WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural raw materials

  1. On the increasing multifunctionality of agricultural raw materials: three dilemmas for innovation and adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.

    2010-01-01

    The agricultural sector is increasingly becoming multifunctional. It is the entry point of several value chains. Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries—energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel

  2. The increasing multifunctionality of Agricultural Raw Materials: Three dilemmas for Innovation and Adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries: energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel, industrial products such as polymers and bio-based synthetic chemicals and fibers, and pharmaceutical/health p

  3. The increasing multifunctionality of Agricultural Raw Materials: Three dilemmas for Innovation and Adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries: energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel, industrial products such as polymers and bio-based synthetic chemicals and fibers, and pharmaceutical/health p

  4. Ensuring Compliance of Raw Herbal Materials Stemmed from China with European Good Agricultural and Collection Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDRE Philippe; SU Hao-bo; GAO Wen-yuan

    2011-01-01

    A"simplified" European procedure now allows the registration of traditional herbal medicines as medicinal products even without the support of clinical data.This procedure entails the requirement that those products comply with European Good Manufacturing Practice for medicinal products,which in turn implies that the raw herbal materials comply with the European Guidelines for Good Agricultural and Collection Practice.On the basis of a comparison between European Good Agricultural and Collection Practice and China Good Agricultural Practice,as well as direct observation made at sites in China,we issue some recommendations to facilitate good communication between the Chinese producer and European pharmaceutical customer,with a view to ensure full compliance with European expectations.

  5. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  6. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  7. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  8. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  9. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  10. Agronomic, economical and social potentialities of the main oleaginous biodiesel raw materials and their adoption by the familiar agriculture; Potencialidades agronomica, economica e social das principais oleaginosas materias-primas do biodiesel e sua adocao pela agricultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy; Machado, Joao Armando Dessimon [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios (CEPAN)]. E-mails: thaisy@terra.com.br; joao.dessimon@ufrgs.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper analyses the properties of various oleaginous vegetables which are raw material for the production of biodiesel by the familiar agriculture in small and average properties at the different Brazilian regions, under the agronomic, economic and social aspects.

  11. Globalization determinants of raw materials markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yatsenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of development of raw materials markets and the peculiarities of their formation in the terms of world economy globalization have been researched. The empirical base of research is the agricultural food market as one of the most important bases in the sphere of material production and provision of food security of the country. The important social and economic mission of the agricultural sector has been highlighted, along with the export competitiveness and import dependence of agricultural food products in the international trade. The imperative norms have been substantiated and conclusions have been drawn regarding the establishment of respective conditions for the operation of globally integrated markets in Ukraine.

  12. Raw materials prices under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Heinz

    1984-01-01

    Since April 1984 there has been a general fall in world market prices for industrial raw materials following upon increases which, in some cases, had been quite considerable. What are the reasons for this development? What are the prospects for 1985?

  13. Cyclope 2003: the world markets: raw materials, currencies, services, agriculture, energy, finance, industry; Cyclope 2003: les marches mondiaux: matieres premieres, monnaies, services, agriculture, energie, finance, industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmin, Ph.

    2003-07-01

    The Cyclope book is a collective annual publication made by an international team of economists, journalists and specialists of geopolitics. The 2003 issue analyzes the consequences of the war in Iraq on the energy markets and on the international negotiations of the world trade organization (WTO) which took place at Cancun in September 2003. It analyses also the growth of the Chinese markets, the sustainable development concept in vogue, the Johannesburg conference and the reform of the common agricultural policy. (J.S.)

  14. Polymers based on renewable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic raw materials for the chemical industry, which also means for polymer production, are mineral oil and natural gas. Mineral oil and natural gas resources are limited so that sooner or later they will be consumed. For this reason alternative, renewable raw materials for the chemical industry have become the object of intensive investigation all over the world. Some of the results of these investigations concerning renewable raw materials for the production of polymer materials are presented in this paper.

  15. Renewable raw materials in the field of industry; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe in der Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.

    2006-07-01

    Being used to the practiced processing of raw materials for many decades the industry had to tap the advantage of renewable raw materials again. Conventional processing methods had to be changed and to be newly developed. This has been a rewarding task considering the ecological advantages but also considering the interesting markets for products based upon renewable raw materials. Today the German industry above all the chemical industry again processes agricultural and forestal raw materials to a considerable extent. Ten percent of the raw materials processed by the chemical industry are renewable. The wood processing industry is an important economic sector that achieves a value creation with the raw material wood exceeding the value creation of other industries by far. This brochure gives an overview of the possible substances, which are processed from renewable raw materials in Germany and it shows the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play for the industry nowadays. (orig.)

