WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural workers diseases

  1. Disease Prevalence and Mortality among Agricultural Workers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil; Moon, Eun Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of mortality and disease prevalence related to occupational diseases among agricultural workers in Korea. We evaluated the age-standardized mortality rates and the prevalence of chronic diseases and compared them with those of other populations using death registration data from 2004 through 2008 and the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In addition, we conducted a literature review on published articles examining th...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign agricultural workers. 404.1016 Section 404.1016 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers...

  3. ATTITUDES OF MALAYSIAN EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of producing enough food for growing population increasingly affected Malaysian agricultural sector. Intensive farming system and increase in fertilizer used by farmers has led the agricultural sector to some environmental damage. The Department of Agriculture (DOA has earmarked Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP to transfer unsustainable agriculture into a sustainable manner. The SAP should be transferred by extension workers to the farmers. However little is known about Malaysian extension workers’ attitudes towards SAP. Front line extension workers in the DOA were surveyed to identify their attitudes on SAP. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results revealed that extension workers have positive attitudes on SAP concepts. It is recommended to find out to what extent extension workers attitudes has played significant role to transfer information to the farmers.

  4. Promoting Organizational Entrepreneurship in Iran: Evidences from Agricultural Extension Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Naderi; Nematollah Shiri; Mojgan Khoshmaram; Masoud Ramezani

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Knowledge Management (KM) in Organizational Entrepreneurship (OE) among agriculture extension workers at Kermanshah Township, Iran. The statistical population in this study consisted of all agriculture extension workers of Jihad-e-Agriculture management and centers of agricultural services at Kermanshah Township (N=143), of whom 129 were available and provided data for this study. The main instrument in this st...

  5. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  6. Musculoskeletal diseases in forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slađana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.

  7. ATTITUDES OF MALAYSIAN EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Tiraieyari; Azimi Hamzah; Bahaman Abu Samah; Jegak Uli

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of producing enough food for growing population increasingly affected Malaysian agricultural sector. Intensive farming system and increase in fertilizer used by farmers has led the agricultural sector to some environmental damage. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmarked Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) to transfer unsustainable agriculture into a sustainable manner. The SAP should be transferred by extension workers to the farmers. However little is known about...

  8. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume IV. Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Neil; And Others

    This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…

  9. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  10. Promoting Organizational Entrepreneurship in Iran: Evidences from Agricultural Extension Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Naderi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Knowledge Management (KM in Organizational Entrepreneurship (OE among agriculture extension workers at Kermanshah Township, Iran. The statistical population in this study consisted of all agriculture extension workers of Jihad-e-Agriculture management and centers of agricultural services at Kermanshah Township (N=143, of whom 129 were available and provided data for this study. The main instrument in this study was a questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient (α>0.70. Data was analyzed by SPSSwin21 software in two parts of descriptive (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation and inferential (correlation and regression analysis statistics. Based on the results of enter multiple regression, KM components were the main predictors of OE among agriculture extension workers. The findings of thisstudy have applicationsforJihad-e-Agriculture management and centers of agricultural services in order to promoting OE among agriculture extension workers in Iran.

  11. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed. PMID:26479089

  12. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Palacios N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 of them and 5% had 10 or more of the symptoms. There was an association, p = 0.03, between days of exposure and persistent symptoms. Likewise, there was an association between exposure level and the presence of probable and specific symptoms. Patients with the highest exposure level had 20% more chances of exhibiting symptoms. Cholinesterase concentration ranges were normal. Anemia was detected in 28% of the population. It was three times as frequent in females as in males (p < 0.001. Conclusions: it was possible to identify the increase of persistent symptoms in workers with cholinesterase levels that are usually considered to be normal.

  13. [Foreign agricultural proletariat and seasonal migrations: Haitian workers in the Dominican agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, W

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the massive entry of Haitian agricultural workers into rice, coffee, and other agricultural production in the Dominican Republic over the past 15 years are analyzed using data from surveys conducted in 1985 and 1987. Unlike the classic Latin American cases of labor migration, the movement of Haitian workers to the Dominican Republic crosses national borders and involves a landless proletariat rather than peasant farmers seeking to supplement their subsistence. Most of the Haitians finding work in coffee and rice cultivation were former sugar cane workers with several years of residence in the Dominican Republic who were forced out of sugar cane cutting by the collapse of the industry in the 1980s. Although Haitians have been employed in Dominican agriculture since the early 1900s, their massive movement to crops of great labor demand other than sugar began in the 1980s. Most of the Haitian workers in rice and coffee are illiterate men with no more than 3 years of primary education. Their average age is 28.4 years for coffee and 29.1 for rice workers. 40% of coffee workers and 53% of rice workers had children. The survey found a greater proportion of migrants from the North zone of Haiti than have previous studies, probably because of the accelerating crisis in the peasant economy in the North and the curtailment of movement to the Bahamas. The technical and social organization of agricultural work goes far in explaining migratory flows. Rice cultivation has heavy labor demands year round, while demand for labor in coffee cultivation is concentrated between August-December. The more complex and better paying jobs in rice cultivation are performed primarily by Dominican workers, who have formed a landless agricultural proletariat in place for at least 2 generations. Dominican workers thus meet the condition of staying in place all year that is not completely possible for Haitian workers. No such ethnic separation occurs in the coffee harvest, and

  14. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ...EPA issued a notice in the Federal Register of December 9, 2009, making available for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural Fields, and Pesticides with No Food Uses,'' that describes how the Agency plans to use revised methods in conducting risk assessments for pesticide uses and exposures not governed by the Federal......

  15. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Oc...

  16. Prevalence of Lyme disease among forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Paweł Kocbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of Lyme disease, established diagnosis based on medical history and clinical symptoms, serology, duration of exposure in the workplace and occupational disease certification among forestry workers in selected districts of the Warmia and Mazury region. Material and Methods: The study consisted of annual screening of 332 employees in 6 forest districts under the supervision of the Health Center Medica in Ostróda. Serological tests were performed in all serum samples and IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by ELISA test. Positive results were confirmed by Western-blot test. Diagnosis was made based on medical history and clinical symptoms. Results were presented by the division of selected forest districts, gender, duration of exposure in the workplace and genospecies of spirochete Borrelia responsible for the disease development. Results: Lyme disease incidence was found in all selected forest districts. Positive results in Western-blot test were determined in 120 people (63.1% of all the surveyed. However, after taking a detailed medical history of the patients Lyme disease was diagnosed in 91 people which makes 27.4% of all the examined. Among patients with diagnosed disease, IgG antibodies were found in 76 people, IgM in 25 people, while both IgM and IgG in 10 people. There was also variation in the involvement of genospecies generating the disease; spirochete B. afzeli – 46% for IgG antibodies, whereas spirochete B. burgdorferi – 50% of all cases for IgM antibodies. At the same time the relationship between the extended duration of occupational exposure to tick bites and the increased incidence of Lyme disease was confirmed, indicating the group of workers employed for at least 25 years. Conclusions: Forestry districts of the Warmia and Mazury region, creates extremely dangerous occupational conditions because of exposure to tick bites. At the same time the duration of

  17. Health and occupational risks due to pesticide handling among agricultural workers in marinilla, antioquia, 2009

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    Juan C. Tabares L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has played a key role in the development of Colombia’s economy and rural communities. The Marinilla municipality, located in the eastern area of the department of Antioquia, bases its economy in agriculture and livestock activities. This requires the use of a wide variety of chemical products that pose health risks. Objective: to describe the occupational and health risks of the farmers who use pesticides in Marinilla. Methodology: a descriptive study with multistage sampling and a sample of 157 farmers. Results: 64.9% of the farmers combine more than two chemicals. 83% of them have received no training on safe handling of agricultural chemical products. Approximately 80% of these individuals do not use the appropriate protective equipment to perform this task. Only 2.5 % of the farmers have occupational risks insurance. The most common disease was acute respiratory infection (78%. 22.3% have suffered from acute intoxication, and 14% (11 of the female farmers who have ever been intoxicated had abortions, premature births, or bore children with some kind of disability. A statistically significant difference was found between the age of farmers and pesticide usage time. No statistical difference was found between low schooling level and knowledge of the risks posed by chemical products. Conclusion: most agricultural workers have not been trained in safety standards; therefore, they disregard all kinds of safety measures during their work, and act without safety in mind and without personal hygiene habits.

  18. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A study of pesticide applicators and farmworkers was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and serum was analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde, MDA). Cellular damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farmworkers and applicators (p < 0.001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. DNA damage (Comet assay) and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farmworkers when compared with controls. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione levels) and DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that organophosphate pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and a number of health effects

  19. Personal Characteristics Affecting Agricultural Extension Workers' Job Satisfaction Level

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asadi; Fereshteh Fadakar; Zahra Khoshnodifar; Seyyed M. Hashemi; Gholamhossein hosseininia

    2008-01-01

    Problem Statement: One of the closely associated concepts with performance of an organization is job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personal characteristics and job satisfaction. Approach: A survey of 52 extension workers was conducted in Fars Province, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Bray field and Rothe Job Satisfaction Index was used. Results: The study found that the majority of the extension workers (65.5%) be...

  20. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition as an indicator of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in Kenyan agricultural workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, H.; Omondi, B.E.O.; Boleij, J.S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was determined for 666 Kenyan agricultural workers; 390 (58.6%) mainly pesticide applicators exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides and 276 (41.4%) unexposed controls from four rural agricultural areas during 1993 and 1994. Baseline levels were depressed

  1. The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global. PMID:22435309

  2. The composition of agricultural landscapes influences life history traits of honeybee workers

    OpenAIRE

    Requier, Fabrice; Brun, François; Aupinel, Pierrick; Odoux, Jean Francois; Bretagnolle, Vincent; DECOURTYE, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Honeybee workers play a major role within the colony by taking care of the breeding of larvae until the supply in food of the entire colony, by division of tasks. The age polyethism offers to the worker the capacity to carry out successively the totality of these tasks, following its age. It is known that the worker switches the tasks following a gradient internal-outside the hive during its imago life, the oldest workers making the foraging tasks. However, the available food in agricultural ...

  3. Sustainable Agriculture Management of Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa, M. Haggag

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to achieve sustainable management of the fungal pathogens diseases by regulation and exploitation of the microbial diversity without causing degradation of environment and health problems. Development of sustainable, integrated pest management (IPM approaches for plant diseases control; ecology and characterization of plant pathogens and biocontrol agents. Restoring beneficial organisms that attack, repel, or otherwise antagonize disease-causing pathogens will render a soil disease-suppressive. Plants growing in disease-suppressive soil resist diseases much better than in soils low in biological diversity. Beneficial organisms can be added directly, or the soil environment made more favorable for them through use of compost and other organic amendments. Compost quality determines its effectiveness at suppressing soil-borne plant diseases. More recently, a larger portion of the strategies utilized in agriculture have been biological control practices. In the broad sense, host genetics, soil amendments, fertilizer effects on pathogens, etc., are all part of the IPM picture.

  4. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Gastric Disease in Male Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Methods Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between ...

  5. Competencies Influencing Extension Workers'Job Performance in Relation to the Good Agricultural Practices in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The bottom line in agricultural trade is that manufacturers are demanding agricultural products that are produced in a sustainable way and with assurance that they are truly conforming to the standards of Good Agriculture Practice. Towards this objective, attention has been given on sustainable agricultural productions in Malaysia. This study is an attempt to investigate job performance of extension workers in terms of competency in relation to the Good Agricultural Practices. This research investigates the influence of competencies on extension workers’ job performance at the department of agriculture in Malaysia with the emphasis of having both human development competencies and technical competencies in order to perform extension job. Approach: Stratified random sampling technique employed to select 210 extension workers from the Department of Agriculture in four states of Malaysia. A structured research instrument was utilized to survey extension workers’ competency and job performance. To test the extent research data support the MLR model, Enter regression method was used. Results: Results showed that out of the nine competencies included in the regression model only four competencies contributed significantly in explaining the variation of job performance. The R2 value of 0.544 implies that the nine predictors explain about 54.4% of the variance in the extension workers' job performance. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings suggest that the data dose not fully support the proposed nine-predictors multiple linear regression model. Finding was contrary to the expectations, since human development areas of competencies did not contribute to the job performance. Hence extension workers are not much involved in human development aspects of their job and they give primary attention to technology transfer rather than human development.

  6. Lifestyles and periodontal disease of Japanese factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Yukie; Ogawa, Yukiko; Imaki, Masahide; Nakamura, Takeo; Tanada, Seiki

    1997-01-01

    The association between lifestyle and periodontal disease as classified by the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) was investigated in 1,821 factory workers, 20–69 years of age, residing in Osaka, Japan. Lifestyles were examined using a questionnaire concerning the smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, sleeping hours and dietary habits of male factory workers.

  7. Outdoor Workers and Tick-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Scorpions Poisonous Plants Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Vector-Borne Diseases Mosquito-Borne Diseases Tick-Borne Diseases Lyme Disease ... and Scorpions Poisonous Plants Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Vector-Borne Diseases Mosquito-Borne Diseases Tick-Borne Diseases Lyme Disease ...

  8. Gastrointestinal parasitoses discovered in agricultural workers in South Bohemia, Czechoslovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stĕrba, J; Ditrich, O; Prokopic, J; Kadlcík, K

    1988-01-01

    In the years from 1975 to 1982 1,750 persons, mostly employed by agricultural enterprises in the South Bohemian Region in Czechoslovakia, were examined. We discovered seven species of parasites: Taenia saginata in 0.3%, Enterobius vermicularis in 10.1%, Giardia lamblia in 1.0%, Endolimax nana in 0.8%, Entamoeba coli in 0.7%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 0.2%, and Chilomastix mesnili in 0.5%. The greatest number of parasites was found in students of the Secondary agricultural and technical school. Only two species of parasites were diagnosed in children of the employees. The incidence of E. vermicularis was 75% in children, in adult employees of agricultural enterprises, however, only 9.8%. PMID:3169645

  9. A Comparison of Certain Knowledges in Agriculture Needed by Workers in Farming, in Grain Elevator Businesses, and in Agricultural Equipment Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Keith Eugene

    Questionnaires to determine the vocational and technical education needed by prospective workers in farming and in grain elevator and agricultural equipment businesses were administered to 20 workers in each of the jobs of (1) farm manager, (2) grain elevator manager, operator, salesman, and deliveryman, and (3) agricultural equipment manager,…

  10. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Diseases and the Workers' Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Tae-Won; KOO, Jung-Wan; Kwon, Soon-Chan; Song, Jaechul

    2014-01-01

    The Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA) regulates the workers' compensation insurance system and the standards for the recognition of occupational diseases (ODs). Since its establishment in 1994, the IACIA has been amended several times. Before 2008, the approval of compensation for work-related musculoskeletal diseases (WMSDs) was decided based on the recommendation of consultants of the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL). The IACIA was amended in 200...

  11. Personal Characteristics Affecting Agricultural Extension Workers' Job Satisfaction Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: One of the closely associated concepts with performance of an organization is job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personal characteristics and job satisfaction. Approach: A survey of 52 extension workers was conducted in Fars Province, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Bray field and Rothe Job Satisfaction Index was used. Results: The study found that the majority of the extension workers (65.5% belonged to intermediate level of job satisfaction, followed by 29.1 and 5.5% belonging to high and low level of job satisfaction, respectively. Regression results also indicated that the full model was moderately successful, explaining 45% of the variances in the job satisfaction. Two independent variables that accounted for the explained variances were monthly salary (27% and marital status (18%. Conclusions/Recommendations: Administration should conduct a periodic needs assessment to determine the level of job satisfaction of personnel and identify methods for increasing satisfaction based on these findings.

  12. 78 FR 45167 - Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture; Pesticides, Agricultural Worker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 170 RIN 2070-AJ22 Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture...). ACTION: Notification of submission to the Secretary of Agriculture. SUMMARY: This document notifies the... Administrator has forwarded to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  13. The Agricultural Workforce and Rural Development: The Plight of the Migrant Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassey, William R.; Navratil, Gerald

    Discussed in this report are the Mexican American migrant agricultural workers who migrate annually to Montana. Much of the information included was collected as part of a study of educational programs for migrants undertaken during the summer of 1970. The report discusses topics such as the cultural and social backgrounds of these migrants,…

  14. The decision to exclude agricultural and domestic workers from the 1935 Social Security Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias. PMID:21261169

  15. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in

  16. Migration and the Cost of Unemployment Insurance Protection for Agricultural Workers. Bulletin 760(Technical); NE-58 Research Bulletin, October 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert D.

    The study examined the effect on the cost of extending unemployment insurance protection to agricultural workers if interstate workers reduced their migration for employment as a result of such a program. There were 50,425 migrants in 14 states who had agricultural employment earnings in more than one state during a 52-week period. Two sets of…

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of the fungicide Mancozeb in agricultural workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available data suggest that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) may have immunomodulatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the immunological profile of farmers exposed to Mancozeb, an EBDC fungicide, through the determination of several serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. Twenty-six healthy subjects entered the study, 13 vineyards exposed to Mancozeb and 13 unexposed controls. Exposure was assessed through the determination of ethylentiourea (ETU) in urine. Complete and differential blood count, serum immunoglobulins, complement fractions, autoantibodies, lymphocyte subpopulations, proliferative response to mitogens, natural killer (NK) activity, and cytokine production were measured. Post-exposure samples showed ETU urine concentration significantly higher than pre-exposure and control groups. A significant increase in CD19+ cells, both percentage and absolute number, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD25+ cells were found in post-exposure samples compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in the proliferative response to phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA + ionomycin) was observed in the post-exposure group compared to controls and baseline, while a significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-α release in post-exposure samples was observed. Overall, our results suggest that low-level exposure to Mancozeb has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out a method adequate to reveal immune-modifications in workers occupationally exposed to potential immunotoxic compounds, based on a whole blood assay

  18. Reproductive outcome, hormone levels and liver enzymes in agricultural female workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadiga S. Ibrahim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the effects of exposure to pesticides on the reproductive health and liver function of females participating in agricultural work. Blood samples were obtained from the thirty-five females (out of one hundred females of reproductive age who were willing to donate blood. Fifty females matched for age and socio economic status were recruited as a control group to compare levels of hormones (estradiol, progesterone and follicle stimulating hormone, liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Results showed that 53% of the females examined in this village were illiterate. Agricultural work represented 42% of the occupations encountered by females in the study. Females who helped in farming operations showed a higher incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome such as abortions and stillbirths compared to those who did not share in agricultural work. There was a significant elevation in estradiol and progesterone levels among female agricultural workers and controls. There was also elevation in serum liver enzymes (AST and ALT in agricultural workers compared to the controls. However, there was a significant decrease in FSH level in females sharing in agricultural activities compared to the controls. It could be concluded that participation of females in agricultural activities with potential exposure to pesticides endangers their reproductive health and liver functions. Rural areas in Egypt require more attention to increase the percentage of literacy among females and raise their health awareness.

  19. [Allergic alveolitis in agricultural workers, caused by thermophilic bacteria or fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzó, P; Molnár, L; Csokonay, L

    1989-01-01

    Between 1976-1986 fifty-seven patients with farmer's lung have been diagnosed in Hungary on the basis of data obtained from public institutes for tuberculosis. That are 0.08% of the 744,300 manual workers employed in agriculture and forestry. In the counties of Borsod and Szolnok the rate was 0.5% (referred to 62,900 and 36,000 individuals, respectively). Regional accumulation of the different provoking agent's and variation of disease prevalence seem to be in correlation with geographical, climatic, meteorological, economical and occupational factors, showing a declining tendency in recent years. Antibodies of the Thermoactinomyces vulgaris antigen could be detected most frequently. In the biopsy material of 17 patients obtained by Klassen biopsy were fibrosing and not fibrosing desquamative alveolitis, granulomas similar to sarcoidosis, bronchiolitis with peribronchial fibrosis observed. Mostly focal, rarely subpleural deficiencies were detected by lung-scintigraphy, their dimension in acute cases being greater than the extent of radiological lesions. On the basis of 5 Coombs positive cases authors consider conceivable that sometimes cytotoxic allergic reaction type II participates in the pathogenesis of farmer's lung. PMID:2686222

  20. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health.

    OpenAIRE

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S.; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P.; Baker, H

    2001-01-01

    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health interve...

  1. Antibody Response and Disease Severity in Healthcare Worker MERS Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshukairi, Abeer N; Khalid, Imran; Ahmed, Waleed A; Dada, Ashraf M; Bayumi, Daniyah T; Malic, Laut S; Althawadi, Sahar; Ignacio, Kim; Alsalmi, Hanadi S; Al-Abdely, Hail M; Wali, Ghassan Y; Qushmaq, Ismael A; Alraddadi, Basem M; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-06-01

    We studied antibody response in 9 healthcare workers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, who survived Middle East respiratory syndrome, by using serial ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay testing. Among patients who had experienced severe pneumonia, antibody was detected for >18 months after infection. Antibody longevity was more variable in patients who had experienced milder disease. PMID:27192543

  2. Antibody Response and Disease Severity in Healthcare Worker MERS Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Imran; Ahmed, Waleed A.; Dada, Ashraf M.; Bayumi, Daniyah T.; Malic, Laut S.; Althawadi, Sahar; Ignacio, Kim; Alsalmi, Hanadi S.; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Wali, Ghassan Y.; Qushmaq, Ismael A.; Alraddadi, Basem M.; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    We studied antibody response in 9 healthcare workers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, who survived Middle East respiratory syndrome, by using serial ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay testing. Among patients who had experienced severe pneumonia, antibody was detected for >18 months after infection. Antibody longevity was more variable in patients who had experienced milder disease. PMID:27192543

  3. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  4. Job demands and resources of workers in a South African agricultural organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris N. Asiwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Understanding the job demands and resources experienced by workers in an agricultural organisation.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Adapted Job Demands and Resources Scale (AJDRS as well as to establish prevalent job demands and resources of employees in an agricultural organisation. Demographic differences were also investigated.Motivation of the study: The agricultural sector of any national economy plays a very important role in the overall welfare of the country. Identifying the prevalent job demands and resources in an agricultural organisation is therefore of paramount importance since the negative consequences of employees experiencing very demanding jobs with few resources have been well documented in stress literature.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of 443 employees in an agricultural organisation. The AJDRS was used to measure the research variables.Main findings: The findings of this research show evidence for the factorial validity and reliability of the AJDRS. Statistical differences were found with regard to the job demands and resources experienced by employees in different positions.Practical/managerial implications: Interventions to improve the perceived job demands and resources in the organisation should focus on physical resources (equipment.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge concerning the job demands and resources that are prevalent in an agricultural organisation in South Africa.

  5. Disease dynamics for the hometown of migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, Ram P; McCluskey, C Connell

    2014-10-01

    A recent paper by L. Wang, X. Wang J. Theoret. Biol. 300:100--109 (2012) formulated and studied a delay differential equation model for disease dynamics in a region where a portion of the population leaves to work in a different region for an extended fixed period. Upon return, a fraction of the migrant workers have become infected with the disease. The global dynamics were not fully resolved in that paper, but are resolved here. We show that for all parameter values and all delays, the unique equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, implying that the disease will eventually reach a constant positive level in the population. PMID:25347809

  6. Region of birth, sex, and agricultural work of immigrant Latino farm workers: the MICASA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, S A; Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Tancredi, D J; Bennett, D H; Schenker, M B

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous, and immigrant workers perform the majority of production tasks, yet there are few data describing agricultural work and use of protective measures by demographic characteristics. We examined cross-sectionally the influence of region of birth (Mexico vs. Central America) and sex on agricultural work and use of protective measures in the MICASA cohort of immigrant Latino farm workers in Mendota, California. Of 445 participants, 293 (65.8%) were born in Mexico (163 men, 130 women) and 152 (34.2%) were born in Central America (80 men, 72 women). Men worked on average 74.4 more days than women (95% CI 62.0, 86.9) and were more likely to perform tasks requiring high levels of training or strength, such as machine operation, pruning, picking, planting, and irrigation; more likely to work in dusty conditions; and more likely to work directly with pesticides. Women predominated in packing. Respondents from Mexico were more likely to work with tomatoes and less likely to work with melon and lettuce. Central America-born respondents were less likely to engage in planting, irrigation, and pesticide use. Use of task-appropriate personal protective measures on at least a half-time basis was rare, with the exception of persons working with pesticides (a group limited to men) and for facial scarves among Central American women. Further work should focus on identifying barriers to use of preventive measures and programs to further their use. Educational models accounting for cultural factors and driving social norm change, employer engagement, and use of community health workers (promotores) may be helpful in promoting use of preventive measures. PMID:24897916

  7. Assessment of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in blood plasma of agriculture workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Dhananjayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholinesterase determination indicates whether the person has been under pesticide exposure is not. It is recommended that the worker′s cholinesterase level should be assessed for workers at a pesticide applied region. Hence, cholinesterase activities in blood samples of agricultural workers exposed to vegetables and grape cultivation with age matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to pesticides, were estimated. Methods: The detailed occupational history and lifestyle characters were obtained by questionnaire. Cholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman as modified by Chambers and Chambers. Results: AChE was ranging from 1.65 to 3.54μmoles/min/ml in exposed subjects where as it was ranged from 2.22 to 3.51μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. BChE activity was ranging from 0.16 to 5.2μmoles/min/ml among exposed subjects, where as it was ranged from 2.19 to 5.06μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. The results showed statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities (AChE 14%; BChE 56% among exposed subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that the reduction in cholinesterase activity may lead to varieties of effects. Hence it is compulsory to use protective gadgets during pesticide spray. Further a continuous biomonitoring study is recommended to assess pesticide exposure.

  8. Use of Computer and Internet in Agricultural Extension as Perceived by Extension Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pezeshki Rad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine computer and Internet use in agricultural extension by Extension Workers (EWs. This study used a descriptive-correlational design. Population for the study consisted of all extension workers (N = 320 in Isfahan Province, Iran. A stratified sampling technique and census was used to select EWs (n = 200. Overall, findings indicate that EWs have access to computers both at work and home. On average, they use computers approximately 6 – 8 hours per week and majority of them use the Internet on average of 1 – 4 hours per week. A majority of them reported “fair to high level” of skills in computer usage. For example, writing CDs, word processing, using computers for file management, and basic computer skills. However, extension agent’s report “no to a low level” of skills relative to using excel, installing software, power point and micro soft access, Photoshop, statistical software, were the skills that EWs did not have. It was proved necessary to conduct a systematic assessment of training needs relative to computer and Internet use. Systematic training should be conducted in the areas that Extension Workers perceived to be less skill.

  9. Immigrant Workers and Technological Change in U.S. Agriculture: A Profit Maximization Approach of Induced Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, Orachos; Emerson, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes changes in U.S. agricultural technology during 1960-1999, emphasizing the role of immigrant workers on farm mechanization. The rates and directions of biased technological change based on the induced innovation theory are compared before and after the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 which was intended to reduce employment of unauthorized workers. Unlike previous studies of induced innovation, this paper develops a new theoretical and empirical mod...

  10. Body and bio-panopticism in Mexico at the beginning of the XXI Century: Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From the signature of a bilateral agreement in 1974, Mexico sends temporary agricultural workers in Canadian farms. The gradual hardening of the rules to select rural workers at the request of the Canadian government, combined to the application of the same by the Secretary of Work in Mexico and its discretionary interpretation in each office of recruitment in the states of the Republic, converge towards the constitution of a biopanoptism of the candidates to the emigration. This institutional network of monitoring, control and submission of the body of the workers extends during all their labor stay abroad and follows until its return in Mexico.

  11. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  12. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Corie A., E-mail: cellison@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Crane, Alice L., E-mail: alcrane@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Bonner, Matthew R., E-mail: mrbonner@buffalo.edu [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Knaak, James B., E-mail: jbknaak@aol.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Browne, Richard W., E-mail: rwbrowne@buffalo.edu [Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Olson, James R., E-mail: jolson@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  13. Wage Disparity and Inter-Occupation Specifics in Managing Czech Households’ Portfolios: What is the position of agricultural workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vavroušková, L. Čechura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wage disparity that exists between genders, sectors, and geographical regions, can influence household portfolio management. This study examines the impact of wage disparity and inter-occupation differences on Czech household portfolios. The model of portfolio choice was estimated using the Heckman selection model complemented by wage disparity analysis. Results show no significant differences in financial portfolios between blue-collar workers, including farm households and employees in agricultural sector, and white- collar workers. There was high heterogeneity within the group of blue-collar workers, and wage disparity among employment sectors. Employees in the agricultural sector were categorised as having a below average salary and characterised by a lower probability of utilising long-term saving products, loans and making a smaller contribution to short term saving products. Agricultural workers and farm household were a highly heterogeneous group. Finally a significant regional wage disparity in the Czech agriculture sector was observed.The research was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (Grant No. MSM 6046070906.

  14. Project CHOICE: #100. A Career Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Ecology Workers. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Occupations Career Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Ecology Workers, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Agriculture and Ecological…

  15. Risk of tick-borne diseases in various categories of employment among forestry workers in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisak, Ewa; Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Among the zoonotic agents causing occupational diseases, those transmitted by ticks are very important, in particular the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi which are the common cause of occupational Lyme borreliosis in forestry and agricultural workers. The objective of this study was an evaluation of the exposure of forestry workers employed at individual workplaces to infection with tick-borne pathogens (especially Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes), based on epidemiological investigation and serologic tests. Epidemiological studies covered 111 forestry employees from eastern Poland employed in 4 randomly-selected forest inspectorates which replied to questions in the area of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diseases transmitted by ticks. Eighty-two forestry workers employed in one forest inspectorate were examined for the presence of specific anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. The correlation between individual items of the questionnaire was assessed by Spearman's test. Results of serological tests were assessed by Mann-Whitney test. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the workers performing manual jobs in the forest are at the greatest risk of tick bite and contraction of tick-borne disease. They are aware of the risk, but use the improper method of removal of ticks with the fingers. Comparisons of the relationship between job category and the results of serologic study, expressed in BBU/ml, revealed that the serologic response was significantly greater in manual workers than in administrative workers (p=0.019). All other comparisons did not produce significant results. Therefore, providing a simple tweezer-like device to forest inspectorates seems to be an effective mean of protection against Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases. PMID:23020041

  16. Seasonal agricultural youth workers' concerns on development - growth in adolescence period and utilization of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep simsek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull

  17. Evaluation of DNA damage in agricultural workers exposed to pesticides using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminderjeet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops, but they pose a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage. Materials and Methods : Blood samples of 210 exposed workers (after a day of intense spraying and 50 control subjects belonging to various districts of Punjab (India were evaluated using Comet assay. Sixty workers who showed DNA damage were selected for follow up at 5-6 months after the first sampling during a low or null spraying period. Results : Significant differences were found in DNA damage between freshly exposed workers and controls and freshly exposed and followed up cases. There was significant increase in the comet parameters viz. mean comet tail length and frequency of cells showing migration in exposed workers as compared to controls (72.22 ± 20.76 vs. 46.92 ± 8.17, P<0.001; 31.79 vs. 5.77, P<0.001. In the second samples, followed up cases showed significant decrease in frequency of damaged cells as compared to freshly exposed workers of first sampling (P<0.05. The confounding factors such as variable duration of pesticide exposure, age, smoking, drinking and dietary habits etc which were expected to modulate the damage, were instead found to have no significant effect on DNA fragmentation. Conclusion : The evidence of a genetic hazard related to exposure resulting from the intensive use of pesticides stresses the need for educational programs for agricultural workers to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture.

  18. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  19. Investigating the Time Lag Effect between Economic Recession and Suicide Rates in Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry Workers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Junger, Washington; Kim, Boo-Wook; Kim, Young-Joo; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on the vast increase in suicide mortality in Southeast Asia have indicated that suicide rates increase in parallel with a rise in unemployment or during periods of economic recession. This paper examines the effects of economic recession on suicidal rates amongst agriculture, fisheries, and forestry workers in Korea. Monthly time-series gross domestic product (GDP) data were linked with suicidal rates gathered from the cause of death records between1993-2008. Data were analyz...

  20. Occupational Disease, Workers' Compensation, and the Social Work Advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Renee

    1983-01-01

    Charges that the overwhelming majority of victims of work-related illnesses are not receiving their entitlements. Describes ways in which social workers and health professionals may become advocates to broaden the effectiveness of the workers' compensation system, illustrated by case studies from the Montefiore Project. (Author/JAC)

  1. Risks for heart disease and lung cancer from passive smoking by workers in the catering industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hedley, AJ; McGhee, SM; Repace, JL; Wong, LC; Yu, MYS; Wong, TW; Lam, TH

    2006-01-01

    Workers in the catering industry are at greater risk of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) when smoke-free workplace policies are not in force. We determined the exposure of catering workers to SHS in Hong Kong and their risk of death from heart disease and lung cancer. Nonsmoking catering workers were provided with screening at their workplaces and at a central clinic. Participants reported workplace, home, and leisure time exposure to SHS. Urinary cotinine was estimated by enzyme immunoassa...

  2. Agriculture, malaria, and water-associated diseases: understanding the links between agriculture and health

    OpenAIRE

    Mutero, Clifford M; McCartney, Matthew; Boelee, Eline

    2006-01-01

    "Malaria, schistosomiasis (bilharzia), and Japanese encephalitis are the major vector-borne diseases whose increase or decrease can be attributed to agricultural water development (see table). Others include dengue fever, yellow fever, and filariasis. Young children in poor communities are particularly affected: malaria is among the top five causes of death among under-fives in Sub-Saharan Africa; schistosomiasis among children affects growth, nutritional status, and cognitive development; an...

  3. Knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ict utilization in agricultural extension service delivery in Gazipur district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Prodhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the study was to assess the extent of knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization and to determine the relationship between the selected characteristics of the respondents and knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization in extension service delivery. The study was conducted in Gazipur district and comprised proportionate random sample of 90 extension workers from five upazila of Gazipur district. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. To measure the knowledge on ICT utilization 35 statements were selected regarding 7 ICT with five possible answer of each tools and a score of one was given to the right answer and zero to the wrong answer alternatively to measure the perception of the respondents rated each of 10 statements ICT utilization in agriculture on a 5-point Likert type scale and the total of these ratings formed perception index. The result of the study showed that out of seven ICT tools the knowledge of extension workers was highest in case of MS Word this was followed by internet/ web service and the lowest knowledge was found in case of Geographical Information System. It is observed that an overwhelming majority (88.9% of agricultural extension workers in the study area had low to medium knowledge towards ICT utilization. Findings reveal that the respondents had top most perception on the ICT utilization in respect of ‘Extension work can be greatly enhanced by ICT’ followed by on ‘The benefits of ICT use outweigh the financial burden involved’. The result also indicated that more than fourth-fifth (84.4% of the respondents had medium to high perception towards ICT utilization. There were significant relationship between service experience and use of the information sources of the respondents with their knowledge towards ICT utilization conversely innovativeness, cosmopoliteness and job satisfaction of the

  4. Organophosphate pesticides exposure bring out neurological symptoms in the children of agriculture workers in rural India: A community based cross-sectional study from Maharashtra.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhsohale ND; Sawant PR; Thakre SS; Khamgaonkar MB; Agrawal SB

    2013-01-01

    Background: In rural areas of developing countries, children of agricultural workers have a high potential for exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. This puts them at an increased risk of damage to neurobehavioural performance, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to assess the neurological risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers in rural India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study wa...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(1)-1 - Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... worker lawfully admitted to the United States from any foreign country or possession thereof, including... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain services performed by foreign... § 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before...

  6. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  7. [Improving system of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related broncho-pulmonary diseases in workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To improve a system of prevention and rehabilitation for broncho-pulmonary diseases among workers engaged into extraction and utilization of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified major criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to asbestos-containing dust, with definition of risk groups for broncho-pulmonary diseases. The authors formulated main concepts of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related pulmonary diseases in workers engaged into asbestos industry. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed to prevention and liquidation of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:21789804

  8. A study on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus insecticides during spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress status and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity were studied in blood samples obtained from 61 agricultural workers engaged in spraying organophosphorus (OP insecticides in the mango plantation, with a minimum work history of one year, in the age range of 12-55 years. Controls were age-matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to OP pesticides. They were evaluated for oxidative stress markers MDA (end product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH, and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE levels in blood. The results showed a marked inhibition of the AChE and BChE activities in the sprayers as compared to the controls. The malondialdehyde(MDA, the last product of lipid peroxidation was found to be increased significantly in sprayers(p< 0.05, while depletion in the concentration of antioxidant glutathione(GSH was also observed in the sprayers but the difference was statistically not significant. It was concluded on the basis of biochemical analysis that pesticides sprayers are exposed to more oxidative stress as evidenced by the changes in antioxidant status. The measurement of the AChE and BChE activities in agricultural workers who spray OPs could be a good biomonitoring factor and is recommended to be performed on a regular basis.

