developing Low Carbon Agriculture in Xuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengkui; QIANG; Yuehua; QIN; Shengyong; WANG; Baoya; ZHOU; Wujian; FENG; Songsong; WANG

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of low carbon economy and low carbon agriculture at home and abroad,and combining with actual situations of agricultural development in Xuzhou City,the necessity of developing low carbon agriculture in Xuzhou City is analyzed by the perspectives of its agricultural production conditions,agricultural modernization,comprehensive competitive power,ecological civilization and low carbon economy. Simultaneously,the feasibility of developing low carbon agriculture in the city is discussed through low carbon technology,rural land management model,agricultural input channel,agriculture-related scientific research system,agricultural research transformation mechanism and rural personnel training program to provide some references for promoting the rapid and sound development of low carbon agriculture in Xuzhou City.

  13. Management implications of the science: Chapter 7 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kent; Goodbred, Steven L.; Rosen, Michael R.; Miller, Jennell M.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Mead, particularly its Boulder Basin, is one of the most intensively monitored reservoirs in the United States. With its importance to societal needs and ecosystem benefits, interest in water quality and water resources of Lake Mead will remain high. A number of agencies have authorities and management interests in Lake Mead and maintain individual agency monitoring programs. These programs were enhanced on an interagency basis from 2004 to 2012 to facilitate intensive monitoring in all major basins of the lake. Recognition that increasing stressors and influences in individual basins can affect water quality throughout Lake Mead and gave rise to an even stronger effort towards the development of holistic and effective interagency approaches. In 2010, agency monitoring programs were used to develop a management plan for water-dependent resources at Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA). The Long-Term Limnological and Aquatic Resource Monitoring and Research Plan for Lakes Mead and Mohave (the Plan; National Park Service, 2010) documented key management questions to be addressed through monitoring and research, and identified interagency strategic objectives for water quality and water-dependent resources. Moreover, the Plan provides a framework for summarizing water quality and water resource information in five resource categories: water quality and limnology; fish and aquatic biota; sediments; birds; and riparian vegetation. The Plan also addresses three stressors to lake resources: contaminants, invasive species, and climate change. For each of these topics, the current (2012) state of knowledge is summarized for LMNRA (table 7-1), including key scientific questions and findings, management implications, and information needs. A more detailed discussion for each topic follows.

  14. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  15. Evolutional development of controlling software for agricultural vehicles and robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Tsuneo; Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner

    Agricultural vehicles and robots expand their controlling software in size and complexity for their increasing functions. Due to repeated, ad hoc addition and modification, software gets structurally corrupted and becomes low performing, resource consuming and unreliable. This paper presents...... an evolutional development process combining Software Product Line (SPL) and eXtreme Derivation Development Process (XDDP). While SPL is a promising paradigm for successful reuse of software artefacts, it requires understanding of the whole system, a global and future view of the system, and preparation of well...... of the autonomous tractor, that applies XDDP initially for addition and modification of functions, accumulates core assets and cultivates a global view of the system through iterated development with XDDP, and finally shifts to SPL development....

  16. Path Exploration and Countermeasure Innovation for Developing Circular Agriculture in Southeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Boqi; Zhang, Weili; Wang, Yixiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly elaborated current situation of agricultural resources and ecological environment protection of China, and pointed out that circular agriculture is an inevitable choice for sustainable development of agriculture and effective approach for low-carbon economic development. Then, it analyzed mode and benefit of typical circular agriculture, such as ecological orchard in southeast hills, sightseeing ecological agricultural garden, and crop straw use. Finally, it came up with co...

  17. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  18. Evaluation of the Development of Circular Agriculture in Sichuan Province Based on the Coefficient of Variation

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, Fangying; SUN, Shunqiang; Joseph J., Molnar

    2015-01-01

    Circular agriculture helps to solve the drawbacks of traditional agricultural production and achieve unified economic and ecological benefits, consistent with the concept of sustainable development. Based on the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture, this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture in Sichuan Province, and uses the coefficient of variation to evaluate the current situation of development of circular agriculture in Sichuan Province from 2000...

  19. The Balanced Development of Yunnan Bazi Agriculture and its Resource Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The developmental status and situation of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are introduced. The prominent problems of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are put forward from the restriction of natural environment and the limitation of social economic conditions. The factors that affect the development of Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are analyzed. The factors include the burdens born by Bazi agriculture, the natural endowment of Bazi culture, policy preference of Yunnan Province, the potential and direction of the development of Bazi agriculture. Countermeasures on developing Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are put forward: the first one is to improve the level of agricultural science and technoogy; the second one is to intensify the balanced development between mountainous areas and mountainous areas, industry and agriculture, urban and rural areas; the third one is to pay attention to the development and adjustment of ecological agriculture; the fourth one is to keep rational development.

  20. Evaluation on the Development of Circular Agriculture in Guizhou Province Based on Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo; CAO; Shunqiang; SUN

    2015-01-01

    Vigorously developing agricultural circular economy is an effective way to achieve sustainable agricultural development,and a strategic measure to ease the pressure on agricultural resources,protect ecological and clean resources,and promote sustainable agricultural and rural economic development. From the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture,and uses entropy method to carry out the comprehensive evaluation of the development level of agricultural circular economy in Guizhou Province from 2003 to 2012. At the same time,this paper analyzes the obstacles to the development of agricultural circular economy in Guizhou Province in 2012,and sets forth the relevant recommendations based on these limitations,in order to improve the development level of circular agriculture in Guizhou Province.

  1. Nonconventional Technology for Agricultural Development in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns the economic assessment of a nonconventional technology to provide a cheap food and/or feed for many developing countries, using wasted resources, i.e. coastal arid areas irrigated directly with seawater to grow a halophyte crop(Salicornia-sos-7). It was cultivated for two successive years in Kuwait. The analysis showed that the harvested yield was 20 tons per hectare, which provided 12.42 MT of straw for sale and 1.7 MT of oil seeds for processing. Processed seeds of 1-he...

  2. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development Public Expenditure Review 1997/98–2005/06

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...

  3. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development : Public Expenditure Review for 1997-98 and 2005-06

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...

  4. Research Situation and Development Trend of Resource Recycling Technology for Agricultural Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yan-yan; ZHAO Yun-hua

    2012-01-01

    Rational utilization of agricultural waste resources is of great significance to reducing environmental pollution, improving rural ecological environment, and developing agricultural circular economy. Besides, in the context of global energy crisis, the research of resource utilization technology for agricultural wastes will exert considerable influence on survival and living of human beings. We firstly discuss about general situations of agricultural waste resources in China, research and application situations of agricultural waste recycling technology both at home and abroad. On the basis of development trend of agricultural waste recycling, we put forward countermeasures for agricultural waste recycling in China.

  5. Dialética positiva: de Mead a Habermas

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad Fernando

    2003-01-01

    O autor discute a importância da psicologia social de G. H. Mead para o pensamento social de Habermas. De especial interesse para o filósofo alemão é a confluência, em Mead, de duas linhas de reflexão do pragmatismo norte-americano - a filosofia analítica da linguagem e a teoria psicológica do comportamento - na crítica à filosofia da consciência. Apesar de denominar sua teoria ''behaviorismo social'', Mead se afasta das teorias do comportamento clássicas, ao enfatizar a experiência interna d...

  6. International Comparison and Implications of Agricultural Development in Foreign Low Latitude Plateau Regions for Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LUO; Yan; YANG; Rui; CHEN; Wei; WU; Ziyun; PENG; Liangzheng; CHEN; Xuelin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Climatic characteristics of foreign low latitude plateau regions are firstly introduced.Then,experience and lessons of major foreign low latitude plateau countries in developing modern agriculture are analyzed,including Indian three agricultural revolutions and agricultural informationization development,application of agricultural biotechnology in Brazil,trade liberalization and economic de-agriculture of Mexico,and Argentina,Saudi Arabia and South Africa attaching great importance to developing modern agriculture relying on science and technology and paying close attention to resource conservation and environmental protection.Combining natural and social resource characteristics of Yunnan plateau agriculture,pertinent implications and recommendations for modern agricultural development in Yunnan are put forward.Specifically,these include strengthening agricultural sci-tech research and development,and extension and application;transforming agricultural development model;enhancing agricultural resource conservation and environmental protection;accelerating developing mountain organic ecological agriculture and autumn agriculture;reinforcing urban and rural integration to develop plateau characteristic agriculture on the basis of local actual conditions.

  7. AGRICULTURE AND ITS PLACE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilorom Tadjibaeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the share of agriculture in GDP in Uzbekistan, the country can be allocated to a group of countries with a transitional type of economy that proceeds from agriculture to urbanization. At the same time specific local features exist. In Uzbekistan, about 65% of the population live in rural areas and currently about 3 million people are employed in agriculture. Although the trend shows a decline in the share of agriculture in gross domestic product, the number of people employed in agriculture has comparably slowly reduced. Agriculture's share of investment is only about 3-4% of the total amount of a fixed capital.

  8. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Ecological Agricultural Development of Jianshan Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Can; Wang Da-qing; Wang Hong-yan; Dai Lin

    2015-01-01

    At present, the excessive use of the fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural production has result in hardening of the soil and decrease of the wild animals and can not maintain the sustainable using of land resources. To develop ecological agriculture is a powerful measure to reduce energy consumption, protect environment, and realize the sustainable development of the agriculture. In order to promote the sustainable development of agriculture in Jianshan Farm, this paper by using SWOT analysis method analyzed the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat in the development of the ecological agriculture in Jianshan Farm, based on the experience from domestic and foreign ecological agricultural development, and put forward the countermeasures for the development of the ecological agriculture in order to develop ecological circular agriculture and non-genetic soybean crop protected areas, and to establish soybean-corn rotation area and healthy aquaculture zone, as well as develop new energy industry.

  9. Path Exploration and Countermeasure Innovation for Developing Circular Agriculture in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boqi; WENG; Weili; ZHANG; Yixiang; WANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly elaborated current situation of agricultural resources and ecological environment protection of China,and pointed out that circular agriculture is an inevitable choice for sustainable development of agriculture and effective approach for low-carbon economic development. Then,it analyzed mode and benefit of typical circular agriculture,such as ecological orchard in southeast hills,sightseeing ecological agricultural garden,and crop straw use. Finally,it came up with countermeasures for further developing circular agriculture,including integrating building system and establishing suitable mode,formulating production standard and ensuring food safety,strengthening technological innovation,and supporting sustainable development.

  10. Development Situations and Countermeasures of Low Carbon Ecological Circular Agriculture: A Case Study of Nantong City

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chun-he; Qiao, Qi-cheng; Gu, Wei-bing; Sun, Jia-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Developing the low carbon ecological circular agriculture is an effective approach to realizing low carbon development of agriculture. Through investigation on existing measures and performance of development of low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City, we analyzed the potential and problems of Nantong City in developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture. Finally, with reference to domestic and foreign research achievements and practical experience, we put...

  11. Low carbo development and poverty alleviation: Options for development cooperation in energy, agriculture and forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Flunder, Mikkel; Fjalland, Jacob; Munk Ravnborg, Helle; Egelyng, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the main findings from a desk study on “Climate change mitigation and poverty reduction in developing countries: opportunities for development cooperation.” The study identifies practical options for combining low carbon development with poverty reduction and economic growth in least developed countries, with a focus on energy, agriculture and forestry. The report also focuses on practical recommendations.

  12. Digital spatial soil and land information for agriculture development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Laghathe, Pankaj; Meena, Ranglal; Barman, Alok Kumar; Das, Satyendra Nath

    2006-12-01

    Natural resource management calls for study of natural system prevailing in the country. In India floods and droughts visit regularly, causing extensive damages of natural wealth including agriculture that are crucial for sustenance of economic growth. The Indian Sub-continent drained by many major rivers and their tributaries where watershed, the hydrological unit forms a natural system that allows management and development of land resources following natural harmony. Acquisition of various kinds and levels of soil and land characteristics using both conventional and remote sensing techniques and subsequent development of digital spatial data base are essential to evolve strategy for planning watershed development programmes, their monitoring and impact evaluation. The multi-temporal capability of remote sensing sensors helps to update the existing data base which are of dynamic in nature. The paper outlines the concept of spatial data base development, generation using remote sensing techniques, designing of data structure, standardization and integration with watershed layers and various non spatial attribute data for various applications covering watershed development planning, alternate land use planning, soil and water conservation, diversified agriculture practices, generation of soil health card, soil and land reclamation, etc. The soil and land characteristics are vital to derive various interpretative groupings or master table that helps to generate the desired level of information of various clients using the GIS platform. The digital spatial data base on soils and watersheds generated by All India Soil and Land Use Survey will act as a sub-server of the main GIS based Web Server being hoisted by the planning commission for application of spatial data for planning purposes under G2G domain. It will facilitate e-governance for natural resource management using modern technology.

  13. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

    2013-01-01

    The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of...

  14. SMEs IN FUNCTION OF DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Blaženka; Maletic, Radojka; Paunović, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is very diverse and gives the great opportunities for various activities of small and medium enterprises. There is a great competition for placement of agricultural and food products, on both, domestic and international food markets. In a situation where there is a hyper production of agricultural products in the European market, the export of agricultural and food products is possible only if it offers organic products, for which there is a great demand. Organic produ...

  15. A study of IOS data using two mead-related models of respiratory impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T-U; Diong, B; Nazeran, H; Goldman, M

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces two new respiratory system models, the Mead-Cw model and the Mead-Cl model, which are 6-component models that are intermediate in complexity between the well-known 7-component Mead model and the recently proposed 5-component augmented RIC model (derived from the Mead model by eliminating both Cw and Cl). Their modeling errors were compared to the RIC, extended RIC, augmented RIC and Mead models, for component values estimated from IOS data. The two new models yielded lower errors than all the other models, except for the Mead model. However, the Mead-Cl model and the Mead-Cw model also yielded unreasonably large values for Cw and Cl, respectively, which are known disadvantages of the Mead model. Hence the augmented RIC model appears to be the most useful at present for IOS-based computer-aided detection and diagnosis of respiratory disorders. PMID:18002148

  16. Development Path for Agricultural Modernization of Shaanxi Province from the Perspective of Technological Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lufeng; DUAN

    2013-01-01

    The lag in technological innovation is a bottleneck for modern agricultural development,so technological progress is an inevitable path to break this bottleneck. On the basis of introducing theory of technological progress,this study presents 4 paths for promoting agricultural modernization development in line with current situations of agricultural development and technological progress in Shaanxi Province.

  17. Human Resource Development for Modernizing the Agricultural Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, William M.; Alex, Gary E.

    2008-01-01

    Greater commercialization of agricultural systems and increasing trade liberalization dictate the need for better capacity on the part of the agriculture workforce in the 21st century. Global changes in the roles of the public and private sectors and the dramatic advancements in technology have also strongly affected agricultural workforce…

  18. On the Cooperation of Jiangmen City with Guangzhou Experimental Station, CATAS in Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yongqing; Li, Zhiyang; Li, Qiongyan; Wei, Shouxing

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the provinces in China with the best modern agricultural industry and the highest production efficiency. While Jiangmen City, one of the agriculture-based cities in Guangdong Province, has made active exploration in building a modern agricultural system. China has established cooperation with the four largest agricultural research institutes in China to offer technical support for the development of modern agriculture. In this paper, the status quo and existing pr...

  19. Evaluation of the Development of Circular Agriculture in Sichuan Province Based on the Coefficient of Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangying; ZHOU; Shunqiang; SUN; Joseph; J.Molnar

    2015-01-01

    Circular agriculture helps to solve the drawbacks of traditional agricultural production and achieve unified economic and ecological benefits,consistent with the concept of sustainable development.Based on the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture in Sichuan Province,and uses the coefficient of variation to evaluate the current situation of development of circular agriculture in Sichuan Province from 2000 to 2012.Then it analyzes the obstacles to the development of circular agriculture in Sichuan Province in 2012,and sets forth the targeted recommendations.

  20. Isopach Map of Postimpoundment Sediment in Lake Mead - Geographic Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  1. Innovation of China’s Circular Agricultural Development in the Perspective of Low Carbon Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the concept and characteristics of circular economy, this paper analyzes the restraining factors of China’s circular agricultural development as follows: issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers are outstanding; the problems of agricultural resources and agricultural ecological environment are serious; the quality of agricultural products cannot meet the demand of domestic and international market for food. Based on the internal requirements of low carbon economic development, this paper advances four innovative models concerning China’s circular agricultural development as follows: the model of combining planting and breeding of agriculture, the developmental model of leisure and sightseeing, ecological integration model, and the developmental model of reusing agricultural byproducts. Every region should choose or create different circular agricultural model in different domains, in order to better use agricultural resources, reduce the consumption of agricultural energy inputs, reduce the emission of agricultural greenhouse gas, develop low carbon agriculture, and make great contribution for meeting the international challenges and promoting China’s agricultural development.

  2. Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture and Future Developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted Nielsen, Helle; Branth Pedersen, Anders; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO). It is...... widely expected that both CAP reforms and a WTO agreement will also lead to a more environmentally friendly European agriculture. It is conceivable, however, that market demand would instead provide renewed incentives for intensive agricultural production. Opening European agriculture to more competition...

  3. Sustainable tourism development of globally important agricultural heritage sites: a case study of "traditional rice-fish agriculture system"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongle; Sun Yehong; Min Qingwen; Cheng Shengkui

    2008-01-01

    Traditional rice-fish agricultural heritage site in Qingtian County, China, one of the pilot sites of Glob-ally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), is of great value in tourism development. This paper aims to explore how to realize sustainable tourism development in agricultural heritage site through identifying current problems in GIAHS site, and making constructive recommendations for coupled development of heritage preserva-tion and economic development. Field survey was carried out and data was collected through field questionnaire surveys of tourists and residents' in Longxian Village of Qingtian County, as well as interviews of residents with semi-structured questionnaires for their perceptions and attitudes to tourism development. The following results are got.(1) the tourism industry is still at its early state of Nongjiale tourism (enjoy and experience authentic country life-style), under very limited administrative management; (2) what attracts visitors most are delicious fish and beautiful natural environment, but not agricultural heritage itself; (3) most tourists come from adjacent areas and stay only half a day, many of whom pay their visits twice or more; (4) a few local residents take part in the activities of tourism industry, but in very limited manners even if they do.Current patterns of tourism development are casting negative impacts on agricultural heritage. Conservation agricultural heritage should be put in the first place for sustainable tourism development. Agricultural heritage, as a key attraction, should be taken as the focus for tourism development. The important thing is to change the present Nongjiale tourism into real heritage tourism, to establish a cooperative mechanism among different stakeholders,and to increase local residents' income through engaging in tourism industry.

  4. The Role of Trans Tensional Structures and Lake Mead Reservoir in Groundwater Flow in Black Canyon, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, NV-AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justet, L.; Beard, S.

    2010-12-01

    Hot springs and seeps discharging into Black Canyon (BC) along the Colorado River in north Colorado River Valley (CRV) support endemic riparian ecosystems in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Increases in groundwater development in southern NV and northwestern AZ may impact spring discharge. Sources of spring discharge in BC were evaluated using geochemical methods. Kinematic analysis and geologic mapping of structures associated with BC springs were used to evaluate structural controls on groundwater flow in BC. Geochemical analysis indicates groundwater discharge near Hoover Dam (HD) and along the faulted edge of the Boulder City Pluton is derived from Lake Mead, high δ87Sr Proterozoic or Tertiary crystalline rock and, possibly, Tertiary sedimentary rock. Reducing conditions indicated by 234U/238U and δ34S concentrations suggest the groundwater is confined and/or derived from greater depths while carbon isotopes indicate the groundwater is old. Lighter δD and δO-18, modern tritium concentrations, post-Dam U disequilibrium ages, and occurrence of anthropogenic perchlorate support the presence of a young Lake Mead component. South of the pluton, the Lake Mead component is absent. More oxidizing conditions in this part of BC, indicated by the U and S isotope concentrations, suggest the groundwater is less confined and/or derived from shallower depths compared to groundwater discharging near HD. Older apparent groundwater ages and heavier δD and δO-18 values south of the pluton indicate slower flow paths from a lower elevation or latitude source. Clarifying the nature of groundwater flow in eastern NV, the analyses indicate that hydraulic connection between the regional carbonate aquifer and BC is unlikely. Instead, the data indicate sources of BC springs are derived relatively locally in CRV and, possibly, south Lake Mead Valley. Results of the geologic and kinematic analyses indicate faults that formed from the interaction of E-W extension related to

  5. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG, Wuya; Yan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics (4PL), this paper elaborates the concept, background and development plight of agricultural products logistics, advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics, etc. and explores issues of information, efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics, draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost, and ...