  16. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Vilamová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  17. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  18. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Š. Vilamová; P. Besta; R. Kozel; K. Janovská; M. Piecha; Levit, A; Straka, M.; Šanda, M.

    2016-01-01

    Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly differ...

  19. Synthetic Raw Materials for Refractories in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIGan; YUEWeidong

    2001-01-01

    The development and status of synthetic raw materials for refractories in China are reviewed,including magne-site-based materials,alumina ,ullite,calcium alumi-nate cement ,ultrafine powder,spinel,silicon carbide and cordierite.The research work on calcium zirconate and sialon materials are also introduced.

  20. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  1. High belite cement from alternative raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorab, H. Y.; Rizk, M.; Ibrahim, B.; Allam, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Three high belite laboratory clinkers were prepared from traditional and alternative raw materials. Reference clinker was obtained from 77% limestone, 11% sandy clays, 11% fatty clays and 1% iron scales. The fatty clays were replaced by red brick powder in the raw meal of the second clinker and were lowered to 2% with the replacement of 10% of the limestone by egg shells in the third clinker. The SEM examination revealed clear presence of crossed striae and twinning in the rounded belite grai...

  2. Ethanol is a strategic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras Josip K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this review article considers general data about ethanol as an industrial product, its qualities and uses. It is emphasized that, if produced from biomass as a renewable raw material, its perspectives as a chemical raw material and energent are brilliant. Starchy grains, such as corn, must be used as the main raw materials for ethanol production. The production of bioethanol by the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of starch followed by (yeast fermentation, distillation is the process of choice. If used as a motor fuel, anhydrous ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline or converted into an oxygenator such as ETBE. Finally, bioethanol production in Yugoslavia and the possibilities for its further development are discussed.

  3. PERSPECTIVE NONMETALLIC RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Jaroslav

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  4. RAW MATERIAL DEWATERING ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture transfer schemes and mechanisms of capillary-porous materials dehydration are considered. Mechanical, thermal and diffusive mechanisms for different moisture linkage forms are analyzed, driving forces and velocity coefficients of processes are estimated. Availability of dehydration in microwave frequencies range field is shown. A new generalized complex that takes into account a specificity of micro- and nanokinetics of moisture transfer in products is proposed. The explanation of barodiffusive moisture transfer process mechanism in a product is shown. The results of experimental researches, in which specific energy of 1,9 MJ per 1 kg of removed moisture is reached, are shown. The tests results of the band dryer with microwave and infrared energy generators are presented.

  5. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.

  6. Sustainable sourcing of strategic raw materials by integrating recycled materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rogetzer, Patricia; Silbermayr, Lena; Jammernegg, Werner

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a manufacturer's sustainable sourcing strategy that includes recycled materials. To produce a short life-cycle electronic good, strategic raw materials can be bought from virgin material suppliers in advance of the season and via emergency shipments, as well as from a recycler. Hence, we take into account virgin and recycled materials from different sources simultaneously. Recycling makes it possible to integrate raw materials out of steadily increa...

  7. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  8. Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of orange peels with a view to establishing their raw material potentials.

  9. Indigenous processing methods and raw materials of borde , an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous processing methods and raw materials of borde , an Ethiopian traditional ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... A study of village-level processing techniques and raw materials used for the ...

  10. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production | Farinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Soymilk and maize steep water were used as alternative raw materials to cow milk ...

  11. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil as raw material for biobased materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a lot of recent interest in using vegetable oils as biodegradable and renewable raw materials for the syntheses of various biobased materials. Although most of the attention has been paid to soybean oil thus far, cottonseed oil is a viable alternative. An advantage of cottonseed oil...