  9. Progression of pleural and parenchymal disease on chest radiographs of workers exposed to amosite asbestos.

    OpenAIRE

    J.R. Shepherd; Hillerdal, G; McLarty, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine predictors of progression of pleural and parenchymal disease on the chest radiographs of workers exposed to a short term, intense exposure of amosite asbestos. METHODS: The first and last of a series of chest radiographs of 887 workers exposed to amosite was interpreted and coded according to International Labour Organisation (ILO) standards by two physicians. Significant predictors of disease progression were found by a linear stepwise regression analysis from among ...

  10. Cause-specific mortality due to malignant and non-malignant disease in Korean foundry workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Foundry work is associated with serious occupational hazards. Although several studies have investigated the health risks associated with foundry work, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with the exception of an increased lung cancer risk. The current study evaluated the mortality of Korean foundry workers due to malignant and non-malignant diseases. METHODS: This study is part of an ongoing investigation of Korean foundry workers. To date, we have observed more than 150,000 person-years in male foundry production workers. In the current study, we stratified mortality ratios by the following job categories: melting-pouring, molding-coremaking, fettling, and uncategorized production work. We calculated standard mortality ratios (SMR of foundry workers compare to general Korean men and relative risk (RR of mortality of foundry production workers reference to non-production worker, respectively. RESULTS: Korean foundry production workers had a significantly higher risk of mortality due to malignant disease, including stomach (RR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.41-11.06 and lung cancer (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.01-4.30, compared with non-production workers. High mortality ratios were also observed for non-malignant diseases, including diseases of the circulatory (RR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18-3.14, respiratory (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.52-21.42 for uncategorized production worker, and digestive (RR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.22-4.24 systems, as well as for injuries (RR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.52-3.66 including suicide (RR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.32-10.01. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that foundry production work significantly increases the risk of mortality due to some kinds of malignant and non-malignant diseases compared with non-production work.

  11. Evaluation of Dust Exposure among the Workers in Agricultural Industries in North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Krishna N; Patil, Mahesh R

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to quantify dust exposure among the workers in four different industrial settings: rice mills, flour mills, oil mills, and tea factories and to compare the obtained data with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of Indian Union Ministry of Labour as well as to compare the dust exposure across activities and seasons. RespiCon(TM) particle sampler was used for collecting dust concentration in the breathing zone of the workers. In total, 149 workers participated in the study and 204 samples were collected. Samples were collected in the vicinity of different processing operations. Samples in the rice mills were collected for two consecutive years in two seasons; however samples from other industries were collected for 1 year. The results indicate that geometric mean (GM) of dust exposure was significantly (P workers are exposed to higher level of respirable dust as compared to the PEL, while total dust exposure to all the workers were higher than the PEL; thus, immediate reduction of dust exposure among the workers is necessary for preventing respiratory system impairment. PMID:26324828

  12. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among agricultural workers in the United States: an analysis of the National Health Interview Survey, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Tak, Sangwoo; Alterman, Toni; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomic risks from agricultural tasks can compromise musculoskeletal health of workers. This study estimated prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in a sample representing almost 2 million US agricultural industry workers. This study used National Health Interview Survey data from 2004 to 2008. Weighted prevalence was calculated by demographic and employment factors. Prevalence ratios were calculated using generalized linear models with the Poisson distribution assumption. Prevalence rates of low back and neck pain in the previous 3 months were 24.3% and 10.5%, respectively, among agricultural workers. Monthly prevalence of joint pain was 17.0% for hips/knees, 9.8% for shoulders, 9.5% for wrists/hands, 5.4% for elbows, and 4.7% for ankles/toes. Agricultural workers had a significantly higher prevalence of shoulder pain than all other industry workers (prevalence ratios [PR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.61). This study provides detailed national estimates of musculoskeletal symptom prevalence to understand the burden and the need for intervention among agricultural workers. PMID:24959759

  13. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Bhoopendra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70% and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%. Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77% did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of

  14. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values. PMID:26647953

  15. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  16. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs

  17. Evaluating the incorporation of heavy metals to agroecosystem. Role of the productive practices executed by agricultural workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health risks associated to practical activities in farm and agriculture are increasing all over the world. These risks are depending from technology and chemicals substances abuse. Urban agriculture specifically constitutes a challenge for producers and researchers. Agricultural food production, held inside of the cities, looking for sustainable productions is developed in risky scenarios where it is possible to found environmental pollutants such as heavy metals. Environmental pollutants may to contaminate humans throughout different pathways. The analysis of factors related to agricultural working strategies of urban farm workers, the precedent knowledgement about production places and analytical data related to composition and properties of these sites, are significant criteria for proper management of ecosystems. Qualitative analysis research tool such as expert group criteria is a suitable method for field research in this area. It was determined that the precedent use of soil, the use of fertilizers and phytosanitary products are key elements to be taken into account for successful management of agroecosystems and for health risk prevention related to the possible influence of heavy metals in farm practice

  18. Investigation of potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cellular stability after the exposure of agricultural workers to pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JODEL S. ALVES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agricultural workers involved in the harvest of tobacco crops are regularly exposed to large quantities of pesticides. In order to determine how this exposure to pesticides induces genetic alterations in these workers, blood samples were obtained from 77 exposed individuals, as well as from 60 unexposed subjects. DNA damage was analyzed by the Comet assay and by the micronucleus (MN test. The antioxidant profile was evaluated by activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the polymorphism of gene PON1 was used as a susceptibility biomarker. The content of inorganic elements in the blood samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Our results demonstrated that the damage frequency, damage index, the MN frequency, and the SOD activity were significantly elevated in the exposed relative to the unexposed group. A modulation of the MN results for the PON1 gene was observed in the exposed group. The concentrations of inorganic elements in the exposed group were higher compared to those of the unexposed group. In this study, we observed that genetic damage, and change in oxidative balance were induced by the exposure of workers to complex mixtures of pesticides in the presence of inorganic compounds, whereby an influence of the genotype was evident.

  19. Increased Respiratory Disease Mortality at a Microwave Popcorn Production Facility with Worker Risk of Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    OpenAIRE

    Halldin, Cara N; Eva Suarthana; Kathleen B Fedan; Yi-Chun Lo; George Turabelidze; Kathleen Kreiss

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl) in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this...

  20. Cause-Specific Mortality Due to Malignant and Non-Malignant Disease in Korean Foundry Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background Foundry work is associated with serious occupational hazards. Although several studies have investigated the health risks associated with foundry work, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with the exception of an increased lung cancer risk. The current study evaluated the mortality of Korean foundry workers due to malignant and non-malignant diseases. Methods This study is part of an ongoing investigation of Korean foundry workers. To date, we have observed more tha...

  1. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet for Healthcare Workers and Morticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet for Healthcare Workers and Morticians Description ... form of CJD (vCJD), largely in Britain, to mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE), a deadly brain ...

  2. The Dark Side of Workers' Compensation: Burdens and Benefits in Occupational Disease Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robblee, Richard

    1978-01-01

    The imposition of legal proof requirements to detect occupational disease and the burden that this places on compensation claimants and the medical profession are examined, along with various court decisions, present legislation, and revision proposals to improve disease diagnosis and the legal treatment of occupationally disabled workers. (MF)

  3. PON1 Status Does Not Influence Cholinesterase Activity in Egyptian Agricultural Workers Exposed to Chlorpyrifos

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W; Lein, Pamela J; Olson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and ...

  4. Prácticas de utilización de plaguicidas en agricultores Pesticide application practices in agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. García

    2002-06-01

    los estudios epidemiológicos de los efectos de los plaguicidas sobre la salud en trabajadores agrícolas.Objective: We describe the sociodemographic characteristics and determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers applying pesticides. Methods: The workers selected were included in a case-control study carried out in the Autonomous Community of Valencia in Spain. Contact was made by telephone and individuals who had been involved in agricultural work during the relevant period of exposure were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: crops and periods worked, mixing of products, treatment equipment, participation in the washing of equipment, use of personal protection during the treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Eighty-nine workers, aged between 16 and 46 years old, were included. Most of the interviewees had primary education or less. Pesticide treatments were mostly applied on high crops (82%, with manual equipment (61% and throughout the year (45%. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 60%. Sixty-five percent of the workers used no personal protection or used it defectively. No differences were found in personal protection use according to age, family income or education. Most of the workers (90% reported knowledge of the health risks of pesticide exposure and 21% of them rated the risk as null. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very defectively. There is a clear need to develop specific prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers.

  5. Farm Activities and Agricultural Injuries in Youth and Young Adult Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James

    2015-01-01

    Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in. PMID:26237722

  6. Increased respiratory disease mortality at a microwave popcorn production facility with worker risk of bronchiolitis obliterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara N Halldin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000-2003. METHODS: We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10(th revision (ICD-10, we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40-J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40, simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41, unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42, emphysema (J43, and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (J44. We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. RESULTS: We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42. Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of 'other COPD' (J44, while 0.98 'other COPD'-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12-10.49. Three of the 4 'other COPD'-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. CONCLUSION: Workers

  7. Diseases that disable workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in Instituto Nacional de Oncologia - INOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical surveillance define the capacity of workers exposed to ionizing radiations according to legal recommendations, though another facultative may to diagnose diseases with disable. This present paper performs an analysis of the occupational morbidity reported of workers of the National Oncology Institute at Cuba. The distribution of frequency, gravity and duration of the diseases is presented. The sources information was personnel radiological records. The osteomuscular and genitourinary system were more percent of incapacity. The loss day index is high. The gravity index is high too from the hematopoietic system. (author)

  8. Investigating the Time Lag Effect between Economic Recession and Suicide Rates in Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry Workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Junger, Washington; Kim, Boo-Wook; Kim, Young-Joo; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies on the vast increase in suicide mortality in Southeast Asia have indicated that suicide rates increase in parallel with a rise in unemployment or during periods of economic recession. This paper examines the effects of economic recession on suicidal rates amongst agriculture, fisheries, and forestry workers in Korea. Monthly time-series gross domestic product (GDP) data were linked with suicidal rates gathered from the cause of death records between1993-2008. Data were analyzed using generalized additive models to analyze trends, while a polynomial lag model was used to assess the unconstrained time lag effects of changes in GDP on suicidal rate. We found that there were significant inverse correlations between changes in GDP and suicide for a time lag of one to four months after the occurrence of economic event. Furthermore, it was evident that the overall relative risks of suicide were high enough to bring about social concern. PMID:23251845

  9. Available Interventions for Prevention of Cotton Dust-Associated Lung Diseases Among Textile Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2016-08-01

    The authors reviewed literature on interventions for cotton dust-associated lung diseases among textile workers. Internet sources (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google and Google Scholar) were accessed and interventions were categorized into: Engineering or administrative controls, or personal protective equipment (PPE). Ten relevant articles were shortlisted, five related to engineering controls (pre-processing, bactericidal treatment of cotton, improved workplace design, machinery and dust control measures). Administrative controls may involve setting standards, environmental surveillance, periodic medical examinations, and workers training. Although specific guidelines are available regarding the use of PPEs, but there was little literature on their effectiveness. It was concluded that there is a dearth of literature regarding field-based assessment of interventions for control of cotton dust associated respiratory diseases and the available studies primarily focus on pre-processing of cotton. This review highlights the uncertainties that remain; and recommends several areas for future research on respiratory health of textile workers. PMID:27539764

  10. A Health Care Worker with Ebola Virus Disease and Adverse Prognostic Factors Treated in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Clay, Katherine A; Craig, Darren G; Moore, Alastair J; Lewis, Stephen; Espina, Melanie; Praught, Jeff; Horne, Simon; Kao, Raymond; Johnston, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    We describe the management of a Sierra Leonean health care worker with severe Ebola virus disease complicated by diarrhea, significant electrolyte disturbances, and falciparum malaria coinfection. With additional resources and staffing, high quality care can be provided to patients with Ebola infection and adverse prognostic factors in west Africa. PMID:26903609

  11. Modeled PFOA Exposure and Coronary Artery Disease, Hypertension, and High Cholesterol in Community and Worker Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Winquist, Andrea; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have found associations between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and high cholesterol levels, but studies of hypertension and heart disease have had inconsistent findings. Objectives: In this study we examined the association between modeled PFOA exposure and incident hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary artery disease among workers at a Mid-Ohio Valley chemical plant that used PFOA, and residents of the surrounding commun...

  12. Serosurveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Hepatitis C in Healthcare Workers from Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Antony P.; Vilivong, Keooudomphone; Nouanthong, Phonethipsavanh; Souvannaso, Chanthasone; Hübschen, Judith M.; Muller, Claude P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Healthcare workers (HCW) have an increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases and are a potential source of infections for their patients. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has no national policy regarding HCW vaccinations and routine vaccination coverage is low within the general population. This cross-sectional serostudy determines the level of exposure and risk of infection in Lao HCW against 6 vaccine preventable diseases and hepatitis C. Methods 1128...

  13. Understanding the Role of the State in Promoting Capitalist Accumulation: A Case Study of the Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Yaw Asomah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is limited in-depth research focusing on how the state exerts its power and influence through immigration laws, policies and practices in structuring the relations of labour and capital in a manner that reflects capitalist interests. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role of the state in fostering capitalist accumulation, using the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP as a case study, and to consider the policy implications of this program. This paper addresses the following questions: What shapes and reproduces labour-capital relations with reference to SAWP? What are the repercussions of these relations, particularly on the international migrant workers? What should be the role of the state and law in transforming these relations? The paper draws on a constellation of insights from neoliberal globalization, segmentation of labour theory, and a conceptual overview of the role of the state in regulating labour-capital relations to illuminate the discussions. This paper helps broaden our current understanding of how the state facilitates capitalist accumulation in the agricultural sector in Canada through immigration policies and practices with reference to the SAWP. The paper therefore makes a contribution to the theoretical debates on the role of the state in the facilitation of capitalist accumulation in agriculture. Il y a peu de recherches approfondies axées sur l'exercice du pouvoir et sur l'influence des lois en matière d'immigration élaborées par l'État, ainsi que sur les politiques et les pratiques de structuration des relations entre les travailleurs et le capital, d'une manière qui reflète les intérêts capitalistes. Par conséquent, l'objectif de ce document est d'explorer le rôle de l'État qui vise à favoriser l'accumulation capitaliste, à l'aide du Programme des travailleurs agricoles saisonniers (PTAS comme une étude de cas, et d'examiner les conséquences de ce programme. Ce document

  14. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect of pesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP, carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident. In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132 and females (n = 93 who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16 on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50 never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups. Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in

  16. Knowledge of heart disease risk factors among workers in a Nigerian University: A call for concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeseye Abiodun Akintunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the commonest cause of mortality worldwide. Many risk factors predate the development of cardiovascular diseases. Adequate knowledge of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases is the first step towards effective preventive strategies to combat the cardiovascular diseases burden in any population. This study aims to determine the knowledge of workers in a Nigerian University on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 206 academic and non-academic staff of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria using the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire (HDFQ. Demographic data were taken. The lipid profile and random blood sugar were taken. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 45.3 ΁ 7.9 years. There were 96 males (46.6%. The mean HDFQ score was 48.6%. Only 41 (19.9% of participants were assessed to have good knowledge of heart disease risk factors. Majority, 101 (49.0% had poor knowledge while 64 (31.2% had fair knowledge of heart disease risk factors. There was no significant difference between prevalence of CV risk factors between those with good or fair or low level of knowledge. Most participants did not have a good level of knowledge about risk factors, prevention, treatment and association with diabetes as it relates to heart diseases. Conclusion: Knowledge of heart disease risk factors is low among University workers in Nigeria. Effective education on heart disease risk factors and appropriate preventive strategies are indeed important to reduce cardiovascular disease burden in Nigerian University communities.

  17. Interstitial Lung Disease due to Siderosis in a Lathe Machine Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothi, D; Satija, B; Kumar, S; Kaur, Omkar

    2015-01-01

    Since its first description in 1936, siderosis of lung has been considered a benign pneumoconiosis due to absence of significant clinical symptoms or respiratory impairment. Subsequently, authors have questioned the non-fibrogenic property of iron. However, siderosis causing interstitial lung disease with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern has not been described in the past. We report a case of UIP on high resolution computed tomography, proven to be siderosis on transbronchial lung biopsy in a lathe machine worker. PMID:26410982

  18. Ischemic heart disease risk factors in lead exposed workers: research study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiasvand, Masoumeh; Aghakhani, kamran; Salimi, Ahmad; Kumar, Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    Background Review of other epidemiological studies reveal inconsistent results of relationships between high blood lead level and risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. In this study we wanted to find if there is a relationship between blood lead level and these ischemic heart disease risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in a battery recycling plant, and 497 male workers with the mean age of 41.7 (±6.50) years were recruited from all over the plant (...

  19. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination. PMID:23835992

  20. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  1. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  2. Occupational Allergic Diseases in Kitchen and Health Care Workers: An Underestimated Health Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Bilge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW and health care workers (HCW. Methods. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc. during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated. Results. 579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P<0.001. Cumulative asthma was significantly higher only in the HCW group (P<0.05. In addition, the HCW and KW groups had significantly higher risks of ≥2/year URTI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07–2.38 versus OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05–2.38 than the general population. Conclusion. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases are an important and growing health issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.

  3. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  4. Ants detect but do not discriminate diseased workers within their nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jean-Baptiste; Detrain, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Social insects have evolved an array of individual and social behaviours that limit pathogen entrance and spread within the colony. The detection of ectoparasites or of fungal spores on a nestmate body triggers their removal by allogrooming and appears as a primary component of social prophylaxis. However, in the case of fungal infection, one may wonder whether ant workers are able to detect, discriminate and keep at bay diseased nestmates that have no spores over their cuticle but which constitute a latent sanitary risk due to post-mortem corpse sporulation. Here, we investigate the ability of Myrmica rubra workers to detect and discriminate a healthy from a diseased nestmate infected by the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae. During dyadic encounters in a neutral location, workers were more aggressive towards isolated sick nestmates on the 3rd post-infection day. However, no such detection or discrimination of fungus-infected nestmates occurred in a social context inside the nest or at the nest entrance. Gatekeepers never actively rejected incoming diseased nestmates that rather spontaneously isolated themselves outside the nest. Our study reveals that ant workers may detect health-dependent cues and that their 'acceptance level' of sick nestmates is tunable depending on the social context. This raises questions about possible trade-offs between a social closure to pathogens and risks of erroneous rejection of healthy nestmates. Social isolation of moribund ants also appears as a widespread prophylactic strategy of social insects allowing them to reduce exposure to pathogens and to spare costs associated with the management of infected individuals. PMID:27475810

  5. Diseases of worker in a peruvian company law enforcement safety and health at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L. Allpas Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most common diseases, according the workplace. Material and Methods: The research was descriptive, prospective, exploratory and cross-sectional. It was made at a factory in Lima, which was in the process of application to the law Safety and Health at Work. According to the selection criteria, 121 workers were admitted, which took part of the medical examination, and a file card for medical occupational data was applied. The descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, and respective frequencies of 95 % was performed and a level of significance (p<0.05. The statistical package SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used. Results: The population of study was divided into two occupational areas: workers and administrative staff. The average age was 37.48 years and males represented 83.5%. The most frequent pathological characteristics were: Dyslipidemia (66.9% Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypercholesterolemia 64.5%, 37.2% uncorrected refractive error, 36.8% mild hearing loss and 57% overweight. According to the work area: manual workers showed a higher frequency of hearing problems, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood pressure (HTA. The administrative staff had greater effects of dyslipidemia, uncorrected refractive error, Grade -I obesity and overweight. Conclusions: The most frequent occupational diseases in the two areas according to the group I: refractive errors and hearing loss. In group II: dyslipidemia and overweight.

  6. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in the blood serum of agricultural workers from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCP were measured in agricultural workers from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Blood samples from 26 volunteers (24 males, 02 females, 17-60 years old were taken in October 1997. OCP residues (op'DDT pp'DDT, pp'DDD, pp'DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor-epoxide, alpha-, beta- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, and hexachlorobenzene were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Tests detected pp'DDE in 16 out of 26 samples, but pp'DDE concentration exceeded 1.4 µg/L (i.e. 1.8, 2.4 and 4.4 µg/L in only 3 of these. beta-HCH was found in 6 (23.1% out of 26 samples. In one sample beta-HCH did not exceed 1.4 µg/L, but in the remaining samples concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 5.3 µg/L. The percentage of positive pp'DDE samples increased from the youngest (£29 yrs: 30.0% to the oldest age group (³ 40 yrs: 100%. A similar trend was found for beta-HCH contamination (£ 29 yrs: 0%; 30-39 yrs: 20.0%; ³40 yrs: 66.7%. Dieldrin (3.7 µg/L was found in only one sample. No other OCP residue was found in the samples. Serum concentrations of OCPs found in this study are comparable to levels reported for the non-occupationally exposed population in Brazil and elsewhere.

  7. Zoonotic occupational diseases in forestry workers – Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Richard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Forestry workers and other people who come into close contact with wild animals, such as hunters, natural science researchers, game managers or mushroom/berry pickers, are at risk of contracting bacterial, parasitological or viral zoonotic diseases. Synthetic data on the incidence and prevalence of zoonotic diseases in both animals and humans in European forests do not exist. It is therefore difficult to promote appropriate preventive measures among workers or people who come into direct or indirect contact with forest animals. [b]Objectives.[/b] The objectives of this review are to synthesise existing knowledge on the prevalence of the three predominant bacterial zoonotic diseases in Europe, i.e. Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis, in order to draw up recommendations for occupational or public health. [b]Methods[/b]. 88 papers published between 1995–2013 (33 on Lyme borreliosis, 30 on tularemia and 25 on leptospirosis were analyzed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The prevalences of these three zoonotic diseases are not negligible and information targeting the public is needed. Moreover, the results highlight the lack of standardised surveys among different European countries. It was also noted that epidemiological data on leptospirosis are very scarce

  8. Ebola virus disease in a humanitarian aid worker - New York City, October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacisin, Kari; Balter, Sharon; Fine, Annie; Weiss, Don; Ackelsberg, Joel; Prezant, David; Wilson, Ross; Starr, David; Rakeman, Jennifer; Raphael, Marisa; Quinn, Celia; Toprani, Amita; Clark, Nancy; Link, Nathan; Daskalakis, Demetre; Maybank, Aletha; Layton, Marcelle; Varma, Jay K

    2015-04-01

    In late October 2014, Ebola virus disease (Ebola) was diagnosed in a humanitarian aid worker who recently returned from West Africa to New York City (NYC). The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) actively monitored three close contacts of the patient and 114 health care personnel. No secondary cases of Ebola were detected. In collaboration with local and state partners, DOHMH had developed protocols to respond to such an event beginning in July 2014. These protocols included safely transporting a person at the first report of symptoms to a local hospital prepared to treat a patient with Ebola, laboratory testing for Ebola, and monitoring of contacts. In response to this single case of Ebola, initial health care worker active monitoring protocols needed modification to improve clarity about what types of exposure should be monitored. The response costs were high in both human resources and money: DOHMH alone spent $4.3 million. However, preparedness activities that include planning and practice in effectively monitoring the health of workers involved in Ebola patient care can help prevent transmission of Ebola. PMID:25837242

  9. Healthcare Workers' Attitudes Toward Patients With Ebola Virus Disease in The United States

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhulu, Deepa Maheswari; Edwards, Vernee; CHAZOTTE, Cynthia; Bhatt, Devika; Weedon, Jeremy; Minkoff, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background.  We assessed healthcare workers' (HCWs) attitudes toward care of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods.  We provided a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of HCWs at 2 urban hospitals. Results.  Of 428 HCWs surveyed, 25.1% believed it was ethical to refuse care to patients with EVD; 25.9% were unwilling to provide care to them. In a multivariate analysis, female gender (32.9% vs 11.9%; odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–7.7),...

  10. Non-communicable disease training for public health workers in low- and middle-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davila, Evelyn P; Suleiman, Zubeda; Mghamba, Janneth;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing worldwide. A lack of training and experience in NCDs among public health workers is evident in low- and middle- income countries. METHODS: We describe the design and outcomes of applied training in NCD epidemiology and control piloted in...... Tanzania that included a 2-week interactive course and a 6-month NCD field project. Trainees (n=14 initiated; n=13 completed) were epidemiology-trained Ministry of Health or hospital staff. We evaluated the training using Kirkpatrick's evaluation model for measuring reactions, learning, behavior and...

  11. The history of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) 1920–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Robert P.; Ellis, L. Susanne Squires; Kohler, Erwin M.

    2015-01-01

    The following history has been compiled and written by the authors. The historical facts are available from the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) archives, dating back to letters and summaries written by the founders, and by a few of the Secretary-Treasurers from the early decades through 2014. The Organization and Purpose: The CRWAD is a non-profit organization and has been since its origin. The sole purpose of CRWAD is to discuss and disseminate the most current rese...

  12. Fixed obstructive lung disease among workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry--California, 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-27

    Bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and life-threatening form of fixed obstructive lung disease, is known to be caused by exposure to noxious gases in occupational settings and has been described in workers in the microwave-popcorn industry who were exposed to artificial butter-flavoring chemicals, including diacetyl. In August 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) received the first report of a bronchiolitis obliterans diagnosis in a flavor-manufacturing worker in California. In April 2006, a second report was received of a case in a flavor-manufacturing worker from another company. Neither worker was employed in the microwave-popcorn industry; both were workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry, which produces artificial butter flavoring and other flavors such as cherry, almond, praline, jalapeno, and orange. Both workers had handled pure diacetyl, an ingredient in artificial butter and other flavorings, and additional chemicals involved in the manufacturing process. Studies have indicated that exposure to diacetyl causes severe respiratory epithelial injury in animals. Because the manufacture of flavorings involves more than 2,000 chemicals, workers in the general flavor-manufacturing industry are exposed to more chemicals than workers in the microwave-popcorn industry, which primarily uses butter flavorings. Food flavorings are designated "generally recognized as safe" when approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; flavorings are not known to put consumers at risk for lung disease. This report describes the first two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans in flavor-manufacturing workers in California, the findings of the public health investigation, and the actions taken by state and federal agencies to prevent future cases of occupational bronchiolitis obliterans. To identify cases and reduce risk for lung disease from occupational exposure to flavorings, a timely, effective

  13. Prevalence of dry eye disease in visual display terminal workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Courtin, Romain; Pereira, Bruno; Naughton, Geraldine; Chamoux, Alain; Chiambaretta, Frédéric; Lanhers, Charlotte; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of dry eye disease (DED) in workers using visual display terminals (VDT). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases for studies reporting DED prevalence in VDT workers. Results 16 of the 9049 identified studies were included, with a total of 11 365 VDT workers. Despite a global DED prevalence of 49.5% (95% CI 47.5 to 50.6), ranging from 9.5% to 87.5%, ...

  14. Risk factors of coronary heart disease among medical diagnostic X-ray workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD) in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China, especially the relationship of CHD with occupational irradiation. Methods: A 1:2 matched case-control study was carried out. The study subjects consisted of 112 pair-matched cases and controls coming from different hospitals in China. Information about occupational and non-occupational risk factors obtained by interviewing every subjects personally. Individual doses were estimated by normalized work load method. SAS 6.12 software conditional Logistic regression method was applied to data analysis. Results: Variables such as family history of CHD (OR=17.298, P = 0.0001), history of hypertension (OR = 6.172, P = 0.0003), overweight (OR = 2.679, P = 0.0150), physical exercises (OR = 0.421, P0.0333), diabetes (OR = 7.823, P = 0.0200), radiation protection condition (OR = 3.992, P 0.0027), and accumulated radiation dose (OR = 1.612, P 0.0454) were included in the last model. Conclusions: For the medical diagnostic X-ray workers, family history of coronary heart disease, history of hypertension, diabetes, etc. are the main risk factors of CHD, and occupational exposure may be a potential risk factor. As for the mechanism, further studies are needed

  15. APHIS’ Plant Inspection Stations: Protecting American Agriculture From Foreign Pests and Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department fo Agriculture; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    2007-01-01

    In today’s global marketplace, the volume of international trade brings increased potential for the introduction of foreign pests, diseases, and noxious weeds that could threaten the safety of American agriculture. The results of such introductions can have a devastating effect on the U.S. food supply, damage our natural resources, and cost hundreds of millions of dollars in eradication and control measures that ultimately result in higher priced agricultural products for the consumer.

  16. The vulnerability of U.S. agriculture to foot and mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jochimsen, Aaron A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. livestock industry represents a critical economic infrastructure, due to its size and influence on national and international agricultural systems. The high-concentration farming practices that allow the United States to be a world leader in agriculture also present a vulnerability to biological pathogens, particularly foot and mouth disease (FMD). The purpose of this thesis is to stimulate and broaden the discussion of the U....

  17. Morbidity from ischemic heart disease in workers at a stainless steel welding factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Hilt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTObjectives:  Methods:  Results:  Conclusion:  Key terms:  Angina pectoris, cardiovascular diseases, grinding, ischemic heart disease, metal workers,myocardial infarction, stainless steel, weldingIn accord with some other studies, the results of the study support a hypothesis that there maybe a relation between exposure factors to which stainless steel metal workers are exposed and an increasedrisk of ischemic heart disease.There were 236 men from the study group and 989 men from the control group who fulfilled theinclusion criteria, and who answered the questionnaires. The bivariate analysis showed that the study grouphad an increased age and smoking adjusted prevalence of "chest pain on exercise" and "angina pectoris"with ratios 2.3 (95% CI 1.5–4.9 and 2.6 (95% 1.2–5.7 respectively. When using multiple logistic regressionanalysis with control for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios for the study group as comparedto the control group, were 2.6 (95% CI 1.3–5.3 for "chest pain on exercise", 2.5 (95% CI 1.1–5.8 for"angina pectoris", and 2.4 (95% CI 1.1–4.9 for myocardial infarction. The only explanatory variable whichshowed statistically significant increased odds ratios for all three outcome variables was work with grinding,with 2.4 (95% CI 1.0–5.5, 3.3 (1.3–8.5, and 2.5 (1.1–5.9 respectively.All the men who had worked at the plant for more than one year since 1960, and who were underthe age of 70 years at the time of the study, were included in the study group. The control group wasrandomly selected from the male population of the same town, and was categorically matched for age. A selfadministered questionnaire was used to collect information on the occurrence of CVD and related symptoms,background variables, and exposure factors. The validity of the outcome variables for a subgroup ofthe participants was checked with their appointed general practitioners. This validation revealed a low

  18. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life. PMID:24295099

  19. Ischemic heart disease in workers at Mayak PA: latency of incidence risk after radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristoforo Simonetto

    Full Text Available We present an updated analysis of incidence and mortality from atherosclerotic induced ischemic heart diseases in the cohort of workers at the Mayak Production Association (PA. This cohort constitutes one of the most important sources for the assessment of radiation risk. It is exceptional because it comprises information on several other risk factors. While most of the workers have been exposed to external gamma radiation, a large proportion has additionally been exposed to internal radiation from inhaled plutonium. Compared to a previous study by Azizova et al. 2012, the updated dosimetry system MWDS-2008 has been applied and methods of analysis have been revised. We extend the analysis of the significant incidence risk and observe that main detrimental effects of external radiation exposure occur after more than about 30 years. For mortality, significant risk was found in males with an excess relative risk per dose of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.16 [Formula: see text] while risk was insignificant for females. With respect to internal radiation exposure no association to risk could be established.

  20. [A doctoral thesis on occupational diseases from 1816: workers' diseases in the post-Ramazzinian era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, F

    2010-01-01

    No medical "classical" work has been in any way as successful as Ramazzini's De Morbis Artificum Diatriba. The book's success is confirmed by the constantly increasing number of new editions, emulations, translations and quotations and corresponding dissemination. As is proven by web access, our contemporaries continue to contemplate Ramazzini with admiration and wonder, confidence, devotion and curiosity and also as a means of seeking confirmation of the concepts that are variously presented. It is possible to describe a temporal phenomenon of "differential impact" of Ramazzini's work. Throughout the twentieth century, and especially on "celebrated" anniversaries (1900, 1913, 1914, 1933, 1964, 2000), many "tributes" to the author were recorded. During the nineteenth century in major European countries, but less so in Italy, Ramazzini's lesson was recorded as superseded "on an objective basis". The context had completely changed, as did both work and workers after a century-old continuity. Between the 1700's and the early 1800's Ramazzini dominated the field like a mountain in the desert; with editions of De Morbis in Latin and in translations following one on the other, with a positive cultural and popularizing impact on a public consisting of the international scientific and professional avant-garde. The means of dissemination consisted first and foremost of including all or part of the corpus of the Diatriba in "dictionaries" or "encyclopaedias" of medicine. Another means that was widely used, efficacious and typically academic, was through the doctoral theses discussed in all major European universities. Among these contributions was the thesis discussed in 1816 in Paris, by Louis-André Gosse of Geneva (1791-1873), which is presented in the previous pages in the translation from the French. PMID:21110453

  1. Healthcare Workers' Attitudes Toward Patients With Ebola Virus Disease in The United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhulu, Deepa Maheswari; Edwards, Vernee; Chazotte, Cynthia; Bhatt, Devika; Weedon, Jeremy; Minkoff, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Background.  We assessed healthcare workers' (HCWs) attitudes toward care of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods.  We provided a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of HCWs at 2 urban hospitals. Results.  Of 428 HCWs surveyed, 25.1% believed it was ethical to refuse care to patients with EVD; 25.9% were unwilling to provide care to them. In a multivariate analysis, female gender (32.9% vs 11.9%; odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-7.7), nursing profession (43.6% vs 12.8%; OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.2), ethical beliefs about refusing care to patients with EVD (39.1% vs 21.3%; OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 2.0-7.0), and increased concern about putting family, friends, and coworkers at risk (28.2% vs 0%; P = .003; OR, 11.1) were independent predictors of unwillingness to care for patients with EVD. Although beliefs about the ethics of refusing care were independently associated with willingness to care for patients with EVD, 21.3% of those who thought it was unethical to refuse care would be unwilling to care for patients with EVD. Healthcare workers in our study had concerns about potentially exposing their families and friends to EVD (90%), which was out of proportion to their degree of concern for personal risk (16.8%). Conclusion.  Healthcare workers' willingness to care for patients with Ebola patients did not precisely mirror their beliefs about the ethics of refusing to provide care, although they were strongly influenced by those beliefs. Healthcare workers may be balancing ethical beliefs about patient care with beliefs about risks entailed in rendering care and consequent risks to their families. Providing a safe work environment and measures to reduce risks to family, perhaps by arranging child care or providing temporary quarters, may help alleviate HCW's concerns. PMID:26788546

  2. Morbidity of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Clean - up Workers with Oncological Diseases from 1990 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's largest ever radiation accident involving a nuclear reactor occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP). More than 6 000 Latvian inhabitants worked to clean-up CNPP accident in 1986-1991. The duration of accident clean-up workers exposure was from few weeks to 6 months, including external as well as internal radiation. The estimated external radiation doses were 0,01-0,5 Gy. Latvian CNPP accident clean-up workers State register was created on the basis of the Center of Occupational and Radiological medicine of P. Stradins Clinical University hospital in 1994 but examination of clean-up workers was started in 1986. Our aim was to analyse oncological morbidity in clean-up workers in comparison with oncological morbidity in Latvian men population. Materials and methods. For analysis of oncological morbidity in NPP accident clean-up workers, the data of Latvian CNPP accident clean-up workers State Register were used. The group for investigation includes 4053 males what were examined regularly (in average 1600 persons every year) from 1998 to 2004. From these groups of clean-up workers we have revealed 177 persons with oncological diseases over the observation period. Among them only two women but others were men. We have used for the comparison of oncological morbidity data of Latvian Cancer registry and Central bureau of statistics. Summary morbidity with oncological diseases and morbidity with oncological diseases of prostata, stomach, lungs and thyroid for men who have taken part in clean-up works were analysed. Oncological morbidity in age group 35-69 years over the observation period 1998-2004 were compared With age-matched non-exposed population morbidity. Results and discussion. In the structure of oncological morbidity of the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers over the period 1990-2004 in the first place was lung cancer, in the second place -stomach cancer, in the third place -prostate cancer. CNPP clean-up worker's common

  3. Impact of Educational Intervention Regarding Mosquito Borne Diseases and Their Control Measures among The Link Workers of Urban Health Centers (UHCs) of Ahmedabad City

    OpenAIRE

    Fancy Manish; Parikh Sonal,; Prajapati Arpit; Bala DV

    2012-01-01

    Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study populat...

