Sample records for agricultural workers diseases

  1. The relation between type of farming and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among agricultural workers in five French districts. (United States)

    Moisan, Frédéric; Spinosi, Johan; Dupupet, Jean-Luc; Delabre, Laurène; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis


    Retrospective assessment of pesticide exposure is complex; however, patterns of pesticide use strongly depend on farming type, which is easier to assess than pesticide exposure. Our aim was to estimate Parkinson's disease (PD) prevalence in five French districts in 2007 among affiliates of Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA) and to investigate the relation between PD prevalence and farming type. We identified PD cases from administrative files as persons who used levodopa and/or benefited from free health care for PD. Densities of 16 farming types were defined at the canton of residence level (1988 French agricultural census). We used logistic regression to study the relation between PD prevalence and density of farming types and a semi-Bayes approach to deal with correlated exposures. We identified 1,659 PD cases, yielding an age- and sex-standardized PD prevalence of 3.01/1,000. Prevalence increased with age and was higher in men than women. We found a higher PD prevalence among affiliates living in cantons characterized by a higher density of farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops (multivariable semi-Bayes model: OR(4+5 vs 1+2+3 quintiles) = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08-1.36; test for trend, P = 0.035). In France, farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops rank first in terms of insecticide use per hectare. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting an association between PD and insecticide use and show that workers in farms specialized in fruits or permanent crops may be an occupational group at higher PD risk.

  2. Agricultural lung diseases. (United States)

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F


    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  3. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides


    Martha E. Palacios N; María P. Paz


    Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 ...


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    Sion Hannuna


    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  5. Musculoskeletal diseases in forestry workers

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    Vuković Slađana


    Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.




  7. Preventing heat-related illness among agricultural workers. (United States)

    Jackson, Larry L; Rosenberg, Howard R


    Hyperthermia from exertion and environmental conditions during agricultural work manifests itself by various symptoms and may lead to death. From 1992 through 2006, 68 workers employed in crop production and related services died from heat-related illness. The crop worker fatality rate averaged 4 heat-related deaths per one million workers per year-20 times higher than the 0.2 rate for US civilian workers overall. Many of the agricultural workers who died were foreign-born. Foreign-born workers tend to have limited English language skills and often are not acclimatized to exertion in hot weather when beginning seasonal jobs. Increased recognition of heat hazards to agricultural workers, in particular, has stimulated concern among employers, workers, and public policy makers. California and Washington have led the nation in adopting workplace safety standards designed to prevent heat-related illnesses. These state regulations include new specific requirements for employer provision of drinking water, shade for rest or other sufficient means to recover from heat, worker and supervisor training, and written heat safety plans. Agricultural employers face practical challenges in fulfilling the purpose and complying with these standards. By their very nature the standards impose generic requirements in a broad range of circumstances and may not be equally protective in all agricultural work settings. It is vital that employers and supervisors have a thorough knowledge of heat illness prevention to devise and implement safety measures that suit local conditions. Ongoing risk-based assessment of current heat conditions by employers is important to this safety effort. Workers need training to avoid heat illness and recognize the symptoms in themselves and coworkers. Innovative management practices are joining time-honored approaches to controlling heat stress and strain. Research targeted to answer questions about heat accumulation and dissipation during agricultural work

  8. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural agricultural communit


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    Neda Tiraieyari


    Full Text Available Due to the expansion of crop productions there has been an increase in the fertilizers’ use by farmers in Malaysia. Recently Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP is gaining attention within agricultural sector. The Department of Agriculture facilitates regular delivery of SAP knowledge to farmers through extension workers. However extension workers’ perceptions and knowledge on SAP is not known well in Malaysia. A survey of extension workers was conducted in peninsular Malaysia to identify their perceptions and knowledge about SAP and determine the extent to which extension workers communicate SAP to the farmers. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results suggest extension workers’ perceptions and knowledge of SAP are favorable. Extension workers indicated that they communicate SAP information to the farmers. Further investigation from farmers’ perspectives is required to discover to what extent extension plays significant role in promoting adoption of the program.

  10. Agricultural lung diseases.


    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F


    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity an...

  11. Occupational health and safety of workers in agriculture and horticulture. (United States)

    Lundqvist, P


    Working in agriculture and horticulture gives considerable job satisfaction. The tasks are often interesting; you can see the result of your own work, watch your crop grow and mature; you have an affinity with nature and can follow the changes in the seasons. However, today it is a dangerous work environment fraught with occupational injuries and diseases due to hazardous situations and to physiological, physical, biological, chemical, psychological, and sociological factors. The ongoing rapid development may, on the other hand, bring about many changes during the next decades with more farmers and growers switching to organic production. Moreover, increased awareness of animal welfare also may lead to improved working conditions. Large-scale operations with fewer family-operated agricultural businesses might mean fewer injuries among children and older farmers. A consequence of large-scale operations may also be better regulation of working conditions. The greater use of automation technology eliminates many harmful working postures and movements when milking cows and carrying out other tasks. Information technology offers people the opportunity to gain more knowledge about their work. Labeling food produced in a worker-friendly work environment may give the consumers a chance to be involved in the process.

  12. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand. (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William


    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed.

  13. Characterization of α-cypermethrin Exposure in Egyptian Agricultural Workers



    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37)...

  14. Determination of susceptibility to heat-related disorders and prevention methods among agriculture workers

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    Conclusion: According to the results, agriculture workers based on their age distribution, education, body mass index, health knowledge, drug use and incidence of chronic diseases, are very vulnerable to heat-related disorders. Therefore, training on recognizing the early signs and doing control measures as essential element in heat stress prevention should be seriously considered.

  15. Case studies of violations of workers' freedom of association: migrant agricultural workers. (United States)


    As part of its report "Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards," Human Rights Watch conducted a series of case studies in a dozen states, covering a variety of industries and employment sectors, analyzing the U.S. experience in the light of both national law and international human rights and labor rights norms. Presented here are the case studies of migrant agricultural workers.

  16. How many workers are employed in California agriculture?

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    Philip Martin


    Full Text Available In 2014, the average employment of hired workers in California crop and livestock agriculture, counting all occupations, rose by 10% to 410,900. However, although the state reports the number of jobs on farms regularly, it does not report the number of workers who fill these jobs. We analyzed all Social Security numbers reported by farm employers in 2014 and found two workers for each average or year-round equivalent farm job, making the total number of farmworkers employed in agriculture 829,300, or twice average employment. Approximately 83% of farmworkers had their maximum earnings with an agricultural employer in 2014, and almost 80% of those primary farmworkers were employed by crop support firms (392,000 or fruit and nut farms (154,000. Over 60% of all workers had only one farm employer, followed by 27% with two or more farm employers, and 35% were employed in Kern (116,000, Fresno (96,000 and Monterey (82,000 counties. These data show that California has a remarkably stable farm workforce: most farmworkers are attached to one farm employer, often a labor contractor who moves them from farm to farm.

  17. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

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    Martha E. Palacios N


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 of them and 5% had 10 or more of the symptoms. There was an association, p = 0.03, between days of exposure and persistent symptoms. Likewise, there was an association between exposure level and the presence of probable and specific symptoms. Patients with the highest exposure level had 20% more chances of exhibiting symptoms. Cholinesterase concentration ranges were normal. Anemia was detected in 28% of the population. It was three times as frequent in females as in males (p < 0.001. Conclusions: it was possible to identify the increase of persistent symptoms in workers with cholinesterase levels that are usually considered to be normal.

  18. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs. (United States)

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B


    There are a variety of biologics, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones used in animal agriculture. Depending upon the procedure or pharmaceutical used, accidental injections or product exposures can result in mild to severe injuries. Needlestick injury (NSI) prevention, research, and education for veterinarians and agriculture workers is limited. The objective of this study was to collect and review published case reports and case series/surveys on human needlestick exposure to veterinary biologics and to summarize needlestick prevention strategies for agricultural workers/veterinarians. A search was conducted of PubMed and Centre for Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI) databases. References were reviewed to identify additional articles. NSI among agricultural workers were primarily included in this review. Thirty articles were applicable to exposures in agricultural settings. Relevant literature consisted of case reports, survey/case series articles, prevention documents, and background articles. Fifty-nine case patients were identified. Most of these cases were associated with exposures to specific vaccines or veterinary products. Injury location was identified from 36 individuals: 24 (67%) NSI to the hands, 10 (28%) injuries to the legs, and 2 to other body locations. Of the 59 cases, 20 (34%) involved oil-adjuvant vaccines. Evidence of hospitalization was recorded for 30 case patients. The length of hospitalization was available from 11 case patients. Median length of hospitalization was 3 days (range: 1-4). Surgical intervention was reported in 25 case patients. Outcome information was available on 30 case patients. Fifteen made a complete recovery within 2 weeks of treatment, 14 had residual sequelae attributed to the injury, and there was 1 reported death. Of the 13 survey/case series articles: 2 focused on oil-adjuvant products, 1 on Brucellosis RB-51 vaccine, 3 on tilmicosin, 1 on Salmonella enteritidis vaccine, 1 on high-pressure injection, and 5

  19. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers]. (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A


    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  20. Mitigation of musculoskeletal problems and body discomfort of agricultural workers through educational intervention. (United States)

    Vyas, Rekha


    Farming is a physically arduous occupation that places farm workers' at potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders, which has been observed to impose a greater impact on their health. Each activity in agriculture brings about certain stress and strain on bones and muscles leading to work-related musculoskeletal disorders which can lead to several permanent diseases and disabilities. The purpose of analyzing musculoskeletal problems among male and female workers engaged in agriculture was to know about the risk factors dangerous to health so that interventions can be planned for mitigating them thereby increasing the efficiency of work. Educational intervention included audio-visual aids as well as printed literature. It was hoped that awareness of these factors through dissemination of information would contribute at preventing hazards amongst farmers and their families. The results revealed that the workers reported very severe to severe pain in low back while performing agricultural activities. Weeding was the most strenuous activity for females and threshing crop for males. Training and education on MSDs through educational intervention proved that the knowledge of the farm workers could be enhanced and can help reduce risk of many musculoskeletal problems. It can be help in empowering the community and mitigate MSDs in agriculture.

  1. Occupational health and the rural worker: agriculture, mining, and logging. (United States)

    Pratt, D S


    More than 50 million Americans live in rural areas. These rural residents often work for small businesses or in the extraction industries (farming, mining, and logging). Because of the size of the businesses, the mandate of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not cover these workers and they are seldom afforded the same protection as urban workers. This review focuses on the special health problems facing farm workers, farmers, miners, and loggers. Farm workers are often ill and are affected by psychological illness, injuries, parasites, skin diseases, and the dangers of agrichemicals. Farm owners also face the hazards of stress and have very high rates of suicide. In addition, they are often injured on the job and suffer the highest rate of job related fatality of any work group. The complex farm environment presents a continuous threat to the lungs. This danger has worsened with the increased use of confinement buildings for poultry, hogs, and cattle. As farming has changed with increased mechanization, attendant medical problems have arisen. These "illnesses of innovation" are important. Mining and logging also are dangerous occupations with acute and chronic problems including respiratory illness, vascular problems, and malignancy. The decade of the 1990s must be one of increased attention to rural occupational health care and research.

  2. Characterization of α-cypermethrin exposure in Egyptian agricultural workers. (United States)

    Singleton, Steven T; Lein, Pamela J; Farahat, Fayssal M; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R; Knaak, James B; Olson, James R


    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6-10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2',2'-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3-93.96nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09-90.94nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7-11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM.

  3. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers

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    Lange John H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment. These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Discussion Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes. Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Summary Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  4. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and health conditions in agricultural and non-agricultural workers from Maule, Chile. (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Levy, Karen; Muñoz, María Pía; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos


    The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to OP pesticides and health status in Chilean farm workers from the Maule Region. An occupational health questionnaire was administered in 207 agricultural and non-agricultural workers. For the group of agricultural workers, we asked about specific occupational exposure history and symptoms of OP pesticide poisoning. The main health problem of the exposed group was previous OP pesticide poisoning (p poisoning. The use of respiratory personal protective equipment and younger age were protective against these symptoms, and number of years of OP pesticide exposure was positively associated with reporting symptoms of poisoning. Of the pesticide applicators 47 % reported using chlorpyrifos. The regulations regarding use and application of pesticides should be strengthened, as should training and intervention with workers to improve the use of personal protective equipment.

  5. An ergonomic study on posture-related discomfort among preadolescent agricultural workers of West Bengal, India. (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Das, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam


    In India, particularly in West Bengal, preadolescents are primarily associated with agricultural work in rural areas. Owing to poor socio-economic conditions, they are compelled to carry out a considerable number of manual, rigorous tasks in agricultural fields. The main aim of this study was to investigate postures adopted by preadolescent agricultural workers during individual agricultural activities and to analyze the causes of discomfort related to those postures. Fifty male and 50 female preadolescent agricultural workers were randomly selected and a detailed posture analysis was performed with the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). It was observed that those workers worked continuously in awkward postures during certain agricultural activities. Consequently they suffered from discomfort in different parts of their body. Even though they were very young, they were likely to suffer from serious musculoskeletal disorders in the future.

  6. Health and occupational risks due to pesticide handling among agricultural workers in marinilla, antioquia, 2009

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    Juan C. Tabares L


    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has played a key role in the development of Colombia’s economy and rural communities. The Marinilla municipality, located in the eastern area of the department of Antioquia, bases its economy in agriculture and livestock activities. This requires the use of a wide variety of chemical products that pose health risks. Objective: to describe the occupational and health risks of the farmers who use pesticides in Marinilla. Methodology: a descriptive study with multistage sampling and a sample of 157 farmers. Results: 64.9% of the farmers combine more than two chemicals. 83% of them have received no training on safe handling of agricultural chemical products. Approximately 80% of these individuals do not use the appropriate protective equipment to perform this task. Only 2.5 % of the farmers have occupational risks insurance. The most common disease was acute respiratory infection (78%. 22.3% have suffered from acute intoxication, and 14% (11 of the female farmers who have ever been intoxicated had abortions, premature births, or bore children with some kind of disability. A statistically significant difference was found between the age of farmers and pesticide usage time. No statistical difference was found between low schooling level and knowledge of the risks posed by chemical products. Conclusion: most agricultural workers have not been trained in safety standards; therefore, they disregard all kinds of safety measures during their work, and act without safety in mind and without personal hygiene habits.

  7. Dental utilization by children in Hispanic agricultural worker families in California


    Finlayson, TL; Gansky, SA; Shain, SG; Weintraub, JA


    Agricultural worker families encounter multiple barriers to accessing all needed dental care. This study investigated predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with children's past year dental utilization among Hispanic agricultural worker families in central California.Oral health survey and clinical data were collected from families participating in a larger, population-based study in 2006-7. Generalized estimating equation logit regression assessed effects on a dental visit among...

  8. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture (United States)

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna


    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to…

  9. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety (United States)

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas


    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  10. Prevalence of Lyme disease among forestry workers

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    Piotr Paweł Kocbach


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of Lyme disease, established diagnosis based on medical history and clinical symptoms, serology, duration of exposure in the workplace and occupational disease certification among forestry workers in selected districts of the Warmia and Mazury region. Material and Methods: The study consisted of annual screening of 332 employees in 6 forest districts under the supervision of the Health Center Medica in Ostróda. Serological tests were performed in all serum samples and IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by ELISA test. Positive results were confirmed by Western-blot test. Diagnosis was made based on medical history and clinical symptoms. Results were presented by the division of selected forest districts, gender, duration of exposure in the workplace and genospecies of spirochete Borrelia responsible for the disease development. Results: Lyme disease incidence was found in all selected forest districts. Positive results in Western-blot test were determined in 120 people (63.1% of all the surveyed. However, after taking a detailed medical history of the patients Lyme disease was diagnosed in 91 people which makes 27.4% of all the examined. Among patients with diagnosed disease, IgG antibodies were found in 76 people, IgM in 25 people, while both IgM and IgG in 10 people. There was also variation in the involvement of genospecies generating the disease; spirochete B. afzeli – 46% for IgG antibodies, whereas spirochete B. burgdorferi – 50% of all cases for IgM antibodies. At the same time the relationship between the extended duration of occupational exposure to tick bites and the increased incidence of Lyme disease was confirmed, indicating the group of workers employed for at least 25 years. Conclusions: Forestry districts of the Warmia and Mazury region, creates extremely dangerous occupational conditions because of exposure to tick bites. At the same time the duration of

  11. Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers. (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Weissman, David N


    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of respirators in preventing occupational asthma. If sensitizer-induced WRA is diagnosed, it is important to avoid further exposure to the causative agent, preferably by more rigorous application of exposure control strategies to the workplace. This review focuses on allergic occupational respiratory diseases in HCWs.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition as an indicator of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in Kenyan agricultural workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, H.; Omondi, B.E.O.; Boleij, J.S.M.


    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was determined for 666 Kenyan agricultural workers; 390 (58.6%) mainly pesticide applicators exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides and 276 (41.4%) unexposed controls from four rural agricultural areas during 1993 and 1994. Baseline levels were depressed

  13. Workers' compensation for occupational respiratory diseases. (United States)

    Park, So-young; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Song, Jaechul


    The respiratory system is one of the most important body systems particularly from the viewpoint of occupational medicine because it is the major route of occupational exposure. In 2013, there were significant changes in the specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases, which were established by the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA). In this article, the authors deal with the former criteria, implications of the revision, and changes in the specific criteria in Korea by focusing on the 2013 amendment to the IACIA. Before the 2013 amendment to the IACIA, occupational respiratory disease was not a category because the previous criteria were based on specific hazardous agents and their health effects. Workers as well as clinicians were not familiar with the agent-based criteria. To improve these criteria, a system-based structure was added. Through these changes, in the current criteria, 33 types of agents and 11 types of respiratory diseases are listed under diseases of the respiratory system. In the current criteria, there are no concrete guidelines for evaluating work-relatedness, such as estimating the exposure level, latent period, and detailed examination methods. The results of further studies can support the formulation of detailed criteria.

  14. Competencies Influencing Extension Workers'Job Performance in Relation to the Good Agricultural Practices in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The bottom line in agricultural trade is that manufacturers are demanding agricultural products that are produced in a sustainable way and with assurance that they are truly conforming to the standards of Good Agriculture Practice. Towards this objective, attention has been given on sustainable agricultural productions in Malaysia. This study is an attempt to investigate job performance of extension workers in terms of competency in relation to the Good Agricultural Practices. This research investigates the influence of competencies on extension workers’ job performance at the department of agriculture in Malaysia with the emphasis of having both human development competencies and technical competencies in order to perform extension job. Approach: Stratified random sampling technique employed to select 210 extension workers from the Department of Agriculture in four states of Malaysia. A structured research instrument was utilized to survey extension workers’ competency and job performance. To test the extent research data support the MLR model, Enter regression method was used. Results: Results showed that out of the nine competencies included in the regression model only four competencies contributed significantly in explaining the variation of job performance. The R2 value of 0.544 implies that the nine predictors explain about 54.4% of the variance in the extension workers' job performance. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings suggest that the data dose not fully support the proposed nine-predictors multiple linear regression model. Finding was contrary to the expectations, since human development areas of competencies did not contribute to the job performance. Hence extension workers are not much involved in human development aspects of their job and they give primary attention to technology transfer rather than human development.

  15. Chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Ellen Fischer; Hannerz, Harald; Tüchsen, Finn


    To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009.......To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009....

  16. A Comparison of Certain Knowledges in Agriculture Needed by Workers in Farming, in Grain Elevator Businesses, and in Agricultural Equipment Businesses. (United States)

    Fiscus, Keith Eugene

    Questionnaires to determine the vocational and technical education needed by prospective workers in farming and in grain elevator and agricultural equipment businesses were administered to 20 workers in each of the jobs of (1) farm manager, (2) grain elevator manager, operator, salesman, and deliveryman, and (3) agricultural equipment manager,…

  17. Personal Characteristics Affecting Agricultural Extension Workers' Job Satisfaction Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asadi


    Full Text Available Problem Statement: One of the closely associated concepts with performance of an organization is job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personal characteristics and job satisfaction. Approach: A survey of 52 extension workers was conducted in Fars Province, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Bray field and Rothe Job Satisfaction Index was used. Results: The study found that the majority of the extension workers (65.5% belonged to intermediate level of job satisfaction, followed by 29.1 and 5.5% belonging to high and low level of job satisfaction, respectively. Regression results also indicated that the full model was moderately successful, explaining 45% of the variances in the job satisfaction. Two independent variables that accounted for the explained variances were monthly salary (27% and marital status (18%. Conclusions/Recommendations: Administration should conduct a periodic needs assessment to determine the level of job satisfaction of personnel and identify methods for increasing satisfaction based on these findings.

  18. Agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among hired farm workers in California (the MICASA study). (United States)

    Rodriquez, Erik J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B


    Despite California's dependence on hired farm labor, scarce research has been conducted on the respiratory health of hired farm workers. Agricultural exposures to inorganic and organic dusts can adversely affect an individual's respiratory health and differ by farm type and job task. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine associations between agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among 450 California farm workers. Data were collected as part of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) study, a prospective cohort study examining occupational risk factors and health of hired farm worker families in Mendota, California. Time-weighted self-reported average (TWSRA) dust scores were calculated from assessments of past-12-month agricultural work history. Other dust exposure indicator variables included months worked in agriculture in the past 12 months and years worked in agriculture. Multiple linear regression modeled FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FEF(25-75%) (forced midexpiratory flow rate), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6 separately. Seventy-six percent of participants had worked in agriculture in the past year. In models conducted for crops and tasks separately, high TWSRA dust score was associated with better FEV6. Crop and task models showed associations between greater months worked in agriculture in the past year and better FEV1, FEF(25-75%), and FEV6. Both models also found greater years worked in agriculture to be associated with worse FEV1/FEV6. Results were generally in the opposite direction as expected given past research but not uncommon. Future research should investigate relationships between pulmonary function and agricultural dust exposure over a lifetime and changes in pulmonary function over time.

  19. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Agricultural Workers Receiving Microcredit in Bangladesh (United States)

    Mahmud, Kazi Tanvir; Parvez, Asif; Hilton, David; Kabir, G. M. Shamsul; Wahid, Ishraat Saira


    The policy of providing microcredit and skill training to poor agricultural workers in developing countries is well-established. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the training part of that policy. BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), the largest non-governmental organization in…

  20. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey. (United States)

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin


    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of the fungicide Mancozeb in agricultural workers. (United States)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Birindelli, Sarah; Fustinoni, Silvia; De Paschale, Gioia; Mammone, Teresa; Visentin, Sara; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio


    Available data suggest that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) may have immunomodulatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the immunological profile of farmers exposed to Mancozeb, an EBDC fungicide, through the determination of several serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. Twenty-six healthy subjects entered the study, 13 vineyards exposed to Mancozeb and 13 unexposed controls. Exposure was assessed through the determination of ethylentiourea (ETU) in urine. Complete and differential blood count, serum immunoglobulins, complement fractions, autoantibodies, lymphocyte subpopulations, proliferative response to mitogens, natural killer (NK) activity, and cytokine production were measured. Post-exposure samples showed ETU urine concentration significantly higher than pre-exposure and control groups. A significant increase in CD19+ cells, both percentage and absolute number, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD25+ cells were found in post-exposure samples compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in the proliferative response to phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA + ionomycin) was observed in the post-exposure group compared to controls and baseline, while a significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-alpha release in post-exposure samples was observed. Overall, our results suggest that low-level exposure to Mancozeb has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out a method adequate to reveal immune-modifications in workers occupationally exposed to potential immunotoxic compounds, based on a whole blood assay.

  2. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia]. (United States)

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N


    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  3. 78 FR 45167 - Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture; Pesticides, Agricultural Worker... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 170 RIN 2070-AJ22 Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture...). ACTION: Notification of submission to the Secretary of Agriculture. SUMMARY: This document notifies the public as required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) that the...

  4. Continuing education in physical rehabilitation and health issues of agricultural workers. (United States)

    Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda


    Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions.

  5. Allergic alveolitis among agricultural workers in eastern Poland: a study of twenty cases. (United States)

    Milanowski, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Potoczna, H; Kuś, L; Urbanowicz, B


    The aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern Poland. The microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. It was found that the causative agents of allergic alveolitis in the examined group of patients were mesophilic, non-branching bacteria associated with grain dust, mostly Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans) and Arthrobacter globiformis (each in eight cases). The remaining agents were Alcaligenes faecalis (in two cases), and Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis (in one case each). On the basis of the clinical picture, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and allergological tests, the diagnosis of the chronic form of the disease was stated in 14 patients and an acute form - in 6 patients. EAA patients demonstrated in the BAL fluid a typical lymphocytic alveolitis both in terms of percentage and absolute number of lymphocytes. Also, the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in EAA patients.

  6. Pesticide use and cholinesterase inhibition in small-scale agricultural workers in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Botião Nerilo


    Full Text Available A controlled cross-sectional study of family growers of fruit and vegetables was conducted between October 2009 and October 2010 to characterize the use of pesticides, establish the socio-demographic profile, and analyze cholinesterase activity in small-scale agricultural workers in Southern Brazil. Data was collected for 173 workers and 179 controls. A structured questionnaire was applied collecting socio-demographic information and determining knowledge and work practices in relation to pesticide use. The benchmarks for total cholinesterase (ChEs and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE were obtained from the average enzymatic activity of the occupationally unexposed group (control. The mean age of the exposed population was 40.0 ± 11.2 years. The symptoms differed significantly (p30% of ChEs activity, whereas no workers showed high inhibition (>50% of BuChE. Potential factors involved include gender, education, pesticide orientation, exposure, and hygiene measures.

  7. Hard metal lung disease in an oil industry worker. (United States)

    Bezerra, Patrícia Nunes; Vasconcelos, Ana Giselle Alves; Cavalcante, Lílian Loureiro Albuquerque; Marques, Vanessa Beatriz de Vasconcelos; Nogueira, Teresa Neuma Albuquerque Gomes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara


    Hard metal lung disease, which manifests as giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is caused by exposure to hard metal dust. We report the case of an oil industry worker diagnosed with hard metal lung disease. The diagnosis was based on the clinical, radiological and anatomopathological analysis, as well as on pulmonary function testing.

  8. Job demands and resources of workers in a South African agricultural organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris N. Asiwe


    Full Text Available Orientation: Understanding the job demands and resources experienced by workers in an agricultural organisation.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Adapted Job Demands and Resources Scale (AJDRS as well as to establish prevalent job demands and resources of employees in an agricultural organisation. Demographic differences were also investigated.Motivation of the study: The agricultural sector of any national economy plays a very important role in the overall welfare of the country. Identifying the prevalent job demands and resources in an agricultural organisation is therefore of paramount importance since the negative consequences of employees experiencing very demanding jobs with few resources have been well documented in stress literature.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of 443 employees in an agricultural organisation. The AJDRS was used to measure the research variables.Main findings: The findings of this research show evidence for the factorial validity and reliability of the AJDRS. Statistical differences were found with regard to the job demands and resources experienced by employees in different positions.Practical/managerial implications: Interventions to improve the perceived job demands and resources in the organisation should focus on physical resources (equipment.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge concerning the job demands and resources that are prevalent in an agricultural organisation in South Africa.

  9. Respiratory Diseases in Agate Grinding Workers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rafeemanesh


    Full Text Available Background: Agate is a hard silica stone with bands of various colors, which is used in jewelry. The agate grinding workers are exposed to silica dust.Objective: To determine the prevalence of respiratory diseases in agate grinding workers and the associated factors.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 170 agate grinding workers from Mashhad, northeastern Iran, were examined. Medical and occupational history for respiratory illnesses was taken using respiratory questionnaire of the national program of silicosis control, lung examination, spirometry and chest radiography. Chest x-rays were interpreted according to the International Labor Office (ILO classification system, 2000.Results: The mean±SD of age and work duration of the participants were 31.2±10.1 and 13±8.2 years, respectively. The prevalence of silicosis among agate workers was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.9%–18.0%; 18 workers had simple and 4 had complicated silicosis. There was a significant (p<0.05 relationship between contracting silicosis and exposure duration. 20 (11.7% workers had symptoms consistent with chronic bronchitis and 8 (4.7% showed asthma and asthma-like symptoms. The most frequent disorder observed in spirometry was the restrictive pattern (n=43, 30%. In the agate grinders, clinical and spirometry findings did not match with radiological findings.Conclusion: Agate grinding workers are at increased risk for respiratory diseases, specifically for silicosis and chronic bronchitis. The disease is related to silica dust exposure, poor ventilation and inappropriate personal protection.

  10. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health. (United States)

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H


    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research.

  11. Skin diseases in uranium industry workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevcova, M.


    Ten years of activity of the dermato-venerologic department of the Factory Centre of National Health of the uranium industry in Pribram is evaluated. In spite of some specific conditions of the working environment the chief problem of the plant dermatologist is the diagnosis and treatment of common dermatological diseases caused by dust, chemicals, rubber boots, excessive humidity in some places and the permanent presence of low-activity radioactive substances in the air and external ionizing radiation. Occupational diseases form a very small group of skin impairments--mostly allergic contact eczema of the lower limbs caused by rubber boots, chromium compounds during work with cement, blasting material and other allergens. The specificity of the job of the dermatologist here requires good knowledge of the working environment in view of the risk of ionizing radiation and its biological effects, especially the hazard of skin tumors following external exposure to alpha radiation from radon daughter products.

  12. Assessment of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in blood plasma of agriculture workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Dhananjayan


    Full Text Available Background: Cholinesterase determination indicates whether the person has been under pesticide exposure is not. It is recommended that the worker′s cholinesterase level should be assessed for workers at a pesticide applied region. Hence, cholinesterase activities in blood samples of agricultural workers exposed to vegetables and grape cultivation with age matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to pesticides, were estimated. Methods: The detailed occupational history and lifestyle characters were obtained by questionnaire. Cholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman as modified by Chambers and Chambers. Results: AChE was ranging from 1.65 to 3.54μmoles/min/ml in exposed subjects where as it was ranged from 2.22 to 3.51μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. BChE activity was ranging from 0.16 to 5.2μmoles/min/ml among exposed subjects, where as it was ranged from 2.19 to 5.06μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. The results showed statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities (AChE 14%; BChE 56% among exposed subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that the reduction in cholinesterase activity may lead to varieties of effects. Hence it is compulsory to use protective gadgets during pesticide spray. Further a continuous biomonitoring study is recommended to assess pesticide exposure.

  13. Use of Computer and Internet in Agricultural Extension as Perceived by Extension Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pezeshki Rad


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine computer and Internet use in agricultural extension by Extension Workers (EWs. This study used a descriptive-correlational design. Population for the study consisted of all extension workers (N = 320 in Isfahan Province, Iran. A stratified sampling technique and census was used to select EWs (n = 200. Overall, findings indicate that EWs have access to computers both at work and home. On average, they use computers approximately 6 – 8 hours per week and majority of them use the Internet on average of 1 – 4 hours per week. A majority of them reported “fair to high level” of skills in computer usage. For example, writing CDs, word processing, using computers for file management, and basic computer skills. However, extension agent’s report “no to a low level” of skills relative to using excel, installing software, power point and micro soft access, Photoshop, statistical software, were the skills that EWs did not have. It was proved necessary to conduct a systematic assessment of training needs relative to computer and Internet use. Systematic training should be conducted in the areas that Extension Workers perceived to be less skill.

  14. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada. (United States)

    Barnes, Nielan


    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights.

  15. Noncommunicable disease risk profile of factory workers in Delhi (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Kohli, Charu; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Ekta


    Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming more prevalent in India. The data for presence of NCDs and its risk factors among factory workers is deficient in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among 37 factory workers and equal number of comparable subjects from general population. Screening for presence of diabetes along with its risk factors was made in both the groups using pretested predesigned World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO STEPS) questionnaire in rural area of Delhi. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. The estimation of risk in two groups was done with calculation of odds ratio (OR). P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: A total of 74 participants were included in the present study. Hypertension and diabetes was present in 13.5 and 5.4% of factory workers and four (10.8%) and three (8.8%) subjects in comparative group, respectively. Seven (18.9%) factory and eight (21.6%) non-factory subjects fell in the category of current smoker or smokeless tobacco users. High density lipoprotein levels were found abnormal among one (2.7%) factory worker and nine (24.3%) subjects in comparative group (P-value = 0.01). Behavioral risk factors, alcohol consumption, and fruits and vegetable intake were significantly different among two groups. Conclusion: Factory workers were having better profile than non-factory subjects except for risk factors such as alcohol intake and inadequate fruits and vegetable intake. However, healthy worker effect phenomenon cannot be ruled out. PMID:23776324

  16. Noncommunicable disease risk profile of factory workers in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugal Kishore


    Full Text Available Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs are becoming more prevalent in India. The data for presence of NCDs and its risk factors among factory workers is deficient in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among 37 factory workers and equal number of comparable subjects from general population. Screening for presence of diabetes along with its risk factors was made in both the groups using pretested predesigned World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO STEPS questionnaire in rural area of Delhi. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. The estimation of risk in two groups was done with calculation of odds ratio (OR. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: A total of 74 participants were included in the present study. Hypertension and diabetes was present in 13.5 and 5.4% of factory workers and four (10.8% and three (8.8% subjects in comparative group, respectively. Seven (18.9% factory and eight (21.6% non-factory subjects fell in the category of current smoker or smokeless tobacco users. High density lipoprotein levels were found abnormal among one (2.7% factory worker and nine (24.3% subjects in comparative group (P-value = 0.01. Behavioral risk factors, alcohol consumption, and fruits and vegetable intake were significantly different among two groups. Conclusion: Factory workers were having better profile than non-factory subjects except for risk factors such as alcohol intake and inadequate fruits and vegetable intake. However, healthy worker effect phenomenon cannot be ruled out.




  18. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico. (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando


    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  19. Exploration of Nano-finished Non-wovens For Potential Use in Protective Clothing for Agricultural Workers in South Africa


    P.E. Zwane; S.A. Chapple and M.T. Masarirambi


    The global trade requirements have made protective clothing paramount in the agricultural sector. The aim of the study was to find the views of farmers on the use of protective garment for the agricultural sector in South Africa, and to measure the performance of nano-treated fabric structures, which can be utilized as an alternative disposable protective garment. A mini survey was done to gather current practices of farm workers and experiments were conducted on the application of different ...

  20. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Corie A., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Crane, Alice L., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Bonner, Matthew R., E-mail: [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Knaak, James B., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Browne, Richard W., E-mail: [Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Olson, James R., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)


    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  1. Wage Disparity and Inter-Occupation Specifics in Managing Czech Households’ Portfolios: What is the position of agricultural workers?

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    L. Vavroušková, L. Čechura


    Full Text Available Wage disparity that exists between genders, sectors, and geographical regions, can influence household portfolio management. This study examines the impact of wage disparity and inter-occupation differences on Czech household portfolios. The model of portfolio choice was estimated using the Heckman selection model complemented by wage disparity analysis. Results show no significant differences in financial portfolios between blue-collar workers, including farm households and employees in agricultural sector, and white- collar workers. There was high heterogeneity within the group of blue-collar workers, and wage disparity among employment sectors. Employees in the agricultural sector were categorised as having a below average salary and characterised by a lower probability of utilising long-term saving products, loans and making a smaller contribution to short term saving products. Agricultural workers and farm household were a highly heterogeneous group. Finally a significant regional wage disparity in the Czech agriculture sector was observed.The research was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (Grant No. MSM 6046070906.

  2. Evaluation of DNA damage in agricultural workers exposed to pesticides using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminderjeet Kaur


    Full Text Available Background : Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops, but they pose a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage. Materials and Methods : Blood samples of 210 exposed workers (after a day of intense spraying and 50 control subjects belonging to various districts of Punjab (India were evaluated using Comet assay. Sixty workers who showed DNA damage were selected for follow up at 5-6 months after the first sampling during a low or null spraying period. Results : Significant differences were found in DNA damage between freshly exposed workers and controls and freshly exposed and followed up cases. There was significant increase in the comet parameters viz. mean comet tail length and frequency of cells showing migration in exposed workers as compared to controls (72.22 ± 20.76 vs. 46.92 ± 8.17, P<0.001; 31.79 vs. 5.77, P<0.001. In the second samples, followed up cases showed significant decrease in frequency of damaged cells as compared to freshly exposed workers of first sampling (P<0.05. The confounding factors such as variable duration of pesticide exposure, age, smoking, drinking and dietary habits etc which were expected to modulate the damage, were instead found to have no significant effect on DNA fragmentation. Conclusion : The evidence of a genetic hazard related to exposure resulting from the intensive use of pesticides stresses the need for educational programs for agricultural workers to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture.

  3. Seasonal agricultural youth workers' concerns on development - growth in adolescence period and utilization of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep simsek


    Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull

  4. Skin diseases in workers at a perfume factory. (United States)

    Schubert, Hans-Jürgen


    The aim of this study is to find out the causes of skin diseases in one-third of the staff of a perfume factory, in which 10 different perfume sprays were being manufactured. Site inspection, dermatological examination and patch testing of all 26 persons at risk with 4 perfume oils and 30 ingredients of them. The results showed 6 bottlers were found suffering from allergic contact dermatitis, 2 from irritant contact dermatitis, 12 workers showed different strong reactions to various fragrances. The main causes of allergic contact dermatitis were 2 perfume oils (12 cases) and their ingredients geraniol (12 cases), benzaldehyde(9), cinnamic aldehyde (6), linalool, neroli oil, terpenes of lemon oil and orange oil (4 each). Nobody was tested positive to balsam of Peru. Job changes for office workers, packers or printers to other rooms, where they had no longer contact with fragrances, led to a settling. To conclude, automation and replacement of glass bottles by cartridges from non-fragile materials and using gloves may minimize the risk.

  5. Exploration of Nano-finished Non-wovens For Potential Use in Protective Clothing for Agricultural Workers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Zwane


    Full Text Available The global trade requirements have made protective clothing paramount in the agricultural sector. The aim of the study was to find the views of farmers on the use of protective garment for the agricultural sector in South Africa, and to measure the performance of nano-treated fabric structures, which can be utilized as an alternative disposable protective garment. A mini survey was done to gather current practices of farm workers and experiments were conducted on the application of different nano-finishes followed by performance testing of barrier and comfort properties of the selected fabric structures. Findings revealed that current garments of farm workers do not offer adequate protection and there was desire and need for an alternative protective garment. Furthermore, the viscose/flax non-woven fabric with the CNFP/NSAC finish had the highest values for water vapour transmission, oil and water repellency, and air permeability and was reported to be relatively more comfortable.

  6. Understanding the Role of the State in Promoting Capitalist Accumulation: A Case Study of the Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program


    Joseph Yaw Asomah


    There is limited in-depth research focusing on how the state exerts its power and influence through immigration laws, policies and practices in structuring the relations of labour and capital in a manner that reflects capitalist interests. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role of the state in fostering capitalist accumulation, using the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP) as a case study, and to consider the policy implications of this program. This paper address...

  7. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania. (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen


    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Santos


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the difference in earnings of workers in the production of some agricultural commodities and workers in other crops in Brazil and in the Central-West region. It is mainly used the labor market segmentation theory, and references on the human capital theory and the agricultural labor market. Data from the National Sample Survey of Households (PNAD-IBGE of 2009 is used to present descriptive statistics on income and socioeconomic characteristics of workers, and to estimate a mincerian earnings equation, by the method of robust least squares. Soy, corn, sugar cane, and meat whore chosen to represent de agricultural commodities group. The results show that even controlling for the effect of human capital, there is differential in earnings for workers in commodity production in Brazil and in the Central-West region, indicating that the agricultural labor market is segmented.

  9. Knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ict utilization in agricultural extension service delivery in Gazipur district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Prodhan


    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the study was to assess the extent of knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization and to determine the relationship between the selected characteristics of the respondents and knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization in extension service delivery. The study was conducted in Gazipur district and comprised proportionate random sample of 90 extension workers from five upazila of Gazipur district. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. To measure the knowledge on ICT utilization 35 statements were selected regarding 7 ICT with five possible answer of each tools and a score of one was given to the right answer and zero to the wrong answer alternatively to measure the perception of the respondents rated each of 10 statements ICT utilization in agriculture on a 5-point Likert type scale and the total of these ratings formed perception index. The result of the study showed that out of seven ICT tools the knowledge of extension workers was highest in case of MS Word this was followed by internet/ web service and the lowest knowledge was found in case of Geographical Information System. It is observed that an overwhelming majority (88.9% of agricultural extension workers in the study area had low to medium knowledge towards ICT utilization. Findings reveal that the respondents had top most perception on the ICT utilization in respect of ‘Extension work can be greatly enhanced by ICT’ followed by on ‘The benefits of ICT use outweigh the financial burden involved’. The result also indicated that more than fourth-fifth (84.4% of the respondents had medium to high perception towards ICT utilization. There were significant relationship between service experience and use of the information sources of the respondents with their knowledge towards ICT utilization conversely innovativeness, cosmopoliteness and job satisfaction of the


    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.