  12. CREATION OF COLLAGEN PRODUCTS FISH RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purposeful use of proteins of connecting fabrics is based first of all on structural and mechanical and physical and chemical properties of collagen, his physiology to a human body. Traditional source of collagen is the split of skins of the cattle, but in view of the objective reasons (spongy encephalopathy, reduction of a livestock of cattle, there was a need for search of alternative sources. The particular interest and popularity represent collagenic proteins in biomedical technologies, when receiving surgical sutural materials, wound healing means, prolongator of medicines, artificial organs and fabrics, implatant. New data on use the collagen containing of sources are directly connected with expansion of a source of raw materials of processing industries of agrarian and industrial complex on the basis of deep processing of biological resources and their maximum involvement in the main and special production with significant growth in an exit of useful products from raw materials unit. In this regard, researches of a microstructure of skins and fractional composition of proteins of objects of research are conducted; data on the general chemical composition and the content of collagen in them are received. Experimental data showed that the most perspective source of collagen from the studied fishes of internal reservoirs is the skin of a silver carp that is caused by the high content of target substance collagen, the low content of fat. The technology of receiving collagenic substances with the high technical characteristics allowing to apply them in production of medical materials is proved and realized in vitro. The comparative analysis showed that substances from a split of skins of cattle and a silver carp have an identical set of amino acids, but are characterized by the different content of separate amino acid s.

  13. Applicability of unconventional energy raw materials in ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gumienna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The difficult position of Polish agriculture, including one of its branches, i.e. sugar industry, is conducive of search for solutions aiming at an improvement of the condition of industry. One of the potential solutions in this respect may be to focus on alternative raw materials and search for ways to overcome recession in renewable energy sources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibilities of using non-starchy materials – sugar materials, without enzymatic treatment for ethanol production using selected yeast strains. Material and methods. Sugar beet pulp and thick juice, as a semi product from sugar beet, were fermented. The efficiency of the process was assessed using two Saccharomyces cerevisiae preparations – Ethanol Red, Fermiol. Fermentation was run for 72 h at 30°C. Quality of produced raw distillates was evaluated using the GC method. Results. The research on fermentation processes showed that sugar beet pulp let obtain higher ethanol yield – 87% of theoretical than sugar beet thick juice – 84% of theoretical, both for Ethanol Red and Fermiol yeast preparations. Moreover, it was exhibited that the increase of sugar concentration in the fermentation medium obtained from thick juice, statistically importantly influenced ethanol yield decrease, for both yeast preparations. The distillates’ quality analysis showed the influence of raw materials and microorganism used for fermentation on pollution degree. Distillate obtained from thick juice was characterised with the lowest by-products content after fermentation with Ethanol Red. Conclusions. The results make additional possibilities for sugar beet utilization in distillery industry and new markets using production surpluses both for sugar beet and its semi-product – thick juice.

  14. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  15. Catalytic Pretreatment and Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hakola, Maija

    2013-01-01

    There is nowadays a strong concern about decreasing oil supplies and global warming leading to ever increasing interest in biobased fuels and chemical production. The utilization of lignocellulosic raw materials for liquid biofuels and chemicals is a challenging task due to raw materials rigid structure which is resistant towards any actions to break it. Thus the raw materials should be pretreated to reach an economically vital process. Catalytic and alkaline oxidation presented here ar...

  16. High belite cement from alternative raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorab, H. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three high belite laboratory clinkers were prepared from traditional and alternative raw materials. Reference clinker was obtained from 77% limestone, 11% sandy clays, 11% fatty clays and 1% iron scales. The fatty clays were replaced by red brick powder in the raw meal of the second clinker and were lowered to 2% with the replacement of 10% of the limestone by egg shells in the third clinker. The SEM examination revealed clear presence of crossed striae and twinning in the rounded belite grains of the reference clinker caused by the transformation of the α´-belite to the β polymorph. Striae were weaker in the second and third clinkers indicating a probable stabilization of the α ‘-belite polymorph. Compressive strength of the respective cements were attained first after 28 days and the early strength did not improve with increasing fineness. Higher compressive strength values were found for the cement prepared from second clinker.Se han preparado tres clinkeres de laboratorio con altos contenidos en belita a partir de materias primas tradicionales y alternativas. El clinker de referencia se obtuvo a partir de una mezcla de caliza, arcillas arenosas y grasas y limaduras de hierro. Las arcillas grasas fueron sustituidas por polvo de ladrillo rojo en la preparación del segundo clinker, y en el tercero el contenido de arcilla grasa fue de solo un 2% y parte de la caliza fue sustituida por cascara de huevo. El estudio realizado por SEM muestra superficies estriadas alrededor de los granos de belita que indican una transformación del polimorfo α´ a la forma β-C₂S, durante el enfriamiento. Esas estrías son menos marcadas en el segundo y tercer clinker, indicando, una estabilización del polimorfo α´-C₂S. Los valores de resistencias a compresión de los correspondientes cementos, a 28 días de curado, no se ven incrementados por la finura de dichos cementos. Las mayores resistencias se obtuvieron en el cemento preparado a partir del cl