  4. Social Determinants of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Families of Migrants participating in Mexico-Canada Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program: A Study in Guadalupe Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gines Martínez Fernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in the families of migrant laborers registered in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP and residing in Guadalupe Zaragoza Tlahuapan, Puebla, México. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study of the interaction between migration, social determinants, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: In this poor and patriarchal community, the SAWP offers financial opportunities for the men of Guadalupe Zaragoza. The remittances of these migrant workers have enabled their families to live in adequate housing, but their health situation is still vulnerable. Only half of the families have access to public health services or the special health programs for migrant worker families. 13% of migrant family members were infected with pulmonary tuberculosis as measured by the Quantiferon-TB test. The female partners of migrants typically do not study past elementary school, become housewives with no pay, are forced to take on added work in the household, and experience subjective symptoms of stress and fatigue. The children of Guadalupe Zaragoza are also vulnerable; the number of children in this community who can regularly attend school is below the national average because many children have to work. These families end up paying more for education, housing, and health services than the average Mexican family. Conclusions: In the families of SAWP migrant workers, the prevalence of latent pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be lower than the national average based on studies using the tuberculin test; this may be due to the greater specificity of the Quantiferon-TB Gold test. There is a significant risk of reactivation tuberculosis in these families due to the inequity in the social determinants of health.

  5. Prevalence of coronary heart disease or stroke among workers aged <55 years--United States, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2014-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease accounts for one in three deaths in the United States each year, and coronary heart disease and stroke account for most of those deaths. To try to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Million Hearts initiative, promoting proven and effective interventions in communities and clinical settings. In workplace settings, cardiovascular disease can be addressed through a Total Worker Health program, which integrates occupational safety and health protection with health promotion. To identify workers likely to benefit from such a program, CDC analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the period 2008-2012 to estimate the prevalence of a history of coronary heart disease or stroke (CHD/stroke) among adults aged Health approach to reducing the risk for CHD/stroke. PMID:25078653

  6. Research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews the connections between environmental change, modern agricultural practices and the occurrence of infectious diseases - especially those of poverty; proposes a multi-criteria decision analysis approach to determining the key research priorities; and explores the benefits and limitations of a more systems-based approach to conceptualizing and investigating the problem. The report is the output of the Thematic Reference Group on Environment, Agriculture and Infectious Diseases of Poverty (TRG 4), part of an independent think tank of international experts, established and funded by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholder consultations. The report concludes that mitigating the outcomes on human health will require far-reaching strategies - spanning the environment, climate, agriculture, social-ecological, microbial and public-health sectors; as well as inter-disciplinary research and intersectoral action. People will also need to modify their way of thinking and engage beyond their own specialities, since the challenges are systemic and are amplified by the increasing inter-connectedness of human populations. This is one of a series of disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at www.who.int/tdr/capacity/global_report. PMID:23687800

  7. Hepatitis and liver disease knowledge and preventive practices among health workers in Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, N; Flores, YN; Ramirez, P.; Bastani, R; J. Salmerón

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge and preventive practices regarding hepatitis and liver disease among a sample of participants in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study. Methods: The study population consisted of 892 participants from Cuernavaca, Mexico. Demographic characteristics, knowledge about hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and liver disease in general, as well as information about prevention practices were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Participants were grouped into categori...

  8. Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers Caring for Patients with Filovirus Disease: A Rapid Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Hersi; Adrienne Stevens; Pauline Quach; Candyce Hamel; Kednapa Thavorn; Chantelle Garritty; Becky Skidmore; Constanza Vallenas; Susan L. Norris; Matthias Egger; Sergey Eremin; Mauricio Ferri; Nahoko Shindo; David Moher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A rapid review, guided by a protocol, was conducted to inform development of the World Health Organization's guideline on personal protective equipment in the context of the ongoing (2013-present) Western African filovirus disease outbreak, with a focus on health care workers directly caring for patients with Ebola or Marburg virus diseases. METHODS Electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched. Eligibility criteria initially included comparative studie...

  9. Preventing waterborne diseases: analysis of a community health worker program in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neal; Mutukkanu, Thingalraj; Nadimuthu, Alexander; Thiyagaran, Initha; Sullivan-Marx, Eileen

    2012-04-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programs have become popular tools in reducing the burden of childhood illnesses. However, the efficacy of CHWs in facilitating behavior change, as a means of preventing waterborne diseases, remains unclear. Using a household survey (n = 225),in rural Tamil Nadu, South India, we assessed the effects of a CHW program on knowledge, attitudes and practices related to diarrheal illness through comparison with a control population that was not enrolled in the program. The CHW program in the experimental village entailed behavior change aimed at preventing diarrheal illness through home visits, community events and health education. Correlates of four key variables on knowledge of drinking water contamination and behavior change were examined by using logistic regression models. We found that while the program was effective in raising awareness of drinking water contamination, it did not significantly increase hygiene and water sanitation practices in the village community in comparison to the control population. Furthermore, villagers enrolled in the CHW program were unable to recognize the connections between contaminated drinking water and disease. The results of our survey indicated the CHW program did not significantly affect behavior in the experimental village. Possible shortcomings in the program are discussed. PMID:21922165

  10. Lyme Disease: antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in farm workers in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanchi Nestor Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease is a tick-borne (specially by Ixodes ticks immune-mediated inflammatory disorder caused by a newly recognize spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Indirect fluorescent antibody (IF staining methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are frequently relied upon to confirm Lyme borreliosis infections. Although serologic testing for antibodies has limitations, it is still the only practical means of confirming B. burgdorferi infections. Because we have no previous report of Lyme disease in human inhabitants in Argentina, a study was designed as a seroepidemiologic investigation of the immune response to B. burgdorferi in farm workers of Argentina with arthritis symptoms. Three out of 28 sera were positive (#1,5 and 9. Serum # 1 was positive for Immunoglobulin G at dilution 1:320, serum # 5 and # 9 both to dilution 1:160; while for Immunoglobulin M all (#1, 5 and 9 were positive at low dilution (1:40 using IF. The results showed that antibodies against B. burgdorferi are present in an Argentinian population. Thus caution should be exercised in the clinical interpretation of arthritis until the presence of B. burgdorferi be confirmed by culture in specific media.

  11. Lyme Disease: antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in farm workers in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Oscar Stanchi

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease is a tick-borne (specially by Ixodes ticks immune-mediated inflammatory disorder caused by a newly recognize spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Indirect fluorescent antibody (IF staining methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are frequently relied upon to confirm Lyme borreliosis infections. Although serologic testing for antibodies has limitations, it is still the only practical means of confirming B. burgdorferi infections. Because we have no previous report of Lyme disease in human inhabitants in Argentina, a study was designed as a seroepidemiologic investigation of the immune response to B. burgdorferi in farm workers of Argentina with arthritis symptoms. Three out of 28 sera were positive (#1,5 and 9. Serum # 1 was positive for Immunoglobulin G at dilution 1:320, serum # 5 and # 9 both to dilution 1:160; while for Immunoglobulin M all (#1, 5 and 9 were positive at low dilution (1:40 using IF. The results showed that antibodies against B. burgdorferi are present in an Argentinian population. Thus caution should be exercised in the clinical interpretation of arthritis until the presence of B. burgdorferi be confirmed by culture in specific media.

  12. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in a hospital for pulmonary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diel Roland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI in health care workers (HCW in low-incidence countries especially in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. With Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA, a new method for diagnosis of LTBI is available which is more specific than the tuberculin skin test (TST. Objectives The study was designed to estimate prevalence of LTBI among 270 HCW in a Hospital of Pulmonary Diseases routinely screened for TB. Methods LTBI was assessed by the QuantiFERON-Gold In Tube (QFT-IT. Information on gender, age, workplace, job title, BCG vaccination and history of both TB and TST were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios for potential risk factors for LTBI were calculated. Results The prevalence of LTBI was 7.2%. In HCW younger than 30 years LTBI prevalence was 3.5% and in those older than 50 years 22%. Physicians and nurses showed a higher prevalence rate than other professions (10.8% to 4.5%. The putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>50 year OR 9.3, 95%CI 2.5–33.7, working as physicians/nurses (OR 3. 95%CI 1.2–10.4 and no previous TST in medical history (OR 4.4, 95%CI 1.01–18.9 when compared to those with a negative TST. Conclusion Prevalence of LTBI assessed by QFT-IT is low, this indicates a low infection risk even in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. No statement can be made regarding the occupational risk as compared to the general population because there are no LTBI prevalence data from Germany available. The higher LTBI prevalence rate in older HCWs might be due to the cohort effect or the longer time at risk.

  13. Mexican Contract Workers and the U.S. Capitalist Agricultural Labor Process: The Formative Era, 1942-1964

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Ronald L., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rural sociologists have seemingly moved away from an active interest in the plight of migrant farmworkers and the centrality of their labor in the development of U.S. agribusiness. Answering Pfeffer's (1983) call to analyze the different forms of agricultural production, I focus on the key formative period of what I refer to as the U.S. capitalist…

  14. Do the socioeconomic impacts of antiretroviral therapy vary by gender? A longitudinal study of Kenyan agricultural worker employment outcomes

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    Sigei Carolyne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART has grown in Africa, attention has turned to evaluating the socio-economic impacts of ART. One key issue is the extent to which improvements in health resulting from ART allows individuals to return to work and earn income. Improvements in health from ART may also be associated with reduced impaired presenteeism, which is the loss of productivity when an ill or disabled individual attends work but accomplishes less at his or her usual tasks or shifts to other, possibly less valuable, tasks. Methods Longitudinal data for this analysis come from company payroll records for 97 HIV-infected tea estate workers (the index group, 56 women, 41 men and a comparison group of all workers assigned to the same work teams (n = 2485, 1691 men, 794 women for a 37-month period covering two years before and one year after initiating ART. We used nearest neighbour matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART on three monthly employment outcomes for tea estate workers in Kenya – days plucking tea, days assigned to non-plucking assignments, and kilograms harvested when plucking. Results The female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea monthly than the matched female comparison group during the final 9 months pre-ART. They also worked 87% more days on non-plucking assignments. While the monthly gap between the two groups narrowed after beginning ART, the female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea and about 100% more days on non-plucking tasks than the comparison group after one year on ART. The male index group was able to maintain a similar pattern of work as their comparison group except during the initial five months on therapy. Conclusion Significant impaired presenteeism continued to exist among the female index group after one year on ART. Future research needs to explore further the socio-economic implications of HIV-infected female workers on ART being less

  15. Agricultural policy and social returns to eradication programs: the case of Aujeszky's disease in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, H; Lexmon, A; Robertsson, J A; Lundeheim, N; Wierup, M

    1997-02-01

    Economic-welfare analysis of animal disease prevention programs frequently ignore the constraints of the agricultural policy environment. Prevention programs affect producers, consumers and the government. The policy environment to a large extent determines the magnitude as well as the distribution of benefits of the program among these groups. The Swedish hog industry has been exposed to three major policy changes during the 1990-1995 period. These scenarios involve various degrees of government intervention in the agricultural sector including internal market deregulation and EU-membership. Aujeszky's disease is a virus disease with swine as the natural infection reservoir. Piglets are the most fragile and an outbreak of the disease results in symptoms such as shaking, cramps and convulsions with an increase in the mortality rate. Slaughter hogs suffer from coughing, fever and reduce their feed consumption. During the last 20-25 years the incidence of Aujeszky's disease (AD) has been increasing in Sweden. In 1989 an eradication program was undertaken. A model is developed to analyze social benefits of an eradication program given variations in agricultural policy. The model refers to the specifics of the AD-program implemented in Sweden. The expected benefits of the program are evaluated using a welfare-economic analysis applying cost-benefit analysis. Total benefits of the program are evaluated across herd and size categories and different regions. Data concerning the frequency of the virus among various categories of herds prior to enacting the program were used (Wahlström et al., 1990). In addition, data from an agricultural insurance company were used to estimate the conditional probability of an outbreak given that the herd is infected. Biological and technical parameter values were collected from a variety of sources. The results of the analysis indicate that the program is economically viable given a social rate of discount in the range of 3-5% without

  16. PON1Q192R genetic polymorphism modifies organophosphorous pesticide effects on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers from southern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide exposure, including organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, has been associated with poor semen quality, and paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in OP deactivation, may have a role on their susceptibility, due to PON1 polymorphisms. Our objective was to evaluate the role of PON1Q192R polymorphism on the susceptibility to OP toxicity on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in farmers with Mayan ascendancy from southeastern Mexico chronically exposed to pesticides; mostly OP. Fifty four agricultural workers (18-55 years old) were included, who provided semen and blood samples. Semen quality was evaluated according to WHO, sperm DNA damage by in situ-nick translation (NT-positive cells), PON1Q192R polymorphism by real-time PCR and serum PON1 activity by using phenylacetate and paraoxon. Two OP exposure indexes were created: at the month of sampling and during 3 months before sampling, representing the exposure to spermatids-spermatozoa and to cells at one spermatogenic cycle, respectively. PON1 192R and 192Q allele frequencies were 0.54 and 0.46, respectively. Significant associations were found between OP exposure at the month of sampling and NT-positive cells and sperm viability in homozygote 192RR subjects, and dose-effect relationships were observed between OP exposure during 3 months before sampling and sperm quality parameters and NT-positive cells in homozygote 192RR farmers. This suggests that cells at all stages of spermatogenesis are target of OP, and that there exists an interaction between OP exposure and PON1Q192R polymorphism on these effects; farmers featuring the 192RR genotype were more susceptible to develop reproductive toxic effects by OP exposure

  17. Organophosphate pesticides exposure bring out neurological symptoms in the children of agriculture workers in rural India: A community based cross-sectional study from Maharashtra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhsohale ND

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In rural areas of developing countries, children of agricultural workers have a high potential for exposure to organophosphorus (OP pesticides. This puts them at an increased risk of damage to neurobehavioural performance, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to assess the neurological risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers in rural India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in 200 children aged 8-15 years in adjoining villages of Taluka Chalisgaon, district Jalgaon, Maharashtra. Various neurological symptoms like muscarinic (diarrhea, urinary incontinence, lacrimation, excessive salivation, nicotinic (tremors, muscle weakness, tachycardia and general symptoms (headache, insomnia, numbness in legs, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lethargy were assessed by a specially designed Q16 questionnaire. Exposure index (EI was calculated by multiplying the number of hours exposed to OP pesticides and the number of years of exposure. Results: The predominant clinical symptoms found in children in study group were muscarinic [diarrhea (12%, lacrimation (26% and urinary incontinence (12%]; nicotinic [muscle weakness (42%] and general symptoms [pallor (58%, fatigue (34%, headache (30%, numbness in legs (24%, lethargy (20%]. Also, the cognition and psychological function was more impaired in children exposed to OP pesticides than the non-exposed children. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest that neurologic symptoms involved both central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting from occupational and environmental exposure to OP pesticides. The high prevalence of neurologic symptoms could be attributed to chronic effects of OP pesticides on the central nervous system.

  18. Innovative Solutions to New Invaders: Managing Agricultural Pests, Diseases and Weeds Under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Trevor; Norgrove, Lindsey; Masters, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Global agriculture is struggling to keep pace with increasing demands for food as human population increases and food preferences alter. Changes in temperature, greenhouse gas concentrations, precipitation patterns and radiation further challenge farmers. Insect and nematode pests, plant diseases and weeds are major constraints to crop production. Developing models to project the potential distribution and abundance of a pest species under various climate change scenarios is essential, and th...

  19. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF NURSES IN THE PREVENTION OF DISEASES REGARDING USE OF RURAL WORKERS BY AGROCHEMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José E Daher

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O uso de agrotóxicos é uma modalidade preventiva de pragas utilizada no setor agrícola por profissionais rurais. O seu uso tem contribuído para o aumento da produção de alimentos, mas coloca em risco a saúde de trabalhadores que não utilizam o Equipamento de Proteção Individual. Objetivos: relacionar os principais tipos e causas de intoxicações e analisar como o enfermeiro e os profissionais de saúde podem contribuir para melhorar a qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores. Método: pesquisa bibliográfica,  no período de junho a dezembro de 2009. Resultados: os artigos revelam que os produtos químicos vêm sendo empregados na agricultura de forma inadequada, colocando em risco a saúde do trabalhador e provocando intoxicações.Conclusão: o Enfermeiro do trabalho pode atuar na orientação preventiva de doenças causadas pela exposição a esses produtos. Cabe ao profissional de saúde adotar meios de educação continuada para os trabalhadores rurais e de conscientização para seus empregadores. Descritores: agrotóxicos, saúde do trabalhador, enfermagem do trabalho, EPI, prevenção.Abstract The use of pesticides is a form of preventive pest used in agriculture for rural professionals. The use have contributed to the increase of food production, while that endangers the health of workers who handle them without the correct use of Personal Protective Equipment. Objective: to list the main types and causes of poisoning, and examines how nurses and health professionals can contribute to improving the quality of life for employees. Methodology: used computerized literature search and manual, from June to December 2009. The articles selected health care show that chemicals are being employed in agriculture improperly, endangering workers' health caused several poisonings. Results: the Nurse's work could act in the preventive orientation. Conclusion: It is for the health professional to adopt, based on legislation and on

  1. Dental Diseases of Acid Factory Workers Globally-Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanadhya Sudhanshu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Industrial growth is occurring exponentially, for unimpeded growth, industrial workers are recruited on a large scale globally. There are various sectors of industries present for which laborers are trained in accordance to their requirements. As workers possess the general health risk of occupational hazards, various labor laws, schemes and policies are undertaken by the government which are implemented by industries, but very few attention for oral health is being given because of which laborers are more progressing towards hidden adverse oral effects which can affect their working efficacy. Various studies on different sector workers were carried out focusing their oral health status but for acid factory workers it is neglected and therefore unrevealed to the society. For this purpose, in this article, though, paucity of literature, still, tries to enlighten the oral health status in acid factory industrial workers with available resources.

  2. Cross-sectional study of uranium mine workers to develop predictive equations for lung functions with reference to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the first part of a prospective epidemiological study of the lung function and dust exposure of workers at the Roessing Uranium Mine in SWA/Namibia, various measurements of lung function of 1 407 workers were carried out. This was necessary in order to follow up any chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that might develop. The opportunity was used to test existing prediction formulae and to develop formulae for normal values for workers at the Roessing mine. 94 refs., 36 figs., 14 tabs

  3. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  4. From Awareness to Action: The Community of Sarnia Mobilizes to Protect its Workers from Occupational Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Desre; McMillan, Keith; Gross, Emily; Kone Pefoyo, Anna J; Bradley, Mike; Holness, Dorothy Linn

    2015-11-01

    An exploratory qualitative case study investigated how different sectors of a highly industrialized community mobilized in the 1990s to help workers exposed to asbestos. For this study, thirty key informants including representatives from industry, workers, the community, and local politicians participated in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The analysis was framed by a "Dimensions of Community Change" model. The informants highlighted the importance of raising awareness, and the need for leadership, social and organizational networks, acquiring skills and resources, individual and community power, holding shared values and beliefs, and perseverance. We found that improvements in occupational health and safety came from persistently communicating a clearly defined issue ("asbestos exposure causes cancer") and having an engaged community that collaborated with union leadership. Notable successes included stronger occupational health services, a support group for workers and widows, the fast-tracking of compensation for workers exposed to asbestos, and a reduction in hazardous emissions. PMID:26391798

  5. EARLY DETECTION OF THYROID DISEASE IN WORKERS PROFESSIONALLY EXPOSED TO NOISE THROUGH PREVENTIVE MEDICAL CHECK-UPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Gligorijević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the influence of noise on the occurrence of thyroid disease. A group of examinees included the noise-exposed workers (300 who work in the production halls and the control group (50 doing administrative jobs in the office. The testing was performed by the service of occupational medicine, within regular control and periodic check-ups of the noise-exposed group and health systematic examinations of the control group. Some laboratory analyses of the thyroid hormone were used for the purpose of this study. The percentage of those with an increased thyroid activity in the control group is 2%, while in the group of workers exposed to noise it equals 6,8%. In the control group, the total number of those with a decreased thyroid function is 0,85% and 4,85% in the noise-exposed group. In the control group, the total number of workers with the changed thyroid function is 2,85%, while in the group exposed to noise, the total number of workers with the changed thyroid function is 11,65%. By comparing the number of workers having disturbances in the thyroid function from the control group to those from the noise-exposed group who have hearing nerve damage, it can be noticed that there is no statistically significant difference. There were 21 examinees that had subjective health complaints with the levels of hormones increased; 15 examinees had subjective health complaints while the levels of hormones were decreased, and 77 examinees had subjective health complaints with the levels of hormones within the normal range. The largest number of workers with a changed thyroid function had between 10 and 20 years of service. After analyzing the results, obtained in both control and noise-exposed groups, the conclusion was that the number of workers having problems with the thyroid activity is larger in the group exposed to noise in relation to the workers from the control group. These values are in correlation with the level of noise

  6. Risk for infection by Lyme disease cause in green surfaces maintenance workers in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Lyme disease (LD is a cosmopolitan disease from the group of zoonoses that in humans can affect skins, joints, heart and/or nervous system. Research conducted in endemic areas, shows not only that the population, which lives or works in tick habitats, is in a high risk for getting infected by LD cause, but also that every enviroment itself is specific in regard to both vectors and B. burgdorferi species. In our enviroment, research of seropositivity to B. burgdorferi in persons exposed to vectors of LD have not been conducted. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a higher risk for getting B. burgdorferi infection in the fieldworks of JKP "Zelenilo Beograd" than in other persons. Methods. Risk for getting LD in the fieldworkers of JKP "Zelenilo Beograd" (park-maintanance company was determined according to seropositivity, the number and infection rate of LD vectors, and entomological risk index (ERI value. Serum samples of 34 fieldworkers of JKP "Zelenilo Beograd", and 35 persons of the control group, were tested for the presence of specific IgM and IgG anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies by using ELISA test. In the research localities, the number of ticks was estimated by using the flag hours method, and tick infection rate was determined by dark field microscopy, with magnification rate of 400×. The data were analyzed statistically using χ2 test, and Pearson's correlation analysis. Results. Out of 34 fieldworkes serum samples, 8 (23.5% were positive on anti-B. burgdorferi antibody presence, while in the control group only one (2.9% sample was positive (p < 0,05. Seropositivity rate varied from 0-66.6% among localities. Flag hours value among the localities ranged from 8.2-29.9, and tick infection rate ranged from 10.8- 22.3%. ERI value was 0.03-0.15. Correlation between flag hour rate and seropositivity, tick infection rate and seropositivity, and also ERI and seropositivity was established. Conclusion

  7. Adverse respiratory health and hematological alterations among agricultural workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides: a cross-sectional study in North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. RESULTS: Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05 the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001 lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet

  8. A Cluster of Legionnaires' Disease and Associated Pontiac Fever Morbidity in Office Workers, Dublin, June-July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June and July 2008, two office workers were admitted to a Dublin hospital with Legionnaires' disease. Investigations showed that cooling towers in the basement car park were the most likely source of infection. However, positive results from cooling tower samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) did not correlate with subsequent culture results. Also, many employees reported Pontiac fever-like morbidity following notification of the second case of Legionnaires' disease. In total, 54 employees attended their general practitioner or emergency department with symptoms of Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever. However, all laboratory tests for Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever were negative. In this investigation, email was used extensively for active case finding and provision of time information to employees and medical colleagues. We recommend clarification of the role of PCR in the diagnosis of legionellosis and also advocate for a specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of the milder form of legionellosis as in Pontiac fever.

  9. A cluster of Legionnaires' disease and associated Pontiac fever morbidity in office workers, Dublin, June-July 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    In June and July 2008, two office workers were admitted to a Dublin hospital with Legionnaires\\' disease. Investigations showed that cooling towers in the basement car park were the most likely source of infection. However, positive results from cooling tower samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) did not correlate with subsequent culture results. Also, many employees reported Pontiac fever-like morbidity following notification of the second case of Legionnaires\\' disease. In total, 54 employees attended their general practitioner or emergency department with symptoms of Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever. However, all laboratory tests for Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever were negative. In this investigation, email was used extensively for active case finding and provision of time information to employees and medical colleagues. We recommend clarification of the role of PCR in the diagnosis of legionellosis and also advocate for a specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of the milder form of legionellosis as in Pontiac fever.

  10. On the Season, a Report of a Public Health Project Conducted Among Negro Migrant Agricultural Workers in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.

    A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…

  11. Impact of Educational Intervention Regarding Mosquito Borne Diseases and Their Control Measures among The Link Workers of Urban Health Centers (UHCs of Ahmedabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancy Manish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study population and their baseline knowledge regarding mosquito borne diseases and mosquito control measures was assessed by questionnaire. Single educational training for 45 minutes was given to groups of link workers and their post– intervention knowledge for same was assessed after 14 days. Mean, Wilcoxon sign-rank test were applied. Results: Mean age of link workers was 31.3 + 4.8 years. The knowledge regarding Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria was mosquito borne diseases was respectively 55.5%, 87.9% and 95.5% which was increase after intervention to 100%. But 14.4% did not know filariasis is mosquito borne disease even after training. All link workers know about the chemical (Temephos used for mosquito control (100% but knowledge of proper temephos dose for different volume of water containers was significantly improved after intervention. The overall knowledge regarding mosquito & mosquito control measures was significantly improved after intervention (p value <0.05. Conclusion: Even though link workers were involved in anti-larval activities since from many years, many link workers had poor knowledge regarding the mosquito borne diseases and control measures.

  12. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  13. Studies of leukemia and thyroid disease among Chernobyl clean-up workers from the Baltics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the reactor accident at Chernobyl in late April of 1986, hundreds of thousands of men from throughout the former Soviet Union were sent to Chernobyl to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris, and help decontaminate the local environment. They remained for an average of three months and were allowed to accumulate up to 25 cGy of radiation before being sent home. Doses for some workers may have exceeded the allowable limit. The experience of Chernobyl clean-up workers is potentially informative about cancer risk associated with protracted exposure to low levels of radiation. Cohorts of clean-up workers from the Baltic Republics were assembled for study, based on military records and other lists. The study population includes 4,833 men from Estonia 5,709 from Latvia and at least 5,446 from Lithuania, where a pilot study is underway. They are being monitored for cancer incidence through linkages with the corresponding national cancer registries. Biodosimetric assays, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome translocation analysis and the glycophorin A (GPA) somatic cell mutation assay, are being used to supplement information about radiation doses from worker records and questionnaires. Thyroid screening examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed on nearly 2,000 workers in the Estonian cohort (mean age, 40 y) during the spring of 1995, nine years after the reactor accident. The study is still in progress. Work began first in Estonia, and results presented here pertain to this subgroup except as otherwise noted. The average age at the time of arrival at Chernobyl was 31 years. 62% were sent in 1986. Possible reasons for the apparent absence or rarity of radiation-induced thyroid nodules include low and protracted doses, low susceptibility among men exposed as adults, and insufficient passage of time since the accident

  14. Radiation-epidemiological Study of Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Recovery Operation Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29. PMID:27356064

  15. [Experience with ambulatory functional x-ray studies of coal mine workers for the early detection of occupational lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyb, A F; Amosov, I S; Degtjarev, V A; Katrascuk, G K

    1990-01-01

    In 3,287 miners and other coal mine workers clinical and photofluorographic complex investigations of the respiratory system were carried out with the new method of photofluoropneumopolygraphy. Its use within the annual prophylactic investigation of the miners increases the effectiveness of the early detection of lung disease to 21.2%. The diagnostic accuracy of photofluorography for the evaluation of the adaptability of the organism in coal mine work and for respiratory dysadaptation disorder increases significantly. Photofluoropneumopolygraphy is recommended for the annual prophylactic lung investigation of coal miners. PMID:2140451

  16. Health information, treatment, and worker productivity: Experimental evidence from malaria testing and treatment among Nigerian sugarcane cutters

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Andrew; Friedman, Jed; Serneels, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural and other physically demanding sectors are important sources of growth in developing countries but prevalent diseases such as malaria adversely impact the productivity, labor supply, and choice of job tasks among workers by reducing physical capacity. This study identifies the impact of malaria on worker earnings, labor supply, and daily productivity by randomizing the tempora...

  17. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers. Studies on mortality, cancer morbidity, and radiographical changes in lung parenchyma and pleura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs.

  18. Association of radiation-induced genes with noncancer chronic diseases in Mayak workers occupationally exposed to prolonged radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Michael; Azizova, Tamara; Müller, Kerstin; Dörr, Harald; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Kreppel, Helmut; Rusinova, Galina; Glazkova, Irina; Vyazovskaya, Natalia; Unger, Kristian; Braselmann, Herbert; Meineke, Viktor

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association of gene expression with noncancer chronic disease outcomes in Mayak nuclear weapons plant workers who were exposed to radiation due to their occupation. We conducted a cross-sectional study with selection based on radiation exposure status of Mayak plant workers living in Ozyorsk who were alive in 2011 and either exposed to: combined incorporated Plutonium-239 ((239)Pu) and external gamma-ray exposure (n = 82); external gamma-ray exposure alone (n = 18); or were unexposed (n = 50) of Ozyorsk residents who provided community-based professional support for plant personnel and who were alive in 2011. Peripheral blood was taken and RNA was isolated and then converted into cDNA and stored at -20°C. In a previous analysis we screened the whole genome for radiation-associated candidate genes, and validated 15 mRNAs and 15 microRNAs using qRT-PCR. In the current analysis we examined the association of these genes with 15 different chronic diseases on 92 samples (47 males, 45 females). We examined the radiation-to-gene and gene-to-disease associations in statistical models stratified by gender and separately for each disease and exposure. We modeled radiation exposure as gamma or (239)Pu on both the continuous and categorical scales. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and the concordance for genes that were significantly associated with radiation exposure and a specific disease outcome were identified. Altogether 12 mRNAs and 9 microRNAs appeared to be significantly associated with 6 diseases, including thyroid diseases (3 genes, OR: 1.2-5.1, concordance: 71-78%), atherosclerotic diseases (4 genes, OR: 2.5-10, concordance: 70-75%), kidney diseases (6 genes, OR: 1.3-8.6, concordance: 69-85%), cholelithiasis (3 genes, OR: 0.2-0.3, concordance: 74-75%), benign tumors [1 gene (AGAP4), OR: 3.7, concordance: 81%] and chronic radiation syndrome (4 genes, OR: 2.5-4.3, concordance: 70

  19. Parkinson’s Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Yitshak Sade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012. Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79. In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk.

  20. The roles of community health workers in management of non-communicable diseases in an urban township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungiswa P. Tsolekile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly being recognised as a crucial part of the health workforce in South Africa and other parts of the world. CHWs have taken on a variety of roles, including community empowerment, provision of services and linking communities with health facilities. Their roles are better understood in the areas of maternal and child health and infectious diseases (HIV infection, malaria and tuberculosis. Aim: This study seeks to explore the current roles of CHWs working with non-communicable diseases (NCDs.Setting: The study was conducted in an urban township in Cape Town, South Africa.Method: A qualitative naturalistic research design utilising observations and in-depth interviews with CHWs and their supervisors working in Khayelitsha was used.Results: CHWs have multiple roles in the care of NCDs. They act as health educators, advisors, rehabilitation workers and support group facilitators. They further screen for complications of illness and assist community members to navigate the health system. These roles are shaped both by expectations of the health system and in response to community needs.Conclusion: This study indicates the complexities of the roles of CHWs working with NCDs. Understanding the actual roles of CHWs provides insights into not only the competencies required to enable them to fulfil their daily functions, but also the type of training required to fill the present gaps.

  1. Modification to knowledge on breast cancer in the workers with risk factors for this disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An educative intervention of 30 workers with risk factors for breast cancer was carried out in 'Ramon Lopez Penna' University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, from September 2008 to March 2009, in order to increase some knowledge on the topic. Two subgroups with 15 participants each were created to develop the different activities of the educative project, which will be assessed before the instructive action and 6 months after its onset. A Mc Nemar text was used to validate the information and a significant modification to knowledge on the topic was obtained. (author)

  2. Diferencias en la salud de jornaleras y jornaleros agrícolas migrantes en Sinaloa, México Health differences between male and female migrant agricultural workers in Sinaloa, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Edilia Palacios-Nava

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar las diferencias en la prevalencia de síntomas de origen muscarínico y nicotínico, y el nivel de colinesterasa eritrocítica de jornaleras y jornaleros agrícolas, antes de la exposición a plaguicidas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre enero y febrero de 2001 se realizó un estudio transversal con 488 trabajadores migrantes en el estado de Sinaloa, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se midió colinesterasa eritrocítica antes del inicio de sus labores en la temporada agrícola. Las diferencias por sexo se analizaron utilizando prueba t para variables cuantitativas, ji2 para cualitativas y razón de momios para la prevalencia. Se consideraron alfa=0.05 e intervalos de confianza de 95% como niveles de significancia. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en edad, forma de migración, lugar de procedencia, nivel de escolaridad y antigüedad migratoria (p=0.000. Las mujeres presentaron seis veces más posibilidad de enfermar de anemia y asma, dos veces más parásitos, el doble de infecciones respiratorias y estomacales, y 38% más en enfermedades del corazón. También se encontró entre ellas una mayor posibilidad de presentar 13 de 19 síntomas interrogados. El promedio del nivel de colinesterasa se encontró en límites de normalidad (4.22 U/ml±0.77 y fue semejante a los reportados por el método Magnotti. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de síntomas, enfermedades y el nivel de colinesterasa encontrados en este estudio pueden ser un referente basal para la comparación posterior de alteraciones producidas por exposición a plaguicidas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences in the prevalence of muscarinic and nicotinic type symptoms and the level of erythrocytic cholinesterase, prior to pesticide exposure, in male and female migrant agricultural workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001 in Sinaloa State, Mexico, among 488 migrant workers. A questionnaire was applied and erythrocytic

  3. [Hand-arm vibration syndrome and upper limbs diseases in the forest workers of Italia meridionale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, C; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Cacciola, A; Deboli, R; Calvo, A; Germanò, D

    2007-01-01

    Vibration exposure of the hand-arm system is associated with an increased risk of upper-limb vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal lesions, or hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The prevalence of occupational HAVS and upper-limb disorders was studied among 278 Forestry Service workers in Sicily and Calabria. Subjects who used chain-saws (18 weeks/year) had a greater prevalence of peripheral sensory-neural disturbances (28%), upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders (33%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (19%) compared with 260 manual workers from the same Corps not exposed to hand-transmitted vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon was comparable in exposed and control subjects (5.3% vs. 4.7%.) Upper-limb neuropathies were significantly associated with energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration; exposure duration; and cumulative vibration dose (m2/s4h). The variable "years of work with vibrating tools" was strongly associated with peripheral neuropathies; carpal tunnel syndrome; and upper-limb musculotendinous syndromes. Data suggest that in Sicily and Calabria, where the climate is milder than in other areas of Italy, forestry work with hand-held vibrating tools does not entail a greater prevalence of peripheral vascular disorders (Raynaud's phenomenon), while the prevalence of occupational upper-limb neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, in which combined ergonomic and mechanical risk factors have a large pathogenic role, is significantly increased. PMID:18409849

  4. Low dose ionizing radiation exposure and cardiovascular disease mortality: cohort study based on Canadian national dose registry of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our study was to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a Canadian cohort of 337 397 individuals (169 256 men and 168 141 women) occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and included in the National Dose Registry (NDR) of Canada. Material and Methods: Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, such as those received during radiotherapy, leads to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The emerging evidence of excess risk of CVDs after exposure to doses well below those previously considered as safe warrants epidemiological studies of populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. In the present study, the cohort consisted of employees at nuclear power stations (nuclear workers) as well as medical, dental and industrial workers. The mean whole body radiation dose was 8.6 mSv for men and 1.2 mSv for women. Results: During the study period (1951 - 1995), as many as 3 533 deaths from cardiovascular diseases have been identified (3 018 among men and 515 among women). In the cohort, CVD mortality was significantly lower than in the general population of Canada. The cohort showed a significant dose response both among men and women. Risk estimates of CVD mortality in the NDR cohort, when expressed as excess relative risk per unit dose, were higher than those in most other occupational cohorts and higher than in the studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Conclusions: The study has demonstrated a strong positive association between radiation dose and the risk of CVD mortality. Caution needs to be exercised when interpreting these results, due to the potential bias introduced by dosimetry uncertainties, the possible record linkage errors, and especially by the lack of adjustment for non-radiation risk factors. (authors)

  5. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  6. Comparison of asbestos-associated respiratory disease by medical examination between shipyard retiree and workers of active service with asbestos exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined 407 shipyard workers with asbestos exposure (406 men and one woman; mean age, 60.4 years) for asbestos-associated respiratory disease using the multi-slice chest CT in addition to the regular examinations. After the examination, workers with suspicion of malignancy by the multi-slice CT, other examinations including biopsy were performed to make the final diagnosis. We divided these people into two groups as follows; retiree (133 cases, 132 men and one woman; mean age, 65.9 years) and workers of shipyard active service (274 cases, all men, mean age, 57.6 years). We compared the incidence of asbestos-associated respiratory disease, age, incubation time and work period at asbestos exposure in these two groups. 97 of 133 (72.9%) retired workers and 94 of 274 (34.4%) active service had asbestos-associated respiratory disease as follows: pleural plaque without calcification, 25 cases (18.8%) (retired) and 35 (12.8%) (active service); pleural plaque with calcification, 65 (48.7%) and 51 (18.6%); diffuse pleural thickening, 0 (0%) and 0 (0%); asbestosis, 5 (3.8%) and 6 (2.2%); lung cancer, 1 case (0.8%) and 2 cases (0.7%) and malignant pleural mesothelioma 1 case (0.8%) and none (0%). The rate of workers with total asbestos-associated respiratory disease in the retired group was significantly higher than that in active service (P<0.01). Especially pleural plaque with calcification were detected more in shipyard retired workers than active service workers. The incidence of pleural plaque is related to age and incubation time but not to work period at asbestos exposure. (author)

  7. Occupational diseases among workers employed in various branches of the national economy

    OpenAIRE

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska; Urszula Wilczyńska

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose is to present the incidence of occupational diseases and their causal factors in the sections and divisions of the national economy in Poland. Material and Methods: The analysis is based on the cases of occupational diseases obligatorily reported in 2009-2011 from all over the country to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Data is presented as absolute numbers and average annual incidence rates per 100 000 persons employed in NACE-classified sections and d...