  6. Marx, Mead und das Konzept widersprüchlicher Praxis

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Horst

    1983-01-01

    Die 'praxiswissenschaftliche' Interpretation von Meads Theorie wendet sich gegen deren 'intersubjektivitätstheoretische' Vereinnahmung und führt ihre kohärente Kerngestalt vor. Der Untersuchung liegt ein Fragespektrum zugrunde, das sich von der Handlungs- und Erkenntnis- bis zur Evolutionstheorie erstreckt. Auf allen konstitutionstheoretischen Ebenen enthüllen sich Konvergenzen zwischen Meads universalistischer Theorie und dem praxiszentrierten Marxismus. Es kristallisiert sich 'widers...

  7. A combined nelder-mead simplex and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Nicolas; Alliot, Jean-Marc

    1999-01-01

    It is usually said that genetic algorithm should be used when nothing else works. In practice, genetic algorithm are very often used for large sized global optimization problems, but are not very efficient for local optimization problems. The Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm has some common characteristics with genetic algorithm, but it can only find a local optimum close to the starting point. In this article, a combined Nelder-Mead Simplex and Genetic algorithm is introduced and tested on clas...

  8. MODERN TRENDS IN DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION. GERMAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasanova S. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The organic agriculture is an important issue for sustainable development and food quality production. For this reason we analyzed the data on land use in organic production and the volume of the market for organic products in Europe and Russia. The motivation of farmers and the driving factors for the transition to organic farming methods in developed countries and the role of subsidies have been shown. The analysis of the state of organic production in Germany has been carried out. In 2013, Germany reported 23484 organic farms, which represent 8.2% of agricultural production and the total cultivated area 1,045 Mio. ha. In organic production are involved 9 national associations with their own logos, integrated by 12250 farms (52.2%, and the remaining 11 234 biofarms (47.8% use the EU-bio logo. Over the past years there has been observed a significant increase in organic livestock production; e.g. during 2007-2012 milk, poultry meat and eggs production were increased by 58.3, 60,6 and 108.7% respectively. Price of bio eggs in November 2014 was 55.6% higher than in free-range system and 100% higher than in floor housing system. Obviously, organic production is an efficient production system capable of ensuring the economic well-being of rural areas. For further expansion of this sector in Russia is necessary to develop the economic incentives, which encourage conversion from conventional, farming to organic production. Also, it is necessary to raise awareness of producers and consumers about the quality of organic products

  9. Agricultural productivity growth and technology progress in developing country agriculture: case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDZIO-BIKA Herve Lezin W.; WEI Long-bao

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to analyze the impact of some production variables (input) on agricultural productivity growth (output) in China from 1989~2002. We selected through random sampling Zhejiang Province for our disaggregate analysis with the use of Cobb-Douglas function. The estimation results showed that all key parameters are significant and are of the expected sign. Labor and that capital and land have positive impact on agricultural productivity growth.

  10. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Important green house gases (GHG) attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), though carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellul...

  11. Financing Agricultural Development: The Political Economy of Public Spending on Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Birner, Regina; Palaniswamy, Nethra

    2006-01-01

    Acknowledging that the agricultural sector can play an important role as an engine of pro-poor growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, the purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the ?political will? of governments to support this sector. The concept of ?political resources? from the political science literature is used to guide the analysis, as it combines the insights from state-centered and society-centered approaches to explain agricultural policies. Drawing on panel data co...

  12. Utilising intrinsic robustness in agricultural production systems: Inventions for a sustainable development of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Napel, J. ten; Bianchi, F.; Bestman, Monique

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of utilising robust crops and livestock for improving sustainability of agriculture. Two approaches for dealing with unwanted fluctuations that may influence agricultural production, such as diseases and pests, are discussed. The prevailing approach, which we call the ‘Control Model’, is to protect crops and livestock from disturbances as much as possible, to regain balance with monitoring and intervention and to look for add-on solutions only. There are a nu...

  13. Evaluation of the Development of Circular Agriculture in Chongqing City Based on Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangying; ZHOU; Shunqiang; SUN; Guiying; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    The circular agriculture is conducive to achieving the purpose of efficient agricultural economy and environment- friendliness.Based on the perspective of circular agriculture theory,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture,and uses entropy method and Matlab analysis tool to carry out the comprehensive evaluation of the level of agricultural development in Chongqing City during the period 2003- 2012. It analyzes the obstacles to the development of circular agricultural economy in Chongqing City in 2012,and finally puts forward the corresponding recommendations.

  14. Development of an Integrated Agricultural Planning Model Considering Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santikayasa, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an agriculture planning model in order to sustain the future water use under the estimation of crop water requirement, water availability and future climate projection. For this purpose, the Citarum river basin which is located in West Java - Indonesia is selected as the study area. Two emission scenarios A2 and B2 were selected. For the crop water requirement estimation, the output of HadCM3 AOGCM is statistically downscale using SDSM and used as the input for WEAP model developed by SEI (Stockholm Environmental Institute). The reliability of water uses is assessed by comparing the irrigation water demand and the water allocation for the irrigation area. The water supply resources are assessed using the water planning tool. This study shows that temperature and precipitation over the study area are projected to increase in the future. The water availability was projected to increase under both A2 and B2 emission scenarios in the future. The irrigation water requirement is expected to decrease in the future under A2 and B2 scenarios. By comparing the irrigation water demand and water allocation for irrigation, the reliability of agriculture water use is expected to change in the period of 2050s and 2080s while the reliability will not change in 2020s. The reliability under A2 scenario is expected to be higher than B2 scenario. The combination of WEAP and SDSM is significance to use in assessing and allocating the water resources in the region.

  15. The Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Creative Agriculture in Miyun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runlian; MIAO; Tong; LIU; Mei; LI

    2013-01-01

    Creative agriculture,a new agricultural format formed by integrating agriculture,tourism and creative industries,is an important part of the urban modern agriculture. Proceeding from the functional position as an ecological conservation area,Miyun creative agriculture has obtained rapid growth,relying on its ecological resources,agricultural resources,tourist resources and leisure industry advantages. But there are still some problems. On the basis of analyzing the advantages and problems of creative agriculture in Miyun,the paper put forward the basic principles and thought pattern of developing creative agriculture in there. Besides,several countermeasures in terms of resources integration, scientific planning,exploring local cultural resources,developing theme products,constructing industrial chain,carrying out project design and creative planning,creating creative agricultural advantage brand are put forward.

  16. Developing conservation agriculture production systems: An analysis of local networks

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, S.; Moore, Keith M.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) has been trumpeted as the solution for reducing soil degradation and increasing agricultural productivity around the world. Some farmland settings, such as in Brazil and the United States, have established substantial hectarage in conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) establishment, while other locations, such as in Africa, have little permanent adoption of CA practices. A close review of the literature on adoption of CA technologies indicates that s...

  17. Mining and agriculture for development: exploring the nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Urama, Kevin Chika

    2013-01-01

    Can agriculture and mining work together to improve food security? How can policy, investment and research provide for benefits? Agriculture and mining rely on similar inputs, outputs and externalities. In both Africa and Australia the relationship between the two industries can be symbioitic or competitive, depending on the situation. Mining makes profits from its mined products. Agriculture also needs mined products such as potash for soil improvement. Mining requires upgraded or new infras...

  18. Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhua Song

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30

  19. Setting priorities for public spending for agricultural and rural development in Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shenggen; Mogues, Tewodaj; Benin, Sam

    2009-01-01

    "Agriculture and rural development must play a central role in stimulating economic growth, reducing poverty, and improving food and nutrition security in Africa. The food price crisis of 2007–08 highlighted the dramatic implications of world neglect of agricultural development over the past two decades. The current global economic recession now underscores the need for urgent attention to measures that could promote agricultural growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture in Africa has not per...

  20. The Discussion on the Interaction and Integration of Modern Agriculture and Rural Tourism Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis summarizes the connotation of rural tourism and divides it into six types,including rural sight-seeing,rural body-building activity,rural folk culture,rural experience of farm work,rural business affairs,and study and development.It outlines the theory of sustainable development of rural tourism and points out that what sustainable development of tourism concerns is the coordination of ecology,economy,and society centering on human and nature.On the basis of introducing the connotation of modern agriculture,it divides modern agriculture into six types,including sightseeing agriculture,leisure agriculture,green agriculture,characteristic agriculture,factory agriculture,and three-dimensional agriculture.And by concluding,it obtains the combination model of modern agriculture and rural tourism.Based on the introduction of the above related theories,the thesis discusses the interaction and integration model of the sustainable development of modern agriculture and rural tourism.It emphatically analyzes the integration model of modern agriculture and rural tourism,including pastoral agriculture tourism model(sightseeing village,leisure farm,citizen farm),and science education tourism model(agricultural science and technology education base,tourism and leisure education agricultural park,children’s,agricultural education base,agricultural exposition).Based on the interaction and integration relationship between modern agriculture and rural tourism,the thesis puts forward corresponding countermeasures so as to promote their positive development and realize the maximum of ecological,social and economic benefits.

  1. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows: first, the cost is high; second, the technological content is low; third, the upstream main body lacks competitiveness; fourth, the structure of investment is irrational. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward to develop marketing channels of agricultural products as follows: perfect the service function of wholesale market of agricultural products; propel the construction of integration and expansion of wholesale market; develop the circulation cooperatives of agricultural products; develop the integrated organization of production and sales of agricultural products.

  2. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development Effect of Characteristic Agriculture in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Based on 303 questionnaires of farmers in different types of areas of Henan Province, we analyze the impact of various factors (different types of areas, types of characteristic agriculture, sales of characteristic agricultural products, risk management of characteristic agricultural products, science and technology reliance, and improvement in farmers’ life) on the development of characteristic agriculture in Henan Province, using Logistic model. The results show that improving farmers’ living standards, expanding the sales channels, increasing scientific and technological input and perfecting risk management mechanism of agricultural products, is of great significance to promoting farmers’ satisfaction, and improving the development effect of characteristic agriculture. Finally, the relevant policy recommendations are put forth for the development of characteristic agriculture: increasing the government support; relying on scientific and technological progress to improve the quality of characteristic agricultural products; cultivating and improving the market system; perfecting risk management system.

  3. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  4. Effects of agricultural policy on the development of Slovenian agriculture during the transition and the process of accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volk Tinea S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The thesis analyzes the development of agricultural policy and agriculture in Slovenia in the period from 1992 to 2002. The analysis is based on the classification of agricultural policy and its measures, standard indicators used for analysis of development of agricultural policy and agriculture, and specific methods for evaluating the efficiency of agricultural policy (evaluation methods, simulation methods. The results show that the transition in Slovenia caused no marked shocks for agricultural production. The development goals for agriculture were set forth early (in 1992 and were modeled on the EU standards, and they remained unchanged throughout the transition. A protectionist development concept of agricultural policy was adopted, which assured a relatively high level of support to agriculture. Under this concept, the agricultural policy was substantially reoriented during the transition, but this happened gradually and was reflected above all in the re-instrumentation of policy and changes of the structure of support to agriculture. Agricultural policy was relatively successful. It managed to achieve most of the strategic development goals of agriculture and a high degree of compatibility with the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP.

  5. Construction and development of the Agricultural Science Data Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xianxue

    2007-01-01

    Science data are very important resources for innovative research in all scientific disciplines. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China has launched a comprehensive platform program for supporting scientific innovations and agricultural science database construction and sharing project is one of the activities under this program supported by MOST. This paper briefly described the achievements of the Agricultural Science Data Center Project.

  6. The Role of Organic Agriculture in Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Sarudi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural development includes local population, its way of life, employment characteristics, income structure, dwelling conditions, service levels as well as cultural aspects just as traditional handcrafts, dishes, language, clothing and habits. Since agriculture is a historically determining economic activity in rural areas its effects primarily determines the rural ways of life. New rural development policy of EU can be featured by multisectoral and integrated approach. Organic farming is based on the definition of ecology as former namings just as ˝ecological˝, ˝biological˝ represent it. Its basic aim is ensuring sustainable development whereas it uses again, from time to time to locally available reserves. Among basic principles of organic farming can be found the protection of soil and environment and this implies the usage of natural capacities of plants, animals and the landscape and willingly tries to improve the quality of the environment. It can be stated that market demand for organic products is the strongest in Europe, as much as 46% of the world´s organic product output is sold in this continent which possibly can be explained by its economic development level. This overall development reached Hungary, too. In December 2002 the estimations showed 105.000 ha and within this 54.497 ha had been registered as approved organic area. During the last year we carried out two focus group analyses examining the reasons for buying or not buying organic foods. In the presentation the most important results of the two focus groups will also be introduced in details.

  7. Moldova - Agricultural Policy Notes : Policy Priorities for Agricultural Development, Volume1. Land

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this policy note on land is to assist the Government of Moldova in improving the effectiveness of land management in agriculture, with a view to enhancing the sector's contribution to Moldova's economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. The note reviews the progress that has been made to date on land reform in Moldova, and provides rigorous economic analysis of the...

  8. PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AND AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES FROM ROMANIA AND U.E. – KEY FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of producers in associative forms open more opportunities for economic development by attracting local, regional advantages, using collective power in order to increase the prosperity of members and communities from which they belong. Worldwide, in last years, farmers are forced to adopt fundamental decisions, namely: activation in unsafe conditions in order to achieve viable agricultural holdings, resistant to competition. The association, with the purpose of a better representation in front of the authorities, is practiced also in Romanian agriculture starting from the 1990. There are in Romania numerous forms of association, both by activities and by specific branches, at county, regional and national level. Associations and national federations have a relevant representation in the territory, these becoming the dialogue partners of the authorities. Organization in professional associations and cooperatives led to improvement of the incomes of its members, strengthening the economic position and providing a service that is needed leading, ultimately, to the progress of agriculture in general. In U.E. countries, agricultural cooperatives are founded in shapes and types that vary by countries, but witch in essence have the same principles of organization and functioning. Agriculture of U.E. associates in cooperatives, called of first degree, which have as purpose realizing of the investments in upstream and downstream of agriculture for collection or processing of agricultural products. Third degree cooperatives are organized by participating of cooperatives of second degree, forming powerful financial, commercial and industrial groups. Professional associations and agricultural cooperatives from European Union, formed and consolidated over decades, plays a key role in obtaining performant products and high profits for farmers from those countries.

  9. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex; Wuya; ZHONG; Wei; YAN

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics(4PL),this paper elaborates the concept,background and development plight of agricultural products logistics,advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics,etc.and explores issues of information,efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics,draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost,and speed the efficiency of China’s agricultural products logistics.

  10. The Role of Agriculture in the Intelligent Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep away the recession and the negative effects of the production slowing down, scientists and civil society retake the analysis of the “how we grow?” possible answers dilemma. On the other hand the recent economic evolution of the Euro zone, as a major development pole of the world, shows that macroeconomic stability and sustainability is a continuous effort for all the parties involved, and that imbalances detection is not enough to solve the complex and numerous problems which do not answer quickly to the monetary stimulus. Also, in the frame of European Union, the liberalization of the capital and human flows do not have the same effect for the supplier country and for the receiving one, and the difficulty of comparing qualitative aspects still persists, in spite of common regulations and a quasi-common governance of the core phenomena. Romanian agriculture and each of its branches can basically contribute to the stability and safety of the intelligent growth and development.

  11. Rethinking Agricultural Policy in Turkey: International Context and Domestic Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Nil Doner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide a broad conceptual and historical outline of how rural development policies have been determined through technocratic policies in economic and political terms rather than participatory and transparent decision making processes. Given that the state and managerial expert groups have been the main architects of rural development and agricultural policies along with suprastate organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank, this study offers in-depth coverage of policy variations in two different cases: State-led planned economy and free market economy. This study seeks to assert that just as under the state-led economy model, the free market economy and technocratic policies in coordination with the IMF and the World Bank blocked mass mobilization and genuine democratic participation in the Turkish countryside. Neither the neoliberal and individualist nor the statist and corporatist perspectives were able to come to terms with the idea of a representative and transparent approach to policy-making processes in Turkey.

  12. Margaret Mead, Bali e o Atlas do comportamento infantil: apontamentos sobre um estudo fotográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Martinho de Mendonça

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a maneira como Margaret Mead concebeu e utilizou as imagens tomadas por Gregory Bateson em Bali (1936-1939 para desenvolver um estudo, quase dez anos depois, sobre o comportamento infantil balinês. Notam-se as limitações tanto da metodologia adotada por Mead quanto do bias político-ideológico que perpassou esse trabalho realizado durante a Guerra Fria. Tento discutir estas limitações tanto quanto sintetizar possibilidades de abordagem das imagens. Pranchas fotográficas foram selecionadas e reproduzidas para mostrar as diferentes perspectivas de abordagem das fotografias, nos trabalhos balineses e no Atlas do comportamento infantil, produzido pelo doutor Arnold Gesell.This article analyses the manner how Margaret Mead conceived and utilized the pictures taken by Gregory Bateson in Bali (1936-1939 to develop her study, almost ten years later, about the balinese children behavior. There are some limitations in this balinese photographic study caused by methodology adopted, and by the political ideological bias that crossed her research realized during the "cold war" period as well. I try to discuss these limitations and to synthesize the approach's possibilities of the images. Photographic plates are selected and reproduced here to show different perspectives of their use, in Mead's balinese works and in the Atlas of infant behavior produced by the doctor Arnold Gesell.

  13. Development and application of fuzzy indicator for assessment of agricultural land resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    With ever increasing demands on agriculture, it is essential that we be able to adequately evaluate agriculture land resources. Recently, efforts have been undertaken to develop methods and tools for the purpose of evaluating agricultural land resources. However, to be successful, assessments need...

  14. Pedagogy for Addressing the Worldview Challenge in Sustainable Development of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Bawden, Richard J.; Bergmann, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is offering new forms of support to society, as evidenced by rapid development of an agricultural "bio-economy," and increasing emphasis on production of ecological services in farmed landscapes. The advent of these innovations will engage agricultural professionals in critical civic debates about matters that are complex and that will…

  15. The Efficacy of Agriculture-led Development in Zimbabwe: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutami Cephas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at the theoretical proposition of an agriculture led development in the post-2000 Zimbabwe. The paper traces the theoretical foundations of development in developing countries and revisit critical role of agriculture in Zimbabwe. By engaging emerging literature on development and envisaging the opportunities being presented by the current development paradigm, the paper posit Zimbabwe’s future development as one which should be on agriculture particularly smallholder farmers in cash crops. The rectification of the policy discord in the agriculture sector is the hallmark of this study.

  16. Research on Harmony between Agricultural Modernization and Regional Economy Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The inharmonious development of agricultural modernization and regional economy is a major cause to the imbalanced development of regional economy in China.The evaluation index system of modern agriculture is established according to the relevant data from Chinese Agricultural Yearbook 2009,China Rural Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook.By using the Grey Relation Analysis,the developmental level of agricultural modernization of 31 provinces and cities in China is ranked and compared by combining the overall regional economic strength.The results show that the developmental level of agricultural modernization in each area of China is different;the agricultural modernization level of each area in China is inharmonious with the total economic strength;inharmonious characteristic is presented between agricultural modernization development and regional overall economy development in China.