  17. Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    common interoperable EU Geological Knowledge Base. Such a Knowledge Base will support exploration for indigenous mineral resources and strengthen policy and decision making. In 2010, the European Commission identified 14 non energy non-agricultural raw materials as being critical. Criticality is based on both the scarcity of supply and the importance to European industry. This list was updated in 2014 to include 7 new commodities with one being dropped from the original list. The list now comprises: antimony, beryllium, borates, chromium, cobalt, coking coal, fluorspar, gallium, germanium, graphite, indium, magnesite, magnesium, niobium, phosphate rock, platinum group metals, light and heavy rare earth elements (separately), silicon metal and tungsten. ProMine was a European Union (EU) co-funded project, which had as its main objective the stimulation of the extractive industry to deliver new products to manufacturing industry. A major deliverable of the project was the ProMine Mineral Deposit (MD) database that contains information related to almost 13,000 mineral deposits in Europe. In order to extract data to be displayed on the CRM map of Europe, the ProMine MD database was queried for all commodities on the EC CRM list which were in the medium to super-large deposit size. Following this, the dataset was circulated to MREG in order to verify, validate and update the list.

  18. Scoping Future Policy Dynamics in Raw Materials Through Scenarios Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vitor; Keane, Christopher; Sturm, Flavius; Schimpf, Sven; Bodo, Balazs

    2017-04-01

    The International Raw Materials Observatory (INTRAW) project is working towards a sustainable future for the European Union in access to raw materials, from an availability, economical, and environmental framework. One of the major exercises for the INTRAW project is the evaluation of potential future scenarios for 2050 to frame economic, research, and environmental policy towards a sustainable raw materials supply. The INTRAW consortium developed three possible future scenarios that encompass defined regimes of political, economic, and technological norms. The first scenario, "Unlimited Trade," reflects a world in which free trade continues to dominate the global political and economic environment, with expectations of a growing demand for raw materials from widely distributed global growth. The "National Walls" scenario reflects a world where nationalism and economic protectionism begins to dominate, leading to stagnating economic growth and uneven dynamics in raw materials supply and demand. The final scenario, "Sustainability Alliance," examines the dynamics of a global political and economic climate that is focused on environmental and economic sustainability, leading towards increasingly towards a circular raw materials economy. These scenarios were reviewed, tested, and provided simulations of impacts with members of the Consortium and a panel of global experts on international raw materials issues which led to expected end conditions for 2050. Given the current uncertainty in global politics, these scenarios are informative to identifying likely opportunities and crises. The details of these simulations and expected responses to the research demand, technology investments, and economic components of raw materials system will be discussed.

  19. Development and Capacity Forecast of China Rubber Raw Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The "1 lth Five-Year Plan" period is the most glorious period in the history of China raw materials such as NR and SR. During the "12th Five-Year Plan" period, the rubber raw materials will enter an important period of great development in technology, product and output.

  20. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  1. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  2. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  3. VERAM - Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Vashev, Boris

    2017-04-01

    The overall objective of VERAM project is to produce a Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials in 2050 based on raw materials research and innovation (R&I) coordination. Two leading European Technology Platforms (ETPs): ETP SMR (Sustainable Minerals Resources) and FTP (Forest Technology Platform) are joining forces to develop a common vison and roadmap with the support of ECTP (European Construction Technology Platform), represented by UNIVPM, SusChem (ETP for Sustainable Chemistry), represented by Cefic, EuMaT (Advanced Materials ETP), represented by VITO, ERAMIN 2, represented by Research Centre JUELICH and WoodWisdom Network Plus represented by the Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR). This partnership provides VERAM with expertise from downstream applications and additional knowledge on non-biotic and biotic raw materials. The project encourages capacity building as well as transfer of knowledge. It expects to provide an innovation reference point for the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT) Raw Materials (formerly the KIC Raw MatTERS), to coordinate the network involved in the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Raw Materials Commitments and relevant proposals funded under Horizon 2020. It provides a platform for identifying gaps and complementarities and enables their bridging. VERAM will be able to advise the European Commission and Member States on future research needs and policies to stimulate innovation and assist in overcoming fragmentation in the implementing the EIP Raw Materials Strategic Implementation Plan. VERAM looks for mutually beneficial information exchange, encourages cross-fertilization between actions undertaken by different raw material industries, and expects to accelerate exploitation of breakthrough innovations. One of the main outcomes of the project is the presentation of a common long term 2050 Vision and Roadmap for relevant raw materials including metals, industrial minerals and aggregates and wood. The