  11. A study on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus insecticides during spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress status and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity were studied in blood samples obtained from 61 agricultural workers engaged in spraying organophosphorus (OP insecticides in the mango plantation, with a minimum work history of one year, in the age range of 12-55 years. Controls were age-matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to OP pesticides. They were evaluated for oxidative stress markers MDA (end product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH, and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE levels in blood. The results showed a marked inhibition of the AChE and BChE activities in the sprayers as compared to the controls. The malondialdehyde(MDA, the last product of lipid peroxidation was found to be increased significantly in sprayers(p< 0.05, while depletion in the concentration of antioxidant glutathione(GSH was also observed in the sprayers but the difference was statistically not significant. It was concluded on the basis of biochemical analysis that pesticides sprayers are exposed to more oxidative stress as evidenced by the changes in antioxidant status. The measurement of the AChE and BChE activities in agricultural workers who spray OPs could be a good biomonitoring factor and is recommended to be performed on a regular basis.

  12. DOTS for temporary workers in the agricultural sector. An exploratory study in Tuberculosis case detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Clarke


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Boland health district of the Cape Winelands of South Africa where there is a high tuberculosis incidence and prevalence. A survey conducted on 211 farms in the study district during 1998, reported that 65% (n = 9042 of all workers on these farms, were temporarily employed. Temporary farm workers live in communities either within or on the outskirts of the boundaries of the Boland health district, from where they are transported to work daily.

  13. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land. (United States)

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco


    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.

  14. [Risk and features of occupational diseases in nonferrous metallurgy workers of Kolsky Transpolar area]. (United States)

    Siurin, S A; Chashchin, V P; Frolova, N M


    The study covered data on 977 cases of occupational diseases in 615 workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area. Findings are high risk of occupational diseases in workers engaged into electrolysis production of aluminium, all nickel reprocessing and pyrometallic copper reprocessing (GR 7.02-10.0). Electrolysis operators and anode operators of aluminium production are more prone to occupational diseases, with bone and muscular disorders (46.8%) prevalent in the morbidity structure. Respiratory diseases are more prevalent (68.2-100%) in the occupational morbidity structure of copper-nickelindustry workers. Conclusion is made on mandatory improvement of the work conditions and more effective individual protective means against occupational hazards in workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area.

  15. [Skin diseases among workers engaged into copper-nickel and aluminium production in Far North]. (United States)

    Nikitina, N Iu; Petrenko, O D; Isakova, T N


    The article covers materials obtained in study of skin diseases in workers engaged into non-ferrous metals production. The authors specified suggestions on prevention of metal allergies among major professions of metallurgy complex in Far North.

  16. Investigation of potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cellular stability after the exposure of agricultural workers to pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agricultural workers involved in the harvest of tobacco crops are regularly exposed to large quantities of pesticides. In order to determine how this exposure to pesticides induces genetic alterations in these workers, blood samples were obtained from 77 exposed individuals, as well as from 60 unexposed subjects. DNA damage was analyzed by the Comet assay and by the micronucleus (MN test. The antioxidant profile was evaluated by activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the polymorphism of gene PON1 was used as a susceptibility biomarker. The content of inorganic elements in the blood samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Our results demonstrated that the damage frequency, damage index, the MN frequency, and the SOD activity were significantly elevated in the exposed relative to the unexposed group. A modulation of the MN results for the PON1 gene was observed in the exposed group. The concentrations of inorganic elements in the exposed group were higher compared to those of the unexposed group. In this study, we observed that genetic damage, and change in oxidative balance were induced by the exposure of workers to complex mixtures of pesticides in the presence of inorganic compounds, whereby an influence of the genotype was evident.

  17. Presence and awareness of infectious disease among Chinese migrant workers. (United States)

    Strand, Mark; Xiaobing, Wang; Xiaoqin, Duan; Lee, Kristin; Wang, Alex; Yanqing, Li; Jinxi, Ni; Guangming, Cheng

    This cross-sectional study set out to identify the health status and health beliefs and behaviors with regard to TB and HIV-AIDS among 407 rural male migrant workers in China. Surveyed workers' awareness level for AIDS transmission was 67.7% and for TB transmission 56.8%. These workers had high rates of acute illness in the previous month (depression 18.3%, physical injury 16.3%, dermatological ailment 9.6%, respiratory infection 9.4%). One or more of the four symptoms of TB were found in 22.3% of the workers. Prevalent TB symptoms were associated with previously having had TB (chi-square = 69.98, p = .000) and having previously lived with a TB patient (F = 13.99, p = .000). The relative risk for having had TB if the worker had lived with someone with TB was 5.69 (chi-square 7.65, p = .006). Screening for TB symptoms, a history of having lived with someone with TB, or having previously had TB, has the potential to serve as a cost-effective and easy first-line TB screening among large mobile populations.

  18. Pattern of skin diseases among migrant construction workers in Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruvila Maria


    Full Text Available Background: With increasing industrialization, the construction industry provides employment to a large number of skilled and nonskilled workers, many of them migrant workers. Aim: This study was undertaken to provide epidemiological data regarding various dermatoses among migrant construction workers in India as currently there is a paucity of the same. Methods: One thousand construction workers, including 467 migrant laborers, were examined for various dermatoses. Results: Most (88% workers were males and 51.17% were in their third decade. Infective and noninfective dermatoses were seen in 89.72% and 53.74% of laborers respectively. Among infective dermatoses, fungal infections were the most common (46.25% ones, followed by bacterial infections (24.83%, scabies (8.56% and viral infections (6.42%. Contact dermatitis to cement was seen in 12.48% of the laborers. Masons had a significantly higher incidence of contact dermatitis to cement, viral infections and scabies than helpers. Conclusions: The pattern of dermatoses is an expression of poverty, overcrowding and the occupational hazards of the construction industry.

  19. Cause-specific mortality due to malignant and non-malignant disease in Korean foundry workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Foundry work is associated with serious occupational hazards. Although several studies have investigated the health risks associated with foundry work, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with the exception of an increased lung cancer risk. The current study evaluated the mortality of Korean foundry workers due to malignant and non-malignant diseases. METHODS: This study is part of an ongoing investigation of Korean foundry workers. To date, we have observed more than 150,000 person-years in male foundry production workers. In the current study, we stratified mortality ratios by the following job categories: melting-pouring, molding-coremaking, fettling, and uncategorized production work. We calculated standard mortality ratios (SMR of foundry workers compare to general Korean men and relative risk (RR of mortality of foundry production workers reference to non-production worker, respectively. RESULTS: Korean foundry production workers had a significantly higher risk of mortality due to malignant disease, including stomach (RR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.41-11.06 and lung cancer (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.01-4.30, compared with non-production workers. High mortality ratios were also observed for non-malignant diseases, including diseases of the circulatory (RR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18-3.14, respiratory (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.52-21.42 for uncategorized production worker, and digestive (RR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.22-4.24 systems, as well as for injuries (RR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.52-3.66 including suicide (RR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.32-10.01. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that foundry production work significantly increases the risk of mortality due to some kinds of malignant and non-malignant diseases compared with non-production work.

  20. Prácticas de utilización de plaguicidas en agricultores Pesticide application practices in agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. García


    los estudios epidemiológicos de los efectos de los plaguicidas sobre la salud en trabajadores agrícolas.Objective: We describe the sociodemographic characteristics and determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers applying pesticides. Methods: The workers selected were included in a case-control study carried out in the Autonomous Community of Valencia in Spain. Contact was made by telephone and individuals who had been involved in agricultural work during the relevant period of exposure were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: crops and periods worked, mixing of products, treatment equipment, participation in the washing of equipment, use of personal protection during the treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Eighty-nine workers, aged between 16 and 46 years old, were included. Most of the interviewees had primary education or less. Pesticide treatments were mostly applied on high crops (82%, with manual equipment (61% and throughout the year (45%. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 60%. Sixty-five percent of the workers used no personal protection or used it defectively. No differences were found in personal protection use according to age, family income or education. Most of the workers (90% reported knowledge of the health risks of pesticide exposure and 21% of them rated the risk as null. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very defectively. There is a clear need to develop specific prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers.

  1. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R


    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  2. Survey among agricultural workers about interpretation of plant protection product labels and safety data sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella Rubbiani


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effectiveness of risk communication in agriculture through examination and interpretation of safety data sheets and product labels for agriculture products classified as hazardous. Labels and safety data sheets were shown to the users inviting them to report their own interpretation of hazard, risk and the need of preventive measures. One area sample was identified in a cluster of wine companies, chosen in a range of medium to large sizes throughout the country, where 100 subjects were interviewed by telephone or direct interview. Participants were surveyed through questions relating to demographic information, education and perception of risk.

  3. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy. (United States)

    Grant, Wyn


    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  4. Studies on Lyme disease incidence rates in selected groups of forestry workers in West Pomerania, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stawicki


    Full Text Available Background: The data collected by sanitary-epidemiological stations in 2005–2014 were analyzed to determine the incidence rates of borreliosis Lyme disease in the West Pomerania group of workers exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: It was assumed that an adequate comparison of official epidemiological data with the data concerning the number of exposed people, is an indispensable condition for assessing properly the trend in Lyme disease incidence rates, concerning at the same time a real scale of occupational exposure. The study covered a selected group of forestry workers, i.e., white-collar staff employed in different units of the State Forests National Forest Holding with their seats in West Pomerania. The aim of the research was to process and analyze the data on workers employed in the forest sector and their positions, requested from district sanitary-epidemiological stations. Results: In the years concerned 282 cases of the occupational disease were recorded mainly in the groups of forest rangers, junior foresters and forest service inspectors. The values of the incidence factor exhibit high variability with the major share of cases recorded in the years 2008–2010 that accounted for 61.8% of the total occurrences concerned. The incidence in the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 amounted to 2418, 2828 and 2646 cases per 100 000 employees, respectively. Conclusions: The results show that previously published information about the incidence of Lyme disease in the agriculture, forestry and hunting sector, did not fully illustrate a real scale of occupational risk. Med Pr 2017;68(2:211–220

  5. Using problem-based learning for occupational and environmental health nursing education: pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural workers. (United States)

    Ivicek, Kristy; de Castro, A B; Salazar, Mary K; Murphy, Helen H; Keifer, Matthew


    Problem-based learning, which emphasizes group collaboration to solve real-world case scenarios, is an instructional approach that is well suited to occupational and environmental health nursing education. Learners actively work through case studies rather than passively receive information presented through lectures. Problem-based learning methods promote critical thinking skills and motivate learning, preparing learners for professional practice in complex, ever-changing environments. Despite these advantages, problem-based learning is under-utilized in nursing education compared to more traditional lecture methods. This article presents key concepts of problem-based learning, discusses problem-based learning in educating occupational and environmental health nurses, and describes the development of a problem-based learning case aimed at increasing occupational and environmental health nurses capacity to address pesticide exposure among migrant and seasonal agricultural workers.

  6. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test. (United States)

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  7. [Cardiovascular diseases in workers engaged into metal mining industry and mechanical engineering]. (United States)

    Korzeneva, E V; Sineva, E L


    Peculiarities of cardiovascular diseases among workers exposed to noise and vibration include hyperkinetic hemodynamic type supporting early terms of cardiovascular functions disorder. Veloergometry and echocardiography are highly informative and diagnostic value, so helpful in early diagnosis of circulatory disorders. The authors specified objective criteria of risk associated with occupationally related cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Parkinson's Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields (United States)

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Zlotnik, Yair; Kloog, Itai; Novack, Victor; Peretz, Chava; Ifergane, Gal


    The risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs) for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012). Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79). In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk. PMID:26357584

  9. Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters, V.C.; Basinas, I.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Boffetta, P.; Checkoway, H.; Coggon, D.; Portengen, L.; Sim, M.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.; Vermeulen, R.


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of workers in the cotton textile and agricultural industries; industries known for high exposure levels of endotoxins. METHODS: Risk

  10. Increased respiratory disease mortality at a microwave popcorn production facility with worker risk of bronchiolitis obliterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara N Halldin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000-2003. METHODS: We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10(th revision (ICD-10, we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40-J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40, simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41, unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42, emphysema (J43, and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (J44. We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. RESULTS: We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42. Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of 'other COPD' (J44, while 0.98 'other COPD'-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12-10.49. Three of the 4 'other COPD'-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. CONCLUSION: Workers

  11. [Risk of malignant disease among female textile workers in Lithuania]. (United States)

    Kuzmickiene, I H; Stukonis, M K


    The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk among the workers at two Lithuanian textile mills vis-a-vis occupational hazards and professional status. Our retrospective investigation included 12,602 females who had been followed up in 1978-2002. Cancer risk was evaluated using a standardized incidence ratio and a relative one - on the basis of confidential interviews. Overall cancer risk for textile workers in Lithuania was lower than that of the general population (SIR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81-0.99). However, excess risk of thyroid cancer was reported among females at the linen finishing unit (SIR 5.85; 95% CI 1.21-17.2) cotton one (SIR 3.24; 95% CI 1.19-7.06). An inverse correlation was shown between cumulative exposure to cotton dust and risk at all occupational sites (p=0.03). Our results point to a link between probability occupational factors in a variety of textile industry jobs and risk of cancer. Further research is required to better understand the potential of professional factor influence.

  12. Asbestos-induced lung disease in small-scale clutch manufacturing workers (United States)

    Gothi, Dipti; Gahlot, Tanushree; Sah, Ram B.; Saxena, Mayank; Ojha, U. C.; Verma, Anand K.; Spalgais, Sonam


    Background: The crocidolite variety of asbestos is banned. However, chrysotile, which is not prohibited, is still used in developing countries in making products such as clutch plate. Fourteen workers from a small-scale clutch plate-manufacturing factory were analyzed for asbestos-induced lung disease as one of their colleagues had expired due to asbestosis. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of workers, the prevalence and type of asbestos-induced lung disease, and the sensitivity and specificity of diffusion test. Materials and Methods: History, examination, chest radiograph, spirometry with diffusion, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) thorax was performed in all the workers. The diagnosis of asbestos-induced lung disease was suspected on the basis of HRCT. This was subsequently confirmed on transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB). Results: None of the workers had detailed information about asbestos and its ill effects. Eleven out of 14 (71.42%) workers had asbestos-induced lung disease. All 11 had small airway disease (SAD). Three had SAD alone, 6 had additional interstitial lung disease (ILD), and 2 patients had additional ILD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sensitivity and specificity of residual volume (RV) or total lung capacity (TLC) for detecting SAD was 90% and 100%, respectively, and that of diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) for detecting ILD was 100%. Conclusion: The awareness about asbestos in small-scale clutch-plate manufacturing industry is poor. The usage of chrysotile should be strictly regulated as morbidity and mortality is high. DLCO and RV/TLC are sensitive and specific in detecting nonmalignant asbestos induced lung disease.

  13. Prevalence of actinic cheilitis in a population of agricultural sugarcane workers. (United States)

    Miranda, Ana M O; Soares, Léo G; Ferrari, Thiago M; Silva, Denise G; Falabella, Márcio E V; Tinoco, Eduardo M B


    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a pre-malignant inflammatory reaction of the lips caused by continuous exposure to solar rays. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of AC in a population of sugarcane workers in Brazil. 1,539 individuals who were exposed to the sun during working hours and 150 individuals who were not exposed were screened for clinical signs of AC. The sample was classified according to years of exposure to the sun, ethnicity, gender smoking and severity of the lesion. A 9.16% (n= 141) prevalence of AC was observed among the population which had been exposed to the sun. The prevalence of AC lesions was significantly higher among individuals who had been exposed to the sun for more than 10 years than among those who had been exposed for less than 10 years, and among Caucasians and males than non-Caucasians and females. It was concluded that the severity of the lesions was associated with time of exposure to the sun.

  14. Risks for heart disease and lung cancer from passive smoking by workers in the catering industry. (United States)

    Hedley, Anthony J; McGhee, Sarah M; Repace, James L; Wong, Lai-Chin; Yu, Marcus Y S; Wong, Tze-Wai; Lam, Tai-Hing


    Workers in the catering industry are at greater risk of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) when smoke-free workplace policies are not in force. We determined the exposure of catering workers to SHS in Hong Kong and their risk of death from heart disease and lung cancer. Nonsmoking catering workers were provided with screening at their workplaces and at a central clinic. Participants reported workplace, home, and leisure time exposure to SHS. Urinary cotinine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay. Catering facilities were classified into three types: nonsmoking, partially restricted smoking (with nonsmoking areas), and unrestricted smoking. Mean urinary cotinine levels ranged from 3.3 ng/ml in a control group of 16 university staff through 6.4 ng/ml (nonsmoking), 6.1 ng/ml (partially restricted), and 15.9 ng/ml (unrestricted smoking) in 104 workers who had no exposures outside of work. Workers in nonsmoking facilities had exposures to other smoking staff. We modeled workers' mortality risks using average cotinine levels, estimates of workplace respirable particulates, risk data for cancer and heart disease from cohort studies, and national (US) and regional (Hong Kong) mortality for heart disease and lung cancer. We estimated that deaths in the Hong Kong catering workforce of 200,000 occur at the rate of 150 per year for a 40-year working-lifetime exposure to SHS. When compared with the current outdoor air quality standards for particulates in Hong Kong, 30% of workers exceeded the 24-h and 98% exceeded the annual air quality objectives due to workplace SHS exposures.

  15. Understanding the Role of the State in Promoting Capitalist Accumulation: A Case Study of the Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program

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    Joseph Yaw Asomah


    Full Text Available There is limited in-depth research focusing on how the state exerts its power and influence through immigration laws, policies and practices in structuring the relations of labour and capital in a manner that reflects capitalist interests. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role of the state in fostering capitalist accumulation, using the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP as a case study, and to consider the policy implications of this program. This paper addresses the following questions: What shapes and reproduces labour-capital relations with reference to SAWP? What are the repercussions of these relations, particularly on the international migrant workers? What should be the role of the state and law in transforming these relations? The paper draws on a constellation of insights from neoliberal globalization, segmentation of labour theory, and a conceptual overview of the role of the state in regulating labour-capital relations to illuminate the discussions. This paper helps broaden our current understanding of how the state facilitates capitalist accumulation in the agricultural sector in Canada through immigration policies and practices with reference to the SAWP. The paper therefore makes a contribution to the theoretical debates on the role of the state in the facilitation of capitalist accumulation in agriculture. Il y a peu de recherches approfondies axées sur l'exercice du pouvoir et sur l'influence des lois en matière d'immigration élaborées par l'État, ainsi que sur les politiques et les pratiques de structuration des relations entre les travailleurs et le capital, d'une manière qui reflète les intérêts capitalistes. Par conséquent, l'objectif de ce document est d'explorer le rôle de l'État qui vise à favoriser l'accumulation capitaliste, à l'aide du Programme des travailleurs agricoles saisonniers (PTAS comme une étude de cas, et d'examiner les conséquences de ce programme. Ce document

  16. Available Interventions for Prevention of Cotton Dust-Associated Lung Diseases Among Textile Workers. (United States)

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar


    The authors reviewed literature on interventions for cotton dust-associated lung diseases among textile workers. Internet sources (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google and Google Scholar) were accessed and interventions were categorized into: Engineering or administrative controls, or personal protective equipment (PPE). Ten relevant articles were shortlisted, five related to engineering controls (pre-processing, bactericidal treatment of cotton, improved workplace design, machinery and dust control measures). Administrative controls may involve setting standards, environmental surveillance, periodic medical examinations, and workers training. Although specific guidelines are available regarding the use of PPEs, but there was little literature on their effectiveness. It was concluded that there is a dearth of literature regarding field-based assessment of interventions for control of cotton dust associated respiratory diseases and the available studies primarily focus on pre-processing of cotton. This review highlights the uncertainties that remain; and recommends several areas for future research on respiratory health of textile workers.

  17. A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S


    Full Text Available Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect of pesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP, carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident. In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132 and females (n = 93 who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16 on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50 never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups. Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in

  18. Non-communicable disease training for public health workers in low- and middle-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davila, Evelyn P; Suleiman, Zubeda; Mghamba, Janneth;


    BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing worldwide. A lack of training and experience in NCDs among public health workers is evident in low- and middle- income countries. METHODS: We describe the design and outcomes of applied training in NCD epidemiology and control piloted in...

  19. Zoonotic disease awareness in animal shelter workers and volunteers and the effect of training. (United States)

    Steneroden, K K; Hill, A E; Salman, M D


    Animal shelter workers are a vulnerable population whose exposure to zoonotic disease may be greater compared with the general population. The aim of this project was to identify baseline zoonotic disease knowledge of animal shelter workers and to develop and evaluate zoonotic disease awareness training. Ten animal shelters in six western states were randomly selected. One hundred and eleven trainees were evaluated by identical pre- and post-training tests. Training topics included identification of clinical signs, susceptible species, and transmission of disease to animals and to humans. Zoonotic diseases included rabies, plague, leptospirosis, internal parasites, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and salmonella. A statistically significant difference in overall total scores between pre-test (58.5%) and post-test (69.5%) was observed (P = 0.0001). No association was observed between test scores and length of time working in animal shelters, or with the participants' role at the animal shelter. Overall test scores were raised by 11%. The lowest baseline levels of knowledge were found with leptospirosis, MRSA, plague and rabies, emerging diseases with increasing prevalence and high consequence. Zoonotic disease awareness training is a valuable service to animal shelters. In the current study, training was modestly successful in transferring short-term knowledge to animal shelter workers. To understand and evaluate the effectiveness of training completely, observable or measureable behaviours should be compared before and after training. Long-term assessment with measureable outcomes is needed.

  20. [The systemic and differential psychoprophylaxis of vascular brain diseases in the workers of an industrial enterprise]. (United States)

    Andreev, A G


    Basing on epidemiological, prospective and clinicopsychological data obtained on 1900 industrial workers of Nizhni Novgorod city, the system of psychoprophylaxis and psychotherapy of cerebrovascular diseases has been developed. The system of psychoprophylaxis was used with consideration of the disease stage and phase, psychic and psychosomatic status in risk groups, in subjects with initial and apparent symptoms of cerebrovascular failure. The psychoprophylactic system proved effective in the conditions of a large industrial enterprise.

  1. [Occupational risk of cardiovascular diseases in workers engaged into underground mining]. (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Shur, P Z; Vlasova, E M; Alexeyev, V B; Lebedeva, T M


    The article presents results of evaluation of a priori and a posteriori occupational risks for workers engaged into underground mining. Evidence is that work conditions of major occupational groups of workers engaged into underground mining, according to workplace certification, correspond to 3 class 3 jeopardy degree. A priori risk of diseases development corresponds to high (unbearable). Evaluation of cause-effect relationship between health disorders and work conditions revealed a medium degree of occupational conditionality for vascular regulation disorders and metabolic disorders, that can be considered as cardiorisk indicators.

  2. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities. (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig


    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage.

  3. [Occupational risk for development of respiratory diseases in foundry shop workers at machinery industries]. (United States)

    Khamitova, R Ia; Loskutov, D V


    The paper provides the results of assessment of prior and posterior occupational risks and those of questionnaire analysis in foundry shop workers from machinery enterprises. According to the data of attestation of job places, the working conditions of major foundry occupations were ascertained to correspond to class 3, grades 1 to 3. The prior risk for occupational respiratory diseases (RD) was defined as moderate whereas the posterior risk was high. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, more than half of the workers sought medical advice for bronchopulmonary pathology. Determination of whether there is, in terms of the etiological share, a cause-and-effect relationship between RDs and working conditions has shown that the occupation was highly responsible, which suggests that harmful industrial factors make a considerable contribution to the development of RDs in the workers of the enterprises under study.

  4. Communicable disease control in a migrant seasonal workers population: a case study in Norway. (United States)

    Guerin, P J; Vold, L; Aavitsland, P


    Reliable data on the health status of migrant seasonal workers in Europe is scarce. Access to public health care for this population depends on national regulations, and their legal status in host countries. In this manuscript we describe a case study of a salmonellosis outbreak that occurred in Norway, and highlight the difficulties encountered in applying control measures in a population of seasonal migrant farm workers. Surveillance and control of infectious diseases need to be supported by legislation which makes implementation of control measures possible. Efforts have been made to improve the rights for migrants in Europe with regard to healthcare, but seasonal migrant workers still remain largely outsiders where these measures are concerned. Special attention should be given to this disadvantaged group in terms of social rights and healthcare. Preparedness plans should be improved to deal with contagious pathogens involving the seasonal migrant population.

  5. Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among sex workers in the interior of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardeliny Corrêa da Penha

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for STD among female sex workers and the characteristics of this population, and to verify the association between condom use by their male partners and clients. METHOD: Cross-sectional and correlational study conducted with 73 sex workers registered at the Sex Workers´ Association of the municipality of Picos -PI, Brazil. Data were collected in September and October 2010 using a questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic information and the participants´ background in the sex industry. Ethical aspects were observed. RESULTS: There was no significant association between most of the sociodemographic variables and background in the sex industry and condom use by male partners or clients. However, there was a significant association with years in the sex industry (p = 0.029. Sex workers who had been in the industry for the longest used condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSION: It is essential to create health promotion strategies that observe the real-life experiences of sex workers.

  6. Workers with a chronic disease and work disability. Problems and solutions. (United States)

    Varekamp, I; van Dijk, F J H; Kroll, L E


    The prevalence of chronic diseases in the age group 18-65 years is high. Cardiometabolic conditions and musculoskeletal diseases are the most frequent chronic diseases. Depending on disease and comorbidity, the employment rates are considerably lower than for healthy individuals. Chronically ill workers may have problems in meeting job demands, they may experience physical, cognitive or sensory limitations, have fatigue or pain complaints or other disease symptoms. Psychological distress, depressive feelings, feelings of shame or guilt, lack of coping or communicative skills, and non-supportive colleagues and supervisors may add to work-related problems. The ICF Model (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) of the WHO offers a framework for understanding and considering health-related problems at work and finding solutions. Interventions to prevent problems in functioning, sickness absence and work disability may focus on the worker, the workplace, or health care. Multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation, exercise therapy, cognitive behavioural interventions, workplace interventions and empowerment are interventions with at least some evidence of effectiveness. Future policy could focus more on promotion of workers' health and future research should include the interests and motivations of employers concerning disability management, skills of line managers, the feasibility of interventions to prevent work disability and the context sensitivity of study outcomes.

  7. [Premorbid markers of cardiovascular diseases in mining industry workers]. (United States)

    Ustinova, O Iu; Vlasova, E M; Luzhetskii, k P; Ivashova, Iu A; Belitskaia, V E


    Functional studies of cardiovascular system in mine cutting machine operators with 10 years of underground length of service under exposure to occupational hazards (air pollution with sylvinite dust, noise, general and local vibration, increased humidity, absent natural illumination, work hardiness and intensity), helped to establish premorbid markers of cardial diseases--labile arterial hypertension, disordered processes of myocardial excitability, conductivity and automatism, higher thickness of intima-media complex in extracranial branches of brachiocephalic arteries. To decrease cardiovascular morbidity in mine cutting machine operators, the authors recommend additional blood pressure monitoring and ultrasound study of intima-media complex of extracranial brachiocephalic arteries within periodic medical examinations.

  8. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in the blood serum of agricultural workers from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    Full Text Available Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCP were measured in agricultural workers from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Blood samples from 26 volunteers (24 males, 02 females, 17-60 years old were taken in October 1997. OCP residues (op'DDT pp'DDT, pp'DDD, pp'DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor-epoxide, alpha-, beta- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, and hexachlorobenzene were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Tests detected pp'DDE in 16 out of 26 samples, but pp'DDE concentration exceeded 1.4 µg/L (i.e. 1.8, 2.4 and 4.4 µg/L in only 3 of these. beta-HCH was found in 6 (23.1% out of 26 samples. In one sample beta-HCH did not exceed 1.4 µg/L, but in the remaining samples concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 5.3 µg/L. The percentage of positive pp'DDE samples increased from the youngest (£29 yrs: 30.0% to the oldest age group (³ 40 yrs: 100%. A similar trend was found for beta-HCH contamination (£ 29 yrs: 0%; 30-39 yrs: 20.0%; ³40 yrs: 66.7%. Dieldrin (3.7 µg/L was found in only one sample. No other OCP residue was found in the samples. Serum concentrations of OCPs found in this study are comparable to levels reported for the non-occupationally exposed population in Brazil and elsewhere.

  9. [Global management of patients with ebola viral disease, experience of the Healthcare workers Treatment of Conakry, Guinea]. (United States)

    Savini, H; Maugey, N; Aletti, M; Facon, A; Koulibaly, F; Cotte, J; Janvier, F; Cordier, P Y; Dampierre, H; Ramade, S; Foissaud, V; Granier, H; Sagui, E; Carmoi, T


    The Healthcare Workers Treatment Center of Conakry, Guinea, was inaugurated in january 2015. It is dedicated to the diagnosis and the treatment of healthcare workers with probable or confirmed Ebola viral disease. It is staffed by the french army medical service. The french military team may reconcile their medical practice and the ethno-cultural imperatives to optimise the patient adherence during his hospitalization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim Sya’ban


    Full Text Available Background: In the industrial sector, the number of workers employed quite a lot, with the type and intensity of the various aspects of the environment including physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial. Various kinds of environments can cause a variety of occupational diseases. Aim: To determine the relationship between distance and time exposure PT. Putra Sultra Samudera Kendari against cataracts Methods: This research was a survey research with cross sectional analytic study, the data collection were accomplsihed in a certain time to describe the condition of the population Results: The results showed a strong relationship between the suitability of distance, time of exposure to diseases cataracts Conclusions: There was a positive correlation and significant influence between the suitability of the distance and time of exposure with cataract disorder, the use of Personal Protective Equipment showed a positive relationship and did not have a significant effect on cataract disorders in workers in the welding parts firm PT. Putra Sultra Samudera Kendari.

  11. Knowledge of heart disease risk factors among workers in a Nigerian University: A call for concern

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    Adeseye Abiodun Akintunde


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the commonest cause of mortality worldwide. Many risk factors predate the development of cardiovascular diseases. Adequate knowledge of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases is the first step towards effective preventive strategies to combat the cardiovascular diseases burden in any population. This study aims to determine the knowledge of workers in a Nigerian University on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 206 academic and non-academic staff of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria using the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire (HDFQ. Demographic data were taken. The lipid profile and random blood sugar were taken. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 45.3 ΁ 7.9 years. There were 96 males (46.6%. The mean HDFQ score was 48.6%. Only 41 (19.9% of participants were assessed to have good knowledge of heart disease risk factors. Majority, 101 (49.0% had poor knowledge while 64 (31.2% had fair knowledge of heart disease risk factors. There was no significant difference between prevalence of CV risk factors between those with good or fair or low level of knowledge. Most participants did not have a good level of knowledge about risk factors, prevention, treatment and association with diabetes as it relates to heart diseases. Conclusion: Knowledge of heart disease risk factors is low among University workers in Nigeria. Effective education on heart disease risk factors and appropriate preventive strategies are indeed important to reduce cardiovascular disease burden in Nigerian University communities.

  12. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes. (United States)

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C


    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination.

  13. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)


    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  14. Occupational Allergic Diseases in Kitchen and Health Care Workers: An Underestimated Health Issue

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    Ugur Bilge


    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW and health care workers (HCW. Methods. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc. during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated. Results. 579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P<0.001. Cumulative asthma was significantly higher only in the HCW group (P<0.05. In addition, the HCW and KW groups had significantly higher risks of ≥2/year URTI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07–2.38 versus OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05–2.38 than the general population. Conclusion. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases are an important and growing health issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.

  15. Ants detect but do not discriminate diseased workers within their nest (United States)

    Leclerc, Jean-Baptiste; Detrain, Claire


    Social insects have evolved an array of individual and social behaviours that limit pathogen entrance and spread within the colony. The detection of ectoparasites or of fungal spores on a nestmate body triggers their removal by allogrooming and appears as a primary component of social prophylaxis. However, in the case of fungal infection, one may wonder whether ant workers are able to detect, discriminate and keep at bay diseased nestmates that have no spores over their cuticle but which constitute a latent sanitary risk due to post-mortem corpse sporulation. Here, we investigate the ability of Myrmica rubra workers to detect and discriminate a healthy from a diseased nestmate infected by the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae. During dyadic encounters in a neutral location, workers were more aggressive towards isolated sick nestmates on the 3rd post-infection day. However, no such detection or discrimination of fungus-infected nestmates occurred in a social context inside the nest or at the nest entrance. Gatekeepers never actively rejected incoming diseased nestmates that rather spontaneously isolated themselves outside the nest. Our study reveals that ant workers may detect health-dependent cues and that their `acceptance level' of sick nestmates is tunable depending on the social context. This raises questions about possible trade-offs between a social closure to pathogens and risks of erroneous rejection of healthy nestmates. Social isolation of moribund ants also appears as a widespread prophylactic strategy of social insects allowing them to reduce exposure to pathogens and to spare costs associated with the management of infected individuals.

  16. Occupational injury and disease incidence and risk factors in Finnish agriculture based on 5-year insurance records. (United States)

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H


    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for compensated occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture. The study population consisted of 78,679 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members covered by mandatory workers' compensation insurance. This population had a total of 24,424 occupational injuries and 1684 diseases from 2000 to 2004. In the 5-year period, 20.2% of the population had (one or more) injuries and 2.0% had occupational diseases. Multiple claims were common particularly among livestock producers. Using Poisson regression analyses, we identified several personal and farm-related risk factors, with relative risk estimates ranging from 1.07 to 3.08 for injuries and from 1.45 to 3.01 for diseases. Cattle-intensive geographic regions, occupational health service membership, large farm size, and farming alone were identified as risk factors for both outcomes. Further, male gender, higher number of insurance years, and residing on the farm were among risk factors for injury. These risk factors identified from a large longitudinal data set can be considered for developing and targeting interventions for farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease.

  17. Analysis on Ga-Rak market workers' disease and treatment of Traditional Korean Medicine(TKM) (pilot study)


    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Song, Ho Sueb


    Objective : To broaden our understanding on occupational disease of market workers and to evaluate the effect of TKM treatment focusing on acupuncture and herb medicine and to promote base studies and clinical trials on occupational disease. Materials and Methods : Analysis was done on 33 Ga-Rak market workers' chart which had been selected through investigation of 1508 outpatient's chart of Kyung Won University Hospital from Jun. 1st, 2002 to May. 31th, 2003. Results : 1. Out of 33 p...

  18. Time trend in hospitalised chronic lower respiratory diseases among Danish building and construction workers, 1981-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Hannerz, Harald; Mølgaard, Ellen Fisher;


    To show trends in age-standardised hospital admission ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases, estimated for Danish construction workers over three time periods (1981-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2009).......To show trends in age-standardised hospital admission ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases, estimated for Danish construction workers over three time periods (1981-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2009)....

  19. [Prevalence of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop of an automobile part factory]. (United States)

    Bai, L X; Yang, L; Duan, D P; Xu, X Y; Li, Z; Liu, Y M


    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop of an automobile part factory, and to provide a basis for promoting the health of female workers. Methods: In March 2015, color ultrasound examination of the breast, uterus, and bilateral adnexa was performed for all female workers, and routine gynecological examination, routine leucorrhea examination, and thinprep liquid-based cytology test were performed for married female workers. The detection rates of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop were analyzed. Results: In the 314 female workers, the overall detection rate of breast and gynecological diseases was 86.31%; the detection rate of abnormal breast ultrasound results was 72.93%, mainly breast hyperplasia; the detection rate of abnormal gynecological ultrasound results was 12.14%, mainly hysteromyoma, pelvic effusion, and uterus-rectum fossa effusion. The overall detection rate of cervicitis or vaginitis in married female workers was 66.86%. The univariate analysis showed that compared with those in the administrative office, the female workers in the workshop had significantly higher detection rates of breast hyperplasia and grade 2 breast lesions on the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and significantly lower detection rates of hysteromyoma and grade 3 breast lesions on the BI-RADS (all P factory have high prevalence rates of breast and gynecological diseases. Night shifts for female workers in the workshop should be reduced as much as possible, and female workers, especially those in the administrative office, should be guided to release pressure and take a balanced diet.

  20. Mortality from obstructive lung diseases and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among asphalt workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstyn, I.; Boffetta, P.; Heederik, D.; Partanen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Svane, O.; Langard, S.; Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Kauppinen, T.; Stucker, I.; Shaham, J.; Ahrens, W.; Cenee, S.; Ferro, G.; Heikkila, P.; Hooiveld, M.; Johansen, C.; Randem, B.G.; Schill, W. [University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Work in the asphalt industry has been associated with nonmalignant respiratory morbidity and mortality, but the evidence is not consistent. A historical cohort of asphalt workers included 58,862 men (911,209 person-years) first employed between 1913 and 1999 in companies applying and mixing asphalt in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, and Norway. The relations between mortality from nonmalignant respiratory diseases (including the obstructive lung diseases: chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma) and specific chemical agents and mixtures were evaluated using a study-specific exposure matrix. Mortality from obstructive lung diseases was associated with the estimated cumulative and average exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and coal tar (p values of the test for linear trend=0.06 and 0.01, respectively). The positive association between bitumen fume exposure and mortality from obstructive lung diseases was weak and not statistically significant; confounding by simultaneous exposure to coal tar could not be excluded. The authors lacked data on smoking and full occupational histories. In conclusion, exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, originating from coal tar and possibly from bitumen fume, may have contributed to mortality from obstructive lung diseases among asphalt workers, but confounding and bias cannot be ruled out as an explanation for the observed associations.

  1. Diseases of worker in a peruvian company law enforcement safety and health at work

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    Henry L. Allpas Gómez


    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most common diseases, according the workplace. Material and Methods: The research was descriptive, prospective, exploratory and cross-sectional. It was made at a factory in Lima, which was in the process of application to the law Safety and Health at Work. According to the selection criteria, 121 workers were admitted, which took part of the medical examination, and a file card for medical occupational data was applied. The descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, and respective frequencies of 95 % was performed and a level of significance (p<0.05. The statistical package SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used. Results: The population of study was divided into two occupational areas: workers and administrative staff. The average age was 37.48 years and males represented 83.5%. The most frequent pathological characteristics were: Dyslipidemia (66.9% Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypercholesterolemia 64.5%, 37.2% uncorrected refractive error, 36.8% mild hearing loss and 57% overweight. According to the work area: manual workers showed a higher frequency of hearing problems, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood pressure (HTA. The administrative staff had greater effects of dyslipidemia, uncorrected refractive error, Grade -I obesity and overweight. Conclusions: The most frequent occupational diseases in the two areas according to the group I: refractive errors and hearing loss. In group II: dyslipidemia and overweight.

  2. [Diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses in workers of the woodworking industry]. (United States)

    Savov, A


    During preventive otorhinolaryngological examination of 262 workers from the plant for wood planes, subject to a combined effect of unfavourable microclimatic, dust, toxic (in particular formaldehyde) factors, are carried out profound studies of the nose and the cavities around the nose. More than 50% of the complains are of the nose-gullet which decrease with the increase of the length of service, while the objective changes in the mucous membrane of the nose raise high. In 70 (26.7%) of the workers are observed pathological changes, mainly of chronic hypertrophic rhinitis. Of special interest is the comparative high per cent of changed nasal architectonic (16.0%). In 43.5% of the cases with nasal diseases are established changes in the olfactory function (hyposmia I and II rate) of respiratory type. Deviation on behalf of the respiratory, motive and hemodynamic functions of the nose are observed.

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. (United States)

    Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Chua, W L; Wee, S


    This study compares the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condom use, and health-screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. A total of 111 female freelance sex workers arrested from November 1996 to March 1997 for illicit prostitution were interviewed; 333 brothel-based sex workers served as the comparison group for the analysis. STD test results revealed that freelance sex workers (34.8%) have higher STD rates than brothel-based sex workers (24%). The two most common STDs in both groups were chlamydial cervicitis and syphilis. Moreover, condom use was significantly lower among freelance sex workers than brothel-based sex workers and was associated with younger age (25 years old), decreasing number of clients, and perception of non-condom use among peers. In addition, freelance workers were more educated and had equally high knowledge on STDs and AIDS. Since most of these freelance workers practice high-risk behaviors and poor health screening behaviors such as not going for regular medical check-ups, STD services and education programs should target this group.

  4. [An association of the occupational risk factors from greenhouses with allergic diseases in their female workers' children: results of analysis]. (United States)

    Imamov, A A; Troshina, I V; Fomicheva, G B; Zamalieva, M A


    The paper analyzes an association between occupational risk factors in the female workers of greenhouses and allergic diseases in their children. The major factors contributing to the occurrence of allergic disease in children are their maternal employment in greenhouses with harmful working conditions, much dust in an apartment, a family history of allergic diseases, and unfavorable family lifestyle.

  5. Zoonotic occupational diseases in forestry workers – Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Richard


    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Forestry workers and other people who come into close contact with wild animals, such as hunters, natural science researchers, game managers or mushroom/berry pickers, are at risk of contracting bacterial, parasitological or viral zoonotic diseases. Synthetic data on the incidence and prevalence of zoonotic diseases in both animals and humans in European forests do not exist. It is therefore difficult to promote appropriate preventive measures among workers or people who come into direct or indirect contact with forest animals. [b]Objectives.[/b] The objectives of this review are to synthesise existing knowledge on the prevalence of the three predominant bacterial zoonotic diseases in Europe, i.e. Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis, in order to draw up recommendations for occupational or public health. [b]Methods[/b]. 88 papers published between 1995–2013 (33 on Lyme borreliosis, 30 on tularemia and 25 on leptospirosis were analyzed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The prevalences of these three zoonotic diseases are not negligible and information targeting the public is needed. Moreover, the results highlight the lack of standardised surveys among different European countries. It was also noted that epidemiological data on leptospirosis are very scarce

  6. Applying weather index insurance to agricultural pest and disease risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norton, Michael; Sprundel, van Gert Jan; Turvey, Calum G.; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.