  17. An Intersectoral Perspective on the Relationship between the Agricultural and Industrial Sectors in Chinese Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Jinding, Lin

    1992-01-01

    In a developing economy characterized by economic dualism, the interrelationship between the growth of the agricultural sector and that of the industrial sector is crucial for overall development. Theoretically, the agricultural and industrial sectors are closely linked. Agricultural progress would depend increasingly on the growth of industrial development and vice versa. However, no mutual dependency occurred in the Chinese economic development process. A causality test between the agricult...

  18. Countermeasures for Circular Agricultural Development of Chongqing Based on AHP Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Taiyan; Bai, Shuo; SUN, Shunqiang

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development, resource and environment problems become more and more prominent. Chongqing Municipality, as a city focusing on industrial development in the past, has serious problem of environmental pollution and scarce agricultural resources. At present, it is urgent to find out how to develop circular agriculture and coordinate economic, social, environmental development. On the basis of understanding the intension of circular agriculture, this paper built evaluation indi...

  19. Research Situation and Development Trend of Resource Recycling Technology for Agricultural Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Yun-hua

    2012-01-01

    Rational utilization of agricultural waste resources is of great significance to reducing environmental pollution, improving rural ecological environment, and developing agricultural circular economy. Besides, in the context of global energy crisis, the research of resource utilization technology for agricultural wastes will exert considerable influence on survival and living of human beings. We firstly discuss about general situations of agricultural waste resources in China, research and ap...

  20. Isotope and radiation applications to agricultural development in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of nuclear techniques have been recognized to be invaluable tools in agricultural research for increasing crop production and reducing food losses in the technologically developed countries. The objectives of FAO/IAEA programme are to exploit the potential of isotopes and radiation applications in R and D for increasing and stabilizing agricultural production, reducing production costs, improving food quality, protecting agricultural products from spoilage and losses and minimizing pollution of food and the agricultural environment. (author)

  1. Agriculture in Developing Countries and the Role of Government: Economic Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kanza, Patrick; Vitale, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in Developing countries and the Role of Government: From an Economic Perspective Agriculture has been a critical driver of well-being for centuries, ensuring food security and catalyzing productivity needed for economic prosperity (Robin, 2011). According to the International Food Policy Research Institute, sixty-five percent of African relies on agriculture as a primary source of livelihood, where small-scale famers are responsible for ninety percent of agricultural production (I...

  2. Evaluation on Ecological Agriculture Benefit and Coordinated Development Level in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to establish theevaluation index system of ecological agriculture benefit in Henan Province to assess its ecological agriculture benefit and coordinated development level. [Method] Based on the existing evaluation index system of ecological agriculture, the evaluation index system of ecological agriculture benefit in Henan Province was established by means of factor analysis from the aspects of economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefit, so as to assess the ecological ag...

  3. Stimulating agricultural growth and rural development in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Vijay S.; Casley, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    Economic growth in sub - Saharan Africa depends on reducing the regions deterioration in agricultural performance. But efforts to restore agricultural growth are hampered by the ecology of the region, undermined by policies that jeopardize agricultural and rural development, and complicated by sluggish global economic growth as well as agricultural policies in industrial countries. Given the region's necessary transition from a land-extensive to a land-intensive farming system, attempts to im...

  4. George Herbert Mead on Humans and Other Animals: Social Relations After Human-Animal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoda Wilkie; Andrew McKinnon

    2013-01-01

    The turn towards nonhuman animals within sociology has shed a critical light on George Herbert Mead, his apparent prioritisation of language and the anthropocentric focus of Symbolic Interactionism (SI). Although Herbert Blumer canonised Mead as the founder of this perspective he also played a key role in excising the evolutionary and 'more-than-human' components in Mead's work. This intervention not only misrepresented Mead's intellectual project, it also made symbols the predominant concern...

  5. Determination of phenolic compounds and hydroxymethylfurfural in meads using high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric-array and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahoun, David; Rezková, Sona; Veskrnová, Katerina; Královský, Josef; Holcapek, Michal

    2008-08-15

    The objective of this study was the determination of 25 phenolic compounds in different mead samples (honeywines) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with coulometric-array detection and in case of hydroxymethylfurfural with UV detection. Our method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The method development included the optimization of mobile phase composition, the pH value, conditions of the gradient elution and the flow rate using a window-diagram approach. The developed method was used for the determination of limits of detection and limits of quantitation for individual compounds. The linearity of calibration curves, accuracy and precision (intra- and inter-day) at three concentration levels (low, middle and high concentration range) were verified. Mead samples were diluted with the mobile phase at 1:1 to 1:50 ratio depending on the concentration and filtered through a PTFE filter without any other sample pre-treatment. Phenolic compounds concentration was determined in 50 real samples of meads and correlated with meads composition and hydroxymethylfurfural concentration. The most frequently occurred compounds were protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid (both of them were present in 98% samples), the least occurred compounds were (+)-catechin (10% samples) and sinapic acid (12% samples). Vanillin and ethylvanillin, which are used as artificial additives for the taste improvement, were found in 60% and 42% samples, respectively. Hydroxymethylfurfural concentration, as an indicator of honey quality, was in the range from 2.47 to 158 mg/L. Our method is applicable for the determination of 25 phenolic compounds in mead, honey and related natural samples. PMID:18620360

  6. Countermeasures for Circular Agricultural Development of Chongqing Based on AHP Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taiyan; YANG; Shuo; BAI; Shunqiang; SUN

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development,resource and environment problems become more and more prominent. Chongqing Municipality, as a city focusing on industrial development in the past,has serious problem of environmental pollution and scarce agricultural resources. At present,it is urgent to find out how to develop circular agriculture and coordinate economic,social,environmental development. On the basis of understanding the intension of circular agriculture,this paper built evaluation indicator system for development of circular agriculture from social and economic development,resource reduction input,resource recycling use,and resource and environment safety. Then,it made an evaluation of circular agricultural development of Chongqing Municipality by AHP approach combined with gray correlation analysis. Finally,it came up with countermeasures,including reducing input of agricultural production materials,strengthening land management,promoting scientific and technological progress,and improving policy systems.

  7. Advances in Research on Modern Agricultural Development in Grain Production Core Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LIU

    2015-01-01

    Grain production core area is key region of modern agricultural development in China. Through summarizing related literature about grain production area and modern agricultural development researches both at home and abroad,it obtained characteristics and existing problems in the modern agricultural development of the grain production core area. It is found that there are many research perspectives in modern agricultural development of the grain production core area. On the basis of analyzing the grain production core area and connotation,mode and evaluation of the modern agricultural development,it is concluded that further study should be carried out for adopting which development mode and how to make evaluation,so as to provide theoretical guidance for balanced development of modern agriculture in grain production core area of different regions.

  8. Expanding the Frontiers of Agricultural Economics to Meet the Future Challenges of Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten, Johann F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I challenge the theoretical building blocks of agricultural economics and then provide some indication of how the discipline has rectified some of its shortcomings. The introduction of the New Institutional Economics into our discipline has been a major improvement. I have then argued that the challenges facing our profession are so huge that we need to think about further adaptation by making more use of other social sciences such as sociology and anthropology. This could help ...

  9. Consideration of nuclear technology development on agricultural industrialization in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the application of nuclear technology in Xinjiang agriculture along with industrialization and economic benefit since 1970s. Current problems in this field were analyzed and corresponding advices were presented. (authors)

  10. AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Drabenstott, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Industrialization is rapidly becoming a topic of great attention. Driven by fundamental economic forces, industrialization seems likely to advance ore quickly in the coming decade to more industry segments. By changing the way agriculture does business, industrialization will also bring change to public policy and agricultural institutions. Commodity policy will increasingly be out of step with a product-oriented industry. And as industrialization blurs the lines between producers and process...

  11. Returns to labour in developing country agriculture: India.

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaraman I

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, rural employment policy research programme on agricultural income in India - examines wages of agricultural workers and farmer household income; analyses rural area labour force participation incl. Rural women, land tenure, consumer expenditure, etc.; covers wage determination, labour market segmentation, labour productivity by farm size, Terms of Trade, etc.; finds long term erosion of real earnings of hired labour. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  12. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Jiayou

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and biocides. At the same time, the availability of resources {e.g. agricultural land) decreases. The objective of this study is to operationalize a methodology to assess the effectiveness of new crop and li...

  13. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  14. On the Cooperation of Jiangmen City with Guangzhou Experimental Station,CATAS in Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqing; ZHENG; Zhiyang; LI; Qiongyan; LI; Shouxing; WEI

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the provinces in China with the best modern agricultural industry and the highest production efficiency.While Jiangmen City,one of the agriculture-based cities in Guangdong Province,has made active exploration in building a modern agricultural system.China has established cooperation with the four largest agricultural research institutes in China to offer technical support for the development of modern agriculture.In this paper,the status quo and existing problems of agricultural development in Jiangmen,Guangdong are briefly introduced.Then,the cooperation status and prospect of local government with the research institutes are discussed.Finally some suggestions are given on the agricultural development pattern in Jiangmen City.

  15. Practical Model and Countermeasures for the Development of Ecological Circular Agriculture in Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Development status and five principal practice modes of ecological cycling agriculture are introduced,such as the quantitative reduction mode with the characteristics of fertilizer reduction and clean production,the ecological chain connection and conversion mode including the combination of farming and grazing and the new mode of farming,the agricultural waste recycling mode with biogas as a link and the comprehensive utilization of waste,quality enhancement mode of agricultural products,and eco-cycle mode of agricultural park.Based on the analysis of the socio-economic characteristic environment of these modes,corresponding policy suggestions are put forward in order to promote the development of circular agriculture,such as improving the macro-control mechanism led by the government,promoting the construction of technological innovation system of ecological circular agriculture,and creating the atmosphere for circular agriculture development.

  16. Development of magnets for agricultural radiation processing facility at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10 MeV, 5 kW electron Linac based Agricultural Radiation Processing Facility is being set-up near DABH Vegetable and Fruit Market, Indore. In this paper the design and development of a set of solenoid and scanning magnets required for the Linac is presented. The solenoid magnets include small aperture (22 mm diameter) beam collimator magnet and other water cooled solenoid magnets of peak fields of 1200 Gauss and 500 Gauss to be placed around the Linac assembly between the RF couplers to improve beam transmission. The beam collimator magnet has been designed for an axial peak magnetic field of 410 Gauss and will be placed after the electron gun and before the Linac. The scanning magnet has been designed for maximum field strength of 436 Gauss for wider scanning of the electron beam. The cross-section of all the solenoid magnets were determined by computing the field distribution with the 2D magneto static POISSON code and 3D calculations were performed using OPERA 3D Code. The forces between the water cooled solenoids are also estimated since all the solenoid magnets are placed near to each other around the Linac assembly structure. The water cooled solenoids were made from hollow copper conductors and shielded around them with low carbon steel sheets. The magnet cores of collimators were manufactured from low carbon steel and coils from enameled copper wires. The scanning magnet core cross-section is of C-type, fabricated from 0.5 mm silicon steel laminations and coils from enameled copper wires. All the wound magnet coils were epoxy resin impregnated under vacuum and assembled with magnet cores. The magnetic field measurements of all the magnets were carried out using Hall probe. After field measurements, all the magnetic elements have been installed in the Linac assembly. The details of magnetic design, magnet development and the magnetic measurements will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. The development of South African agriculture with an emphasis on the wool industry

    OpenAIRE

    Páchová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on the development of South African agriculture with a greater emphasis on the wool industry. This work is divided into two parts; the first part defines the general trends in the development of agribusiness, the current role, the specifics and the position of agriculture in the world with the influences of globalization. It also describes the historical development of the agricultural sector in South Africa and the general characteristics of the wool commodity. The...

  18. A SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT: THE TOPMARD CORE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas G. Johnson; Bryden, John Marshall; Refsgaard, Karen; Alva Lizarraga, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the TOPMARD project is to develop a model of agriculture and rural development to better understand the agronomic, ecological, economic and social dimensions of rural regions. The resulting model, (Policy Model of Multifunctional Agriculture and Rural Development) was built collaboratively and hierarchically by the research teams from the 11 countries. The model features eight subsectors (Land, Agriculture, Tourism, Region, Human Resources, Non-commodities, Capital, and Quality of...

  19. Comprehensive Evaluation on the Agricultural Sustainable Development with the Smallest Generalized Deviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation index system of agricultural sustainable development is constructed with the four components of social index,agricultural economic index,resources index,and environment index.According to the comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the participation of single person,comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the smallest generalized deviation and the participation of many people is established.Based on the case studies,agricultural sustainable development status of a certain region is evaluated.Result shows that the evaluation scores of the social index and agricultural economic index are high in this region,but the score of resources index is general and the evaluation result of environment index is not very good.The comprehensive evaluation value of overall sustainable development is 0.665 5;and the evaluation result is "good".

  20. The Construction of Ecological Agriculture in Gongcheng County and Its Development Ideas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of survey of current situations of eco-agricultural construction in Gongcheng County, major "Cultivation + Methane + Planting" triple model of ecological agriculture in Gongcheng County is presented. Then, the eco-agricultural benefits of Gongcheng County are analyzed from three aspects, namely economic, social and ecological benefits. Through summing up, the eco-agricultural construction of Gongcheng County has following problems: imperfect ecological technological system; follow-up service level and ability to be improved; slow in unified planning and design and industrialization step. Finally, ideas of further development of ecological agriculture in Gongcheng County are put forward. These include proper planning and overall management, extending ideas and deepening eco-agricultural construction system; strengthening development of ecological tourism; and perfecting social service system for ecological agriculture.

  1. Dialética positiva: de Mead a Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor discute a importância da psicologia social de G. H. Mead para o pensamento social de Habermas. De especial interesse para o filósofo alemão é a confluência, em Mead, de duas linhas de reflexão do pragmatismo norte-americano - a filosofia analítica da linguagem e a teoria psicológica do comportamento - na crítica à filosofia da consciência. Apesar de denominar sua teoria ''behaviorismo social'', Mead se afasta das teorias do comportamento clássicas, ao enfatizar a experiência interna do indivíduo, e fazê-lo tendo como ponto de partida o ''todo social''. O artigo expõe, então, como a teoria da razão comunicativa pretende incorporar e, ao mesmo tempo, ultrapassar essa abordagem.

  2. Trade Liberalization in Agriculture in Developed Nations and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbajit Chaudhuri; Jayanta Kumar Dwibedi

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to analyze the consequence of trade liberalization in agriculture in the developed countries on the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three- sector general equilibrium model with informal sectors. Adult labour and child labour are substitutes to each other in the two informal sectors of the economy and are used together apart from capital in producing two exportable commodities. The interesting result that appears from the analysis is tha...

  3. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Takahashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.

  4. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture in Henan province were systematically analyzed using SWOT method in our study. The aspects including location, resources, traffic, population, economy, urbanization, industrialization, market, policy, capital, product, technology, management, marketing and environment were involved. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat were quantified in this study using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method. Findings and Originality/value: The result showed that the total strength and total opportunity of Henan leisure agriculture are much greater than that of total weakness and total threat, which suggests that the opportunities outweigh threats, and advantage outweigh disadvantage. The growth-oriented strategy combining the external opportunities and its own advantages shall be employed in development of Henan leisure agriculture as indicated by the strategy strength coefficient in strategy quadrangle we have constructed. The barriers to the development need to be overcome while strengthening competitive advantages. Originality/value: New ideas for working out the developmental strategy for Henan leisure agriculture is provided by SWOT-AHP method.

  5. 78 FR 13855 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the... International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD). The meeting will be held from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m... and Integrated Pest Management as related to refinement of current USAID/BFS research focus areas...

  6. THE PERSPECTIVE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL IN VRANCEA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂDULESCU CARMEN VALENTINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important field and also a priority of Romania's development. In this regard, providing food for population is a factor that ensures the specificity of agriculture. For this reason, we can consider that agriculture is a starting point for the socio-economic development of the country. Romania is recognized, at European and international level, for its experience in cultivating natural and traditional products. The agricultural area offers the possibility of supplying raw materials for both the population and for the manufacturing industry. It is aimed that the organization of the agricultural area to be made so that the lands that have agricultural destination to be used as rationally as possible. Also, it is important to introduce in the agricultural circuit all the unused lands. The fragmentation of the agricultural land is a disadvantage in the process of rational organization of agricultural area. Efficient use of land, as a requirement of the intensive and durable agriculture is a complex activity that involves conservation activities and soil improvement. Due to the role that they have, the approach of the aspects referring to the medium and big farms has to be different from the approaches referring to the small farms. If the farms from the first category take into account the agriculture as a business, the small farms are important for the rural area by oferring food and social security and means of traditional production that contributes to the environment conservation. Romania's economic recovery can be achieved based on the attention that has to be given to this field. Being an important factor of social stability and of the maintainance of the ecological balance, agriculture enjoys an increasing attention worldwide. The supply and the demand of food determines the use of agricultural resources. The article presents the current situation of agriculture, at national and regional levels. Through this analysis, we

  7. Income Gap Between Urban and Rural Residents in Guangxi on the Impact of Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The gap between urban and rural incomes in Guangxi is increasing year by year in a rising tendency,which resulted in agricultural development impact cannot be ignored.Such impact on agricultural development was analyzed from three aspects:agricultural development fund,farmland and food problems and labor force flow.The following problems were found:capitals flew to non-agricultural industry,which resulted in deficiency of agricultural development fund;farmland reduced and the problem of food supply was highlighted;labor force in rural areas emigrated,the price of agricultural products rose up.Related policies were offered:to strengthen the financial support;to speed up utilization of abundant labor force;to motivate farmers’ enthusiasm in food production;to increase investment in farmers’ endowment insurance and retirement pension in rural areas.

  8. Development of Urban Agriculture:A Case Study of Qianjin Village,Jiangxia District,Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We take the case of Qianjin Village,Jiangxia District,Wuhan City,to research how to establish the system of urban agriculture with distinctive features relying on the advantage of urban resources.Under the guidance of guiding ideology,basic principles and overall objectives of urban agriculture development planning,we analyze the specific construction planning of urban agriculture in Qianjin Village,mainly including the construction of growing areas and construction of leisure areas.Then we put forth the security system of development of urban agriculture as follows: land transfer is the prerequisite of development of urban agriculture;policy support is the important foundation of development of urban agriculture; agricultural science and technology is strong support for development of urban agriculture;good leadership is the organizational guarantee for development of urban agriculture;the industrialization of agriculture is the main objective of development of urban agriculture.

  9. Economic crisis and its consequences on the living standard and development of the agriculture in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Marko, Jelocnik; Lana, Nastic

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis had transferred to Serbia at the end of 2008, causing the economic growth slowdown and macroeconomic stability endangerment. Agriculture, the strategic branch of national economy was affected as well, and despite favourable climatic, natural, human and technical-technological potentials, it had influenced reduction of agricultural development far below the real possibilities. Prior to the crisis potentials for agricultural development in Serbia were unused. Comprehensive a...

  10. Meade ETX-LS天文望远镜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    还在觉得天文摄影很深奥.很复杂吗?有了Meade ETX-LS天文望远镜,一切就很简单了。Meade ETX-LS是由电脑操控CCD相机的天文望远镜,只要打开开关,内置电脑就会用内置全球定位系统连接到上空的人造卫星,得到当时所在位置及时间。

  11. Mead production: comparison of different production scales (preliminary results)

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Teresa; Barradas, Carla; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João Verdial; Morais, Jorge Sá; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2010-01-01

    Mead production represents a possible economic alternative to honey producers that intend to obtain honey products with surplus value. From that the present work aims to study the influence of using different production scales on the quality of the final mead obtained and on the process performance. Increasing the production scale almost ten times (1.5 to 20 L), some differences were observed. Maximum specific growth rates equal to 0.045 and 0.038 h-1 were obtained for fermentations carried o...