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL RELATIONS BEETWEEN RAW MATERIAL PRODUCERS AND PROCESSORS BASED ON NONLINEAR DEMAND FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers interested in marketing of raw materials, whereas processing companies are interested in the establishment of raw material zones, providing capacity utilization; therefore, the establishment of sustainable linkages between producers and processors of raw materials is an objective necessity. In the article, with the help of mathematical methods we examine the conditions of mutually beneficial economic relations between agricultural producers and processing enterprises. Mathematical model for estimating the profits of the company is built of the following conditions: producers sell processing plants raw materials, determined by the coefficient of the interest in the partnership at an agreed purchase price, and the remaining raw materials are processed, so they can sell their products independently. Profit of the processing plant is determined by the mathematical model. To describe the nonlinear market-based sales of goods from its retail price we used a hyperbolic demand function

  5. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the production and application of polymer materials based on renewable raw materials – biopolymers. It is pointed out that, investment of resources in the study of renewable raw materials in the last twenty years has led to the improvement of old and development of completely new chemical and biochemical processes for using biomass for the production of low molecular weight chemical substances, and especially for the production of biopolymers, which are biodegradable and compostable, and biopolymers which are nonbiodegradable. In the same period, producers of polymers based on fossil raw materials have also developed biopolymers that are biodegradable and some of them compostable and, most important, compatible with biopolymers based on renewable raw materials. The facts considering the state of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials on the market, and prediction of production increase over the next five years are also stated. Additionally, the main renewable raw materials and the biopolymers made from them that are already present in the world market are briefly listed. A short review of biopolymers based on cellulose from wood and annual plants is also given.

  7. Textile Raw Material Quality and Ecological Security Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semak Bohdan B

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in showing the role of management and marketing in formation and assessment of quality and ecological security of the domestic textile raw material and use of the obtained...

  8. Design of Digital Control System for Cement Raw Material Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying; LI Hongsheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design of cement raw material prepared digital control system by PROFIBUS. It uses the digital technology to implement the digital control system for raw material prepared of the cement factory. This system improves the communication between the industrial system and locale instrument devices. It applies digital communication to replace the 4-20 mA or 24VDC signal between locale lever device and controller.

  9. ICE CREAM WITH A COMBINED COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khodyreva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are the product of daily demand. Nowadays actively assimilate new types of raw materials, tech-nology, formulation. One of the propagation methods of enriching dairy products is a combination of milk and vegetable raw materials. The possibility of making a concentrated paste of Jerusalem artichoke in dairy products was investigated. The ice cream sundae "Vanilla" was chosen as the object of research.

  10. Raw material ‘criticality’—sense or nonsense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, M.; Kullik, J.; Reuter, M. A.; Gutzmer, J.

    2017-03-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials. A key to the current debate is the concept of ‘criticality’. The present article reviews the criticality concept, as well as the methodologies used in its assessment, including a critical evaluation of their validity in view of classical risk theory. Furthermore, it discusses a number of risks present in global raw materials markets that are not captured by most criticality assessments. Proposed measures for the alleviation of these risks are also presented. We find that current assessments of raw material criticality are fundamentally flawed in several ways. This is mostly due to a lack of adherence to risk theory, and highly limits their applicability. Many of the raw materials generally identified as critical are probably not critical. Still, the flaws of current assessments do not mean that the general issue of supply security can simply be ignored. Rather, it implies that new assessments are required. While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain. In the opinion of the authors, the greatest longer-term challenge in the raw materials sector is to stop, or counteract the effects of, the escalation of unit energy costs of production. This issue is particularly pressing due to its close link with the renewable energy transition, requiring more metal and mineral raw materials per unit energy produced. The solution to this problem will require coordinated policy action, as well as the collaboration of scientists from many different fields—with physics, as well as the materials and earth sciences in the lead.