    In this paper, we explore the application of weather index insurance to plant pest and disease management strategies using two distinct models: (1) insuring crop loss due to disease incidence (“Crop Insurance”) and (2) insuring the use of pesticides (“Pesticide Insurance”). We find that despite t

  7. Ischaemic heart disease among workers in occupations associated with heavy lifting

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    Harald Hannerz


    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate a hypothesized positive association between employment in occupations where heavy lifting is likely to occur, and the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Material and Methods: Male blue-collar workers from Denmark (N = 516 180 were monitored with respect to hospital treatment or death due to IHD, through national registers over the years 2001–2010. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative rates of IHD between “workers in occupations which, according to an expert opinion, are likely to involve heavy lifting” and “other blue-collar workers.” Prevalent cases were excluded from the analysis. Results: The rate ratio was estimated at 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.94–1.00 for deaths or hospitalizations due to IHD and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.94–1.21 for deaths due to IHD. Conclusions: The results do not support the hypothesis that occupational heavy lifting is an important risk factor for IHD.

  8. International collaboration to protect health workers from infectious diseases in Ecuador. (United States)

    Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Yassi, Annalee; Bryce, Elizabeth; Fujii, Ronaldo; Logronio, Milton; Tennassee, Maritza


    The Healthy Hospital Project, an international collaboration, aimed to strengthen Ecuador's capacity to promote healthier and safer hospitals by reducing occupational transmission of infectious diseases. Team members conducted a needs assessment to identify workplace hazards and health risks in three hospitals. A survey of health care workers' knowledge and practices of occupational health (OH) and infection control (IC) revealed positive practices such as a medical waste disposal program and widespread dissemination of health information. Challenges identified included a high frequency of recapping needles and limited resources for workers to apply consistent IC measures. The survey revealed underreporting of needlestick injuries and limited OH and safety (OHS) training. Therefore, project collaborators organized a training workshop for health care workers that aimed to overcome the identified obstacles by integrating interdisciplinary local, national, and international stakeholders to build capacity and institutionalize work-related infection prevention and control measures. The knowledge transferred and experience gained led to useful hospital-based projects and serves as a basis for implementation of other OHS projects nationwide. International interdisciplinary, interinstitutional collaboration in OHS and IC can build capacity to address OHS concerns in health care.

  9. Klebsiella Pneumoniae sepsis deteriorated by uncontrolled underlying disease in a decontamination worker in Fukushima, Japan (United States)

    Sawano, Toyoaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Leppold, Claire; Ozaki, Akihiko; Fujioka, Sho; Nemoto, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Shigeaki; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio


    Objectives: Patients with underlying conditions are at a higher risk of developing sepsis, a systematic response to infection, which has a high mortality rate. After the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, there has been an influx of migrant decontamination workers; however, little is known about their health status. Case: A Japanese 55-year-old male decontamination worker, who had several underlying diseases, was transferred to our hospital in cardiopulmonary arrest. He had a history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension and a past history of tuberculosis. Control of underlying conditions was poor, with HbA1c of 13.8% at presentation. He was diagnosed with pneumonia-induced bacteremia and sepsis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although spontaneous circulation returned in emergency room, he died a day after admission. Conclusion: The poor control of underlying diseases seen in this patient could have been influenced by his recent job transfer and engagement in decontamination work and additionally related to his socioeconomic status (SES). This case highlights the need for further research to elucidate the underlying diseases, working conditions, and SES of this population. PMID:27108638

  10. Parkinson’s Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields



    The risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual de...

  11. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), 1997-1998: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers. (United States)

    Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard

    This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…

  12. [Forming a community at risk for circulatory system diseases among workers engaged into underground mining]. (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Shur, P Z; Kostarev, V G; Alexeyev, V B; Vlasova, E M; Uhabov, V M


    Forming a community at risk for circulatory system diseases will increase efficiency of medical and prophylactic measures on managing risk of arterial hypertension. Epidemiologic analysis helped to reveal reliable connection between arterial hypertension predictors and work conditions of mining machine operators and supported actualization of high occupational risk suggested in a priori evaluation. Mathematic modelling helped to forecast increase in the disease probability: with noise level of 94 dB after 10 years of work, 17.9% of workers are expected to have arterial hypertension preventing from further occupational activity. Forecasting results of arterial hypertension probability help to form risk groups for medical and preventive technologies managing occupational risk, and predictors enable to specify necessity of individual medical preventive measures.

  13. Interplay between environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty: case studies in China. (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong


    Changes in the natural environment and agricultural systems induced by economic and industrial development, including population dynamics (growth, urbanization, migration), are major causes resulting in the persistence, emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in developing countries. In the face of rapid demographic, economic and social transformations, the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) is undergoing unprecedented environmental and agricultural change. We review emerging and re-emerging diseases such as schistosomiasis, dengue, avian influenza, angiostrongyliasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis that have occurred in P.R. China due to environmental and agricultural change. This commentary highlights the research priorities and the response strategies, namely mitigation and adaptation, undertaken to eliminate the resurgence of those infectious diseases.

  14. Social Determinants of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Families of Migrants participating in Mexico-Canada Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program: A Study in Guadalupe Zaragoza

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    Rodolfo Gines Martínez Fernández


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in the families of migrant laborers registered in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP and residing in Guadalupe Zaragoza Tlahuapan, Puebla, México. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study of the interaction between migration, social determinants, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: In this poor and patriarchal community, the SAWP offers financial opportunities for the men of Guadalupe Zaragoza. The remittances of these migrant workers have enabled their families to live in adequate housing, but their health situation is still vulnerable. Only half of the families have access to public health services or the special health programs for migrant worker families. 13% of migrant family members were infected with pulmonary tuberculosis as measured by the Quantiferon-TB test. The female partners of migrants typically do not study past elementary school, become housewives with no pay, are forced to take on added work in the household, and experience subjective symptoms of stress and fatigue. The children of Guadalupe Zaragoza are also vulnerable; the number of children in this community who can regularly attend school is below the national average because many children have to work. These families end up paying more for education, housing, and health services than the average Mexican family. Conclusions: In the families of SAWP migrant workers, the prevalence of latent pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be lower than the national average based on studies using the tuberculin test; this may be due to the greater specificity of the Quantiferon-TB Gold test. There is a significant risk of reactivation tuberculosis in these families due to the inequity in the social determinants of health.

  15. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease. (United States)

    Kramer, Betty J


    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life.

  16. The thinking about the agricultural mechanization workers literacy in new era%关于新时期农机化工作者素养的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群月; 金少华


    Facing the new situation, the agricultural mechanization workers should strengthen its own new technologies from advanced learning; and have many grassroots practice and training, and have in close contact with the masses, and have practical work for the agricultural mechanization work; And they should enhance learning, disseminating national laws, regulations and agricultural regulations; And they should correct attitude and use its potential to engage in scientific research, invention, and better serving the community.%文章阐述了面临新形势下,农机化工作者应该从加强自身新技术的超前学习;多下基层实践锻炼,密切联系群众,将农机化工作做实;加强学习、宣传国家的法律、法规和农机法规;端正工作态度;发掘自身潜力,搞科学研究、创造发明,更好地服务于社会。

  17. Ischemic heart disease in workers at Mayak PA: latency of incidence risk after radiation exposure.

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    Cristoforo Simonetto

    Full Text Available We present an updated analysis of incidence and mortality from atherosclerotic induced ischemic heart diseases in the cohort of workers at the Mayak Production Association (PA. This cohort constitutes one of the most important sources for the assessment of radiation risk. It is exceptional because it comprises information on several other risk factors. While most of the workers have been exposed to external gamma radiation, a large proportion has additionally been exposed to internal radiation from inhaled plutonium. Compared to a previous study by Azizova et al. 2012, the updated dosimetry system MWDS-2008 has been applied and methods of analysis have been revised. We extend the analysis of the significant incidence risk and observe that main detrimental effects of external radiation exposure occur after more than about 30 years. For mortality, significant risk was found in males with an excess relative risk per dose of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.16 [Formula: see text] while risk was insignificant for females. With respect to internal radiation exposure no association to risk could be established.

  18. Serosurveillance of vaccine preventable diseases and hepatitis C in healthcare workers from Lao PDR.

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    Antony P Black

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers (HCW have an increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases and are a potential source of infections for their patients. The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR has no national policy regarding HCW vaccinations and routine vaccination coverage is low within the general population. This cross-sectional serostudy determines the level of exposure and risk of infection in Lao HCW against 6 vaccine preventable diseases and hepatitis C.1128 HCW were recruited from 3 central, 2 provincial and 8 district hospitals. Sera were tested by ELISA for the presence of antibodies and antigens to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, rubella, varicella zoster, tetanus and diphtheria.Only 53.1% of the HCW had protective anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies (anti-HBs with 48.8% having anti-hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc, indicating previous exposure and 8.0% were hepatitis B surface antigen carriers. 3.9% were hepatitis C seropositive. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected in 95.4% and 86.2% of the HCW, with 11.9% of females being unprotected against rubella. Antibodies against varicella zoster, tetanus and diphtheria were detected in 95%, 78.8% and 55.3%, respectively. Seroprevalence varied according to age, gender and number of children.An unacceptably high proportion of Lao HCW remain susceptible to infection with hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus and rubella. Furthermore, a high number of healthcare workers are chronically infected with hepatitis B and C viruses. These data emphasize the need for a robust HCW vaccination policy in addition to increased awareness within this subpopulation.

  19. Migrant and Seasonal Workers in Michigan's Agriculture: A Study of Their Contributions, Characteristics, Needs, and Services. Research Report No. 1. (United States)

    Rochin, Refugio I.; Santiago, Anne M.; Dickey, Karla S.

    This study examines the characteristics and needs of Michigan's migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The study was based on census data, state agency records, and a statewide survey of service providers. Results indicate that neither mechanization nor other structural changes in Michigan's agricultural economy have diminished the industry's…

  20. Mexican Contract Workers and the U.S. Capitalist Agricultural Labor Process: The Formative Era, 1942-1964 (United States)

    Mize, Ronald L., Jr.


    Rural sociologists have seemingly moved away from an active interest in the plight of migrant farmworkers and the centrality of their labor in the development of U.S. agribusiness. Answering Pfeffer's (1983) call to analyze the different forms of agricultural production, I focus on the key formative period of what I refer to as the U.S. capitalist…

  1. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture]. (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias


    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  2. Heat Shock Protein: Hard Worker or Bad Offender for Gastric Diseases

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    Ho-Jae Lee


    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs have core housekeeping functions in the cells where they are built-in components of folding, signal transduction pathways, and quality control functions for which they proofread the structure of proteins and repair misfolded conformers. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection leads to significant inflammations in the gastric mucosa, which is closely associated with development of either precancerous lesion including chronic atrophic gastritis or gastric cancer in addition to, peptic ulcer disease, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. Therefore, the association between H. pylori infection and role of HSP has been focused as an important issue because there had been rather conflicting publications showing that HSPs as a good worker for defense against H. pylori infection, whereas HSPs as a bad offender contributing to the progression of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis in addition to aggravation of gastric inflammation. In this paper regarding proteomic discovery of HSPs related to H. pylori-associated gastric diseases, we introduce several evidences obtained from proteomic analysis dealing with friend or foe role of HSP in H. pylori infection from a cellular level to human diseases. The implication of HSPs in alcoholic or NSAIDs-induced gastritis and the intervening of HSPs in biological changes exemplified with TGF-β signaling, key tumor suppressor growth factors regulating inflammation, immune function, and carcinogenesis were further introduced.

  3. Organophosphate pesticides exposure bring out neurological symptoms in the children of agriculture workers in rural India: A community based cross-sectional study from Maharashtra.

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    Sukhsohale ND


    Full Text Available Background: In rural areas of developing countries, children of agricultural workers have a high potential for exposure to organophosphorus (OP pesticides. This puts them at an increased risk of damage to neurobehavioural performance, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to assess the neurological risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers in rural India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in 200 children aged 8-15 years in adjoining villages of Taluka Chalisgaon, district Jalgaon, Maharashtra. Various neurological symptoms like muscarinic (diarrhea, urinary incontinence, lacrimation, excessive salivation, nicotinic (tremors, muscle weakness, tachycardia and general symptoms (headache, insomnia, numbness in legs, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lethargy were assessed by a specially designed Q16 questionnaire. Exposure index (EI was calculated by multiplying the number of hours exposed to OP pesticides and the number of years of exposure. Results: The predominant clinical symptoms found in children in study group were muscarinic [diarrhea (12%, lacrimation (26% and urinary incontinence (12%]; nicotinic [muscle weakness (42%] and general symptoms [pallor (58%, fatigue (34%, headache (30%, numbness in legs (24%, lethargy (20%]. Also, the cognition and psychological function was more impaired in children exposed to OP pesticides than the non-exposed children. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest that neurologic symptoms involved both central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting from occupational and environmental exposure to OP pesticides. The high prevalence of neurologic symptoms could be attributed to chronic effects of OP pesticides on the central nervous system.

  4. The history of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) 1920-2014. (United States)

    Ellis, Robert P; Ellis, L Susanne Squires; Kohler, Erwin M


    The following history has been compiled and written by the authors. The historical facts are available from the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) archives, dating back to letters and summaries written by the founders, and by a few of the Secretary-Treasurers from the early decades through 2014. THE ORGANIZATION AND PURPOSE: The CRWAD is a non-profit organization and has been since its origin. The sole purpose of CRWAD is to discuss and disseminate the most current research advances in animal diseases. Graduate students and industry and academic professionals present and discuss the most recent advances on subjects of interest to the CRWAD and of importance to the global livestock and companion animal industries. The oral and poster abstracts of new and unpublished data presented at the meeting sessions are published each year in the CRWAD Proceedings (formerly the CRWAD Abstracts). CRWAD publishes, copyrights, and distributes the Proceedings. The presentations are arranged into the following 10 sections, according to the primary topic of the presentation: Bacterial Pathogenesis, Biosafety and Biosecurity, Companion Animal Epidemiology, Ecology and Management of Foodborne Agents, Epidemiology and Animal Health Economics, Immunology, Pathobiology of Enteric and Foodborne Pathogens, Respiratory Diseases, Vector-Borne and Parasitic Diseases, and Viral Pathogenesis. Prospective members should be actively engaged in animal disease research or research administration. Meeting information and membership applications may be obtained by contacting the Executive Director or by visiting the CRWAD website. Annual abstracts are currently available on-line at the On-line Meeting Planner and Itinerary Builder, with access through the CRWAD website.

  5. Non-communicable diseases in decontamination workers in areas affected by the Fukushima nuclear disaster: a retrospective observational study (United States)

    Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Leppold, Claire; Nomura, Shuhei; Shimada, Yuki; Tsukada, Manabu; Nemoto, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Shigeaki; Kanazawa, Yukio; Ohira, Hiromichi


    Objectives To assess the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and whether NCDs were treated or not, among hospitalised decontamination workers who moved to radio-contaminated areas after Japan's 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. Methods We retrospectively extracted records of decontamination workers admitted to Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital between 1 June 2012 and 31 August 2015, from hospital records. We investigated the incidence of underlying NCDs such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes among the decontamination workers, and their treatment status, in addition to the reasons for their hospital admission. Results A total of 113 decontamination workers were admitted to the hospital (112 male patients, median age of 54 years (age range: 18–69 years)). In terms of the demographics of underlying NCDs in this population, 57 of 72 hypertensive patients (79.2%), 37 of 45 dyslipidaemic patients (82.2%) and 18 of 27 hyperglycaemic patients (66.7%) had not been treated for their NCDs before admission to the hospital. Conclusions A high burden of underlying NCDs was found in hospitalised decontamination workers in Fukushima. Managing underlying diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus is essential among this population. PMID:27974372

  6. Infectious diseases in healthcare workers – an analysis of the standardised data set of a German compensation board


    Nienhaus Albert; Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan; Wendeler Dana; Haamann Frank; Dulon Madeleine


    Abstract Introduction Healthcare workers (HCW) are exposed to infectious agents. Disease surveillance is therefore needed in order to foster prevention. Methods The data of the compensation board that covers HCWs of non-governmental healthcare providers in Germany was analysed for a five-year period. For hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, the period analysed was extended to the last 15 years. The annual rate of occupational infectious diseases (OIDs) per 100,000 e...

  7. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Healthcare Workers: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study. (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Yue; Weng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Huang, Chien-Cheng


    Health care workers (HCWs) in Taiwan have heavy, stressful workloads, are on-call, and have rotating nightshifts, all of which might contribute to peptic ulcer disease (PUD). We wanted to evaluate the PUD risk in HCWs, which is not clear. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 50,226 physicians, 122,357 nurses, 20,677 pharmacists, and 25,059 other HCWs (dieticians, technicians, rehabilitation therapists, and social workers) as the study cohort, and randomly selected an identical number of non-HCW patients (i.e., general population) as the comparison cohort. Conditional logistical regression analysis was used to compare the PUD risk between them. Subgroup analysis for physician specialties was also done. Nurses and other HCWs had a significantly higher PUD risk than did the general population (odds ratio [OR]: 1.477; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.433-1.521 and OR: 1.328; 95% CI: 1.245-1.418, respectively); pharmacists had a lower risk (OR: 0.884; 95% CI: 0.828-0.945); physicians had a nonsignificantly different risk (OR: 1.029; 95% CI: 0.987-1.072). In the physician specialty subgroup analysis, internal medicine, surgery, Ob/Gyn, and family medicine specialists had a higher PUD risk than other physicians (OR: 1.579; 95% CI: 1.441-1.731, OR: 1.734; 95% CI: 1.565-1.922, OR: 1.336; 95% CI: 1.151-1.550, and OR: 1.615; 95% CI: 1.425-1.831, respectively). In contrast, emergency physicians had a lower risk (OR: 0.544; 95% CI: 0.359-0.822). Heavy workloads, long working hours, workplace stress, rotating nightshifts, and coping skills may explain our epidemiological findings of higher risks for PUD in some HCWs, which might help us improve our health policies for HCWs.

  8. Lyme Disease: antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in farm workers in Argentina

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    Nestor Oscar Stanchi


    Full Text Available Lyme Disease is a tick-borne (specially by Ixodes ticks immune-mediated inflammatory disorder caused by a newly recognize spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Indirect fluorescent antibody (IF staining methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are frequently relied upon to confirm Lyme borreliosis infections. Although serologic testing for antibodies has limitations, it is still the only practical means of confirming B. burgdorferi infections. Because we have no previous report of Lyme disease in human inhabitants in Argentina, a study was designed as a seroepidemiologic investigation of the immune response to B. burgdorferi in farm workers of Argentina with arthritis symptoms. Three out of 28 sera were positive (#1,5 and 9. Serum # 1 was positive for Immunoglobulin G at dilution 1:320, serum # 5 and # 9 both to dilution 1:160; while for Immunoglobulin M all (#1, 5 and 9 were positive at low dilution (1:40 using IF. The results showed that antibodies against B. burgdorferi are present in an Argentinian population. Thus caution should be exercised in the clinical interpretation of arthritis until the presence of B. burgdorferi be confirmed by culture in specific media.

  9. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in a hospital for pulmonary diseases

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    Diel Roland


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI in health care workers (HCW in low-incidence countries especially in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. With Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA, a new method for diagnosis of LTBI is available which is more specific than the tuberculin skin test (TST. Objectives The study was designed to estimate prevalence of LTBI among 270 HCW in a Hospital of Pulmonary Diseases routinely screened for TB. Methods LTBI was assessed by the QuantiFERON-Gold In Tube (QFT-IT. Information on gender, age, workplace, job title, BCG vaccination and history of both TB and TST were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios for potential risk factors for LTBI were calculated. Results The prevalence of LTBI was 7.2%. In HCW younger than 30 years LTBI prevalence was 3.5% and in those older than 50 years 22%. Physicians and nurses showed a higher prevalence rate than other professions (10.8% to 4.5%. The putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>50 year OR 9.3, 95%CI 2.5–33.7, working as physicians/nurses (OR 3. 95%CI 1.2–10.4 and no previous TST in medical history (OR 4.4, 95%CI 1.01–18.9 when compared to those with a negative TST. Conclusion Prevalence of LTBI assessed by QFT-IT is low, this indicates a low infection risk even in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. No statement can be made regarding the occupational risk as compared to the general population because there are no LTBI prevalence data from Germany available. The higher LTBI prevalence rate in older HCWs might be due to the cohort effect or the longer time at risk.

  10. [Effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on semen quality of workers in an agricultural community of Merida state, Venezuela]. (United States)

    Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Cruz, Ibis; Osuna, Jesús A; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Morales, Yasmin; Zavala, Leisalba; Labarca, Emilitza; García, Nelly; Sanchez, Beluardi; Contreras, Carlos A; Andrade, Henry


    Numerous studies report adverse effects of pesticides on male reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and semen quality, and to determine whether chronic exposure to pesticides differentially affects semen quality in men of different ages. A comparative study of 64 farmers and 64 control men was performed. The farmers were interviewed to determine their occupational history and particularly, activities that may involve exposure to pesticides. Semen parameters were evaluated and a comparative analysis of semen variables between exposed and control groups, as well as between age groups: 18-29, 30-37 and 38-60 years was done. Significant alterations of some semen parameters in the exposed group were found, such as: decreases in sperm concentration, slow progressive motility and sperm membrane integrity; at the same time, increases in eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index. The results obtained by age groups showed significant differences between exposed and control groups for the parameters of membrane integrity, eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index, being the exposed group between 18-29 years that showed the highest altered cases of these parameters. Our results prove that occupational pesticide exposure is associated with alterations in sperm quality, creating a risk to farm workers in their reproductive capacity.

  11. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (United States)

    ... this page: // Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  12. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns. (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J


    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  13. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.


    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Screening By Community Health Workers Can Be Cost-Effective In Low-Resource Countries (United States)

    Gaziano, Thomas; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Surka, Sam; Sy, Stephen; Pandya, Ankur; Denman, Catalina A.; Mendoza, Carlos; Puoane, Thandi; Levitt, Naomi S.


    In low-resource settings, a physician is not always available. We recently demonstrated that community health workers—instead of physicians or nurses—can efficiently screen adults for cardiovascular disease in South Africa, Mexico, and Guatemala. In this analysis we sought to determine the health and economic impacts of shifting this screening to community health workers equipped with either a paper-based or a mobile phone–based screening tool. We found that screening by community health workers was very cost-effective or even cost-saving in all three countries, compared to the usual clinic-based screening. The mobile application emerged as the most cost-effective strategy because it could save more lives than the paper tool at minimal extra cost. Our modeling indicated that screening by community health workers, combined with improved treatment rates, would increase the number of deaths averted from 15,000 to 110,000, compared to standard care. Policy makers should promote greater acceptance of community health workers by both national populations and health professionals and should increase their commitment to treating cardiovascular disease and making medications available. PMID:26355056

  15. Adverse respiratory health and hematological alterations among agricultural workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides: a cross-sectional study in North India.

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    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. RESULTS: Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05 the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001 lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José E Daher


    Full Text Available Resumo O uso de agrotóxicos é uma modalidade preventiva de pragas utilizada no setor agrícola por profissionais rurais. O seu uso tem contribuído para o aumento da produção de alimentos, mas coloca em risco a saúde de trabalhadores que não utilizam o Equipamento de Proteção Individual. Objetivos: relacionar os principais tipos e causas de intoxicações e analisar como o enfermeiro e os profissionais de saúde podem contribuir para melhorar a qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores. Método: pesquisa bibliográfica,  no período de junho a dezembro de 2009. Resultados: os artigos revelam que os produtos químicos vêm sendo empregados na agricultura de forma inadequada, colocando em risco a saúde do trabalhador e provocando intoxicações.Conclusão: o Enfermeiro do trabalho pode atuar na orientação preventiva de doenças causadas pela exposição a esses produtos. Cabe ao profissional de saúde adotar meios de educação continuada para os trabalhadores rurais e de conscientização para seus empregadores. Descritores: agrotóxicos, saúde do trabalhador, enfermagem do trabalho, EPI, prevenção.Abstract The use of pesticides is a form of preventive pest used in agriculture for rural professionals. The use have contributed to the increase of food production, while that endangers the health of workers who handle them without the correct use of Personal Protective Equipment. Objective: to list the main types and causes of poisoning, and examines how nurses and health professionals can contribute to improving the quality of life for employees. Methodology: used computerized literature search and manual, from June to December 2009. The articles selected health care show that chemicals are being employed in agriculture improperly, endangering workers' health caused several poisonings. Results: the Nurse's work could act in the preventive orientation. Conclusion: It is for the health professional to adopt, based on legislation and on

  17. Dental Diseases of Acid Factory Workers Globally-Narrative Review Article.

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    Sanadhya Sudhanshu


    Full Text Available Background Industrial growth is occurring exponentially, for unimpeded growth, industrial workers are recruited on a large scale globally. There are various sectors of industries present for which laborers are trained in accordance to their requirements. As workers possess the general health risk of occupational hazards, various labor laws, schemes and policies are undertaken by the government which are implemented by industries, but very few attention for oral health is being given because of which laborers are more progressing towards hidden adverse oral effects which can affect their working efficacy. Various studies on different sector workers were carried out focusing their oral health status but for acid factory workers it is neglected and therefore unrevealed to the society. For this purpose, in this article, though, paucity of literature, still, tries to enlighten the oral health status in acid factory industrial workers with available resources.

  18. Dental Diseases of Acid Factory Workers Globally-Narrative Review Article. (United States)

    Sudhanshu, Sanadhya; Pankaj, Aapaliya; Sorabh, Jain; Nidhi, Sharma


    Background Industrial growth is occurring exponentially, for unimpeded growth, industrial workers are recruited on a large scale globally. There are various sectors of industries present for which laborers are trained in accordance to their requirements. As workers possess the general health risk of occupational hazards, various labor laws, schemes and policies are undertaken by the government which are implemented by industries, but very few attention for oral health is being given because of which laborers are more progressing towards hidden adverse oral effects which can affect their working efficacy. Various studies on different sector workers were carried out focusing their oral health status but for acid factory workers it is neglected and therefore unrevealed to the society. For this purpose, in this article, though, paucity of literature, still, tries to enlighten the oral health status in acid factory industrial workers with available resources.

  19. Biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to the herbicide terbuthylazine in agriculture workers and in the general population using urine and hair specimens. (United States)

    Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia


    The aim of this work was to evaluate short-term and long-term exposure to terbuthylazine (TBA) in agriculture workers (AW), rural residents (RR), and urban residents (UR) using urine and hair specimens. Twelve AW, 13 RR, and 17 UR were included in the study. Urine spot samples were collected with two different protocols. AW urine samples were collected before the application season (February, U0), at bedtime on the day of TBA application (March-May, U1), and prior to the next shift on the day after TBA application (U2). RR and UR urine samples were collected on any day during the application season (Ue). Hair samples were collected for all subjects before the application season (February, H0) and at the end of the season (June, H1). TBA and its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. DET was exclusively found in urine, while TBA was mostly found in the hair. In the AW, the urinary levels of DET were not detected in the U0 samples, and they increased to median levels of 1.81 and 2.94μg/L in the U1 and U2 samples, respectively (p<0.001). In the RR and UR, DET was not detected in the Ue samples. In the UR, TBA was not detected in the H0 samples, and the median levels of TBA were 0.01ng/mg hair in both the AW and RR. In the H1 samples, the median TBA levels were not detected, 0.01, and 0.08ng/mg hair in the UR, RR, and AW, respectively (p<0.001). Urinary DET and hair TBA are promising candidates for biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to TBA. The use of this herbicide in agriculture leads to exposure in rural residents.

  20. On the Season, a Report of a Public Health Project Conducted Among Negro Migrant Agricultural Workers in Palm Beach County, Florida. (United States)

    Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.

    A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…

  1. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Workers in a Tertiary Hospital in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, towards Ebola Viral Disease. (United States)

    Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel Akintunde; Adepoju, Olusegun Kayode; Esan, Oluwaseun Taiwo; Adeolu, Temitope Michael; Adeoye, Tolulope Kola; Adepoju, Adesola Adebayo; Aderogba, Adedayo Titilayo


    Background. Health workers are more prone to Ebola viral disease (EVD) than the general population. This study assessed the preparedness of health workers in the control and management of EVD. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Consenting 400 health workers completed a semistructured questionnaire that assessed participants' general knowledge, emergency preparedness, and control and management of EVD. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. The mean age (SD) was 34.5 ± 8.62 years ranging from 20 to 59 years. Most participants were medical doctors (24.6%) and nurses (52.2%). The majority had practised <10 years (73.8%) and were aware of the EVD outbreak in the West African subregion (85.5%). Colleagues (40%) and radio (37.2%) were their major sources of information. Only 42% had good knowledge while 27% knew that there was no vaccine presently to prevent EVD. About one-quarter (24.2%) had low risk perception. The majority (89%) felt the hospital infection control policy was inadequate to protect against EVD. The only predictor of good knowledge was participants' occupation. Conclusion. There is knowledge gap and poor infection control preparedness among respondents. Thus, knowledge and practices of health workers towards EVD need improvement.

  2. Risk of infection and associated influenza-like disease among abattoir workers due to two Leptospira species. (United States)

    Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Baker, M G; Benschop, J


    The aims of this study were to determine the annual incidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and/or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and its association with influenza-like illness (ILI) in meat workers in New Zealand. Sera were collected twice, 50-61 weeks apart, from 592 workers at eight abattoirs slaughtering sheep (n = 4), cattle (n = 2) and deer (n = 2), and tested by the microscopic agglutination test for Hardjo and Pomona. Forty-nine (8·3%) participants either seroconverted or had at least a twofold increased serological titre against either serovar. The worker infection risk was higher in sheep abattoirs (11·9%) than in abattoirs processing deer (0%) or cattle (1·2%) (P Leptospira serovars was 2·7%. This study has demonstrated that meat workers are at substantial risk of infection and clinical disease, suggesting further investigation of infection sources and preventive measures are warranted.

  3. Occupational Allergic Diseases in Kitchen and Health Care Workers: An Underestimated Health Issue



    Objective. This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW) and health care workers (HCW). Methods. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc.) during the p...

  4. Analysis on the Current State of Performance Appraisal for Scientific Workers in Agricultural Sci-entific Institute%农业科研机构科研人员绩效考核现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔怡; 武晓亮; 蔚承祥; 苏波; 马刚


    绩效考核工作是现代人力资源管理工作中的一项重要内容[1]。文章主要阐述了农业科研机构科研人员绩效考核的现状,分析了现行农业科研人员绩效考核工作中存在的问题,以期为建立科学合理的农业科研人员绩效考核体系提供参考。%Performance appraisal is an important part of human resource management. In order to provide reference to build a more scientific performance appraisal system of agricultural scientific workers, in this article, we elaborated the state, and analyzed the problems of the current performance appraisal of agricul-tural scientific workers.

  5. Exposure-response analysis for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in a beryllium metal machining plant. (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Unice, Ken; Brown, Jay L; Kolanz, Marc E; Kent, Michael S


    The current occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium has been in place for more than 50 years and was believed to be protective against chronic beryllium disease (CBD) until studies in the 1990s identified beryllium sensitization (BeS) and subclinical CBD in the absence of physical symptoms. Inconsistent sampling and exposure assessment methodologies have often prevented the characterization of a clear exposure-response relationship for BeS and CBD. Industrial hygiene (3831 personal lapel and 616 general area samples) and health surveillance data from a beryllium machining facility provided an opportunity to reconstruct worker exposures prior to the ascertainment of BeS or the diagnosis of CBD. Airborne beryllium concentrations for different job titles were evaluated, historical trends of beryllium levels were compared for pre- and postengineering control measures, and mean and upper bound exposure estimates were developed for workers identified as beryllium sensitized or diagnosed with subclinical or clinical CBD. Five approaches were used to reconstruct historical exposures of each worker: industrial hygiene data were pooled by year, job title, era of engineering controls, and the complete work history (lifetime weighted average) prior to diagnosis. Results showed that exposure metrics based on shorter averaging times (i.e., year vs. complete work history) better represented the upper bound worker exposures that could have contributed to the development of BeS or CBD. Results showed that beryllium-sensitized and CBD workers were exposed to beryllium concentrations greater than 0.2 microg/m3 (95th percentile), and 90% were exposed to concentrations greater than 0.4 microg/m3 (95th percentile) within a given year of their work history. Based on this analysis, BeS and CBD generally occurred as a result of exposures greater than 0.4 microg/m3 and maintaining exposures below 0.2 microg/m3 95% of the time may prevent BeS and CBD in the workplace.

  6. [Optimization of registry of deaths from chronic kidney disease in agricultural communities in Central America]. (United States)

    Escamilla-Cejudo, José Antonio; Báez, Jorge Lara; Peña, Rodolfo; Luna, Patricia Lorena Ruiz; Ordunez, Pedro


    Several Central American countries are seeing continued growth in the number of deaths from chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) among farm workers and there is underreporting. This report presents the results of a consensus process coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH). This consensus seeks to increase the probability of detecting and recording deaths from these causes. There has been recognition of the negative impact of the lack of a standardized instrument and the lack of training in the medical profession for adequate registration of the cause or causes of death. As a result of the consensus, the following has been proposed: temporarily use a code from the Codes for Special Purposes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10); continue to promote use of the WHO international standardized instrument for recording causes and preceding events related to death; increase training of physicians responsible for filling out death certificates; take action to increase the coverage and quality of information on mortality; and create a decision tree to facilitate selection of CKDnT as a specific cause of death, while presenting the role that different regional and subregional mechanisms in the Region of the Americas should play in order to improve CKD and CKDnT mortality records.

  7. Pertussis as health care workers infectious disease – The clinical case with a commentary

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    Ernest Kuchar


    Full Text Available We discuss the changing epidemiological situation of pertussis observed in recent years, with a focus on the shift of cases from young children to older age groups, teenagers and adults. Whooping cough may affect healthcare workers who belong to a high-risk group and cause hospital infections. We present a case report of pertussis in a nurse and the recommended prophylactic measures in healthcare workers. The current definition and diagnosis of pertussis is also discussed. The clinical course of pertussis can be significantly alleviated and highly non-specific, with no typical coughing and vomiting in people vaccinated against whooping cough a few years earlier. Pertussis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough lasting more than fourteen days. Improvement of the epidemiological situation requires, besides immunization of infants, regular and universal booster immunization for adolescents and adults. Vaccinations for health care workers of neonatal and pediatric wards are recommended in the National Program of Immunization for 2013. It seems that booster vaccination of health care workers with a triple vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (dTpa of the reduced quantity of antigens, particularly of health workers caring for infants, children and the elderly, may be the most effective way to reduce the risk of pertussis transmission in the health care environment. Med Pr 2013;64(5:731–739

  8. A cluster of Legionnaires' disease and associated Pontiac fever morbidity in office workers, Dublin, June-July 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M


    In June and July 2008, two office workers were admitted to a Dublin hospital with Legionnaires\\' disease. Investigations showed that cooling towers in the basement car park were the most likely source of infection. However, positive results from cooling tower samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) did not correlate with subsequent culture results. Also, many employees reported Pontiac fever-like morbidity following notification of the second case of Legionnaires\\' disease. In total, 54 employees attended their general practitioner or emergency department with symptoms of Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever. However, all laboratory tests for Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever were negative. In this investigation, email was used extensively for active case finding and provision of time information to employees and medical colleagues. We recommend clarification of the role of PCR in the diagnosis of legionellosis and also advocate for a specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of the milder form of legionellosis as in Pontiac fever.

  9. Analysis on Ga-Rak market workers' disease and treatment of Traditional Korean Medicine(TKM (pilot study

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    Yoo, Jae Ryong


    Full Text Available Objective : To broaden our understanding on occupational disease of market workers and to evaluate the effect of TKM treatment focusing on acupuncture and herb medicine and to promote base studies and clinical trials on occupational disease. Materials and Methods : Analysis was done on 33 Ga-Rak market workers' chart which had been selected through investigation of 1508 outpatient's chart of Kyung Won University Hospital from Jun. 1st, 2002 to May. 31th, 2003. Results : 1. Out of 33 patients, Men had more occupational diseases than women had and Most people were in their forties. 2. Major cause of the disease include repetitve bending, heavy weight lifting and overwork. 3. Past History of patients mostly include frequent lumbar sprain, periarthritis of shoulder, lumbar HNP. 4. The patients with occupational disease were diagnosed as lumbar sprain, periarthritis of shoulder, lumbar HNP, degenerative spondylosis, spinal stenosis and their chief complaints were low back pain, omalgia, back pain with radicular pain. 5. The duration of treatment was mostly within a week. 6. Acupuncture, Bee Venom Acupuncture, moxibustion, Herb-medicine, extract, taping therapy, physical therapy were used as treatment methods. 7. Applied herb medicine were composed of 8 kinds of prescriptions and extract were made up of 6 prescriptions 8. Applied acupoints belonged mainly to 14 meridians 9. The treatment of herb medicine combined with acupuncture proved effective in treating the ocupational disease. conclusions : The occupational disease of patients working in Ga-Rak market were closely related with overwork, especially with repetitive bending and heavy weight lifting and TKM treatment focusing on acupuncture combined with herb medicine was effective in treating occupational disease.

  10. Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers Caring for Patients with Filovirus Disease: A Rapid Review.

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    Mona Hersi

    Full Text Available A rapid review, guided by a protocol, was conducted to inform development of the World Health Organization's guideline on personal protective equipment in the context of the ongoing (2013-present Western African filovirus disease outbreak, with a focus on health care workers directly caring for patients with Ebola or Marburg virus diseases.Electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched. Eligibility criteria initially included comparative studies on Ebola and Marburg virus diseases reported in English or French, but criteria were expanded to studies on other viral hemorrhagic fevers and non-comparative designs due to the paucity of studies. After title and abstract screening (two people to exclude, full-text reports of potentially relevant articles were assessed in duplicate. Fifty-seven percent of extraction information was verified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework was used to inform the quality of evidence assessments.Thirty non-comparative studies (8 related to Ebola virus disease were located, and 27 provided data on viral transmission. Reporting of personal protective equipment components and infection prevention and control protocols was generally poor.Insufficient evidence exists to draw conclusions regarding the comparative effectiveness of various types of personal protective equipment. Additional research is urgently needed to determine optimal PPE for health care workers caring for patients with filovirus.

  11. Impact of Educational Intervention Regarding Mosquito Borne Diseases and Their Control Measures among The Link Workers of Urban Health Centers (UHCs of Ahmedabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancy Manish


    Full Text Available Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study population and their baseline knowledge regarding mosquito borne diseases and mosquito control measures was assessed by questionnaire. Single educational training for 45 minutes was given to groups of link workers and their post– intervention knowledge for same was assessed after 14 days. Mean, Wilcoxon sign-rank test were applied. Results: Mean age of link workers was 31.3 + 4.8 years. The knowledge regarding Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria was mosquito borne diseases was respectively 55.5%, 87.9% and 95.5% which was increase after intervention to 100%. But 14.4% did not know filariasis is mosquito borne disease even after training. All link workers know about the chemical (Temephos used for mosquito control (100% but knowledge of proper temephos dose for different volume of water containers was significantly improved after intervention. The overall knowledge regarding mosquito & mosquito control measures was significantly improved after intervention (p value <0.05. Conclusion: Even though link workers were involved in anti-larval activities since from many years, many link workers had poor knowledge regarding the mosquito borne diseases and control measures.

  12. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers. Studies on mortality, cancer morbidity, and radiographical changes in lung parenchyma and pleura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, K.


    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs.

  13. Diferencias en la salud de jornaleras y jornaleros agrícolas migrantes en Sinaloa, México Health differences between male and female migrant agricultural workers in Sinaloa, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Edilia Palacios-Nava


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar las diferencias en la prevalencia de síntomas de origen muscarínico y nicotínico, y el nivel de colinesterasa eritrocítica de jornaleras y jornaleros agrícolas, antes de la exposición a plaguicidas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre enero y febrero de 2001 se realizó un estudio transversal con 488 trabajadores migrantes en el estado de Sinaloa, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se midió colinesterasa eritrocítica antes del inicio de sus labores en la temporada agrícola. Las diferencias por sexo se analizaron utilizando prueba t para variables cuantitativas, ji2 para cualitativas y razón de momios para la prevalencia. Se consideraron alfa=0.05 e intervalos de confianza de 95% como niveles de significancia. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en edad, forma de migración, lugar de procedencia, nivel de escolaridad y antigüedad migratoria (p=0.000. Las mujeres presentaron seis veces más posibilidad de enfermar de anemia y asma, dos veces más parásitos, el doble de infecciones respiratorias y estomacales, y 38% más en enfermedades del corazón. También se encontró entre ellas una mayor posibilidad de presentar 13 de 19 síntomas interrogados. El promedio del nivel de colinesterasa se encontró en límites de normalidad (4.22 U/ml±0.77 y fue semejante a los reportados por el método Magnotti. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de síntomas, enfermedades y el nivel de colinesterasa encontrados en este estudio pueden ser un referente basal para la comparación posterior de alteraciones producidas por exposición a plaguicidas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences in the prevalence of muscarinic and nicotinic type symptoms and the level of erythrocytic cholinesterase, prior to pesticide exposure, in male and female migrant agricultural workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001 in Sinaloa State, Mexico, among 488 migrant workers. A questionnaire was applied and erythrocytic

  14. Parkinson’s Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Yitshak Sade


    Full Text Available The risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012. Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79. In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk.