  8. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-10-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n=110) compared to a control community (n=106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention's impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000-2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study

  9. Geospatial Modeling and Disease Insect Vector Management at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geospatial modeling at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) is used assist in the surveillance of insect vectors and in the management of insect transmitted diseases. The most recent Geospatial Modeling/Technology Transfer success involves the prediction of Rift Val...

  10. Occupational diseases among workers employed in various branches of the national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose is to present the incidence of occupational diseases and their causal factors in the sections and divisions of the national economy in Poland. Material and Methods: The analysis is based on the cases of occupational diseases obligatorily reported in 2009-2011 from all over the country to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Data is presented as absolute numbers and average annual incidence rates per 100 000 persons employed in NACE-classified sections and divisions. Results: The average annual incidence of occupational diseases was 20.6 cases per 100 000 of employed people. The highest rates were recorded in mining and quarrying (337.8, the production of metals (169.8, non-metallic mineral products (81.6, motor vehicles and transport equipment (59.7, chemicals (30.1. Specific situation in which high incidence rate is due to a single disease prevails in forestry, where tick-borne diseases represent 96.3% of all recorded cases, in education, where chronic voice disorders account for 96.5% of cases, and in human health and social work activities, where infectious diseases with the dominant hepatitis C represent 68.2% of the cases. The most common causes of occupational diseases in sections and industrial divisions with the highest incidence included: industrial dust, noise and vibration. In the manufacturing industry asbestos was the cause of 20.5% of occupational diseases and 55% of occupational cancers. Conclusions: Careful monitoring of working conditions and implementing health prevention programs should be exercised in sections and divisions of the national economy where a high risk of occupational diseases has been found. Med Pr 2013;64(2:161–174

  11. Stepwise health surveillance for bronchial irritability syndrome in workers at risk of occupational respiratory disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.K. Post (Wendel); K.M. Venables (Katherine); D. Ross (David); P. Cullinan (Paul); D. Heederik (Dick); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Questionnaires, lung function tests, and peak flow measurements are widely used in occupational health care to screen for subjects with respiratory disease. However, the diagnostic performance of these tests is often poor. Application of these te

  12. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 7. Barriers to reduce contamination of food by workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Holah, John; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-08-01

    Contamination of food and individuals by food workers has been identified as an important contributing factor during foodborne illness investigations. Physical and chemical barriers to prevent microbial contamination of food are hurdles that block or reduce the transfer of pathogens to the food surface from the hands of a food worker, from other foods, or from the environment. In food service operations, direct contact of food by hands should be prevented by the use of barriers, especially when gloves are not worn. Although these barriers have been used for decades in food processing and food service operations, their effectiveness is sometimes questioned or their use may be ignored. Physical barriers include properly engineered building walls and doors to minimize the flow of outside particles and pests to food storage and food preparation areas; food shields to prevent aerosol contamination of displayed food by customers and workers; work clothing designated strictly for work (clothing worn outdoors can carry undesirable microorganisms, including pathogens from infected family members, into the work environment); and utensils such as spoons, tongs, and deli papers to prevent direct contact between hands and the food being prepared or served. Money and ready-to-eat foods should be handled as two separate operations, preferably by two workers. Chemical barriers include sanitizing solutions used to remove microorganisms (including pathogens) from objects or materials used during food production and preparation and to launder uniforms, work clothes, and soiled linens. However, laundering as normally practiced may not effectively eliminate viral pathogens. PMID:20819372

  13. Factors Important for Work Participation Among Older Workers with Depression, Cardiovascular Disease, and Osteoarthritis: A Mixed Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Cécile R L; de Kruif, Anja Th C M; Shaw, William S; van der Beek, Allard J; Deeg, Dorly J; Abma, Tineke

    2016-06-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to gain insight into differences and similarities in factors important for work participation in older (58-65 years) workers among three different chronic diseases: depression (D), cardiovascular disease (C), and osteoarthritis (O). Methods A mixed method design was used, with a qualitative part (in-depth interviews) with 14 patients with D, C or O and a quantitative part based on the 2002-2003 cohort of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. We analysed and compared 3-year (response 93 %) predictors of paid work in 239 participants with D, C, or O using regression analyses. The qualitative findings were integrated with the quantitative findings aiming at complementarity. Results Common factors important for work participation were: working at baseline; male gender; lower age; partner with paid work; better physical and mental health; and higher mastery scores. The qualitative analyses added autonomy in work and provided contextual information regarding the perceived importance of working as factors important for participation in paid work. For D and C, work gave purpose in life and enhanced social contacts. Participation in work was perceived as necessary to structure life only for D. Conclusion Most factors important for work participation were similar for D, C, and O. However, the interviews revealed that for D, the context and the meaning attributed to these factors differed. PMID:26210996

  14. Infectious diseases in healthcare workers – an analysis of the standardised data set of a German compensation board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhaus Albert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Healthcare workers (HCW are exposed to infectious agents. Disease surveillance is therefore needed in order to foster prevention. Methods The data of the compensation board that covers HCWs of non-governmental healthcare providers in Germany was analysed for a five-year period. For hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections, the period analysed was extended to the last 15 years. The annual rate of occupational infectious diseases (OIDs per 100,000 employees was calculated. For needlestick injuries (NSI a rate per 1,000 employees was calculated. Results Within the five years from 2005 to 2009 a total of 384 HCV infections were recognised as OIDs (1.5/100,000 employees. Active TB was the second most frequent cause of an OID. While the numbers of HBV and HCV infections decreased, the numbers for active TB did not follow a clear pattern. Needlestick injuries (NSIs were reported especially often at hospitals (29.9/1,000 versus 7.4/1,000 employees for all other HCWs. Conclusion Although they are declining, HCV infections remain frequent in HCWs, as do NSIs. Whether the reinforcement of the recommendations for the use of safety devices in Germany will prevent NSIs and therefore HCV infections should be closely observed.

  15. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and Land Surface Temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Damásio, Carlos; Sousa, Adélia M. O.; Bugalho, Lourdes; Pessanha, Luis; Quaresma, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been avail...

  16. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Breeding for resistance to diseases in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of a 20-day mission to Thailand within the framework of the project ''Improving food and agricultural production with nuclear and related technology''. The expert discussed the status of cotton breeding, production practices and problems with personnel of the Department of Agriculture in Bangkok, and travelled to cotton-producing regions of the central and northern areas of the country to discuss current research, pest problems and social factors affecting cotton production

  17. [Physical and chemical markers of chronic obstructive lung disease development in industrial workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravlyova, L E; Molotov-Luchanskyi, V B; Bakirova, R E; Kliuev, D A; Kolesnikova, E A; Demidchik, L A; Beinikova, I V

    2015-01-01

    The article demonstrates that patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) of both mixed and bronchitis forms with medium severity grade appeared to have 2 types of changes in morphologic types of serum faces. Patients with various clinical forms of severe COLD presented unidirectional change in morphologic types of serum faces. Patients with various forms of moderate COLD had one variant of morphologic types of serum faces was close to that in the patients with more severe clinical course--so that face can be considered as a "transitional form" between moderate and severe COLD. These results are interesting in specifying diagnostic criteria of COLD severity and additional diagnostic criteria of the severity grade. PMID:26036016

  18. Agroterrorism, biological crimes, and biowarfare targeting animal agriculture. The clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and epidemiologic features of some important animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T M; Gregg, D A; King, D J; Noah, D L; Perkins, L E; Swayne, D E; Inskeep, W

    2001-09-01

    In the past 100 years, to our knowledge there have been approximately 12 events involving the intentional introduction of microbiologic agents into livestock and animal populations worldwide, of which three were World War I events in the United States. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no recent intentional introduction of microbiologic agents (viruses or bacteria) into livestock and animal populations in the United States. The criminal or terrorist use of chemicals against animals and agriculture products have been more common. With the political, economic, and military new world order, however, the United States must maintain a vigilant posture. The framework for this vigilance must be an intelligence system sensitive to the needs of agriculture and a first-class animal disease diagnostic surveillance and response system. PMID:11572141

  19. Immigration Reform: Implications for Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Philip L.

    2006-01-01

    About half of U.S. farm workers are not authorized to work in the United States. Pending immigration reforms aim to prevent the entry and employment of more unauthorized foreigners, but they differ on what to do about unauthorized workers already in the United States. These unauthorized workers are not likely to disappear overnight, and agricultural adjustments to a legal work force are likely to be determined by enforcement patterns, the structure of new guest worker programs, and the speed ...

  20. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Hua Huang; Shu-Ling Huang; Ren-Hau Li; Ling-Hui Wang; Yu-Ling Chen; Feng-Cheng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochem...

  1. Comparing the knowledge, attitude and practices of health care workers in public and private primary care facilities in Lagos State on Ebola virus disease

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Bilqisu Jibril; Inem, Victor; Balogun, Mobolanle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The West African sub-region is currently witnessing an outbreak of EVD that began in December 2013. The first case in Nigeria was diagnosed in Lagos, at a private medical facility in July 2014. Health care workers are known amplifiers of the disease. The study aimed to determine and compare EVD knowledge, attitude and practices among HCWs in public and private primary care facilities in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Seventeen public and pri...

  2. Asbestos related diseases among workers of asbestos processing plants in relation to type of production and asbestos use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous pneumoconiotic and carcinogenic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of asbestosis and pleural mesothelioma, depending on asbestos consumption and the type of manufactured products, among former asbestos workers in Poland. Material and Methods: The study subjects included employees of 18 large state-owned asbestos processing enterprises operating in the Polish market in 1945–1998. The study is based on data obtained from asbestos company records and the Central Register of Occupational Diseases data on the cases of asbestosis and mesothelioma for the period from 1970 till 2012 as well as data from Amiantus Programme. The analysis was performed for 5 sectors comprising plants classified according to the products manufactured and applied production technology. Results: In the study period, 2160 cases of asbestosis and 138 cases of mesothelioma were reported. The plants processed a total of about 2 million tonnes of asbestos, including about 7.5% of crocidolite. Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence (R2 = 0.68, p = 0.055. The highest risk occurrence of asbestosis was observed in the production of textiles and sealing products. Mesothelioma occurred only in plants where crocidolite had been ever processed. Conclusions: Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence. The observation confirms the relationship between exposure to crocidolite and the occurrence of mesothelioma, regardless of the manufactured products, and suggests the absence of such a link for the total volume of asbestos consumption. Med Pr 2015;66(1:1–9

  3. Urbanization, Agricultural Intensification, and Habitat Alteration in Vietnam: Modeling Transitional Development and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.; Saksena, S.; Spencer, J.; Finucane, M.; Sultana, N.

    2012-12-01

    Our overarching hypothesis is that new risks, in this case the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, emerge during transitions between stages of development. Moreover, these risks are not coincidental but occur precisely because of the in-between nature of the coupled human-natural system at the point when things are neither traditional nor modern but resemble the state of chaos, release and reorganization. We are testing this hypothesis in Vietnam using demographic, social, economic, and environmental data collected in national censuses and analyzed at commune and district levels to identify communes and districts that are traditional, modern, and transitional (peri-urban). Using data from the 2006 agricultural census that capture both the changing nature of the built environment (types of sanitation systems) and the loss of and diversification of agriculture systems (percent of households whose major source of income is from agriculture, and percent of land under agriculture, forests, and aquaculture), and a normalized difference vegetation index from 2006 Landsat images we created a national scale urbanicity map for Vietnam. Field work in the summer of 2011 showed this map to be an accurate (approximately 85%) approximation of traditional (rural), transitional (periurban), and modern (urban) communes. Preliminary results suggest that over 7% of the country's land area and roughly 15% of its population resides in periurban neighborhoods, and that these areas do have a statistically significant greater incidence of AVI as measured in chicken deaths than traditional and modern communes (Table 1). Transitional neighborhoods such as these force planners to ask two questions. To what extent does the dichotomy of urban/rural makes sense in the context of Vietnam, when large areas and parts of the population are caught between the two? Second, how can planners and policy makers effectively provide for basic public goods and services in these contexts?Classification of places

  4. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar B.

    2014-01-01

    In India, half of the world's labour force is in agriculture and an estimated 1.3 billion workers are engaged in agricultural production world wide. The share of the agricultural labour force in the very economically active population is under 10 per cent in the developed countries and accounts for 59 per cent of workers in the less developed regions (International Labour Conference (ILC) 2000). Compared to workers in other sectors, agricultural workers are under protected...

  5. A Schooling Model for Working Children in Mexico: The Case of Children of Indian Origin Working as Agricultural Workers during the Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taracena, Elvia

    2003-01-01

    Draws on interviews and observations from the Mexican state of Oaxaca to analyze labor done by children of Indian origin in northern Mexico agriculture and the problem of schooling. Focuses on the conditions favoring child labor and objectives of experimental educational programs specifically for children of migrant families. Asserts that working…

  6. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

  7. Respiratory Cancer and Non-Malignant Respiratory Disease-Related Mortality among Older Construction Workers-Findings from the Health and Retirement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuanwen; Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Welch, Laura; Largay, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored the risk of respiratory cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD)-related mortality among older construction workers. Methods Analyzed data from the 1992–2010 RAND Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the HRS National Death Index – Cause of Death file. About 25,183 workers aged 50 years and older were examined, including 5,447 decedents and 19,736 survivors, of which 1,460 reported their longest job was in construction. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the differences in mortality between workers’ longest occupations, controlling for confounders. Results After adjusting for smoking and demographics, construction workers were almost twice as likely to die from respiratory cancer (OR = 1.65; CI: 1.10–2.47) or NMRD (OR = 1.73; CI: 1.16–2.58) compared to white-collar workers. Conclusions This study adds to the growing evidence that respiratory cancer and NMRD are frequently associated with construction exposure.

  8. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced. It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct

  9. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  10. Prevalence of and relationship between rhinoconjunctivitis and lower airway diseases in compost workers with current or former exposure to organic dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hoffmeyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. The relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma is well characterized. However, it remains unknown whether an association exists between symptoms of upper and lower airway diseases and occupational bioaerosol exposure beyond the scope of allergy. [b]materials and methods[/b]. The current cross-sectional study focuses on 190 current and 59 former compost workers exposed to bioaerosols. Work-related symptoms indicative of conjunctivitis, rhinitis and lower airway irritation were assessed and compared with 38 non-exposed control subjects. Allergic asthma was diagnosed using a calculated score, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD was spirometrically determined. [b]results.[/b] 12 current, 8 former and 5 non-exposed subjects were diagnosed with allergic asthma and excluded from further analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models suggested that cough and chronic bronchitis in current compost workers were associated with eye irritation (OR 2.75 (0.93–8.07; OR 7.22 (1.12–46.5. Chronic bronchitis in former workers was strongly associated with work-related eye irritation (OR 38.6 (1.33- >1000 and nose irritation (OR 25.0 (1.21–513. [b]conclusions[/b]. After excluding allergic asthmatics, there was no evidence that eye or nose irritation was due to an underlying atopic disease, but rather to non-allergic mucous membrane irritation syndrome. Therefore, the higher incidence of chronic bronchitis in former compost workers may reflect a chronic irritative process triggered by exposure to bioaerosols.

  11. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the content of a three-week national training course for 16 participants from regional Disease Investigation Centres and other agencies in Indonesia. The subject of the course was the use of ELISA for the diagnosis of animal diseases in Indonesia, with particular emphasis placed on bovine brucellosis

  12. Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)

  13. 城市女职工与农村妇女妇科病比较%The Comparison of City Female Workers and Rural Women with Gynecologic Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玉萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对城市女职工与农村妇女妇科疾病进行普查,分析城市女职工与农村妇女患妇科病的种类及发病率,为妇科疾病的防治开展提供依据,从而改善育龄妇女的生活质量。方法:2009-2012年对笔者所在县的城市女职工和农村10000例育龄妇女妇科疾病进行普查,包括盆腔B型超声检查、乳腺B超检查、妇科常规内诊检查、阴道分泌物检查以及宫颈癌前期病变检查等。结果:通过对城市女职工与农村妇女10000例育龄妇女进行普查,城市女职工患有乳腺增生、子宫肌瘤、卵巢肿瘤发病率明显高于农村妇女,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而农村妇女患有阴道炎、盆腔炎、宫颈病变发病率明显高于城市女职工,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且农村宫颈癌发病率明显高于城市,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:妇科普查是发现妇科疾病的重要手段,对城市与农村的妇科病进行分析,可以有重点的进行疾病的预防,并提供相应的治疗措施。%Objective:Through a census of gynecological diseases of female workers in city and rural women,to analyze the types and incidence of city female workers and rural women suffering from gynecological diseases,and to provide evidence for the prevention of gynecological diseases in women of childbearing age,so as to improve the quality of life.Method:In our hospital from 2009 to 2012,10 000 the city of my county women workers and rural women did gynecological diseases census,including B type ultrasonography,mammography,routine gynecological examinations,vaginal examination and cervical precancerous lesion examination.Result:Through the survey of city female workers and rural women in 10 000 cases of women of childbearing age,the city female worker with hyperplasia of mammary glands,hysteromyoma,ovarian tumor incidence were obviously higher than rural women,these were significant difference(P<0

  14. Worker Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

  15. Connectivity of the American agricultural landscape: Assessing the national risk of crop pest and disease spread

    OpenAIRE

    Margosian, M.L.; Garrett, Karen A.; J.M.S. Hutchinson; With, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new approach for national evaluation of disease and pest risk based on networks of crop plant availability. We are in the process of generalizing this analysis for other countries.

  16. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with this disease are older than 50. Smoking does not increase your risk of developing this disease, but it may have an added harmful effect on the lungs. If coal worker's pneumoconiosis occurs with rheumatoid arthritis , it is called Caplan syndrome .

  17. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details and UNDP/FAO/IAEA consultancy undertaken from Monday 13 February to Saturday 25 February 1989. The purpose of the consultancy was to provide practical and theoretical training to Indonesian scientists in ELISA technology. This occurred under the program title of ''National Training Course on the Use of ELISA for Serodiagnosis of Animal Diseases, with Emphasis on Brucellosis''. The course was held in the Bacteriology Department, Research Institute for Veterinary Sciences (Balitvet), Bogor, Indonesia. The majority of the 19 participants came from the Regional Disease Investigation Centre Laboratories within Indonesia. The principal course instructor was Dr. Richard Jacobson who was assisted by Dr. Larry McClure, Dr. Susan Sutherland, Dr. Mark Eisler, Dr. Barry Patten and myself. The course concluded with a one day seminar organized by BATAN, DITKESWAN and BALITVET entitled ''Bovine Brucellosis: A Challenging Disease for Indonesia'' which was attended by approximately fifty people. Refs and tabs

  18. Small genome of the fungus Escovopsis weberi, a specialized disease agent of ant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Man, Tom J B; Stajich, Jason E; Kubicek, Christian P; Teiling, Clotilde; Chenthamara, Komal; Atanasova, Lea; Druzhinina, Irina S; Levenkova, Natasha; Birnbaum, Stephanie S L; Barribeau, Seth M; Bozick, Brooke A; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2016-03-29

    Many microorganisms with specialized lifestyles have reduced genomes. This is best understood in beneficial bacterial symbioses, where partner fidelity facilitates loss of genes necessary for living independently. Specialized microbial pathogens may also exhibit gene loss relative to generalists. Here, we demonstrate that Escovopsis weberi, a fungal parasite of the crops of fungus-growing ants, has a reduced genome in terms of both size and gene content relative to closely related but less specialized fungi. Although primary metabolism genes have been retained, the E. weberi genome is depleted in carbohydrate active enzymes, which is consistent with reliance on a host with these functions. E. weberi has also lost genes considered necessary for sexual reproduction. Contrasting these losses, the genome encodes unique secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters, some of which include genes that exhibit up-regulated expression during host attack. Thus, the specialized nature of the interaction between Escovopsis and ant agriculture is reflected in the parasite's genome. PMID:26976598

  19. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  20. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD when body mass index (BMI is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  1. Research and dissemination needs for ergonomics in agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Sherry; Steege, Andrea L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health convened a conference of researchers interested in the ergonomics of agricultural workers. Participants included 20 representatives from universities, state governments, private agricultural and insurance companies, migrant worker organizations, agricultural industry organizations, and the Agricultural Extension Service. The attendees divided into three groups and brainstormed about research ideas and dissemination methods rel...

  2. Evolution of an agriculture-associated disease causing Campylobacter coli clade: evidence from national surveillance data in Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Sheppard

    Full Text Available The common zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter coli is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide but its evolution is incompletely understood. Using multilocus sequence type (MLST data of 7 housekeeping genes from a national survey of Campylobacter in Scotland (2005/6, and a combined population genetic-phylogenetics approach, we investigated the evolutionary history of C. coli. Genealogical reconstruction of isolates from clinical infection, farm animals and the environment, revealed a three-clade genetic structure. The majority of farm animal, and all disease causing genotypes belonged to a single clade (clade 1 which had comparatively low synonymous sequence diversity, little deep branching genetic structure, and a higher number of shared alleles providing evidence of recent clonal decent. Calibration of the rate of molecular evolution, based on within-species genetic variation, estimated a more rapid rate of evolution than in traditional estimates. This placed the divergence of the clades at less than 2500 years ago, consistent with the introduction of an agricultural niche having had an effect upon the evolution of the C. coli clades. Attribution of clinical isolate genotypes to source, using an asymmetric island model, confirmed that strains from chicken and ruminants, and not pigs or turkeys, are the principal source of human C. coli infection. Taken together these analyses are consistent with an evolutionary scenario describing the emergence of agriculture-associated C. coli lineage that is an important human pathogen.

  3. Soil health management and biodiversity: the central pillars of plant disease management in organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Maria R. Finckh; Bruns, Christian

    2014-01-01

    There are some important differences between organic and conventional farming systems that have the potential to greatly affect the importance of various pathogens within farming systems. The most important difference between organic and conventional systems is the organic approach to soil fertility management and the unavailability of highly effective pesticides. As a consequence, organic plant disease management is based almost entirely on prevention through the use of resistances, rotation...

  4. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Breeding for soybean resistance to anthracnose disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of a mission to evaluate projects using mutation breeding techniques to develop resistance in soybeans to anthracnose disease. The project to date is generally successful in that training has been provided to numerous scientists in Thailand, and this will lead to improved University teaching and better research. Several changes in experimental procedure are suggested to increase the chances of finding anthracnose resistance in soybean

  5. Asbestos related diseases among workers of asbestos processing plants in relation to type of production and asbestos use

    OpenAIRE

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska; Beata Świątkowska; Wojciech Sobala; Zuzanna Szubert; Urszula Wilczyńska

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous pneumoconiotic and carcinogenic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of asbestosis and pleural mesothelioma, depending on asbestos consumption and the type of manufactured products, among former asbestos workers in Poland. Material and Methods: The study subjects included employees of 18 large state-owned asbestos processing enterprises operating in the Polish market in 1945–1998. The study is based on data obtained ...

  6. Heart disease attributed to occupational noise, vibration and other co-exposure: Self-reported population-based survey among Bulgarian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M. Dzhambov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main mortality cause worldwide. Noise and vibration are considered to be occupational risk factors, but little is known about their cardiovascular effects in Bulgaria in terms of gender and various professional groups. The aim of this study has been to investigate the risk of prevalent CVD, associated with occupational noise and vibration exposure. Material and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from 3 waves of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS 2001–2010 – a nationally-representative cross-sectional questionnaire survey covering 3149 workers aged ≥ 15 years in Bulgaria. Data on self-reported heart disease were linked to self-reported occupational noise and vibration, adjusting for other factors. Results from the 3 waves were pooled together using the inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet meta-analysis. Results: For noise, the risk was elevated among women (relative risk (RR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.53–3.01, but not men (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.14–1.65. Long-term workers had RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.60–1.69. For vibration, the risk was increased in all participants. It was higher among men (RR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.60–4.09 than it was among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.77–2.27. Among long-term, industrial, and service workers it was RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02–2.40; RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.61–1.98, and RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.57–2.46, respectively. Conclusions: Occupational vibration was a risk factor for prevalent heart disease in Bulgaria. Noise was an alleged risk factor only among long-term workers and women. Med Pr 2016;67(4:435–445

  7. Analysis and prevention advises of liability diseases of offshore workers%海上作业人员易患疾病分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑞卿; 孙晶; 郭倩; 李郁; 付秀霞

    2013-01-01

    海洋石油工业是从事海上石油、天然气勘探、开发的生产单位,其海上作业人员的劳动环境、劳动时间、劳动强度、职业危害因素、饮食结构和规律与其他陆地作业人员有很大不同.工人长期处于船、平台的海上环境,工作和生活的空间小、设备多、作业密集、接触有害因素种类繁多、且经常受恶劣天气的侵袭,很容易对工人健康产生严重影响,甚至罹患职业病.另外,海上工人特殊的倒班制度、单调刻板的的工作和生活、缺乏娱乐,再加上工作风险大,使得绝大多数海上工人都不同程度出现抑郁和焦虑等心理问题,进而导致工人的工作效率大大降低,甚至会造成海上安全事故的发生.因此海上作业人员这一特殊群体的身心健康状况应该受到人们的特殊关注.本文就海上作业人员身体健康状况进行了分析和综述,以期为今后海上石油作业人员的职业健康防护提供参考.%Offshore oil industry is defined as the enterprises who engage in exploration and development of offshore oil and gas.The working environment,working hours,labor intensity,occupational risk factors,dietary structure and law of offshore workers were obviously different with those of land workers.Offshore workers stay in boats,offshore platform for a long term with narrow living and working spaces,much equipment,intensive tasks,various hazards and severe weather which seriously affects the health of workers and can result in occupational diseases.In addition,the special shift system of offshore workers,dull work and life,insufficient entertainment as well as work risks make the offshore workers showing psychological problems such as depression and anxiety,then result in great reducing of work efficacy,even maritime safety incidents.Therefore,the physical and mental health of offshore workers should attract more attentions.This paper analyzes and summarizes their physical and mental

  8. Genetic damage and exposure to pesticides among agricultural workers from Valle de San Quintín, Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zúñiga Violante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown the ability of pesticides to induce genetic damage (GD that can cause health effects. In the present work, a genotoxicological study was conducted monitoring residents from the agricultural region of the San Quintin Valley (SQV, Baja California, Mexico. The objective was to determine if occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in the region of the SQV is a factor in GD, and to find out if women are more vulnerable to this effect. A questionnaire was administered to 88 residents of the SQV to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study; of these, 40 agreed to participate (25 occupationally exposed to pesticides and 15 environmentally exposed to them, with similar numbers of men and women. All participants signed an informed consent form. The micronuclei technique (MN was used, which blocks cytokinesis in peripheral blood samples, to evaluate GD by counting the number of MN and Chromatin Bridges in 1000 bi-nucleated cells (BNC. The results of this measure of genetic damage were then correlated with the degree of occupational pesticide exposure of the participants. Environmentally exposed men had less GD than women with MN means of 8.1± (1.83 and 13.1(±1.7 respectively, whereas occupational exposure affected both sexes, men with a mean of MN equal to 15.9 (± 2.9, and women with 18.12 (± 1.7. Based on our results, it can be concluded that occupational exposure to pesticides is a factor in GD, with women showing greater vulnerability than men. The time of exposure at work was shown to be directly related to the increased number of MN.

  9. Seroprevalencia de brucelosis en trabajadores agrícolas de las comarcas costeras de Castellón, España Seroprevalence of brucellosis in agricultural workers living in coastal areas of Castellon, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Villamarín-Vázquez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la seroprevalencia de brucelosis en trabajadores agrícolas. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado durante 1996 y 1997 en la Unidad de Salud Laboral del Centro de Salud Pública (CSP de Castellón, España, con 482 aspirantes a su acreditación como manipulador de plaguicidas para aplicación agrícola y a quienes se les hicieron las pruebas serológicas de rosa de Bengala, seroaglutinación de Wright y Coombs antibrucela. En el análisis estadístico se estimó la prevalencia y se usó regresión logística. Resultados. 15 personas (3.1%, IC 95% 1.8%-5.1% presentaron títulos de 1/40 o mayores a las pruebas de Wright o Coombs, y todas negativas al rosa de Bengala. No se apreció riesgo profesional elevado. Conclusiones. La prevalencia estimada fue baja.Objective. To estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in agricultural workers. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1996 and 1997 at Unidad de Salud Laboral del Centro de Salud Pública (CSP in Castellon, España (Public Health Center Occupational Health Unit, among 482 subjects applying for certification to handle pesticides for agricultural use. Serologic testing consisted of rose Bengal staining, Wright's agglutination, and antibrucella Coombs tests. Statistical analysis consisted in estimation of prevalence figures and logistic regression modelling. Results. Fifteen subjects (3.1%, 95% CI 1.8%-5.1% had titers of 1/40 or higher to Wright and/or Coombs tests; all were negative to rose Bengal staining. No high occupational risk was observed. Conclusions. A low prevalence of brucellosis was found.

  10. Machine vision in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gouws

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the use of machine vision in agriculture. Agriculture is practised in a more natural environment than most industrial undertakings, implying that agricultural automation requires robotic systems with well developed sensory abili­ties. For such systems, machine vision is an essential component. In this paper examples are used to show that the use of machine vision is already widespread in agriculture, and that there are many more potential applications for this technology. It is also indicated that machine vision in agriculture does not only hold potential financial advantages, but that it can also contribute to improved quality of life for agricultural workers, and even for farm animals.

  11. Analysis of cervical diseases among rural women workers in Guangzhou%广州市部分女农民工宫颈疾病筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滢毅; 朱长艳; 陈筱华; 陈雯婷

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of cervical diseases among rural women workers staying in Guangzhou and to seek effective ways of improving their health in reproduction. Methods Gy-necological examinations of 1 000 women workers in Baiyun District of Guangzhou were performed and the cervical cells were tested by LBPSYSTEM. The data was collected and analyzed based on the gynecological examinations. Results 54 % of women are suffering from gynecological diseases. The rote is lower a-mong local women. Their ages, labor times, abortion times, contraception methods, support of their hus-bands and other factors have contributed to the higher rate. Conclusion Cervical diseases of the rural women workers were affected by various factors. In order to decrease the morbidity of cervical diseases and hnprove women's reproductive health, preventive measures should be taken.%目的 了解女农民工宫颈疾病发生情况及其影响因素,探讨改善该人群生育健康状况的有关策略. 方法 对广州市白云区1 000例女农民工进行妇科检查及液基薄层细胞检测,将所得资料进行统计分析. 结果 1 000名女农民工慢性宫颈炎的检出率为54.0%(540/1 000),鳞状上皮细胞异常为5.4%(54/1 000);20~39岁组女农民工的宫颈炎检出率高于40岁以上组,生育产次和人流次数增加,宫颈炎检出率也随之升高,采用节育环避孕者宫颈炎检出率高于其他避孕方式,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01). 结论 宫颈疾病受多种因素影响,应采取综合性防治策略,降低女农民工的宫颈疾病检出率,从而提高其生育健康水平.