  11. Study and application on the raw material of primary agricultural products supplier’s evaluation system over food manufactures for export%出口食品生产企业初级农产品原料供应商评价体系的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓南; 陈长兴; 罗丽; 黄剑锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study and establish an evaluation system which is suitable to food manufactures for export to the raw material of primary agricultural products supplier, in order to improve self-management ability of the food manufactures for export.Methods Through the analysis of current administration on raw material suppliers of primary agricultural products, the evaluation system of raw material suppliers of primary agricultural products was analyzed by PDCA and the safety hazards in primary agricultural products were identified by HACCP.Results Based on good agricultural practices, the content of raw material suppliers of primary agricultural products evaluation system combined the requirements of registration of raw material base for export manufacturers with the requirements of safety-sanitation control by export manufacturers, and conformed to our national conditions. Its basic content might include the establishment of criteria for food quality and safety, evaluation of effectiveness of the system, unconformity, corrective and preventive measure, document and record management and so on.ConclusionThis system can guide the food manufacturers for export to evaluate a raw material supplier effectively, so as to insure the food quality.%目的:探索建立一套适合出口食品生产企业对初级农产品原料供应商的评价体系,以提高出口食品生产企业对原料的自控能力。方法通过对我国初级农产品原料供应商管理现状的分析,应用PDCA的方法对初级农产品原料供应商评价体系的内容进行分析,并应用HACCP方法识别初级农产品原料中的安全危害。结果出口食品生产企业初级农产品原料供应商评价体系应以良好农业规范为基础,将出口生产食品企业原料基地备案要求和出口食品生产企业安全卫生要求中对原料的控制要求相结合,并符合我国的国情,其基本内容应包括:建立质量安全控制准则

  12. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  13. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Textile Raw Material Quality and Ecological Security Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semak Bohdan B.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in showing the role of management and marketing in formation and assessment of quality and ecological security of the domestic textile raw material and use of the obtained information for the needs of development of this raw material market and products manufactured on its basis. It was established in the result of the conducted study that the process of marketing management should be built on the basis of a deep study of needs of textile raw material and manufactured on its basis products consumers and is a key factor of successful development of the market of ecological textile in Ukraine. The article shows the role and justifies a necessity of introduction of ecological standardisation as a necessary prerequisite of formation of the system of textile raw material quality and ecological security management for manufacturing ecological textile. Further studies should be carried out in spheres of development of systems of control over the textile raw material quality and ecological security level for ensuring its correspondence with domestic and international regulatory documents.

  15. Natural Radioactivity in Tanzania Cements and their Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloyce Isaya Amasi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of natural radioactivity in Tanzania Portland cements and their raw materials. Samples collected as raw materials were pozzolan, sandstone, limestone, clay, gypsum and cement as finished products. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of radium 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K were measured by means of gamma spectrometer coupled with HPGe detector. The mean measured activity concentrations of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the raw materials range from 2.6 to 93.2, 1.3 to 172.8 and 6.3 to 997 Bq/kg, respectively with higher activity concentrations in pozzolan and lower in gypsum. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (excluding some materials from Songwe deposits in Mbeya region are comparative with the worldwide average concentrations of these radionuclides in soil. The average activity concentration of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the cements are 46, 28 and 228 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated values of radiological indices are below 60% of the upper recommended values for building materials. The average annual effective dose to an occupant from use of these materials equals to 0.45 mSv. Average activity concentrations of the mentioned radionuclides in Tanzania cements are in the middle of the variability interval of the national averages.

  16. 2011 China's Refractories Raw Materials Symposium Held in Zhengzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ On April 20-22,2011,China's Refractories Raw Materials Symposium,co-sponsored by Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals and China Henan Refractory Industry Association,was held successfully in Zhengzhou,Henan Province.Over 150 delegates from 100 refractory raw materials and products enterprises,testing equipment manufacturers,raw materials trade companies,institutes,universities,testing institutions,and industrial organizations attended the symposium.Wang Shouye,secretary-general of Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals and vice president of Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research Co.,Ltd.,made the address of welcome.Zhang Yazhong,vice chairman of Henan Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and honorary chairman of China Henan Refractory Industry Association,gave a speech.