  15. Current preventive policies and practices against Vaccine-Preventable Diseases and tuberculosis targeted for workers from hospitals of the Sardinia Region, Italy


    Campagna, M.; Argiolas, F.; Soggiu, B.; Mereu, N.M.; Lai, A.; Galletta, M.; R.C. Coppola


    Summary Introduction. Health care Workers are exposed to infectious diseases more than the general population. Many of these infections are preventable by vaccination. The objective in this study is to investigate whether, how, and which vaccination underwent Sardinia Health Care Workers (HCWs) and the variability of policies in different Hospital Health Managements of the whole region. Methods. In March 2013, we enrolled the Hospital Health Management of all the 32 Sardinia hospitals. We inv...

  16. Radiation-epidemiological Study of Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Recovery Operation Workers of the Chernobyl Accident. (United States)

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K


    The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p < 0.001) associated with all studied concomitant diseases. The incidence of CeVD has revealed a statistically significant dose response with the lack of a latent period and with the average ERR/Gy = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.62), p < 0.001. Radiation risks of CeVD statistically significantly (p = 0.03) varied with the duration of liquidators' stay in the Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.64, 95% CI = (0.38; 0.93), p < 0.001. Among studied concomitant diseases, diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29.

  17. Prevalence of lead disease among secondary lead smelter workers and biological indicators of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R. (City Univ. of New York); Fischbein, A.; Eisinger, J.


    The report concerns itself primarily with the assessment of medical and biochemical effects of chronic lead exposure and comparing the usefulness of various biological screening parameters. In addition it appraises the effects of chelation therapy to control blood lead levels in lead workers, which have recently attracted critical attention. It is of considerable importance to ascertain whether such a therapeutic approach may, under some circumstances, in fact contribute to the deleterious effects of undue lead exposure.

  18. Training community health workers to reduce health disparities in Alabama's Black Belt: the Pine Apple Heart Disease and Stroke Project. (United States)

    Kuhajda, Melissa C; Cornell, Carol E; Brownstein, J Nell; Littleton, Mary Ann; Stalker, Varena G; Bittner, Vera A; Lewis, Cora E; Raczynski, James M


    African American women have significantly higher mortality rates from heart disease and stroke than White women despite advances in treatment and the management of risk factors. Community health workers (CHWs) serve important roles in culturally relevant programs to prevent disease and promote health. This article describes the Pine Apple Heart and Stroke Project's activities to (1) revise the Women's Wellness Sourcebook Module III: Heart and Stroke to be consistent with national guidelines on heart disease and stroke and to meet the needs of African American women living in rural southern communities; (2) train CHWs using the revised curriculum; and (3) evaluate the training program. Revisions of the curriculum were based on recommendations by an expert advisory panel, the staff of a rural health clinic, and feedback from CHWs during training. Questionnaires after training revealed positive changes in CHWs' knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and self-reported risk reduction behaviors related to heart disease, stroke, cancer, and patient-provider communication. This study provides a CHW training curriculum that may be useful to others in establishing heart disease and stroke programs in rural underserved communities.

  19. The importance of lung function, non-malignant diseases associated with asbestos, and symptoms as predictors of ischaemic heart disease in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos. (United States)

    Sandén, A; Järvholm, B; Larsson, S


    The mortality from ischaemic heart disease was studied in a prospective cohort of 1725 shipyard workers exposed to asbestos. The analyses were stratified for age and smoking habits and restricted to men. In agreement with other findings, men with impaired lung function had a significantly higher risk (relative risk (RR) = 3.5) of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men with normal lung function. Men with asbestosis or suspected asbestosis had a significantly higher risk (RR = 3.1) of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men without asbestosis. Thus asbestosis or suspected asbestosis also seemed to be a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease. This finding was independent of respiratory function. There was no increased risk for ischaemic heart disease in men with compared with men without pleural plaques. Men with production of phlegm or sputum and wheezing or whistling had no increased risk for ischaemic heart disease compared with men without these symptoms. In the group with normal lung function men with dyspnoea had a significantly higher risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men without dyspnoea. The findings for men with asbestosis or suspected asbestosis indicated a further risk factor besides impaired lung function, in persons exposed to asbestos. Perhaps this risk factor is due to lesions of the pericardium with consequences for heart function. PMID:8398871

  20. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet for Healthcare Workers and Morticians (United States)

    ... Craniosynostosis Information Page Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Information Page Cushing's Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia Information ...

  1. Pre-employment examinations for preventing occupational injury and disease in workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmud, Norashikin; Schonstein, Eva; Schaafsma, Frederieke; Lehtola, Marika M.; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Reneman, Michiel F.; Verbeek, Jos H.


    Background Many employers and other stakeholders believe that health examinations of job applicants prevent occupational diseases and sickness absence. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of pre-employment examinations of job applicants in preventing occupational injury, disease and sickness ab

  2. Agricultural Health and Safety (United States)

    ... of injury from working with livestock Risk of electrocution to persons operating large equipment that can contact ... which identifies common agricultural hazards and provides safety solutions for employers and young workers to prevent accidents ...

  3. [Hand-arm vibration syndrome and upper limbs diseases in the forest workers of Italia meridionale]. (United States)

    Fenga, C; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Cacciola, A; Deboli, R; Calvo, A; Germanò, D


    Vibration exposure of the hand-arm system is associated with an increased risk of upper-limb vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal lesions, or hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The prevalence of occupational HAVS and upper-limb disorders was studied among 278 Forestry Service workers in Sicily and Calabria. Subjects who used chain-saws (18 weeks/year) had a greater prevalence of peripheral sensory-neural disturbances (28%), upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders (33%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (19%) compared with 260 manual workers from the same Corps not exposed to hand-transmitted vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon was comparable in exposed and control subjects (5.3% vs. 4.7%.) Upper-limb neuropathies were significantly associated with energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration; exposure duration; and cumulative vibration dose (m2/s4h). The variable "years of work with vibrating tools" was strongly associated with peripheral neuropathies; carpal tunnel syndrome; and upper-limb musculotendinous syndromes. Data suggest that in Sicily and Calabria, where the climate is milder than in other areas of Italy, forestry work with hand-held vibrating tools does not entail a greater prevalence of peripheral vascular disorders (Raynaud's phenomenon), while the prevalence of occupational upper-limb neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, in which combined ergonomic and mechanical risk factors have a large pathogenic role, is significantly increased.

  4. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian


    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  5. 29 CFR 500.70 - Scope of worker protections. (United States)


    ...) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... property which is used as housing for any migrant agricultural workers must ensure that the facility or... of migrant or seasonal agricultural workers. As stated in these regulations, the...

  6. Diseases that disable workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in Instituto Nacional de Oncologia - INOR; Enfermedades discapacitantes en trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes del INOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frometa Suarez, Ileana [Instituto Nacional Salud de los Trabajadores, La Habana (Cuba); Hernandez, Jose Marcos [Instituto Nacional de Oncologia y Radiobiologia, La Habana (Cuba)


    The medical surveillance define the capacity of workers exposed to ionizing radiations according to legal recommendations, though another facultative may to diagnose diseases with disable. This present paper performs an analysis of the occupational morbidity reported of workers of the National Oncology Institute at Cuba. The distribution of frequency, gravity and duration of the diseases is presented. The sources information was personnel radiological records. The osteomuscular and genitourinary system were more percent of incapacity. The loss day index is high. The gravity index is high too from the hematopoietic system. (author)

  7. Geospatial Modeling and Disease Insect Vector Management at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (United States)

    Geospatial modeling at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) is used assist in the surveillance of insect vectors and in the management of insect transmitted diseases. The most recent Geospatial Modeling/Technology Transfer success involves the prediction of Rift Val...

  8. Risk screening for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Latino migrant farmworkers: a role for the community health worker. (United States)

    Thompson, Reagan H; Snyder, Audrey E; Burt, David R; Greiner, Doris S; Luna, Max A


    Diabetes and heart disease are two of the leading causes of death for Hispanics living in the United States (American Heart Association [AHA] in Circulation 123:e18-e209. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182009701 , 2010). As the Hispanic population continues to grow, the need for low-cost, non-invasive methods to detect at risk populations for such diseases becomes more important. Once at risk individuals are detected, prevention strategies can be implemented. Studies have shown that Latino community health workers (CHWs) are effective educators, patient advocates and health promotion motivators for patients with known heart disease or diabetes. This pilot study examined the accuracy with which Latino CHWs could determine migrant farmworkers at risk for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Virginia. This quasi-experimental study supports the hypothesis that Latino CHWs can use non-invasive diabetes and CVD screening tools with similar accuracy as a registered nurse. The screening tools used were the American Diabetes Association's diabetes risk calculator and a non-laboratory screening tool for CVD risk designed by Gaziano et al. (Lancet 371:923-931, 2008). The terms Latino and Hispanic will be used interchangeably.

  9. Impact of an intervention on HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use among sex workers in Bombay, India. (United States)

    Bhave, G; Lindan, C P; Hudes, E S; Desai, S; Wagle, U; Tripathi, S P; Mandel, J S


    The objective was to develop and test an HIV intervention targeting sex workers and madams in the brothels of Bombay. In a controlled intervention trial, with measurements before and after the intervention, 334 sex workers and 20 madams were recruited from an intervention site, and 207 and 17, respectively, from a similar control site, both in red-light areas of Bombay. All sex workers were tested for antibodies to HIV and syphilis, and for hepatitis B surface antigen. Information on sexual practices, condom use, and knowledge of HIV was collected by questionnaires. All subjects in the intervention group underwent a 6-month program of educational videos, small group discussions and pictorial educational materials; free condoms were also distributed. The blood tests and the questionnaire were readministered to all subjects at both sites immediately after the intervention. Both groups were followed for approximately 1 year. The baseline prevalence of HIV antibodies was 47% in the intervention group and 41% in the control group (p = 0.17). The incidence densities for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases were significantly different in the 2 groups (all p 0.005): 0.05 and 0.16 per person-year of follow-up for HIV, 0.08 and 0.22 per person-year for antibodies to syphilis, and 0.04 and 0.12 per person-year for hepatitis B surface antigen in the intervention and control women, respectively. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in knowledge of modes of HIV transmission in the intervention group (n = 334) compared to the control group (n = 190) (60% vs. 99% compared to 56% vs. 26%, p 0.001). In addition, women reported increased levels of condom use and some (41%) said they were willing to refuse clients who would not use them. However, both the sex workers and 100% of the madams were concerned about losing business if condom use was insisted upon. Intervention programs of longer duration that target madams and clients and make condoms easily

  10. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane


    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n=110) compared to a control community (n=106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention's impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000-2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study

  11. 农民非农化进程中的农民工就业问题研究%A Research on Migrant Workers'Employment Problem During Peasant's Non-agricultural Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    农民工作为我国庞大却弱势的特殊社会群体,是经济社会结构变迁后劳动力资源自由流动优化配置的必然结果.平稳有序合理的解决农民工问题,既有利于解决三农痼疾,又能推进国家工业化和城市化的发展.本文系统地分析了分流农民转移就业的现实意义;农民工作为农民非农就业主渠道对现代化的贡献;农民工转移就业的原因;农民工转移就业的瓶颈因素及对策等.%Migrant workers is a very large social vulnerable group in China, It is an inevitable requirement of labor resources allocation after economic and social structure changes. It is not only beneficial to solve three agricultural problems, but also can promote the development of industrialization and urbanization. Based on this concept, this essay has a systematical analysis about the realistic significance of allocate or transfer peasants, the migrant workers' contribution to realize modernization, the causes of migrant workers transfer employment, finds out some bottleneck factors and put forward some solving methods.

  12. Infection control and the burden of tuberculosis infection and disease in health care workers in China: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.X.; van den Hof, S.; van der Werf, M.J.; Wang, G.J.; Ma, S.W.; Zhao, D.Y.; Hu, Y.L.; Yu, S.C.; Borgdorff, M.W.


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hospitals with inadequate infection control are risky environments for the emergence and transmission of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated TB infection control practices, and the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease and risk factors in health care workers (HCW)

  13. Stepwise health surveillance for bronchial irritability syndrome in workers at risk of occupational respiratory disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.K. Post (Wendel); K.M. Venables (Katherine); D. Ross (David); P. Cullinan (Paul); D. Heederik (Dick); A. Burdorf (Alex)


    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Questionnaires, lung function tests, and peak flow measurements are widely used in occupational health care to screen for subjects with respiratory disease. However, the diagnostic performance of these tests is often poor. Application of these te

  14. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry. (United States)

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R


    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks.

  15. The Role of Nurses and Community Health Workers in Confronting Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Corley, Andrew G.; Thornton, Clifton P.; Glass, Nancy E.


    Introduction Neglected tropical diseases produce an enormous burden on many of the poorest and most disenfranchised populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Similar to other developing areas throughout the world, this region’s dearth of skilled health providers renders Western-style primary care efforts to address such diseases unrealistic. Consequently, many countries rely on their corps of nurses and community health workers to engage with underserved and hard-to-reach populations in order provide interventions against these maladies. This article attempts to cull together recent literature on the impact that nurses and community health workers have had on neglected tropical diseases. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to assess the role nurses and community health workers play in the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Articles published between January 2005 and December 2015 were reviewed in order to capture the full scope of nurses’ and community health workers’ responsibilities for neglected tropical disease control within their respective countries’ health systems. Results A total of 59 articles were identified that fit all inclusion criteria. Conclusions Successful disease control requires deep and meaningful engagement with local communities. Expanding the role of nurses and community health workers will be required if sub-Saharan African countries are to meet neglected tropical disease treatment goals and eliminate the possibility future disease transmission. Horizontal or multidisease control programs can create complimentary interactions between their different control activities as well as reduce costs through improved program efficiencies—benefits that vertical programs are not able to attain. PMID:27631980

  16. Infectious diseases in healthcare workers – an analysis of the standardised data set of a German compensation board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhaus Albert


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Healthcare workers (HCW are exposed to infectious agents. Disease surveillance is therefore needed in order to foster prevention. Methods The data of the compensation board that covers HCWs of non-governmental healthcare providers in Germany was analysed for a five-year period. For hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections, the period analysed was extended to the last 15 years. The annual rate of occupational infectious diseases (OIDs per 100,000 employees was calculated. For needlestick injuries (NSI a rate per 1,000 employees was calculated. Results Within the five years from 2005 to 2009 a total of 384 HCV infections were recognised as OIDs (1.5/100,000 employees. Active TB was the second most frequent cause of an OID. While the numbers of HBV and HCV infections decreased, the numbers for active TB did not follow a clear pattern. Needlestick injuries (NSIs were reported especially often at hospitals (29.9/1,000 versus 7.4/1,000 employees for all other HCWs. Conclusion Although they are declining, HCV infections remain frequent in HCWs, as do NSIs. Whether the reinforcement of the recommendations for the use of safety devices in Germany will prevent NSIs and therefore HCV infections should be closely observed.

  17. Pre-employment examinations for preventing injury, disease and sick leave in workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Frederieke G.; Mahmud, Norashikin; Reneman, Michiel F.; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Jungbauer, Frank H. W.


    Background Many employers and other stakeholders believe that health examinations of job applicants prevent occupational diseases and sickness absence. This is an update of the original Cochrane review (Mahmud 2010). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of pre-employment examinations of job appl

  18. Work rehabilitation for migrant workers with work injury--the magic of Chinese paper cutting. (United States)

    Mai, G Z; Chan, K K; Lo, H Y L K


    As China has gradually transformed from agricultural economy into industrial economy since 1978, occupational injuries and diseases become a serious social problem in China. For occupational rehabilitation professionals, helping workers with occupational injuries and diseases, return to work and re-integrate to community are the ultimate goals of occupational rehabilitation. This article reports a new indigenous initiative with cultural notions in occupational rehabilitation piloted by Guangdong Provincial Rehabilitation Center. Case studies reflected that by learning and practicing traditional Chinese paper cutting, workers with occupational injury and disease could regain their self confidence, identity their strengths, learn more vocational skills as well as to re-integrate into community.

  19. A tribute to Sheik Humarr Khan and all the healthcare workers in West Africa who have sacrificed in the fight against Ebola virus disease: Mae we hush. (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Bangura, James; Garry, Robert F; Goba, Augustine; Grant, Donald S; Jacquerioz, Frederique A; McLellan, Susan L; Jalloh, Simbirie; Moses, Lina M; Schieffelin, John S


    The Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward in Sierra Leone, directed since 2005 by Dr. Sheikh Humarr Khan, is the only medical unit in the world devoted exclusively to patient care and research of a viral hemorrhagic fever. When Ebola virus disease unexpectedly appeared in West Africa in late 2013 and eventually spread to Kenema, Khan and his fellow healthcare workers remained at their posts, providing care to patients with this devastating illness. Khan and the chief nurse, Mbalu Fonnie, became infected and died at the end of July, a fate that they have sadly shared with more than ten other healthcare workers in Kenema and hundreds across the region. This article pays tribute to Sheik Humarr Khan, Mbalu Fonnie and all the healthcare workers who have acquired Ebola virus disease while fighting the epidemic in West Africa. Besides the emotional losses, the death of so many skilled and experienced healthcare workers will severely impair health care and research in affected regions, which can only be restored through dedicated, long-term programs.

  20. Sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in street-based female sex workers in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Islam Mondal


    Full Text Available We analyzed the sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs of street-based female sex workers (SFSWs of Rajshahi city and examined their socio-demographic profiles. Among the SFSWs attending three drop-in centers (DIC named PIACT, PROVA, and Suraksha Madhumita in Rajshahi, 150 self-motivated and willing individuals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to obtain obstetric histories and socio-demographic information. Among these SFSWs, 56.7% were infected with two or more pathogens of STDs, with gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, syphilis, and trichomoniasis observed in 23.3, 27.3, 24.0, 17.3, and 20.0%, respectively. We found a strong association between the prevalence of STDs among SFSWs and their socio-demographic profiles. Illiterate and comparatively older SFSWs who spent very little money for health purposes, had larger numbers of children, and used condoms inconsistently were observed to be at higher risk of STDs. These results observed with bivariate analysis were also confirmed by logistic regression analysis.

  1. Agricultural Applications for Antimicrobials. A Danger to Human Health: An Official Position Statement of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. (United States)

    Aitken, Samuel L; Dilworth, Thomas J; Heil, Emily L; Nailor, Michael D


    The use of antibiotics in agriculture, particularly in food-producing animals, is pervasive and represents the overwhelming majority of antibiotic use worldwide. The link between antibiotic use in animals and antibiotic resistance in humans is unequivocal. Transmission can occur by ingesting undercooked meats harboring resistant bacteria, by direct contact of animals by animal handlers, and by various other means. Antibiotics used in aquaculture and antifungals used in horticulture are also an evolving threat to human health. Regulations aimed at decreasing the amount of antibiotics used in food production to limit the development of antibiotic resistance have recently been implemented. However, further action is needed to minimize antibiotic use in agriculture. This article describes the extent of this current problem and serves as the official position of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists on this urgent threat to human health.

  2. Community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia

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    Seyoum A


    Full Text Available Ayichew Seyoum,1 Kedir Urgessa,1 Tesfaye Gobena2 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Ethiopia constitutes approximately 1% of the world’s population but it contributes to 7% of the world’s HIV/AIDS cases. Malaria is the most important disease of humans in terms of mortality, morbidity, and long-term effects upon quality of life, especially in Ethiopia. Despite the ongoing efforts and progress in fighting HIV/AIDS and malaria, these diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. In this study, we assessed community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based multistage stratified cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2014 among six woredas of the East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. The data were collected from 2,319 households using structured questionnaires. A total of 12 well trained data collectors conducted a face-to-face interview with the head female of each household. The data entered on Epi-Data version 3 were then exported for analysis on STATA version 11. Results: Multivariable logistic regression showed that among the 1,967 (92.7% study participants who scored above the mean value in regard to the overall knowledge of HIV/AIDS, study participants who could read/write (adjusted odd ratios [AOR] =2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–5.61, P=0.021 and worked as a daily laborer (AOR =0.40, 95% CI: 0.17–0.91, P=0.029 were significantly associated with comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, out of the 2,172 eligible study participants for the malaria interview, 934 (43% scored above the mean in regard to the overall knowledge about malaria. Rural residents (AOR =0.27, 95% CI: 0.17–0.44, P<0.005, >45 years of age (AOR =1.44, 95

  3. 浅谈外来工的职业病问题现状与应对策略%Occupation Disease Problems and Coping Strategies of Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一飞; 刘文; 张婷婷


    China is in the period of development and economic increase,the development and change of the social situation make the occupation disease of each industry to occur frequently,which seriously affects the health of the workers. However,occupation disease problems in this period of migrant workers is becoming more and more serious,affecting the physical and mental health of migrant labor. The author briefly discusses the existing problems of migrant workers,occupation disease and coping strategies.%我国正处于经济上升的发展时期,社会形势的发展和转变使得各行业职业病频发,严重影响着劳动者的身体健康。然而,处于这一时期的外来工的职业病问题也日趋严重,影响着外来劳动的生理和心理健康。笔者就外来工职业病的现存问题、原因及应对策略进行简要探讨。

  4. Urbanization, Agricultural Intensification, and Habitat Alteration in Vietnam: Modeling Transitional Development and Emerging Infectious Diseases (United States)

    Fox, J.; Saksena, S.; Spencer, J.; Finucane, M.; Sultana, N.


    Our overarching hypothesis is that new risks, in this case the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, emerge during transitions between stages of development. Moreover, these risks are not coincidental but occur precisely because of the in-between nature of the coupled human-natural system at the point when things are neither traditional nor modern but resemble the state of chaos, release and reorganization. We are testing this hypothesis in Vietnam using demographic, social, economic, and environmental data collected in national censuses and analyzed at commune and district levels to identify communes and districts that are traditional, modern, and transitional (peri-urban). Using data from the 2006 agricultural census that capture both the changing nature of the built environment (types of sanitation systems) and the loss of and diversification of agriculture systems (percent of households whose major source of income is from agriculture, and percent of land under agriculture, forests, and aquaculture), and a normalized difference vegetation index from 2006 Landsat images we created a national scale urbanicity map for Vietnam. Field work in the summer of 2011 showed this map to be an accurate (approximately 85%) approximation of traditional (rural), transitional (periurban), and modern (urban) communes. Preliminary results suggest that over 7% of the country's land area and roughly 15% of its population resides in periurban neighborhoods, and that these areas do have a statistically significant greater incidence of AVI as measured in chicken deaths than traditional and modern communes (Table 1). Transitional neighborhoods such as these force planners to ask two questions. To what extent does the dichotomy of urban/rural makes sense in the context of Vietnam, when large areas and parts of the population are caught between the two? Second, how can planners and policy makers effectively provide for basic public goods and services in these contexts?Classification of places

  5. Community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia (United States)

    Seyoum, Ayichew; Urgessa, Kedir; Gobena, Tesfaye


    Background Ethiopia constitutes approximately 1% of the world’s population but it contributes to 7% of the world’s HIV/AIDS cases. Malaria is the most important disease of humans in terms of mortality, morbidity, and long-term effects upon quality of life, especially in Ethiopia. Despite the ongoing efforts and progress in fighting HIV/AIDS and malaria, these diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. In this study, we assessed community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. Methods A community-based multistage stratified cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2014 among six woredas of the East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. The data were collected from 2,319 households using structured questionnaires. A total of 12 well trained data collectors conducted a face-to-face interview with the head female of each household. The data entered on Epi-Data version 3 were then exported for analysis on STATA version 11. Results Multivariable logistic regression showed that among the 1,967 (92.7%) study participants who scored above the mean value in regard to the overall knowledge of HIV/AIDS, study participants who could read/write (adjusted odd ratios [AOR] =2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–5.61, P=0.021) and worked as a daily laborer (AOR =0.40, 95% CI: 0.17–0.91, P=0.029) were significantly associated with comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, out of the 2,172 eligible study participants for the malaria interview, 934 (43%) scored above the mean in regard to the overall knowledge about malaria. Rural residents (AOR =0.27, 95% CI: 0.17–0.44, P45 years of age (AOR =1.44, 95% CI: 1.04–1.99, P=0.030), and single marital status (AOR =3.81, 95% CI: 1.97–7.37, P<0.005) were significantly associated with comprehensive knowledge about malaria. Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, health extension workers

  6. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels. (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng


    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  7. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature (United States)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.


    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  8. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese, Korean and Mongolian workers. (United States)

    Nogi, Akiko; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Limei; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Mamiko; Watanabe, Minako; Hashimoto, Michio; Shiwaku, Kuninori


    The favorable role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been demonstrated in animal experiments and in humans in Western countries, but its effect remains controversial in Asian populations. An observational study of Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians with extended histories of remarkably different frequencies of fish intake was conducted to examine whether differences in plasma n-3 PUFA affects CVD risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study in workplace settings and determined body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fatty acid composition in plasma. A total of 411 Japanese, 418 Korean and 252 Mongolian workers aged 30-60 yr participated in this study. The Japanese ate fish more frequently and had remarkably higher values of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 PUFA, and lower values of BMI and HOMA-IR, followed by the Koreans, and then the Mongolians. In age groups, the Japanese and Koreans showed a similar tendency of increase in n-3 PUFA with increasing age. General linear measurement multivariate analysis after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, drinking, exercise habits and BMI showed n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese, while it was associated with systolic blood pressure in the Koreans, and TG in the Mongolians. In conclusion, an increase in n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese and Mongolians, but these beneficial effects were not constant across the three Asian ethnic groups.

  9. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced. It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct

  10. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison. (United States)

    Martin, P L


    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  11. [Effect of industrial and socioeconomic factors on morbidity levels with temporary work loss among workers and employees of specialized state farms]. (United States)

    Sleptsov, N F


    Specialization of the agricultural industry at state farms brings changes into conditions of work, affects the disease incidence involving temporary incapacitation among state farm workers. The sick-rate among those of them who are engaged in dairy and vegetable-growing state farms is higher that among workers of the cattle breeding ones. A higher level complex mechanization of labour-consuming processes in cattle breeding and plant growing mitigates the influence exercised by specialization of the state farm agricultural production. The disease-incidence with temporary incapacitation is affected not only by occupational, but also by non-occupational factors.

  12. Short-term global health education programs abroad: disease patterns observed in Haitian migrant worker communities around La Romana, Dominican Republic. (United States)

    Ferrara, Brian J; Townsley, Elizabeth; MacKay, Christopher R; Lin, Henry C; Loh, Lawrence C


    The possibility of encountering rare tropical disease presentations is commonly described as a benefit derived by developed world medical trainees participating in clinical service-oriented short-term global health experiences in the developing world. This study describes the health status of a population served by a short-term experience conducted by a North American institute, and the results of a retrospective review are used to identify commonly encountered diseases and discuss their potential educational value. Descriptive analysis was conducted on 1,024 encounter records collected over four unique 1-week-long trips by a North American institution serving Haitian migrant workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. The top five diagnoses seen in the clinic were gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hypertension (HTN), upper respiratory infections, otitis media, and fungal skin infection. On occasion, diagnoses unique to an indigent tropical population were encountered (e.g., dehydration, malnutrition, parasites, and infections.). These findings suggest a similarity between frequently encountered diagnoses on a short-term clinical service trip in Dominican Republic and primary care presentations in developed world settings, which challenges the assumption that short-term service experiences provide exposure to rare tropical disease presentations. These findings also represent additional data that can be used to better understand the health and healthcare planning among this vulnerable population of Haitian migrant workers.

  13. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.


    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  14. Seroprevalencia de brucelosis en trabajadores agrícolas de las comarcas costeras de Castellón, España Seroprevalence of brucellosis in agricultural workers living in coastal areas of Castellon, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Villamarín-Vázquez


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la seroprevalencia de brucelosis en trabajadores agrícolas. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado durante 1996 y 1997 en la Unidad de Salud Laboral del Centro de Salud Pública (CSP de Castellón, España, con 482 aspirantes a su acreditación como manipulador de plaguicidas para aplicación agrícola y a quienes se les hicieron las pruebas serológicas de rosa de Bengala, seroaglutinación de Wright y Coombs antibrucela. En el análisis estadístico se estimó la prevalencia y se usó regresión logística. Resultados. 15 personas (3.1%, IC 95% 1.8%-5.1% presentaron títulos de 1/40 o mayores a las pruebas de Wright o Coombs, y todas negativas al rosa de Bengala. No se apreció riesgo profesional elevado. Conclusiones. La prevalencia estimada fue baja.Objective. To estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in agricultural workers. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1996 and 1997 at Unidad de Salud Laboral del Centro de Salud Pública (CSP in Castellon, España (Public Health Center Occupational Health Unit, among 482 subjects applying for certification to handle pesticides for agricultural use. Serologic testing consisted of rose Bengal staining, Wright's agglutination, and antibrucella Coombs tests. Statistical analysis consisted in estimation of prevalence figures and logistic regression modelling. Results. Fifteen subjects (3.1%, 95% CI 1.8%-5.1% had titers of 1/40 or higher to Wright and/or Coombs tests; all were negative to rose Bengal staining. No high occupational risk was observed. Conclusions. A low prevalence of brucellosis was found.

  15. Genetic damage and exposure to pesticides among agricultural workers from Valle de San Quintín, Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zúñiga Violante


    Full Text Available Various studies have shown the ability of pesticides to induce genetic damage (GD that can cause health effects. In the present work, a genotoxicological study was conducted monitoring residents from the agricultural region of the San Quintin Valley (SQV, Baja California, Mexico. The objective was to determine if occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in the region of the SQV is a factor in GD, and to find out if women are more vulnerable to this effect. A questionnaire was administered to 88 residents of the SQV to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study; of these, 40 agreed to participate (25 occupationally exposed to pesticides and 15 environmentally exposed to them, with similar numbers of men and women. All participants signed an informed consent form. The micronuclei technique (MN was used, which blocks cytokinesis in peripheral blood samples, to evaluate GD by counting the number of MN and Chromatin Bridges in 1000 bi-nucleated cells (BNC. The results of this measure of genetic damage were then correlated with the degree of occupational pesticide exposure of the participants. Environmentally exposed men had less GD than women with MN means of 8.1± (1.83 and 13.1(±1.7 respectively, whereas occupational exposure affected both sexes, men with a mean of MN equal to 15.9 (± 2.9, and women with 18.12 (± 1.7. Based on our results, it can be concluded that occupational exposure to pesticides is a factor in GD, with women showing greater vulnerability than men. The time of exposure at work was shown to be directly related to the increased number of MN.

  16. [Vibration on agricultural tractors]. (United States)

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio


    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed.

  17. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods (United States)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  18. Salud Para Su Corazon (health for your heart) community health worker model: community and clinical approaches for addressing cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanics/Latinos. (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Alvarado, M; Ortiz, G


    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy.

  19. Heart disease attributed to occupational noise, vibration and other co-exposure: Self-reported population-based survey among Bulgarian workers

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    Angel M. Dzhambov


    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main mortality cause worldwide. Noise and vibration are considered to be occupational risk factors, but little is known about their cardiovascular effects in Bulgaria in terms of gender and various professional groups. The aim of this study has been to investigate the risk of prevalent CVD, associated with occupational noise and vibration exposure. Material and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from 3 waves of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS 2001–2010 – a nationally-representative cross-sectional questionnaire survey covering 3149 workers aged ≥ 15 years in Bulgaria. Data on self-reported heart disease were linked to self-reported occupational noise and vibration, adjusting for other factors. Results from the 3 waves were pooled together using the inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet meta-analysis. Results: For noise, the risk was elevated among women (relative risk (RR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.53–3.01, but not men (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.14–1.65. Long-term workers had RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.60–1.69. For vibration, the risk was increased in all participants. It was higher among men (RR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.60–4.09 than it was among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.77–2.27. Among long-term, industrial, and service workers it was RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02–2.40; RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.61–1.98, and RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.57–2.46, respectively. Conclusions: Occupational vibration was a risk factor for prevalent heart disease in Bulgaria. Noise was an alleged risk factor only among long-term workers and women. Med Pr 2016;67(4:435–445

  20. Analysis and prevention advises of liability diseases of offshore workers%海上作业人员易患疾病分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑞卿; 孙晶; 郭倩; 李郁; 付秀霞


    海洋石油工业是从事海上石油、天然气勘探、开发的生产单位,其海上作业人员的劳动环境、劳动时间、劳动强度、职业危害因素、饮食结构和规律与其他陆地作业人员有很大不同.工人长期处于船、平台的海上环境,工作和生活的空间小、设备多、作业密集、接触有害因素种类繁多、且经常受恶劣天气的侵袭,很容易对工人健康产生严重影响,甚至罹患职业病.另外,海上工人特殊的倒班制度、单调刻板的的工作和生活、缺乏娱乐,再加上工作风险大,使得绝大多数海上工人都不同程度出现抑郁和焦虑等心理问题,进而导致工人的工作效率大大降低,甚至会造成海上安全事故的发生.因此海上作业人员这一特殊群体的身心健康状况应该受到人们的特殊关注.本文就海上作业人员身体健康状况进行了分析和综述,以期为今后海上石油作业人员的职业健康防护提供参考.%Offshore oil industry is defined as the enterprises who engage in exploration and development of offshore oil and gas.The working environment,working hours,labor intensity,occupational risk factors,dietary structure and law of offshore workers were obviously different with those of land workers.Offshore workers stay in boats,offshore platform for a long term with narrow living and working spaces,much equipment,intensive tasks,various hazards and severe weather which seriously affects the health of workers and can result in occupational diseases.In addition,the special shift system of offshore workers,dull work and life,insufficient entertainment as well as work risks make the offshore workers showing psychological problems such as depression and anxiety,then result in great reducing of work efficacy,even maritime safety incidents.Therefore,the physical and mental health of offshore workers should attract more attentions.This paper analyzes and summarizes their physical and mental

  1. Vaccination and reduced cohort duration can drive virulence evolution: Marek's disease virus and industrialized agriculture. (United States)

    Atkins, Katherine E; Read, Andrew F; Savill, Nicholas J; Renz, Katrin G; Islam, A F M Fakhrul; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Woolhouse, Mark E J


    Marek's disease virus (MDV), a commercially important disease of poultry, has become substantially more virulent over the last 60 years. This evolution was presumably a consequence of changes in virus ecology associated with the intensification of the poultry industry. Here, we assess whether vaccination or reduced host life span could have generated natural selection, which favored more virulent strains. Using previously published experimental data, we estimated viral fitness under a range of cohort durations and vaccine treatments on broiler farms. We found that viral fitness maximized at intermediate virulence, as a result of a trade-off between virulence and transmission previously reported. Our results suggest that vaccination, acting on this trade-off, could have led to the evolution of increased virulence. By keeping the host alive, vaccination prolongs infectious periods of virulent strains. Improvements in host genetics and nutrition, which reduced broiler life spans below 50 days, could have also increased the virulence of the circulating MDV strains because shortened cohort duration reduces the impact of host death on viral fitness. These results illustrate the dramatic impact anthropogenic change can potentially have on pathogen virulence.

  2. Workers' compensation law: an overview. (United States)

    Yorker, B


    1. The workers' compensation system provides benefits to workers who are injured or made ill in the course of employment or their dependents regardless of fault. 2. The current workers' compensation laws benefit both the employer and the employee; however, workers' compensation is an exclusive remedy which bars recovery through a negligence lawsuit. 3. Workers' compensation regulations interact with other federal statutes such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. 4. Workers' compensation covers occupational injuries and occupational diseases, which may include cumulative trauma and mental stress claims. Nurses may be instrumental in evaluating and planning for an injured employee's return to work and occasionally in detecting fraudulent claims.

  3. Doença pulmonar por metal duro em trabalhador da indústria petrolífera Hard metal lung disease in an oil industry worker

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    Patrícia Nunes Bezerra


    Full Text Available A doença pulmonar por metal duro é uma pneumonia intersticial por células gigantes relacionada com a exposição à poeira composta por metais duros. Neste artigo é relatado o caso de um profissional da indústria petrolífera, diagnosticado com doença pulmonar por metal duro com base na documentação clínica, radiológica, funcional pulmonar e anatomopatológica.Hard metal lung disease, which manifests as giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is caused by exposure to hard metal dust. We report the case of an oil industry worker diagnosed with hard metal lung disease. The diagnosis was based on the clinical, radiological and anatomopathological analysis, as well as on pulmonary function testing.

  4. Short and long term effects of a lifestyle intervention for construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial

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    Groeneveld Iris F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk among workers in the construction industry is relatively high. Improving lifestyle lowers CVD risk and may have work-related benefits. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects on physical activity (PA, diet, and smoking of a lifestyle intervention consisting of individual counseling among male workers in the construction industry with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods In a randomized controlled trial including 816 male blue- and white-collar workers in the construction industry with an elevated risk of CVD, usual care was compared to a 6-month lifestyle intervention. The intervention consisted of individual counseling using motivational interviewing techniques, and was delivered by an occupational physician or occupational nurse. In three face to face and four telephone contacts, the participant's risk profile, personal determinants, and barriers for behavior change were discussed, and personal goals were set. Participants chose to aim at either diet and PA, or smoking. Data were collected at baseline and after six and 12 months, by means of a questionnaire. To analyse the data, linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The intervention had a statistically significant beneficial effect on snack intake (β-1.9, 95%CI -3.7; -0.02 and fruit intake (β 1.7, 95%CI 0.6; 2.9 at 6 months. The effect on snack intake was sustained until 12 months; 6 months after the intervention had ended (β -1.9, 95%CI -3.6; -0.2. The intervention effects on leisure time PA and metabolic equivalent-minutes were not statistically significant. The beneficial effect on smoking was statistically significant at 6 (OR smoking 0.3, 95%CI 0.1;0.7, but not at 12 months (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.4; 1.6. Conclusions Beneficial effects on smoking, fruit, and snack intake can be achieved by an individual-based lifestyle intervention among

  5. Inserciones laborales tempranas: Los jóvenes trabajadores agrícolas en el Valle de Uco, Mendoza, Argentina Early labor markets incorporations: Agricultural young workers in the Uco Valley, Mendoza, Argentina

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    Gabriel I Bober


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las diferentes formas de inserción laboral de trabajadores jóvenes en el Valle de Uco, en la provincia de Mendoza. Durante las últimas décadas, el Valle de Uco basó su patrón de desarrollo agrícola en un modelo intensivo y empresarial de sus tres principales cultivos: los viñedos, los frutales y las hortalizas. En la actualidad, atraviesa un proceso de profunda reconversión productiva, orientada mayoritariamente hacia el mercado externo, que entre otras consecuencias pasó a modificar el funcionamiento del mercado de trabajo local. En este artículo, se contemplan las diferentes situaciones que llevan al ingreso laboral de los jóvenes en este contexto, según el momento etáreo que atraviesen. Se analiza la relación que este proceso guarda con el tamaño y la estructura de las familias y la situación socio-económica del hogar al que pertenecen. También, se examina el vínculo entre las características de los hogares y la forma de inserción de los jóvenes en el mercado de trabajo, de acuerdo al tipo de ocupación en la que se desempeñan y al destino que le dan a sus ingresos. A partir de la realización de entrevistas en profundidad a trabajadores jóvenes y a informantes clave se pudo dar cuenta de las preferencias de los jóvenes con respecto a distintos tipos de trabajos, con particular énfasis en ciertos trabajos agrícolas y, también en relación a su futuro laboral.This article deals with the different ways that young workers in the Uco Valley, at the province of Mendoza, enter to the agrarian local labour market. During the last decadas, the Uco Valley based its pattern of agricultural development in an intensive business model of its three main crops: vineyards, orchards, and vegetables. Currently, it is undergoing a process of profound restructuring of production, mainly oriented towards foreign markets, which among different consequences has modified the functioning of local labour markets. In

  6. Analysis of cervical diseases among rural women workers in Guangzhou%广州市部分女农民工宫颈疾病筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滢毅; 朱长艳; 陈筱华; 陈雯婷


    Objective To investigate the status of cervical diseases among rural women workers staying in Guangzhou and to seek effective ways of improving their health in reproduction. Methods Gy-necological examinations of 1 000 women workers in Baiyun District of Guangzhou were performed and the cervical cells were tested by LBPSYSTEM. The data was collected and analyzed based on the gynecological examinations. Results 54 % of women are suffering from gynecological diseases. The rote is lower a-mong local women. Their ages, labor times, abortion times, contraception methods, support of their hus-bands and other factors have contributed to the higher rate. Conclusion Cervical diseases of the rural women workers were affected by various factors. In order to decrease the morbidity of cervical diseases and hnprove women's reproductive health, preventive measures should be taken.%目的 了解女农民工宫颈疾病发生情况及其影响因素,探讨改善该人群生育健康状况的有关策略. 方法 对广州市白云区1 000例女农民工进行妇科检查及液基薄层细胞检测,将所得资料进行统计分析. 结果 1 000名女农民工慢性宫颈炎的检出率为54.0%(540/1 000),鳞状上皮细胞异常为5.4%(54/1 000);20~39岁组女农民工的宫颈炎检出率高于40岁以上组,生育产次和人流次数增加,宫颈炎检出率也随之升高,采用节育环避孕者宫颈炎检出率高于其他避孕方式,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01). 结论 宫颈疾病受多种因素影响,应采取综合性防治策略,降低女农民工的宫颈疾病检出率,从而提高其生育健康水平.