  12. Mead production: selection and characterization assays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    OpenAIRE

    de Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João Verdial; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2009-01-01

    http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=10&SID=V12mKh9k9n8jHN@CK7o&page=1&doc=1&colname=WOS Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. However, when it is produced in a homemade way, mead producers find several problems, namely, the lack of uniformity in the final product, delayed and arrested fermentations, and the production of “off-flavours” by the yeasts. These problems ...

  13. Cluster Analysis of the Agricultural Economic Development in the Districts and Counties of Qingyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongya; MA

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of economic growth,agricultural development,the development of township enterprises and farmers’ income,we select 11 indicators to build the evaluation indicator system for the agricultural economic development in the districts and counties of Qingyang City. Using data processing and SPSS13. 0 statistical software,we carry out the cluster analysis of the level of economic development in the districts and counties,and divide the level of agricultural economic development of these districts and counties into three economic gradients in descending order:(i) The first gradient: Xifeng;(ii) The second gradient: Qingchi and Huachi;(iii) The third gradient: Huanxian,Heshui,Zhengning,Ningxian and Zhenyuan. The study results systematically reflect the level of agricultural economic development in the districts and counties,and point out the status of the districts and counties in Qingyang’s agricultural economic development. Finally we put forth the corresponding recommendations.

  14. Will Digital Technologies Transform Agriculture in Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Deichmann, Uwe; Goyal, Aparajita; Mishra, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones and the internet have significantly affected practically all sectors of the economy, and agriculture is no exception. Building on a recent World Bank flagship report, this paper introduces a concise framework for describing the main benefits from new information and communications technologies. They promote greater inclusion in the broader economy, raise efficiency by complem...

  15. Leadership Development in Agricultural Economics: Challenges for Academic Units

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Crafting and executing strategy are key tasks to be carried out by a manager of an enterprise. Unit leaders are managers of an academic enterprise called a department. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of information collected from interviews with unit leaders of departments of agricultural economics and discuss challenges being faced by these unit leaders in March 2009.

  16. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong Jiayou,

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and bioc

  17. AN ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPING CAPABILITY OF INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the provincial units evaluation, this paper makes an assessment for sustainable developingcapability of the integrated agricultural regionalization in China. At first, an index system of agricultural sustainabledevelopment in China is built up, which includes 5 supporting subsystems of agricultural resources, agricultural develop-ment, environment and ecosystem, rural society, sciences-education and management. We selected 95 factors on provin-cial level as basic indexes. Second, a relative assets/debt assessing method is used to gain relative net assets values(relative superiority) of every provincial unit, which are as supporting data for assessment. We also overlaid the Administra-tive Divisions Map of China and the Map of Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of China by Geography Information Sys-tem (GIS) to gain the area units of assessment. Third, according to the relative coherence principle of regionalization,we transform administration units to natural units through homogenizing all provincial relative net assets values in everyagricultural assessing unit. After making order and grade, we complete the sustainable developing capability assessmentto integrated agricultural regionalization in China. The assessing outcome shows that the total sustainable agricultural develop-ing capability of China is not high. Only about 1/3 in number or in area has reached the level of agricultural sustainabledevelopment. The relative net assets values exists a reducing trend from East China to West China. It needs a long periodand great efforts to realize sustainable agricultural development over all China. Finally, there is a discussion to the studymethod.

  18. The Evaluation on Ecological Agricultural Development in Sichuan Province on the Basis of Grey Relational Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the grey relational model,14 indexes of ecological agricultural development in Sichuan Province from 1997 to 2008 are analyzed.According to the relational degree results,the ecological agricultural development in 12 years can be divided into three stages:the first stage is from 1997 to 2000,with the shape of inverted U;the second stage is from 2001 to 2004,belonging to transition stage with slow growth rate;the third stage is from 2005 to 2008,belonging to the stage of rapid growth.It draws conclusion that per capita grain yield is an important element for evaluating ecological agricultural construction.Besides,reducing the energy consumption of per unit production,improving labor productivity and increasing agricultural science and technology application and input on agricultural infrastructure construction are the engine for developing Sichuan ecological agriculture.

  19. Problems and Countermeasures for the Development of Modern Agriculture in Henan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current status of agricultural development in Henan Province of China is analyzed,showing that the agricultural production condition is increasingly improved;food production reaches to a new level;characteristic agriculture and green agricultural production begin to take shape;the level of agricultural mechanization is significantly improved;and the agricultural standardization and opening degree are enhanced.Problems in the development of modern agriculture in Henan Province are pointed out,such as the prominent pressure on the increase in grain production,the great risks in food safety,the tough employment situation,and the weak ecological environment.Countermeasures for developing the modern agriculture in Henan Province are put forward,including stabilizing cultivation area,optimizing structure,relying on science and technology,doing everything possible to ensure the increase in grain production,strengthening the supervision on food safety,actively exploring the employment space of modern agriculture,and protecting ecological environment by modern agriculture.

  20. From Agricultural Extension to Capacity Development: Exploring the Foundations of an Emergent Form of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Al

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that capacity development is a response to changes in the organization and practice of agricultural extension as these changes have excluded small resource farmers. In this essay I trace the changes in the organization of agricultural extension through to the emergence of the concept and practice of capacity development. The idea…

  1. The pondering on the law of development of nuclear agriculture sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present and history of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China were studied in order to explore its law of development. The conclusion is that the human resource was one of the key factors and the system of market economy or plan economy was not an important factor for restricting the development of nuclear agricultural sciences in China

  2. The pondering on law of the development of nuclear agriculture sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present and history of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China were studied in order to explore its law of development. The conclusion is that the human resource was one of the key factors and the system of market economy or plan economy was not an important factor for restricting the development of nuclear agricultural sciences in China. (authors)

  3. Prioritizing Nutrition in Agriculture and Rural Development : Guiding Principles for Operational Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Herforth, Anna; Jones, Andrew; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural and rural development provides a critically important opportunity for reducing malnutrition. The purpose of this paper is to provide a set of guiding principles for incorporating nutrition goals into the design and implementation of agricultural and rural development projects, and to provide examples of current best evidence options for operational investments. Several princip...

  4. Mead production: effect of nitrogen supplementation on growth, fermentation profile and aroma formation by yeasts in mead fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, A.P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira, J. M.; Estevinho, L .M.; Faia, Arlete Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Mead is an alcoholic beverage, produced since ancient times, resulting from an alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. When it is produced in a traditional manner, mead producers can encounter several problems related to a lack of es-sential nutrients, such as available nitrogen. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen addition to honey-must on the fermentation performance of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts, QA23 and ICV D47, as well as on the me...

  5. Development of Agricultural Recycle Economy in Arid Areas of Hexi Corridor——A Case Study of Zhangye City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Zhangye City as an example, the thesis analyzes the restricted factors of resources and environment confronted by the agriculture in arid area of Hexi Corridor: the first is the agricultural natural resources. The area of cultivated land decreases year by year, and there are sharp decrease of biological diversity as well as the shortage and waste of water resources; the second is the ecological environment. There are critical soil erosion, frequent natural disaster and outstanding agricultural area source pollution; the third is the rural economy. The agricultural structure still can not meet the need of agricultural development in recent years, and the proportion of agricultural product processing is low. It points out that implementation of agricultural recycle economy is the necessary choice of the agricultural development in Zhangye City. Developing recycle economy is conducive to improving ecological environment and realizing agricultural sustainable development; developing recycle economy can solve the agricultural area source pollution to much extent and protect rural environment; developing recycle economy is conducive to adjusting rural industrial structure, increasing job opportunities and increasing farmers’ income; developing recycle economy is conducive to elevating the international competitiveness of agricultural products. The thesis also has put forward the countermeasures of developing agricultural recycle economy in Zhangye City as follows: firstly, fostering the ambience of the development of agricultural recycle economy; secondly, forming the incentive mechanism of development of agricultural recycle economy; thirdly, broadening the investment channel of development of agricultural recycle economy; fourthly, perfecting socialized service system of agricultural recycle economy.

  6. 精确农业背景下我国农业机械发展趋势%The Tendency of China's Agricultural Machinery Development Under Precision Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段向敏; 代荣

    2013-01-01

    精确农业是世界农业发展的新潮流,是传统农业发展的必然趋势。为此,讲述了我国发展精确农业的必要性,并简单说明了国外智能农业机械的发展现状及趋势;分析了我国精确农业背景下的农业机械化发展存在的问题,对比国外精确农业的发展并结合我国基本国情,对我国新形势下的智能农业机械发展提出意见。%Precision agriculture is the latest trend in contemporary agriculture , precision agriculture also is the inevitable trend of the traditional agricultural .This paper chiefly tells about the necessity of developing precise agriculture in China and current situation and development trend of intelligent agricultural machinery in foreign countries .This paper analyzes the existing problems of developing agricultural mechanization under precision agriculture in China .Comparing with the development of precision agriculture in foreign countries , in addition , considering China ’ s fundamental condition , paper has put forward opinions to develop intelligent agricultural machinery under precise agriculture in China .

  7. NASA Applied Sciences' DEVELOP National Program: Summer 2010 Florida Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Zachary C.; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    The main agricultural areas in South Florida are located within the fertile land surrounding Lake Okeechobee. The Atlantic Watershed monthly rainfall anomalies showed a weak but statistically significant correlation to the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI). No other watershed s anomalies showed significant correlations with ONI or the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). During La Nina months, less sea breeze days and more disturbed days were found to occur compared to El Nino and neutral months. The increase in disturbed days can likely by attributed to the synoptic pattern during La Nina, which is known to be favorable for tropical systems to follow paths that affect South Florida. Overall, neither sea breeze rainfall patterns nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida s main agricultural areas were found to be strongly influenced by the El Nino Southern Oscillation during our study time.

  8. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971,in the Meadows report (1972 and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987. The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In such conditions we are obliged to follow a twin-track strategy: (1livestock systems with high productivity potentials; (2traditional pastoral systems and organic agriculture, on marginal lands, which allow the utilisation of extensive grazing lands, the conservation of environment, genetic resources, landscape, the minimisation of the use of non-renewable resources and the production of "natural foods".

  9. Analysis of Factors Influencing Development of Resource-saving and Environment-friendly Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By selecting the data from 1989 to 2009 in China, we conduct regression analysis on the total output value of agriculture, the usage amount of chemical fertilizer, total power of agricultural machinery, effective irrigation area, and the damage area. The results show that the usage amount of chemical fertilizer and the damage area, the great obstacle to the construction of resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture, have significant impact on the output value of agriculture; total power of agricultural machinery and effective irrigation area have insignificant impact on the output value of agriculture. Based on these, the suggestions for promoting the development of resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture are put forward as follows: transform agricultural production mode, and optimize the industrial structure of agriculture; promote scientific use of chemical fertilizer, and promote the ability of agriculture to resist risks; promote the development of biogas in rural areas, and carry out the comprehensive use of biological material resources in rural areas.

  10. The Ecological Service Function Development of Urban Modern Agriculture in Tianjin City and Corresponding Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; QIN; Guoxing; SUN; Jin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current situation of ecological environment of agriculture in Tianjin City,we divide the ecological service function of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City into seven types: air regulation,climate regulation,water conservation,soil formation and protection, waste disposal,biodiversity conservation,and ecological entertainment. According to the method for assessing the value of natural ecosystem, coupled with the ecological service value equivalency factor table of China’s ecosystem formulated by domestic scholars,we estimate the ecological value in Tianjin City. The results show that the actual ecological value of agriculture in Tianjin City was 30. 752 billion yuan in 2010,close to the agricultural economic value ( 31. 733 billion yuan) in 2010. Finally we put forth the following countermeasures for the ecological function development of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City: strictly protecting arable land,and raising the standards of compensation for agricultural land requisition; actively and prudently developing facility agriculture,and preventing the blind scale expansion of facility agriculture to better give play to its ecological function; strengthening the construction of ecological agriculture,and promoting the market conversion of the ecological service value of agriculture; improving the environment,to form relatively complete agro-ecological system.

  11. Study on Balanced Development of Industrialization,Urbanization and Agricultural Modernization in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the connotation of balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization",and points out the problems thwarting balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization" in Henan Province as follows:the level of industrialization is not high;the general level of urbanization is low;the agricultural foundation is weak and there are many institutional barriers.The goal of balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization" in Henan Province is to take a road of industrialization and urbanization,not at the expense of agriculture and food.Based on this,the measures are put forward for balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization " in Henan Province as follows:keep to the new road of industrialization with characteristics of Henan Province,promote the development of industry and accelerate the transformation of pattern;keep to the road of new urbanization with characteristics of Henan Province,and promote the rapid change in urban development pattern;adhere to the road of agricultural modernization with characteristics of Henan Province,and promote the rapid change in pattern of agricultural development.

  12. Developing conservation agriculture with trees learning center in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Ella, Victor B.; Javier, E.; Manuel R. Reyes

    2013-01-01

    This poster presented crop production in a conservation agriculture with tree (CAT) system in the upland area in Claveria, Misamis, Philippines. CAT is very important in soil and water conservation, enhancing agri-diversity, improving farm carbon sequestration potential, maximization of land area usage in the Philippines as well as the reversal of soil degradation thus improving food and nutritional security of the upland dwellers.

  13. Developing Conservation Agriculture Production Systems in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Arcinal, Gil A.; Edralin, Don Immanuel; Ella, Victor B.; Manuel R. Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Conservation agriculture with trees (CAT) offers solution to this pressing problem through following 5 key principles: Minimum soil disturbance, continuous mulch, maintaining diverse crop species, integrated pests and nutrient management. CAT is very important in soil and water conservation, enhancing agri-diversity, improving farm carbon sequestration potential, maximization of land area usage in the Philippines as well as the reversal of soil degradation thus improving food and nutritional ...

  14. Journal of Agricultural Trade and Development, Volume 6, Issue 2

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2010-01-01

    Table of Contents: (1)Kancs, d'Artis and Pavel Ciaian: "Factor Content of Agricultural Trade in a Generalized Three Factor Model," pp. 137-158; (2) Thompson, Wyat, Pierre Charlebois and Gregoire Tallard: "'Trades Like Chicken? Three Representations of Chicken Trade for Policy and Market Analysis,'" pp. 159-174; (3) Gomez, Miguel I., Jun Lee and Julia Koerner: "Do Retail Coffee Prices Raise Faster than They Fall? Asymmetric Price Transmission in France, Germany and the United States," pp. 175-...

  15. Agriculture, diffusion, and development: Ripple effects of the neolithic revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Putterman, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Are the Neolithic revolution’s effects still impacting incomes across the world today? I find strong support for this proposition using new, country-specific estimates of the timing of agricultural transition. While support with my data is slightly weaker than with the coarser data of Hibbs and Olsson (2004), I provide evidence that the differences are due to how technological diffusion is accounted for. A correction for world migrations since 1500 significantly improves the fit. Transition y...

  16. Agricultural Development in the European Union: Drivers, Challenges and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Giurca Vasilescu

    2008-01-01

    The agricultural and food sector of the EU has shown great resilience and adaptability over the last decades to a changing technological, economic and social environment. This adjustment took place within a supportive policy setting which contributed to alter the pace of this long-term process. Whereas the agri-food sector still represents today an important component of the EU economy, it has also shown critical importance for the environment and landscape in contributing over the centuries ...

  17. African Land Ecology: Opportunities and Constraints for Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Voortman; Sonneveld, B. G. J. S.; M.A. Keyzer

    2000-01-01

    Current agriculture in Sub-Sahara Africa is undeveloped and the Green Revolution has left the continent largely untouched. Poor performance is often related to a number of socio-economic factors. In this paper we argue that there are also some specifities of natural resources, namely local homogeneity and spatial diversity of the pre-dominant Basement Complex soils, that imply that simple fertilizer strategies may not produce the yield increases obtained elsewhere. Keywords: Sub-Sahara Africa...

  18. Physiocratic Aspects of Accountancy Profession Development in Agricultural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Metelytsia

    2012-01-01

    Summing up the views of the Physical Economy founders (F. Quesnay, P.S. Dupont de Nemours, Turgot A.R.ZH.) the role of accountancy in the agrarian sector management has been defined. The physiocratic aspects of the accounting profession which form its agricultural segment have been described. These aspects include: status of the subject of accounting, identification and classification of industry-specific objects, methodological approaches to the valuation of accounting objects and preparatio...

  19. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-01-01

    The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971),in the Meadows report (1972) and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987). The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In...

  20. Practical Model and Countermeasures for the Development of Ecological Circular Agriculture in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Shui-ming; Ye, Xue-zhu; Zhao, Shou-ping; Yu, Guo-guang

    2011-01-01

    Development status and five principal practice modes of ecological cycling agriculture are introduced, such as the quantitative reduction mode with the characteristics of fertilizer reduction and clean production, the ecological chain connection and conversion mode including the combination of farming and grazing and the new mode of farming, the agricultural waste recycling mode with biogas as a link and the comprehensive utilization of waste, quality enhancement mode of agricultural products...

  1. FDI in Agricultural Land, Welfare and Unemployment in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit; Banerjee, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    The paper purports to examine the consequences of foreign direct investment (FDI) in agricultural land in a developing economy using a three-sector general equilibrium model with simultaneous existence off unemployment of both skilled and unskilled labour. The analysis finds that FDI in agriculture does not only improve national welfare unequivocally but also mitigates unemployment problem of both types of labour. The paper theoretically justifies the desirability of flow of FDI in agricultur...

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF LAND BANK FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE TECHNIQUE OF GRANTING RURAL LAND LOAN

    OpenAIRE

    LUCIAN-ION MEDAR; IRINA-ELENA CHIRTOC

    2013-01-01

    In Romania, with the liberalization of the land market, appears the prospect of functioning of a specialized agricultural bank which might be named ,,land bank’’. In principle, this institution can buy and sell agricultural land and to provide priority "rural land loan" for farm development. Mainly, it may incorporate an advantageous loan system created for those who want to buy land for agriculture use, once of the liberalization of land market since 2014. In this article we present some det...

  3. Agriculture In Brazil´s Midwest Region: Limitations And Future Challenges to Development

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, César Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Among the economic activities in Brazil´s Midwest region, agriculture has an important role in the regional economy, with the aim of this study to evaluate the recent situation of regional agriculture in order to identify constraints and opportunities for development and discuss actions that may contribute to the expansion of regional production. A region that increased its participation in national agricultural gross domestic product (GDP), from 7.4% in 1970 to 19.5% in 2009, demonstrated in...

  4. Institutional Environments for Certified Organic Agriculture: Enabling Development, Smallholders Livelihood and Public Goods for Southern Environments?

    OpenAIRE

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the case for research on institutional environments for organically certified agriculture in developing countries. Observing that some analyses hold Southern organic agriculture as pro-poor and perhaps also more energy efficient than fossil fuel dependent industrialized agriculture, the paper explores differences and similarities in the policy rationale of promoting certified organics in North and South. Based on analysis of institutional environments for COA in Brazil and...

  5. Agricultural Research Problems in Small Developing Countries: Case Studies from the South Pacific Island Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaker, J. Brian; Fleming, Euan M.

    1989-01-01

    While research-based technological improvements are an important part of a successful agricultural development strategy, the small South Pacific Island Nations face special difficulties in attaining such innovations because of their particular agricultural production and marketing circumstances and because of diseconomies of small size in research. There is a need to sharpen the focus of national agricultural research efforts on adaptive work, implying both increased international and regiona...

  6. Solar Education and Outreach at Columbus State University's Mead Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael; Hood, J.; Cruzen, S. T.