  17. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  18. Vinasse organic matter quality and mineralization potential, as influenced by raw material, fermentation and concentration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, V; Condom, N; Oliver, R; Cazevieille, P; Recous, S

    2008-04-01

    Both dilute and concentrated vinasse can be spread on agricultural fields or used as organic fertilizer. The effects of different characteristics of the original raw material on the biochemical composition of vinasse and their C and N mineralization in soil were investigated. Vinasse samples were obtained from similar industrial fermentation processes based on the growth of microorganisms on molasses from different raw material (sugar beet or sugar cane) and vinasse concentration (dilute or concentrated). The nature of the raw material used for fermentation had the greatest effect on the nature and size of the resistant organic pool. This fraction included aromatic compounds originating from the raw material or from complex molecules and seemed to be quantitatively related to acid-insoluble N. Samples derived from sugar beet were richer in N compounds and induced greater net N mineralization. The effect of evaporation varied with the nature of the raw material. Concentration led to a slight increase in the abundance of phenolic compounds, acid-insoluble fraction, and a slight decrease in the labile fraction of vinasses partly or totally derived from sugar beet. The effect of the dilute vinasse from sugar cane was greater. The concentrated vinasse had a smaller labile fraction, induced N immobilization at the beginning of incubation, and exhibited greater N concentration in the acid-insoluble fraction than the dilute vinasse.

  19. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaa, S. Anas; Kheloufi, A.; Zaourar, N. Boutarek; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F.

    2016-07-01

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO2 + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  20. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussaa, S. Anas, E-mail: sabiha.anas@gmail.com; Kheloufi, A.; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F. [Division croissance cristalline et procédés métallurgiques CCPM Centre de recherche en technologie des semi-conducteurs pour l’énergétique (C.R.T.S.E) 02 Bd Frantz Fanon BP. 140 Alger 7 merveilles, Alger 16200 (Algeria); Zaourar, N. Boutarek [Laboratoire des technologies des matériaux, USTHB, B.P. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie 16111 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO{sub 2} + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF ENTEROTOXIGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCI IN MEAT RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Bataeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to renew the safety criteria for meat raw material used in production of fermented sausages was determined. The presence of the enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains in meat raw material was established. The method was mastered and the PCR approaches to identification and screenings of enterotoxigenic strains and their toxins in meat raw material were proposed. In order to identify enterotoxigenicity of detected staphylococci, the conservative regions of the S. aureus target gene sequences responsible for production of different types of enterotoxins (A, B, Е, С, D were found and studied. In addition, short fragments of a nuclear acid (primers corresponding to these revealed genes were constructed. As a result of identification, it was established that two isolated strains of S. аureus were enterotoxigenic. One of them produced type А and Е toxins (strain NG1 and another produced type С and Е toxins (strain NG2. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR method allowed not only identification of pure cultures but also screening of enterotoxigenic strains and their toxins in a product. The use of this method in the production control for the presence of the enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus in meat raw material used in fermented sausage manufacture was recommended.

  2. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic provi

  3. China Cancelled Export Tariff for Nine Kinds of Raw Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>In the recently promulgated "Tariff Execution Plan for 2013", among new tariffs implemented since January 1, 2013, tariffs of nine kinds of raw material products including bauxite, coke,yellow phosphorus, fluorite, magnesium, manganese, silicon metal, silicon carbide and zinc exported by China will be lifted.

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN RAW MATERIALS EXPORTING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Didenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a methodology for assessing the strategy of export-raw material orientation of the Russian economy, from the point of impact on the social sphere, directly to the person. The dynamics of oil production in Russia, dynamics of export of Russian oil, the price of oil on the world market and the dynamics of the social sphere in Russia were analyzed using data for 1990–2012.The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of raw material export-oriented strategy of Russia. Possibility raw export-oriented strategy was evaluated dependence of the social sphere - the index GINI, the average wage of household savings from the development of fuel – energy complex. Finding the functional dependence of each of these indicators of social sphere both of oil production and oil exports from Russia plus the price of oil on the world market were tasks.Empirical estimates show the ability of the raw material export-oriented strategy of the Russian economy to ensure the development of the social sphere of the country under condition increasing in the growth rate of energy consumption. Resource-rich countries should pursue a policy of reducing their exports and thus increase their domestic consumption.