  7. The migrant worker: visible, yet invisible


    Win, Aung


    Immigrant workers are a vulnerable and underserved population. The average life expectancy of the migrant worker is 49 years, compared to 77.2 years for most Americans. Immigrant workers have a higher disease burden than other populations and work in occupations with high hazard levels. In addition, they have low socioeconomic levels and face many barriers to accessing healthcare services. Undocumented immigrant workers are excluded in the Affordable Care Act. Health professionals must be att...

  8. Migrant Agricultural Workers in America's Northeast. (United States)

    Friedland, William H.; Nelkin, Dorothy

    The study explores the migrant labor system as it operates in the northeastern United States. It is concerned with how the system affects life in migrant labor crews, the details of daily routine, and the problems and adjustments made by the people to the circumstances in which they live. The 3 themes of the book are: (1) the disorganized and…

  9. Clinical documentation and data transfer from Ebola and Marburg virus disease wards in outbreak settings: health care workers' experiences and preferences. (United States)

    Bühler, Silja; Roddy, Paul; Nolte, Ellen; Borchert, Matthias


    Understanding human filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) clinical manifestations and evaluating treatment strategies require the collection of clinical data in outbreak settings, where clinical documentation has been limited. Currently, no consensus among filovirus outbreak-response organisations guides best practice for clinical documentation and data transfer. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care workers (HCWs) involved in FHF outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, and with HCWs experienced in documenting and transferring data from high-risk areas (isolation wards or biosafety level 4 laboratories). Methods for data documentation and transfer were identified, described in detail and categorised by requirement for electricity and ranked by interviewee preference. Some methods involve removing paperwork and other objects from the filovirus disease ward without disinfection. We believe that if done properly, these methods are reasonably safe for certain settings. However, alternative methods avoiding the removal of objects, or involving the removal of paperwork or objects after non-damaging disinfection, are available. These methods are not only safer, they are also perceived as safer and likely more acceptable to health workers and members of the community. The use of standardised clinical forms is overdue. Experiments with by sunlight disinfection should continue, and non-damaging disinfection of impregnated paper, suitable tablet computers and underwater cameras should be evaluated under field conditions.

  10. A dose-dependent perturbation in cardiac energy metabolism is linked to radiation-induced ischemic heart disease in Mayak nuclear workers. (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Omid; Azizova, Tamara; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Subramanian, Vikram; Bakshi, Mayur V; Moseeva, Maria; Zubkova, Olga; Hauck, Stefanie M; Anastasov, Nataša; Atkinson, Michael J; Tapio, Soile


    Epidemiological studies show a significant increase in ischemic heart disease (IHD) incidence associated with total external gamma-ray dose among Mayak plutonium enrichment plant workers. Our previous studies using mouse models suggest that persistent alteration of heart metabolism due to the inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha accompanies cardiac damage after high doses of ionising radiation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced IHD in humans. The cardiac proteome response to irradiation was analysed in Mayak workers who were exposed only to external doses of gamma rays. All participants were diagnosed during their lifetime with IHD that also was the cause of death. Label-free quantitative proteomics analysis was performed on tissue samples from the cardiac left ventricles of individuals stratified into four radiation dose groups (0 Gy, 500 mGy). The groups could be separated using principal component analysis based on all proteomics features. Proteome profiling showed a dose-dependent increase in the number of downregulated mitochondrial and structural proteins. Both proteomics and immunoblotting showed decreased expression of several oxidative stress responsive proteins in the irradiated hearts. The phosphorylation of transcription factor PPAR alpha was increased in a dose-dependent manner, which is indicative of a reduction in transcriptional activity with increased radiation dose. These data suggest that chronic external radiation enhances the risk for IHD by inhibiting PPAR alpha and altering the expression of mitochondrial, structural, and antioxidant components of the heart.

  11. Doença do disco intervertebral em trabalhadores da perfuração de petróleo Intervertebral disk disease among oil drilling workers

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    Rita de Cássia Pereira Fernandes


    Full Text Available Estudo transversal em 1.026 trabalhadores em distrito de perfuração de petróleo do Nordeste brasileiro mostrou prevalência global de doença do disco intervertebral lombar de 5%, variando de 1,8% (atividades sem manuseio de carga, 4,5% (manuseio ocasional até 7,2% (manuseio habitual. Tal prevalência foi de 11,4% em operadores de sonda de perfuração de petróleo com mais de 40 anos de idade e de 10,5% naqueles com mais de 15 anos de empresa. A razão de prevalência (R.P. à associação entre trabalho em operação de sonda e doença do disco foi 2,3 (I.C. 95%: 1,3, 4,0. Para minimizar o efeito sobrevivência do trabalhador sadio foram usadas informações retrospectivas acerca da exposição. A informação referente à ocupação atual em lugar do histórico ocupacional resultaria em RP subestimada de 1,1 (I.C. 95%: 0,6, 1,9. A regressão logística ratificou os achados da análise tabular. Não houve confundimento nem interação. O incremento da indústria de petróleo no país e as alterações na gestão e contratação da força de trabalho implicam mudanças no gerenciamento de risco e controle de saúde, além de pronta intervenção ergonômica para controle da doença.A cross-sectional study among 1,026 oil drilling workers in Northeast Brazil found a prevalence rate of 5% for intervertebral disk disease, varying from 1.8% (activities without heavy lifting and 4.5% (occasional lifting to 7.2% (routine lifting. Disease prevalence was 10.5% among drilling workers with more than 15 years in the industry and 11.3% among those over 40 years of age. Prevalence ratio (PR for the association between working in oil drilling operations and intervertebral disk disease was 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.0. Retrospective information about exposure was collected to minimize the healthy worker survival effect. Using information on current occupation instead of occupational life history would cause an underestimated PR of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-1.9. Logistic

  12. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.


    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the Eur

  13. Chiang Mai University Health Worker Study aiming toward a better understanding of noncommunicable disease development in Thailand: methods and description of study population

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    Angkurawaranon C


    Full Text Available Chaisiri Angkurawaranon,1,2 Anawat Wisetborisut,2 Wichuda Jiraporncharoen,2 Surinporn Likhitsathian,3 Ronnaphob Uaphanthasath,2 Patama Gomutbutra,2 Surin Jiraniramai,2 Chawin Lerssrimonkol,2 Apinun Aramrattanna,2 Pat Doyle,1 Dorothea Nitsch1 1Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Urbanization is considered to be one of the key drivers of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs in Thailand and other developing countries. These influences, in turn, may affect an individual's behavior and risk of developing NCDs. The Chiang Mai University (CMU Health Worker Study aims to provide evidence for a better understanding of the development of NCDs and ultimately to apply the evidence toward better prevention, risk modification, and improvement of clinical care for patients with NCDs and NCD-related conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of health care workers from CMU Hospital was conducted between January 2013 and June 2013. Questionnaires, interviews, and physical and laboratory examinations were used to assess urban exposure, occupational shift work, risk factors for NCDs, self-reported NCDs, and other NCD-related health conditions. Results: From 5,364 eligible workers, 3,204 participated (59.7%. About 11.1% of the participants had high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and almost 30% were considered to be obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. A total of 2.3% had a high fasting blood glucose level (≥126 mg/dL, and the most common abnormal lipid profile was high low-density lipoprotein (≥160 mg/dL, which was found in 19.2% of participants. Discussion: The study of health

  14. Contemporary worker and work-related musculoeskeletal diseases / Trabalhador contemporâneo e patologias por hipersolicitação

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    Angela Peña Ghisleni


    Full Text Available Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD– which are also known as Work-Related Musculoeskeletal Disorders (WRMD and have stood out since an economic system rose based on production restructuring- are faced by workers and express suffering stemming from the relations between workers and work. We look into how CTD/WRMD develop in contemporary workers´ body, taking account of their work history and viewing such syndromes as the subjectivation of the relation between workers and work. We favor an interdisciplinary approach based on both the biomedical knowledge and the social psychology, in search for an interface language among the professions that have the same focus– the worker.

  15. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.


    Objectives Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 41 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods Via linkage to the United States Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55,580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided pesticide use information via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: 1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 41 pesticides, 2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures, and 3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalization. Results Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide chlordane. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.89) and hospitalization due to pesticide use (HR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.67, 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Conclusions Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. PMID:26177651

  16. Zoonotic disease risk and prevention practices among biologists and other wildlife workers--results from a national survey, US National Park Service, 2009. (United States)

    Bosch, Stacey A; Musgrave, Karl; Wong, David


    In 2007, a National Park Service (NPS) biologist died from pneumonic plague after unprotected exposure to an infected mountain lion. This incident increased awareness of occupational zoonotic disease transmission and prompted an assessment of employees who handle wildlife. During April-June 2009, we conducted a national online survey of NPS biologists and other wildlife workers to assess in the preceding 12 mo: 1) potential work-related zoonotic disease exposures; 2) protective practices, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE); and 3) barriers and facilitators to PPE use. Summary protective measure scores were calculated and compared with sociodemographic and work-related factors. Surveys were completed by 238 employees from 131 parks in all NPS regions. Seventy-one percent were biologists or technicians, 16% natural resource specialists or managers, and 13% had other job titles. Among a majority of respondents, interactions with animals were infrequent and occurred approximately several times per year as follows: handling live (39%), sick (43%), or dead animals (46%), and drawing blood from animals (42%). The most frequently reported protective measures used were hand hygiene and gloves. Commonly agreed-upon measures that would facilitate PPE use included having PPE stocked and readily available (92%) and having specific PPE kits for use during necropsies (91%) and in remote field settings (91%). Significantly higher summary protective measure scores were found if respondents had either read or reviewed "NPS safe work practices for employees handling wildlife" with their supervisor, had zoonotic disease safety or PPE use included in their employee performance appraisal plans, or had conducted a job-hazard analysis for handling wildlife. Ninety (38%) respondents reported receiving zoonotic disease training. Our findings support the development and implementation of workplace interventions to increase zoonotic disease awareness and promote a culture of

  17. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost- effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study

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    van der Beek Allard J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost- effectiveness. Methods/Design In a RCT, 692 participants will be randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive usual care. For the intervention group, a lifestyle intervention has been designed based on interviews and current literature. The intervention will last 6 months and will comprise 3 face-to-face and 4 telephone contacts, consisting of individual counselling aimed at increasing daily physical activity (PA and improving dietary behaviour, and/or smoking cessation. Counselling will take place at the Occupational Health Service (OHS, and will be done according to motivational interviewing (MI. Additional written information about healthy lifestyle will also be provided to those in the intervention group. At baseline, after 6 and after 12 months, measurements will take place. Primary outcome variables will be the lifestyle behaviours of concern, i.e. daily PA, dietary intake, and smoking status. Secondary outcome variables will be body mass index (BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL blood cholesterol, Hba1c and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF. Sickness absenteeism and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as well. Multilevel analysis will be performed to compare all outcome measures between the intervention group and the control group. Discussion By improving lifestyle, CVD risk may be lowered, yielding benefits for both employee and employer. If proven effective, this lifestyle intervention will be implemented on a larger scale within the Occupational Health Services in construction industry. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588

  18. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.


    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A


    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practice...

  19. Protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses. (United States)

    MacMahon, Kathleen L; Delaney, Lisa J; Kullman, Greg; Gibbins, John D; Decker, John; Kiefer, Max J


    Emerging zoonotic diseases are of increasing regional and global importance. Preventing occupational exposure to zoonotic diseases protects workers as well as their families, communities, and the public health. Workers can be protected from zoonotic diseases most effectively by preventing and controlling diseases in animals, reducing workplace exposures, and educating workers. Certain avian influenza viruses are potential zoonotic disease agents that may be transmitted from infected birds to humans. Poultry workers are at risk of becoming infected with these viruses if they are exposed to infected birds or virus-contaminated materials or environments. Critical components of worker protection include educating employers and training poultry workers about occupational exposure to avian influenza viruses. Other recommendations for protecting poultry workers include the use of good hygiene and work practices, personal protective clothing and equipment, vaccination for seasonal influenza viruses, antiviral medication, and medical surveillance. Current recommendations for protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses are summarized in this article.

  20. Integrating community health workers into a patient-centered medical home to support disease self-management among Vietnamese Americans: lessons learned. (United States)

    Wennerstrom, Ashley; Bui, Tap; Harden-Barrios, Jewel; Price-Haywood, Eboni G


    There is evidence that patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) and community health workers (CHWs) improve chronic disease management. There are few models for integrating CHWs into PCMHs in order to enhance disease self-management support among diverse populations. In this article, we describe how a community-based nonprofit agency, a PCMH, and academic partners collaborated to develop and implement the Patient Resource and Education Program (PREP). We employed CHWs as PCMH care team members to provide health education and support to Vietnamese American patients with uncontrolled diabetes and/or hypertension. We began by conducting focus groups to assess patient knowledge, desire for support, and availability of community resources. Based on findings, we developed PREP with CHW guidance on cultural tailoring of educational materials and methods. CHWs received training in core competencies related to self-management support principles and conducted the 4-month intervention for PCMH patients. Throughout the program, we conducted process evaluation through structured team meetings and patient satisfaction surveys. We describe successes and challenges associated with PREP delivery including patient recruitment, structuring/documenting visits, and establishing effective care team integration, work flow, and communication. Strategies for mitigating these issues are presented, and we make recommendations for other PCMHs seeking to integrate CHWs into care teams.

  1. Children of rural-to-urban migrant workers in China are at a higher risk of contracting severe hand, foot and mouth disease and EV71 infection: a hospital-based study. (United States)

    Zeng, Mei; Pu, Dongbo; Mo, Xiaowei; Zhu, Chaomin; Gong, Sitang; Xu, Yi; Lin, Guangyu; Wu, Beiyan; He, Suli; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xiangshi; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qianqian; Altmeyer, Ralf


    The incidence and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease have increased in mainland China since 2008. Therapies and vaccines are currently at different stages of development. This study aimed to determine the social factors associated with the outbreaks and severity of the disease in Chinese children. A multicentre, prospective, case-controlled study was conducted in Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangzhou and Shantou to identify the sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors for hand, foot and mouth disease. Children hospitalized for hand, foot and mouth disease were randomly enrolled from April to November 2011. Stool samples were collected to test for the presence of enterovirus 71 (EV71). A total of 443 children between 1.6 and 68 months of age were enrolled; 304 were uncomplicated cases and 139 were severe cases with central nervous system involvement. The overall detection rate of EV71 was 54.2%, and the positivity rate of EV71 was significantly higher in the severe group than in the uncomplicated group (82.0% versus 40.9%, odds ratio (OR): 8.35, P=0.000). The children of migrant workers (OR: 3.014, P=0.000) and children attending kindergarten (OR: 2.133, P=0.002) were significantly associated with a severe outcome of the disease (OR: 1.765, P=0.026). Our findings indicate that kindergarten attendance and migrant worker parents are the major risk factors associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease in children migrant workers.

  2. New York occupational health expert to discuss migrant worker health threats


    Douglas, Jeffrey S.


    Migrant farm workers play a critical role in the nation's agricultural economy, particularly in the southeast. Yet these workers face a cornucopia of hazards, ranging from chemical toxins to dangerous farm equipment, as they toil in the fields.

  3. [The influence of smoking and occupational factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in oil industry workers]. (United States)

    Abdullaev, A Iu


    The influence of smoking and occupational factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in employees of a sea oil and gas company is considered. The primary role of smoking in pathogenesis of COPD is confirmed Direct and indirect influence of smoking is enhanced by occupational and climatic factors leading to the development of persistent disturbances of ventilation.

  4. Health Care Workers and Researchers Traveling to Developing-World Clinical Settings: Disease Transmission Risk and Mitigation (United States)


    specific health care-related risks (needlestick, hemorrhagic fever viruses, severe viral respiratory disease, and tuberculosis ), with suggestions...specific Japanese encephalitis virus (parts of South and Southeast Asia) Meningococcal ( meningitis belt of Africa) Yellow fever (parts of Africa...indicated in certain settings, such as direct contact with sources of avian influenza [39]. DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS In general, tuberculosis is a

  5. Essential Factors and Sustainable Development of Green Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong


    This paper discussed the definition and essential factors of green agriculture, including green ecological environment, green material energy input, application and the popularization of green agricultural technology, the green behavior of worker, green policy regulations guarantee, fund support, supply and the production of green agriculture products, as well as the concept of green agriculture, structural mechanism and function. And finally existing problems in present green agriculture and five suggestions of green agricultural sustainable development were proposed.




  7. Campaigns in Agricultural Extension Programs. (United States)

    Spaven, John W.

    A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…

  8. Health and safety risks in production agriculture. (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A


    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

  9. Experimental and clinical-laboratory research effectiveness of treatment of main dental diseases in the workers of mining production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazunov O.A.


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the developed treatment-prevention complex of dental disease in miners. In experiment 70 white rats were exposed to the impact of unfavorable factors of ore-mining industry (increased dust-content in the air and general vibration daily during 5 hours over 5 months’ period with simultaneous use of the worked up treatment-prophylactic complex which causes normalization of biochemical parameters in oral liquid, serum and bone tissue of animals. Application of the proposed complex in 56 miners with dust-caused bronchitis and vibration disease during 2 years’ period favored improvement of dental status, improvement hygiene and periodontal indices, biochemical parameters of saliva, reduce of the interval of pH (ΔpH fluctuations, normalization of number of electro¬phoretic mobility of buccal cell nuclei. The scheme of application of health care complex includes adaptogen "Biotrit C", membranostabilizator "Lecithin D3", complex of vitamins and minerals "Alphabet", Elixir "Lizodent", remi¬neralizing and antiinflammatory toothpastes; this improves the efficiency of dental treatment and reduces relapses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Diah Purnama Sari


    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is a form of skin inflammation with spongiosis or intercellular edema of the epidermis due to the interaction of irritants and allergens. While occupational contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin due to exposure to irritants or allergens in the workplace. One of the jobs that have a high risk of the disease are construction workers. Although the disease is rarely-threatening but can cause high morbidity and suffering for workers, so it can affect the economy and quality of life of patients.

  11. Illness Absences Among Beryllium Sensitized Workers (United States)

    Watkins, Janice P.; Ellis, Elizabeth D.; Girardi, David J.; Cragle, Donna L.


    Objectives. This study examined absence rates among US Department of Energy workers who had beryllium sensitization (BeS) or were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) compared with those of other workers. Methods. We used the lymphocyte proliferation test to determine beryllium sensitivity. In addition, we applied multivariable logistic regression to compare absences from 2002 to 2011 between workers with BeS or CBD to those without, and survival analysis to compare time to first absence by beryllium sensitization status. Finally, we examined beryllium status by occupational group. Results. Fewer than 3% of the 19 305 workers were BeS, and workers with BeS or CBD had more total absences (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.46) and respiratory absences (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.24, 1.84) than did other workers. Time to first absence for all causes and for respiratory conditions occurred earlier for workers with BeS or CBD than for other workers. Line operators and crafts personnel were at increased risk for BeS or CBD. Conclusions. Although not considered “diseased,” workers with BeS have higher absenteeism compared with nonsensitized workers. PMID:25211750

  12. Associations between sitting time and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases in Chinese male workers: a cross-sectional study (United States)

    Wei, Huili; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Deng, Huacong


    Objectives Various studies have revealed a close association between sedentary behaviour and metabolic diseases, yet the association between sedentary time and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between sitting time and NAFLD in a Chinese male population and explored its underlying mechanism. Study design A cross-sectional study. Setting Chongqing, China. Participants Our study included 2054 male participants; all of the participants were of Han nationality. Primary outcome measures Sitting time was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire concerning the time devoted to sitting behaviour. Various clinical and demographic biomarkers were measured. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the ORs and the 95% CIs between sitting time and NAFLD. Results We found a higher proportion of NAFLD across the tertiles of sitting time (p trend=0.003). Multivariate linear regression analyses showed sitting time independently correlated with homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, body mass index, triglyceride and the high-sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) (all p7.1 hours/day) was associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD (OR 1.09; 95% CI (1.04 to 1.67)) after adjusting for confounders. However, this association was insignificant after further adjusting for hsCRP (OR 1.03; 95% CI (0.92 to 1.84)). Conclusions Sitting time was positively associated with the prevalence of NAFLD, and this association might be affected by inflammation. PMID:27609847

  13. Challenges Facing Successful Scaling Up of Effective Screening for Cardiovascular Disease by Community Health Workers in Mexico and South Africa: Policy Implications (United States)

    S, Abrahams-Gessel; Denman, CA; TA, Gaziano; NS, Levitt; T, Puoane


    The integration of community health workers (CHWs) into primary and secondary prevention functions in health programs and services delivery in Mexico and South Africa has been demonstrated to be effective. Task-sharing related to adherence and treatment, from nurses to CHWs, has also been effectively demonstrated in these areas. HIV/AIDS and TB programs in South Africa have seen similar successes in task-sharing with CHWs in the areas of screening for risk and adherence to treatment. In the area of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), there is a policy commitment to integrating CHWs into primary health care programs at public health facilities in both Mexico and South Africa in the areas of reproductive health and infant health. Yet current programs utilizing CHWs are not integrated into existing primary health care services in a comprehensive manner for primary and secondary prevention of NCDs. In a recently completed study, CHWs were trained to perform the basic diagnostic function of primary screening to assess the risk of suffering a CVD-related event in the community using a non-laboratory risk assessment tool and referring persons at moderate to high risk to local government clinics, for further assessment and management by a nurse or physician. In this paper we compare the experience with this CVD screening study to successful programs in vaccination, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, and TB specifically to identify the barriers we identified as limitations to replicating these programs in the area of CVD diagnosis and management. We review barriers impacting the effective translation of policy into practice, including scale up issues; training and certification issues; integrating CHW to existing primary care teams and health system; funding and resource gaps. Finally, we suggest policy recommendations to replicate the demonstrated success of programs utilizing task-sharing with CHWs in infectious diseases and reproductive health, to integrated programs in NCD

  14. 29 CFR 500.122 - Adjustments in insurance requirements when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State... (United States)


    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Insurance § 500.122 Adjustments in insurance...

  15. Infection control and the burden of tuberculosis infection and disease in health care workers in china: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Dong Yang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitals with inadequate infection control are risky environments for the emergence and transmission of tuberculosis (TB. We evaluated TB infection control practices, and the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI and TB disease and risk factors in health care workers (HCW in TB centers in Henan province in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005. To assess TB infection control practices in TB centers, checklists were used. HCW were tuberculin skin tested (TST to measure LTBI prevalence, and were asked for sputum smears and chest X-rays to detect TB disease, and questionnaires to assess risk factors. Differences between groups for categorical variables were analyzed by binary logistic regression. The clustered design of the study was taken into account by using a multilevel logistic model. Results The assessment of infection control practices showed that only in a minority of the centers the patient consultation areas and X-ray areas were separated from the waiting areas and administrative areas. Mechanical ventilation was not available in any of the TB centers. N95 respirators were not available for HCW and surgical masks were not available for TB patients and suspects. The LTBI prevalence of HCW with and without BCG scar was 55.6% (432/777 and 49.0% (674/1376, respectively (P = 0.003. Older HCW, HCW with longer duration of employment, and HCW who worked in departments with increased contact with TB patients had a higher prevalence of LTBI. HCW who work in TB centers at the prefecture level, or with an inpatient ward also had a higher prevalence of LTBI. Twenty cases of pulmonary TB were detected among 3746 HCW. The TB prevalence was 6.7/1000 among medical staff and 2.5/1000 among administrative/logistic staff. Conclusion TB infection control in TB centers in Henan, China, appears to be inadequate and the prevalence of LTBI and TB disease among HCW was high. TB infection control practices in TB

  16. Occupational hazards and diseases among workers in emergency services: a literature review with special emphasis on Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Jiménez Paneque


    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES Los trabajadores de la salud se enfrentan a riesgos de accidentes y enfermedades relacionados con su ocupación. El estrés psíquico, el contacto con enfermedades transmisibles y la violencia son quizás los principales riesgos. Los trabajadores de los servicios de urgencia están sometidos a ellos, con mayor frecuencia que los de otras áreas. La presente revisión tiene por objetivo evaluar el estado del tema en la literatura internacional, y en particular el tratamiento que a este tema se le ha dado en Chile. MÉTODOS Se revisó principalmente la base de datos PubMed de MEDLINE. La estrategia de búsqueda general incluyó las palabras clave: health personnel, emergency medical services y occupational diseases combinadas con otras más específicas. Se revisó también el estado de la prevención de riesgos laborales en los servicios de urgencia. RESULTADOS Se detectaron más de 70 estudios que abordaban el tema de uno u otro riesgo laboral en servicios de urgencia. En Chile se detectan 12 estudios que tocan el tema de riesgos laborales en trabajadores de la salud, al menos dos de ellos abordan los servicios de urgencia. CONCLUSIONES La presente revisión permite valorar el panorama general de los riesgos y enfermedades laborales de los servicios de urgencia, pero no permite la profundidad que amerita cada uno de los riegos mencionados aquí. Se recomienda continuar profundizando en el tema de los riesgos laborales de los trabajadores de los servicios de urgencia, con el fin de contribuir a perfeccionar las medidas de prevención y evaluar sus

  17. 湖南省农民工职业病患病与待遇落实情况调查%An investigation of prevalence of occupational diseases and treatment implementation in migrant workers in Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐华; 肖云龙; 陈伯良; 唐海清; 闾丘思嘉; 夏光辉


    目的 了解湖南省农民工职业病患病及待遇落实情况,为有关部门制订农民工职业病防治对策和社会保障制度提供科学依据.方法 于2015年,采用回顾性调查的方法,调查收集农民工职业病患者相关信息,对农民工职业病患者年龄、工种、职业病种类、职业病工伤保险待遇落实情况进行分析.结果 湖南省农民工职业病占职业病总人数的50.43%(11 280/22 368),其中男性占99.4%(11 212/11 280),农民工职业病患者平均年龄为55岁;职业病病种涉及职业性尘肺病、职业性皮肤病等6大类别,共计42种法定职业病,其中职业性尘肺病占绝大多数(98.31%,11 089/11 280),工种主要以煤矿和非煤矿山井下作业的采煤工、掘进工和运输工为主(分别占62.42%、29.79%和2.20%).27.25%(2 072/7 605)农民工职业病患者落实了工伤保险待遇,20.84%(1 585/7 605)的农民工职业病患者仍未获得任何医疗或生活等待遇补偿.结论 湖南省农民工职业病以尘肺病为主,且较多农民工职业病患者待遇尚未落实;煤矿和非煤矿山行业是农民工职业病高发领域和职业病防控重点.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of occupational diseases and treatment implementation in migrant workers in Hunan,China,and to provide a scientific basis for related departments to develop preventive and treatment measures and social security system for migrant workers.Methods A retrospective investigation was performed in 2015 to collect the information of occupational diseases in migrant workers,and age,type of work,type of occupational disease,and implementation of employment injury insurance for occupation diseases were analyzed.Results The migrant workers with occupational diseases accounted for 50.43% (11 280/22 368) of all patients with occupational diseases in Hunan,among whom 99.4% (11 212/11 280) were male workers.The mean age of migrant workers with occupational diseases

  18. 农民工及其企业管理者职业病防治知识和意识及行为的调查%Investigation on Knowledge, Awareness and Behavior of Migrant Workers about Occupational Disease Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑步云; 范峥锋; 孙扣红; 张明华; 叶佳萍; 俞慧芳


    To understand the migrant workers' knowledge, awareness and behavior about occupational disease prevention, and explore effective interventions. [ Methods ]" Occupational health knowledge questionnaire" was designed to investigate 248 migrant workers and 174 managers face to face. [ Results ] 51.63% of the migrant workers were often watching television, only 6.47% regularly listen to the radio; 35.68% of the migrant workers received no training in occupational health, 48.19% of the enterprises provided simple trainings on migrant workers; 50. 25% of the migrant workers obtained their occupational health knowledge from the media, only 37.69% obtained that knowledge from the enterprises; 54.95% of the migrant workers did not know the consequences that might result from occupational hazards, 47.10% of managers had incorrect understand of personal protection articles; 73.39% of the migrant workers had heard of the" Code of Occupational Disease Prevention of PRC," but 44.35% of them were not familiar with the contents; 92.34% were concerned about the health effects of work, 46. 31% adhered to open the window in winter, 62. 35% promptly took a bath after work. [ Conclusion]Multi-channel should be taken for health education of migrant workers. It is necessary to give full play to the main responsibility of enterprises, to improve the occupational health knowledge of migrant workers, foster the awareness of prevention of occupational diseases and translate into the behavior of good hygiene habits.%目的 为了解农民工职业病防治知识、意识及行为现状,探索行之有效的干预措施.方法 设计"职业健康知识调查问卷",面对面地调查248名农民工和174名企业管理者.结果 农民工对新闻媒体的关注度以电视最高(51.63%),广播最低(6.47%);35.68%的农民工没有职业卫生培训经历,48.19%的企业仅对员工进行简单培训,50.25%的农民工职业病防治知识来自媒体,仅37.69%

  19. 中山市红木家私厂工人变态反应性疾病流行病学分析%Study on Epidemiology Characteristic of Allergic Disease of Workers in Mahogany Furniture Factory in Zhongshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利华; 饶惠平; 黄瑞文; 岑丹


    Objective:To explore the allergic disease’s epidemiology characteristic of mahogany furniture factory in Zhongshan city. Method:1860 painting workers in mahogany furniture factory,930 workers of non-paint workshop,and 930 new workers who came from rural areas were investigated. Three groups carried on the allergic disease investigation and analysis. Result:There were 483(25.96%),14(15.05%)and 32(3.44%) allergy disease patients were found in the painting workers,workers of non-paint workshop,and new workers respectively. The rate of workers came form mahogany furniture factory were higher than new workers who came from rural areas. Asthma,skin diseases and sore throat were the main allergic diseases in the painting workers. The prevalence of allergic diseases gradually increased with the increasing of the working time per day,statistics analysis had the significance difference(P<0.05). The prevalence were 55.75%and 32.0%in the painting workers and non-paint workshop workers in the mahogany furniture factory who worked over 12 hours every day. Conclusion:The workers in Mahogany furniture factory have high prevalence of allergic diseases. Protection of the paint job workers should be strengthen,and effective health promotion about occupational diseases should be taken for the mahogany furniture factory workers.%目的:了解中山市红木家私厂工人变态反应性疾病的流行病学特征,为制定有针对性的管理策略提供科学依据。方法:抽样选取本市22家红木家私厂1860名油漆车间工人,油漆车间上风区的其他车间930名工人和新入其他工厂的18岁以上农村务工人员930名作研究对象,进行变态反应性疾病患病的调查和检查。结果:在油漆车间1860名一线工人中,检出患有变态反应性疾病者483例,占25.96%;上风区车间工人930名,检出变态反应性疾病者140例,占15.05%;其他务工人员930名,检出变态反应性疾病者32例,占3.44%。

  20. Use of health services among vineyard and winery workers in the North Willamette Valley, Oregon. (United States)

    Lopez-Cevallos, Daniel F; Garside, Leda I; Vazquez, Leticia; Polanco, Kristty


    Although agricultural work is considered one of the most dangerous and physically demanding jobs, the majority of farmworkers remain vulnerable to disease and injury, while use of health services is limited. The present study analyzes the use of health care services among vineyard and winery workers in the North Willamette Valley, Oregon. Data from 513 foreign-born workers collected during the summer of 2009 by ¡Salud! Services, was used to test the influence of relevant predisposing and enabling factors of the Behavioral Model of Health Care Utilization among Vulnerable Populations. The majority of participants were males (87%) with an average age of 33 years. Over half of the workers were either married or living with a partner (54%) and had children living with them (58%). Very few spoke English (5%) and only a third had more than 6 years of formal education. Two-thirds of workers (65%) had a full time job and shared housing (67%). Only one of every five workers (19%) had health insurance. Multivariate analyses show that use of health services in the past 2 years is more likely among females, those who have children, have more than 6 years of education, work full time, are insured, and are currently attending school. This study provides further insight for health care provision initiatives to reduce the many barriers faced by farmworkers and their families.

  1. Referral outcomes of individuals identified at high risk of cardiovascular disease by community health workers in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa

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    Naomi S. Levitt


    Full Text Available Background: We have found that community health workers (CHWs with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Design: Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Results: Thirty-seven percent (96/263 of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69% were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4% were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. Conclusions: The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment.

  2. Referral outcomes of individuals identified at high risk of cardiovascular disease by community health workers in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa (United States)

    Levitt, Naomi S.; Puoane, Thandi; Denman, Catalina A.; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Surka, Sam; Mendoza, Carlos; Khanam, Masuma; Alam, Sartaj; Gaziano, Thomas A.


    Background We have found that community health workers (CHWs) with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Design Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Results Thirty-seven percent (96/263) of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69%) were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4%) were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN) was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. Conclusions The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment. PMID:25854780

  3. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica in South African farm workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanepoel, Andrew; Rees, David [University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, Johannesburg (South Africa); Renton, Kevin [National Institute for Occupational Health, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kromhout, Hans, E-mail: [Environmental Epidemiology Division, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Although listed in some publications as an activity associated with silica (quartz) exposure, agriculture is not widely recognized as an industry with a potential for silica associated diseases. Because so many people work in agriculture; and because silica exposure and silicosis are associated with serious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), particular in those immunological compromised by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), silica exposure in agriculture is potentially very important. But in South Africa (SA) very little is known about silica exposure in this industry. The objectives of this project are: (a) to measure inhalable and respirable dust and its quartz content on two typical sandy soil farms in the Free State province of SA for all major tasks done on the farms; and (b) to characterise the mineralogy soil type of these farms. Two typical farms in the sandy soil region of the Free State province were studied. The potential health effects faced by these farm workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica are discussed.

  4. 1817名铸造厂工人缺血性心脏病的队列研究%Cohort study of ischemic heart disease among 1817 workers in a foundry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁洋; 张敏


    Objective To determine the risk of ischemic heart disease among foundry workers and the exposure-response relationship between the risk and foundry work and cumulative exposure to silica dust, and to establish a regression model to predict the risk for developing ischemic heart disease by a given length of employment and exposure to silica dust in foundry workers. Methods Cohort study was conducted, following-up workers in an automobile foundry employed for more than one year during January 1, 1980 to December 31 , 1996 as cohort members. In total, 30 years were followed to December 31 , 2009. In cohort, workers exposed to pouring, sand preparation, cast shakeout and finishing, melting, overhead crane operation, moulding and core-making were in foundry group, and auxiliary workers at the same factory, such as electricians, fitters, and inspectors were in control group. The risk of ischemic heart disease among foundry workers and the exposure-response relationship between the risk and foundry work and cumulative exposure to silica dust were analyzed with cox regression model using SPSS software, and a logistic regression model was established for prediction of risk for developing ischemic heart disease at a given length of employment and exposure to silica dust in foundry workers. Results Totally, 1817 workers were followed-up for 45 553.05 person-years during 30 years, with 156 cases of ischemic heart disease and incidence of 342.46 per 100 000 person-years. And the average age at onset was 51. 46 years and duration of employment at onset was 21.61 years. Results showed that male, smoking, alcohol drinking, age and duration of employment were risk factors for ischemic heart disease. Risk of ischemic heart disease in foundry workers positively correlated with cumulative silica exposure, and the risk of ischemic heart disease increased by 75. 8 percent (RR = 1.758, 95% CI 1.221 -2.532) with cumulative silica exposure of 1 mg/m3 -year, adjusted for smoking. And risk

  5. Understanding the links between agriculture and health:


    Hawkes, Corinna; Ruel, Marie T.


    CONTENTS: 1.Overview / Corinna Hawkes and Marie T. Ruel; 2. Agriculture, Food, and Health: Perspectives on a Long Relationship / Tim Lang; 3. Agricultural Technology and Health / Michael Lipton, Saurabh Sinha, and Rachel Blackman; 4. Agriculture and Nutrition Linkages: Old Lessons and New Paradigms / Corinna Hawkes and Marie T. Ruel; 5. Agriculture, Food Safety, and Foodborne Diseases / Ewen C. D. Todd and Clare Narrod; 6. Agriculture, Malaria, and Water-Associated Diseases / Clifford M. Mute...

  6. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.


    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  7. [Tuberculosis in healthcare workers]. (United States)

    Nienhaus, A


    Perception and knowledge of the TB-infection risk in healthcare workers (HCWs) changed profoundly in Germany during the past few years. Molecular-epidemiological studies and a comprehensive review of the existing evidence concerning the infection risk for HCWs lead to the conclusion that TB in HCWs is often caused by infection at the workplace. In the Hamburg Fingerprint Study, 80 % of the TB cases in HCWs were caused by infections at the workplace. In a similar Dutch study 43 % of all cases were work-related. Besides of the well-known risks in TB wards and laboratories, an increased risk for infection should be assumed for paramedics, in emergency rooms, for HCWs caring for the elderly or for workers with close contact to high-risk groups (homeless people, i. v. drug users, migrants from high-incidence countries). TB in a HCW working in these fields can be recognised as an occupational disease (OD) without identifying a particular source of infection. For all other HCWs, the German occupational disease law requires the identification of a source case before TB in an HCW can be accepted as an OD. Even though the proportion of work-related TB in HCWs is higher than was assumed before previously, the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) is lower than expected. In an ongoing evaluation study of the interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) LTBI prevalence in HCWs is 10 %. Prevention strategies in Germany should be reconsidered in the light of these new findings.




  9. China Report, Agriculture (United States)


    situation that we should strive to avoid and can also avoid. Prudent guidance over grain production should be based on a correct funda- mental ...projects. Meanwhile, there is a great need to build libraries, cultural clubs and cinemas in the hilly areas as people’s living standards rise. "We are...workers and encouraging the private practice of medicine. The health department should conduct a general survey of diseases in the local areas and offer

  10. Violations of pesticide use and worker safety regulations in North Carolina. (United States)

    Buhler, W G; Langley, R L; Luginbuhl, R C; Jones, J P; Burnette, J W


    In North Carolina, responsibility for providing training and enforcing various regulations related to pesticide use and agricultural worker safety rests with three state agencies. This article summarizes an 11-year history of enforcement procedures concerning agricultural pesticide use, the Worker Protection Standard, the Hazard Communication Standard, the Migrant Housing Act of North Carolina, and field sanitation standards. The difficulty of linking specific types of violations with worker safety is discussed.

  11. Combined exposure to agriculture pesticides, paraquat and maneb, induces alterations in the N/OFQ-NOPr and PDYN/KOPr systems in rats: Relevance to sporadic Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Bastías-Candia, Sussy; Di Benedetto, Manuela; D'Addario, Claudio; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia


    Despite several years of research, the aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is quite far from being solved. In PD, as well as in other neurodegenerative disorders, it has been proposed that the combination of multiple factors might contribute to the onset of the disease. Indeed, several authors have suggested that environmental factors, such as pollutants and chemicals, might be associated with the onset of several neurodegenerative disorders. On the other hand, several studies have described that the nociceptin/orphanin-NOP and prodynorphin-KOP opioid systems are implicated in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. Considering the nonrestricted commercial availability and common use of several pesticides, such as paraquat and maneb, in agriculture of less developed countries, the aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of nociceptin/orphanin-NOP and prodynorphin-KOP systems in a chronic paraquat and maneb animal model of Parkinson's disease. Our results showed that after paraquat/maneb (5/15 mg kg(-1) ) treatment, a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was observed. Also, the association of paraquat and maneb (5/15 mg kg(-1) ) induced an increase in nociceptin/orphanin and a decrease of prodynorphin gene expression levels in the substantia nigra with a down-regulation of NOP and KOP receptors after both treatments in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen. These data further confirm that paraquat and maneb toxicity can modulate gene expression of the nociceptin/orphanin-NOP receptor and prodynorphin-KOP receptor systems in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen, offering further support to the hypothesis that chronic exposure to these agrochemicals might be implicated in the mechanisms underlying sporadic Parkinson's disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 656-663, 2015.