    2006-12-01

    Since Columbus State University’s Mead Observatory opened its doors in 1996, the primary goals have been public outreach and education using its main 16-inch telescope and an army of smaller 8and 10inch telescopes that travel to many locations giving adults and children a new view on the night sky. In 2001, Mead Observatory’s main instrument, the 16-inch Meade LX200, was converted to a full-time solar telescope with a generous grant from a private foundation. Since 2001, the Solar Observatory has grown to include an online accessibility that allows schools from around the world to log on and experience the Sun from their own classroom. At the beginning of 2006, the decision was made to upgrade some of the hardware and software used for online access. The upgrades were intended to make the online experience easier for teachers and allow for better imaging over the internet. This poster highlights how these changes enhance the online experience and allow the Mead Observatory to achieve is educational outreach goals.

  7. George Herbert Mead, Um, osoba i društvo

    OpenAIRE

    Bačeković, Alica

    2004-01-01

    Prikaz knjige George Herbert Mead, Um, osoba i društvo sa stajališta socijalnog biheviorista, priredio i uvod napisao Charles W. Morris, s engleskoga preveo Srđan Dvornik, Naklada Jesenski i Turk, Hrvatsko sociološko društvo, Zagreb 2003, xxx + 392 str

  8. Performance investigation of an advanced multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination system with quantum performance improvement. The proposed multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle utilizes a single heat source i.e., low-temperature hot water (as low as 55°C). Passive heating of the feed water (no direct heating) is adopted using total internal heat recovery from the kinetic energy of desorbed vapor and water vapor uptake potential of the adsorbent. Thus, the evaporation in the MEAD cycle ensues at low temperatures ranging from 35°C to 7°C yet providing significantly high performance ratio. The energy from the regenerated vapor is recovered for multiple evaporation/condensation of saline water by a water-run-around circuit between the top brine temperature (TBT) effect and the AD condenser. The adsorbent material is the hydrophilic mesoporous silica gel with high pore surface area. Numerical simulation for such a cycle is developed based on experimentally verified model extending to multi-effect cycle. The system is investigated under several operation conditions such as cycle time allocation, heat source temperature and the number of intermediate effects. It is observed that most of the evaporating-condensing effects operate at low temperature i.e., below 35°C as opposed to conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) cycle. For a MEAD cycle with 7 intermediate effects, the specific water production rate, the performance ratio and the gain output ratio are found to be 1.0m3/htonne of silica gel, 6.3 and 5.1, respectively. Low scaling and fouling potentials being evaporation at low temperatures yet high recovery ratio makes the cycle suitable for effectively and efficiently handling highly concentrated feed water such as produced water, brine rejected from other desalination plants and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Mead: An interdisciplinary study of the marine effects of atmospheric deposition in the Kattegat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spokes, L. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, East Anglia (United Kingdom); Jickells, T. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, East Anglia (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: t.jickells@uea.ac.uk; Weston, K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, East Anglia (United Kingdom); Gustafsson, B.G. [Department of Oceanography, Goteborg University, Goteborg (Sweden); Johnsson, M. [Department of Oceanography, Goteborg University, Goteborg (Sweden); Liljebladh, B. [Department of Oceanography, Goteborg University, Goteborg (Sweden); Conley, D. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Ambelas-Skjodth, C. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Brandt, J. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, J. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Christiansen, T. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Frohn, L. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Geernaert, G. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Jensen, B. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Lundsgaard, C. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Markager, S.; Martinsen, W.; Moller, B.; Pedersen, B.; Sauerberg, K. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, L.L.; Hasager, C.C. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Sempreviva, A.M. [ISAC-CNR, Rome (Italy); Pryor, S.C. [Atmospheric Science Programme, Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Lund, S.W.; Larsen, S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Tjernstroem, M.; Svensson, G.; Zagar, M. [Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    This paper summarises the results of the EU funded MEAD project, an interdisciplinary study of the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the Kattegat Sea between Denmark and Sweden. The study considers emissions of reactive nitrogen gases, their transport, transformations, deposition and effects on algal growth together with management options to reduce these effects. We conclude that atmospheric deposition is an important source of fixed nitrogen to the region particularly in summer, when nitrogen is the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, and contributes to the overall eutrophication pressures in this region. However, we also conclude that it is unlikely that atmospheric deposition can, on its own, induce algal blooms in this region. A reduction of atmospheric nitrogen loads to this region will require strategies to reduce emissions of ammonia from local agriculture and Europe wide reductions in nitrous oxide emissions. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an important factor in eutrophication processes in the Kattegat.

  10. MEAD: an interdisciplinary study of the marine effects of atmospheric deposition in the Kattegat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, L; Jickells, T; Weston, K; Gustafsson, B G; Johnsson, M; Liljebladh, B; Conley, D; Ambelas-Skjødth, C; Brandt, J; Carstensen, J; Christiansen, T; Frohn, L; Geernaert, G; Hertel, O; Jensen, B; Lundsgaard, C; Markager, S; Martinsen, W; Møller, B; Pedersen, B; Sauerberg, K; Sørensen, L L; Hasager, C C; Sempreviva, A M; Pryor, S C; Lund, S W; Larsen, S; Tjernström, M; Svensson, G; Zagar, M

    2006-04-01

    This paper summarises the results of the EU funded MEAD project, an interdisciplinary study of the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the Kattegat Sea between Denmark and Sweden. The study considers emissions of reactive nitrogen gases, their transport, transformations, deposition and effects on algal growth together with management options to reduce these effects. We conclude that atmospheric deposition is an important source of fixed nitrogen to the region particularly in summer, when nitrogen is the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, and contributes to the overall eutrophication pressures in this region. However, we also conclude that it is unlikely that atmospheric deposition can, on its own, induce algal blooms in this region. A reduction of atmospheric nitrogen loads to this region will require strategies to reduce emissions of ammonia from local agriculture and Europe wide reductions in nitrous oxide emissions. PMID:16271430

  11. Mead: An interdisciplinary study of the marine effects of atmospheric deposition in the Kattegat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the results of the EU funded MEAD project, an interdisciplinary study of the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the Kattegat Sea between Denmark and Sweden. The study considers emissions of reactive nitrogen gases, their transport, transformations, deposition and effects on algal growth together with management options to reduce these effects. We conclude that atmospheric deposition is an important source of fixed nitrogen to the region particularly in summer, when nitrogen is the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, and contributes to the overall eutrophication pressures in this region. However, we also conclude that it is unlikely that atmospheric deposition can, on its own, induce algal blooms in this region. A reduction of atmospheric nitrogen loads to this region will require strategies to reduce emissions of ammonia from local agriculture and Europe wide reductions in nitrous oxide emissions. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an important factor in eutrophication processes in the Kattegat

  12. Comprehensive Benefit Analysis on Development Models of Circular Agriculture in Wangcang County of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan; CHU; Shunqiang; SUN

    2015-01-01

    Taking Wangcang County of Sichuan Province as an example,this paper made comprehensive benefit analysis on models of circular agriculture in Wangcang County. Major models include " pig- biogas- fruit", " pig- biogas- vegetable",and " pig- biogas- tea". It made cost benefit analysis of economic,social and ecological benefits. Through benefit analysis charts,it obtained that the net present value of each household building biogas pool is 6029 yuan. In this way,it significantly improved ecological environment and social benefits,and the agricultural economic development model gradually changes to sustainable development model. However,there are still problems of insufficient government input and single model of agricultural circular economy. Therefore,government should increase input and develop diversified agricultural circular economical models in accordance with local situations,to realize sustainable agricultural development.

  13. Practice of Developing Low-carbon Leisure Agriculture in Agricultural Sci-tech Experiment and Demonstration Park: A Case Study of Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan; OUYANG; Huasong; WU; Aiqin; LIU; Huan; YU; Hongmei; FU

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park,as a unique tourist scenic spot,is a new model for the development of low-carbon leisure agriculture.In this paper,with Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park as a study case,the practice of developing a model of low-carbon agricultural science and technology tourism in the park is explored.Main measures for developing low-carbon leisure agriculture in Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park are summarized,including development of low carbon attractors,construction of low carbon facilities,strengthening low-carbon management,building low-carbon environment and so on,according to analysis on the models for development of low-carbon agricultural science tourism in this park.

  14. Agriculture and environment. State and Development 2012; Jordbruk og miljoe. Tilstand og utvikling 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, Anne Snelllingen; Aarstad, Per Amund; Loevberget, Anne Ingun; Hoeie, Henning

    2012-07-01

    Statistics Norway produces the report 'Agriculture and Environment - State and Development' on annual commission from the Norwegian Agricultural Authority.The report contains statistical information on status and development of agrienvironmental issues in Norwegian agriculture. A wide range of data sources from Statistics Norway and other institutions serve as input to this information. The report is published in Norwegian and is available on the Internet: http://www.ssb.no/emner/10/04/ Land use and agricultural holdings In the period 1999-2011 the agricultural area in use was reduced by 3.9 per cent. Fully cultivated agricultural land decreased by 7.4 per cent, while there was a 29 per cent increase in infield pastures. In 2011 the agricultural area in use was estimated to about 1.0 million hectares. In 2011 there were 45 500 holdings with agricultural activity in Norway, 36 per cent lower than in 1999. Transfer of agricultural area to non-agriculture purposes In 2011, 660 hectares cultivated land and 390 hectares of cultivable land were transferred to non-agricultural use. Organic farming In 2011, organic farming covered about 5 per cent of the total agricultural area in use. The number of holdings with organic farming was 2 700, comprising 6 per cent of the total number of agricultural holdings in Norway. Plant protection: The Norwegian Food Safety Authorities has developed risk indicators for the use of pesticides in agriculture. The health risk decreased by 18 percentage points from 2005 to 2008, whereas the environmental risk decreased by 7 points in the same period. Sales of commercial fertiliser In 2011, the total amount of nutrients in commercial fertiliser was on the same level as in the 1960's. The sales of nitrogen were on the level as in the 1970's, while the sales of phosphorus were lower than in the 1950's. Discharges of nutrients to waterways and ocean environment The main purpose of the EU Water Directive is to achieve

  15. The Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Feizabadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze tariff protection policies in the agricultural sector of developing countries. The agricultural tariff structure in developing countries is characterized by: i high average tariffs, ii the existence of tariff escalation, iii dispersion of nominal tariffs across tariff lines, and iv a wide gap between average nominal tariffs and import-weighted average tariffs. Consequently, some features can be extracted that are consistent with the observed patterns of tariff protection in developing countries: i escalation of nominal tariff rates with the degree of processing, ii higher average tariffs in the agricultural sector compared to agriculture in developed countries, and iii higher non-agricultural than agricultural tariff protection. Here the Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in developing countries is described. This theory allows us to identify two sets of products. Agricultural products for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values, therefore, tariff cuts should occur in a long period of time and for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values therefore tariff reductions would not be politically costly.

  16. Directions and Objectives of Hunan's Agricultural Development in the Early of the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@2000 is the beginning of the new millennium from which on Hunan's agriculture will meet with a new challenge and chance. Hunan will carry out 12 central agricultural engineering projects in the early stage of the new century to promote the adjustment and optimilization of the province's industries for agricultural production and development, speed up the new technological revolution to prosper agriculture with science and technology, accelerate agriculture's opening to the outside world in depth and richen farmers through their income increase from both high crop yield and favourable marketing price. These 12 projects are as follows:

  17. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  18. Labour Force Demand and Supply Developments of Romania’s Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura POPA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As based on available data sets from the World Bank’s Yearbook(2008, a statistical analysis was made to highlight some characteristics of Romanian agriculture during 1961-2003. It is presented a series of models (Grabowski and Sivan (1986 and econometric methods used to analyse supply and demand of the labour force in agriculture. This included an estimated regression model for analyzing the evolution of added value in agriculture during 1980-2003 according to a number of influencing factors.To characterize the concentration of agricultural production by development regions the Herfindahl Index was utilised.

  19. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN ZIMBABWE: THE CASE OF MASVINGO PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clainos Chidoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe is basically endowed in agricultural resources. As a result agricultural activities have a large bearing on developmental issues in the country. Employment is one such economic issue that hinges much on agricultural development. Over the past decade employment levels have reduced as a result of low investment in the country. Masvingo Province has not been spared. This scenario has seen many youths being out of employment as the sector employed less labour. The study found out that economic woes that Zimbabwe experienced over the past half decade have contributed significantly to youth unemployment in agriculture in Masvingo Province as a result of low investment in the sector. The study recommends that heavy investment be put in agriculture and agriculture related projects to enhance employment levels of the Zimbabwean youths in Masvingo province.

  20. Modern trends in the development of agriculture and demands on plant breeding and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Dušan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is usually developed as much and just society where there is a branch of the economy. Today, there are different directions from industry agriculture to many concepts based on ecological principles. Future of agriculture development in the XXI century will imply sustainable agriculture as the alternative to the industrial agriculture. Conventional agriculture as an intensive one has a duty to ensure maximum production in terms of quantity and quality with the low cost. For this purpose we have many cultural practices, sometimes in addition to the expected positive but sometimes with many unexpected long-term negative effects in agroecosystems. Organic agriculture is one of the most interesting current trends in agriculture completely based on strong ecological principles and the absence of application of agrochemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, hormones, GMO, etc. Organic agriculture is a holistic way of farming: besides production of goods of high quality (better flavor, high content dry matter, vitamins, antioxidants; conservation of the natural resources (soil, water and richness of biodiversity.

  1. Indonesian interests in the agricultural negotiations under the Doha Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Hutaburat, B.; Syafa'at, N.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the 'July 2004 package', this study assesses the Indonesian interests in the agricultural negotiations under the WTO Doha Development Agenda. It applies a large-scale economic model of trade and production (GTAP). For Indonesian agriculture, global liberalisation bears positive prospec

  2. Making Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS Work for Development in Tropical Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Aerni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural innovation in low-income tropical countries contributes to a more effective and sustainable use of natural resources and reduces hunger and poverty through economic development in rural areas. Yet, despite numerous recent public and private initiatives to develop capacities for agricultural innovation, such initiatives are often not well aligned with national efforts to revive existing Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS. In an effort to improve coordination and responsiveness of Capacity Development (CD initiatives, the G20 Agriculture Ministers requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO to lead the development of a Tropical Agricultural Platform (TAP, which is designed to improve coherence and coordination of CD for agricultural innovation in the tropics. This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from three regional needs assessments undertaken by TAP and its partners. The surveyed tropical regions were Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. The findings reveal a mismatch in all three regions between the external supply of primarily individual CD and the actual demand for institutional CD. The misalignment might be addressed by strengthening south-south and triangular collaboration and by improving the institutional capacities that would render national AIS more demand-oriented and responsive to the needs of smallholders in domestic agriculture.

  3. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  4. Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

    This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

  5. Sustainable development of the agricultural production in terms of membership in the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjelika Aidinova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An important event in our country's economy is the entry August 22, 2012 Russia to the World Trade Organization. And a particularly hot topic at the moment is the development of sustainable agriculture in a completely new environment. The questions of state support for agriculture during the "transition period" in terms of membership in the WTO.

  6. A critical review of the Follow-the-Innovation approach: Stakeholder collaboration and agricultural innovation development

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, Kwadwo; Shtaltovna, Anastasiya; Girma Kelboro; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovations have driven economic development and improvement in living conditions throughout history. However, the majority of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa have seldom adopted or used science-based technological innovations. Consequently, several scholars have been persistently questioning the effectiveness of intervention models in smallholder agriculture. Following the agricultural innovation systems framework (AIS), this paper reviews a participatory framework kn...

  7. WTO Agreement on Agriculture and its Implication on Rural Development Policies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin Vasily

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at overview of the history and major contents of the Agreement on Agriculture of the World Trade Organization. Special attention is paid to implications of the Agreement for agricultural and trade policies in developing countries, including Russia, recently accessed the WTO. The differential treatment that developing countries receive under the agreement is investigated. The paper includes an overview of the recently adopted State Program of the Russian Federation for Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Commodities Markets in 2013-2020. The research considers four applications of the given State Program: compliance with WTO requirements, state support of agriculture, provision of food security, and ensurance of sustainable rural development. The paper results in the conclusion that state policies in the sphere of rural development have to evolve beyond the traditional, sector-based model, with its almost exclusive focus on agriculture. Contemporary set of tools to ensure sustainable rural development should be based on the multi-sectoral strategies and programs that identify and better exploit the development potential of rural area through a variety of factors: national food security, agricultural production, liberalization of trade and foreign economic activities, support of local producers and rural households, rural infrastructure, environmental and recreational potential.

  8. Investigation and Analysis of Agricultural Cold Chain Logistics and Its Development Strategy in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; SHEN; Li; LIU; Zhipeng; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating the development of agricultural cold chain logistics is of great significance to improve the competitiveness of agricultural products,increase rural incomes and ensure food security. The present situation and main problems of agricultural cold chain logistics in Heilongjiang Province were analyzed from five aspects,such as the scale of construction,infrastructure,status quo of cold chain logistics technology,cold chain logistics enterprises and development environment,and proposed that Heilongjiang Province should focus on the development of poultry,fruit and vegetable,aquatic products,and processed food cold chain,then the strategic implementation measures for above areas were put forward.

  9. Understanding indigenous knowledge: Bridging the knowledge gap through a knowledge creation model for agricultural development

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the management of agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK) in developing countries, with a specific focus on Tanzania. It provides background details on IK and its importance for agricultural development. It introduces various knowledge management (KM) concepts and discusses their application in managing IK in the developing world by placing Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory (Nonaka 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000) in the context of the ...

  10. Prioritization of technological development goals for poverty alleviation through sustainable and diversified agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohide Sugino

    2006-01-01

    Though positive impacts on rural development can be observed in diversified agriculture, statistical indicators have shown that agricultural diversification in Asian countries has stagnated over recent decades. Technological development is a dominant factor in determining the extent of diversification. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 259 respondents in eight Asian countries to establish the respondents priority of technological development goals that will potentially enhance agricul...

  11. Conditions for Development of Agriculture in the Municipality of Kline, Republic of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Gashi, Ferim

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important branches of economical development in the Municipality of Klina. The Municipality’s geographical position, climate and earth conditions, as well as the manpower in the territory of enables cultivation of much agricultural cultivation and the growth of high efficiency in the area. Considering all the existing factors and the new factors (to be initiated) of the development which will be based on long term socio-economic development of the municipality o...

  12. ASPECTS OF EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE IN THE MAIN DEVELOPMENT REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reta CONDEI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a sector of primary importance in Romania, both through its contribution to the economy and the share of employment. Its continuous development and improvement and the countryside must be designed and analyzed under three main aspects, namely agriculture, food and environment. The current analysis takes into account the state of Romanian agriculture today, but also economic and human potential of rural areas in the main areas of development, and their evolution in 2008-2013. The rural space in Romania is characterized by poor economic diversification and a major dependence on agricultural activities, which results in obtaining low incomes for farmers. The rural labour force should be directed to other activities, particularly in services, based on a correct and permanent information, human resource awareness and training. The rural employment strategies include measures to improve the quality of human resources to facilitate access to non-agricultural employment in connection with labour market needs.

  13. BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUMENTS ASSISTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard KATA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides identification and assessment of barriers to the implementation of the instruments of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP that support sustainable development of agriculture. This issue has been studied on the example of individual farms of south-eastern Poland, which benefited from programs to support sustainable agriculture in 2004-2013. The introduction of agriculture on the path of sustainable development depends on institutional factors (including political, which can induce farmers to take into account the environment and future generations in their microeconomic decisions. It has been shown that the most important barriers to the efficient and effective implementation of programs in support of sustainable agriculture are financial and information and education constraints.

  14. Combination of State and Market Regulators of Innovation Development of Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbatyuk Oleksandr V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the modern state and regulatory provision of state and market regulators of innovation development of agriculture in Ukraine. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists the article considers definition of state support. In the result of the study the article marks out that certain specific features of the branch influence possibilities of introducing innovations in agriculture. Innovation in agricultural production requires preliminary assessment of its influence upon the agrarian fund, biological assets, etc. Due to these factors the risk of introducing innovations is higher in agriculture. In order to activate development of organisational forms of introduction of innovations in agriculture of Ukraine it is necessary to attract not only state but also market regulators of innovation development of agriculture. Further development in this direction would allow improvement of the organisational and economic mechanism of transfer of innovations with the help of full-value organisational infrastructure of introduction of innovations in agriculture and formation of the national innovation model of sustainable development of the agrarian sector of Ukrainian economy.