  12. Relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the elderly agricultural and fishing population of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen HC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsi-Che Shen,1–3 Zi-Hao Zhao,4 Yi-Chun Hu,2,5,6 Yu-Fen Chen,7–9 Tao-Hsin Tung4,10,111Department of Surgery, New Taipei City Hospital, 2School of Health Care Administration, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 3Department of Healthcare Management, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, 4Faculty of Public Health, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, 5Oriental Institute of Technology, 6Department of Nursing, New Taipei City Hospital, 7Business Place Hygiene Management, Department of Health, Taipei City Government, 8Institute of Health and Welfare Policy, National Yang-Ming University, 9Department of Nursing, Kang-Ning Junior College of Medical Care and Management, 10Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, 11Department of Crime Prevention and Correction, Central Police University, Taoyuan, TaiwanBackground: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in the elderly agricultural and fishing population of Taipei, Taiwan.Methods: The study participants comprised 6,511 (3,971 male and 2,540 female healthy elderly subjects voluntarily attending a teaching hospital for a physical check-up in 2010. Blood samples and real-time ultrasound-proven fatty liver sonography results were collected.Results: The prevalence of NAFLD in this elderly population was 27.2%, including mild NAFLD (16.0%, moderate NAFLD (10.3%, and severe NAFLD (0.9%. The prevalence of moderate or severe NAFLD for metabolic syndrome proved to be substantially greater (P<0.0001, Χ2 test for one or two metabolic factors. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, age, sex, metabolic syndrome, and higher body mass index had a statistically significant association with mild NAFLD. Age, sex, metabolic syndrome, higher body mass index, and higher alanine aminotransferase were significantly related to moderate NAFLD. In addition

  13. The endemiology of helicobacter pylorus infection and gastro-intestinal disease in mine and related factory workers of Tongling city, Anhui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the endemiology of H. pylorus infection and related gastro-intestinal disease in mine and factory workers of Tong-Ling area. Methods: 14C-urea breath test, serum IgG and cytotoxin-producing H. pylorus antibodies determinations were performed in 1076 randomly selected adults among the mine and related factory workers in Tong - Ling area. Gastroscopy was done in 156 subjects (cytotoxin-producing H. pylorus antibody CagA-HP positive 108 and Cag-HP negative 48). Results: Seven hundred and twenty-one subjects of the 1076 (67.0%) examined were positive with the 14C-urea breath and serological tests, among which 350 (48.5% of the 721 ) were Cag-HP positive. Factors affecting positiveness of HP infection were in the order of: working environment, gastro-intestinal symptoms, past history, vocation, age, history of previous contact, sex and non- hygiene life-style. Conclusion: The HP infection rate in Tong-Ling area was slightly higher than nationwide but with a lower CagA - HP positive rate. HP infection was mostly related to the working environment and life-style. (authors)

  14. Emergency response and disease control--a discussion of alternative objectives for zoning in the age of agricultural bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Fonda A

    2007-01-01

    Emergency planning activities in most developed countries have increased as a result of such events as the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and the emergence of the highly pathogenic Asian strain of avian influenza, H5N1. The threat of terrorist activities, combined with advances in science and technology, have resulted in an expanded spectrum of threat for humans, animals, plants and the environment. It is possible that an attack or disease incursion could be so catastrophic and devastating that the resources to combat it would be rapidly overwhelmed. In these cases, it may be necessary to develop an alternative strategy. The author discusses the concept of protective zoning. Protective zoning is a strategy to salvage or protect a smaller segment of an agriculture sector or geographic area when resources are insufficient to protect the entire sector or area. This change in orientation will be extremely controversial and the exact criteria to determine when the situation warrants a change in objective, as well as the precise activities to be performed, must be determined by all stakeholders well in advance. Changes to other activities in current emergency plans may be required. The impact on the recovery phase plans will be significant. PMID:20411521

  15. The Global HIV Epidemics among Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Wirtz, Andrea; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele; Murray, Laura; Poteat, Tonia; Pretorius, Carel; Sherman, Susan; Sweat, Mike; Semini, Iris; N'Jie, N'Della; Stanciole, Anderson; Butler, Jenny; Osornprasop, Sutayut; Oelrichs, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the epidemic sex workers have experienced a heightened burden of HIV across settings, despite their higher levels of HIV protective behaviors (UNAIDS, 2009). Unfairly, sex workers have often been framed as 'vectors of disease' and 'core transmitters' rather than workers and human beings with rights in terms of HIV prevention and beyond. By gaining a deeper understand...

  16. Moderate Thermal Strain in Healthcare Workers Wearing Personal Protective Equipment During Treatment and Care Activities in the Context of the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grélot, Laurent; Koulibaly, Fassou; Maugey, Nancy; Janvier, Frédéric; Foissaud, Vincent; Aletti, Marc; Savini, Hélène; Cotte, Jean; Dampierre, Henry; Granier, Hervé; Carmoi, Thierry; Sagui, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    The extent of thermal strain while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) during care activities for Ebola virus disease patients has not yet been characterized. From January to March 2015, 25 French healthcare workers (HCWs) in Conakry, Guinea, volunteered to be monitored while wearing PPE using an ingestible thermal sensor. The mean (standard deviation) working ambient temperature and relative humidity were 29.6°C (2.0°C) and 65.4% (10.3%), respectively; the mean time wearing PPE was 65.7 (13.5) minutes; and the mean core body temperature increased by 0.46°C (0.20°C). Four HCWs reached or exceeded a mean core body temperature of ≥38.5°C. HCWs wearing PPE for approximately 1 hour exhibited moderate but safe thermal strain. PMID:26655297

  17. Doença do disco intervertebral em trabalhadores da perfuração de petróleo Intervertebral disk disease among oil drilling workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pereira Fernandes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal em 1.026 trabalhadores em distrito de perfuração de petróleo do Nordeste brasileiro mostrou prevalência global de doença do disco intervertebral lombar de 5%, variando de 1,8% (atividades sem manuseio de carga, 4,5% (manuseio ocasional até 7,2% (manuseio habitual. Tal prevalência foi de 11,4% em operadores de sonda de perfuração de petróleo com mais de 40 anos de idade e de 10,5% naqueles com mais de 15 anos de empresa. A razão de prevalência (R.P. à associação entre trabalho em operação de sonda e doença do disco foi 2,3 (I.C. 95%: 1,3, 4,0. Para minimizar o efeito sobrevivência do trabalhador sadio foram usadas informações retrospectivas acerca da exposição. A informação referente à ocupação atual em lugar do histórico ocupacional resultaria em RP subestimada de 1,1 (I.C. 95%: 0,6, 1,9. A regressão logística ratificou os achados da análise tabular. Não houve confundimento nem interação. O incremento da indústria de petróleo no país e as alterações na gestão e contratação da força de trabalho implicam mudanças no gerenciamento de risco e controle de saúde, além de pronta intervenção ergonômica para controle da doença.A cross-sectional study among 1,026 oil drilling workers in Northeast Brazil found a prevalence rate of 5% for intervertebral disk disease, varying from 1.8% (activities without heavy lifting and 4.5% (occasional lifting to 7.2% (routine lifting. Disease prevalence was 10.5% among drilling workers with more than 15 years in the industry and 11.3% among those over 40 years of age. Prevalence ratio (PR for the association between working in oil drilling operations and intervertebral disk disease was 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.0. Retrospective information about exposure was collected to minimize the healthy worker survival effect. Using information on current occupation instead of occupational life history would cause an underestimated PR of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-1.9. Logistic

  18. Inserciones laborales tempranas: Los jóvenes trabajadores agrícolas en el Valle de Uco, Mendoza, Argentina Early labor markets incorporations: Agricultural young workers in the Uco Valley, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Bober

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las diferentes formas de inserción laboral de trabajadores jóvenes en el Valle de Uco, en la provincia de Mendoza. Durante las últimas décadas, el Valle de Uco basó su patrón de desarrollo agrícola en un modelo intensivo y empresarial de sus tres principales cultivos: los viñedos, los frutales y las hortalizas. En la actualidad, atraviesa un proceso de profunda reconversión productiva, orientada mayoritariamente hacia el mercado externo, que entre otras consecuencias pasó a modificar el funcionamiento del mercado de trabajo local. En este artículo, se contemplan las diferentes situaciones que llevan al ingreso laboral de los jóvenes en este contexto, según el momento etáreo que atraviesen. Se analiza la relación que este proceso guarda con el tamaño y la estructura de las familias y la situación socio-económica del hogar al que pertenecen. También, se examina el vínculo entre las características de los hogares y la forma de inserción de los jóvenes en el mercado de trabajo, de acuerdo al tipo de ocupación en la que se desempeñan y al destino que le dan a sus ingresos. A partir de la realización de entrevistas en profundidad a trabajadores jóvenes y a informantes clave se pudo dar cuenta de las preferencias de los jóvenes con respecto a distintos tipos de trabajos, con particular énfasis en ciertos trabajos agrícolas y, también en relación a su futuro laboral.This article deals with the different ways that young workers in the Uco Valley, at the province of Mendoza, enter to the agrarian local labour market. During the last decadas, the Uco Valley based its pattern of agricultural development in an intensive business model of its three main crops: vineyards, orchards, and vegetables. Currently, it is undergoing a process of profound restructuring of production, mainly oriented towards foreign markets, which among different consequences has modified the functioning of local labour markets. In

  19. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    . This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage...

  20. Chiang Mai University Health Worker Study aiming toward a better understanding of noncommunicable disease development in Thailand: methods and description of study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkurawaranon C

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaisiri Angkurawaranon,1,2 Anawat Wisetborisut,2 Wichuda Jiraporncharoen,2 Surinporn Likhitsathian,3 Ronnaphob Uaphanthasath,2 Patama Gomutbutra,2 Surin Jiraniramai,2 Chawin Lerssrimonkol,2 Apinun Aramrattanna,2 Pat Doyle,1 Dorothea Nitsch1 1Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Urbanization is considered to be one of the key drivers of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs in Thailand and other developing countries. These influences, in turn, may affect an individual's behavior and risk of developing NCDs. The Chiang Mai University (CMU Health Worker Study aims to provide evidence for a better understanding of the development of NCDs and ultimately to apply the evidence toward better prevention, risk modification, and improvement of clinical care for patients with NCDs and NCD-related conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of health care workers from CMU Hospital was conducted between January 2013 and June 2013. Questionnaires, interviews, and physical and laboratory examinations were used to assess urban exposure, occupational shift work, risk factors for NCDs, self-reported NCDs, and other NCD-related health conditions. Results: From 5,364 eligible workers, 3,204 participated (59.7%. About 11.1% of the participants had high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and almost 30% were considered to be obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. A total of 2.3% had a high fasting blood glucose level (≥126 mg/dL, and the most common abnormal lipid profile was high low-density lipoprotein (≥160 mg/dL, which was found in 19.2% of participants. Discussion: The study of health

  1. Non-communicable disease risk factor patterns among mining industry workers in Papua, Indonesia: longitudinal findings from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Papuan Population and Estimation of Risk (COPPER) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Rahajeng, Ekowati; Viliani, Francesca; Kushadiwijaya, Haripurnomo; Rachel M Amiya; Bangs, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute an increasing slice of the global burden of disease, with the South-East Asia region projected to see the highest increase in NCD-related deaths over the next decade. Mining industry employees may be exposed to various factors potentially elevating their NCD risk. This study aimed to assess the distribution and 5-year longitudinal trends of key metabolic NCD risk factors in a cohort of copper–gold mining company workers in Papua, Indonesi...

  2. Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years) In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Prabir Kumar Manna; De, Debasis; Debidas Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs) of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility we...

  3. Association between asymptomatic hyperuricemia and new-onset chronic kidney disease in Japanese male workers: a long-term retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terawaki Hiroyuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperuricemia is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We explored the hypothesis that asymptmatic hyperuricemia may be associated with new-onset CKD. Methods The participants were all male factory workers in Kanagawa, Japan (n = 1,285. All were over 40 years of age and had undergone annual health examinations from 1990 to 2007. Individuals with a history of gouty attacks were excluded from the study. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by following the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR for each participant over a maximum period of 18 years. The endpoint was new-onset CKD defined as eGFR 2. The associations between new-onset CKD and the presence of hyperuricemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity were analyzed. Results The mean (± standard deviation follow-up period was 95.2 (± 66.7 months, and new-onset CKD was observed in 100 participants (7.8% during this follow-up. Cox proportional hazards model revealed that the hazard ratio of new-onset CKD due to hyperuricemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and obesity were 3.99 (95% confidence interval: 2.59-6.15, 1.69 (1.00-2.86, 2.00 (1.29-3.11 and 1.35 (0.87-2.10, respectively. Concerning hyperuricemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and obesity, the log-rank tests showed P values of Conclusion The results of this study suggest that asymptomatic hyperuricemia is a predictive factor for new-onset CKD for Japanese male workers.

  4. The healthcare workers' clinical skill set requirements for a uniformed international response to the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa: the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Dennis; Charlebois, P B; Kao, R

    2016-06-01

    Since December 2013, the Zaire Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic has ravaged West Africa. In collaboration with the Public Health Agency of Canada, healthcare workers (HCWs) and support staff from the Royal Canadian Medical Services (RCMS) of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) were deployed to Kerry Town, Sierra Leone. A total of 79 RCMS personnel deployed over the course of the 6-month mission in collaboration with the British Armed Forces to support efforts in West Africa. The treatment centre was mandated to treat international and local HCWs exposed to the infection. The goal of the Ebola virus disease treatment unit (EVDTU) was to provide care to affected HCWs and a beacon to attract and engage foreign HCWs to work in one of the international non-governmental organisation Ebola treatment centres in Sierra Leone. We focus on the CAF experience at the Kerry Town Ebola treatment unit in Sierra Leone in particular on the various clinical skill sets demonstrated in physicians, nurses and medical technicians deployed to the EVDTU. We outline some of the staffing challenges that arose and suggest that the necessary clinical skills needed to effectively manage patients with EVD in an austere environment can be shared across a small and diverse team of healthcare providers. PMID:26987351

  5. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the Eur

  6. Community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Ayichew

    2016-01-01

    Ayichew Seyoum,1 Kedir Urgessa,1 Tesfaye Gobena2 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Ethiopia constitutes approximately 1% of the world’s population but it contributes to 7% of the world’s HIV/AIDS cases. Malaria is the most important disease of humans in terms of mortality, morbidity, and long-term effects upon quality of life, esp...

  7. Mobile Technology for Empowering Health Workers in Underserved Communities: New Approaches to Facilitate the Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Michelle; Molineux, Andrew; Mackenzie, Charles; Kelly-Hope, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background As global mobile phone penetration increases, direct health information communication from hard-to-reach communities is becoming commonplace. Mobile health (mHealth) tools that enable disease control programs to benefit from this information, while simultaneously empowering community members to take control of their own health, are vital to the goal of universal health care. Objective Our aim was to highlight the development of the Liverpool mHealth Suite (LMS), which has been desi...

  8. Older workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ybema, J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the European Union. The way in which several factors, including health, working conditions, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors influence sustainable employability and the early retirem...

  9. Challenges Facing Successful Scaling Up of Effective Screening for Cardiovascular Disease by Community Health Workers in Mexico and South Africa: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Abrahams-Gessel; Denman, CA; TA, Gaziano; NS, Levitt; T, Puoane

    2016-01-01

    The integration of community health workers (CHWs) into primary and secondary prevention functions in health programs and services delivery in Mexico and South Africa has been demonstrated to be effective. Task-sharing related to adherence and treatment, from nurses to CHWs, has also been effectively demonstrated in these areas. HIV/AIDS and TB programs in South Africa have seen similar successes in task-sharing with CHWs in the areas of screening for risk and adherence to treatment. In the area of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), there is a policy commitment to integrating CHWs into primary health care programs at public health facilities in both Mexico and South Africa in the areas of reproductive health and infant health. Yet current programs utilizing CHWs are not integrated into existing primary health care services in a comprehensive manner for primary and secondary prevention of NCDs. In a recently completed study, CHWs were trained to perform the basic diagnostic function of primary screening to assess the risk of suffering a CVD-related event in the community using a non-laboratory risk assessment tool and referring persons at moderate to high risk to local government clinics, for further assessment and management by a nurse or physician. In this paper we compare the experience with this CVD screening study to successful programs in vaccination, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, and TB specifically to identify the barriers we identified as limitations to replicating these programs in the area of CVD diagnosis and management. We review barriers impacting the effective translation of policy into practice, including scale up issues; training and certification issues; integrating CHW to existing primary care teams and health system; funding and resource gaps. Finally, we suggest policy recommendations to replicate the demonstrated success of programs utilizing task-sharing with CHWs in infectious diseases and reproductive health, to integrated programs in NCD

  10. Understanding Agricultural Labor Exits in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Ellen B.

    2015-01-01

    The process of economic development is embodied by rising output per agricultural worker and the exit of labor from agriculture to other sectors, which together result in rising incomes and falling incidence of poverty. This paper addresses agricultural technology's role in slowing or speeding exits of labor from agriculture in Tanzania through its effects on labor productivity. Using a structural multinomial model of occupational choice, I model households' decisions to participation in diff...

  11. Risks and risk management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture has always been exposed to a wide spectrum of risks. But it is largely undisputed that farmers have faced growing risks in recent years. More volatile agricultural and input prices, climate change, ongoing discussions about the future of the Common Agricultural Policy, increasing difficulty in finding qualified farm workers, and growing criticism of modern intensive agriculture from the wider public and the mass media are just a few of the risks farmers have to cope with. Therefor...

  12. Occupational hazards and diseases among workers in emergency services: a literature review with special emphasis on Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Jiménez Paneque

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES Los trabajadores de la salud se enfrentan a riesgos de accidentes y enfermedades relacionados con su ocupación. El estrés psíquico, el contacto con enfermedades transmisibles y la violencia son quizás los principales riesgos. Los trabajadores de los servicios de urgencia están sometidos a ellos, con mayor frecuencia que los de otras áreas. La presente revisión tiene por objetivo evaluar el estado del tema en la literatura internacional, y en particular el tratamiento que a este tema se le ha dado en Chile. MÉTODOS Se revisó principalmente la base de datos PubMed de MEDLINE. La estrategia de búsqueda general incluyó las palabras clave: health personnel, emergency medical services y occupational diseases combinadas con otras más específicas. Se revisó también el estado de la prevención de riesgos laborales en los servicios de urgencia. RESULTADOS Se detectaron más de 70 estudios que abordaban el tema de uno u otro riesgo laboral en servicios de urgencia. En Chile se detectan 12 estudios que tocan el tema de riesgos laborales en trabajadores de la salud, al menos dos de ellos abordan los servicios de urgencia. CONCLUSIONES La presente revisión permite valorar el panorama general de los riesgos y enfermedades laborales de los servicios de urgencia, pero no permite la profundidad que amerita cada uno de los riegos mencionados aquí. Se recomienda continuar profundizando en el tema de los riesgos laborales de los trabajadores de los servicios de urgencia, con el fin de contribuir a perfeccionar las medidas de prevención y evaluar sus

  13. Irrigated agriculture is an important risk factor for West Nile virus disease in the hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld area of north central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Pape, W John; Winters, Anna M; Cheronis, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    This study focused on two West Nile virus (WNV) disease outbreak years, 2003 and 2007, and included a three-county area (Larimer, Boulder, and Weld) in North Central Colorado that is hyperendemic for WNV disease. We used epidemiological data for reported WNV disease cases at the census tract scale to: (1) elucidate whether WNV disease incidence differs between census tracts classified as having high versus lower human population density (based on a threshold value of 580 persons/km2) and (2) determine associations between WNV disease incidence and habitat types suitable as development sites for the larval stage of Culex mosquito vectors. WNV disease incidence was significantly elevated in census tracts with lower human population density, compared with those with high density of human population, in both 2003 (median per census tract of 223 and 143 cases per 100,000 population, respectively) and 2007 (median per census tract of 46 and 19 cases per 100,000 population). This is most likely related, in large part, to greater percentages of coverage in less densely populated census tracts by habitats suitable as development sites for Culex larvae (open water, developed open space, pasture/hay, cultivated crops, woody wetlands, and emergent herbaceous wetlands) and, especially, for the subset of these habitats made up by irrigated agricultural land (pasture/hay and cultivated crops) that presumably serve as major producers of the locally most important vector of WNV to humans: Culex tarsalis. A series of analyses produced significant positive associations between greater coverage of or shorter distance to irrigated agricultural land and elevated WNV disease incidence. As an exercise to produce data with potential to inform spatial implementation schemes for prevention and control measures within the study area, we mapped the spatial patterns, by census tract, of WNV disease incidence in 2003 and 2007 as well as the locations of census tracts that had either low (75th

  14. APPLICATION OF VIA IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL DISEASES AMONG WOMEN WORKERS%VIA在女职工体检中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琨; 李力; 梁欢欢; 黄玲莎

    2011-01-01

    [目的]评价在女职工体检中采用醋酸肉眼观察法(VIA)的筛查宫颈病变的效果.[方法]对737位女职工进行妇科检查,同时采用VIA及巴氏涂片法进行宫颈病变的筛查,评价两种方法的宫颈病变检出率.[结果]参检率为75.20%(737/980),参检妇女关于癌症的知晓率为62.5%;宫颈癌的筛查方法的知晓率为42.5%,其中宫颈细胞学检查知晓率为36.5%;人乳头瘤病毒知晓率为19%;CIN Ⅱ级以上病变的检出率VIA法为0.54%(4/737);巴氏涂片法为0,两种检查方法比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]大多数妇女对宫颈癌症的防治知识了解甚少,需加强知识的普及:应用VIA联合巴氏涂片法进行宫颈癌的初筛可进一步提高癌前病变的检出率.%[ Objective] To explore feasibilities of visual inspection with acetic acid ( VIA) in screening of cervical diseases among women workers. [Methods] 737 female workers were screened by using VIA and Pap smear screening for cervical lesions. The detection rates of cervical lesions were evaluated. [ Results] Participation rate was 75.20% (737/980). The rate of awareness about cancer in the women worker was 62.5%, and the rate of awareness about screening methods for cervical cancer was 36.5%, in which the rate of awareness of cervical cy(t)ology was 42.5%, and 19% knew human papillomavirus. CIN Ⅱ lesion detection rate was 0.54% by using VIA method, but we did not find cases by the Pap smear screening. Comparing two methods,there was a significant difference (P< 0.05). [Conclusion] Most of the women poorly understand ahout the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, so we should strengthen the popularization of health knowledge. Application of VIA method combined Pap smear screening for cervical cancer may further improve the detection rate of precancerous lesions.

  15. Indian women in subsistence and agricultural labour.

    OpenAIRE

    Mies M; Lalitha K; Kumari K

    1983-01-01

    Working paper comprising a case study on the economic role of low income rural women, especially as women workers employed in subsistence farming in Andra Pradesh, India. Covers labour force participation, sexual division of labour, sex discrimination in land tenure and occupational structure, the role of women's organizations, income generating activities, employment as agricultural workers and domestic workers, income and family budget. Discusses the effect of the milk credit scheme on pove...

  16. CONTACT DERMATITIS AMONG CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Diah Purnama Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is a form of skin inflammation with spongiosis or intercellular edema of the epidermis due to the interaction of irritants and allergens. While occupational contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin due to exposure to irritants or allergens in the workplace. One of the jobs that have a high risk of the disease are construction workers. Although the disease is rarely-threatening but can cause high morbidity and suffering for workers, so it can affect the economy and quality of life of patients.

  17. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

  18. The Foreign Workers and Foreign Workers' German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshire-Belay, Carol

    Foreign Workers' German (FWG) refers to the acquired German language skills of workers from various countries who were recruited to West Germany between 1955 and 1973 to fill menial, undesirable jobs. Contact between these workers and native German speakers was limited because of the nature of the foreigners' work, the tendency toward residential…

  19. [Network for surveillance of zoonoses in agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Emma; Abadia, Geneviève

    2007-06-15

    Currently, health risk monitoring and observation are major issues in terms of prevention. These principles specifically apply to biological risks with the onset of emerging or re-emerging zoonoses and the implementation of a specific regulation on workers' protection against these risks. It is in this context that the Mutualité Sociale Agricole (French social security agency) decided in 1999 to create a monitoring network for non-food zoonoses in agriculture, supported by field professionals. More than a case recording system, it is an exchange network between various actors specialized in human health, prevention and animal health. Many different actions were initiated: studies, surveys, training, development of information tools etc., to give the various actors means to know and create awareness on these often ill-known diseases, to strengthen risk assessment, adapt prevention measures to each situation and react in the event of a sanitary crisis. PMID:17708088

  20. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica in South African farm workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although listed in some publications as an activity associated with silica (quartz) exposure, agriculture is not widely recognized as an industry with a potential for silica associated diseases. Because so many people work in agriculture; and because silica exposure and silicosis are associated with serious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), particular in those immunological compromised by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), silica exposure in agriculture is potentially very important. But in South Africa (SA) very little is known about silica exposure in this industry. The objectives of this project are: (a) to measure inhalable and respirable dust and its quartz content on two typical sandy soil farms in the Free State province of SA for all major tasks done on the farms; and (b) to characterise the mineralogy soil type of these farms. Two typical farms in the sandy soil region of the Free State province were studied. The potential health effects faced by these farm workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica are discussed.

  1. The cultivated agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG)

  2. Healthy worker effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in employment tend to be healthier than those that leave. The occupational health departments also promote healthy lifestyles. The reduction in the number of cancers and heart diseases may also be a consequence of the effective promotion of these healthy lifestyles (such as encouraging smokers to refrain) to those in employment. In summary, the pre-medical has only a minor effect and the other components of the selection process dominate the 'healthy worker effect'. Assuming that employees are not exposed to health hazards in their working environment then, whilst employees are in employment, they benefit health-wise from employment and this further reinforces the 'healthy worker effect'. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  3. Legal aspects related to workers and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal aspects related to protection of the worker during its activity and in case of accident which involves dead or invalidity or occupation disease are presented. The aspects concerning to employment relation for workers in nuclear installations, and the professional liability for workers who handle ionizing radiation are discussed. (M.C.K.)

  4. Parkinson's Disease and Residential Exposure to Maneb and Paraquat From Agricultural Applications in the Central Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Sadie; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff; Zhang, Xinbo; Ritz, Beate

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from animal and cell models suggests that pesticides cause a neurodegenerative process leading to Parkinson's disease (PD). Human data are insufficient to support this claim for any specific pesticide, largely because of challenges in exposure assessment. The authors developed and validated an exposure assessment tool based on geographic information systems that integrated information from California Pesticide Use Reports and land-use maps to estimate historical exposure to agricultu...

  5. Lyme Disease: antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in farm workers in Argentina Doença de Lyme: anticorpos anti Borrelia burgdorferi nos trabalhadores rurais da Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Oscar Stanchi

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease is a tick-borne (specially by Ixodes ticks immune-mediated inflammatory disorder caused by a newly recognize spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Indirect fluorescent antibody (IF staining methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are frequently relied upon to confirm Lyme borreliosis infections. Although serologic testing for antibodies has limitations, it is still the only practical means of confirming B. burgdorferi infections. Because we have no previous report of Lyme disease in human inhabitants in Argentina, a study was designed as a seroepidemiologic investigation of the immune response to B. burgdorferi in farm workers of Argentina with arthritis symptoms. Three out of 28 sera were positive (#1,5 and 9. Serum # 1 was positive for Immunoglobulin G at dilution 1:320, serum # 5 and # 9 both to dilution 1:160; while for Immunoglobulin M all (#1, 5 and 9 were positive at low dilution (1:40 using IF. The results showed that antibodies against B. burgdorferi are present in an Argentinian population. Thus caution should be exercised in the clinical interpretation of arthritis until the presence of B. burgdorferi be confirmed by culture in specific media.A doença de Lyme, é uma desordem inflamatória, intermediada pelo sistema imunogênico, transmitida por carrapatos (especialmente do Gênero Ixodes e causada por uma espiroqueta recentemente descoberta, a Borrelia burgdorferi. A técnica de Imunofluorescência Indireta (IF é com freqüência usada para confirmar o diagnóstico da infecção por este microrganismo. Embora os métodos práticos tenham limitações, é no entanto o único método prático para seu diagnóstico. Devido a não existência de registros prévios dessa doença na Argentina, foi realizada pesquisa seroepidemiológica para determinar a presença de imunoglobulinas nos trabalhadores rurais da Argentina, com sintomas de artrite. Sobre um total de 28 soros analisados, 3 resultaram positivos (o soro número 1

  6. Percepção de caieiros quanto às conseqüências do trabalho no processo saúde-doença Lime workers' perception of work-related health-disease process, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheila Portela Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a percepção de trabalhadores das fábricas de cal quanto às conseqüências do trabalho ao processo saúde-doença. Foram coletados dados de dez trabalhadores, por meio de observação não estruturada e entrevistas semi-estruturadas em fábricas de cal do Ceará, em dezembro de 2005. A seriedade das conseqüências à saúde percebida pelos trabalhadores não foi suficiente para os impulsionar a desenvolverem ações de promoção de saúde.The objective of the study was to evaluate the perception of lime factory workers regarding work-related health-disease process. Data were collected from ten workers through non-structured observation and semi-structured interviews conducted in lime factories in the state of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, in December 2005. Lime workers did not perceive themselves as being at risk for serious health outcomes, which has led them not to develop health promotion actions.

  7. COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DILLON, ROY D.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

  8. Brucella serology in abattoir workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is an occupational hazard with those particularly at risk either living in close proximity with animals or handling them. It is a public health problem in developing countries with adverse health implications both for animals and human beings as well as economic implications for individuals and communities. The Objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among abattoir workers of Lahore District and to determine the association of brucellosis with nature of job of the workers. Data was collected in April 2008. It was a cross-sectional study in which four main slaughterhouses in Lahore were included. The slaughterhouse workers were divided into seven strata based on their nature of job: meat sellers, slaughterers, animal keepers, drivers, cleaners, loaders and vets/paravets. A total of 360 such workers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Sampling frames for different strata were prepared and from each frame, proportionate numbers, were selected through simple random method using random number tables. Data was obtained using a questionnaire. Additionally blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The seroprevalence of anti-Brucella IgG was found to be 21.7%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the immune status of the respondents and their nature of job (p=0.005), age groups (p=0.013), and duration of job (p=0.003). The disease is an important public health problem in Pakistan. The disease can be prevented in the slaughterhouse workers through the use of personal protective devices. Public health authorities should educate the general public regarding prevention of the disease with specific emphasis on people working in slaughterhouses. (author)

  9. Using a mHealth tutorial application to change knowledge and attitude of frontline health workers to Ebola virus disease in Nigeria: a before-and-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Otu, A; Ebenso, BE; Okuzu, O; Osifo-Dawodu, E

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Ebola epidemic exposed the weak state of health systems in West Africa and their devastating effect on frontline health workers and the health of populations. Fortunately, recent reviews of mobile technology demonstrate that mHealth innovations can help alleviate some health system constraints such as balancing multiple priorities, lack of appropriate tools to provide services and collect data, and limited access to training in health fields such as mother and child health, HI...

  10. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the CT manifestations of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) and to evaluate the contribution of CT compared with chest radiography in estimating disease severity. A total of 170 chest CT scans were obtained in two groups of miners with (n = 86) or without (n = 84) compensation for CWP concomitantly evaluated by conventional posteroanterior and lateral radiography. The CT signs (micronodules, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, emphysema, honeycomb pattern, and lymph nodes) were derived from the International Pathologic Classification of CWP and were prospectively evaluated with standard and high- resolution CT. The CT scans were compared with the International Labour Office (ILO) 1980 classification grading system of the chest radiographs with an adaptation of the ILO classification

  11. Views of the workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is written from the perspective of the worker. As such it presents the workers' viewpoint with respect to the present status and problems to be solved with regard to occupational exposure. (author)

  12. What makes workers happy?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Meer, Peter H; Wielers, Rudi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article answers the question what makes workers happy?. It does so by combining insights from micro-economics, sociology and psychology. Basis is the standard utility function of a worker that includes income and hours of work and is elaborated with job characteristics. In this way it is possible to answer whether part-time workers are happier than full-time workers. The utility function is estimated on basis of the European Social Survey 2004 which contains all neces...

  13. Australian agricultural quarantine - imports and exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural quarantine is administered by Government to protect all facets of agriculture and the environment from unwanted pests and diseases of animals and plants. Ionising energy would appear to have an excellent future as a quarantine treatment

  14. Linking nutrition-health-agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, S; Griffiths, J. K.; Webb, P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is intimately linked with health and nutrition as a form of income, a source of food, and a cause of disease. Citing a variety of previous studies, this presentation demonstrates the complexity of the relationships among agriculture and food consumption, food safety, infection, and stunting. The authors demonstrate that increasing agricultural production does not necessarily result in improved nutrition: Although more food may be available, this greater yield may suppl...

  15. 红木家私厂工人变态反应性疾病的流行病学调查%An epidemiological survey on allergic disease of workers in mahogany furniture factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利华; 饶惠平; 黄瑞文; 谭锦生; 林石龙; 许霁; 汪为刚; 杨瑞熹; 肖劲锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the allergic disease's epidemiology characteristics of front-line workers in Mahogany furniture factory.Methods 1 860 painting workers were selected as the observation group A,930 workers of non-paint workshop as the observation group B,and 930 new workers who came from rural areas as a control group.The allergic disease investigation and analysis were carried on in the three groups.Results In the observation group A,1 860 work personnel,picked out contracts the allergy disease 483 examples,the disease incidence rate was 25.96%.In the observation group B 930 work personnel,picked out contracts the allergy disease 140 examples,the disease incidence rate was 15.05%.In the control group 930 farmers,picked out contracts the allergy disease 32 examples,the disease incidence rate was 3.44 %.The allergy disease incidence rate of two investigative groups were higher than that of control group.Statistics analysis had the significant difference(x2 =21.394,P <0.01).In the observation group A,working above for 5 years the allergy disease incidence rate was higher than below 5 years (including 5 years).Statistics analysis had the significance difference.Moreover in the observation group A,the disease incidence rate divided into 3 ranks from high to low,during various ranks statistics analysis had the significant difference.In the observation group B,working above for 8 years the allergy disease incidence rate was higher than below 8 years (including g years).And working above for 11 years the allergy disease incidence rate was higher than below 11 years (including 11 years).Statistics analysis had the significance difference.Moreover in the observation group B,the disease incidence rate divided into 5 ranks from high to low,during various ranks statistics analysis had the significance difference(x2 =177.112,P <0.01).Conclusion Paint and pain-thinner can lead to front-line workers occurred in allergic diseases.The longer the contact time

  16. Vaccines for preventing hepatitis B in health-care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers.......Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers....

  17. Evaluation of lung function abnormalities prevalence in poultry workers

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Hermínia Brites; Clérigo, Anália; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Introduction - Poultry workers can be at an increased risk of occupational respiratory diseases, like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Spirometry screening is fundamental to early diagnosis trough the identification of related ventilatory defects. Purpose - We aimed to assess the prevalence of lung function abnormalities in poultry workers.

  18. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  19. Musculoskeletal disorders in labor-intensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Fadi A

    2010-10-01

    This paper gives an overview of the extent of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in agriculture, and a historical perspective on how ergonomics has been used to reduce the health effects of labor-intensive agriculture. A summary of exposure to MSD physical risk factors within various classes of crops, along with various administrative and engineering controls for abating MSDs in agriculture is given. These controls range from programmed rest breaks to mechanized or partially-mechanized operations. Worker-based approaches such as prone carts and platforms, and load transfer devices hold promise in combating the prevalent stooped work in agriculture. Including the worker as an integral contributor to all aspects of developing and implementing an intervention, and considering the psychosocial and socio-cultural aspects of the work environment are crucial elements of effective interventions for reducing MSDs. Despite the advent progress in new technologies in agricultural practices, reliance on labor, especially in fresh market fruits and vegetables, will always be a major cornerstone of agriculture for at least the foreseen future. It is encouraging to see the increased interest among health and safety professionals, epidemiologists, engineers, social scientists, and ergonomists throughout the world who are committed to the plight of reducing MSDs and other health problems among agricultural workers. PMID:20398891

  20. [Workplace accomodations for two workers with narcolepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico Garcerán, Belén; Monzó Salas, Monserrat; Cuenca Esteve, Francisco; Luis Domingo, José

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of two workers evaluated in our occupational health unit. The first worker was a kitchen aide; the second was a primary care physician. Both had been diagnosed with narcolepsy and had obvious disability.We assessed occupational hazards related to their jobs, analysed their tasks, and performed medical examinations. Afterwards, we offered recommendations to the patients, consisting of avoidance of situations involving a risk of work accidents and improving their sleep habits. Narcolepsy is a rare disorder, but it has important social and occupational consequences. A better understanding of the disease and some work accommodations can help improve the quality of life of affected workers. PMID:23700708

  1. Health screening of migrant workers- serological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper review the serological investigations for parasitic infection among migrant workers. The tests were performed on serum samples for parasitic infection. The serum samples were found to be positive for antibody for Ameobiasis [28%], Malaria [27 percentage], Echonococcus [18 percentage] and Schistosomiasis [12 percentage]. Female samples were positive for Ameobiasis [39 percentage], and Filariasis [W.b] 33.3 percentage. Foreign workers from Bangladesh showed the highest percentage on seropositive for most parasitic diseases. (author)

  2. Respiratory health of cigar factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Uitti, J; Nordman, H.; Huuskonen, M. S.; Roto, P.; Husman, K.; Reiman, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether occupational exposure to raw tobacco causes respiratory or allergic diseases, an excess of respiratory symptoms, a decrease in lung function, or parenchymal changes in chest radiography among Finnish cigar workers. METHODS: This cross sectional study included all Finnish cigar workers (n = 106) exposed to raw tobacco and also a group of unexposed matched referents. Data were collected with a self administered questionnaire, flow volume spirometry, measur...

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN COMPETENCE AND PERFORMANCE-FOCUSING ON FARMERS AND EXTENSION WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Sue-Ho Chae; Yoon-Doo Kim; Hae-Jin Lim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between the competence of farmers and extension workers and the performance of the agricultural organizations in which they are involved. To this end, 20 competences of farmers and agricultural extension workers (10 of each), based on preceding studies, were selected as the independent variables. The dependent variable was defined as the process performance of the agricultural organization. Control variables were also selected for ea...