  12. IT行业视屏作业人员眼疾患病情况及影响因素%The prevalence and influencing factors of eye diseases for IT industry video operation workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮亮; 余艳艳; 俞文兰; 徐铭; 曹文东; 张红兵; 韩磊; 张恒东


    目的 调查IT行业视屏作业人员视屏接触情况和眼疾患病情况,分析影响因素,为制定保护视屏作业人员的眼健康策略提供依据.方法 采用随机整群抽样法抽取江苏省某市IT行业视屏作业人员190人,通过问卷调查和眼科健康检查分析视屏接触与眼部疾病的关系.结果 视屏作业人员每工作日视屏接触时间为6.0~16.0 h,平均(10.1±1.8)h;调查者中有151人(79.5%)佩戴近视镜眼镜;35.8%的人视屏作业过程中会定时休息;14.2%的人眼部不适时会使用防护产品.104例视屏作业者(54.7%)双眼泪膜破裂时间检查(BUT)检查结果均正常(≥10s),86例(45.3%)至少有1只眼睛BUT不正常 <10s);110例(57.9%)泪液分泌试验(SIT)检查结果正常(≥10 mm),80例(42.1%)至少有1只眼睛不正常 <10mm).广义线性模型分析表明,平均每日视频接触时间、眼睛与显示器距离、休息频率、眼部不适时是否使用眼部防护用品、显示器类型和每日看电视时间6项因素对视力有影响(P<0.05).是否定时休息、性别、角膜透明情况、瞳孔形状、父亲远视史和不适时是否使用防护用品6项影响因素对BUT结果有影响(P<0.05).计算机类型、性别、瞳孔形状、晶状体透明情况、显示屏-视线角度,显示器类型和操作台高度7项因素对SIT结果的影响有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 IT行业视屏作业人员眼健康状况不容乐观,防护意识不足;需针对其影响因素加强宣教力度,提高该行业的眼病防治水平.%Objective To investigate the situation of video-contact and eye diseases for IT industry video operation workers,and to analyze the influencing factors,providing scientific evidence for the make of health-strategy for IT industry video operation workers.Methods We take the random cluster sampling method to choose 190 IT industry video operation workers in a city of Jiangsu province,analyzing the relations

  13. Trabalhador contemporâneo e patologias por hipersolicitação Contemporary worker and work-related musculoeskeletal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Peña Ghisleni


    Full Text Available As Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos (LER- também conhecidas como Distúrbios Osteomusculares Relacionados ao Trabalho (DORT e que se tornaram visíveis a partir da entrada da reestruturação produtiva- são vivenciadas por trabalhadores e expressam um dos sofrimentos advindos da relação do trabalhador com o trabalho. Buscamos neste artigo a compreensão de como as LER/DORT podem desenvolver-se no corpo do trabalhador contemporâneo com base em sua história de trabalho, pensando esta síndrome como uma subjetivação da relação entre o trabalhador e o trabalho. Esta pesquisa apresenta como proposta associar conhecimentos da área biomédica com conhecimentos da psicologia social, configurando uma abordagem interdisciplinar na busca de uma linguagem de interface entre profissões que possuem o mesmo enfoque - o trabalhador.Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD- which are also known as Work-Related Musculoeskeletal Disorders (WRMD and have stood out since an economic system rose based on production restructuring- are faced by workers and express suffering stemming from the relations between workers and work. We look into how CTD/WRMD develop in contemporary workers´ body, taking account of their work history and viewing such syndromes as the subjectivation of the relation between workers and work. We favor an interdisciplinary approach based on both the biomedical knowledge and the social psychology, in search for an interface language among the professions that have the same focus- the worker.

  14. The migrant worker: visible, yet invisible. (United States)

    Win, Aung


    Immigrant workers are a vulnerable and underserved population. The average life expectancy of the migrant worker is 49 years, compared to 77.2 years for most Americans. Immigrant workers have a higher disease burden than other populations and work in occupations with high hazard levels. In addition, they have low socioeconomic levels and face many barriers to accessing healthcare services. Undocumented immigrant workers are excluded in the Affordable Care Act. Health professionals must be attuned to the health issues of new immigrants so that they can provide better services. In order to raise the health standards of America, health professionals must provide healthcare for all, including immigrant workers.

  15. Agricultural Geophysics (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  16. Linking nutrition-health-agriculture



    Agricultural production is intimately linked with health and nutrition as a form of income, a source of food, and a cause of disease. Citing a variety of previous studies, this presentation demonstrates the complexity of the relationships among agriculture and food consumption, food safety, infection, and stunting. The authors demonstrate that increasing agricultural production does not necessarily result in improved nutrition: Although more food may be available, this greater yield may suppl...

  17. Blessings on the Food, Blessings on the Workers: Arts-Based Education for Migrant Worker Justice (United States)

    Barndt, Deborah


    Migrant agricultural workers are not only on the margins of Canadian and global food systems; they are also on the margins of public consciousness about the labour behind the food we eat. Even local food movement groups who advocate for both social justice and sustainable food production have not made migrant labour a priority concern. Popular…

  18. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in an indium-processing worker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yong-long; CAI Hou-rong; WANG Yi-hua; MENG Fan-qing; ZHANG De-ping


    @@ With the increasing number of workers engaged in liquid-crystal displays (LCD) manufacturer, lung diseases related to this occupational exposure are attracting more attention.Herein we report a case of interstitial lung disease in a LCD processing worker, which was pathologically confirmed as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP).

  19. Vaccines for preventing hepatitis B in health-care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers.......Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers....

  20. Cancer in migrant and seasonal hired farm workers. (United States)

    Mills, Paul K; Dodge, Jennifer; Yang, Richard


    Studies of cancer among farm workers are difficult to conduct and interpret given the unique nature of this occupational group. The transitory nature of the work, high levels of poverty, and lack of legal documentation make epidemiologic studies difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, this workforce in the United States, which numbers as much as 3 million persons, is a high risk population due to exposures to numerous toxic substances, including excessive sunlight, heat, dangerous machinery, fumes, fertilizers, dust, and pesticides. We summarize characteristics of farm workers (i.e., demographics, health care) from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) and the California Agricultural Workers Survey (CAWS) and present findings from a series of studies conducted among farm workers in California. The epidemiology literature was reviewed and methods for a unique farm worker union-based epidemiologic study are presented. Farm workers in California and the rest of the United States, many of whom are seasonal and migrant workers are at elevated risk for numerous forms of cancer compared to the general population and specific pesticides may be associated with this altered risk. Elevated risks have been found for lymphomas and prostate, brain, leukemia, cervix, and stomach cancers.

  1. El alojamiento previsto para temporeros gestionado por el sindicato agrícola Unió de Pagesos. Infraestructura para la disciplina y el suministro de trabajadores The lodgment provided for seasonal workers managed by the agricultural union Unió de Pagesos. An infrastructure for discipline and labor supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Achón Rodríguez


    Full Text Available El éxito de implantación del sistema de importación y suministro de trabajadores contratados en origen –implementado por el sindicato agrícola Unió de Pagesos- ha precisado la instauración de una red de alojamientos prevista a la concentración de mano de obra. Su descripción, y el establecimiento de tipologías, que sirven al análisis de estos lugares, se han realizado con el ánimo de mostrar una realidad velada por el discurso filantrópico del sindicato. Dispositivo de poder dispuesto a la doma del sujeto –merced la normativización del espacio y la presencia de personal encargado- por el mismo se pretende la creación de una corriente de fuerza de trabajo por la que la gestión fordiana de los hombres se efectúa. Su estudio manifiesta la tradicional forma de alojar al temporero agrícola, únicamente superada en cuanto configurado un nuevo estatuto jurídico, el del trabajador contratado en origen para la realización de faenas de recolección.


    The successful implementation of the system of import and supply of workers recruited in their home countries by the agricultural union Unió de Pagesos, has demanded the establishment of a network of lodgments provided for the concentration of labor. Its description and the establishment of typologies for its analysis have been made in order of showing its reality, usually obscured by the union's philanthropic discourse. A device of power, intended to tame the subject through the regulation of space and the presence of personnel in charge, its aim is to create a current of labor which is managed in a Fordist fashion. Its study shows that the traditional way to accommodate labor in agriculture is only surpassed in order to create a new legal status of worker, which is recruited in his home country to perform harvesting crops.

  2. Epidemiological investigation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in offshore oil platform workers%海上石油平台作业人员胃食管反流病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    长蒙; 温冰


    目的 调查海上石油平台作业人员胃食管反流病(gastroesophageal reflux disease,GERD)的发病率,分析与之相关的危险因素.方法 应用随机整群分层抽样的方法,对518名海上石油平台作业人员(均为男性)进行反流性疾病问卷(reflux disease questionnaire,RDQ)及相关危险因素调查,RDQ评分≥12分提示GRED诊断.调查方式均为面访试.调查资料均输入电脑并建立数据库,采用SPSS13.0软件行卡方检验、Logistic回归分析等.结果 海上石油平台作业人员GERD发病率为5.98%,与北京、上海两地普通人群的5.8%相近,高于广东的2.3%;低于海军官兵的27.1%.常食甜食、常饮浓茶、晕船、精神压力大、噪声环境、高脂饮食、常食辛辣食物、睡眠差可能为GERD的危险因素.结论 海上石油平台作业人员GERD的发病率与国内普通人群相近,但低于海军官兵人群,危险因素较多.%Objective To investigate the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease among offshore oil platform workers and analyze related risk factors of the disorder.Methods Reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) and related risk factor survey were conducted among 518 offshore oil platform male workers by using random stratified cluster sampling method.The questionnaire survey was tarried out by personal interviews,and RDQ scores higher than 12 points indicated GERD diagnosis.SPSS 13.0 software chi-square test and Logistic regression analysis were used in the end results of the study.Results The incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease among offshore oil platform workers was 5.98%,while that of the general population in Beijing and Shanghai was 5.77%,and it was obviously higher than that of the Guangdong general population (2.3%),but much lower than that of naval officers and enlisted (27.1%).Sweet diet,strong tea,seasickness,mental strain,noise,high-fat diet,spicy food and poor sleep might possibly the risk factors of the

  3. The force of irony: studying the everyday life of tomato workers in Western Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, G.


    For many years sociological literature on agricultural labourers has largely focused on how surplus value is generated and extracted by both direct and indirect means in the agricultural labour process. However this perspective overlooks the ways in which agricultural workers are important protagoni


    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.


  5. 红木家私厂工人变态反应性疾病的流行病学调查%An epidemiological survey on allergic disease of workers in mahogany furniture factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利华; 饶惠平; 黄瑞文; 谭锦生; 林石龙; 许霁; 汪为刚; 杨瑞熹; 肖劲锋


    Objective To understand the allergic disease's epidemiology characteristics of front-line workers in Mahogany furniture factory.Methods 1 860 painting workers were selected as the observation group A,930 workers of non-paint workshop as the observation group B,and 930 new workers who came from rural areas as a control group.The allergic disease investigation and analysis were carried on in the three groups.Results In the observation group A,1 860 work personnel,picked out contracts the allergy disease 483 examples,the disease incidence rate was 25.96%.In the observation group B 930 work personnel,picked out contracts the allergy disease 140 examples,the disease incidence rate was 15.05%.In the control group 930 farmers,picked out contracts the allergy disease 32 examples,the disease incidence rate was 3.44 %.The allergy disease incidence rate of two investigative groups were higher than that of control group.Statistics analysis had the significant difference(x2 =21.394,P <0.01).In the observation group A,working above for 5 years the allergy disease incidence rate was higher than below 5 years (including 5 years).Statistics analysis had the significance difference.Moreover in the observation group A,the disease incidence rate divided into 3 ranks from high to low,during various ranks statistics analysis had the significant difference.In the observation group B,working above for 8 years the allergy disease incidence rate was higher than below 8 years (including g years).And working above for 11 years the allergy disease incidence rate was higher than below 11 years (including 11 years).Statistics analysis had the significance difference.Moreover in the observation group B,the disease incidence rate divided into 5 ranks from high to low,during various ranks statistics analysis had the significance difference(x2 =177.112,P <0.01).Conclusion Paint and pain-thinner can lead to front-line workers occurred in allergic diseases.The longer the contact time

  6. Occupational fatalities among older workers in the United States: 1980-1991. (United States)

    Kisner, S M; Pratt, S G


    Workers aged 65 and older had a workplace fatality rate of 2.6 times that of workers aged 16 to 64 for 1980 through 1991 (14.1 per 100,000 vs 5.4), according to National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) data. The highest rates were in mining, agriculture, and construction. Compared with younger workers, older men were at an elevated risk for fatalities caused by machines, and older women for fatal falls and homicide. Prevention efforts should focus on older workers in agricultural settings, as well as those at increased risk of workplace falls or violence.

  7. Multilevel analysis of the impact of environmental factors and agricultural practices on the concentration in hay of microorganisms responsible for farmer's lung disease. (United States)

    Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Piarroux, Renaud


    Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is common in eastern France. It is the main form of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis, caused by chronic inhalation of microorganisms (antigens) from mouldy hay, straw, or grain. The purpose of this study was to assess, with a panel of data collected between 1997-2003, environmental factors and agricultural practices that independently modify concentrations in hay of microorganisms potentially responsible for FLD. A total of 629 hay samples from 86 farms were included in statistical analyses using linear multilevel regression models allowing to consider the nested structure of the data: individual-level (batch of hay) and group-level (farm). The outcome variable of these models was the concentration in hay (logarithmic value of concentration+1) of microorganisms incriminated in FLD (Absidia corymbifera, Eurotium spp., thermophilic actinomycetes). The simultaneous analysis of batch of hay- and farm-level factors showed that bad climatic conditions of harvest, high-density hay-packing modes, (especially round bales) and altitude (2nd plateau, ]700-900] m) were the main factors associated with high concentrations of these microorganisms in hay. This study allowed clarification of the factors that influence the microbial concentration of hay with etiological agents of FLD.

  8. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg


    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  9. [Pilot study: Apricena Marble District quarry workers and COPD]. (United States)

    Zefferino, R; Arsa, A; Masullo, M; Nigri, A G; Fanelli, A; Carella, F; Ambrosi, L


    The aim of the present article was to verify the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) prevalence in a cohort of quarry workers who belong to the Apricena Marble District. We studied 70 workers. They received a questionnaire about the disease and confounding factors. The spirometry showed that the FEV1 was normal in 95% of workers, instead 5% showed values lower than former (Average: 73%). TNF alpha and IL-1 Beta in Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were lower than the method limit in all workers. Our cohort is limited, but we could retain that the lung disease is not present in workers taken into consideration. Our results are in according to Rushton who demonstrated that only a prolonged occupation, higher than thirty years, is able to induce lung disease.

  10. Mortality among rubber workers: V. processing workers. (United States)

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R


    Cause-specific mortality was evaluated among 2,666 men employed in the processing division of a rubber manufacturing plant. The division was divided into two sections: front processing (compounding, mixing and milling operations) and back processing (extrusion, calendering, cement mixing and rubberized fabrics operations). Mortality rates for all processing workers combined and for men in each section were compared with rates for U.S. White males or for workers employed in other divisions of the same plant. Compared with either referent group, men in the processing division had increased mortality from leukemia, emphysema, and cancers of the stomach, large intestine, and biliary passages and liver. An excess number of deaths from stomach and larger intestine cancer was found predominantly among men in the front processing section (33 observed vs. 17.7 expected deaths, based on rates in nonprocessing workers). Increased mortality from leukemia (14 observed vs. 7.3 expected) and from emphysema (22 observed vs. 11.0 expected) was present among men employed in the back processing section. Examination of mortality from these causes according to age and the year starting work, duration of employment, and years since starting work in the relevant sections of the processing division suggested that observed excesses of stomach cancer, large intestine cancer, leukemia, and emphysema among processing workers are related to occupational exposures. These results are consistent with the findings of studies of other groups of rubber workers.

  11. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  12. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  13. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  14. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  15. Colinesterasas eritrocitaria y plasmática en trabajadores con enfermedades crónicas controladas y en usuarios de medicamentos Erythrocytic and plasmatic cholinesterases in workers with chronic controlled diseases and in users of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca


    nunca hubo diferencia significativa. Tampoco hubo diferencias importan-tes cuando se procedió a comparar los valores enzimáticos entre personas con una enfermedad específica y quienes no la tenían, excepto en el caso de «anemia». CONCLUSIONES: los niveles de colinesterasas eritrocitaria y plasmática son similares entre trabajadores sanos o con enfermedades crónicas controladas, con o sin drogas. PROBLEM: Physiological values of cholinesterase are known in healthy population, but limited information on them is available in individuals with chronic, controlled diseases, either with or without medication. OBJECTIVES: To measure erythrocytic and plasmatic cholinesterase levels in active workers who met the following conditions: to be feeling well and active at their jobs at the time of the study; to suffer from some disease that was under control either with or without medication; not to have been exposed to pesticides based on cholinesterase inhibitors. METHODOLOGY: A survey was carried out among workers affiliated to the Social Security Institute in Antioquia, Colombia, to identify those suffering from some disease and who had it under control. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase levels were determined using two techniques for the former and three for the latter. Surveyed workers belonged to two different parts of Antioquia, namely: the Aburra Valley and the Near East region. The study sample was made up by 827 persons, 19% of which informed to be suffering from some disease. RESULTS: Prevalence of disease in the Aburra Valley workers was 30% and in those from the Near East region, 9% (p = 0.0000000. The list of their diseases included 13 different ones, the most frequent of which were: hypertension (29%, “liver disease” (16%, anemia (10%, and arthritis (10%. Out of the 827 people, 127 (15% were under some kind of medication at the moment of the study; of them, 85% were being treated with only one drug. Eight per cent were diseased and under

  16. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  17. Assessment of cardiometabolic risk among shift workers in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermendy György


    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2% or in public services (23.9%. Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activity. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for measuring laboratory parameters. Data from shift workers (n = 234, age: 43.9 ± 8.1 years were compared to those of daytime workers (n = 247, age: 42.8 ± 8.5 years, men and women were analyzed separately. Results In men, systolic blood pressure was higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers (133 ± 8 vs 126 ± 17 mmHg; p vs 67.7 ± 13.2 kg; p vs 13.4%; p vs 21.7%; p vs 1.68 ± 0.36 mmol/l; p Conclusion Middle-aged active shift workers, especially women, have a less healthy lifestyle and are at higher cardiometabolic risk as compared to daytime workers. Our study highlights the importance of measures for identifying and preventing cardiometabolic risk factors in shift workers.

  18. Workers' Education in Palestine (United States)

    Elayassa, Wajih


    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  19. Migrant Farm Workers. (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  20. Infection of sexually transmitted diseases among 98 female sex workers%98例女性性工作者性传播疾病感染的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉小玉; 张永乐; 章松平; 朱明利; 马兰; 郑爱媚


    目的 调查杭州市某城区洗头店女性性工作者的性传播疾病(STD)感染情况.方法 2009年1月-2010年5月杭州某城区公安人员在巡查洗头店时当场抓获的正在从事性交易者,对她们进行性传播疾病(解脲脲支原体、沙眼衣原体、淋菌、梅毒、艾滋病)的检测.结果 98例性工作者中,解脲脲支原体感染者87例,阳性率为88.78%,沙眼衣原体感染者40例,阳性率为40.82%,梅毒感染者25例,阳性率为25.51%,淋菌感染者12例,阳性率为12.24%;两种病原体合并感染者56例,3种病原体感染者8例,未发现艾滋病感染者.结论 女性性工作者感染的性传播疾病中解脲脲支原体和沙眼衣原体最为常见,梅毒螺旋体和淋菌感染较普通人群要高,未发现艾滋病感染者;公安部门应严厉打击卖淫嫖娼行为,加强广大人群的性病、艾滋病的宣传.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the infection status of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) of the female sex workers who work in shampoo shop in Hangzhou. METHODS Jan 2009 to May 2010, The female sex workers were arrested by the police office when they were engaging in sexual transactions, the sexually transmitted diseases ( including Uu, Chlamydia trachomatis CT, Lin coccus NGH, Syphilis TP, AIDS, HIV) were detected.RESULTS Among 98 cases of sex workers, 87 cases were UU infections with the positive rate of 88. 78%; Chlamydia trachomatis infections in 40 patients (40.82%); Syphilis infection in 25 cases (25.51 %); Gonococcal infection in 12 cases (12.24%) ; The combined infections caused by two pathogens were in 56 cases, 8 cases were the combined infection by three pathogens, HIV infection was not found. CONCLUSIONS Uu and Chlamydia trachomatis are most common in sexually transmitted disease among female sex workers. The infection rate of Treponema pallidum and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is higher than that of the general population, HIV infection is not found; Public security

  1. Agricultural Foods Economic Efficiency Evaluation Based on DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ling Guo


    Full Text Available On the basis of evaluation index system about the efficiency of agricultural product circular economy, this study quantitatively evaluates the efficiency of agricultural food circular economy in 11 districts and cities of Henan Province by DEA analysis. This study shows the efficiency of agricultural food circular economy has obvious differences in Henan Province. Therefore, improving the efficiency of agricultural food circular economy should adapt different measure according to local conditions, increase agricultural scientific and technological input and improve the quality of workers.

  2. Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia


    Essa, Jumanah S.


    Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia Jumanah S. Essa ABSTRACT Farm and industry workers are a growing population in the United States (U.S.) and are critical to the success of the agriculture industry. In 1993, the Migrant Legal Services estimated that there were 42,000 migrant and seasonal farm workers in the state of Virginia (Wilson, 1998). These workers are essential in the state's producti...

  3. Caring for migrant farm workers on medical-surgical units. (United States)

    Anthony, Maureen J


    Over 3 million migrant farm workers are employed in the United States. Many factors place them at risk for work-related disease and injury. Knowledge of workers' health issues can prepare medical-surgical nurses to anticipate and meet the needs of this underserved population.

  4. [Healthcare for migrant workers in Israel]. (United States)

    Fried, Mordechai


    An estimated 300.000 migrant workers are currently living in Israel, which is about 5% of the general population. More then half of this population is undocumented and have very limited access to public health care. Due to the financial difficulties within the Israel's public health system, the entity is unable to deal with the needs of migrant workers. Hence, when these migrant workers need inpatient care, hospitals have to bear the costs and this situation creates a divergence between medical and economic considerations. The open clinic of "Physicians for Human Rights", which is operated by volunteer physicians and nurses, is able to provide medical aid for mild and transient illnesses, but not for chronic diseases. Israeli physicians are regularly confronted with ethical issues, regarding the therapy they would like to provide to undocumented migrant workers, but are unable to do so. In Europe, undocumented migrant workers have better access to public health care than in Israel. The Israeli public health system should permit all migrant workers to insure themselves at affordable prices, or another inexpensive insurance system should be created for them.

  5. Are healthcare workers immune to rubella? (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Campins, Magda; Esteve, María; Urbiztondo, Luis; Broner, Sonia; Bayas, José María; Costa, Josep; Domínguez, Angela


    Healthcare workers (HCW) have high exposure to infectious diseases, some of which, such as rubella, are vaccine-preventable. The aim of this study was to determine the immunity of HCW against rubella. We performed a seroprevalence study using a self-administered survey and obtained blood samples to determine rubella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels in HCW during preventive examinations by five Primary Care Basic Prevention Units and six tertiary hospitals in Catalonia. Informed consent was obtained. IgG was determined using an antibody capture microparticle direct chemiluminometric technique. The odss ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Logistic regression was made to calculate adjusted OR. Of 642 HCW who participated (29.9% physician, 38.8% nurses, 13.3% other health workers and 18% non-health workers), 46.6% were primary care workers and 53.4% hospital workers. Of total, 97.2% had rubella antibodies. HCW aged 30-44 years had a higher prevalence of antibodies (98.4%) compared with HCW agedrubella antibodies is high in HCW, but workers agedrubella.

  6. Perceptions of Agricultural College Students on the Relationship between Quality and Safety in Agricultural Work Environments. (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sai K; Mosher, Gretchen A


    Agriculture is a high-hazard industry that employs a large number of young workers below the age of 25. Recent studies have documented a strong positive correlation between quality management in agriculture and occupational safety as perceived by agricultural workers. Younger workers have been found to be at higher risk for occupational injuries and fatalities in agriculture. Furthermore, college students in agriculture have minimal exposure to safety and quality management principles in their coursework and thus may not be aware that the two concepts are associated Little research has studied how young workers perceive the relationship between safety and quality and how these perceptions vary based on demographic characteristics. This study builds on prior research that measured the interactions between employee perceptions of safety and quality in an agricultural work environment. Data were collected using a survey instrument adapted from a previously validated instrument. Analysis of 1017 responses showed that students perceived a high impact of quality practices on the reduction of safety hazards and safety incidents. Students' perceptions of quality and safety in agricultural work environments varied by gender, with female students perceiving the relationship between the two at a higher level than males. No significant difference in perceptions was observed based on students' academic classification, age group, field of study, or childhood environment. This study demonstrates that despite limited academic training in safety and quality, pre-professionals perceive the implementation of quality management as a very important factor in mitigating safety hazards and safety incidents. In addition, this study suggests that current academic training in these disciplines must be modified, since no differences in students' perceptions were observed based on academic classification or field of study.

  7. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  8. Surveys of HIV-1, HTLV-I, and other sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in Taipei City, Taiwan, from 1993 to 1996. (United States)

    Chen, Y M; Yu, P S; Lin, C C; Jen, I


    Between 1993 and 1996 in Taipei, Taiwan, we studied the prevalences of HIV-1, HTLV-I, HSV-2, Chlamydia trachomatis, and syphilis infection in female commercial sex workers (CSW) and the pathogens' associated risk factors. Female CSW from nine massage parlors, two karaoke bars (KB), and 22 brothels in Taipei city participated in this study. Two of 557 (0.4%) KB CSWs from those who participated during the period from 1993 to 1994 had HIV-1 infection, whereas no KB CSWs in the periods 1994 to 1995 or 1995 to 1996 had HIV-1 infection. None of the 725 MP CSWs or 291 brothel CSWs who participated in the study between 1993 and 1996 had HIV-1 infection. In contrast, CSWs from brothels had elevated rates of both HTLV-I and active chlamydia infections compared with KB and MP CSWs (p < .05 and p < .005, respectively). KB CSWs showed an elevated rate of HSV-2 infection in the years 1993 and 1994 when compared with CSWs employed by brothels and MPs (p < .005). The prevalence rates of syphilis for CSWs from brothels dropped from 42.8% in the year 1993 to 1994 to 26.3% in the 1995 to 1996 period, whereas for KB and MP CSWs, the rates were < 6% in each of year studied.

  9. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf


    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  10. [Indian workers in Oman]. (United States)

    Longuenesse, E


    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahardjo


    Full Text Available Most studies reported that tobacco negatively affect periodontal tissue, although some authors have failed to demonstrate such relationship. Those studies were done mostly with subjects smoking white cigarette. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and type of kretek smokers and the risk between filtered and non-filtered smokers on the periodontal diseases. Smokers subjects were 227 healthy man smokers aged 20 – 27 years, who lived in the condominium of Cilinicing. Cross sectional study was designed using questionnaire. A pressure-controlled periodontal probe for assessing the Plaque Index (PI, Bleeding on Probing (BOP, Probing Attachment Level (PAL and Pocket Depth (PD for each tooth (6 sites per tooth except the third molar. The periodontal disease was defined as PAL > 6mm. The results showed that there was no significant differences between filtered smoking and non-filtered smoking with clove cigarette on the periodontal disease measured by BOP (p=0.265. The Prevalence Ration of the clove cigarette and periodontal disease was 1.28 (95% CI, which means that smoking clove cigarette with or without filtered bith have risk to periodontal disease.

  12. 77 FR 28625 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance... (United States)


    ...: Agricultural employers, SWAs, agricultural workers. Form(s): ETA 790 and ETA 795. Total Annual Respondents: 9... Food Processing Clearance Order, ETA Form 790, Extension With Revisions, and the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance Memorandum, ETA Form 795, Extension Without Revisions AGENCY: Employment and...

  13. 76 FR 65158 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program or “ACE” (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program or ``ACE'' AGENCY: Departmental... designated the program the Agricultural Career and Employment (ACE) Grants Program and it will be referred to... generally are double those of other wage and salaried workers and those working in field crops have...

  14. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker. (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.


    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  15. Tobacco Workers in 1916

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    I looked at the women in the photo carefully,judging theirage from the style of their hair and clothes,and guessingtheir mood at the time when the photo was taken. On this photo there are about 50 workers from theNanyang Brothers Tobacco Company,who are sitting in thefactory working.It seems they are married women, for allwear their hair in buns.Behind them stand two men in white;they may be the foremen. Women tobacco workers were one branch of Chinesewomen workrs in modern industry.At the end of the 1900’s,the reeling.cotton spinning,match and cigarette trades usedwomen workers extensively.They were mainly employed inenterprises with more than 500 workers,chiefly in cotton,silkand weaving mills.They also amassed in the tobacco trade,

  16. Migrant Workers Fight Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Zhao, aged 33, is a migrant worker in a shoe factory in Shenzhen, the prosperous southern Chinese city. He arrived there hve years ago from his home village in north Jiangsu province, a notoriously poverty struck region of China.

  17. Workers Compensation Claim Data - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  18. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination. (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A


    During various daily activities at home and work, hands quickly become contaminated. Some activities increase the risk of finger contamination by pathogens more than others, such as the use of toilet paper to clean up following a diarrheal episode, changing the diaper of a sick infant, blowing a nose, or touching raw food materials. Many foodborne outbreak investigation reports have identified the hands of food workers as the source of pathogens in the implicated food. The most convenient and efficient way of removing pathogens from hands is through hand washing. Important components of hand washing are potable water for rinsing and soaps to loosen microbes from the skin. Hand washing should occur after any activity that soils hands and certainly before preparing, serving, or eating food. Antimicrobial soaps are marginally more effective than plain soaps, but constant use results in a buildup of the antimicrobial compound on the skin. The time taken to wash hands and the degree of friction generated during lathering are more important than water temperature for removing soil and microorganisms. However, excessive washing and scrubbing can cause skin damage and infections. Drying hands with a towel removes pathogens first by friction during rubbing with the drying material and then by wicking away the moisture into that material. Paper rather than cloth towels should be encouraged, although single-use cloth towels are present in the washrooms of higher class hotels and restaurants. Warm air dryers remove moisture and any surface microorganisms loosened by washing from hands by evaporation while the hands are rubbed together vigorously; however, these dryers take too long for efficient use. The newer dryers with high-speed air blades can achieve dryness in 10 to 15 s without hand rubbing.

  19. 北京市建筑工地农民工传染病健康教育效果评价%Effect evaluation of health education on infectious diseases prevention among migrant workers in building workplaces in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹红霞; 姜明; 于立鹏


    Objective To explore infectious diseases knowledge situation among migrant workers in building workplaces in Beijing, evaluate health education intervention effect and provide reference for heath education policy development. Methods By multistage sampling method, 500 building workers were selected totally and received lectures about infectious diseases and propaganda materials. They were investigated before and after education activities in order to evaluate intervention effect. Results After intervention, the awareness rate of AIDS, rabies, the alimentary and respiratory infectious diseases were increased from 5. 4% to 34. 5%. The awareness rate of "spray is a transmission route of respiratory diseases" was increased from 82. 2% to 94. 3% , and the difference were statistically significant (P <0. 01) . The awareness rate of " eating washed vegetables and fruits and cooked sea food" was increased 5. 4% after intervention ( P < 0. 05 ) . The awareness rates of "vaccination is not need before bitten" , "rabies could transmitted by cat and mouse" and "rabies could be prevented but not cured" were increased 9. 5% , 10% and 24. 1% , respectively ( P < 0. 01 ) . Conclusion Health education intervention model, which lectures are combined with propaganda materials, is reasonable and applicable among migrant workers in building workplaces.%目的 了解建筑工地农民工传染病防治知识的知晓度,评价健康教育干预效果,为制定流动人口传染病健康教育对策提供依据.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样的方法,对500名建筑工地农民工讲授传染病防治知识并发放宣传材料,干预前后进行问卷调查评价效果.结果 干预后农民工对部分艾滋病、狂犬病、消化道和呼吸道传染病防治知识知晓率有所提高,最低提高了5.4%,最高34.5%.飞沫传播呼吸道传染病知晓率由干预前的82.2%提高到干预后的94.3%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);干预后“生吃瓜果洗净,

  20. Dependency and Worker Flirting


    Konecki, Krzysztof


    The present paper concentrates on 'worker flirting' as one of the forms of interactional ritual in the culture of an organization. It is thus only an illustration of the interactional dimension of the culture of an organization. The paper deals with interactional ritual in an industrial organization and is based on an empirical study carried out in a radio-electrical plant, "Z," which employs 1,500 workers. The author carried out a period of three-months covert participant observation and...

  1. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture. (United States)

    Goldsmith, Peter


    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  2. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  3. Workers in Agribusiness: Profile, Images, Recruitment, Mobility, and Occupations. (United States)

    Taylor, Lee, Ed.; Leagans, J. Paul, Ed.

    Designed and conducted by a team of professors and research associates at New York State College of Agriculture, this study focuses on five primary areas of concern: (1) profile of firms and workers, (2) images of agribusiness work, (3) recruitment, (4) occupational mobility, and (5) agribusiness occupations and projections. Findings reveal that…

  4. Mobility Patterns of Children of Migrant Agricultural Workers. (United States)

    Cox, J. Lamarr; And Others

    Narrative text, tables, and maps summarize information derived from a random sample of 20% of the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) data base as it existed in June 1976 related to the mobility patterns of migrant children in the contiguous United States and Puerto Rico from January 1975 to April 1976. The data base is a tabulation of…

  5. Epidemiology of oral diseases in individuals between the ages of 35 and 44 years:an epidemiological scenario of the worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Silva Carvalho


    Full Text Available Objectives: To review epidemiological studies on oral diseases, specifically caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer, in the age group between 35 and 44 years. Methods: The strategy used to identify the articles was to search the PubMed database using the following key words: dental health surveys, epidemiology, caries, periodotitis, cancer, always with Boolean operator, and without limitation of language. The exclusion criteria were as follows: articles published over 10 years ago, articles that did not deal with adults from 35 to 44 years old and articles that did not cover the issue proposed. Results: On dental caries 7.071 articles were found, from which 6.992 articles were excluded, leaving 79. In the criteria complete articles, of the 19 articles selected, 8 were coherent with the objectives of the study. On periodontal disease, 1.554 articles were found and 872 articles were excluded. After evaluating the complete articles, 6 articles were selected. With regard to the subject oral cancer, 573 articles were found and 3 articles suited the study. Conclusion: It may be considered that caries disease increases with age and that dental loss prevails in DMFT in adults. In adults the prevalence of calculus and shallow pockets prevails and the need for dentures is higher in elderly people although it is significant in adults etween the ages of 35 and 44 years. There is a higher incidence of oral cancer in men with a synergism in alcoholic smokers. During the search in the database, it was observed that the number of researches is lower among adults.

  6. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin


    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  7. Designing middleware for context awareness in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk


    , and increasingly advanced GPS units. However, except for location based services, like knowing your location based on GPS, context awareness has not really materialised yet. In modern agriculture, computers are pervasive, but only in the sense that they are present everywhere. All types of equipment, ranging from...... context about the individual agricultural worker, e.g. in the form of location or current activity. Knowing the context of the farm and the workers may then be utilised for building pervasive computing applications to support the daily work at farms, e.g. by easing access to information which is useful...... to overcome these challenges, using semantic technologies. We also study new ways of designing such middleware, in that we make the end user of the applications built with the middleware participate in the requirement gathering and design phases....

  8. A multifaceted strategy using mobile technology to assist rural primary healthcare doctors and frontline health workers in cardiovascular disease risk management: protocol for the SMARTHealth India cluster randomised controlled trial (United States)


    Background Blood Pressure related disease affected 118 million people in India in the year 2000; this figure will double by 2025. Around one in four adults in rural India have hypertension, and of those, only a minority are accessing appropriate care. Health systems in India face substantial challenges to meet these gaps in care, and innovative solutions are needed. Methods We hypothesise that a multifaceted intervention involving capacity strengthening of primary healthcare doctors and non-physician healthcare workers through use of a mobile device-based clinical decision support system will result in improved blood pressure control for individuals at high risk of a cardiovascular disease event when compared with usual healthcare. This intervention will be implemented as a stepped wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial in 18 primary health centres and 54 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh involving adults aged ≥40 years at high cardiovascular disease event risk (approximately 15,000 people). Cardiovascular disease event risk will be calculated based on World Health Organisation/International Society of Hypertension’s region-specific risk charts. Cluster randomisation will occur at the level of the primary health centres. Outcome analyses will be conducted blinded to intervention allocation. Expected outcomes The primary study outcome is the difference in the proportion of people meeting guideline-recommended blood pressure targets in the intervention period vs. the control period. Secondary outcomes include mean reduction in blood pressure levels; change in other cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, current smoking, reported healthy eating habits, and reported physical activity levels; self-reported use of blood pressure and other cardiovascular medicines; quality of life (using the EQ-5D); and cardiovascular disease events (using hospitalisation data). Trial outcomes will be accompanied by detailed process and economic

  9. 煤工尘肺职业病患者的临床护理探析%The Clinical Nursing Investigation on Coal-Worker Patients With Pneumoconiosis Occupational Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    ObjectiveThe clinical nursing on coal-worker patients with pneumoconiosis occupational disease is to be investigated.Methods Choose 49 coal-worker patients with pneumoconiosis occupational disease who are treated in hospital from August 2013 to October 2014 and separate them into study group and control group according to their hospitalization sequence. Patients in control group are given conventional treatment. While,patients in study group are given additional nursing with regarding to psychology,expectoration,complications,and oxygen therapy,etc in addition to conventional treatment. And then observe and compare the treatment efficacy of the two groups. Results The recovery of patients in study group are much higher than control group(P<0.05);there is a treatment differential between the two groups,the complication of patients in study group is lower than control group(P<0.05).Conclusion The nursing intervention is quite conducive to recovery of patients and reducing complications incidence, therefore,it is rather worthy to be promoted and applied clinicaly.%目的:探讨煤工尘肺职业病患者的临床护理探析。方法选取2013年8月~2014年10月我院接诊的49例煤工尘肺职业病患者,按照入院的先后顺序分为两组,实验组和对照组,对照组采用常规护理方法,实验组在对照组的基础上采用心理、排痰、并发症、氧疗等方面的护理,观察两组患者的护理效果。结果实验组患者的康复情况明显优于对照组,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组患者的并发症的发生率明显低于对照组,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对煤工尘肺职业病患者进行护理干预能够提高患者的康复速度,减少并发症的发生率。

  10. Health and safety challenges associated with immigrant dairy workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rosecrance


    Full Text Available Faced with increasing industrialization, high demands on production, and decreasing domestic participation in the labor force, dairy producers are employing an immigrant workforce to help meet operational demands. There is little data regarding the number of immigrant workers in the dairy industry, but the trend of hiring immigrant workers in some of the world’s highest producing countries is increasing. There are many challenges associated with managing immigrant workers includinghow to effectively train this workforce about safe and efficient work methods. Methods: Ethnographic methods from the anthropology field served as the primary tool to identify barriers and facilitators of safe work practices in large-herd dairy operations in the United States. Following the weeklong emersion by the research anthropologist at a selected dairy, focus groups were organized at three large-herd dairies. All focus group conversations were tape recorded, transcribed and translated into English. The focus group transcripts were coded for specific themes related to issues that participants felt were barriers or facilitators of worker health and safety. Results: Twenty-two Latino workers 18 to 58 years of age participated in the three focus groups conducted at one Colorado and two South Dakota dairies. Six major themes relating to barriers and facilitators of worker health and safety were identified and included: communication, integration owner and worker cultures, work organization, leadership, support for animal health, and attention to safety culture within the organization. Conclusions: Although not often considered by agricultural engineers, an anthropological perspective to challenges involving an immigrant workforce may assist with improved work methods and safe work practices. Through this approach, agricultural engineers may better understand the cultural challenges and complexities facing the dairy industry. Successful integration of immigrant

  11. Education and agricultural productivity: evidence from Uganda



    Existing evidence on the impact of education on agricultural productivity in Africa is mixed, with estimates usually insignificant although sometimes large. Analysis of the first nationally representative household survey of Uganda gives an estimate of the impact of household primary schooling on crop production comparable to the developing country average. In addition, the primary schooling of neighbouring farm workers appears to raise crop production and these external returns exceed the in...

  12. The performance of community health workers in the management of multiple childhood infectious diseases in Lira, northern Uganda – a mixed methods cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Wanduru


    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs have the potential to reduce child mortality by improving access to care, especially in remote areas. Uganda has one of the highest child mortality rates globally. Moreover, rural areas bear the highest proportion of this burden. The optimal performance of CHWs is critical. In this study, we assess the performance of CHWs in managing malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in the rural district of Lira, in northern Uganda. Designs: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was undertaken to investigate the performance of 393 eligible CHWs in the Lira district of Uganda. Case scenarios were conducted with a medical officer observing CHWs in their management of children suspected of having malaria, pneumonia, or diarrhea. Performance data were collected using a pretested questionnaire with a checklist used by the medical officer to score the CHWs. The primary outcome, CHW performance, is defined as the ability to diagnose and treat malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia appropriately. Participants were described using a three group performance score (good vs. moderate vs. poor. A binary measure of performance (good vs. poor was used in multivariable logistic regression to show an association between good performance and a range of independent variables. The qualitative component comprised seven key informant interviews with experts who had informed knowledge with regard to the functionality of CHWs in Lira district. Results: Overall, 347 CHWs (88.3% had poor scores in managing malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia, 26 (6.6% had moderate scores, and 20 (5.1% had good scores. The factors that were positively associated with performance were secondary-level education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50–4.92 and meeting with supervisors in the previous month (AOR 2.52; 95% CI 1.12–5.70. Those factors negatively associated with CHW performance included: serving 100–200 households (AOR 0.24; 95

  13. Respiratory problems among cotton textile workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mansouri


    Full Text Available Background: Long term occupational exposure to cotton dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and loss of pulmonary function. Aim: This study was conducted to explore respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and chest radiography of workers, and to evaluate the findings of high resolution computed tomographyand its correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 cotton workers as exposed group and 100 unexposed subjects. Smokers were excluded from the study. All workers were interviewed and examined by the pulmonologist. PFT and chest radiography were conducted for all subjects. HRCT was performed for those with abnormal PFT or chest radiography. Results: A total of 51% and 31% of the cotton textile workers had one or more respiratory symptoms and respiratory signs respectively. 28% of subjects in the exposed group and 5% of subjects in unexposed group had obstructive pattern. Bronchia wall thickening and air trapping were the most frequent chest radiography and HRCT abnormalities respectively. There was a significant correlation between HRCT and the results of PFT. Conclusion: We conclude that long term exposure to cotton dust is associated with obstructive disease that increase with duration of exposure (history of working years, also use of HRCT as a sensitive tool in the assessment of pathologic changes and it's correlation with PFT, confirms the expected pathophysiology of airway obstruction in cotton workers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova


    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  15. [Working conditions and occupational morbidity in workers of the Russian Federation]. (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G


    To create healthy and safe working conditions are constantly in the focus of attention at all governmental levels. To reduce deaths and traumatism from occupational accidents and diseases, by providing safe working conditions is one of the priorities of the demographic policy pursued by the Government of the Russian Federation. In the able-bodied population, the current mortality from natural causes (accidents, poisonings, and traumas, including occupation-related ones) exceeds that by 2.5 and 1.5 times in developed and developing countries, respectively. The worse conditions remain to be those in coal-mining and shipbuilding industries, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, agriculture, tractor-building and agricultural engineering, building materials industry, road-building machinery, logging industry, power machine building, and civil engineering. On-going checks reveal low sanitary culture and industrial discipline, no package of sanitary-and-prophylactic measures, as well as poor knowledge about sanitary legislation requirements in the heads of small-scale business and private undertakings. In 2006, the Russian Federation notified 357 cases of occupational diseases among medical workers, of which there were 196 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and 39 cases of viral hepatitis. Despite the fact that the cases of occupational diseases are annually on the decrease, these are being underdetected.