  15. Countermeasures and Investigation of Land Circulation in Less Developed Agricultural Area of Henan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Some places in Henan Province are investigated by using sample surveys and interviews. Result shows that land circulation in less developed agricultural area of Henan Province has the characteristics of small scale,single form,short period,and circulation land in economic core region. Problems in land circulation are as follows:slow transfer of rural surplus labor force,hard implementation of fundamental land circulation,complicated mentality towards rural land circulation,many misgivings about land circulation,the unformed social service system of land circulation,and imperfect agricultural risk prevention mechanism for circulated land use. Based on the characteristics of land circulation,suggestions for promoting the land circulation of less developed agricultural areas are put forward in order to solve the problems in land circulation and to lay the foundation for effective implementation of land circulation,such as speeding up the development of urbanization,developing the circulation of collective land,effectively implementing the laws and regulations of rural collective land circulation,transferring land according to law,establishing market mechanism of agricultural land circulation,promoting the agricultural industrialization,establishing market mechanism of agricultural land circulation,promoting the agricultural industrialization,energetically readjusting rural industrial structure,and developing economy with local characteristics.

  16. A framework for developing an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    With a changing climate, drought has become more intensified, of which agriculture is the major affected sector. Satellite observations have proven great utilities for real-time drought monitoring as well as crop yield estimation, and many remotely sensed indicators have been developed for drought monitoring based on vegetation growth conditions, surface temperature and evapotranspiration information. However, those current drought indicators typically don't take into account the different responses of various input information and the drought impacts during the growing season, revealing some limitations for effective agricultural drought monitoring and impact analysis. Therefore, the goal of this research is to build a framework for the development of an impact-oriented and remote sensing based agricultural drought indicator. Firstly, the global agricultural drought risk was characterized to provide an overview of the agricultural drought prone areas in the world. Then, the responses of different remotely sensed indicators to drought and the impacts of drought on crop yield from the remote sensing perspective during the growing season were explored. Based on previous works on drought risk, drought indicator response and drought impact analysis, an impact-oriented drought indicator will be prototyped from the integration of the drought responses of different indicators and the drought impacts during the growing season. This research can inform an impact-oriented agricultural drought indicator, help prototype an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system, and thus provide valuable inputs for effective agricultural management.

  17. O conceito "socialização" caiu em desuso? Uma análise dos processos de socialização na infância com base em Georg Simmel e George H. Mead Is the " socialization" concept outdated? An analisis of the socialization processes in childhood according to Georg Simmel and George H. Mead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Grigorowitschs

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma leitura das obras de George H. Mead e Georg Simmel a respeito do conceito processos de socialização à luz de questões suscitadas no interior do domínio da sociologia da infância. Aborda o desenvolvimento do conceito processos de socialização em Simmel e correlaciona as concepções simmelinas com a obra de Mead a respeito do desenvolvimento do self, com o objetivo de definir os processos de socialização na infância. Visa demonstrar como as obras de Simmel e Mead permitem pensar a infância como um período específico dos processos de socialização, em que as crianças desempenham papéis ativos na construção de seus selves individuais e da sociedade e cultura em que estão inseridas.This paper presents an analysis of George H. Mead's and Georg Simmel's works about the concept of socialization processes in the light of questions arised in the scope of childhood sociology. It approaches the development of Simmel's socialization processes concept and establishes a correlation between the Simmelian conceptions and Mead's work about the self development, in an attempt to define the socialization processes in childhood. It is intended to demonstrate how Simmel's and Mead's works allow us to think about childhood as a specific period of the socialization processes in which children play active roles in building their individual selves, as well as the society and culture they are in.

  18. Perspectives on climate change and human development in the Mediterranean agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Blanco Gutiérrez, Irene; Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the world's climate change hotspots. Future climate projections envisage dramatic implications for the agricultural and water sectors that will endanger economic development and lead to natural resources degradation and social instability.

  19. ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE a€“ ENGINE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sorlescu Mariana

    2009-01-01

    The development of organic farming is seen as the only alternative for the third millennium. The relation agriculture - food - health is increasingly obvious, because most of the "diseases of civilization" are attributed to the inadequate quality of diet,

  20. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  1. The state and prospects of development of Ukrainian’s agriculture enterprises goverment financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalіya Tanklevska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is an estimation of the state and determination of prospects of development of the state financing in agricultural activity enterprises of this country. In the article are examined the problems of financing of activity enterprises of agrarian sphere, the modern state of which is related to limitedness of own financial resources, by dependence of activity enterprises results and financing sources on influence of naturally - climatic conditions, by inaccessibility of credit resources, absence of property mortgage, reduction of state support in agriculture. In the work was estimated the state of financing of activity enterprises of agrarian sphere is in different programs and actions which head for development of industry. It was determined the features and volumes of state investments in the development of agricultural production. In the work are grounded the directions of improvement of financing of development of agriculture in Kherson region

  2. Ecological Agriculture as a strategy to sustainable rural development as demonstrated in a Mexican Project

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Heide

    1998-01-01

    The Humboldt-University of Berlin, Germany and the University of Chapingo, Mexico are working together on a project named “Development of Environmental Agriculture in Central Countries of Mexico”. The study began two years ago. The main focus is the analysis and research of eco-logical agriculture as a strategy to sustainable rural development. My con-tribution will be to show the experiences with ecological agriculture on a long time project in Mexico in the State of Tlaxcala. The village Vi...

  3. Current Situations of Agricultural Sci-tech Innovation and Development Path in Nantong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Chun-xin; SUN Qing-shan; QIU Hai-rong; ZHU Hai-yan; TANG Ming-xia; XUE Chen-xia

    2012-01-01

    Nantong is a typical region of large population and little land.The conflict between resources and environment is growing.Thus,the improvement of independent innovation ability based on current situations,oriented towards the future and relying on scientific and technological force directly decides the effect of strong economic city construction.Through analysis on achievements of agricultural sci-tech innovation works,existing problems and demand for developing modern agriculture in Nantong,we present development ideas,target orientation and basic principles of agricultural sci-tech innovation works in Nantong,and put forward eight paths.

  4. CRITICAL RECEPTION OF BEHAVIORISM IN THE WORKS OF GEORGE HERBERT MEAD

    OpenAIRE

    Yury Leonidovich Voynilov

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the specifics of the intellectual heritage of the American philosopher and sociologist George Herbert Mead, reflected in the fragmentary character of texts written by him and the principal incompleteness of his sociological concept. The habitual label of "symbolic interactionism" does not adequately reflect the originality of the ideas of Mead. This term, invented by Herbert Blumer, in its original meaning was not directly related to the concept of George Herbert Mead. ...

  5. High-cell-density fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead production

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Mendes-Ferreira, Alexandra; de Oliveira, José M.; Leticia M. Estevinho; Mendes-Faia, Arlete

    2013-01-01

    Mead is a traditional drink that contains 8 % and 18 % (v/v) of ethanol, resulting from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process and the quality of the final product is highly variable. Therefore, the present investigation had two main objectives: first, to determine the adequate inoculum size of two commercial wine-making strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead fermentation; and second, to determine if an in...

  6. Problems and Countermeasures on the Development of Precision Agriculture in Heilongjiang Province

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinbo; Wang, Junfa; Yang, Chuanhua

    2010-01-01

    International audience The present development of precision agriculture is at the lower stage in Heilongjiang province, but it has taken effect in aspects of demonstration and extension. However there are many problems in the technology research and application, such as technology development lags, the key techniques supporting lags, the lack of "3S" technology service for agricultural application with independent intellectual property, the whole poor production conditions caused by the li...

  7. Child labor in agriculture: some new developments to an ancient problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Dorianne

    2012-01-01

    Advocates for working children worldwide strive to eradicate the employment that minimizes a child's opportunities for education, good health and future potential. In agriculture, some promising developments in corporate social responsibility may generate partial solutions to child labor problems that have persisted for generations across world regions where food, fiber and fuel are produced. The purpose of this paper is to review these promising developments and propose recommendations in the context of a future of continued agricultural globalization and industrialization. PMID:22490031

  8. The consequences of agricultural trade liberalization for developing countries: distinguishing between genuine benefits and false hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Bureau; Sébastien Jean, Alan Matthews

    2005-01-01

    Recent analyses suggest that the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on developing countries will be very uneven. Some simulations suggest that the effects of agricultural trade liberalization will be small, overall, and are likely to be negative for a significant number of developing countries. The Doha Round focuses on tariff issues, but these countries currently have practically duty-free access to European and North American markets under preferential regimes. Multilateral liberal...

  9. Agricultural Insurance Revisited: New Developments and Perspectives in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Mark D. Wenner

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide Bank staff interested in agricultural yield insurance market development, public officials responsible for financial market policy formulation and supervision, and insurance industry practitioners in Latin America and the Caribbean with a basic primer on the topic, an overview of previous experiences, and a set of guidelines and recommendations on how to develop viable and sustainable agricultural yield insurance markets. The paper relies heavily on the...

  10. Vertically integrated entities in agriculture: economic principles of organization and laws of development

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gutorov

    2011-01-01

    The article is an attempt of a scientific substantiation and generalisation of economic principles of organization and the laws of development of vertically integrated companies in the agriculture of Ukraine. The research methods are: the analysis, synthesis, generalisation and ordering. The results of research: the basic economic principles of organization and the objective laws of development of the superlarge vertically integrated companies in the agriculture of Ukraine are reflected in th...

  11. Steadying the ladder: China's agricultural and rural development engagement in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kevin Z.; Claire Hsu; Shenggen Fan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to draw lessons from China's development experiences, particularly in the areas of agricultural and rural development, to increase growth and reduce poverty in Africa South of the Sahara. It also examines China's rising economic involvement in Africa and makes recommendations for how the win-win outcomes from this engagement can be strengthened. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper, the authors compare the trends in economic and agricultural growth, as well as...

  12. Rural innovation: Construction of new development practices. Case of Latvian organic agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Šūmane, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Rural innovation: Construction of new development practices. Case of Latvian organic agriculture The doctoral thesis is devoted to the exploration of rural innovation. It aims at understanding how new development practices are constructed. The theoretical framework of the research is based on social constructivism and particularly on actor network theory that stresses the active role of agents in the construction of social reality. Drawing on the case study of organic agriculture in Latvia...

  13. Place and Roll of Electronic Business in Development of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Grbavac

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we researched the influences of electronic business on the global evolution of world economy in the beginning of 21st centuries, with the special review on the implication in the construction of future in Croatian agriculture. The research approach had been focussed on the idea of electronic business, the characteristics of electronic business, the evolution of electronic business in the world form lie around of use of electronic business in the world agriculture form Croatia. In the paper are also given the perspectives of evolution of electronic business in Croatian agriculture, and elaborative some aspects of protecting the information conected by electronic business. This research has confirmed the premise about the growing role of electronic business in contemporary economic and agriculture practices in numerous developed countries, and has pointed on the place and role of agriculture in our close tomorrow’s.

  14. Development of Market Prices of Agricultural Land within the Conditions of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletichová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Market prices of agricultural land in the world have increased significantly in recent years. Important factors in regard to this trend are not only the fact that land is a basic, irreplaceable resource for the production of food and natural resources of each country, but also the fact that it is generally perceived as a favorable holder of capital, not succumbing to the effects of inflation. Market prices of agricultural land and the rent level in individual EU member countries are affected by historical development, the size structure of agricultural businesses, legislation, regulation of the land market, natural conditions and the intensity of agricultural production (e.g. the Netherlands. Market prices of agricultural land in the Czech Republic are monitored by the Czech Statistical Office (CSO, Institute for Agricultural Economics and Information (IAEI and Ministry of Agriculture (MoA, but output of the data base is not comparable within a time series 1993-2012, as institutions work with differing methodology. On the basis of the description of prices of agricultural land and regression analysis, the hypothesis that the market price of agricultural land for agricultural use in the Czech Republic is affected primarily by its quality was not confirmed. The official (administrative price is only an orientational and subsidiary tool for the determination of the market price. The development of the agricultural land market in the Czech Republic was affected by the privatization of land after 2000. According to an estimate (of the author, after the completion of privatization, and also in view of changes in tax policy, the prices of transacted land for agricultural use can decline within 3 years (2014 by up to 30%. It is probable that the demand will be focused on transactions with land for speculative and investment purposes, as, according to world trends, the average increase in value of investments in land in a time of economic crisis is

  15. Evaluation on the Development of Agricultural Circular Economy in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using conceptual model of BPEIR(Behavior-Pressure-Effect-Impact-Response) and Delphi method,we establish the evaluation index system of agricultural circular economy including four indices,namely index of socio-economic development,index of reducing input of resources,index of recycling of resources and index of safety of environment and resources.We conduct comprehensive evaluation on developmental level of agricultural circular economy from 1998 to 2007 in Hunan Province.The analysis results show that the agricultural circular economy of Hunan Province from 1998 to 2007,on the whole,has the tendency of development with annual growth rate of 1.89%.The annual decrease rate of recycling of resources and reducing input of resources from 1999 to 2003 is 25% and 11% respectively,which has become the main factor impeding development of agricultural circular economy.After the year 2003,it is mainly reducing input of resources.

  16. Margaret Mead et la sexualité à Samoa

    OpenAIRE

    Tcherkézoff, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Le débat le plus intense et le plus volumineux de toute l’histoire de l’anthropologie sociale et culturelle a commencé en 1983, quand les travaux de D. Freeman ont remis en cause l’étude de la culture polynésienne de Samoa effectuée par Margaret Mead en 1928. Le débat s’est centré sur la personne de Mead, sur les méthodes des sciences sociales et sur les idées polynésiennes concernant la sexualité. À partir d’une étude sur le terrain de la culture samoane, l’auteur présente les principaux bia...

  17. 75 FR 9388 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Fifty-Ninth Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ..., Acting Director, International Programs. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of... DEVELOPMENT Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Fifty-Ninth Meeting... hundred and fifty-ninth meeting of the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development...

  18. Development Interventions and Agriculture Adaptation: A Social Network Analysis of Farmer Knowledge Transfer in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Cadger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Social ties play an important role in agricultural knowledge exchange, particularly in developing countries with high exposure to agriculture development interventions. Institutions often facilitate agricultural training projects, with a focus on agroecological practices, such as agroforestry and agrobiodiversity. The structural characteristics of social networks amongst land managers influences decision-making to adopt such adaptive agroecoloigcal practice; however, the extent of knowledge transfer beyond direct project participants is often unknown. Using a social network approach, we chart the structure of agrarian knowledge networks (n = 131 in six communities, which have been differentially exposed to agriculture development interventions in Ghana. Farmer network size, density and composition were distinctly variable; development project-affiliated farmers were embedded in larger networks, had non-affiliated farmers within their networks, were engaged in more diverse agricultural production and reported adopting and adapting agroecological practice more frequently. Such bridging ties that link across distinctive groups in a network can expose network members to new and innovative agroecological practices, such as increasing agrobiodiversity, thus, contributing to livelihood strategies that mitigate environmental and market risk. Furthermore, we show that these knowledge networks were crop-specific where network size varied given the type of crop produced. Such factors, which may influence the rate and extent of agroecological knowledge diffusion, are critical for the effectiveness of land management practices as well as the persistence of agriculture development interventions.

  19. Lake Mead Complex Final Gather Plan: Environmental Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Grand Junction Field Office, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2007-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Las Vegas Field Office (LVFO) to analyze the environmental effects of a gather to remove approximately 195 resident wild burros from National Park Service-administered lands adjacent to the El Dorado Mountains, Gold Butte and Muddy Mountains Herd Management Areas (HMAs) within the Lake Mead Complex (LMC) in March 2007. The LMC is located in southern Nevada in Clark County. The BLM Las Vegas Field Offic...

  20. G. H. Mead. A System in a State of Flux

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da

    2005-01-01

    This article offers an original, intellectual portrait of G. H. Mead. My reassessment of Mead’s thinking is founded, in methodological terms, upon a historically minded yet theoretically oriented strategy. Mead’s system of thought is submitted to a historical reconstruction in order to grasp the evolution of his ideas over time, and to a thematic reconstruction organized around three major research areas or pillars: science, social psychology and politics. If one re-examines the entirety of M...

  1. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ferrández-Pastor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water; however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols, the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists when a project is launched.

  2. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario; Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo; Mora-Martínez, José

    2016-01-01

    The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched. PMID:27455265

  3. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario; Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo; Mora-Martínez, José

    2016-01-01

    The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched. PMID:27455265

  4. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Ukrainian agriculture are examined. It is determined that entrepreneurship in agrarian sector is a driving force behind the development of agriculture, as these activities contributes to the production of quality agricultural products that satisfies the needs of society, food security, independence and improves the living standards of rural population. Potential customers of small parties of harvest in Ukrainian grain market are analyzed. The ways of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs are proved. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of Ukrainian agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation of Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale or creation of agricultural cooperatives, such form of economy in agrarian relations that combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular in paper is shown that sustainable economic management provide only forms of economy that take into account the socioeconomic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and methods of management. The most common among these forms are farmers.

  5. On sustainable development of agriculture in oasis: a case study of Hexi Corridor, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Limin

    2007-01-01

    Hexi Corridor is one of the most potential areas in the China's Western Development in 21s' century.However,the problems - the sustainable development of oasis agriculture,the ecosystem of the oasis edge,the landscape structure,the population density in oasis,water resources and land resources in oasis are deteriorating and have restricted the sustainable development of society and economy in this area.This paper summarizes the problems at present,and puts forward the concept of protecting and constructing the oasis environment and sustainable development for the sustainable development of the oasis agriculture in the Hexi Corridor.

  6. Analysis on Factors Influencing Sustainable Development of Self-study Examination of Agricultural Science Disciplines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on existing problems in the course of development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, this paper analyzes logical conditions for its sustainable development. Major logical conditions include requirement for free and comprehensive development of individuals; requirement for social institutional evolution and change; requirement for fairness and justice of education and development; as well as requirement for better-established organization system and higher social reputation. Finally, it presents basic measures for sustainable development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, including carrying on reasonable core elements of self-study examination system, adjusting structure of discipline, improving social assistance system, and expanding service space.

  7. Optimization of mead production using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Teresa; Barradas, Carla; Dias, Teresa; Verdial, João; Morais, Jorge Sá; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of the present work was to optimize mead production using Response Surface Methodology. The effects of temperature (x₁: 20-30°C) and nutrients concentration (x₂: 60-120g /hL) on mead quality, concerning the final concentrations of glucose (Y₁), fructose (Y₂), ethanol (Y₃), glycerol (Y₄) and acetic acid (Y₅), were studied. Twelve operational conditions were tested. No delays and moods were observed during fermentations. The second order polynomial models determined produced satisfactory fittings of the experimental data with regard to glucose (R²=0.646, p=0.001), ethanol (R²=0.741, p=0.049), glycerol (R²=0.899, p=0.002), fructose (R²=0.902, p=0.033) and acetic acid (R²=0.913, p=0.001). The optimum extraction conditions determined in order to maximize the combined responses were 24°C and a nutrients concentration of 0.88g/L. The mead produced under these conditions had the following characteristics: ethanol concentration of 10.2%, acetic acid 0.54 g/L, glycerol 7.8 g/L, glucose 1.8 g/L and fructose 2.5 g/L. These values were in agreement with the predicted and were within the safe limit established for acetic acid and the recommended range for glycerol. Furthermore, the residual sugars concentration was also low, decreasing the possibility of occurring undesirable refermentations. PMID:23856495

  8. 农业信息技术与精确农业的发展%Development of Agricultural Information Technology and Precision Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭望禄; PierreRobert

    2001-01-01

    介绍了美国精确农业发展现状及当前进行的主要工作,阐述精确农业就是信息农业的概念。着重介绍SSCM(根据田间具体情况作物管理系统)系统和YieldMap产量图在精确农业发展中的作用及GIS与精确农业的不可分关系%This paper describes the status of development of precision agriculture in the US and the profile of precision agriculture center. From these the concept of precision agriculture that precision agriculture is information agriculture is emphasized. The site-specific crop management and yield map analysis are important to precision agriculture. Geographic information system has close relation with precision agriculture. Finally, the recent issues of precision agriculture are listed. All above will likely be helpful for the development of precision agriculture in China.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD, THE EU-27 AND ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Agatha POPESCU; Cecilia POP

    2013-01-01

    The paper aimed to analyze the development of organic agriculture in the world, the EU and Romania, based on the statistical data for the period 2006-2010 and the index, share and comparison methods. Organic agriculture covers 34.04 Million ha at world level, of which 26.99 % in Europe and 32.08 % in Oceania. The largest areas in organic agriculture are in Australia, Argentina, the USA, Brazil, Spain, China and Italy. At world level, there are 1.6 million organic producers, over 63 % operatin...