  4. Colinesterasas eritrocitaria y plasmática en trabajadores con enfermedades crónicas controladas y en usuarios de medicamentos Erythrocytic and plasmatic cholinesterases in workers with chronic controlled diseases and in users of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    nunca hubo diferencia significativa. Tampoco hubo diferencias importan-tes cuando se procedió a comparar los valores enzimáticos entre personas con una enfermedad específica y quienes no la tenían, excepto en el caso de «anemia». CONCLUSIONES: los niveles de colinesterasas eritrocitaria y plasmática son similares entre trabajadores sanos o con enfermedades crónicas controladas, con o sin drogas. PROBLEM: Physiological values of cholinesterase are known in healthy population, but limited information on them is available in individuals with chronic, controlled diseases, either with or without medication. OBJECTIVES: To measure erythrocytic and plasmatic cholinesterase levels in active workers who met the following conditions: to be feeling well and active at their jobs at the time of the study; to suffer from some disease that was under control either with or without medication; not to have been exposed to pesticides based on cholinesterase inhibitors. METHODOLOGY: A survey was carried out among workers affiliated to the Social Security Institute in Antioquia, Colombia, to identify those suffering from some disease and who had it under control. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase levels were determined using two techniques for the former and three for the latter. Surveyed workers belonged to two different parts of Antioquia, namely: the Aburra Valley and the Near East region. The study sample was made up by 827 persons, 19% of which informed to be suffering from some disease. RESULTS: Prevalence of disease in the Aburra Valley workers was 30% and in those from the Near East region, 9% (p = 0.0000000. The list of their diseases included 13 different ones, the most frequent of which were: hypertension (29%, “liver disease” (16%, anemia (10%, and arthritis (10%. Out of the 827 people, 127 (15% were under some kind of medication at the moment of the study; of them, 85% were being treated with only one drug. Eight per cent were diseased and under

  5. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda, Sheila F.; Rosenbaum, René P.; Holscher, Jessica T.; Madanat, Hala; Talavera, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal (MS) farmworkers are an important component of the US economy. Their unique occupational health concerns have garnered research, but chronic disease research in this population is lacking. It is unclear whether health differences exist between migrant (those who migrate to and travel a distance from the home environment and thus live in temporary housing for the purpose of employment) and seasonal workers (those who work in the agricultural industry on a seasonal basis, w...

  6. Evidence of previous avian influenza infection among US turkey workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, G; Ortiz, E J; Chorazy, M L; Gray, G C

    2010-06-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic is looming, with new cases of sporadic avian influenza infections in man frequently reported. Exposure to diseased poultry is a leading risk factor for these infections. In this study, we used logistic regression to investigate serological evidence of previous infection with avian influenza subtypes H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, and H11 among 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys in the US Midwest and 82 unexposed controls. Our results indicate that farmers practising backyard, organic or free-ranging turkey production methods are at an increased risk of infection with avian influenza. Among these farmers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for elevated microneutralization assay titres against avian H4, H5, H6, H9, and H10 influenza strains ranged between 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-12.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 2.0-115.2) when compared to non-exposed controls. The measured ORs were adjusted for antibody titres against human influenza viruses and other exposure variables. These data suggest that sometime in their lives, the workers had been exposed to low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. These findings support calls for inclusion of agricultural workers in priority groups in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts. These data further support increasing surveillance and other preparedness efforts to include not only confinement poultry facilities, but more importantly, also small scale farms. PMID:19486492

  7. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  8. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  9. El alojamiento previsto para temporeros gestionado por el sindicato agrícola Unió de Pagesos. Infraestructura para la disciplina y el suministro de trabajadores The lodgment provided for seasonal workers managed by the agricultural union Unió de Pagesos. An infrastructure for discipline and labor supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Achón Rodríguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El éxito de implantación del sistema de importación y suministro de trabajadores contratados en origen –implementado por el sindicato agrícola Unió de Pagesos- ha precisado la instauración de una red de alojamientos prevista a la concentración de mano de obra. Su descripción, y el establecimiento de tipologías, que sirven al análisis de estos lugares, se han realizado con el ánimo de mostrar una realidad velada por el discurso filantrópico del sindicato. Dispositivo de poder dispuesto a la doma del sujeto –merced la normativización del espacio y la presencia de personal encargado- por el mismo se pretende la creación de una corriente de fuerza de trabajo por la que la gestión fordiana de los hombres se efectúa. Su estudio manifiesta la tradicional forma de alojar al temporero agrícola, únicamente superada en cuanto configurado un nuevo estatuto jurídico, el del trabajador contratado en origen para la realización de faenas de recolección.

     

    The successful implementation of the system of import and supply of workers recruited in their home countries by the agricultural union Unió de Pagesos, has demanded the establishment of a network of lodgments provided for the concentration of labor. Its description and the establishment of typologies for its analysis have been made in order of showing its reality, usually obscured by the union's philanthropic discourse. A device of power, intended to tame the subject through the regulation of space and the presence of personnel in charge, its aim is to create a current of labor which is managed in a Fordist fashion. Its study shows that the traditional way to accommodate labor in agriculture is only surpassed in order to create a new legal status of worker, which is recruited in his home country to perform harvesting crops.

  10. Pneumoconiosis in rubber workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic survey carried out on rubber workers revealed that 32 % (24/76) of the workers showed pneumoconiosis. The cases of pneumoconiosis were found in workers who had been exposed to dust for more than 10 years. Among the 24 cases of pneumoconiosis, 15 workers had been exposed to talc dust for more than 12 years. Chest radiographs of the rubber workers who had been exposed to dust for more than 10 years demonstrated radiographic findings and incidences as follows; nodular pattern (16 %), fine reticular and granular pattern (52 %), reticular pattern (36 %), irregularity of lung markings (61 %), ground-glass appearance (8 %), and pleural thickening (15 %). Irregular opacities such as fine reticular and granular pattern, reticular pattern and irregularity of lung markings seen to be major radiographic findings of pneumoconiosis of the rubber workers. While, nodular pattern seen in upper and middle lung zones and pleural thickening seen in apices and upper lung zones seen to be minor changes. (author)

  11. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  12. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mehrdad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste collection is a necessary activity all around the world and the removal of municipal solid waste is a job associated with a variety of biological, chemical, mechanical, physical, and psychosocial hazards. In our country, like many developing countries, municipal solid waste is collected manually and collection of household waste is also a job which requires repeated heavy physical activity such as lifting, carrying, pulling, and pushing. We performed this study to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers. We designed a cross sectional study. Our survey instrument for measurement of musculoskeletal symptoms was adapted from the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire that translated into Farsi language. A total of 65% (n=142 of participants reported that they had been troubled with musculoskeletal symptoms in one or more of the 9 defined body regions during the last 12 months. Prevalence of symptoms in low back, knees, shoulders, upper back and neck were 45, 29, 24, 23 and 22% respectively. Foreign workers reported more musculoskeletal symptoms in all body parts than Iranian workers. The differences between prevalence of symptoms between two groups were significant in all parts of body except knees. The study found that solid waste workers have more musculoskeletal disorders than general population. Meanwhile these symptoms were more common among foreign workers. The risk of disease was increased with the increasing years of working as solid waste worker and smoking. We didn't find relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and education or marriage status of workers.

  13. The force of irony: studying the everyday life of tomato workers in Western Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, G.

    1994-01-01

    For many years sociological literature on agricultural labourers has largely focused on how surplus value is generated and extracted by both direct and indirect means in the agricultural labour process. However this perspective overlooks the ways in which agricultural workers are important protagoni

  14. Influence of Psychosocial Work-Related Factors on Conventional Risk Factors of Ischemic Heart Disease and Homocysteine in Slovenian Male Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ratkajec, Tihomir; Bilban, Marjan; Starc, Radovan

    2008-01-01

    The influence of psychosocial work-related factors on the conventional risk factors of ischemic heart disease (IHD), particularly on the lipid changes and their effect on homocysteine is studied in this paper. Employed males aged 35 to 55 with angina pectoris or a myocardial infarction (IHD group) were compared to a group of individuals without ischemic heart disease (Control Group). Psychosocial factors were assessed using a Swedish Theorell questionnaire. The IHD Group was found...

  15. Organizing marginalized workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A K

    1999-01-01

    Figures from the U.S. Department of Labor show that low-wage or marginalized workers are more likely to be injured on the job and suffer more work-related medical conditions than better-paid workers. Despite an increasingly hostile organizing climate, market globalization, and corporate downsizing, significant progress has been made in organizing marginalized workers. A multifaceted, comprehensive organizing strategy, incorporating union-building strategies that include (but are not limited to) safety and health, must be used by unions to successfully organize marginalized workers and obtain the first contract. PMID:10378982

  16. Open & Distance Learning (ODL) and Agricultural Extension Workers’ Social Competence in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Huda

    2015-01-01

    Social competence is essential for agricultural extension worker since it is directly related to their duties to interact with farmers.   This article discusses the extension to which Open and Distance Learning (ODL) can improve the social competence and its aspects, the dominant factors affecting social competence, and strategy for the development of social competence of extension workers. Designed as an explanatory research, the entire population of agricultural extension workers (n=111) wh...

  17. Effects of the Great Recession on the U.S. Agricultural Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Maoyong; Pena, Anita Alves; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Recessions typically lead to excess supply in non agricultural labor markets. However, a major recession, like the Great Recession, has different effects in the seasonal agriculture labor market. During such recession, hourly earnings of workers, the probability that workers receive bonuses, and employed workers’ weekly hours rise. These results are consistent with a large reduction in immigrant labor supply during a major recession. Direct and indirect evidence on immigration supports this...

  18. Isotopes and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agriculture is defined as the art of desturbing the ecosystems in economical terms with the minimum of irreversible damage. Man survival in the biosphere will depend on its ability of using four technologies - mechanization, fertilizers, irrigation and pest disease control. The isotopes are usefull to establish means of producing more food and to preserve it; and clains of unbearable damages to the ecosystems caused by fertilizers and pesticides are not true, are presented. (author)

  19. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among U.S. Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, Evelyn P; Florez, Hermes; Fleming, Lora E.; Lee, David J; Goodman, Elizabeth; William G LeBlanc; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, John C.; Clarke, Tainya

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors among occupational groups have been found in several studies. Certain types of workers (such as shift workers) may have a greater risk for metabolic syndrome, a precursor of CVD. The objective of this study was to assess the differences in prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome among occupational groups using nationally representative data of U.S. workers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 8,45...

  20. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

  1. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of ecosystems is discussed. The total deposition of 90Sr and 137Cs after the nuclear experiments in 1945-1963 and the contamination rate of main foodstuffs are assessed. Data about radionuclide dynamics in soil, raw materials, forage, milk, milk products and wheat after the Chernobyl accident are presented for various regions of Bulgaria and are compared with the total fallout contamination. The trends in milk and forage contamination for some regions are discussed. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs are discussed. Migration of 135Cs, 90Sr and 131J is followed in soil, forage, animal organism and human food chains respectively and ways of decontamination are discussed. Radiation effects on biogeocenoses are described. The problem of agriculture management under the conditions of durable soil contamination after nuclear accidents is considered. Recommendations for monitoring and protection of agricultural personnel are presented. 53 refs., 31 tabs., 93 figs

  2. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  3. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  4. study on the prevalent trend of notifiable diseases in nanning railway bureau workers%2000~2010年南宁铁路局职工法定甲乙类传染病流行特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕榜军; 施红生; 谷丽华; 聂雄芳

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence trend of notifiable diseases, so as to provide basis for the prevention and control. METHODS We analyzed the epidemic data of notifiable disease in Nanning railway bureau from 2000 to 2010. RESULTS 9 notifiable diseases (4 021 cases in total) were reported in Nanning railway bureau from 2000 to 2010, and the average annual incidence rate was 355.37/105. A decreased trend was found (x2 = 2.76, P< 0.01). Respiratory infections, blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections, diarrhea diseases, natural focal and vector-bore infectious morbidity were respectively reported for 163 cases, 1 804 cases, 575 cases and 1 cases, and the average annual incidence rates were respectively 144.56/105, 159.79/105, 50.93/105 and 0.09/103, respectively; The top 5 highest rates of infectious diseases were tuberculosis, hepatitis, bacillary dysentery, syphilis, and gonorrhea, and the average annual incidence rate was 144.12/103, 116.13/105, 36.23/105, 27.19/105 and 21.70/105. CONCLUSION The morbidity of notifiable diseases showed a downward trend in the railway workers; but the structure of notifiable diseases is changing. Therefore, the strategy of prevention and control for notifiable diseases in railway workers need to adjust.%目的 分析铁路职工甲乙类传染病的流行趋势,为铁路传染病防治提供科学依据.方法 对2000~2010年间南宁铁路局职工甲乙类传染病资料进行分析.结果 2000~2010年间南宁铁路局职工甲乙类传染病累计报告9种4012例,年平均发病率355.37/10万,总体呈下降趋势(x2=2.76,P<0.01);呼吸道传染病、血源及性传播传染病、肠道传染病、虫媒及自然疫源性传染病分别报告1632例、1804例、575例、1例,年均发病率分别为144.56/10万、159.79/10万、50.93/10万、0.09/10万;报告发病率前5位为肺结核、病毒性肝炎、梅毒、痢疾、淋病,年均发病率分别为144.12/10万、116.13/10万、36.23/10万、21.70/10

  5. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in workers of high risk occupation in Mazandaran province – Iran 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Babamahmoodi1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 14 July, 2009 ; Accepted 23 December, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Leptospirosis (also known as Weil's disease, 7-day fever and many more is a bacterial zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira that affects humans and a wide range of animals, including mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. It was first described by Adolf Weil in 1886 when he reported an "acute infectious disease with enlargement of spleen, jaundice and nephritis". Leptospira was first observed in 1907 from a post mortem renal tissue slice. It is recognized as the world's most common zoonoses. This disease continues to have a major impact on people living in urban and rural areas of developing countries with inestimable morbidity and mortality. The disease is an occupational hazard.People in Mazandaran province in the North of Iran, are mostly involved in agricultural fields or animal husbandry and leptospirosis is common in this area. In this study we tried to find seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in workers that were involved in 5 group of high risk jobs (farmers, mine workers, abattoir workers, animal farm workers, anglers.Materials and methods: This is a descriptive case- series study. Our target population was 500 people that were involved in one of fore-mentioned high risk occupations for leptospirosis, 100 of each one, selected them by cluster sampling. They were screened for the presence of serum Leptospira immunoglobulin G. IgG was tested with a commercially available immuno florescent assay (IFA method.Results: Serologic study showed that 29.5% of farmers, 18% of fishers, 12.5% of mine workers, 6% of animal farm workers and 4% of abattoir workers were positive (IFA ≥ 1/10.Conclusion: Our data emphasize the importance of occupational exposure to leptospirosis among people who have exposure with infected water or soil in Northern Province Mazandaran-Iran. Thus, it is clear that contact with water and soil are risk factors of

  6. What makes workers happy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.H.; Wielers, R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article answers the question what makes workers happy? It does so by combining insights from micro-economics, sociology and psychology. Basis is the standard utility function of a worker that includes income and hours of work and is elaborated with job characteristics. In this way it is possibl

  7. Assessment of cardiometabolic risk among shift workers in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermendy György

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2% or in public services (23.9%. Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activity. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for measuring laboratory parameters. Data from shift workers (n = 234, age: 43.9 ± 8.1 years were compared to those of daytime workers (n = 247, age: 42.8 ± 8.5 years, men and women were analyzed separately. Results In men, systolic blood pressure was higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers (133 ± 8 vs 126 ± 17 mmHg; p vs 67.7 ± 13.2 kg; p vs 13.4%; p vs 21.7%; p vs 1.68 ± 0.36 mmol/l; p Conclusion Middle-aged active shift workers, especially women, have a less healthy lifestyle and are at higher cardiometabolic risk as compared to daytime workers. Our study highlights the importance of measures for identifying and preventing cardiometabolic risk factors in shift workers.

  8. NETWORKS AND INTERMEDIARIES IN SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL LABOR MARKETS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Kusadokoro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In casual labor markets, intermediaries are used in order to match employers and employees. This function is especially important when the market is imperfect and employers and employees have not formed solid networks. This paper investigates the network effects and the role of intermediaries in the seasonal agricultural labor market in the irrigated area of Adana, Turkey. The network of rural households is divided into one composed mainly of farmers and one composed mainly of seasonal agricultural workers. Our regression analyses show that the seasonal workers who do not have strong networks with farmers have difficulty finding jobs. Middlemen serve to mitigate the seasonal workers’ lack of a network and play a key role in the area’s seasonal agricultural labor market. At the same time, however, blood ties and territorial ties between middlemen and workers may cause middlemen to discriminate among seasonal workers based on their origins.

  9. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  10. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  11. Coal worker's lungs - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows coal worker's lungs. There are diffuse, small, light areas on both sides (1 to 3 mm) in ... the lungs. Diseases that may result in an x-ray like this include: simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - ...

  12. Epidemiology of oral diseases in individuals between the ages of 35 and 44 years:an epidemiological scenario of the worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Silva Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review epidemiological studies on oral diseases, specifically caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer, in the age group between 35 and 44 years. Methods: The strategy used to identify the articles was to search the PubMed database using the following key words: dental health surveys, epidemiology, caries, periodotitis, cancer, always with Boolean operator, and without limitation of language. The exclusion criteria were as follows: articles published over 10 years ago, articles that did not deal with adults from 35 to 44 years old and articles that did not cover the issue proposed. Results: On dental caries 7.071 articles were found, from which 6.992 articles were excluded, leaving 79. In the criteria complete articles, of the 19 articles selected, 8 were coherent with the objectives of the study. On periodontal disease, 1.554 articles were found and 872 articles were excluded. After evaluating the complete articles, 6 articles were selected. With regard to the subject oral cancer, 573 articles were found and 3 articles suited the study. Conclusion: It may be considered that caries disease increases with age and that dental loss prevails in DMFT in adults. In adults the prevalence of calculus and shallow pockets prevails and the need for dentures is higher in elderly people although it is significant in adults etween the ages of 35 and 44 years. There is a higher incidence of oral cancer in men with a synergism in alcoholic smokers. During the search in the database, it was observed that the number of researches is lower among adults.

  13. Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Essa, Jumanah S.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia Jumanah S. Essa ABSTRACT Farm and industry workers are a growing population in the United States (U.S.) and are critical to the success of the agriculture industry. In 1993, the Migrant Legal Services estimated that there were 42,000 migrant and seasonal farm workers in the state of Virginia (Wilson, 1998). These workers are essential in the state's producti...

  14. Tajikistan Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Broka, Sandra; Giertz, Åsa; Christensen, Garry; Hanif, Charity; Rasmussen, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is among the most risk-prone sectors in the economies of Central Asia. Production shocks from weather, pests and diseases and adverse movements in agricultural product and input prices not only impact farmers and agri-business firms, but can also strain government finances. Some of these risks are small and localized and can be managed by producers. Others are the result of mor...

  15. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the annual analysis of the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland is to evaluate the extent of the incidence and to identify its causes as well as activities involving factors that are harmful or annoying to such an extent that they result in occupational diseases. Material and Methods: Occupational diseases reporting forms supplied to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases were used as the study material. Results: In 2014, there were 2351 cases of occupational diseases recorded, i.e., 16.5 cases per 100 thousand of employees. The most numerous categories comprised infectious or parasitic diseases (borreliosis, pneumoconiosis, voice disorders and hearing loss (in total 79.7% of cases. The main causative factors of occupational diseases were as follows: industrial dust containing free silica, tick-transmitted Borrelia spirochete, and the way the work is done, including excessive vocal effort, and noise. The highest incidence per 100 thousand workers were recorded in mining and quarrying (296, manufacturing (24.9, education (24.6, agriculture and forestry (24.2 sectors. Conclusions: Compared with the previous year, there was a slight increase in the number of cases of certified occupational diseases (6.2%, primarily due to the increased incidence of Lyme disease. The incidence of voice disorders among teachers continues to vary considerably in individual provinces (0–11.3/10 000, reflecting the use of non-uniform diagnostic and certification methods. Med Pr 2016;67(3:327–335

  16. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf;

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  17. Investigation and analysis of the sexually transmitted disease situation among 812 female sex workers%812名女性性工作者患性病情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞莺

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To understand the incidence of sexually transmitted disease (STD)among female sex workers in Wuxi city,so as to take appropriate intervention measures.Methods:Six kinds of STD testing were conducted on the 812 female sex workers adopted in Re -educational Detention Center of Wuxi in 2012,and the re-sults were statistically analyzed through the chi -square test.Results:438 (53.94%)female sex workers investi-gated had STD,including 247 cases (30.42%)of syphilis,22 cases (2.71%)of condyloma acuminate and 169 cases (20.81%)of genital tract chlamydia trachomatis infection,and 61 cases (7.51%)had 2 types of STD.No gonorrhea,genital herpes and HIV /AIDS was found.Conclusion:Since female sex workers are the main carrier of all sorts of STD,STD prevention and control and behavioral intervention targeted at such people can effectively re-duce the spread of STD by cutting off the source of infection.%目的:了解无锡市女性性工作者性病发病情况,并采取相应的干预措施。方法:对无锡市2012年收容教育所收教的812名学员进行6种性病检测,并通过卡方检验对结果进行统计分析。结果:812例收教学员入所时患性病的438例,占53.94%,其中梅毒247例,占30.42%;尖锐湿疣22例,占2.71%;生殖道沙眼衣原体感染169例,占20.81%;同时患2种性病的61例,占7.51%。检查中未发现淋病、生殖器疱疹和艾滋病。出所时梅毒和尖锐湿疣分别下降到3.45%和1.6%,169例生殖道沙眼衣原体感染者全部治愈。结论:女性性工作者是传播各种性病的主要载体,因此做好这类人群的性病防治和行为干预,切断传染源,可以有效降低性病的传播速度。

  18. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A P; Heuser, Vanina D; Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Fernanda R; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; da Silva, Juliana

    2012-12-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001) group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05). For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001). We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work. PMID:23413045

  19. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting ...

  20. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures

  1. The workers radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file gathers contributions and points of view from different actors of the workers radiation protection, included two foreign contributions making reference to Spanish and British practices. (N.C.)

  2. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  3. The Politics of Seasonal Foreign Worker Admissions to France, 1974-2010

    OpenAIRE

    PLEWA, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    In response to the economic crisis of 1973/74 the French government curbed the admissions of seasonal foreign workers. By 2010 the curbs have remained in effect, however, the number of foreign workers authorized to work in French seasonal agriculture under “exceptional circumstances” has been growing. The study inquires about the mechanisms and actors responsible for this gradual policy change. It argues that the gradual expansion of seasonal foreign worker policy admissions to Fr...

  4. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment

  5. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  6. Foreign construction workers in Singapore.

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori G

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the construction industry in Singapore. Studies the structure of the construction workforce, the terms of employment, policies towards worker, the effects of employment of foreign workers on local industry, the reducing reliance on foreign construction workers, and the future trends in Singapore's requirements for construction workers.

  7. 48-hour ambulatory electrocardiography in dynamite workers and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Hogstedt, C; Söderholm, B; Bodin, L

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sudden deaths and chronic cardiovascular diseases have been reported in excess frequency from the explosives industry. Forty-two active dynamite workers and 43 healthy, unexposed workers have been studied by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring during two 24-hour periods covering an exposed shift and the “abstinence phase,” 40-64 hours after the last exposure to dynamite. To achieve comparability the non-exposed individuals were screened for risk factors of heart disease in the...

  8. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kangmin

    2011-01-01

    The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agricu...

  9. Serious and fatal accidents in 2011 in immigrant workers: considerations on the phenomenon and preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenzi M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic events or serious injury, or death occurring to foreign nationals are mostly events of nature work, and the competence to indemnify working accidents (and occupational diseases is attributed to INAIL. An accident at work is defined as a traumatic event which occurred through the intervention of a violent cause during the work, determining a worker's personal injury identified in a temporary incapacity, permanent disability, (allowance for damage between 1 and 5%, with a lump sum payment for the damages of between 6 and 15%, with monthly income for damages equal to or greater than 16% or death. In recent years, Italy has shown a general reduction in the number of harmful events and fatalities, and this was also the case for foreign workers, but in the face of such data has highlighted the persistence of a significant number of serious multiple injuries and deaths. Objectives: To evaluate the possible additional risk factors and possible preventive measures. Methods: The present study investigated the time course of serious and fatal injuries in foreign workers from 2008 to 2011, and in more detail the events for the year 2011, taking into account the business sector, the methods of the event, the spatial distribution and the nationality of the workers, examining the data obtained from the Annual Reports INAIL . For the serious injury is highlighted a progressive decrease in foreign workers during the years 2008 to 2011, in industry and services and, to a lesser extent, in agriculture. Data on fatalities instead show a substantial stability in the number of them, both in percentage and in numerical values. Discussion: It's possible that the factors that contribute to an increased risk of serious and fatal events in foreign workers can be: the imperfect knowledge of the Italian language, the lack of specific training in relation to occupational hazards, the irregularity and uncertainty that often characterizes their work

  10. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

  11. Pesticide exposure and depression among agricultural workers in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Marc ,; Moisan, Frédéric; Tzourio, Christophe; Rathouz, Paul ,; Elbaz, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are ubiquitous neurotoxicants, and several lines of evidence suggest that exposure may be associated with depression. Epidemiologic evidence has focused largely on organophosphate exposures, while research on other pesticides is limited. We collected detailed pesticide use history from farmers recruited in 1998-2000 in France. Among 567 farmers aged 37-78 years, 83 (14.6%) self-reported treatment or hospitalization for depression. On the basis of the reported age at the first such ...

  12. Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Respiratory Health among Adolescent Agricultural Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Callahan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos (CPF is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP. In adults, exposure to OPs has been inconsistently associated with reduced lung function. OP exposure and lung function has not been assessed in adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess CPF exposure and lung function among Egyptian adolescents. We conducted a 10-month study of male adolescent pesticide applicators (n = 38 and non-applicators of similar age (n = 24. Urinary 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TPCy, a CPF-specific metabolite, was analyzed in specimens collected throughout the study. Spirometry was performed twice after pesticide application: day 146, when TCPy levels were elevated and day 269, when TCPy levels were near baseline. Applicators had higher levels of TCPy (mean cumulative TCPy day 146 = 33,217.6; standard deviation (SD = 49,179.3 than non-applicators (mean cumulative TCPy day 146 = 3290.8; SD = 3994.9. Compared with non-applicators, applicators had higher odds of reporting wheeze, odds ratio = 3.41 (95% CI: 0.70; 17.41. Cumulative urinary TCPy was inversely associated with spirometric measurements at day 146, but not at day 269. Although generally non-significant, results were consistent with an inverse association between exposure to CPF and lung function.

  13. Case series of keratitis in poultry abattoir workers induced by exposure to the ultraviolet disinfection lamp

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Do-Hyeong; Moon, Jai-Dong; Park, Won-Ju; Kang, Won-Yang; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Lim, Hyeong-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sung; Chae, Hong-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background An outbreak of eye diseases occurred among workers at a poultry abattoir in South Korea from December 2012 to June 2013. An epidemiological investigation of the causative agent was conducted. The workers were given a special health examination and workplace environmental monitoring was performed. Workers with ocular symptoms subsequently underwent an ophthalmic examination. Case Presentaion From a total of 41 workers, 26 (63.4 %) were diagnosed with keratoepitheliopathy by ophthalm...

  14. Morbidity Profile of Stone Crusher Workers with Special Reference to Respiratory Morbidity: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Narkhede Vinod, Likhar Swarna, Mishra Mahesh K

    2012-01-01

    Background: The occupational environment at the stone crushing sites poses a potential health hazard to the workers. Exposure to heavy dust concentration from stone crushers, may produce several diseases. Methods: The present study was aimed to assess the morbidity profile of workers working in stone crusher industry. A cross-sectional study was carried out among the workers of the stone crushers located in Ratua at a distance of 23 km to the north of Bhopal city. The total workers working in...

  15. Sustainable Agriculture: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Provides some background on concerns about the sustainability of agriculture, outlines and discusses views about what constitutes sustainable agriculture and contrasts the sustainability of modern industrialised agriculture with that of traditional agriculture. Then the question is considered (taking into account the available evidence) whether organic agriculture is more sustainable than non-organic agriculture. Barriers to switching from non-organic to organic agriculture are mentioned. The...

  16. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease. PMID:26523746

  17. Agriculture and growth nexus in Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhari Sillah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a major engine for the economic well-being of the Gambia. The successive governments from the colonial periods to the present have all recognized this importance of the agricultural sector but failed to do something that bear any fruit since government encouraged slash and burn technology and putting increasingly more people onto the land instead of increasing the yields per acre. More people than before do remain still on the land, but they are now poorer than their forefathers. Using autoregressive and vector error correction techniques to examine the growth-agriculture relation in the Gambia for the period from 1966 to 2009, it is found that the capital per worker is a significant and relevant factor input for the economic growth. The agricultural labor per acre is found to be irrelevant in both the short run and the long run analyses. The agricultural productivity measured as crop yields per acre is the most important variable for the economic growth in the Gambia. It boosts both the economic growth and the capital formation in the country. The agricultural policies should be focused on increasing the crop yields per acre not having more people back to the land. The processing, services and small manufacturing sectors should be developed and built into the agricultural policies in order to create redeployments for the agricultural labor surpluses.

  18. Evolution of worker policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-06-21

    Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. PMID:26976051

  19. Migration of health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695

  20. Low vaccination coverage for seasonal influenza and pneumococcal disease among adults at-risk and health care workers in Ireland, 2013: The key role of GPs in recommending vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Coralie; Mereckiene, Jolita; Danis, Kostas; O'Donnell, Joan; O'Flanagan, Darina; Cotter, Suzanne

    2016-07-12

    The World Health Organization (WHO), and European Agencies recommend influenza vaccination for individuals at-risk due to age (≥65 years), underlying diseases, pregnancy and for health care workers (HCWs) in Europe. Pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for those at-risk of pneumococcal disease. In Ireland, vaccination uptake among at-risk adults is not routinely available. In 2013, we conducted a national survey among Irish residents ≥18 years of age, to estimate size and vaccination coverage of at-risk groups, and identify predictive factors for influenza vaccination. We used computer assisted telephone interviews to collect self-reported information on health, vaccination status, attitudes towards vaccination. We calculated prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR) using binomial regression. Overall, 1770 individuals participated. For influenza, among those aged 18-64 years, 22% (325/1485) [95%CI: 17%-20%] were at-risk; 28% [95%CI: 23%-33%] were vaccinated. Among those aged ≥65 years, 60% [95%CI: 54%-66%] were vaccinated. Influenza vaccine uptake among HCWs was 28% [95%CI: 21%-35%]. For pneumococcal disease, among those aged 18-64 years, 18% [95%CI: 16%-20%] were at-risk; 16% [95%CI: 12%-21%] reported ever-vaccination; among those aged ≥65 years, 36% [95%CI: 30%-42%] reported ever-vaccination. Main reasons for not receiving influenza vaccine were perceptions of not being at-risk, or not thinking of it; and among HCWs thinking that vaccination was not necessary or they were not at-risk. At-risk individuals were more likely to be vaccinated if their doctor had recommended it (PR 3.2; [95%CI: 2.4%-4.4%]) or they had access to free medical care or free vaccination services (PR 2.0; [95%CI: 1.5%-2.8%]). Vaccination coverage for both influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in at-risk individuals aged 18-64 years was very low. Influenza vaccination coverage among individuals ≥65 years was moderate. Influenza vaccination status was associated with GP vaccination

  1. Community Health Workers as Support for Sickle Cell Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lewis L; Green, Nancy S; Donnell Ivy, E; Neunert, Cindy E; Smaldone, Arlene; Johnson, Shirley; Castillo, Sheila; Castillo, Amparo; Thompson, Trevor; Hampton, Kisha; Strouse, John J; Stewart, Rosalyn; Hughes, TaLana; Banks, Sonja; Smith-Whitley, Kim; King, Allison; Brown, Mary; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Smith, Wally R; Martin, Molly

    2016-07-01

    Community health workers are increasingly recognized as useful for improving health care and health outcomes for a variety of chronic conditions. Community health workers can provide social support, navigation of health systems and resources, and lay counseling. Social and cultural alignment of community health workers with the population they serve is an important aspect of community health worker intervention. Although community health worker interventions have been shown to improve patient-centered outcomes in underserved communities, these interventions have not been evaluated with sickle cell disease. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that community health worker intervention also would be effective for these patients. Sickle cell disease is complex, with a range of barriers to multifaceted care needs at the individual, family/friend, clinical organization, and community levels. Care delivery is complicated by disparities in health care: access, delivery, services, and cultural mismatches between providers and families. Current practices inadequately address or provide incomplete control of symptoms, especially pain, resulting in decreased quality of life and high medical expense. The authors propose that care and care outcomes for people with sickle cell disease could be improved through community health worker case management, social support, and health system navigation. This paper outlines implementation strategies in current use to test community health workers for sickle cell disease management in a variety of settings. National medical and advocacy efforts to develop the community health workforce for sickle cell disease management may enhance the progress and development of "best practices" for this area of community-based care. PMID:27320471

  2. Crop protection in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letourneau, D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe pests and diseases and their management in organic versus conventional agriculture. Also two case studies are described: 1. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional cereal crops in Europe and 2. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional tomat

  3. Agriculture and mining in the Beira Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    The Beira Corridor of Mozambique is a natural transport corridor between the coast and neighbouring inland countries in the region. It is rich in resources, with very large reserves of coal and agricultural land. More than half (60%) of the Tete region in the corridor is reserved for mining, with two large international companies already operating there. These are expected to develop road, rail and ports in the region, besides employing thousands of workers, though that number will drop consi...

  4. Animal or Plant Disease, Gypsy Moth spray blocks, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Animal or Plant Disease dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  5. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition of...... human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should not...... stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases. The...

  6. Training "Expendable" Workers: Temporary Foreign Workers in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…

  7. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  8. Healthy radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study of health records of the workforce at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), has shown that radiation workers have lower mortality rates from all causes and from all cancers than the general population. The Lucas Heights data cover more than 7000 past and present employees, from 1957-1998. This study was part of a research programme being carried out in conjunction with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in France and its results add to the much larger pool of data already held by IARC. This finding of the Australian study is similar to the findings of epidemiological studies of the health of workers who have been exposed to low levels of ionising radiation in the course of their occupations elsewhere in the world, and has often been explained as the healthy worker effect. According to this argument, it is reasonable to expect that any group of workers should be more healthy than an average group (with the same age and sex distribution) from the general population. After all, they must at least be healthy enough to get out of bed regularly and go to work. The purpose of the present paper is to ask whether this is the whole story

  9. WORKERS FINDING A VOICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The recent cases of U.S. fast-food giants McDonald’s and KFC, accused of underpaying and exploiting part-time workers in their Chinese branches, have put labor relations under the spotlight. With deepening market-oriented economic reforms and an increasi

  10. Radiation protection of workers

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Shengli

    2011-01-01

    Provides information about the size of the workforce affected by, and the occupational activities associated with, exposure to radiation and the relevant ILO instruments on the protection of workers. Mentions the ILO Convention on Radiation Protection, 1960 (No. 115), and its accompanying Recommendation (No. 114).

  11. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  12. Developmental Status Quo and Trends of Low-carbon Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming; CAO; Xiaohua; PAN; Maobai; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon emission in agricultural production,this paper has discussed the developmental trends of low-carbon agriculture in terms of developing precision agriculture,improving the efficiency of fertilizer utilization,scientific use of pesticides,water-saving irrigation,ecological control of pests and diseases,as well as energy conservation and emission reduction by agricultural machinery and other agricultural practices.