  16. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers....... This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium...

  17. Agricultural Education at Risk. (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.


    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  18. Agricultural Tariff Tracker (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  19. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.


    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  20. The older worker. (United States)

    Fulks, J S; Fallon, L F


    About one person in eight remains employed past 65, the average age for retirement in the U.S. These persons tend to be highly reliable. They can adapt and learn new technology, but may require extra time to do so. Older workers have particular needs in the workplace due to physiological changes that accompany aging. They may require more lighting, and they may have decreased mobility, physical strength, and dexterity. These factors often have no impact on their ability to accomplish job duties. This chapter underscores the significant contributions that older workers often provide, and also addresses retirement planning.

  1. Crop protection in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letourneau, D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.


    The authors describe pests and diseases and their management in organic versus conventional agriculture. Also two case studies are described: 1. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional cereal crops in Europe and 2. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional tomat

  2. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries. (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John


    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene.

  3. Developmental Status Quo and Trends of Low-carbon Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming; CAO; Xiaohua; PAN; Maobai; LI


    In order to reduce carbon emission in agricultural production,this paper has discussed the developmental trends of low-carbon agriculture in terms of developing precision agriculture,improving the efficiency of fertilizer utilization,scientific use of pesticides,water-saving irrigation,ecological control of pests and diseases,as well as energy conservation and emission reduction by agricultural machinery and other agricultural practices.

  4. Influencing factors and understanding situation of Alzheimer's disease among medical workers%医护人员对阿尔茨海默病的了解现况及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺润莲; 余红梅; 李变娥; 阴小倩; 孙利花


    目的 了解医护人员对阿尔茨海默病(AD)知识的掌握情况及其影响因素.方法 采用单纯随机抽样方法随机抽取3所医院的医生和护士200名,采用阿尔茨海默病知识量表(ADKS)调查医护人员对AD知识的了解情况,并通过自制调查表以问卷形式调查其可能的影响因素.结果 共发放问卷200份,收回有效问卷200份,应答率为100%.其中医生100名(50%),护士100名(50%).ADKS量表评分总分为(60.20±11.940)分,7个方面得分均较低,按照由高到低顺序排列依次为生活的影响(80.83±24.656)、治疗和管理(76.25±24.137)、病程(62.13±23.508)、危险因素(61.75±21.708)、评估和诊断(61.63±23.090)、症状(51.50±26.003)和照料(37.40±20.081).按照影响因素作用由大到小排序,经多重线性回归分析问卷得分总分的影响因素为:工作系列、是否参加过AD知识培训、家庭成员是否患AD/相关障碍、学历.各影响因素与总分均呈正相关,即医生比护士得分高,参加过AD知识培训、家庭成员患AD/相关障碍、学历越高,问卷得分总分越高.结论 3所医院医护人员对AD知识了解整体情况较差,AD知识的各方面得分与诸多因素存在相关关系,据此可制定相应的措施,提高医护人员对阿尔茨海默病的了解.%Objective To study the influencing factors and understanding situation of Alzheimer' s disease among medical workers.Methods Totals of 200 staffs and nurses were randomly selected from three hospitals.Self-designed questionnaire and Alzheimer' s disease knowledge scale was used to measure the understanding situation of medical workers.Results The average score of ADKS was ( 60.20 ± 11.940 ),and the dimensions score was life influencing (80.83 ± 24.656),treatment and management (76.25 ± 24.137),course of disease ( 62.13± 23.508),risk factors ( 61.75± 21.708 ),assessment and diagnosis ( 61.63 ±23.090),symptom(51.50 ± 26.003 ),care ( 37.40 ± 20.081 ).And



    Casimiro Leco Tomás


    An analysis of the temporary workers program that are recruited by the H2-A type visas for agricultural workers, who leave the rural state of Michoacan, Mexico, particularly of indigenous Purepecha communities and what is their participation in contracts, cross-border connections and the impact on Mexico and the United States.

  6. Battling for Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China’s labor pool is not running dry, but migrant workers are expecting more from cities For most of China’s 240 million farmers who leave their hometowns for manualobs in cities, the only opportunity for family reunion is the Spring Festival,or Lunar New

  7. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The recent cases of U.S. fast-food giants McDonald’s and KFC, accused of underpaying and exploiting part-time workers in their Chinese branches, have put labor relations under the spotlight. With deepening market-oriented economic reforms and an increasi

  9. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, John D. [International Epidemiology Inst. Ltd., Rockville, MD (United States)


    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  10. 江苏省部分地区暗娼人群性病感染率及相关危险因素分析%Prevalence of sexually transmitted disease and risk factors among female sex workers in Jiangsu province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩倩; 还锡萍; 羊海涛; 肖占沛; 周建波; 孙林; 赵金扣; 傅更锋


    目的:了解江苏省暗娼人群性病、艾滋病感染状况、行为学特征及梅毒、沙眼衣原体性病感染的危险因素.方法:采用方便抽样,对娱乐场所暗娼人群进行匿名问卷调查,每个调查对象采集5ml静脉血和2支宫颈拭子检测性病、艾滋病,采用SPSS 13.0进行统计分析.结果:本次共调查1 806例暗娼,年龄中位数25岁,最近1年有37.0%的调查对象出现过性病相关症状或体征,梅毒、沙眼衣原体、淋球菌和HIV感染率分别为8.4%、14.7%、5.4%和0.3%;教育水平低、来源场所档次低为梅毒感染的危险因素;年龄小、教育水平高、最近1个月与客人发生过无保护性行为是沙眼衣原体感染的危险因素.结论:江苏省性病感染率高,感染性病的危险因素大量存在,下一步的干预工作中,应对暗娼人群给予重点关注.%Objective:To examine the prevalences of sexually transmitted disease and HIV,and sex behavior among female sex workers as well as the risk factors associated with the treponema pallidum (TP) and chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections in Jiangsu province. Methods; The subjects were recruited by convenient sampling. Demographic and behavioral information was obtained using face-to-face questionnaire interview. Blood sample and cervical swab were collected for the tests of TP,HTV,CT and neisseria gonor-rhoeae(NG). Data analyses were performed using SPSS13.0. Results: A total of 1 806 subjects were recruited with questionnaire information,and blood samples were collected. The median age was 25 years old. The prevalences of TP,CT,NG and HIV were 8.4%, 14.7%,5.4% and 0.3% respectively. Risk factors for TP included lower education level and working in the lower class venues. Risk factors for CT included being younger,higher education level,having unprotected sex with clients during the past month. CondnsioD: High STD prevalence and widespread risk behaviors are identified among female sex workers in

  11. Tick-Borne Diseases (United States)

    ... Health Topics Tick-Borne Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ... No Longer Available Lyme Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ...

  12. Latex Allergy In Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu


    Full Text Available Background and Design: We aimed to determine the frequency of latex allergy in our hospital and to to evaluate the clinical and demographical features of the cases.Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire was administered to healthcare workers by a physician. Skin prick test with latex and patch test with rubber chemicals and a piece of latex glove were performed for all healthcare workers. Latex-specific IgE was measured in serum.Results: The study sample consisted of 36 nurses, 14 doctors, and 50 healthcare workers. While 46 subjects had symptoms, 54 subjects had no symptoms. The relationship of clinical disease with working duration, exposure duration (hour/day, history of atopy, and drug/food allergies was statistically significant. Five nurses and 1 healthcare worker had positive skin prick test. Two of them had positive latex-specific IgE. Positive skin prick test statistically significantly correlated with occupation, working duration, exposure duration (hour/day and positive latex-specific IgE. Two nurses and 2 healthcare workers had positive latex-specific IgE. Two of them had positive skin prick test. Positive latexspecific IgE statistically significantly correlated with working duration, exposure duration, and positive skin prick test. Patch test with a piece of latex glove was negative in all subjects. Three healthcare workers had positive patch test with thiuram-mix, one of them had also positive patch test with mercaptobenzothiazole.Discussion: One of the risk factors for latex allergy is occupations involving frequent exposure to latex products. Latex allergy should be taken into consideration if type I hypersensitivity reactions occur in occupational groups at risk for anaphylactic reaction.

  13. Occupational exposure and awareness of Occupational safety and health among cloth dyeing workers in Jaipur India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kant Upadhyay


    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: We assessed the health risk factors and awareness of Occupational safety and health of workers in cloth dyeing industry of Jaipur. Methods: A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems and awareness of occupational safety and health among workers. Results: The majority of these workers were suffering from eye irritation, back pain, allergies, general weakness, with most workers having three to five of these health problems. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among workers in different age groups. Conclusion: A large number of diseases in different age groups is an indication that this industry exposes workers to many health hazards and lack of awareness and non availability of PPE in this industry is aggravating the health problems of the workers.

  14. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens


    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour of ...

  15. Work-related health problems among resident immigrant workers in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Rosano


    Full Text Available

    Background: in both Spain and Italy the number of immigrants has strongly increased in the last 20 years, currently representing more than the 10% of workforce in each country. The segregation of immigrants into unskilled or risky jobs brings negative consequences for their health. The objective of this study is to compare prevalence of work-related health problems between immigrants and native workers in Italy and Spain.

    Methods: data come from the Italian Labour Force Survey (n=65 779 and Spanish Working Conditions Survey (n=11 019, both conducted in 2007. We analyzed merged datasets to evaluate whether interviewees, both natives and migrants, judge their health being affected by their work conditions and, if so, which specific diseases. For migrants, we considered those coming from countries with a value of the Human Development Index lower than 0.85. Logistic regression models were used, including gender, age, and education as adjusting factors.

    Results: migrants reported skin diseases (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.49; 95%CI: 0.59-3.74 and musculoskeletal problems among those employed in agricultural sector (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.16; 95%CI: 0.69-1.96 more frequently than natives; country-specific analysis showed higher risks of musculoskeletal problems among migrants compared to the non-migrant population in Italy (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 0.48-1.59 and of respiratory problems in Spain (OR=2.02; 95%CI: 1.02-4.0. In both countries the risk of psychological stress was predominant among national workers.

    Conclusions: this collaborative study allows to strength the evidence concerning the health of migrant workers in Southern European countries.

  16. Workers of Acromyrmex echinatior leafcutter ants police worker-laid eggs, but not reproductive workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Michiel B.; van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Dirchsen, Maria


    Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity......, applicable if reproductive workers work less, or (2) an increase in worker-to-male relatedness, applicable if within-colony relatedness is low. To explain the distribution of policing across taxa, the explanatory power of these and other potential ultimate causes should be assessed separately. One of the few...... peculiar to leafcutter ants, we introduced reproductive versus nonreproductive workers and batches of queen-laid versus worker-laid eggs into experimental colony fragments and observed their fate. Our main finding was that workers policed by selectively destroying worker-laid eggs, but without attacking...

  17. The survey of cement dermatitis among construction industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride Sadeghian


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cement has long been known as a cause of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. However, there are little data relating to occupational skin diseases (OSD in the Iranian construction industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the epidemiology of cement dermatitis among terrazzo and cement manufactory workers. Methods: This is cross-sectional descriptive study. In this study 50 cement manufact-ory workers in Shahroud and 150 terrazzo workers in Lordegan were interviewed through questionnaire. Questionnaire includes demographic characteristics and questions about present dermatitis, background eczema, daily work hours, exposed chemical agents, using of gloves. Patients examined and patch tested by dermatologist. Data analyzed with SPSS software and c2, Mann Whitney and logistic regression statistical test. Results: The findings of the study showed that 8 workers (16% in cement factories and 52 workers (34.7% in Lordegan terrazzo enterprises had reported dermatitis at the time of review. Of which 15.5% in terrazzo workers had allergic contact dermatitis. In this study the prevalence of cement dermatitis increased with increasing age and there was significantly differences between dermatitis and background of dermatitis in terrazzo workers (P<0.05. Conclusion: Cement should be treated as hazardous materials, wearing of suitable gloves, early diagnosis and treatment of contact dermatitis and health education to workers is suggested.

  18. Journal of Integrative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  19. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  20. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers


    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.


    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  1. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS. (United States)


    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  2. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a modification of a standardfour input production process where energy is used in an inefficient way due topartly unnecessary waste of energy. The changes in production efficiencyinvestigated using stochastic frontier methods, show declining technicalefficiency in livestock production and especially low marginal contribution oflabor inputs. The number of workers, size of farm, and distance from nearestcity are related to efficiency in agricultural production. It is well known thatresults from an environmental policy in response to global climate change arequite sensitive to the assumption on the rate of energy efficiency improvements.However, technical progress is traditionally considered as a non-economicvariable in economic policy models. It is exogenous in most policy evaluationsas well as in the theory of environmental economics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska


    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  4. The Change Path of Agricultural Production Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang


    Full Text Available The system of agricultural production outsourcing is a breakpoint for the development of agriculture and immigration worker’s urbanization. The analysis based on framework of the Institutional Change reveals that as a whole,the outsourcing system of agricultural production improves the welfare of society effectively. To some extents,it also can solve the problem of food security. The rural transferring labor-forces who realize the institutional change in the initial stage are is the first Action Group to gain the potential benefits. Local governments are a breakpoint of induced institutional change, which find potential benefits and then change the role of system changes. The central government is in dominant statue during the whole change. The outsourcing is a kind of improvement to the Family Contracted System, also an adaption to an imperfect Chinese rural social security. So the outsourcing has a positive meaning in the rural area.

  5. High medical consultation rates of lead workers after industrial dispute over lead effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Murata, K.; Yanagihara, S.; Ushio, K.


    Medical consultation rates were compared between a group of lead workers and two groups of non-lead workers in a newspaper company where a serious industrial dispute took place over health effects of lead three years before this study. The comparison was also made within the group of lead workers. Maximal blood lead concentrations (PbBs) ranged from 0.1 to 3.6 with an average of 1.3 in the past three years. The consultation rate of lead workers was significantly higher than that of both the non-lead workers, when the number of workers who consulted physicians or dentists once or more for a year per 100 workers was compared. Disease-specific consultation rates were also higher in lead workers for seven categories of diseases and injuries such as hypertensive disease and peptic ulcers. When lead workers were divided into three groups by PbB or erythrocytes delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) levels, however, no significantly high rate was found in the higher PbB groups nor lower ALAD groups in terms of general and disease-specific consultation rates. It was concluded that the industrial dispute might have been a major cause of the high consultation rate of lead workers.

  6. [Obstructive sleep apnea features and occupational fitness of railway workers]. (United States)

    Buniatyan, M S; Belozerova, N V; At'kov, O Yu


    The article covers prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, its role in health disorders of workers engaged into railway safety. The authors analyzed present standards of occupational fitness in workers performing critically important operating activities and methods of occupational selection with possible obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. I stage recommendations are suggested in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in workers engaged into railway safety. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome appeared to threaten operators' activity, to cause accidents, to early disablement due to life-threatening complications, to unsuitability for the occupation due to diseases connected with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac rhythm and conductivity disorders, obesity).

  7. Cataract incidence in the cohort of occupationally exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bragin


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cataract incidence in the cohort of workers occupationally exposed to prolonged radiation. Material and Methods: Cataract incidence was studied in the cohort of workers of the first Russian nuclear enterprise — the Mayak, who were firstly employed at one of the main facilities (reactors, radiochemical and plutonium production plants in 1948‑1958 and followed up to the end of 2008 (12210 persons. Total of 3100 cataract cases were registered in the study cohort. All cataract cases were reviewed and verified by experts; the study included only confirmed senile cataracts. All workers of the study cohort were exposed to external gamma-rays; mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays was 0.91±0.01 Gy in males and 0.65±0.01 Gy in females. Statistical analysis provided non-standardized and standardized incidence rates per 100 000 workers. Standardization by sex and age was performed by indirect method using internal reference.Results: 2523 cases of senile cataract were included in the study. Mean age of cataract diagnosis was 62.88±0.26 years in males and 64.88±0.28 years in females. Standardized incidence rates of cataract in females were significantly higher as compared to males and increased with workers age. Comparison between the subcohorts of workers with / without diagnosed cataracts demonstrated that among workers with cataracts the proportions of the following groups of workers were significantly higher: workers employed before 1954; workers employed at reactors; smoking workers; workers with the smoking index exceeding 20 pack*years; workers who consumed alcohol; workers with excessive body weight; workers with glaucoma and arterial hypertension. Moreover the mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays and / or neutron exposure was significantly higher in the subcohort of workers diagnosed with cataracts than that in the subcohort of workers free of the disease. The highest cataract incidence

  8. Proactive Risk Assessments and the Continuity of Business Principles: Perspectives on This Novel, Combined Approach to Develop Guidance for the Permitted Movement of Agricultural Products during a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States. (United States)

    Goldsmith, Timothy J; Culhane, Marie Rene; Sampedro, Fernando; Cardona, Carol J


    Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, stopping all animal movements has been considered one of the most effective ways to control FMD and stop disease spread. However, stopping all movements in an area comes at a cost, as there are often uninfected herds and flocks within the control area. The inability to harvest uninfected animals and move their products to processing interrupts the food supply chain and has the potential to result in an enormous waste of safe, nutritious animal products, and create animal welfare situations. In addition, these adverse effects may negatively impact agriculture businesses and the related economy. Effective disease control measures and the security of the food supply thus require a balanced approach based on science and practicality. Evaluating the risks associated with the movement of live animals and products before an outbreak happens provides valuable insights for risk management plans. These plans can optimize animal and product movements while preventing disease spread. Food security benefits from emergency response plans that both control the disease and keep our food system functional. Therefore, emergency response plans must aim to minimize the unintended negative consequence to farmers, food processors, rural communities, and ultimately consumers.

  9. Proactive Risk Assessments and the Continuity of Business Principles: Perspectives on This Novel, Combined Approach to Develop Guidance for the Permitted Movement of Agricultural Products during a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States (United States)

    Goldsmith, Timothy J.; Culhane, Marie Rene; Sampedro, Fernando; Cardona, Carol J.


    Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, stopping all animal movements has been considered one of the most effective ways to control FMD and stop disease spread. However, stopping all movements in an area comes at a cost, as there are often uninfected herds and flocks within the control area. The inability to harvest uninfected animals and move their products to processing interrupts the food supply chain and has the potential to result in an enormous waste of safe, nutritious animal products, and create animal welfare situations. In addition, these adverse effects may negatively impact agriculture businesses and the related economy. Effective disease control measures and the security of the food supply thus require a balanced approach based on science and practicality. Evaluating the risks associated with the movement of live animals and products before an outbreak happens provides valuable insights for risk management plans. These plans can optimize animal and product movements while preventing disease spread. Food security benefits from emergency response plans that both control the disease and keep our food system functional. Therefore, emergency response plans must aim to minimize the unintended negative consequence to farmers, food processors, rural communities, and ultimately consumers. PMID:28097122

  10. O uso de praguicidas por trabalhadores do setor agrícola atendidos ambulatorialmente em Maringá no período de 2002 a 2003 - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1583 Pesticide use by agricultural workers in outpatients attendance in Maringá in the periods of 2002 and 2003 - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1583

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Machinski Junior


    Full Text Available Os impactos de origem ambiental e ocupacional, relacionados ao uso de praguicidas, têm como alvo imediato a saúde coletiva, pois os resíduos liberados do ambiente ou remanescentes nas culturas estão sendo progressivamente transferidos para a água, para os alimentos e para o homem. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a utilização de praguicidas por trabalhadores do setor agrícola, atendidos no Ambulatório de Toxicologia e Saúde do Trabalhador do Centro de Controle de Intoxicações de Maringá (CCI-Maringá, a fim de avaliar os impactos sobre o ambiente e a saúde dessa população. Durante o período de 2002 a 2003, foi realizado um estudo descritivo retrospectivo em vinte e cinco pacientes atendidos devido à intoxicação por praguicidas. Os resultados demonstraram que os praguicidas representam um importante risco à saúde da população estudada e ao meio ambiente.The environmental and occupational origin impacts concerning the use of pesticides have the public health as immediate target. The environment residues or remainders in the crops are being gradually transferred to water, food and human being. The purpose of this paper was to characterize the use of pesticides by agricultural workers in the outpatient’s attendance of the Toxicology and Worker Health Clinic of the Poisoning Control Center of Maringá (Brazil, in order to evaluate their impacts on the environment and on the population’s health. During the period 2002-2003, a retrospective descriptive study was carried out in twenty-five patients attended for pesticide poisoning. The results showed that the pesticides represent an important risk to the health of the studied population as well as to the environment.

  11. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  12. Animal or Plant Disease, Gypsy Moth spray blocks, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Animal or Plant Disease dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  13. Effect of exposure to solid wastes in relation to employment duration on some important markers of health and disease in waste management workers of Ogun State in southwest Nigeria. (United States)

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ekor, Martins


    Waste management workers (WMWs) around the world are at risk of work-related health disorders. The influence of employment duration on individuals occupationally exposed to solid waste was investigated in this study. The study comprised (n = 280) 180 WMWs and 100 controls. Employment duration was obtained from questionnaire survey and categorized into three groups: group I (0.5-2 years), group II (>2-4 years) and group III (>4-6 years). Blood sample (10 ml) was collected from the antecubital vein of subjects for analysis. WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) elevated inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp)) relative to control. While Cp increased, ESR and CRP decreased with increasing WMWs' employment duration. Alteration in oxidant/antioxidant markers was characterized by significant (p < 0.001) decrease in ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and catalase activity together with marked (p < 0.01) elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and uric acid (UA). TBARS, UA and FRAP increased while catalase decreased with WMWs' employment duration. In addition, WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) elevated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, which also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. The significantly (p < 0.01) decreased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels as well as the significantly (p < 0.001) elevated total leukocytes in WMWs increased with employment duration. Alanine aminotransferase increased and albumin decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in WMWs, and these changes also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. Data suggest that levels of alteration of important systemic markers of health/disease are related to WMWs' employment or exposure duration.

  14. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valipour Noroozi


    Full Text Available Background Musculoskeletal disorders are among common occupational diseases in the world, which have high prevalence not only among hard and hurtful jobs, but also in office works. Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among office workers of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods This study carried out intermittently among 392 individuals of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences office workers by Nordic questionnaire from October 2013 to December 2013. Study population included office workers of different departments as well as central organization and library. We use descriptive statistic, t test and chi-square test for data analysis. Results The mean and standard deviation of participants’ age was 35.4 ± 6.7 years and their work experience was 9.7 ± 6.65 years, respectively. Most signs (51% were in back region, which forced 18.9% of individuals to withdraw from daily activities. Statistical analysis also showed 36.7% neck disorders in office workers, which demonstrated significant association with age and work experience (P < 0.001. Conclusions Significant association of work experience and age with musculoskeletal disorders shows that individual’s education and knowledge improvements with regard to ergonomics risk factors and correction of work postures are very important and ought to follow management and technical practices in the organization.

  15. Daily practices of health among sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elouyse Fernandes Leitão


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.

  16. Retired Worker Writes Novel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    SUN Junxian, a retired worker from the Huanghe Machine Building Company in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, spent nearly 15 years writing her autobiographical novel White Snow. With the publication of this novel, Sun has won widespread praise throughout Xi’an. Readers think the novel is effective and true to life. The China Television Play Production Center plans to adapt the novel for a TV series and present it during the

  17. Exposure scenarios for workers. (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Northage, Christine; Money, Chris


    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate considerations of both human health and the environment. Specific aspects are relevant for worker exposure. Gathering information on the uses of the chemical is an important step in developing an Exposure Scenario. In-house information at manufacturers is an important source. Downstream users can contribute information through direct contact or through their associations. Relatively simple approaches (Tier 1 tools, such as the ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment and the model EASE) can be used to develop broad Exposure Scenarios that cover many use situations. These approaches rely on the categorisation of just a few determinants, including only a small number of risk management measures. Such approaches have a limited discriminatory power and are rather conservative. When the hazard of the substance or the complexity of the exposure situation require a more in-depth approach, further development of the Exposure Scenarios with Tier 2 approaches is needed. Measured data sets of worker exposure are very valuable in a Tier 2 approach. Some downstream user associations have attempted to build Exposure Scenarios based on measured data sets. Generic Tier 2 tools for developing Exposure Scenarios do not exist yet. To enable efficient development of the worker exposure part of Exposure Scenarios a further development of Tier 1 and Tier 2 tools is needed. Special attention should be given to user friendliness and to the validity (boundaries) of the approaches. The development of standard worker exposure descriptions or full Exposure Scenarios by downstream user branches in cooperation with manufacturers and importers is recommended.

  18. Importance of respiratory exposure to pesticides among agricultural populations. (United States)

    Dowling, Kathryn C; Seiber, James N


    In the majority of cases, respiratory exposure accounts for a small fraction of total body exposure to pesticides; however, higher volatility pesticides pose a greater risk for exposure, particularly in enclosed spaces and near application sites. In 2000, nearly 22 million pounds of active ingredients designated as toxic air contaminants (TACs) were applied as pesticides in California (combined agricultural and reportable non-agricultural uses; California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 2001a, Summary of Pesticide Use Report Data, 2000, Sacramento, CA: author). Agricultural workers and agricultural community residents are at particular risk for exposure to these compounds. The TAC program in California, and more recently the federal Clean Air Act amendments, have begun to address the exposures of these groups and have promulgated exposure guidelines that are, in general, much more stringent than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) worker exposure guidelines. Choosing lower volatility pesticides, lower concentrations of active ingredients, and handling equipment designed to minimize exposure can often reduce worker respiratory exposures significantly. The use of personal protective equipment, which would be facilitated by the development of more ergonomic alternatives, is important in these higher respiratory exposure situations. Finally, in the case of community residents, measures taken to protect workers often translate to lower ambient air concentrations, but further study and development of buffer zones and application controls in a given area are necessary to assure community protection.

  19. Toward malaysian sustainable agriculture in 21st century (United States)

    Khorramnia, K.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Rahim, A. Abdul; Mansor, S.


    Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system.

  20. The Government and Migrant Workers in Transfer of Industry


    Hui Zhang


    The industry transfer from east region to west region of China has become an inevitable trend of economic development, it need massive agricultural population change to non-agricultural population in China. Based on the redefinition of the citizenization of migrant workers, this article points out that ¡°absence of government¡± is the reason which leads to a series of relative problems. In order to solve these problems, it needs the government to take measures from the ¡°thought¡± and ¡°actio...

  1. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity


    Efi Yuliati Yovi; Suryaningsih Suryaningsih


    Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise) produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance ...

  2. Employers' Perceptions of Recent Agricultural Communications Graduates' Workplace Habits and Communication Skills (United States)

    Irlbeck, Erica Goss; Akers, Cindy


    Agricultural communications programs should frequently review their curriculum to ensure students receive the highest quality of education possible (Akers, 2000). This research is a nationwide look at recent agricultural communications graduates' employers and/or co-workers. The purpose of this study was to determine which workplace habits and…

  3. 张家口市2012年城镇女职工妇女病专项筛查情况分析%Analysis of gynecologic diseases screening results of in-service female workers in Zhangjiakou in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立霞; 王艳; 李海荣; 宋志秀; 姜娟


    Objectives:To investigate the status and trends as well as prevalence rate of gynecological dis-ease,so as to provide a scientific basis for the development of interventions to gynecological diseases prevention and control and improve female health in Zhangjiakou.Methods:The special screening was implemented among 28,925 female workers,including routine gynecological,breast palpation,breast ultrasound,pelvic ultrasound,liquid -based cytology test (TCT examination the cervix).Results:In the 28,925 cases,20,189 (69.79%)got such dis-eases,the first four of which were breast disease (34.52%),cervical disease (24.24%),vulvovaginitis (7.60%)and uterine fibroids (3.76%).Conclusion:To carry out a special screening of gynecological diseases is a focus of female healthcare in the future.Health education should be carried out actively,to enhance female health knowledge popularization and improve the awareness of female self-care;interventions according female health-related factors shall be conducted to improve their health and quality of life.%目的:了解张家口地区妇女病发病状况和变化趋势,探讨妇女病的患病率,为制定妇女病防治工作的干预措施提供科学依据,以提高张家口地区妇女健康水平。方法:对28925例在职女职工进行专项筛查,主要包括妇科常规、乳腺触诊、乳腺彩超、盆腔彩超、液基薄层细胞检测(宫颈TCT检查)。结果:28925例中,患病20189(69.79%),前4位分别是乳腺疾病34.52%、宫颈疾病24.24%、外阴阴道炎7.60%和子宫肌瘤3.76%。结论:开展妇科病专项筛查是今后妇女保健工作的重点,应积极开展健康教育,加强妇女保健知识科普宣传,提高广大妇女的自我保健意识,针对影响妇女健康的相关因素采取干预措施,提高妇女健康水平和生活质量。

  4. Associations of ozone and PM2.5 concentrations with Parkinson’s disease among participants in the Agricultural Health Study (United States)

    Background: Evidence from experimental studies suggests that exposure to air pollution may be associated with risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objective: To evaluate associations of ambient ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 – particulate matter with an aerodynamic diam...

  5. Systemic perspectives on scaling agricultural innovations. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, Seerp; Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees; Schut, Marc; Muilerman, Sander; Jochemsen, Henk


    Agricultural production involves the scaling of agricultural innovations such as disease-resistant and drought-tolerant maize varieties, zero-tillage techniques, permaculture cultivation practices based on perennial crops and automated milking systems. Scaling agricultural innovations should take

  6. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante


    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170 accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%. The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent occurrence and the circumstances of the accidents were related to the handling of sharps and the most common organic material was blood (63.5%. More than 50% of the workers were vaccinated against hepatitis B, but without information regarding the evaluation of vaccine response. The study revealed the need of improvement in the quality of the information, once the sub-entries and inconsistencies make the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System less trustworthy in the characterization of the affected workers.

  7. National Agriculture Imagery Program (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  8. Agricultural Libraries and Information. (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.


    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  9. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture. (United States)

    Pierce, Dick


    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  10. Urban Agricultural Education. (United States)

    Corbellini, Margaret


    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  11. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture. (United States)

    Pierce, Dick


    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  12. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René


    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  13. Doenças do sistema osteomuscular em trabalhadores de enfermagem Enfermedades del sistema osteomuscular en trabajadores de enfermería Diseases of the osteomuscular system in nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Tiemi Murofuse


    registros médicos, con base en un guión elaborado por los autores. Los diagnósticos fueron agrupados según la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-10 y comparados con la lista de enfermedades relacionadas al trabajo del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil. El programa estadístico SPSS fue utilizado en el análisis de los datos. El 11,83% (718 de las 6070 atenciones realizadas presentaron diagnósticos de problemas relacionados al sistema osteomuscular, involucrando diversas estructuras corporales como la columna vertebral, miembros superiores e inferiores. Las enfermedades consideradas legalmente como enfermedades del trabajo relacionadas al sistema músculo-esquelético fueron identificadas en 255 (35% atenciones, destacándose las dorsalgias (20% y las sinovitis y tenosinovitis (13,7% agrupadas como LER-DORT. Se concluye que mayor atención deba ser dirigida a las posturas adoptadas por los trabajadores en la ejecución de las actividades laborales y a las condiciones de los muebles. También se hace necesario disponibilizar instrumentos y equipamientos ergonómicamente diseñados con vistas a disminuir la incidencia de los problemas osteomusculares.This descriptive and retrospective research was realized at the Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, and aimed to analyze health problems related to the osteomuscular system in nursing workers of 23 health institutions, who are attended by the Occupational Health Care Division in 2002. Data were collected from the care service maps and from the medical records, on the basis of a script elaborated by the authors. The diagnoses were grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases CID-10 - 10th Review and compared to the Brazilian Health Ministry's list of work-related diseases. The statistical program SPSS was used for data analysis. 11.83% (718 of the 6070 care sessions were diagnosed as osteomuscular problems, involving various body structures such as the spine, upper and lower

  14. Interstitial pulmonary disorders in indium-processing workers. (United States)

    Chonan, T; Taguchi, O; Omae, K


    The production of indium-tin oxide has increased, owing to the increased manufacture of liquid-crystal panels. It has been reported that interstitial pneumonia occurred in two indium-processing workers; therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether interstitial pulmonary disorders were prevalent among indium workers. The study was carried out in 108 male workers in the indium plant where the two interstitial pneumonia patients mentioned above were employed, and included high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs, pulmonary function tests and analysis of serum sialylated carbohydrate antigen KL-6 and the serum indium concentration. Significant interstitial changes were observed in 23 indium workers on HRCT and serum KL-6 was abnormally high (>500 U x mL(-1)) in 40 workers. Workers with serum indium concentrations in the highest quartile had significantly longer exposure periods, greater HRCT changes, lower diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and higher KL-6 levels compared with those in the lowest quartile. The serum indium concentration was positively correlated with the KL-6 level and with the degree of HRCT changes. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that serum KL-6 and high-resolution computed tomography abnormalities were prevalent among indium workers and that these abnormalities increased with the indium burden, suggesting that inhaled indium could be a potential cause of occupational lung disease.

  15. The work ability index and functional capacity among older workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire S. Padula


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlates of physical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI. METHOD: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old. The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices, the WAI, and a battery of physical functional tests. RESULTS: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237. Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004. The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests of physical functional capacity in the aging group.

  16. Frequency of occupational injuries and the health status of workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jovica M.


    Full Text Available Introduction Occupational injuries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among workers. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of occupational injuries and health status of workers. Material and methods The examined group consisted of 3.750 workers with health disorders. The control group included 1.800 healthy workers. Both groups were similar in terms of many factors that could contribute to the occurrence of occupational injuries. The injury rates were calculated in both groups. Results Workers with psychomotor and sensorimotor disorders, neuroses, obstructive sleep apnea, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hearing, vascular and sight impairments have been frequently injured compared to workers with other diseases. Discussion Due to the belief that accidents and occupational injuries are preventable, it is an imperative to study those factors which are likely to contribute to occurrence of accidents. The contributing factors could be the physical and mental state of workers. Conclusion Occupational injuries are significantly more common in the examined group than in controls.

  17. China's Migrant Workers' Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sifeng; Zhang Wenxue; Wang Lijian; Zhang Li


    Based on the definition of migrant workers and migrant workers'social security,systems,policies and regulations and status quo of specific safeguard project of social security have been analyzed.Authors draw following conclusions: China's social security systems of migrant workers show diversification and differentiation trend; national-level policies take on diversification and local-level regulations take on differentiation; social welfare and social assistance have deficiency; coverage rate of social insurance items is extremely low.

  18. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  19. Allergy to latex in health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajardo-Zapata, Álvaro L.


    Full Text Available Introduction: A common and growing problem in hospitals is hypersensitivity to rubber latex antigens, since many products, including gloves, are manufactured from this material, with the consequent possibility of producing allergy in persons who use them. Objective: To find out if health workers at a fourth level clinic in Bogotá, Colombia, are allergic to rubber latex, in relation to the use of gloves. Materials and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a non-probabilistic intentional-type sample in each one of four hospital units. A survey was applied to participants. Results: 16 of the 26 persons (61.5% with history of allergic processes manifested some kind of reaction when they had contact with latex gloves; the problem was more significant in the nursing personnel compared to physicians. Conclusions: The exposure to latex gloves may be generating the appearance of allergic occupational disease in health workers.

  20. A season in the life of a migrant farm worker in California.


    Palerm, J V


    There is an erroneous but widespread belief that in the past few decades California agriculture has become increasingly mechanized and reduced its need for migrant labor. Steeply increasing demand, however, for specialty fruit and vegetable crops, which are labor-intensive, has actually increased the need for migrant workers, who come mainly from Mexico. A case study of a young migrant describes the dismal work, economic, and living conditions such workers typically endure and the possible he...

  1. A season in the life of a migrant farm worker in California. (United States)

    Palerm, J V


    There is an erroneous but widespread belief that in the past few decades California agriculture has become increasingly mechanized and reduced its need for migrant labor. Steeply increasing demand, however, for specialty fruit and vegetable crops, which are labor-intensive, has actually increased the need for migrant workers, who come mainly from Mexico. A case study of a young migrant describes the dismal work, economic, and living conditions such workers typically endure and the possible health consequences of those conditions.

  2. Innovations in urban agriculture



    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  3. Ethical issues in worker productivity. (United States)

    Forst, Linda; Levenstein, Charles


    Occupational health has always operated at the intersection of corporate economic concerns and worker health. Conflicting demands on the loyalty of occupational health professionals by the interests of labor and industry have made negotiating this minefield an essential part of the practice of occupational medicine. In recent years, occupational health professionals have found themselves increasingly required to rationalize worker health measures with economic arguments. This has led to physician engagement in the realm of defining and measuring worker productivity. Ethical guidelines that hold worker health as a top priority are critical in preserving the responsibility of occupational physicians to their patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Ogunbameru


    Full Text Available Basically, climate change refers to any change in climate overtime, generally caused by natural variability and/or human activities. It has great devastating impact, particularly on agriculture and by extrapolation on farmers and the national economy. The frontline agricultural extension workers are expected to be among the principal stakeholders to teach farmers how to cope with climate change. Consequently, there is a need to develop appropriate teaching package for the training of the frontline agricultural extension workers, based on the myriad of adaptation strategies and practices available in the literature. This paper synthesizes the rationale for capacity building in climate change and the adaptation or coping strategies. The modules (train-the-trainer for teaching agricultural extension workers and farmers are documented in the paper.

  5. An Evaluation Tool for Agricultural Health and Safety Mobile Applications. (United States)

    Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C


    As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas.

  6. 医护人员要注重经血液传播疾病的职业防护%MedicalWorkersShouldPayAttentiontotheProtectionoftheOccupationofBloodTransmittedDiseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      目的引导医护人员正确认识自身职业暴露发生的血液传播性疾病感染,提高医护人员的重视程度,有效控制医院内感染,提高自身安全性。方法阐述了经血液传播疾病的职业感染状况和感染途径,并详细说明妇产科医护人员的职业防护及意外事故的处理。结果经血液传播疾病的暴露途径主要有机械性损伤,破损皮肤或非消化道黏膜与患者血液、体液接触,忽略防护,缺乏职业暴露的防护知识,缺乏合格的防护设备和用品。通过规范操作,正确处理器械,戴手套,穿隔离衣,认真洗手,暴露部位的局部处理,器械消毒,增强自我防护意识等措施可以有效预防传播。结论医疗卫生事业中,医务工作者的工作环境决定了其自身长期处于具有生物危险性的环境之下。因此,需强化自我保护意识,规范手术操作,注重血液传播性疾病的控制。%Objective To guide the staff a correct understanding of their own occupation exposure to blood-borne infections disease, increase the degree of attention of medical staff, In order to strengthen ego to protect consciousness, improve their own safety. Methods This paper expounds the occupation infection and pathway of blood transmitted diseases, and detailed treatment of Obstetrics and gynecology medical personnel occupation protection and accident medical and health services . Result Through the exposure of the blood transmitted diseases mainly include mechanical damage, broken skin or not contact with the patient's blood, body fluids, the digestive tract mucosa, ignore the protection and the lack of occupational exposure protection knowledge, lack of qualified protective equipment and supplies. Through the standardized operation, correct processing equipment, gloves, wear protective clothing, wash hands thoroughly, exposed parts of the local processing, equipment disinfection, strengthen the

  7. Selection of checkpoints provided by the ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture tool for mechanized sugarcane harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Rodrigues Ferreira


    Full Text Available The changing work dynamics of sugarcane harvesting owing to increasing mechanization has submitted workers to new working conditions, including interaction with machinery and equipment, thereby changing the profile of work-related diseases and injuries. One of the ways to solve problems resulting from the impact of mechanization on working conditions is the use of instruments that allow risk identification from man-labor ratio. This study aimed at selecting checkpoints applicable to mechanized sugarcane harvesting provided by the Ergonomic Checkpoints in Agriculture tool. A literature review of the mechanical sugarcane harvesting stages was conducted and, in light of its particularities, checkpoints provided by the aforementioned tool were analyzed. As a result, there were identified thirty-four checkpoints with potential application to mechanical sugarcane harvesting.