  10. Gender perspective in agriculture value chain development in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    DACIZEJNULLAHI, Emine

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality is a new process in Kosovo and requires stronger commitment of Kosovo society, including government institutions and civil society in particular. Gender equality affects all levels/ fields of society; the food value chain is touched especially. It can and should employ a large number of women. Development of the food value chain can contribute greatly to gender equality. This will be the object of this study and will focus on the participation of women in the development of fo...

  11. `ROLE OF NATIONAL HORTICULTURE MISSION FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA`

    OpenAIRE

    Anantkawlas Madhukar B

    2016-01-01

    National Horticulture Mission was launched during the year 2005-06 to provide a thrust to the development of horticulture in the country. It was expected that adoption of an integrated approach covering production, post harvest management, processing and marketing would help attain the objectives enhanced improved nutrition and holistic growth of horticulture production. The horticulture sector in particular has to prioritize development of research in the issues of genetics, biotechnology, i...

  12. The Models for the Development of Specialty Agriculture in the Hilly Areas of Southern Ningxia: Are they Truly Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoyi; Tang, Qing; Xu, Yong; DANG, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    The development of specialty agriculture is of great significance to western China’s agricultural structure adjustment, and it’s an essential way for the construction of ecological agriculture in Southern Ningxia mountainous area. This paper makes a summary about the development status of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area and put forward the basic benefit goal and problems needing attention. On this basis, the paper studies the development pattern of specialty agr...

  13. Application of static var compensators for the dynamic performance of the Mead-Adelanto and Mead-Phoenix transmission projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.L.; Beshir, M.J.; Finley, A.T.; Hayes, D.R. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hsu, J.C.; Peterson, H.R.; DeShazo, G.L.; Gerlach, D.W. [Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the planning and pre-specification study analysis and results for the joint use of Static Var Compensators (SVCs), a form of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) technology, for the Mead-Adelanto and Mead-Phoenix Projects in the Southwestern United States. Because of the insufficient system damping in the network, addition of these two transmission line projects must also be complemented by SVCs. These devices increase the system stability limit so that the projects` planned transfer capabilities can be economically attained. These are the first transmission projects in the region where a very closely coordinated planning effort permits the joint use of SVCs to provide mutual benefits to both projects. SVC dynamic performance enhancement studies, SVC control analysis, and studies related to the planning and specification requirements are among the topics addressed in the paper.

  14. Application of static VAR compensators for the dynamic performance of the Mead-Adelanto and Mead-Phoenix transmission projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.L.; Beshir, M.J.; Finley, A.T.; Hayes, D.R. [Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, CA (United States); Hsu, J.C.; Peterson, H.R.; DeShazo, G.L.; Gerlach, D.W. [Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the planning and pre-specification study analysis and results for the joint use of Static Var Compensators (SVCs), a form of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) technology, for the Mead-Adelanto and Mead-Phoenix Projects in the Southwestern United States. Because of insufficient system damping in the network, addition of these two transmission line projects must also be complemented by SVCS. These devices increase the system stability limit so that the projects` planned transfer capabilities can be economically attained. These are the first transmission projects in the region where a very closely coordinated planning effort permits the joint use of SVCs to provide mutual benefits to both projects. SVC dynamic performance enhancement studies, SVC control analysis, and studies related to the planning and specification requirements are among the topics addressed in the paper.

  15. Transfer of Animal Traction Technology in Mbozi, Tanzania. The case of "Agricultural Development Programme-Mbozi"

    OpenAIRE

    Makitwange, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) is an integrated agricultural project in Mbozi District covehng some 90 villages with the aim to increase food production of smallholder farmers in a sustainable way. After having gained enough experience, a proper ox-mechanization policy was worked out. At the end of 1991, the project started an experiment with a womengroup in a very isolated area engaged in maize grinding using an ox-driven maize-mill.

  16. Agricultural development during early industrialization in a low-wage economy: Saxony, c. 1790-1830

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kopsidis; Ulrich Pfister

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of regional paths of industrialization had a deep impact on agricultural development during early industrialization in Germany. From 1840 rising incomes in the course of a “high wage-low energy cost” industrialization based on coal and steel and a rapid urbanization triggered a demand driven agricultural revolution in Northwest Germany. In contrast, Saxony’s early industrialization c. 1800-1860 followed a “low wage-high energy cost” trajectory based on textile production a...

  17. Issues concerning Development of Consumer Credit Business in China's Agricultural Bank

    OpenAIRE

    LI Yan; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xue-mei

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the status quo of consumer credit business in China's agricultural bank, indicating that the scale of China's consumer credit business is expanded year by year; the growth of consumer credit business slows down; housing loans grow rapidly. We analyze issues concerning development of consumer credit business in agricultural bank as follows: single variety of consumer credit business makes the operating scope narrow; the formality of consumer credit business is trivial, ...

  18. Importance of Program Development Competencies for Agricultural Extension Agents' Performance in Process of Technology Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Tiraieyari; Khairuddin Idris; Azimi Hamzah; Jegak Uli

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The movement of technology from lab to the field has been a challenge for agricultural extension agents. In this study researchers focused on program development competencies for agricultural extension agents in process of technology transfer and discuss the importance of these competencies by determining the relationship between these competencies and performance of extension agents. Approach: The study employed stratified random sampling technique. The sample consisted of...

  19. CAPACITY BUILDING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION: MODULES FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunbameru, B. O.; Mustapha, S.B.; Idrisa, Y. L.

    2013-01-01

    Basically, climate change refers to any change in climate overtime, generally caused by natural variability and/or human activities. It has great devastating impact, particularly on agriculture and by extrapolation on farmers and the national economy. The frontline agricultural extension workers are expected to be among the principal stakeholders to teach farmers how to cope with climate change. Consequently, there is a need to develop appropriate teaching package for the training of the fron...

  20. Psicologia Social na escola: as contribuições de G. H. Mead Social Psychology in the school: the contributions of G. H. Mead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Bernardes de Sant'Ana

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do pressuposto de que as interações sociais vividas pelo sujeito podem favorecer tanto o desenvolvimento de supremos valores éticos quanto a sua degradação social e moral, Mead (1863-1931, reflete o papel da escola na formação do self, instância cognitiva e social a permitir movimentos de autonomia do indivíduo diante do controle imposto pela ordem social e a sua capacidade na tomada de decisões no campo pessoal e político. O artigo recupera elementos da reflexão meadiana sobre a escola, um autor progressista que defende uma educação democrática para a formação de sujeitos críticos e reflexivos, condição imprescindível para a cidadania crítica.The study is based on the assumption that the social interactions experienced by the subject might facilitate both the development of supreme ethical values, as well as the subject's social and moral degradations. Mead (1863 - 1931 reflects on the role of school regarding the formation of self, cognitive and social instances, which allows movements of the individual's autonomy when faced with the control imposed by the social order, and his capacity of making decisions in the personal and political fields. The article rediscovers elements of the median reflection about school. The author is progressive and defends a democratic education for the formation of critical and reflexive individuals, which is an indispensable condition for the growth of analytical citizenship.

  1. Training for Agriculture: Annual Review of Selected Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    The topics covered by review articles are: Training for Rural Development (with special reference to Chile); Field Training--Theory into Practice (for women extension workers in Malaysia); A New Look is Needed for Extension (Latin America); 4-D Rural Youth Clubs in Dahomey; Sociological Aspects of Rural Training; Population Education in the…

  2. Developing Agricultural Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Gibbon, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the process of development in a traditional African export market, focusing on a contract farming scheme for organic cocoa in rural Uganda. Based on a repeated household survey, we measure the impact of the scheme on the income of participants and the economic mechanisms...

  3. Development Situations and Countermeasures of Low Carbon Ecological Circular Agriculture:A Case Study of Nantong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-he; QIAO Qi-cheng; GU Wei-bing; SUN Jia-feng

    2012-01-01

    Developing the low carbon ecological circular agriculture is an effective approach to realizing low carbon development of agriculture. Through investigation on existing measures and performance of development of low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City, we analyzed the potential and problems of Nantong City in developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture. Finally, with reference to domestic and foreign research achievements and practical experience, we put forward countermeasures for developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City from building technical system and government guidance.

  4. Global trends and priorities for agriculture development in the beginning of the xxi century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Vasil’evich Smekalov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to global issues related to the growth of population and food production: reduced growth rate of agricultural production, reduction of resource potential of agriculture and others. Critical factors and trends of structural changes in agriculture are identified. Results of comparative analysis of the development of farms in European countries and Russia are presented. Studies have shown that at the end of the last century there have been the following trends in the global agriculture: there has been a trend of farm consolidation in size, new controls and control of production are were introduced as well as more stringent quality standards of ecology were launched, which, in turn, require introduction of new technics and technologies; the processes of plants and animals development become more controllable and manageable. Conseptual foresights of pricing in the food market are given. Priority areas of agricultural policy aimed at creating conditions for sustainable rural development and accelerated growth in agricultural production by improving its competitiveness are identified

  5. Farmers’ Practices in Developing Agricultural Land in Malaysia: Is there an Islamic Microfinance Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hakimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper attempts to highlight the farmers’ lives in Malaysia and their problems in developing idle agricultural land.Methods - This paper is using descriptive and exploratory method of study which refer to the situation of agricultural sector in Malaysia.Results - The scheme aPLS (agricultural production and loss sharing that proposed cannot stand alone in the traditional fiqh to be implemented now. Therefore, the combinations of aPLS contract with ujrah principle are really needed. This is important to ensure the flexibility of the contract that can offer a fully comprehensive scheme of Islamic agricultural finance.Conclusion – The land together with labour can be considered as a form of capital and therefore has a similarity to the contracts of mudaraba and musharaka. Hence, it can be said that these principles are “agricultural production and loss sharing (aPLS” because land will naturally produce an output or a product. Muzara’a and musaqa therefore can be said to be contracts which are based on sharing output rather than sharing profit.Keywords: Idle Agricultural Land, Islamic agricultural finance, Malaysia

  6. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD, THE EU-27 AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the development of organic agriculture in the world, the EU and Romania, based on the statistical data for the period 2006-2010 and the index, share and comparison methods. Organic agriculture covers 34.04 Million ha at world level, of which 26.99 % in Europe and 32.08 % in Oceania. The largest areas in organic agriculture are in Australia, Argentina, the USA, Brazil, Spain, China and Italy. At world level, there are 1.6 million organic producers, over 63 % operating in Africa and Asia, especially in India, Uganda and Mexico. In 2010, organic food sales accounted for Euro 44.5 Billions of which 50 % in Europe. In the same year, the organic agriculture area increased by 20 % in the EU-27 and reached 9.01 million ha and continues to grow, representing 5.10 % of agricultural land. The larges areas in organic agriculture are in Spain, Italy, Germany and France. In the EU-27 there are 219,290 organic producers of which 40 % in Italy, Spain, Germany and Austria. In 2010, Romania’s area in organic agriculture was 300,205 ha, 2 times higher than in 2006. A number of 10,253 organic operators were registered in 2010, representing 4.67 %, of the EU number. The main organic products are cereals, vegetables, wine, honey, dairy products, representing a chance for Romania’s export on the EU market.

  7. Innovative type of Reproduction of Agriculture of the Komi Republic - the Basis of its Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The necessity of transition of agriculture to sustainability is complicated by the necessity to increase production of local environmentally safe food, unemployment indigenous growth of living standards of the peasant community, stable and balanced nature management. Due to the difficult economic conditions of natural and agricultural development for the Komi Republic principle of food self-sufficiency is unacceptable, but the production of basic food products, for which favorable there are conditions, is objective necessity in the short term. Priority directions of development of the agricultural and fisheries sectors: the production of socially significant food products - potatoes, vegetables of the local range, milk, fresh meat, eggs, dietary, preservation and development of traditional industries, and collecting wild mushrooms and berries and its processing. Off forecast in the northern agricultural areas three scenarios selected: a base (slow), optimistic and pessimistic. For all versions of the forecast to be considered systemic crisis of the agricultural sector of the North is ongoing. Functioning of on sector under a particular scenario will depend on the factors and conditions that affect the stability of the agricultural enterprises and farms. At the base, especially under unfavorable conditions, negative external factors and conditions will prevail. The baseline scenario of recent years assumes the maintenance of the rate of change indicators of agriculture, of the levels of state industry conditions of interbranch exchange in agriculture, of access to economic entities in the financial markets, of the pricing and taxation policies, of relatively low investment opportunities to upgrade production capacity. In this embodiment the growth of agricultural production and its reduction will occur in suburban (peripheral areas). The optimistic scenario will be characterized by protectionist policies of the state, increase investment to improve soil fertility

  8. A Rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation mod...

  9. Sustainable Development of Bioheat from Agricultural Wastes and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2015-01-01

    This Article discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impact of biomass technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an ind...

  10. Developing agricultural businesses: Management accounting and the FADN System

    OpenAIRE

    Zarda, Nora

    2009-01-01

    In the current economic situation, the demand for creating and maintaining a competitive edge puts increasing pressure on business leaders. They should better manage their costs, plan more accurately and finance projects in a manner which best supports organizational efficiency and development of a good long-term strategy. All this makes it necessary to turn data into valuable information, to improve accountability within the company, to make costs more transparent, and to better support plan...

  11. Strategy for Agricultural Development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Echeverría

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies priorities for Bank action in the sector to guide the allocation of resources in support of the strategic elements and objectives it describes. The paper aims to facilitate the preparation of loans and technical cooperation programs and to improve their quality, building consensus both within the Bank and in the region on critical issues for sustainable development of the sector. The proposed strategy presents an integrated approach including actions and instruments t...

  12. Dutch agricultural development and its importance to China

    OpenAIRE

    Buurma, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    A brief description of the evolution of greenhouse horticulture in the Netherlands in the period 1950-2000, including a statistical review of areas, physical yield and labour productivity, and a qualitative review of technical and institutional development. The report first provides the story of a Dutch greenhouse vegetable grower. Furthermore, horticulture in the Yangtze Delta is positioned on the time axis from 1950-2000. Traditional horticulture and industrial horticulture in the Yangtze D...

  13. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  14. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  15. From detachment to transtensional faulting: A model for the Lake Mead extensional domain based on new ages and correlation of subbasins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, L.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Martin, K. L.; Blythe, N.

    2007-12-01

    New studies of selected basins in the Miocene extensional belt of the northern Lake Mead domain suggest a new model for the early extensional history of the region (lower Horse Spring Formation and correlative strata). Critical data are from (i) Longwell Ridges area west of Overton Arm and within the Lake Mead fault system, (ii) Salt Spring Wash basin in the hanging wall of the South Virgin-White Hills detachment (SVWHD) fault, and (iii) previously studied subbasins of the south Virgin Mountains in the Gold Butte step-over region. The basins and faulting patterns suggest two stages of basin development related to two distinct faulting episodes, an early period of detachment faulting followed by a switch to faulting mainly along the Lake Mead transtensional fault system while detachment faulting waned. Apatite fission track ages suggest the footwall block of the SVWHD was cooling at 18-17 Ma, but the only evidence for basin deposition at that time is in the Gold Butte step-over where slow rates of sedimentation and facies patterns make faulting on the north side of the Gold Butte block ambiguous. The first basin stage was ca. 16.5 to 15.5 Ma, during which there was slow to moderate faulting and subsidence in a basin along the SVWHD and north of Gold Butte block in the Gold Butte step-over basin; the step- over basin had complex fluvial and lacustrine facies and was synchronous with landslides and debris flows in front of the SVWHD. At ca. 15.5-14.5 Ma, there was a [dramatic] increase in sedimentation rate related to formation of the Gold Butte fault, a change from lacustrine to widespread fluvial, playa, and local landslide facies in the step-over basin, and the peak of exhumation and faulting rates on the SVWHD. The simple step-over basin broke up into numerous subbasins [at[ as initial faults of the Lake Mead fault system formed. From 14.5 to 14.0 Ma, there was completion of a major change from dominantly detachment faulting to dominantly transtensional faulting

  16. Proposal of optical farming: development of several optical sensing instruments for agricultural use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Kobayashi, K.

    2013-05-01

    We propose the use of "Optical Farming," which is the leading application of all types of optical technologies, in agriculture and agriculture-related industries. This paper focuses on the optical sensing instruments named "Agriserver," "Agrigadget" and "LIFS Monitor" developed in our laboratory. They are considered major factors in utilizing Optical Farming. Agriserver is a sensor network system that uses the Internet to collect information on agricultural products growing in fields. Agrigadget contains several optical devices, such as a smartphone-based spectroscopic device and a hand framing camera. LIFS Monitor is an advanced monitoring instrument that makes it possible to obtain physiological information of living plants. They are strongly associated with information communication technology. Their field and data usage performance in agricultural industries are reported.

  17. CAPACITY BUILDING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION: MODULES FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Ogunbameru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basically, climate change refers to any change in climate overtime, generally caused by natural variability and/or human activities. It has great devastating impact, particularly on agriculture and by extrapolation on farmers and the national economy. The frontline agricultural extension workers are expected to be among the principal stakeholders to teach farmers how to cope with climate change. Consequently, there is a need to develop appropriate teaching package for the training of the frontline agricultural extension workers, based on the myriad of adaptation strategies and practices available in the literature. This paper synthesizes the rationale for capacity building in climate change and the adaptation or coping strategies. The modules (train-the-trainer for teaching agricultural extension workers and farmers are documented in the paper.

  18. Agricultural innovation platform as a tool for development oriented research: Lessons and challenges in the formation and operationalization

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Tenywa; K.P.C. Tukarhirwa; Bruchara, R.; Adekunle, A. A.; Mugabe, J.; Wanjiku, C.; Mutabazi, S; Fungo, B.; N.I.M. Kashja; Pali, P.; Mapatano, S.; Ngaboyisonga, C.; Farrow, A.; Njuki, N.; Abenakyo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) presents an opportunity to address any development problem. It involves innovative principles and an integrated research agenda while recognizing the need for greater organizational capacities among stakeholders in agriculture. Operationalization of IAR4D revolves around successful establishment and operation of an Agricultural Innovation Platform (AIP). Agricultural Innovation Platforms are being implemented in Lake Ki...

  19. Sustainable Development of Bioheat from Agricultural Wastes and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This Article discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impact of biomass technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated but especially in remote rural areas.

  20. Mead Corporation's Creative Approach to Internships: Success in a Unionized Manufacturing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how an employee services manager could not find qualified applicants to serve as temporary supervisors in Mead's manufacturing plant during the busy season. Describes the challenge Mead faced in its internship program, the corporation's commitment to education, the program, outcomes of the program, unanticipated benefits, and elements…

  1. 33 CFR 110.127 - Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona. 110.127 Section 110.127 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127 Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona. (a) Willow...