  13. [Occupational and non-occupational factors influencing health state of small and medium business workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasikov, R M; Khuzhakhmetova, I B; Stepanov, E G

    2010-01-01

    Complex study of work conditions and health parameters of workers engaged into small and medium business proved that preserved and better health of these workers, prevention of occupational and occupationally mediated diseases necessitate federal and regional complex system of measures including legal basis, database on work conditions and their influence on small and medium business workers' health, occupational medicine training for employers and employees, more active involvement of medical institutioins into screening for occupational diseases. PMID:20734853

  14. Another Look at Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, R.

    1986-01-01

    Women now comprise 30 percent of trade union membership worldwide. The International Labour Organisation's Workers' Education Branch is attempting to improve the status of women workers and increase their participation in union activities and labor education. (SK)

  15. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  16. Nuclear worker and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on medical X-ray exposure sheds light on the health effects expected for workers exposed to ionizing radiation. Factual information confirming this relationship and also demonstrating the need for reviewing permissible exposure levels for workers is given. Suggestions for more sophisticated health monitoring of workers exposed to hazardous technologies are made, and the question of occupational hazards which threaten the worker's family is raised

  17. Latex Allergy In Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: We aimed to determine the frequency of latex allergy in our hospital and to to evaluate the clinical and demographical features of the cases.Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire was administered to healthcare workers by a physician. Skin prick test with latex and patch test with rubber chemicals and a piece of latex glove were performed for all healthcare workers. Latex-specific IgE was measured in serum.Results: The study sample consisted of 36 nurses, 14 doctors, and 50 healthcare workers. While 46 subjects had symptoms, 54 subjects had no symptoms. The relationship of clinical disease with working duration, exposure duration (hour/day, history of atopy, and drug/food allergies was statistically significant. Five nurses and 1 healthcare worker had positive skin prick test. Two of them had positive latex-specific IgE. Positive skin prick test statistically significantly correlated with occupation, working duration, exposure duration (hour/day and positive latex-specific IgE. Two nurses and 2 healthcare workers had positive latex-specific IgE. Two of them had positive skin prick test. Positive latexspecific IgE statistically significantly correlated with working duration, exposure duration, and positive skin prick test. Patch test with a piece of latex glove was negative in all subjects. Three healthcare workers had positive patch test with thiuram-mix, one of them had also positive patch test with mercaptobenzothiazole.Discussion: One of the risk factors for latex allergy is occupations involving frequent exposure to latex products. Latex allergy should be taken into consideration if type I hypersensitivity reactions occur in occupational groups at risk for anaphylactic reaction.

  18. [Cervicobrachial occupational diseases in office workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läubli, T; Nakaseko, M; Hünting, W

    1980-12-01

    A comparison of Japanese and Swiss studies on keyboard operators in office work shows that objective and subjective symptoms of injuries in muscles and tendons of te cervicobrachial region are frequent in both countries. It is possible to demonstrate a clear relation between workplace dimensions, postures and impairments. We agree with the Japanese view, that the localised symptoms should be considered as a syndrome of Occupational Cervicobrachial Disorder. PMID:7245935

  19. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  20. Agriculture and Child Under-Nutrition in India: A State Level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Swarna Sadasivam Vepa; Vinodhini Umashankar; R.V. Bhavani; Rohit Parasar

    2014-01-01

    The literature review on agriculture-child nutrition linkage indicates that the evidence base is weak and inconclusive (Kadiyala et al., 2013). This paper explores the possible linkages between agricultural prosperity with rural child nutrition at the macro level, controlling for sanitation and safe drinking water, using panel data fixed effects and random effects models. The four alternate indicators of agricultural prosperity viz., agricultural growth, worker productivity, land productivity...

  1. Work-related health problems among resident immigrant workers in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Rosano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in both Spain and Italy the number of immigrants has strongly increased in the last 20 years, currently representing more than the 10% of workforce in each country. The segregation of immigrants into unskilled or risky jobs brings negative consequences for their health. The objective of this study is to compare prevalence of work-related health problems between immigrants and native workers in Italy and Spain.

    Methods: data come from the Italian Labour Force Survey (n=65 779 and Spanish Working Conditions Survey (n=11 019, both conducted in 2007. We analyzed merged datasets to evaluate whether interviewees, both natives and migrants, judge their health being affected by their work conditions and, if so, which specific diseases. For migrants, we considered those coming from countries with a value of the Human Development Index lower than 0.85. Logistic regression models were used, including gender, age, and education as adjusting factors.

    Results: migrants reported skin diseases (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.49; 95%CI: 0.59-3.74 and musculoskeletal problems among those employed in agricultural sector (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.16; 95%CI: 0.69-1.96 more frequently than natives; country-specific analysis showed higher risks of musculoskeletal problems among migrants compared to the non-migrant population in Italy (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 0.48-1.59 and of respiratory problems in Spain (OR=2.02; 95%CI: 1.02-4.0. In both countries the risk of psychological stress was predominant among national workers.

    Conclusions: this collaborative study allows to strength the evidence concerning the health of migrant workers in Southern European countries.

  2. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, John D.

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  3. Accidents with biological material in workers

    OpenAIRE

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante; Elisângela Franco de Oliveira Cavalcante; Maria Lúcia Azevedo Ferreira de Macêdo; Eliane Cavalcante dos Santos; Soraya Maria de Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170) accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%). The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent ...

  4. Migrant domestic workers: good workers, poor slaves, new connections

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, B

    2015-01-01

    In public debates support for migrants' rights has generally taken two approaches: the migrant as “Good Worker” or the migrant as “Poor Slave”. This paper will constructively critique these approaches by considering the case of a U.K. campaign demanding a specific visa for migrant domestic workers and how they drew on the Good Worker/Poor Slave. It describes the campaign's initial focus on domestic workers as workers and how this required demanding special rights as migrant workers on the bas...

  5. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour of...

  6. The force of irony: studying the everyday life of tomato workers in Western Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, G.

    1994-01-01

    For many years sociological literature on agricultural labourers has largely focused on how surplus value is generated and extracted by both direct and indirect means in the agricultural labour process. However this perspective overlooks the ways in which agricultural workers are important protagonists in the creation and transformation of their own living and working conditions. Labourers appear as subordinate beings, subject to company regimes that operate under formal and informal regulato...

  7. Eye pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs have become the most significant pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers during the last four years. The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of eye disorders among Chernobyl clean-up workers to provide more information for health specialists. During the last 10 years, the most common eye pathology has been angiopathia retinae, followed by myopia and cataracta. Statistical analyses showed that the clean-up workers have higher risk to develop angiopathia retinae than the control group. (author)

  8. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia: Wage premiums and segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Peter Gibbon

    2014-01-01

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers. This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous sw...

  9. Effects of the Great Recession on the U.S. Agricultural Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Maoyong; Pena, Anita Alves; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Recessions typically lead to excess supply in non agricultural labor markets. However, a major recession, like the Great Recession, has different effects in the seasonal agriculture labor market. During such recession, hourly earnings of workers, the probability that workers receive bonuses, and employed workers’ weekly hours rise. These results are consistent with a large reduction in immigrant labor supply during a major recession. Direct and indirect evidence on immigration supports this c...

  10. Doenças do sistema osteomuscular em trabalhadores de enfermagem Enfermedades del sistema osteomuscular en trabajadores de enfermería Diseases of the osteomuscular system in nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Tiemi Murofuse

    2005-06-01

    registros médicos, con base en un guión elaborado por los autores. Los diagnósticos fueron agrupados según la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-10 y comparados con la lista de enfermedades relacionadas al trabajo del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil. El programa estadístico SPSS fue utilizado en el análisis de los datos. El 11,83% (718 de las 6070 atenciones realizadas presentaron diagnósticos de problemas relacionados al sistema osteomuscular, involucrando diversas estructuras corporales como la columna vertebral, miembros superiores e inferiores. Las enfermedades consideradas legalmente como enfermedades del trabajo relacionadas al sistema músculo-esquelético fueron identificadas en 255 (35% atenciones, destacándose las dorsalgias (20% y las sinovitis y tenosinovitis (13,7% agrupadas como LER-DORT. Se concluye que mayor atención deba ser dirigida a las posturas adoptadas por los trabajadores en la ejecución de las actividades laborales y a las condiciones de los muebles. También se hace necesario disponibilizar instrumentos y equipamientos ergonómicamente diseñados con vistas a disminuir la incidencia de los problemas osteomusculares.This descriptive and retrospective research was realized at the Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, and aimed to analyze health problems related to the osteomuscular system in nursing workers of 23 health institutions, who are attended by the Occupational Health Care Division in 2002. Data were collected from the care service maps and from the medical records, on the basis of a script elaborated by the authors. The diagnoses were grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases CID-10 - 10th Review and compared to the Brazilian Health Ministry's list of work-related diseases. The statistical program SPSS was used for data analysis. 11.83% (718 of the 6070 care sessions were diagnosed as osteomuscular problems, involving various body structures such as the spine, upper and lower

  11. Overview of Mosquito Research Programs at the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), a U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service laboratory, was established in World War II to produce products to protect military personnel against insect vector of disease. Currently the mission of CMAVE is ...

  12. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Graeme R; Hoy, Ryan F; Silverstone, Elizabeth J; Brims, Fraser J; Miles, Susan; Johnson, Anthony R; Gibson, Peter G; Yates, Deborah H

    2016-06-20

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an untreatable but preventable lung disease arising from chronic inhalation of coal dust. Recent reports of CWP in Queensland, along with international data, suggest that there is a resurgence in pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of CWP varies considerably between countries. In Australia, there is no mandatory reporting system and no national data on the prevalence of CWP. The symptoms and manifestations of CWP vary depending on the composition of the inhaled dust, duration of exposure, stage of disease and host-related factors. CWP may develop into progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), which can be fatal. Radiological assessment should be performed according to evidence-based standards using the ILO (International Labour Office) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses. As preventing exposure to coal dust prevents CWP, it is important to implement and enforce appropriate standards limiting exposure. In Australia, these standards currently vary between states and are not in keeping with international understanding of the levels of coal dust that cause disease. Longitudinal screening programs are crucial for monitoring the health of coal workers to identify individuals with early-stage disease and prevent progression from mild disease to PMF. We recommend: standardisation of coal dust exposure limits, with harmonisation to international regulations; implementation of a national screening program for at-risk workers, with use of standardised questionnaires, imaging and lung function testing; development of appropriate training materials to assist general practitioners in identifying pneumoconiosis; and a system of mandatory reporting of CWP to a centralised occupational lung disease register. PMID:27318401

  13. Food, soil, and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing pressures on the world's land resources will result in problems requiring a major research effort.The first group of problems relates to increased soil degradation. The research to alleviate this will have to incorporate not only physical and biological solutions, but also pay much more attention to the socio-economic context in which the conservation programmes need to succeed.The second major area for research on land resource is to make better use of low-capacity or problem soils.This could be by reducing the existing limitations, such as changing physical or chemical characteristics of the soil, or by developing plants and production techniques which reduce the detrimental effects of constraints. Example of these are acidity, salinity, and aluminium toxicity. Finally the broadest and more important area is that of research to enable more intensive use of better-quality land. Research topics here may relate to optimal plant nutrient management, soil moisture management, and developing cultivation techniques with minimum commercial energy requirements. Making plants more productive will involve research aimed at increasing photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, disease and pest resistance, improved weed control, and bio-engineering to adjust plant types to maximize production potentials. Improved rotational systems for the achievement of many of the above goals will become increasingly important, as the potential problems or inappropriate cultivation practices become evident. In conclusion, food supplies of the world could meet the rapidly rising demands that are made on them, if agriculture receives sufficient attention and resources. Even with most modern development, land remains the base for agriculture, and optimal use of the world's land resources is thus crucial for future agricultural production

  14. Advanced Worker Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs

  15. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find that the...... increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability of...

  16. Returns to labour in developing country agriculture: India.

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaraman I

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, rural employment policy research programme on agricultural income in India - examines wages of agricultural workers and farmer household income; analyses rural area labour force participation incl. Rural women, land tenure, consumer expenditure, etc.; covers wage determination, labour market segmentation, labour productivity by farm size, Terms of Trade, etc.; finds long term erosion of real earnings of hired labour. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  17. Moving out of Agriculture: Structural Change in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Brian McCaig; Nina Pavcnik

    2013-01-01

    We examine the role of structural change in the economic development of Vietnam from 1990 to 2008. Structural change accounted for a third of the growth in aggregate labor productivity during this period, which averaged 5.1 percent per annum. We discuss the role of reforms in agriculture, enterprises, and international integration in this process. In addition to the drastic move of employment away from agriculture toward services and manufacturing, we also document the movement of workers awa...

  18. Pneumoconiosis from Agricultural Dust Exposure among Young California Farmworkers

    OpenAIRE

    Schenker, Marc B.; Pinkerton, Kent E; Mitchell, Diane; Vallyathan, Val; Elvine-Kreis, Brenda; Green, Francis H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Agricultural workers are exposed to airborne pollutants, including organic and inorganic (mineral) dusts. Objectives Lung autopsy specimens from consecutive coroner’s cases of Hispanic males in Fresno County, California, (n = 112) were obtained to determine whether mineral dust exposure in agricultural work leads to pneumoconiosis. Methods The left lung was fixed by inflation. We evaluated airway and parenchymal pathology using standardized diagnostic criteria and semiquantitative ...

  19. Worker Flows in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Louise

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates worker flows in Russia. Information onelapsed durationsof job tenure from the 1994-1996 Russian Longitudinal MonitoringSurvey (RLMS)and fromretrospective work history responses to the Institute for LaborRelationsResearch (ISITO) 1998 household survey is used. Competing risksmodels fordurations of job tenure with multiple destination states areestimated. Patternsof transitions between sectors and to non-employment are identifiedfordifferent demographic groups. Rates of ...

  20. Worker Injury Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira-Diaz, Carlos A.; Torres-Zapata, Alma; Nanovic, Christopher A.; Abraham, Dulcy M.

    2009-01-01

    As the trend of increased highway construction and/or rehabilitation continues to grow, the public often demands that delays in work zones be kept to a minimum. Thus, the flow of traffic through the construction zone must be maintained while performing pavement maintenance/ repair/ reconstruction activities. At the same time, the safety of personnel and property in highway construction work zones must be ensured. Three types of risks are encountered by construction and maintenance workers in ...

  1. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  2. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  3. Transforming Vietnamese Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, Vietnam’s agricultural sector has made enormous progress. Vietnam’s performance in terms of agricultural yields, output, and exports, however, has been more impressive than its gains in efficiency, farmer welfare, and product quality. Vietnamese agriculture now sits at a turning point. The agricultural sector now faces growing domestic competition - from cities, ...

  4. Daily practices of health among sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elouyse Fernandes Leitão

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.

  5. DISSEMINATING AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION THROUGH THE INTERNET: INDONESIAN CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY AND TECHNOLOGY DISSEMINATION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Winarko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian Center for Library and Technology Dissemination (ICALTD has a duty to disseminate agricultural information to researchers, extension workers, academicians, and other general users. Previously, the dissemination was based on printed publications. However, along with the penetration and development of the internet, the method of dissemination has changed to ITC-based dissemination. CD/VCD and internet technology application plays an important role in ICALTD’s dissemination of agricultural information. The involvement of internet technology in the dissemination of agricultural information ranges from purchasing online electronic journals for the main library collection to electronic-based processing and internet-based services. Efforts to educate stakeholders, such as administrators, content providers, and users, are carried out to ensure the successful dissemination of agricultural information.

  6. Cataract incidence in the cohort of occupationally exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bragin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cataract incidence in the cohort of workers occupationally exposed to prolonged radiation. Material and Methods: Cataract incidence was studied in the cohort of workers of the first Russian nuclear enterprise — the Mayak, who were firstly employed at one of the main facilities (reactors, radiochemical and plutonium production plants in 1948‑1958 and followed up to the end of 2008 (12210 persons. Total of 3100 cataract cases were registered in the study cohort. All cataract cases were reviewed and verified by experts; the study included only confirmed senile cataracts. All workers of the study cohort were exposed to external gamma-rays; mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays was 0.91±0.01 Gy in males and 0.65±0.01 Gy in females. Statistical analysis provided non-standardized and standardized incidence rates per 100 000 workers. Standardization by sex and age was performed by indirect method using internal reference.Results: 2523 cases of senile cataract were included in the study. Mean age of cataract diagnosis was 62.88±0.26 years in males and 64.88±0.28 years in females. Standardized incidence rates of cataract in females were significantly higher as compared to males and increased with workers age. Comparison between the subcohorts of workers with / without diagnosed cataracts demonstrated that among workers with cataracts the proportions of the following groups of workers were significantly higher: workers employed before 1954; workers employed at reactors; smoking workers; workers with the smoking index exceeding 20 pack*years; workers who consumed alcohol; workers with excessive body weight; workers with glaucoma and arterial hypertension. Moreover the mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays and / or neutron exposure was significantly higher in the subcohort of workers diagnosed with cataracts than that in the subcohort of workers free of the disease. The highest cataract incidence

  7. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a modification of a standardfour input production process where energy is used in an inefficient way due topartly unnecessary waste of energy. The changes in production efficiencyinvestigated using stochastic frontier methods, show declining technicalefficiency in livestock production and especially low marginal contribution oflabor inputs. The number of workers, size of farm, and distance from nearestcity are related to efficiency in agricultural production. It is well known thatresults from an environmental policy in response to global climate change arequite sensitive to the assumption on the rate of energy efficiency improvements.However, technical progress is traditionally considered as a non-economicvariable in economic policy models. It is exogenous in most policy evaluationsas well as in the theory of environmental economics.

  8. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  9. Netherlands : employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    There is no clear national definition of a chronic disease in a work situation in the Netherlands. Questionnaire data shows that between 25% and 30% of all workers are affected by a chronic disease. Worker with a chronic disease have slightly different working conditions as compared to workers witho

  10. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170 accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%. The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent occurrence and the circumstances of the accidents were related to the handling of sharps and the most common organic material was blood (63.5%. More than 50% of the workers were vaccinated against hepatitis B, but without information regarding the evaluation of vaccine response. The study revealed the need of improvement in the quality of the information, once the sub-entries and inconsistencies make the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System less trustworthy in the characterization of the affected workers.

  11. Toward malaysian sustainable agriculture in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system

  12. Toward malaysian sustainable agriculture in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramnia, K.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Rahim, A. Abdul; Mansor, S.

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system.

  13. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  14. Shifted T-cell polarisation after agricultural dust exposure in mice and men

    OpenAIRE

    Robbe, P; Spierenburg, E. A. J.; Draijer, C.; Brandsma, C.A.; Telenga, E.; van Oosterhout, A.J.M.; Van Den Berge, M; Luinge, M.; Melgert, B.N.; Heederik, D; Timens, W.; Wouters, I.M.; Hylkema, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: A low prevalence of asthma and atopy has been shown in farmers and agricultural workers. However, in these workers, a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms has been reported, in which T helper 1 (Th1) and/or Th17 responses may play a role. AIM: We investigated the effect of exposure to dust extracts (DEs) from different farms on airway inflammation and T-cell polarisation in a mouse model and assessed T-cell polarisation in agricultural workers from the same farms. METHODS: DEs...

  15. Radiological worker training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance

  16. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  17. Agricultural disease and insect-pest control via agro-ecological landscape construction%以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段美春; 刘云慧; 张鑫; 曾为刚; 宇振荣

    2012-01-01

    Chemical pesticides for controlling plant diseases and insect-pests in farmlands cause a series of serious problems including residue effects, environmental pollution, etc. Bio-pesticides and bio-controls are, on the other hand, slowly effective, high cost, and, always with certain targets. Integrated, high-efficient and environment-friendly disease and insect-pest control measures are in increasing demand today. Landscape ecological research has shown that the populations of pathogenic bacteria, pests and their natural enemies are largely affected by landscape patterns. This has provided a new insight into plant disease and insect-pest control. Rational planning of agro-landscape patterns at landscape scale and reasonable arrangement of planting structures and farming activities constituted a beneficial control of agricultural diseases and insect-pests in farmlands. This paper discussed control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests from the point of view of agro-landscape at the landscape, field and farm management levels. At the landscape level, control measures of plant diseases and insect-pests included increasing area portions of semi-natural habitats, enriching semi-natural and farm crop habitats and enhancing heterogeneity of landscape structures. It was also necessary to keep the degree of connections among landscapes so as to maintain a balanced migration of natural enemies and prevention of the spread of plant diseases and insect-pests. Low-quality semi-natural habitat plaques also needed to be unproved. At the field level, original farmland boundaries needed to be preserved. Also building of new farmland buffers were needed to control plant diseases and insect-pests in adjacent farmlands. Constructed farmland buffers needed to be integrated into original semi-natural habitat and farmland boundaries. Furthermore, it was important that farmland buffers were rationally configured for plant species, weeding,fertilization, spray pesticide and

  18. Restaurant manager and worker food safety certification and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura G; Le, Brenda; Wong, Melissa R; Reimann, David; Nicholas, David; Faw, Brenda; Davis, Ernestine; Selman, Carol A

    2014-11-01

    Over half of foodborne illness outbreaks occur in restaurants. To combat these outbreaks, many public health agencies require food safety certification for restaurant managers, and sometimes workers. Certification entails passing a food safety knowledge examination, which is typically preceded by food safety training. Current certification efforts are based on the assumption that certification leads to greater food safety knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted this study to examine the relationship between food safety knowledge and certification. We also examined the relationships between food safety knowledge and restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics. We interviewed managers (N=387) and workers (N=365) about their characteristics and assessed their food safety knowledge. Analyses showed that certified managers and workers had greater food safety knowledge than noncertified managers and workers. Additionally, managers and workers whose primary language was English had greater food safety knowledge than those whose primary language was not English. Other factors associated with greater food safety knowledge included working in a chain restaurant, working in a larger restaurant, having more experience, and having more duties. These findings indicate that certification improves food safety knowledge, and that complex relationships exist among restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics and food safety knowledge. PMID:25361386

  19. The work ability index and functional capacity among older workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire S. Padula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlates of physical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI. METHOD: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old. The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices, the WAI, and a battery of physical functional tests. RESULTS: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237. Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004. The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests of physical functional capacity in the aging group.

  20. China's Migrant Workers' Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sifeng; Zhang Wenxue; Wang Lijian; Zhang Li

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of migrant workers and migrant workers'social security,systems,policies and regulations and status quo of specific safeguard project of social security have been analyzed.Authors draw following conclusions: China's social security systems of migrant workers show diversification and differentiation trend; national-level policies take on diversification and local-level regulations take on differentiation; social welfare and social assistance have deficiency; coverage rate of social insurance items is extremely low.

  1. Knowledge worker training in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, Izyani

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of countries have shifted, or are shifting, towards the knowledge-based economy. For these countries, including Malaysia, the quality of knowledge workers is extremely important in determining the pace and success of such transition. Thus, training is often carried out to improve the skills of knowledge workers at the workplace. But despite its importance, research on knowledge worker training is extremely limited. This study seeks to partially fill this gap in the litera...

  2. Worker Knowledge of Pension Provisions

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Olivia S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper evaluates the quality of workers' information regarding pension offerings using both administrative records and worker reports of pension provisions. Missing and misinformation proves to be widespread. Unionized employees, higher income workers and those in large firms, the better educated, and those with greater seniority are better informed about their pensions. There are also demographic differences: nonwhites have less pension knowledge than whites, but women are better informe...

  3. Visual status of industrial workers

    OpenAIRE

    Desai Rajiv; Desai Sanjiv; Desai Navin; Kumar K

    1990-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty four industrial workers were screened to determine their visual acuity. Significant visual impairment was observed in 21.8% individuals and moderate impairment in 34.5% of cases. Convergence insufficiency was a problem in 9.86% of the workers. Since uncorrected refractive errors are a prelude to disastrous workplace related eye injuries, it is recommended that prior to job placement all workers undergo visual acuity screening and get their refractiv...

  4. Visual status of industrial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Rajiv

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eighty four industrial workers were screened to determine their visual acuity. Significant visual impairment was observed in 21.8% individuals and moderate impairment in 34.5% of cases. Convergence insufficiency was a problem in 9.86% of the workers. Since uncorrected refractive errors are a prelude to disastrous workplace related eye injuries, it is recommended that prior to job placement all workers undergo visual acuity screening and get their refractive errors rectified.

  5. Multinational Firms and Heterogeneous Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Larch; Wolfgang Lechthaler

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of increasing specialization of workers it becomes more and more difficult for firms to find the most suitable workers. In such an environment a multinational corporation has an advantage because it can exchange workers between plants in different countries. In this way it can draw on a larger labor market pool, reducing the mismatch of its workforce. This paper analyzes the consequences of this advantage for production, employment and, most prominently, wages. We are able to ...

  6. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  7. Risk of occupational radiation-induced cataract in medical workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was determination of criteria for recognition of a pre senile cataract as a professional disease in health care personnel exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation. Method: The study included 3240 health workers in medical centers of Serbia in the period 1992-2002. A total of 1560 workers were employed in the zone (group A) and 1680 out of ionizing radiation zone (group B). Among group A, two groups had been selected: 1. Group A-1: Health workers in the ionizing radiation zone who contracted lens cataract during their years of service while dosimetry could not reveal higher absorbed dose (A-1=115); 2. Group A-2: Health workers in the ionizing radiation zone with higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations and without cataract (A-2=100). Results: More significant incidence of cataract was found in group A, χ2=65.92; p<0.01. Radiation risk was higher in health workers in radiation zone than in others, relative risk is 4, 6. Elevated blood sugar level was found in higher percentage with health workers working in radiation zone who developed cataract. Conclusion: Low doses of radiation are not the cause of occupational cataract as individual occupational disease. X-ray radiation may be a significant cofactor of cataract in radiological technicians. (author)

  8. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  9. Prevalência de distúrbios respiratórios e avaliação de vacinação contra a gripe entre trabalhadores Prevalence of respiratory diseases and evaluation of the influenza vaccination program for workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Apesar de a vacina contra a gripe ser considerada eficiente na prevenção da gripe e de suas complicações, ainda existem controvérsias sobre as vantagens de sua utilização em adultos sadios. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para caracterizar a ocorrência de problemas respiratórios comuns, particularmente a gripe, e avaliar um programa de imunização contra a influenza entre trabalhadores. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado um estudo de delineamento transversal entre trabalhadores da indústria. Foram coletados dados sobre características sociodemográficas e sobre problemas respiratórios. Foram caracterizadas as gripes ocorridas no último ano e avaliado o desempenho da vacina. RESULTADOS: Entre os 446 entrevistados, 18,3% apresentaram quadros intensos de gripes e a 11,7% foi concedido afastamento do trabalho devido a gripe. No geral, 70% dos funcionários avaliaram que no seu caso pessoal houve melhora na ocorrência de gripes após a vacinação. CONCLUSÕES: A avaliação positiva da vacina feita pelos funcionários e a baixa ocorrência de efeitos colaterais apoiam a manutenção do atual programa contra a influenza. Mas persistem várias dúvidas sobre as vantagens econômicas da vacina, indicando a necessidade de mais estudos sobre este tema.INTRODUCTION: The vaccine against influenza is an efficient way to prevent flu episodes and its complications; however, its economical advantages for healthy workers are still controversial. This study was developed to characterize the occurrence of common respiratory problems, especially influenza, and evaluate an influenza vaccination program for workers. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was developed among factory workers. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and respiratory diseases were collected. Flu episodes during the past year were characterized and vaccination was evaluated. RESULTS: Among 446 interviewed workers, 18.3% presented influenza-like episodes and 11.7% were

  10. Worker Inflow, Outflow, and Churning

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmakunnas, Pekka; Maliranta, Mika

    2003-01-01

    Linked employer-employee data from the Finnish business sector is used in an analysis of worker turnover. The data is an unbalanced panel with over 219 000 observations in the years 1991-97. The churning (excess worker turnover), worker inflow (hiring), and worker outflow (separation) rates are explained by various plant and employee characteristics in type 2 Tobit models where the explanatory variables can have a different effect on the probability of the flow rates to be non-zero and on the...

  11. Agricultural impacts: Big data insights into pest spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2013-11-01

    Pests and diseases reduce agricultural yields and are an important wildcard in the evaluation of future climate impacts. A unique global record of pests and diseases provides evidence for poleward expansions of their distributions.

  12. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  13. Views of the workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I hope that it is not symptomatic of the radiological protection business that I am making a last minute unscheduled intervention of behalf of the workers. I wonder too whether the Conference should consider the fact that there are no facilities for organized labour or indeed the public to comment during the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) consultation process regarding its recommendations. I have just a few points to make. As a non-scientific participant I can see that we have available accurate dosimetry which can be applied everywhere. This is a most important point. But a problem for the Conference is the different position of developed and developing countries and I would say straight away that I could not accept lower national standards of radiological protection simply to allow that State to catch up economically. We have heard a lot during the Conference about the application of ALARA. Perhaps I could introduce something different, that standards should be 'AHARA' - as high as reasonably achievable. There is no point, however, in imposing criteria that will be ignored, so there may have to be a period of optimization between developing and developed countries. There is every evidence to show that we are here at this Conference to help each other and this may provide an example. But I did not see the causation probability calculations yesterday distinguishing between developing and non-developed countries in relation to the effect of dosages on the human being. Those same calculations also made no distinction between human-made and what I have come to recognize this week as NORM radiation exposure, so it follows again that the worker in a western State's nuclear power plant should have the same standards as underground workers in other countries. This is just an example but at least the same philosophy driving those standards should be applied. No one will argue against the protection of the unborn child and I am not

  14. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  15. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  16. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policy – objectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention in...... agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... given by means of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both...

  17. Agricultural science policy

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Taylor, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Technological advances developed through R&D have supplied the world with not only more food, but better food. This report looks at issues raised by this changing environment for agricultural productivity, agricultural R&D, and natural resource management.

  18. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  19. Employers' Perceptions of Recent Agricultural Communications Graduates' Workplace Habits and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlbeck, Erica Goss; Akers, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural communications programs should frequently review their curriculum to ensure students receive the highest quality of education possible (Akers, 2000). This research is a nationwide look at recent agricultural communications graduates' employers and/or co-workers. The purpose of this study was to determine which workplace habits and…

  20. Immigrant workers and worker's compensation: the need for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Smith, J D

    2012-06-01

    Foreign-born workers in the United States suffer high rates of workplace injuries and accidents. Both for workers who are unauthorized to work in the United States and for those who are present legally under guest worker programs, access to workers' compensation benefits presents nearly insurmountable barriers. Some of these are longstanding, such as employer retaliation and aggressive litigation of claims. Some are more recent and related to the increasingly transnational character of the workforce and to barriers put in place by administrators. This is a legal overview of the cases, statutes, and policies that act as barriers to access for immigrant workers, conducted by reviewing case law and basic compensation statutes in all fifty states. Where these are known, policies that keep workers locked out of workers' compensation are also discussed. It concludes that reform of the system is needed in order to ensure its standing as an insurance program with universal application. As part of that reform, further state by state research and advocacy would discover specific administrative practices in each state that keep immigrant workers from receiving the benefits to which they are entitled. PMID:22457221

  1. Remuneration Difference between Migrant Workers and Non-migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlin; DUAN; Huawei; LUO

    2013-01-01

    Through the survey of direct economic remuneration, indirect economic remuneration and non-economic remuneration of employees in flat panel furniture enterprises in Chengdu City, we conduct a comparative analysis of the problems and causes of remuneration difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers. The results show that the wage difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers is the biggest, and there is little difference in terms of interests safeguarding and non-economic factors. The reason for the above results lies in the difference of education level; gender, region, household registration and other issues have little impact on the above results. The following recommendations are put forward to improve the remuneration of migrant workers: increasing government’s policy advocacy efforts and eliminating subjective offense; establishing the administrative oversight bodies and effectively safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers; strengthening vocational training for migrant workers, so that workers have more choices on positions; improving the working environment and developing good working atmosphere.

  2. Machine vision in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the use of machine vision in agriculture. Agriculture is practised in a more natural environment than most industrial undertakings, implying that agricultural automation requires robotic systems with well developed sensory abili­ties. For such systems, machine vision is an essential component. In this paper examples are used to show that the use of machine vision is already widespread in agriculture, and that there are many more potential applications for t...

  3. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Samborski; Dariusz Gozdowski

    2007-01-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM). Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing yield monitors. Because...

  4. Strengthen the Research of Nematode diseases on Tropical Crops to Promote the Development of Tropical Agriculture%加强热作线虫学研究 促进热作产业健康发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢小宁; 白成; 卜祥霞; 陈奕鹏

    2012-01-01

    植物线虫是危害热带作物生产的一大重要植物病原。由于适宜热带气候和土壤条件.热作线虫病害具有种类丰富、繁殖世代多和群体大的特点,掌握热作线虫发生规律,控制热作线虫病害发生对保障热作顺利生产必不可少。概述了热带作物线虫病害危害情况、热带作物线虫学研究及服务三农现状.提出提升热带作物线虫学研究水平及服务三农的策略。%Plant parasitic nematodes are one class of the most important pathogens damaging the tropical crops. Because the soil and climate in tropical area provide nematodes the optimum conditions for survival and reproduction, the nematodes occurring on the tropical crops are characterized by rich diversity, more life cycles and large population. It is of vital importance to understand the occurrence of the local nematode diseases and to control the diseases where they are severe. Currently, in order to fully explore the benefit of the nematode research team on tropical crops production, more support and investment on re- search from associated research administration authorities and close collaboration with other institutes both at home and abroad are needed. For the purpose of serving the local agriculture, researchers need to investigate and master the first hand data on the occurrence of nematodes on tropical crops, train the growers with nematodes diagnose and management knowledge, develop scientific products and finally help the farmers control the nematode diseases.

  5. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Kvitko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the footwear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p < 0.001. In addition, some effects of genetic polymorphisms in the modulation of MN results were observed in this group. Tobacco farmers were also evaluated at different crop times. The results showed a significant increase in the Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all crop times. The results for footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001 group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05. For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001. We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work.

  6. Rising National Income Per Worker and Falling Real Wages in the Philippines in the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Harry T. Oshima; Elizabeth de Borja; Wilhelmina Paz

    1986-01-01

    One of the unsettled issues in Philippine economic development is the decline in real wages per worker while GNP/national income per Worker was rising, This divergence in the Philippines is unusual in the postwar experience of Asia as in both Taiwan and South Korea, growth was accompanied by rising real wages in agriculture and industry, even when there was considerable unemployment. The paper is divided into two sections. In the first part, the statistics of national product and real wages a...

  7. The Polish worker in Norway : emerging patterns of migration, employment and incorporation after EU's eastern enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, Poland’s accession to the EU triggered what is now considered to be the largest migration flow to Norway in history. In the next seven to eight years, well over a hundred thousand Polish workers were recruited to work in construction, manufacturing, low-skilled services and agriculture. This thesis explores the ways in which Polish migrant workers have adapted to and become incorporated into Norwegian society during these initial years of an emerging migration system. The main resear...

  8. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  9. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

    2003-01-01

    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  10. Cambodian Agriculture in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report seeks to understand the successes, challenges and opportunities of Cambodia’s agricultural transformation over the past decade to derive lessons and insights on how to maintain future agricultural growth, and particularly on the government’s role in facilitating it. It is prepared per the request of the Supreme National Economic Council and the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry ...

  11. Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the firs...