  8. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners (United States)

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma


    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  9. MCP-1 secretion in lung from nonsmoking patients with coal worker`s pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boitelle, A.; Gosset, P.; Vanhee, D.; Wallaert, B.; Tonnel, A.B. [Institut Pasteur, INSERM U416, Lille (France); Copin, M.C.; Gosselin, B. [Service d`anatomie et de cytologie pathologique, CHRU, Lille (France); Marquette, C.H. [Hopital A. Calmette, Clinique des maladies respiratoires, Lille (France)


    Exposure to coal dust leads to development of coal worker`s pneumoconiosis (CWP), a disease associated with accumulation of macrophages in lower respiratory tract. Mechanisms controlling monocyte recruitment are still poorly understood. Since monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is recognized as a potent chemotactic factor for blood monocytes, we tested for presence of MCP-1 in pulmonary compartment of patients with CWP. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 16 nonsmoking control subjects and 27 nonsmoking CWP patients (16 with simple pneumoconiosis (SP) and 11 with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF)) was analysed. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were purified by adherence and BALF was concentrated 10x by lyophilization. MCP-1 was measured in BALF and in 3 h AM supernatants using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Localization of MCP-1 in lung tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue sections from three patients with CWP and two control subjects. MCP-1 levels were higher in concentrated BALF from patients with SP or PMF (median 370 and 555 pg x mL{sup -1}, respectively) than in those form control subjects (median 11 pg x mL{sup -1}) (p<0.001). Released MCP-1 in AM supernatants was enhanced in patients with CWP (median 83 pg x mL{sup -1}) but compared to controls (median 41 pg x mL{sup -1}) this level did not reach significance. Although significantly increased, AM counts in BALF from patients with CWP did not correlate with MCP-1 levels. MCP-1 levels in BALF correlated with MCP-1 levels in AM supernatants ({rho}=0.47; p<0.02). Data demonstrate that: 1) patients with coal worker`s pneumoconiosis have a marked pulmonary overproduction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; and 2) in addition to alveolar macrophages, fibroblasts (probably myofibroblasts) and hyperplastic type II pneumocytes may also be responsible for this increased level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in coal worker`s pneumoconiosis. (EG) 29 refs.

  10. Remuneration Difference between Migrant Workers and Non-migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlin; DUAN; Huawei; LUO


    Through the survey of direct economic remuneration, indirect economic remuneration and non-economic remuneration of employees in flat panel furniture enterprises in Chengdu City, we conduct a comparative analysis of the problems and causes of remuneration difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers. The results show that the wage difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers is the biggest, and there is little difference in terms of interests safeguarding and non-economic factors. The reason for the above results lies in the difference of education level; gender, region, household registration and other issues have little impact on the above results. The following recommendations are put forward to improve the remuneration of migrant workers: increasing government’s policy advocacy efforts and eliminating subjective offense; establishing the administrative oversight bodies and effectively safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers; strengthening vocational training for migrant workers, so that workers have more choices on positions; improving the working environment and developing good working atmosphere.

  11. Mobile Applications for Knowledge Workers and Field Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieglitz


    Full Text Available In recent years, the diffusion of mobile applications (mobile apps has risen significantly. Nowadays, mobile business apps are strongly emerging in business, enhancing productivity and employees’ satisfaction, whilst the usage of customized individual enterprise apps is still an exception. Standardized business apps enable basic functionalities, for example, mobile data storage and exchange (e.g., Dropbox, communication (e.g., Skype, and other routine processes, which support mobile workers. In addition, mobile apps can, for example, increase the flexibility of mobile workers by easing the access to firm’s information from outside the enterprise and by enabling ubiquitous collaboration. Hence, mobile apps can generate competitive advantages and can increase work efficiency on a broad scale. But mobile workers form no coherent group. Our research reveals, based on two case studies, that they can be clustered into two groups: knowledge workers and field workers. Knowledge workers and field workers fulfill different tasks and work in different environments. Hence, they have different requirements for mobile support. In this paper we conclude that standardized mobile business apps cannot meet the different requirements of various groups of mobile workers. Task- and firm-specific (individualized requirements determine the specification, implementation, and application of mobile apps.

  12. 78 FR 19098 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date (United States)


    ... in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers), and... skill level in the area of intended employment. Pursuant to that now- vacated regulation, the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma


    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  14. Netherlands : employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.


    There is no clear national definition of a chronic disease in a work situation in the Netherlands. Questionnaire data shows that between 25% and 30% of all workers are affected by a chronic disease. Worker with a chronic disease have slightly different working conditions as compared to workers witho


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock


    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  16. Learning and recall of Worker Protection Standard (WPS) training in vineyard workers. (United States)

    Anger, W Kent; Patterson, Lindsey; Fuchs, Martha; Will, Liliana L; Rohlman, Diane S


    Worker Protection Standard (WPS) training is one of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) primary methods for preventing pesticide exposure in agricultural workers. Retention of the knowledge from the training may occasionally be tested by state Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (state OSHAs) during a site visit, but anecdotal evidence suggests that there is no consistent testing of knowledge after WPS training. EPA's retraining requirements are at 5-year intervals, meaning the knowledge must be retained for that long. Vineyard workers completed a test of their baseline WPS knowledge, computer-based training on WPS, a post-test immediately after training and a re-test 5 months later. Pre-test performance suggested that there was a relatively high level of baseline knowledge of WPS information on two-answer multiple choice tests (74% to 75%) prior to training. Training increased the knowledge to 85% on the post-test with the same questions, a significant increase (p WPS information may be the most important impact of training.

  17. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte


    in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...... the last decades, the composition of agricultural support has changed significantly. Market price support has decreased, and direct support has increased....

  18. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette


    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  19. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland


    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula


    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, tar...

  20. Health effects of agrochemicals among farm workers in commercial farms of Kwekwe district, Zimbabwe


    Magauzi, Regis; Mabaera, Bigboy; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Chimusoro, Anderson; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Shambira, Gerald; Chadambuka, Addmore; Gombe, Notion


    Introduction Farm workers are at a very high risk of occupational diseases due to exposure to pesticides resulting from inadequate education, training and safety systems. The farm worker spends a lot of time exposed to these harmful agrochemicals. Numerous acute cases with symptoms typical of agrochemical exposure were reported from the commercial farms. We assessed the health effects of agrochemicals in farm workers in commercial farms of Kwekwe District (Zimbabwe), in 2006. Methods An analy...

  1. High medical consultation rates of lead workers after industrial dispute over lead effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Murata, K.; Yanagihara, S.; Ushio, K.


    Medical consultation rates were compared between a group of lead workers (346 males) and two groups of non-lead workers (317 and 329 males) in a newspaper company where a serious industrial dispute took place over health effects of lead three years before this study. The comparison was also made within the group of lead workers. Maximal blood lead concentrations (PbBs) ranged from 0.1 mumol/kg to 3.6 mumol/kg (74 microgram/100 g) with an average of 1.3 mumol/kg in the past three years. Ages averaged 35 years in lead workers, and 34 and 30 years in non-lead workers, the ranges being 19-55 years in all. The consultation rate of lead workers was significantly higher than that of both the non-lead workers (P less than 0.001), when the number of workers who consulted physicians or dentists once or more for a year per 100 workers (general consultation rate) was compared. Disease-specific consultation rates were also higher in lead workers for seven categories of diseases and injuries such as hypertensive disease and peptic ulcers. When lead workers were divided into three groups by PbB or erythrocytes delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) levels, however, no significantly high rate was found in the higher PhB groups not lower ALAD groups in terms of general and disease-specific consultation rates. It was concluded that the industrial dispute might have been a major cause of the high consultation rate of lead workers.

  2. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba. (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K


    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  3. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalencia de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles en mujeres profesionales del sexo en un municipio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalência de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres profissionais do sexo, em um município do interior paulista, Brasil


    Maíra Rodrigues Baldin-Dal Pogetto; Márcia Guimarães Silva; Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada


    Changes in the profile of sexually transmitted diseases have increased the need for their detection, particularly where there is a concentration of individuals with risk behavior, so that diagnosis and immediate treatment can be translated in the reduction of resulting problems. The objective was to identify the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a medium-sized city in São Paulo state. This population prevalence study was conducted in 2008 on 102 females. The...

  4. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed (United States)

    Labour Education, 1975


    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  5. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. (United States)

    Obi, Okey Francis


    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  6. Economic Globalization and Workers: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-J. Visser (Evert-Jan); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)


    textabstractThis dossier deals with the impact of economic globalisation on workers, especially in developing nations: their employment opportunities, wage income, job security and other aspects of decent work (ILO 1999, 2002). This is a highly relevant theme. Not only do workers in the EU, the Unit

  7. Workers' Education and the ILO (United States)

    Guigui, Albert


    In its concern to eliminate the imbalance between social and economic development, the International Labour Organisation has two objectives in its workers' education activities: to help workers protect themselves against the harmful effects of our technological society; and to strengthen their ability to discharge their social responsibilities.…

  8. [Parkinson's disease due to laboral exposition to paraquat]. (United States)

    León-Verastegui, Angel Gilberto


    Parkinson's disease is considered a neurodegenerative disorder, which involves environmental factors in the etiology of the disease. Such as chemical agents with neuromolecular effect among which is the MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 tetra-hydropyridine), MPP (1-methyl-4-phenyl hypyridinium), paraquat, the latter used as a herbicide in the agricultural fields of our country. It has been documented in epidemiological and experimental studies the association of occupational exposure to paraquat and Parkinson's disease. The aim of this paper is to describe a clinical case of occupational medicine in Parkinson's disease in occupationally exposed workers to paraquat, elevating the importance of medical history work, which was the key to the clinical case study.

  9. Prevalência de distúrbios respiratórios e avaliação de vacinação contra a gripe entre trabalhadores Prevalence of respiratory diseases and evaluation of the influenza vaccination program for workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Apesar de a vacina contra a gripe ser considerada eficiente na prevenção da gripe e de suas complicações, ainda existem controvérsias sobre as vantagens de sua utilização em adultos sadios. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para caracterizar a ocorrência de problemas respiratórios comuns, particularmente a gripe, e avaliar um programa de imunização contra a influenza entre trabalhadores. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado um estudo de delineamento transversal entre trabalhadores da indústria. Foram coletados dados sobre características sociodemográficas e sobre problemas respiratórios. Foram caracterizadas as gripes ocorridas no último ano e avaliado o desempenho da vacina. RESULTADOS: Entre os 446 entrevistados, 18,3% apresentaram quadros intensos de gripes e a 11,7% foi concedido afastamento do trabalho devido a gripe. No geral, 70% dos funcionários avaliaram que no seu caso pessoal houve melhora na ocorrência de gripes após a vacinação. CONCLUSÕES: A avaliação positiva da vacina feita pelos funcionários e a baixa ocorrência de efeitos colaterais apoiam a manutenção do atual programa contra a influenza. Mas persistem várias dúvidas sobre as vantagens econômicas da vacina, indicando a necessidade de mais estudos sobre este tema.INTRODUCTION: The vaccine against influenza is an efficient way to prevent flu episodes and its complications; however, its economical advantages for healthy workers are still controversial. This study was developed to characterize the occurrence of common respiratory problems, especially influenza, and evaluate an influenza vaccination program for workers. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was developed among factory workers. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and respiratory diseases were collected. Flu episodes during the past year were characterized and vaccination was evaluated. RESULTS: Among 446 interviewed workers, 18.3% presented influenza-like episodes and 11.7% were

  10. [Some economic and demographic norms of workers from three settled municipalities]. (United States)

    Barrientos, G E; Pastor, M E


    Preliminary data on household structures of proletarian and semiproletarian workers in 3 municipios of the state of Puebla, Mexico, are presented. This work is part of a larger study of the 5 municipios with the highest proportion of industrial workers in the state of Puebla. Among the 3 municipios in the present study, Puebla contained 48.4% of the state's industrial workers, Tehuacan 6.9%, and Cholula 3.9%. A structured questionnaire was used during interviews with 27 male and 25 female factory workers in Puebla, 24 male and 15 female workers in Cholula, and 25 male and 20 female factory workers in Tehuacan. 16% of households of industrial workers in Puebla and Cholula supplemented their wage income with agricultural work, compared to 27% in Tehuacan. 10 of the workers, all women, were under 20 years old. 73% of women workers were under 30 years old, compared to 34% of the male workers. Women workers virtually disappeared after 40 years. Less educated women tend to enter the labor force at early ages and use their incomes to aid the parental budget. The tendency is reinforced by the preference of factories for a very young female labor force that also stops working a young age due to marriage. Women supported households alone in 8 cases and with the aid of other women in 4 cases. 52 households depended on the income of 1 man and another 17 on the income of more than 1 man. 48 of the women but only 7 of the men belonged to households in which both men and women were economically active. Households supported by just 1 man tended to be quite large. The data suggest a postponement of the age at 1st pregnancy among female workers.

  11. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers. (United States)

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P


    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.

  12. Moroccan immigrants in the Andalusian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios


    Full Text Available In Andalucia (Spain, the absense of local labor willing to accept the wages and work conditions offered in the export farming sector, together with the growth of production of hand-harvested fruits and vegetables, has increased the farmer´s dependence upon migrant labor, principally from Morocco. Moreover, a high level of irregular labor in the agricultural sector results from the coexistence of restrictive laws with the employer´s willingness to break the law hiring cheap, flexible, non-unionized and legally defenseless labor, in order to reduce costs and increase economic benefits. At the same time, in an increasingly xenophobic atmosphere, Moroccans live in very precarious conditions which include rudimentary housing where a majority of the migrants reside in overcrowded conditions. Using qualitative methodology, this article analyzes the social situation of Moroccan migrant workers employed in agriculture in Andalucia, a region situated in the south of Spain.

  13. The Economics of Agricultural and Wildlife Smuggling


    Ferrier, Peyton Michael


    The United States bans imports of certain agricultural and wildlife goods that can carry pathogens or diseases or whose harvest can threaten wildlife stocks or endanger species. Despite these bans, contraband is regularly uncovered in inspections of cargo containers and in domestic markets. This study characterizes the economic factors affecting agricultural and wildlife smuggling by drawing on inspection and interdiction data from USDA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and existing econ...

  14. Agricultural disease and insect-pest control via agro-ecological landscape construction%以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段美春; 刘云慧; 张鑫; 曾为刚; 宇振荣


    Chemical pesticides for controlling plant diseases and insect-pests in farmlands cause a series of serious problems including residue effects, environmental pollution, etc. Bio-pesticides and bio-controls are, on the other hand, slowly effective, high cost, and, always with certain targets. Integrated, high-efficient and environment-friendly disease and insect-pest control measures are in increasing demand today. Landscape ecological research has shown that the populations of pathogenic bacteria, pests and their natural enemies are largely affected by landscape patterns. This has provided a new insight into plant disease and insect-pest control. Rational planning of agro-landscape patterns at landscape scale and reasonable arrangement of planting structures and farming activities constituted a beneficial control of agricultural diseases and insect-pests in farmlands. This paper discussed control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests from the point of view of agro-landscape at the landscape, field and farm management levels. At the landscape level, control measures of plant diseases and insect-pests included increasing area portions of semi-natural habitats, enriching semi-natural and farm crop habitats and enhancing heterogeneity of landscape structures. It was also necessary to keep the degree of connections among landscapes so as to maintain a balanced migration of natural enemies and prevention of the spread of plant diseases and insect-pests. Low-quality semi-natural habitat plaques also needed to be unproved. At the field level, original farmland boundaries needed to be preserved. Also building of new farmland buffers were needed to control plant diseases and insect-pests in adjacent farmlands. Constructed farmland buffers needed to be integrated into original semi-natural habitat and farmland boundaries. Furthermore, it was important that farmland buffers were rationally configured for plant species, weeding,fertilization, spray pesticide and

  15. Pilot project in developing community rehabilitation service for migrant workers suffering from pneumoconiosis in Mainland China. (United States)

    Lo, H Y L K; Luo, X Y; Lau, C M J; Wong, K Y L


    Pneumoconiosis is one of the major occupational health problems in China and increasing numbers of migrant workers suffered from this occupational disease after working in a dusty environment for few years. These migrant workers panicked after being diagnosed as suffering from pneumoconiosis and facing physiological disturbances including progressive dyspnea, respiratory failure or complications like silico-tuberculosis after their return to their rural village. This article reviews the preliminary results of a community rehabilitation pilot project conducted in a rural village in Guizhou, one of the provinces in southwest China. It shares the joint effort of professionals from Guangdong Province and Hong Kong SAR on supporting the migrant workers to manage and cope with this occupational disease. Finally, strategies including early intervention were suggested to help migrant workers to manage the disease. Most importantly, occupational health promotion and prevention were urged as the measures of utmost importance in reducing the risk for migrant workers suffering from pneumoconiosis.

  16. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ


    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  18. Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (United States)

    Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.


    The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;


    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  20. [Occupational risk factors in the biotechnology industry and workers' health status]. (United States)

    Prokhorova, I I


    The mechanisms of the pathogenic effect of microbial cultures used in biotechnological industry and the products of their vital activity on the workers were investigated. A unique classification of the components of the disease incidence with temporary disability is described. The necessity of detecting prepathological conditions and initial occupational affections in the workers for preventing severe consequences of occupational diseases is indicated. On the basis of complex investigations of disease incidence in the workers, revision of the present sanitary and hygienic regulations may be of need.

  1. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier]. (United States)

    Neupert, R F


    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  2. [Musculoskeletal impairment in workers engaged in mining industry of Northern regions]. (United States)

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Kolesov, V G; Shaiakhmetov, S F; Pankov, V A


    Analyzing values of transitory disablement morbidity for workers engaged into mining enterprises of East Siberia and Asiatic Far North, the authors revealed high prevalence of locomotory disorders among inside workers. The authors specified diagnostic criteria for occupational etiology of those disorders, presented arguments against considering cervical and lumbar pains as occupational diseases.

  3. [Concomitant influence of occupational and social risk factors on health of workers engaged into powder metallurgy]. (United States)

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Kostarev, V G; Lebedeva-Nesevria, N A; Shliapnikov, D M


    Results of health risk evaluation in workers engaged into powder metallurgy, using complex of hygienic, medical, epidemiologic and sociologic studies, enable to define priority occupational and social risk factors, to assess degree of their influence on the workers' health and to identify occupationally induced diseases.

  4. A Quest for Meaning: Hospice Social Workers and Patients with End-Stage Dementia (United States)

    Sanders, Sara; Swails, Peggy


    Research shows that few social workers are interested in working with cognitively impaired older adults, such as those with Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia. As the number of individuals with dementia grows, the demand for social workers to provide services to patients with dementia will increase. Although much attention has been given to…

  5. 76 FR 52329 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health: Notice of Charter Renewal (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health, Department of Health and...

  6. 78 FR 53147 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health: Notice of Charter Renewal (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health, Department of...

  7. Vaccinations for waste-handling workers. A review of the literature. (United States)

    Tooher, Rebecca; Griffin, Tabatha; Shute, Elen; Maddern, Guy


    A review of the literature relating to the need for vaccination against infectious disease in the solid waste industry was conducted, focusing on hepatitis A, hepatitis B and tetanus. Databases (Medline, PreMedline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents, Cochrane Database, HTA Database, DARE, OSHROM) were searched up to and including August 2003. Articles were included in the review if they reported the prevalence of immunity to hepatitis A, hepatitis B or tetanus in solid waste workers or the incidence of clinical infection with any of these diseases. Papers about hazardous or medical waste, incineration or other infectious diseases were excluded. Forty-four papers constituted the evidence database. Only one paper studied the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A and hepatitis B in solid waste workers compared with sewage plant workers and office workers, and no difference was found between these groups of workers. There was some evidence to support a theoretical risk of infection with hepatitis A, B and tetanus; however, no studies could be found of the risk of these diseases in solid waste workers. No single cases of these diseases being acquired occupationally in solid waste management were identified in the literature. Workers in the solid waste industry may theoretically be at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases occupationally. However, at present no studies could be found which have documented this risk.

  8. [Occupational dermatitis in construction and public workers]. (United States)

    Frimat, Paul


    Construction workers perform a large variety of duties concerned with building, repairing, and wrecking buildings, bridges, dams, roads, railways and so on. The work may include mixing, pouring and spreading concrete, asphalt, gravel and other materials. Despite the increasing mechanization of construction and the more frequent use of precast concrete sections, contact with wet cement still occurs, particularly in small jobs. The work is hard physical labor, often under difficult conditions, including hot, cold, and wet weather. Occupational diseases of the skin in the construction have paralleled industrial development.

  9. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology


    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza


    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  10. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness



    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  11. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives


    Hakan Adanacıoğlu


    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  12. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn


    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  13. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić


    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  14. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson


    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  15. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  16. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro


    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  17. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria. (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef


    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  18. [The effect of wood dust on the respiratory system. Medical examination of furniture factory workers]. (United States)

    Milanowski, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, G; Cholewa, G; Sitkowska, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Fafrowicz


    The medical-environmental questionnaire, physical examination and pre-shift and post-shift spirometry have been performed in 48 furniture factory workers. The workers showed the work-related symptoms: cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, headache, general malaise, skin symptoms, eye symptoms, rhinitis. No relationship was found between the spirometry values and the frequency of the symptoms. The exposed workers showed a significant post-shift reduction of the FVC, FEV1, FEV1%VC and PEF (p wood may be associated with the work-related respiratory symptoms and diseases in exposed workers.

  19. Determination of farm workers' exposure to pesticides by hair analysis. (United States)

    Schummer, Claude; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Briand, Olivier; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R


    In the present work, a highly sensitive method based on solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography tandem (triple quadrupole) mass spectrometry was used to test hair samples for 50 pesticides including 39 molecules from different chemical families currently used in agriculture and 11 organochlorines. The population investigated was composed of 18 farm workers who provided hair samples repeatedly collected during the entire treatment period (from March to November 2009). Among the 62 hair samples that were collected, 33 different target molecules were detected. The most frequently detected agricultural pesticides were Diflufenican and Pyrimethanil, two herbicides which were detected in 13 subjects. The concentration in volunteers' hair matched with agricultural activity and the highest concentration was observed for Cyprodinil (1161pg/mg), an anilinopyrimidine used as a fungicide. For organochlorines, p,p'-DDE and γ-HCH were the most frequently detected molecules as they were present in at least one of the hair samples provided by each of the 18 volunteers. The highest concentrations detected for these chemicals reached 21.0pg/mg for p,p'-DDE and 23.5pg/mg for γ-HCH, but the highest concentration of organochlorine was observed for β-endosulfan (105pg/mg). The results suggest that farm workers have a weak, though constant exposure to organochlorine pesticides, especially to p,p'-DDE and γ-HCH, while exposure to currently used pesticides is strongly associated with occupation. Observations also suggest that spraying work would not necessarily be the only source of exposure to agricultural pesticides and that worker not directly involved in spraying can also be submitted to significant level of exposure.

  20. The Use of Weed Control Robot (WCR for Achieve to the Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sani


    Full Text Available Today, weeds control is very difficult because they are resistant to the herbicide due to excessive use of chemical herbicides in agriculture. Many studies have shown that mechanical and biological control of weeds can be much less damage to the environment of chemical herbicides. Develop of biological herbicides in agriculture was slow due to high prices and this subject the researchers to move toward the elimination of agricultural weed mechanically. This work was originally done by a many number of workers because and workers' rights didn’t work was ultimately economic value. Now solve this subject by the use of robotic technology in agriculture has been studied and a many number of agricultural researchers with the help of computer scientists move towards making robots to remove the weeds. Of course this is difficult due to excessive weeds similar to the plants, but the final results will help to increase crop and save the environment by eliminating chemical herbicides.

  1. Toward a national core course in agricultural medicine and curriculum in agricultural safety and health: the "building capacity" consensus process. (United States)

    Rudolphi, Josie M; Donham, Kelley J


    ABSTRACT The agricultural industry poses specific hazards and risks to its workers. Since the 1970s, the University of Iowa has been establishing programs to educate rural health care and safety professionals who in turn provide education and occupational health and safety services to farm families and farm workers. This program has been well established in the state of Iowa as a program of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health (I-CASH). However, the National 1989 Agriculture at Risk Report indicated there was a great need for agricultural medicine training beyond Iowa's borders. In order to help meet this need, Building Capacity: A National Resource of Agricultural Medicine Professionals was initiated as a project of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health in 2006. Before the first phase of this project, a consensus process was conducted with a group of safety and health professionals to determine topics and learning objectives for the course. Over 300 students attended and matriculated the agricultural medicine course during first phase of the project (2007-2010). Beginning the second phase of the project (2012-2016), an expanded advisory committee (38 internationally recognized health and safety professionals) was convened to review the progress of the first phase, make recommendations for revisions to the required topics and competencies, and discuss updates to the second edition of the course textbook (Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for the Health Professions). A formal consensus process was held and included an online survey and also a face-to-face meeting. The group was charged with the responsibility of developing the next version of this course by establishing best practices and setting an agenda with the long-term goal of developing a national course in agricultural medicine.

  2. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust. (United States)

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Sharma, Yashwant K; Saiyed, Habibullah N


    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ≥35 years, those exposed for ≥3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ≥10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV(1) values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant.

  3. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Rajnarayan


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ≥35 years, those exposed for ≥3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ≥10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV 1 values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant.

  4. Work-Related Health Effects among Wastewater Treatment Plants Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK El-Shafie


    Full Text Available Background: Raw sewage contains various pathogenic organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungus, worms and protozoa. Workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are exposed to these organisms as well as to H2S gas causing many health hazards.Objectives: To assess some work-related health effects among WWTPs workers with special emphasis on the most common infections as well as cardiopulmonary disorders.Methods: 43 workers at Berket Al-Sabih WWTPs were studied. An equal number of non-exposed comparison group were also studied. All participants were asked about their personal demographic data, symptoms suggesting infection, respiratory tract impairment and cardiovascular manifestations. Spirometric measurements were made at the end of the work shift. A resting standard 12-lead ECG was also taken for each participant. For those with a positive ECG finding, echocardiography was also performed. Serum examination for antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV and hepatitis E virus (HEV was also done. A heparinized blood sample to measure sulf-hemoglobin, as an indicator of H2S exposure, was taken. Stool was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for Leptospira spirochete.Results: WWTPs workers suffered from body ache, abdominal pain, wheeze, asthma and dyspnea more frequently than the comparison group (p<0.05. An obstructive pattern of pulmonary function impairment and a higher mean sulf-hemoglobin% were significantly more common among WWTPs workers than the comparison group. Antibody levels against HAV and HEV as well as frequency of positive stool PCR test results for L. spirochete were significantly higher among WWTPs workers than the comparison group. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH according to ECG and mean ejection fraction (EF as measured by echocardiography were significantly more frequent in WWTPs workers than in the comparison group.Conclusion: WWTPs workers are high risk of developing various infections and

  5. Does farm worker health vary between localised and globalised food supply systems? (United States)

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Opondo, Maggie; Nyeko, Philip; Edwards-Jones, Gareth


    Significant environmental benefits are claimed for local food systems, but these biophysical indicators are increasingly recognised as inadequate descriptors of supply chain ethics. Social factors such as health are also important indicators of good practice, and are recognised by the organic and local food movements as important to the development of rounded sustainable agricultural practices. This study compared the self-reported health status of farm workers in the United Kingdom, Spain, Kenya and Uganda who were supplying distant markets with fresh vegetables. Workers on Kenyan export horticulture farms reported significantly higher levels of physical health than did Kenyan non-export farm workers and workers in the other study countries. Mean health levels for farm workers in the United Kingdom were significantly lower than relevant population norms, indicating widespread levels of poor health amongst these workers. These results suggest that globalised supply chains can provide social benefits to workers, while local food systems do not always provide desirable social outcomes. The causal mechanisms of these observations probably relate more to the social conditions of workers than directly to income.

  6. Discussion on How to Protect Legal Rights of Migrant Workers Suffered from Occupational Disease after Signing Unfair Work-related Injury Compensation Agreements%签署不当工伤赔偿协议后农民工维权问题刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祖兵; 胡训军; 徐纪良; 李思惠


    Two iPhone production line companies of Apple Inc. in China were suspected to force employees who had been poisoned by n-hexane into signing the work-related injury compensation agreements, which included some illegal clauses such as "first quit and then compensation". It disclosed the difficulties in identifying occupational disease and acquiring legal rights through legal process for the migrant workers in China. This paper discussed on the causes of such event, the validity of such work-related injury compensation agreements, and how to protect own rights after signing work-related injury compensation agreements reluctantly for the migrant workers suffered from occupational disease; and tried to give useful advices for helping such migrant workers.%毒苹果事件中,苹果股份有限公司(Apple Inc.)的两家供应商公司被质疑强迫正已烷中毒员工签署先离职后赔偿的霸王条款,暴露了我国大陆农民工职业病维权难的问题.故特从农民工维权难的原因、不当工伤赔偿协议的有效性评价及签订协议后如何维权等几方面进行探讨,以供广大农民工及职业卫生与安全相关工作人员参考.

  7. The First Identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in an Animal Care Worker in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Carhan


    Full Text Available As a zoonotic pathogen, Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a cause of serious disease in animals and people. The present study was to evaluate the health status examination of this seropositive animal care worker in our previous study.Blood samples were taken from five workers. CIA test was applied to detect antibodies against E. cuniculi in blood serum. The indirect immunofluorescence antibody test was used as confirmation test. Seropositive worker had a complete medical examination.Only one worker was found to be seropositive according to the results of the serological test. Sera positive to E. cuniculi was confirmed with IFAT and spores were detected in the urine sample of the worker. The worker was treated with albendazole.Rabbits should be examined routinely for the presence of anti-E. cuniculi antibody. People working with laboratory animal should avoid contact with urine and faeces of infected or pay attention to personal hygiene.

  8. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf


    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  9. The worker profile autocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Omar Delgado Mora


    Full Text Available This document is part of two deliveries. In this first paper is to make an approach to the concept of self-control from the very beginning with Sakichi Toyoda, founder of what the industry Toyota Motor Company, additionally taking some excerpts of the concept issued by teachers and the psychologist Henry Murray, a professor at the university Harvard precursor test TAT personality test creator, pen applied world wide by psychologists David McCllelan, also a psychologist and a pioneer in the study of human needs and the concept of competence; Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer of Stanford University organizational behavior and theory, Frederick Hertzberg, Psychologist and strong influential in business management, Kronfly Cruz, lawyer and investigator of social and administrative sciences, Charles Perrow, a sociologist at Yale University and Stanford , who studies the impact of large organizations in society, among others. The study reflects the need to meet organizational objectives related to the physicochemical characteristics of the finished product in a plant of the company’s main beers in the country. In this paper, we intend to make an approximation of worker self -controlled, which when compared with the powers, generic, specific and technical area established by the brewery, will allow generating a methodology to adjust these competencies and to obtain the target profile drawn. This comparison and development of the methodology proposed is the subject of the second work planned.

  10. Agricultural Technology Opportunities. (United States)

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  11. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész


    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  12. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  13. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.


    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its multi-functiona

  14. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education. (United States)

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others


    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  15. Theme: Urban Agriculture. (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others


    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  16. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE


    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  17. Dermatoses among floral shop workers. (United States)

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G


    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown.

  18. Contingent Faculty as Nonideal Workers (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha


    This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.

  19. The ILO and Workers' Education (United States)

    Guigui, Albert


    The International Labour Organization is concerned with three types of education: vocational training, management training, and workers' education. The last, which is the focus of the article, is concerned solely with social matters. (MS)

  20. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers. (United States)

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn


    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  1. Agriculture biotechnology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides the basis for an overall agriculture biotechnology strategy for Saskatchewan, encompassing all aspects of the biotechnology sector and supporting institutions. It presents results of a survey of over 70 industry and public sector leaders in agriculture biotechnology in order to assist Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food in defining its role and involvement in the agriculture biotechnology industry. Issues examined include: Goals for the agriculture biotechnology industry; research and development; technology transfer and commercialisation; infrastructure and services; human resources; legislation and policy; funding; future core areas of research and development; and the role of government in developing the industry. The report concludes with lists of recommendations. The supplement lists the survey questions and responses.

  2. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan. (United States)

    Nagayama, T


    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  3. Why do Worker-Firm Matches Dissolve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; van Ours, J.C.


    In a dynamic labor market worker-firm matches dissolve frequently causing workers to separate and firms to look for replacements.A separation may be initiated by the worker (a quit) or the firm (a layoff), or may result from a joint decision.A dissolution of a worker-firm match may be ineffcient if

  4. 29 CFR 779.409 - Handicapped workers. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handicapped workers. 779.409 Section 779.409 Labor... Students, Learners, and Handicapped Workers § 779.409 Handicapped workers. Regulations have been issued... handicapped workers at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act....

  5. 海南农垦近21年法定传染病增长态势分析%Increasing trend of legally infectious diseases in nearly 21 years in agricultural reclamation system of Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德洲; 翁勇; 刘家敬; 张世平


    目的 探讨海南农垦近20年法定传染病的增长态势及变化规律,为防病工作提供科学依据. 方法 通过收集1990~2011年海南农垦甲乙丙类法定传染病年发病率和当年人口数、分析其发病率、构成比、平均增长速度等,比较乙类不同传播途径传染病及主要传染病种增长速度的差别. 结果 1990~2011年垦区法定传染病年平均报告发病率为753.70/10万,年发病率呈下降趋势,发病率最高为1996年1817.64/10万,最低为2009年96.70/10万;地区分布显示,前10年平均发病率以北部地区为主(2512.23/10万)、近10年以东部地区为主(306.38/10万).对乙类传染病发病构成比进行分析,自然疫源性及虫媒传染病从1990-2007年位居首位,2008年后发病例数迅速减少,2000年呼吸道传染病所占比例从1990年的第四位越居第二,肠道传染病从第二退居第四,至2008年及以后呼吸道传染病所占比例居首位,2011年所占比例达到60.04%;重点病种分析,血源及性传播传染病中淋病和病毒性肝炎呈下降均势,平均下降速度为10%和9.6 0%,梅毒呈上升均势,增长速度为12%,呼吸道传染病中除肺结核外,麻疹、百日咳均呈下降趋势. 结论 从农垦传染病疾病谱及变化趋势看,应加强呼吸道传染病特别是肺结核的控制工作,血源及性传播传染病病虽然呈下降趋势,但离最终的目标还很远.%Objective To explore the increasing trend of legally infectious diseases in nearly 20 years in agricultural reclamation system of Hainan Province.Methods The annual incidence of legally infectous diseases from 1990 to 2011 in agricultural reclamation system of Hainan Province were collected and analyzed epidemiologically.Results From 1990 to 2011,the average annual reported incidence of the legally infectious diseases was 753.70/100 000,showed a declining trend.The highest incidence was 1817.64/100 000 in 1996,the lowest was 96.70/100 000 in

  6. Survival of Atta sexdens workers on different food sources. (United States)

    Silva, Aline; Bacci, Maurício; Gomes de Siqueira, Célia; Correa Bueno, Odair; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Aparecida Hebling, Maria José


    Leaf-cutting ants belonging to the tribe Attini are major herbivores and important agriculture pests in the neotropics, these ants being thought to feed on the sap which exudes from the plant material which they cut and also on the mycelium of a symbiotic fungus that grows on plant material inside their nests in what is called "the fungus garden". However, we have found that the survival of Atta sexdens worker ants on leaves, on mycelium of the ants' symbiotic fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, or on plant polysaccharides was the same as that of starved A. sexdens, while, conversely, significantly longer survival was achieved by ants fed on the fungus garden material or on some of the products (especially glucose) of the hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides. We found that the fungus garden contained glucose at a higher concentration than that found in leaves or fungal mycelium, and that this glucose was consumed by the ant to the extent that it was probably responsible for up to 50% of the nutritional needs of the workers. The fungus garden contained polysaccharide degrading enzymes (pectinase, amylase, xylanase and cellulase) in proportions similar to that observed in laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus. It thus appears that A. sexdens workers obtain a significant part of their nutrients from plant polysaccharide hydrolysis products produced by the action of extracellular enzymes released by L. gongylophorus. In this paper we discuss the symbiotic nutrition strategy of A. sexdens workers and brood and the role played by plant polysaccharides in the nutrition of attine ants.

  7. Induction of oxidative stress in paraquat formulating workers. (United States)

    Ranjbar, Akram; Pasalar, Parvin; Sedighi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad


    Paraquat as a bipyridyl compound is widely used as an effective herbicide worldwide. In this study, oxidative stress was investigated in blood samples of workers in a pesticide factory, formulating paraquat products for use in agriculture. Controls were age-matched workers with no history of pesticide exposure. They were measured for lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant power and total thiol (SH) groups in blood. The results expressed as mean+/-SD show induction of oxidative stress in workers as revealed by increased plasma LPO (11.46+/-0.99 vs 10.11+/-0.69, P<0.001), decreased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.35+/-0.03 vs 1.54+/-0.05, P<0.001) and plasma SH groups (0.16+/-0.01 vs 0.21+/-0.01, P<0.001) in comparison to those of controls. It is concluded that paraquat-formulating factory workers have elevated LPO and decreased antioxidant power, which may put them in further consequences of oxidative stress.

  8. Occupational diseases among farmers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska


    Full Text Available Background: The study’s objective is to present epidemiological situation concerning the incidence of occupational diseases among farmers in Poland. Material and Methods: All 3438 cases of occupational diseases diagnosed among farmers and obligatorily reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases (covering all the national territory and all the cases of occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland after 1970 over the years 2000–2014 were subjected to analysis. Results: The annual incidence in the analyzed period ranged 5–14 per 100 000 farmers. The analysis showed that about 90% of pathologies were induced by the biological agents. Almost every third pathology due to biological agents had allergic origin. Infectious and parasitic diseases accounted for 62% of the cases. Among them the diseases carried by ticks (93% – borreliosis (85.8% and tick-borne encephalitis (7.2% were the most frequent ones. The age of farmers, in the case of whom bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed, was significantly higher than the age of remaining employees of the national economy, in which these occupational diseases were recognized. Conclusions: The study indicates the necessity to introduce periodic health examinations programs focusing on agricultural workers to monitor health and well-being and improve working conditions and the working environment. Med Pr 2016;67(2:163–171

  9. [Occupational risk and health disorders criteria in metal mining industry workers]. (United States)

    Zheglova, A V


    Evaluating occupational risk of health disorders in metal mining industry workers providing various ore extraction modes enabled to reveal early clinical, laboratory and functional markers of occupational and general diseases.

  10. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry. (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun


    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  11. Seasonal immigrant workers and programs in UK, France, Spain and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Sala, A.; Molinero Gerbeau, Y.; Eremenko, T.; Beauchemin, C.; Samuk, S.; Consterdine, E.


    Programmes aimed at channelling seasonal workers to the labour market of European countries have a long tradition. Many of them started in the decades following World War II, but have changed a great deal over time, alt hough the majority are aimed seasonal economic sectors, such as agriculture or t

  12. Directory: New York State Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers. (United States)

    New York State Interdepartmental Committee on Migrant Labor, Albany.

    A comprehensive directory of New York State services for migrant and seasonal farm workers is presented. Brief program descriptions--as well as the names of managerial personnel, addresses, and phone numbers for the numerous agencies related to migrant or seasonal farm programs--are given for the following: the State Department of Agriculture and…

  13. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay (United States)

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina


    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  14. The thyroid: medical surveillance of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgili, M. [Radiation Protection ASL Frosinone (Italy); Strambi, E. [Board for the new Technologies, the Energy and the Environment (ENEA), Rome (Italy); Trenta, G. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Frascati, Roma (Italy)


    In this paper the authors, on the basis of a prevalence study of thyroid diseases on a group of 234 radiation workers observed over a ten-years (1989-1999): discuss the issues and suggest an up-to-date approach to diagnosis and management of nodular thyroid diseases in the medical surveillance of radiation protection; identify and discuss, specific clinical situations, which, representing special problems, deserve a more restrictive judgement of fitness; intend to demonstrate that the diagnostic protocol used conciliates with due economy but with the right balance, the real requirements of medical surveillance reducing as far as possible undesirable effects such as damage from excessive protection and patient/physician delay, which is extremely dangerous in the early diagnosis of tumours. (author)

  15. [Neuroimmune endocrine relationships under exposure to local vibration in workers]. (United States)

    Bodienkova, G M; Kurchevenko, S I


    The studies prove that local vibration in workers alters parameters of immune, nervous, endocrine systems interconnected and demonstrating pathologic process degree. Findings are that workers with long length of service, having no health disorders, increased CNTF level is associated with high TSH, increased IgG level is connected with ACTH growth. In vibration disease, increase of neurospecific protein S-100β is associatedwith lower level of T4. Increase of anti-inflammatory IL-4 is accompanied by high level of T3--that can prove disbalance in main regulatory systems (immune, nervous, endocrine).

  16. Research and Practice of Agricultural Vocational Colleges in Serving Entrepreneurial Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; LIU; Lijun; DING; Zhi; WU


    As the vocational colleges shoulder the responsibilities of personnel training, scientific research and the social services, the agricultural vocational colleges, undertake the responsibilities of supporting "three agriculture" and speeding up the new countryside construction. Therefore, agricultural vocational colleges shall take the responsibility of providing the employment training to returned migrant workers is the obligation of agricultural vocational colleges and they are bound to be the camp for providing entrepreneurship training to returned farmers. Relying on its own characteristics and research strengths, the Jiangsu Animal Husbandry & Veterinary College has conducted rewarding research and practices on carrying out entrepreneurship training for farmers.

  17. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education. (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  18. Agriculture and private sector


    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia


    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The pa...

  19. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee


    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  20. Sick Workers Get Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A migrant worker’s struggle raises national awareness of occupational diseases The Guangzhou-based Southern People Weekly magazine listed Zhang Haichao, a 28-year-old rural resident of Henan Province as a mover and shaker in Chinese society in January 2010. Zhang became famous after receiving