  2. George Herbert Mead's Lecture on Philosophy of Education at the University of Chicago (1910-1911).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert J. J.

    This paper recounts the influence of two of the great educational philosophers of this century, John Dewey and George Herbert Mead. Both men came to the University of Chicago from teaching at the University of Michigan. The men were life-long personal friends and professional colleagues. Although Mead published little during his life, his…

  3. Educating Communal Agents: Building on the Perspectivism of G.H. Mead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    2007-01-01

    In their search for more communal forms of agency that might guide education, contemporary educational psychologists have mostly neglected the theorizing of George Herbert Mead. In this essay, Jack Martin aims to remedy such oversight by interpreting Mead's social-psychological and educational theorizing of selfhood and agency through the lenses…

  4. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization. The Benin case.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tossou, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical objectives an

  5. Development of a Low-Cost Attitude Sensor for Agricultural Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop a low-cost attitude sensor for agricultural vehicles. The attitude sensor was composed of three vibratory gyroscopes and two inclinometers. A sensor fusion algorithm was developed to estimate tilt angles (roll and pitch) by least-squares method. In the a...

  6. First year with the course ‘Organic agriculture in a development perspective'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    In 2010, the course ‘Organic agriculture in a development perspective' was run for the first time at Aarhus University. Education within and continuous reflections upon organic farming and food systems on all levels is a prerequisite for the development of the field, and young university students...

  7. Agriculture Technical Advisory Committee on Curriculum Development. Job Clusters, Competencies and Task Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre. Montana Center for Vocational Education, Research, Curriculum and Personnel Development.

    This skills inventory for agricultural occupations was developed by a technical committee in Montana to assist in the development of model curricula and to address state labor market needs. The committee included employers from the forestry industry, members from trade and professional associations, and educators. The validated task list and…

  8. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  9. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  10. The Models for the Development of Specialty Agriculture in the Hilly Areas of Southern Ningxia: Are They Truly Effective?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyi; SUN; Qing; TANG; Yong; XU; Lijuan; DANG

    2013-01-01

    The development of specialty agriculture is of great significance to western China’s agricultural structure adjustment,and it’s an essential way for the construction of ecological agriculture in Southern Ningxia mountainous area.This paper makes a summary about the development status of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area and put forward the basic benefit goal and problems needing attention.On this basis,the paper studies the development pattern of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area from the aspects of production factors and industry.This paper suggests that the development pattern of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area should combine the regional agricultural pattern and innovative organization structure pattern,demonstration agriculture and market-directing pattern,engineering agricultural pattern and enterprise-driven pattern.The development of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area should promote the three patterns,in order to achieve the construction of ecological agriculture and agricultural structure adjustment.

  11. Promoting Agricultural Research and Development to Strengthen Food Security in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the status of agricultural R&D in South Asia and contends that creating an effective agricultural research and innovation systems is a vital element to ensure food security in this region. South Asia is home to around one-fourth of mankind and houses the largest proportion of undernourished people in the world. Despite a period of marked economic growth averaging 6% a year over the past two decades, it remains the world's second poorest region contributing a mere 2.2% in global annual GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of South Asian economy employing around 60% of the total workforce and generating around 20% of total GDP. South Asia has the recognition of being the second most food-insecure region next only to sub-Saharan Africa. Though there is growing evidence that technological innovation has a key role to play in increasing agricultural production and strengthening food security, agricultural research and development (R&D sector has failed to garner sufficient attention till now. This study also depicts the current situation of food security in South Asia and illustrates how agricultural education and innovation hold the master key to solve the food security issues for the world's most densely populated region.

  12. Agricultural market information systems in developing countries: new models, new impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Galtier, Franck; David-Benz, Hélène; Subervie, Julie; Egg, Johny

    2014-01-01

    Market information systems (MIS) developed in two steps in developing countries. A first generation of MIS emerged in the 1980s when most developing countries liberalized their agriculture, and a second generation followed in the 2000s driven by various factors such as the difficulties faced by the MIS of the first generation to reach their objectives, the new opportunities offered by the development of ICT - Internet and cell phones - and the increasing organization of market players (farmer...

  13. Analysis on Factors Influencing Sustainable Development of Self-study Examination of Agricultural Science Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yan-bing

    2012-01-01

    Based on existing problems in the course of development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, this paper analyzes logical conditions for its sustainable development. Major logical conditions include requirement for free and comprehensive development of individuals; requirement for social institutional evolution and change; requirement for fairness and justice of education and development; as well as requirement for better-established organization system and higher soc...

  14. Nuclear techniques and sustainable development in agriculture and food (Iraq as an example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated management of natural resources in accordance with the application of a wide range of nuclear technology, enabled the agricultural operations to shift towards a high level of productivity in a sustainable manner and, at the same time, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, which helps in addressing climate change. Through this article, we will review what has been provided by nuclear techniques in favor of sustainable development of agriculture and food. These nuclear techniques have been developed in labs and fields of the IAEA and have been tested and applied by many scientists and researchers around the world, including what have been accomplished by Iraqi scientists at the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  15. Ranking provinces based on development scale in agriculture sector using taxonomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rostampour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.

  16. Globalisation determinants of export-led development of Ukrainian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Karasova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vulnerability in the global agro-food market have been established. The work also deals with the directions of export-led activity development in the context of economic globalisation

  17. Embrapa's experience in the production and development of agriculture reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A. R. A.; Souza, G. B.; Bossu, C. M.; Bianchi, S. R.; Verhalen, T. R.; Silva, P. T.; Peixoto, A. A. J.; Silva, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The main challenge of Embrapa is to develop a model of genuine Brazilian tropical agriculture and livestock. To get this task, the quality of laboratories results is mandatory, increasing the demand for reference materials. Projects were proposed to produce reference materials to support the national agriculture laboratories and consolidate a network able to perform reliable and reproducible analytical testing laboratory within the internationally standards required. Reference materials were produced and available to interested laboratories and collaborative tests were conducted to obtain consensus values. The results and statistical evaluations were performed with the use of software developed by Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste.

  18. Developing and implementing a data acquisition strategy for global agricultural monitoring: an inter-agency initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C. O.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Killough, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, in response to global food crises, the G20 Agricultural Ministers launched a satellite-based global agricultural monitoring initiative to develop the Group on Earth Observations Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEOGLAM) system. The GEO is aimed at enhancing the availability and use of both satellite and in situ data for societal benefit. This initiative builds on the observation requirements developed by the GEO Agricultural Community of Practice, the understanding that no one satellite system can currently provide all the data needed for agricultural monitoring and the resulting recommendation for improved acquisition and availability of data by the World's space agencies. Implicit in this recommendation is the fact that certain regions of the Earth are imagery rich while others are imagery poor, leaving knowledge gaps about agricultural processes and food supply for certain areas of the World. In order to respond to these knowledge gaps and to strengthen national, regional, and global agricultural monitoring networks, GEOGLAM is working with the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS), the space arm of GEO, to develop a coordinated global acquisition strategy. A key component of GEOGLAM is an effort to articulate the temporal and spatial Earth Observation (EO) requirements for monitoring; second, the identification of current and planned missions which are capable of fulfilling these EO requirements; and third, the development of a multi-agency, multi-mission image acquisition strategy for agricultural monitoring. CEOS engineers and GEOGLAM scientists have been collaborating on the EO requirements since 2012, and are now beginning the first implementation phase of the acquisition strategy. The goal is to put in place an operational system of systems using a virtual constellation of satellite-based sensors acquiring data to meet the needs for monitoring and early warning of shortfalls in agricultural production, a goal that was articulated in the 1970's

  19. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China. Current status and suggestion on future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviewed the main achievements of nuclear agricultural sciences, analyzed its developmental gap and provided some thoughts on its future development in China. Since the research and application of nuclear agricultural sciences was initiated in 1956, it has penetrated into the main fields of agriculture and made outstanding achievements, in some fields, China keeps a leading place in the world. By the end of 2001, China obtained 625 mutant varieties and strains, accounting for 27.2% of the total number in the world. The total planting area of the mutant varieties amounted to about 9 million hectares, and brought about an annual increase of grains by 3-4 million tons, cotton by 1.5-1.8 million tons, oilseeds by 0.75 million tons, with total annual economic benefit of 3.3-4.0 billion RMB Yuan. Among the released mutant varieties, 18 were awarded the national innovation prize. China approved national hygiene standards for 6 classes of irradiated foods, and 17 national technological standards of irradiated foods. The annual amount of irradiated foods and agricultural commodities ranged from 80-100 thousand tons. In general, the application of nuclear agricultural sciences in mutation breeding, space breeding, agricultural isotope tracers, food irradiation, sterile insect technique and radiation hormesis, has made considerable advancement and gained tremendous economic, social as well as ecological benefits. As a result, the IAEA and its technical officials highly evaluated nuclear agriculture in China. In 1999, China was approved as the RCA lead country for thematic agriculture. In considering its future development, the focus should be placed on the applied basic research and the development of some key technologies, and endeavor to make some breakthroughs in the molecular mechanism of mutation breeding and space breeding, irradiation quarantine technology , isotope tracing in environmental protection, animal health and production. The general objective is

  20. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SALINE- ALKALI SOIL AREA OF SONGNEN PLAIN,NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-chun; LI Qu-sheng; LI Xiu-jun; SONG Chang-chun; ZHANG Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    There is great potential for agriculture in saline-alkali soil area in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Butthe sustainable crop production in this area has been restricted by a few of main factors, such as less precipitation, higherevaporation and frequent drought, high salinity and alkalinity, high exchangeable sodium content and poor infiltration ofthe soil, and insufficiency and low availability in nutrition. It is also considered that there are a few of favorable condi-tions for agricultural development in this region, such as sufficient light and heat resources, rich ground water resources,plenty of manure produced by livestock, and so on. At the same time, scientific management and measurements havebeen employed; rational irrigation and drainage system has been established; reclamation, amendment and fertilization ofsoil, and suitable strategies of cropping practices have been made for the sustainable development of agriculture. Greatprogress has been made during 1996- 2000.

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF LAND BANK FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE TECHNIQUE OF GRANTING RURAL LAND LOAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ION MEDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, with the liberalization of the land market, appears the prospect of functioning of aspecialized agricultural bank which might be named ,,land bank’’. In principle, this institution can buy and sellagricultural land and to provide priority "rural land loan" for farm development. Mainly, it may incorporate anadvantageous loan system created for those who want to buy land for agriculture use, once of the liberalizationof land market since 2014. In this article we present some details about importance of this credit institution andgrant technique of rural land loan . Currently, the number of Romanian farmers grouped in associations is verysmall compared to the millions agricultural holdings. Young farm development can be possible only byappealing to an "engine" type "rural land loans" and which may more quickly solve their financial problems.

  2. Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Robert G.; Hattendorf, Mary J.; Kincaid, Charles T.

    2000-02-25

    By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The area known as the Hanford Site has all the components that favor successful irrigated farming. Constraints to agricultural development of the Hanford Site are political and social, not economic or technical. Obtaining adequate water rights for any irrigated development will be a major issue. Numerous anticipated future advances in irrigation and resource conservation techniques such as precision agriculture techniques, improved irrigation systems, and irrigation system controls will greatly minimize the negative environmental impacts of agricultural activities.

  3. Development and enhancement of agricultural biotechnology in some countries in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, B R; Pasternak, J J; Downer, R G; Dumbroff, E B; Winter, K A

    1991-03-01

    A number of research institutions and both local and international agencles in Latin America are using biotechnology as part of an effort to enhance agricultural productivity. However, it is very much an open question as to whether all of these various organizations can provide the best means of realizing this goal. Latin American countries vary dramatically in their knowledge base and current use of modern biotechnology. Thus, while some countries lack the ability to develop, or possibly even implement, many aspects of modern biotechnology, others are quite advanced in this regard. This review provides a somewhat selective overview of current research in the area of agricultural biotechnology in Mexico, Costa Rica and Ecuador, with emphasis on how the existing agencies and institutions have responded to the challenge of biotechnology. In addition, general strategies for the development of agricultural biotechnology in these countries are presented and discussed. PMID:24424928

  4. Case Studies of Rural Development and Clean Agriculture in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachika Hirokawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the kind of actors and resources that empower small-scale farmers to promote sustainable agriculture. It also analyzes the reasons given by farmers who changed their farming methods. In 2004, the Department of Agriculture launched a project for the Promoting Organic Farming and Marketing in Lao PDR (PROFIL. PROFIL tried to develop market opportunities for Lao’s organic products and supported the local organic farmers. I conducted field researches at Nonte village in Vientiane Capital twice in 2008. The researches indicated that “Clean Agriculture” is one of the new challenges for farmers. Thus, this research focuses on the observation of how local organic farmers adapt to a new method and cope with problems. Information as knowledge from community groups and external actors such as local institutions and experts might help villagers to have choices in terms of farming methods, which gave them positive choices in terms of health and an agricultural environment. Since the government has the recognition of comparative advantages of clean agriculture, farmers may have the opportunity to gain a large market of organic farm products if they can develop distribution channels. This study encourages the positive contributions of challenges of sustainable agriculture in Lao PDR.

  5. EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The non-agricultural economy (small and medium-sized enterprises in industry, services, rural tourism has a low share in Romania's rural area. To start a business in the countryside can be both an advantage and a risk. The investments in the non-agricultural and food economy, while contributing to gross value added increase through the processing of agricultural and non-agricultural raw products from local resources, have another great advantage, by creating new jobs and by using and maintaining the local (rural labour, revitalization of rural localities, mainly those in the less-favoured and remote rural areas. The paper presents aspects of the management of small and medium enterprises in agriculture and services, in order to create a concrete analysis framework for sustainable development in rural areas. The socioeconomic analysis based on current data and future forecasts is the basis in drawing conclusions on the possibilities of encouraging a sustainable entrepreneurship in the less-developed regions and also for the economic revitalization.

  6. Static output feedback design with the Nelder-Mead algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Emile

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of using the Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm to design optimal Static Output Feedback (SOF) controllers for Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems. Considering the old age of both SOF problems and the NM algorithm, surprisingly good performances will be obtained compared to a state-of-the-art method. The motivation is to illustrate that NM, and direct search methods in general, have been too much neglected by the control community. The quality of the obtained results will emphasize this, and so the future of optimization methods for complex control design objectives should take such methods into account

  7. Ce que nous devons à James Mead (1907-1995)

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Teulon

    2014-01-01

    James Meade est un économiste anglais, membre du courant keynésien, il a reçu le prix Nobel en 1977 décerné par l’Académie suédoise, pour sa contribution à l'étude du fonctionnement et des mécanismes d’ajustement de la balance des paiements. Il a mené des travaux novateurs conduisant à une meilleure compréhension de la politique économique en économie ouverte.

  8. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-01

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops. PMID:25437237

  9. Embedding research in society: development assistance options for supporting agricultural innovation in a global knowledge economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, A.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of a globalised knowledge economy, and the contemporary views of innovation capacity that this trend enables and informs, provides a new context in which development assistance to agricultural research and development needs to be considered. The main argument in this paper, which focuses on The Netherlands, is that development assistance should use this emerging scenario to identify niches where inputs can add value to the R&D investments of others, particularly in activities th...

  10. Non-Tariff Barriers in Agricultural Trade: Issues and Implications for Least Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Uttam Kumar Deb

    2007-01-01

    Many developed and some developing countries have been offering special preferential market access schemes to least developed countries (LDCs). However, though these schemes have lowered tariff barriers for most of the agricultural products exported by LDCs, non-tariff barriers (NTBs) remain a major constraint to LDCs exports. For example, it has been calculated that Bangladesh and Cambodia, even though they have duty-free access to the EU market, faced NTBs equivalent to an average tariff of...

  11. Assessment of agricultural countermeasures and the development of the decision support system 'FORCON'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of data on agricultural countermeasures has been complied and assessed within an EC-sponsored collaborative project. The results of the work are summarized, and the development of a predictive tool to aid decisions at the local level is briefly described

  12. ROLE OF NON PHYSICAL DETERMINANTS ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN AHMEDNAGAR DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA

    OpenAIRE

    B. K. Wani; A. B. Aher

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to analyzing the role of non physical determinants on regional disparities in agricultural development in Ahmednagar district. Present study based on secondary data source which have been obtained district socio economic abstract. For analysis of tahsil wise disparities some appropriate statistical techniques have been employed. Major five non physical variables viz. irrigation, chemical fertilizer, farm implements, credit facilities and livestoc...

  13. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  14. Understanding indigenous knowledge: Bridging the knowledge gap through a knowledge creation model for agricultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda T. Lwoga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the management of agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK in developing countries, with a specific focus on Tanzania. It provides background details on IK and its importance for agricultural development. It introduces various knowledge management (KM concepts and discusses their application in managing IK in the developing world by placing Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory (Nonaka 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000 in the context of the local communities. Data from focus groups were used to triangulate with data from interviews in order to validate, confirm and corroborate quantitative results with qualitative findings. The study findings showed that knowledge creation theory can be used to manage IK in the local communities, however, adequate and appropriate resources need to be allocated for capturing and preserving IK before it disappears altogether. For sustainable agricultural development, the communities have to be placed within a knowledge-creating setting that continuously creates, distributes and shares knowledge within and beyond the communities’ boundaries and integrates it with new agricultural technologies, innovations and knowledge.

  15. Strategy of Strengthening Social Capital of Farmer Group in Agricultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Mukti Annas Wibisono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the village, the agricultural development is not certainly oriented to the economic aspect. The social intervention is very important and very helpful for the citizens and the development of the agricultural itself. The purpose of this research is to analyze the social existence, the social influence, and also the systematic strategy that can strengthen the society in developing the agriculture. The method used in this research is the qualitative analysis with phenomenology approach. The qualitative analysis is conducted by the direct observation in the field and in-depth interviews with the respondents that are selected by the purposive sampling. The result shows that a society has formed the farmer organization to have mutual coordination among the members. However, there are some problems that occur on this organization. The values and norms begin to fade and have become the major problem. Another problem is the sense of trust among the citizens and the unoptimal social network utilization. The conclusion is, the Analytic Network Process (ANP shows that to make a progress of agricultural development, they need to strengthen the social relationship among the citizens to face all the problems that may occur.

  16. Sustaining the earth's watersheds-agricultural research data system: Overview of development and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive, long-term data for watershed systems across diverse locations are essential for interdisciplinary hydrologic and ecosystem analysis and model development, calibration and validation. The USDA and Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have supported watershed research since the 1930’s w...

  17. Development and prospect of unmanned aerial vehicles for agricultural production management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied to support agricultural production management. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can focus on small crop fields in lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management with high precisi...

  18. Development and testing of crop monitoring methods to improve global agricultural monitoring in support of GEOGLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Bydekerke, L.

    2014-12-01

    The SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture) is funded through the EC FPY7 Research programme with the particular aim to contribute to the GEOGLAM Research Agenda. It is a partnership of globally distributed expert organizations, focusses on developing innovative techniques and datasets in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterize cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, are used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series are be explored to better assess crop yield gaps and shifts in cultivation. The third research topic entails the development of best practices for assessing the impact of crop land and cropping system change on the environment. In support of the GEO JECAM (Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring) initiative, case studies in Ukraine, Russia, Europe, Africa, Latin America and China are carried out in order to explore possible methodological synergies and particularities according to different cropping systems. This presentation will report on the progress made with respect to the three topics above.

  19. Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations in Fertilizer-Related Agricultural Production Technology in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Kerry J.

    This monograph reviews a wide range of research literature on the diffusion and adoption of innovations in agricultural production technology in the developing countries, with particular emphasis on the practice of using commercially purchased, inorganic fertilizer as a source of plant nutrients. It is intended that the report's documentation of…

  20. Undergraduate Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Leadership Development in College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Elizabeth A.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe experiences of undergraduate extracurricular involvement that result in increased leadership development. Senior students in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University completed an online questionnaire about their extracurricular experiences. Leadership development…