  12. Chest radiological findings in pakistani cement mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest radiological findings in Pakistani cement mill workers Even in the 21st century, in developing countries millions of people work daily in dusty environments. They are exposed to different types of health hazards namely, fumes, gases and dust, which are risk factors for developing occupational diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform chest radiology to determine the occupational hazards of cement dust on the lungs of cement mill workers. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan, during the period June to August 2000. In this study 50, apparently healthy volunteer male cement mill workers were randomly selected with an average of 13 years exposure with age ranging from 20-60 years. They were matched with 50, healthy male control subjects in terms of age, height, weight and socioeconomic status. Both groups met with exclusion criteria as per standard. Radiology was performed by Trophy radiology. Results: The present study demonstrated 12% of cases with interstitial lung disease and 2% of cases with pleural thickening and chronic bronchitis in cement mill workers. Conclusion: Exposure to cement dust causes interstitial lung disease, pleural thickening and chronic bronchitis in cement mill workers. (author)

  13. Occupational diseases among farmers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study’s objective is to present epidemiological situation concerning the incidence of occupational diseases among farmers in Poland. Material and Methods: All 3438 cases of occupational diseases diagnosed among farmers and obligatorily reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases (covering all the national territory and all the cases of occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland after 1970 over the years 2000–2014 were subjected to analysis. Results: The annual incidence in the analyzed period ranged 5–14 per 100 000 farmers. The analysis showed that about 90% of pathologies were induced by the biological agents. Almost every third pathology due to biological agents had allergic origin. Infectious and parasitic diseases accounted for 62% of the cases. Among them the diseases carried by ticks (93% – borreliosis (85.8% and tick-borne encephalitis (7.2% were the most frequent ones. The age of farmers, in the case of whom bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed, was significantly higher than the age of remaining employees of the national economy, in which these occupational diseases were recognized. Conclusions: The study indicates the necessity to introduce periodic health examinations programs focusing on agricultural workers to monitor health and well-being and improve working conditions and the working environment. Med Pr 2016;67(2:163–171

  14. A Consideration of Agriculture and Agricultural Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gengling

    2006-01-01

    The article explores the importance of agricultulture in line with development of society. It uses examples of high productivity achieved in grain and cotton crops in lnner Mongolia and Xinjiang areas to show that the fundamental objective of agricultural science is to maximize crops through the most effective use of soil, fertilizer and water in gaining the greatest benefit from power of the sun. Agricultural science should take up relevant theories and methodologies from other sciences, such as biological science, earth science and economics. The use of information technology will have great benefits for agricultural science. It hopes the scientific communities of China can make a significant contribution to solving the problems facing our rural areas, farmers and agriculture itself.

  15. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  16. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects. PMID:6715092

  17. Economic Globalization and Workers: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-J. Visser (Evert-Jan); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis dossier deals with the impact of economic globalisation on workers, especially in developing nations: their employment opportunities, wage income, job security and other aspects of decent work (ILO 1999, 2002). This is a highly relevant theme. Not only do workers in the EU, the Unit

  18. How To Manage Older Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Most older workers continue to work hard and perform well; those who do not often perceive that their opportunities for promotion and increased earnings are limited. Six principles of management particularly apply to older workers: (1) recognize that needs can be powerful motivators; (2) link need satisfaction to job performance; (3) set specific,…

  19. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  20. Radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated

  1. An Evaluation Tool for Agricultural Health and Safety Mobile Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas. PMID:27494309

  2. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  3. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence. PMID:10024736

  4. CAPACITY BUILDING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION: MODULES FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Ogunbameru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basically, climate change refers to any change in climate overtime, generally caused by natural variability and/or human activities. It has great devastating impact, particularly on agriculture and by extrapolation on farmers and the national economy. The frontline agricultural extension workers are expected to be among the principal stakeholders to teach farmers how to cope with climate change. Consequently, there is a need to develop appropriate teaching package for the training of the frontline agricultural extension workers, based on the myriad of adaptation strategies and practices available in the literature. This paper synthesizes the rationale for capacity building in climate change and the adaptation or coping strategies. The modules (train-the-trainer for teaching agricultural extension workers and farmers are documented in the paper.

  5. Cytogenetic monitoring of coal workers and patients with coal workers' pneumoconiosis in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulker, O.C.; Ustundag, A.; Duydu, Y.; Yucesoy, B.; Karakaya, A. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    Occupational exposure to coal dust causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), which is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic lung disease. Recently, chronic inflammation has been accepted as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of neoplasia. The chronic inflammation provides dynamic setting for oxidative stress and formation of free radicals. Interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with DNA augments the likelihood of DNA structural and transcriptional errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotoxic risk in pneumoconiotic patients and in those with occupational exposure to coal dust. Therefore, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) tests were performed in Turkish CWP patients, coal workers, and an unexposed control group. Both SCE and MN frequencies in CWP patients were found significantly higher than in coal worker and unexposed groups. There were no differences between SCE and MN frequencies of coal worker and unexposed groups. On the other hand, no correlation between SCE frequency, duration of exposure, and age was observed in all three groups. There was also no effect of smoking on the frequencies of SCE and MN in the groups. Based on these results, it might be suggested that development of CWP leads to a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of CWP patients. This is the first report on CWP patients with elevated cytogenetic endpoints. Further, a larger follow-up study is warranted.

  6. Nuclear energy and Ecuadorian agriculture development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission has elaborated a plan for development of nuclear energy, the construction of a 1-3 MW Nuclear Reactor for Research and production of radioisotopes and of the related laboratories. Agriculture is a very important part of this plan, in the following areas: genetics, irrigation, plant and animal nutrition and metabolisms, and pest and disease control. Ecuadorian agriculture institutions have also been considered in this plan. (Author)

  7. Utilising intrinsic robustness in agricultural production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Napel, ten, H.M.Th.D.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Bestman, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of utilising robust crops and livestock for improving sustainability of agriculture. Two approaches for dealing with unwanted fluctuations that may influence agricultural production, such as diseases and pests, are discussed. The prevailing approach, which we call the ‘Control Model’, is to protect crops and livestock from disturbances as much as possible, to regain balance with monitoring and intervention and to look for add-on solutions only. There are a nu...

  8. Kyrgyz Republic Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Broka, Sandra; Giertz, Åsa; Christensen, Garry; Hanif, Charity; Rasmussen, Debra; Rubaiza, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is among the most risk-prone sectors in the economies of Central Asia. Production shocks from weather, pests and diseases and adverse movements in agricultural product and input prices not only impact farmers and agri-business firms, but can also strain government finances. Some of these risks are small and localized and can be managed by producers. Others are the result of mor...

  9. Agricultural Nanotechnologies: what are the current possibilities?

    OpenAIRE

    PARISI CLAUDIA; VIGANI MAURO; Rodriguez Cerezo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Innovation is at the centre of the EU's growth strategy for the coming decade (EU2020). New technologies and their adoption by EU farmers are essential in maintaining European agriculture competitive in a global world. Nanotechnology represents an innovative technology in many areas of applications and is showing a great potential in the agricultural sector, in particular for the development of more precise and effective methods for disease diagnosis and treatment in crop plants. The Insti...

  10. Respiratory symptoms and functions in barn workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ege Gulec Balbay; Emine Banu Cakiroglu; Peri Arbak; Öner Balbay; Fatma Avcıoğlu; Abdullah Belada

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and aim. The presented study was undertaken to investigate the respiratory health problems in family barns with one or more cows and at least one family member working in the barn. Methods. 150 workers (128 female, 22 male) from 4 villages of Yığılca district near the city of Düzce in north-west Turkey were enrolled in this study between October – December 2011. An Occupational and Environmental Chest Diseases questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society, pulmonary...

  11. EMPLOYMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS IN ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramanaidu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human resources in an economy constitute a Hsignificant input in the production process of goods and services. The study of human resources their quality and problems is of immense use in manpower planning in both developing as well as developed economies. The agriculture is the major sector of Indian economy. Most of the population is depending upon agriculture which is contributing about half of the national income in the country. The agricultural labour constitutes an overwhelmingly predominant auction of the rural workforce. The agricultural labour occupies the lowest rung of the rural ladder. Agricultural labourers constitute the largest role of the labourers and they constitute one of the biggest slices of Indian population. The agricultural labour, total workers are fast growing which is purely depending on wage paid employment in India. The farmers will try to substitute family labour in place of hired labour because of their low capacity to pay. If the population grows at the present rate accompanied by low industrial development, the unemployment problem in the agriculture becomes serious and the agricultural labourers become the victims in that vicious circle. The objective is to study the pattern of employment of agricultural labour for different crops and to find out the nature of employment for male and female labour separately in Andhra Pradesh. The primary data included information collected directly from the sample respondents through a field survey in of Andhra Pradesh. In addition to primary data, a good bit of information was collected from secondary sources. The suggestions can be made for the improvement of socio-economic positions of the agricultural labourers. The better implementation of legislative measures, creating alternative sources of employment, protection of women and child labourers, public works programmes should be for longer period in year, improving the working conditions, regulations of hours of work

  12. Cigarette smoking in young-adult workers: a cross-sectional analysis from Abruzzo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiatti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The “Valentino” cross-sectional study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence and pattern of cigarette smoking according to occupational group in a representative sample of workers aged 18-35 years from Abruzzo, Italy.

    Methods: Randomly selected workers anonymously self-compiled a structured questionnaire containing validated items. Job type was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations.

    Results: The sample consisted of 3989 workers. Current smoking prevalence was 45.9%, varying across occupational groups and ranged from 37.2% among clerical support workers, up to 57.1% among craft, agricultural and fishery sector workers. After controlling for several potential confounders using logistic regression, craft, agricultural, forestry and fishery workers (adjusted odds ratio 1.65; 95%confidence intervals 1.21-2.27, and call-center operators (1.91; 1.44-2.53 were significantly more likely to be current smokers than professionals and clerical or support workers. Interestingly, when alcohol and cannabis use were included in multivariate analysis, the association between smoking and gender was no longer significant.

    Conclusions: An independent association was found between specific occupational classes and tobacco smoking, suggesting occupation type should be considered in prioritizing subsets of populations towards which smoking cessation campaigns should be targeted first.

  13. 海南农垦近21年法定传染病增长态势分析%Increasing trend of legally infectious diseases in nearly 21 years in agricultural reclamation system of Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德洲; 翁勇; 刘家敬; 张世平

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨海南农垦近20年法定传染病的增长态势及变化规律,为防病工作提供科学依据. 方法 通过收集1990~2011年海南农垦甲乙丙类法定传染病年发病率和当年人口数、分析其发病率、构成比、平均增长速度等,比较乙类不同传播途径传染病及主要传染病种增长速度的差别. 结果 1990~2011年垦区法定传染病年平均报告发病率为753.70/10万,年发病率呈下降趋势,发病率最高为1996年1817.64/10万,最低为2009年96.70/10万;地区分布显示,前10年平均发病率以北部地区为主(2512.23/10万)、近10年以东部地区为主(306.38/10万).对乙类传染病发病构成比进行分析,自然疫源性及虫媒传染病从1990-2007年位居首位,2008年后发病例数迅速减少,2000年呼吸道传染病所占比例从1990年的第四位越居第二,肠道传染病从第二退居第四,至2008年及以后呼吸道传染病所占比例居首位,2011年所占比例达到60.04%;重点病种分析,血源及性传播传染病中淋病和病毒性肝炎呈下降均势,平均下降速度为10%和9.6 0%,梅毒呈上升均势,增长速度为12%,呼吸道传染病中除肺结核外,麻疹、百日咳均呈下降趋势. 结论 从农垦传染病疾病谱及变化趋势看,应加强呼吸道传染病特别是肺结核的控制工作,血源及性传播传染病病虽然呈下降趋势,但离最终的目标还很远.%Objective To explore the increasing trend of legally infectious diseases in nearly 20 years in agricultural reclamation system of Hainan Province.Methods The annual incidence of legally infectous diseases from 1990 to 2011 in agricultural reclamation system of Hainan Province were collected and analyzed epidemiologically.Results From 1990 to 2011,the average annual reported incidence of the legally infectious diseases was 753.70/100 000,showed a declining trend.The highest incidence was 1817.64/100 000 in 1996,the lowest was 96.70/100 000 in

  14. A Quest for Meaning: Hospice Social Workers and Patients with End-Stage Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Sara; Swails, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that few social workers are interested in working with cognitively impaired older adults, such as those with Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia. As the number of individuals with dementia grows, the demand for social workers to provide services to patients with dementia will increase. Although much attention has been given to…

  15. Young women workers in export industries: the case of the semiconductor industry in southeast Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisold E

    1984-01-01

    Working paper on the working conditions of rural women workers, especially young workers, in the export oriented microelectronics electronics industry in South East Asia. Highlights occupational disease hazards associated with production processes, the need for a cheap labour supply, and the social and cultural factors motivating rural migration and employment. Notes resistance of companies to trade unionization. Bibliography and statistical tables.

  16. Asthma characteristics in cleaning workers, workers in other risk jobs and office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, JP; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Jarvis, D; Toren, K; Anto, JM

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an excess risk for asthma among cleaning workers. The aim of this analysis was to compare clinical, immunological and functional characteristics associated with asthma in cleaners and other occupational groups. Cleaners, workers exposed to high molecular weight (MW)

  17. Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 2 study guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF OCCUPATIONAL WORKERS IN TANNERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YALAVARTHY PREMILA DEVI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health related status or events in specified population and the application of this study is to control health problems. In occupational epidemiology, the emphasis is on studies of population with particulars type of environmental exposure. Epidemiological studies of occupational workers in tannery industries were contucted to estimate the impact of working condition on the health of the workers. Individual characteristics like sex, age, physical condition, nutrition, personality, genetic factor, disease, lenght of service,nature of work done etc., that modify the effect of environmental factors are taken into consideration. Environmental factors like stress, shift work, human relationship, biological factors like bacterial, virus, parasites, accidental factors like hazard situation, speed, influence of alcohol, drugs and physical factors like noise, climate, work load, lighting, radiation are also taken into consideration. The record of company or trade union are used to study and indenfy indiduals with pas exposure to a specify hazard on the type of work. With the help of such record, retrospective cohort studies were carried out. The epidemiological studies revealed that the workers are suffering with cold feverm flue, headache, body pain, joint pain, demartitis, bronchitis, asthma, acute pharyngitis, acid burn, tuberculosis and injuries. The paritculars of incidence of diseases is more in respect of fever followed by cold & headache. the incidences are more among industrial worker than ther control group. The study also revealed that the workers foresee various diseases which are caused due to exposure to the pollutants in their work places. It is distressing to note that the workers still continue to work even under adverse enviromental surrounding and growing incidence of diseases. it can be related to socio-economic conditon.

  19. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  20. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  1. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  2. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in a tyre industry worker

    OpenAIRE

    Vinaya S Karkhanis; Joshi, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with severe pulmonary hypertension in a 46-year-old man, nonsmoker, tyre industry worker. CPFE is commonly reported to be associated with tobacco smoking. This case highlights the possible role of environmental dust exposure (talc) in the pathogenesis of the disease and confirms the clinical characteristics of CPFE described in previous studies.

  3. 2-Naphthol levels and genotoxicity in rubber workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talaska, G.; Gaultney, B.; Peters, S.; Succop, P.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a historical disease of rubber workers often been associated with exposure to aromatic amines such as 2-naphthylamine. While exposure to these compounds has decreased markedly over time, the bladder cancer risk has not decreased in direct proportion. Polycyclic aromatic com

  4. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis: CT assessment in exposed workers and correlation with radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the signs of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) at computed tomography (CT), the authors obtained thoracic CT scans in 170 coal-dust-exposed workers who were concomitantly evaluated with conventional posteroanterior and lateral radiography. The profusion and extent of disease was assessed by means of CT in two groups of miners: group 1 (n = 86), miners with worker's compensation and radiographic evidence of CWP, and group 2(n = 84), miners who had applied for compensation without radiographic evidence of CWP. The CT signs of CWP consisted of micronodules, nodules, and progressive massive fibrosis. The comparative analysis demonstrates the superiority of an optimal CT technique over chest radiography in the evaluation of simple silicosis, with improved sensitivity in the detection of small parenchymal opacities. CT provides additional information on the stage of the disease but also clarifies some ambiguities of the ILO classification of small opacities. CT was equivalent to radiography for complicated silicosis, except in the identification of necrosis. CT evaluations are complementary to plain radiography in the assessment of CWP, and the addition of high-resolution CT is useful in achieving a more accurate evaluation of the small parenchymal opacities

  5. Insulin Modifies Honeybee Worker Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Mott

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The insulin signaling pathway has been hypothesized to play a key role in regulation of worker social insect behavior. We tested whether insulin treatment has direct effects on worker honeybee behavior in two contexts, sucrose response thresholds in winter bees and the progression to foraging by summer nurse bees. Treatment of winter worker bees with bovine insulin, used as a proxy for honeybee insulin, increased the bees’ sucrose response threshold. Treatment of summer nurse bees with bovine insulin significantly decreased the age at which foraging was initiated. This work provides further insight into the role of endocrine controls in behavior of in honeybees and insects in general.

  6. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  7. Work-Related Health Effects among Wastewater Treatment Plants Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK El-Shafie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raw sewage contains various pathogenic organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungus, worms and protozoa. Workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are exposed to these organisms as well as to H2S gas causing many health hazards.Objectives: To assess some work-related health effects among WWTPs workers with special emphasis on the most common infections as well as cardiopulmonary disorders.Methods: 43 workers at Berket Al-Sabih WWTPs were studied. An equal number of non-exposed comparison group were also studied. All participants were asked about their personal demographic data, symptoms suggesting infection, respiratory tract impairment and cardiovascular manifestations. Spirometric measurements were made at the end of the work shift. A resting standard 12-lead ECG was also taken for each participant. For those with a positive ECG finding, echocardiography was also performed. Serum examination for antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV and hepatitis E virus (HEV was also done. A heparinized blood sample to measure sulf-hemoglobin, as an indicator of H2S exposure, was taken. Stool was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for Leptospira spirochete.Results: WWTPs workers suffered from body ache, abdominal pain, wheeze, asthma and dyspnea more frequently than the comparison group (p<0.05. An obstructive pattern of pulmonary function impairment and a higher mean sulf-hemoglobin% were significantly more common among WWTPs workers than the comparison group. Antibody levels against HAV and HEV as well as frequency of positive stool PCR test results for L. spirochete were significantly higher among WWTPs workers than the comparison group. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH according to ECG and mean ejection fraction (EF as measured by echocardiography were significantly more frequent in WWTPs workers than in the comparison group.Conclusion: WWTPs workers are high risk of developing various infections and

  8. Gathering Occupational Health Data from Informal Workers: The Brazilian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Vilma Sousa; Ferrite, Silvia; Galdino, Adriana; Peres Moura, Maria Cláudia; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet

    2016-08-01

    This study describes how occupational health data have been gathered by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) to provide morbidity and mortality estimates for formal and informal workers. In 2007, data on work-related diseases and injuries was incorporated into the compulsory notification system (SINAN) and analyzed by the SUS occupational health service network, which covers all Brazilian states. However, this work has not been fully implemented, resulting in the large-scale undercounting and underreporting of cases, particularly in relation to informal workers. This is suggestive of barriers that prevent access to services and good quality health care. The inclusion of work-related diseases and injuries in SINANs appears to be a feasible strategy for the collection of useful data for the surveillance of the entire universe of workers, particularly in countries where informal workers prevail within the labor force. Attention needs to be paid to the disparities in access and quality that affect low-paid, informal workers. PMID:27235998

  9. Urban Agriculture : Sustainability Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Årevall, Agnieszka Janicka

    2013-01-01

    For some years now, the phenomena of urban agriculture have been present in the public discourse on cities and sustainability. It is often assumed that urban agriculture has the potential to contribute to an increased sustainability of the cities. However, many practical and theoretical obstacles might have to be overcome in order to realize this potential. One ambition of this thesis is to analyse urban agriculture as a “sustainability multiplier” – that is, as a practice that can positively...

  10. Agriculture and riparian areas

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Agriculture has historically been based in the subirrigated riparian ecosystems. Often the engineering and agricultural practices have altered the systems and many of the associated ecological processes. In the Western United States, the most common agricultural practices affecting riparian systems has been livestock grazing. Effects have been both positive and negative. Lack of management has deteriorated many of these systems. Current research has shown what types of management have been su...

  11. Biosurfactants in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Dhara P.; Cameotra, Swaranjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and ...

  12. Vulnerability in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The impact from climate change on agriculture is expected to be significant because of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate conditions in general. Precipitation, temperature, weather extremes and evaporation rates all impact production. Agriculture is important to the economy of Croatia due to its overall value and its impact on food security, vulnerable populations, and the employment it generates. In 2001, 92% of Croatia was classified as rural and 48% of the Croatian population live...

  13. Risk management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat Ramaswami; Shamika Ravi; S.D. Chopra

    2003-01-01

    This monograph was written to be part of the series of studies commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture under the rubric of "State of Indian Farmer - A Millennium Study". On the basis of existing literature, this study documents the status of our knowledge on risks of agriculture and their management. Chapter 2 discusses the evidence on the nature, type and magnitude of agricultural risks. Chapter 3 discusses farmer strategies to combat risk. In addition to the mechanisms at the level of t...

  14. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  15. Agricultural Development Bank Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...

  16. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  17. Urban Agricultural Event

    OpenAIRE

    Camm, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Many authors and researchers agree that our youth will benefit from learning about agriculture. “Agricultural literacy is an essential factor for continuing success of the nation. It is important to reach the population when it is most vulnerable and susceptible to learning; this consists of the children of today’s world” (Schmidbauer, Pastor, & Elliot, 2004; p. 2). Ryan and Lockaby suggest that if the population possesses an understanding of agriculture, they are more likely to benefit socie...

  18. Processo saúde-doença: um estudo das representações sociais de trabalhadores com DORT Health-disease process: a study of social representations of workers with WMSDSs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanusa Caiafa Caetano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo origina-se de pesquisa que analisou as representações sociais do processo saúde-doença entre trabalhadores portadores de distúrbios osteomusculares relacionados ao trabalho (DORT, usuários do Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CEREST de Juiz de Fora, MG. O recurso de apreensão das informações foram entrevistas semiestruturadas, realizadas junto a 12 trabalhadoras com idade entre 29 e 55 anos. As informações foram submetidas a análise temática. A partir dos temas de análise, chamados "representação da saúde" e "representação da doença", para essas trabalhadoras, o adoecimento e a incapacidade laboral representam uma lacuna dolorosa e a destruição dos projetos de vida. Os quadros de deterioração das condições de vida e degradação do trabalho, refletidos sobre a saúde das trabalhadoras, nos levam a sustentar que a prevenção dos problemas de saúde que encontraria maior grau de resolução seria o replanejamento da organização do processo de trabalho e da efetiva atuação das políticas públicas de saúde, através de representações simbólicas mais amplas sobre saúde, doença e cura.This paper was based on a study that examined the social representations of health-illness process among workers with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs, users of the Reference Center of Occupational Health (CEREST in the city of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 workers, aged between 29 and 55 years. Data were subjected to thematic analysis. The themes of analysis called "representation of health" and "representation of illness" set that, for these workers, illnesses and labor disability represent a painful gap and the destruction of life projects. Tables of deterioration of living conditions and work degradation, reflected on the health of workers, refer us to sustain that the prevention of health problems that would find a

  19. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  20. The worker profile autocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Omar Delgado Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This document is part of two deliveries. In this first paper is to make an approach to the concept of self-control from the very beginning with Sakichi Toyoda, founder of what the industry Toyota Motor Company, additionally taking some excerpts of the concept issued by teachers and the psychologist Henry Murray, a professor at the university Harvard precursor test TAT personality test creator, pen applied world wide by psychologists David McCllelan, also a psychologist and a pioneer in the study of human needs and the concept of competence; Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer of Stanford University organizational behavior and theory, Frederick Hertzberg, Psychologist and strong influential in business management, Kronfly Cruz, lawyer and investigator of social and administrative sciences, Charles Perrow, a sociologist at Yale University and Stanford , who studies the impact of large organizations in society, among others. The study reflects the need to meet organizational objectives related to the physicochemical characteristics of the finished product in a plant of the company’s main beers in the country. In this paper, we intend to make an approximation of worker self -controlled, which when compared with the powers, generic, specific and technical area established by the brewery, will allow generating a methodology to adjust these competencies and to obtain the target profile drawn. This comparison and development of the methodology proposed is the subject of the second work planned.

  1. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  2. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  3. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  4. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  5. Land, Life, and Security: An Interview with Edgardo Garcia, Secretary General of the Association of Farm Workers in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Madeleine K; Gonzalez, Marvin

    2016-08-01

    This is an interview with Edgardo Garcia, Secretary General of the Association of Farm Workers in Nicaragua and Oscar Berríos from the Nicaraguan National Engineering University. The interview was conducted in Nicaragua in October 2013. Garcia and Berríos address the importance of organizing among formal workers and informal workers, and the shared conditions of both in Nicaragua. They highlight the history and context of the agricultural workers who began organizing during the national armed revolutionary war, the role of government to create conditions for healthy and safe work, and the need for workers to organize and advocate for themselves. Finally, they highlight the importance of solidarity among workers and the need for alliances with unions and technical assistance providers around the world. PMID:27406112

  6. Noncancer death for medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China, 1950-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate occupational radiation exposure effects on human non-cancer diseases. Methods: A cohort study for medical diagnostic X-ray workers and medical workers who never engaged in X-ray work was carried out. Results: The significantly enhanced noncancer deaths for X-ray workers were showed as follows: ischemic heart disease, RR was 1.39 ( P < 0.01 ); cerebrovascular disease, RR = 1.36 ( P < 0.01 ); aplastic anemia, RR = 10.35 (P < 0.01 ); disease of the nervous system, RR = 2.06 (P < 0.01); disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, RR = 3.23 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Long-term occupational X-ray irradiation can enhance the overall risk of deaths, in which, risk for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and aplastic anemia deaths may significantly related to the occupational exposure

  7. The First Identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in an Animal Care Worker in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Carhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As a zoonotic pathogen, Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a cause of serious disease in animals and people. The present study was to evaluate the health status examination of this seropositive animal care worker in our previous study.Blood samples were taken from five workers. CIA test was applied to detect antibodies against E. cuniculi in blood serum. The indirect immunofluorescence antibody test was used as confirmation test. Seropositive worker had a complete medical examination.Only one worker was found to be seropositive according to the results of the serological test. Sera positive to E. cuniculi was confirmed with IFAT and spores were detected in the urine sample of the worker. The worker was treated with albendazole.Rabbits should be examined routinely for the presence of anti-E. cuniculi antibody. People working with laboratory animal should avoid contact with urine and faeces of infected or pay attention to personal hygiene.

  8. Dermatoses among floral shop workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown. PMID:2137139

  9. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  10. Work values among Lebanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Y M; Gardner, W L

    2000-10-01

    On the basis of a review of the existing literature, the authors tested 4 hypotheses to determine the applicability of work values in Arab societies to employees in Lebanese organizations. Only 1 hypothesis was supported: Organizational policies that ran counter to the worker's religious values had an adverse effect on job satisfaction. There was no support for the hypotheses (a) that workers' religiosity in inversely related to positive attitudes toward women's involvement at work, (b) that employee satisfaction is related to a mechanistic organizational design, or (c) that workers with an internal locus of control experience higher job satisfaction. The Lebanese workers, thus, did not appear to share some of the attributes claimed to exist in Arab societies. PMID:11059205

  11. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  12. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 235 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 178 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Abowd; Kramarz, Francis

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work-force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group, and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wag...

  15. Goal setting and worker motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian J. Goerg

    2015-01-01

    Employers want motivated and productive employees. Are there ways to increase employee motivation without relying solely on monetary incentives, such as pay-for-performance schemes? One tool that has shown promise in recent decades for improving worker performance is setting goals, whether they are assigned by management or self-chosen. Goals are powerful motivators for workers, with the potential for boosting productivity in an organization. However, if not chosen carefully or if used in uns...

  16. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Abowd, John M.; Françis KRAMARZ; Moreau, Antoine

    1996-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wage...

  17. Cultural workers in the making

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the situated practices through which higher education students understand ?becoming? cultural workers. Drawing on research with a media production studio operated by a UK higher education institution, this article examines how students understand themselves as nascent industry professionals and workers ?in-the-making? and connects this with critical debates on cultural workforce issues. This article reveals that while the studio as a work-based learning environment can e...

  18. Workers Search for Columbia's Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Members of a US Forest Service search team walk a grid during a Columbia recovery search near the Hemphill, Texas site. The group is accompanied by a space program worker able to identify potential hazards of Shuttle parts. Workers from every NASA Center and numerous federal, state, and local agencies searched for Columbia's debris in the recovery effort. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  19. Lover, mother or worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2005-01-01

    months of fieldwork at 10 maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) clinic sites in the Morogoro, Ruvuma and Kilimanjaro regions of Tanzania. Rehema's story shows that AIDS, like other diseases, is significantly linked to host-susceptibility and economic vulnerability. Separate and competing...

  20. 29 CFR 779.409 - Handicapped workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handicapped workers. 779.409 Section 779.409 Labor... Students, Learners, and Handicapped Workers § 779.409 Handicapped workers. Regulations have been issued... handicapped workers at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act....

  1. Health Risks to Computer Workers in Various Indoor Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Tint, Piia; Tuulik, Viiu; Karai, Deniss; Meigas, Kalju

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the main cause of occupational diseases in Estonia and Europe. The number of MSDs has increased with the increasing number of computer workers and the increasing workload overall. In the current paper, the survey of 295 workers in Estonian enterprises is carried out to clarify the reasons of occupational stress. The causes of occupational stress are non-ergonomically designed workplace, social and human factors. The main questionnaires used were KIVA and G...

  2. The Association between Socioeconomic Characteristics and Consumption of Food Items among Brazilian Industry Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele B. Vinholes; Ione M. F. Melo; Carlos Alberto Machado; Hilton de Castro Chaves; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the ...

  3. Agricultural Industrialization: It's Inevitable

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Thomas N.

    1991-01-01

    The industrialization of agriculture is with us. It's driven by consumer and processor needs, supported by new and useful technology, and augmented by the severe agricultural recession of the 1980s, which changed attitudes towards risk. The consequences for farm policy and rural development are significant, and should be favorable.

  4. Agriculture. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigates the impact of agriculture on the earth's atmosphere. It describes the natural carbon cycle, the socioeconomic factors that influence it, and the climate effects. The climatic relevance of gaseous sulphur and nitrogen compounds, methane and other hydrocarbons, and ammonia emissions from biological and agricultural process is discussed. (SR)

  5. Managing risk in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "This book examines the implications of risk management for policy in agriculture. Opening with a chapter on risk management principles and guidelines for policy design in agriculture, the book goes on to look at quantitative analysis of risk and then at policy in various countries." --> Publisher's description.

  6. Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    In the agricultural sector, risks are inherent and ubiquitous, posing potentially serious consequences for stakeholders and consumers. Risks disrupt supply chains, causing extensive financial and economic losses. Agricultural risks are also the principal cause of transient food insecurity, creating a poverty trap for millions of households across the developing world that enforces a viciou...

  7. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  8. Precision agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  9. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among drivers, pressures, state and impacts, and facilitates the targeted identification of response strategies aimed at improving the sustainability of wetlands.

  10. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.;

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...

  11. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  12. Saline agriculture: A technology for economic utilization and improvement of saline environments (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salinity problem is one of the severe constraints for agriculture in Pakistan. In a socio-economic and salinity and drainage survey over an area of about 25000 acres of salt-affected land recently, crop production is found to be very low. Livestock is underfed and malnourished. Pakistan has spent and allocated over one billion US dollars on Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARP), of course, with dubious results. Over the years, a Saline Agriculture Technology has been developed as a cheap alternative at NIAB for comfortably living with salinity and to profitably utilize saline land rather than its reclamation. The soil improvement is a fringe benefit in this approach. The Saline Agriculture Technology has been tested at laboratory level, at field stations and at farms of some progressive farmers. Now we are sharing this technology with farming communities through a 'Saline Agriculture Farmer Participatory Development Project in Pakistan', with assistance from the National Rural Support Programme. The new project has been launched simultaneously in all four provinces of Pakistan on 25000 acres of salt-affected land. Under this project seeds of salt tolerant crop varieties wheat, cotton, rice, castor, brassica and barley and saplings of trees/shrubs, e.g. Acacia ampliceps, A. nilotica, Casuarina glauca, ber, jaman, etc selected for development work in various institutions of Pakistan are being provided to farmers. Know-how on new irrigation techniques like bed-and-corrugation and bed-and-furrow, agronomic practices like laser land leveling, planting on beds and in auger holes and soil/water amendment practices (use of gypsum and mineral acids) are being shared with farmers. These interventions are quite efficient, save water up to 40% and enable farmers to utilize bad quality water. In general, farmers are being familiarized with prevalent animal diseases, nutritional problems and prophylactic techniques. They are being helped in developing Saline

  13. 75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... history information for respondents enrolled in the Agriculture Health Study. This represents a request to... Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture... Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture (NCI) (OMB : 0925-0406). Type of Information Collection...

  14. Radiation technology in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Atomic Energy through its research, development and deployment activities in nuclear science and technology, has been contributing towards enhancing the production of agricultural commodities and their preservation. Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture which is often referred to as nuclear agriculture is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area. 41 new crop varieties developed at BARC have been released and Gazette notified by the MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation and are popular among the farming community and grown through out the country

  15. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  16. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  17. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ...OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings to explore the possible development of a proposed rule to protect workers from occupational exposure to infectious agents in settings, either where workers provide direct patient care or where......

  18. Workers and the ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In both the preparation and the application of the recommendations presented by the ICRP one important voice has been absent: that of the workers in the nuclear industry. A large number of specialists are studying their situation from all points of view, in their different capacities as workers, consumers and male or female members of the public, but this extensive study is being done without consulting them, without their opinion even being asked for. The paper discusses such deficiencies, in particular all those aspects which distinguish these recommendations from a legal text. The lack of conciseness in the definition of the limit which the average annual dose to a large group of workers must not exceed (500 mrad) is considered. The possibility of a large number of workers being exposed for a long period is not acceptable if the decision is left to the manager of a nuclear facility alone. Cost-benefit analysis, as it is described in the ICRP text, cannot be considered to provide credible protection from the point of view of workers. Moreover, the various ICRP recommendations fail to mention such important matters as allowance for low-dose effects, disparities in the social security coverage offered to various categories of workers in the event of occupational illness, and the increasing use of migrant workers for difficult decontamination and maitenance tasks. At a time when it is thought that nuclear technology can be standardized, the French Democratic Labour Confederation (CFDT) expresses its fears concerning the practical application of the ICRP recommendations; for example, the text of ICRP Publication 26 has not yet been translated into French, but Euratom has already proposed directives for its application in Member States

  19. Risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms among Korean radiation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Moo-Seong; Ahn, Jae-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms. The second aim was to study the association between musculoskeletal symptoms and factors in radiation workers from the active lists of clinics and hospitals and then to provide basic data for a systematic and effective resource management of radiation workers' musculoskeletal problems in the future. A questionnaire survey was conducted on radiation workers in clinics, general hospitals, and Dong-A university hospitals around the Korean city Buscan from July 10 to 31, 2011. The results showed that the rate of musculoskeletal symptoms was higher in the shoulder, waist, neck, leg/foot, hand/wrist/finger than arm/elbow. The probability of neck pain was 2 times higher in patients with a disease. PMID:24219636

  20. Risk assessment induced by knapsack or conventional motor sprayer on pesticides applicators and farm workers in cotton season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalwagy, Manal E A; Farid, Hoda E A; Gh, Farag A A; Ammar, Abd Elmegeed; Kotb, Gamila A M

    2010-09-01

    Fakous Province in the Sharkia Governorate constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Egypt. The majority of people in this province rely on subsistence agriculture. In the cotton cultivation season the continuous application of pesticides is commonly used to increase agricultural productivity, using different types of spraying equipment. In this study a cohort of 210 intensive agricultural pesticide applicators and farm workers from Sawada and Akyad Elkepplia villages in Fakous Province were assessed according to the type of spraying equipment they used. Conventional motor (300l/feddan or 0.42ha) and knapsack motor sprayer (20l/feddan) were commonly used by farmers. Contamination on applicators was detected on head, body (thorax/abdomen) and legs at different percentages according to the spraying tools. The recorded results revealed that contamination with pesticides due to knapsack motor sprayers 0.76% on head, 4.8% on body and 5.8% on legs; however, conventional motor sprayers induce contamination of 3.6% on head, 23.7% on body and 29.1% on legs. Several criteria for estimating pesticide contamination by previous delivery systems were used. The most important reference biomarker was serum acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) depression. Sprayers showed changes in serum glucose levels as well as reduced erythrocytic glutathione levels (GSH). However, an increase in both total serum protein and albumin was recorded also, alongside elevation in lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). Changes in serum biochemistry regarding enzymes reflecting cytotoxicity were also recorded, such as inhibition of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). An increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutathione reductase (GR) was observed particularly in conventional motor sprayers. Changes in enzymes activities found in this study are linked to the adverse health effects related to chronic pesticide toxicity that may lead to