  5. Material Classification Using Raw Time-of-Flight Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2016-12-13

    We propose a material classification method using raw time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. ToF cameras capture the correlation between a reference signal and the temporal response of material to incident illumination. Such measurements encode unique signatures of the material, i.e. the degree of subsurface scattering inside a volume. Subsequently, it offers an orthogonal domain of feature representation compared to conventional spatial and angular reflectance-based approaches. We demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness, and efficiency of our method through experiments and comparisons of real-world materials.

  6. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HYDRATION OF VARIOUS MAGNESIA RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Jastrzebska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydration of various commercially available magnesia raw materials were studied under hydrothermal conditions. Raw materials were characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA and SEM/EDS methods. Subsequently, they were subjected to hydration test conducted at temperature of 162oC and presuure of 552 kPa according to ASTM C 554-92 standard. The evolution of phase, microstructure and physicochemical behaviour after hydration test were analysed by XRD, DTA/TG and SEM/EDS. The results showed that presence of the specific secondary phases plays a crucial role in preventing MgO grains against the hydration. Merwinite, monticellite, magnesioferrite and srebrnodolskite were found to constitute protector-like phases that inibit hydration process of magnesia.

  7. Agaves as a raw material: recent technologies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2009-01-01

    Agave plants are a valuable source of raw material due to its fibrous and complex sugar content of their leaves and core, and their bagasse waste can be use for several aims. This plant genus belongs to the Agavaceae family and until now more than 200 species have been described. A large number of Agave species are currently used as raw material in several biotechnological processes. This review shows the reported applications and patents on fields like alcoholic brewages with special reference to Tequila and Mezcal, the isolation and use of compounds such as saponins and agave fructans, and their potential biotechnological application on several human demands. The process to obtain fibers and cellulose, stock feeds, and several miscellaneous extractives are also reviewed. Some possibilities and problems of cultivation are discussed.

  8. [PCR detection of transgenic elements in feed raw material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Dao-Jian; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Jin, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Pei-Qing; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Cheng, Ying-Hui

    2002-05-01

    Based on the heterogeneous genes usually used in transgenic crops, the PCR technique was performed with primers derived from CaMV 35S promoter (35S-promoter,originated from cauliflower mosaic virus), NOS terminator (nopaline synthase-terminator,derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens), EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, and CryIA(b) (delta-endotoxin,evolved from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) gene to detect transgenic agents from feed raw materials of soybean dregs and corn gluten meal, respectively. Endogenous corn Zein (a protein extracted from corn gluten) gene, soybean Lectin (chitin-binding protein) gene and negative, positive control were applied for avoiding false results. The method established here has been successfully applied in detecting transgenic elements in imported feed raw material.

  9. Modeling and Optimization of Cement Raw Materials Blending Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modelling and solving the ingredient ratio optimization problem in cement raw material blending process. A general nonlinear time-varying (G-NLTV model is established for cement raw material blending process via considering chemical composition, feed flow fluctuation, and various craft and production constraints. Different objective functions are presented to acquire optimal ingredient ratios under various production requirements. The ingredient ratio optimization problem is transformed into discrete-time single objective or multiple objectives rolling nonlinear constraint optimization problem. A framework of grid interior point method is presented to solve the rolling nonlinear constraint optimization problem. Based on MATLAB-GUI platform, the corresponding ingredient ratio software is devised to obtain optimal ingredient ratio. Finally, several numerical examples are presented to study and solve ingredient ratio optimization problems.

  10. MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in creams was monitored. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms defined in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. For microbiological analysis of confectionery products, sampling of components of confectionary products and cream was carried out according to current health regulations and altogether 65 samples of components and creams were collected: 10 samples of raw materials sugar, 10 samples of flour, 10 samples of butter and 10 samples of eggs, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag without rum addition, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag with rum addition, 5 samples of cream-filled multiple use paid bag, 5 samples of cream-filled newly purchased paid bag, 5 samples of Venček corpus and 5 samples of the French cubes corpus. From raw material the highest TBC (2.65log CFU was in flour, but the lowest in sugar (1.35 log CFU, the highest years counts was found on flour (2.42, but lowest in butter (1.18, while wasn’t in egg. In samples of creams and corpus were increased occurrence of yeast, coliform bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus weren’t isolated from any tested sample.

  11. MICROSTRUCTURE OF MODEL SYSTEMS BASED ON FERMENTED RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinina O. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the research we have given a detailed description of certain structural components of the model system when adding fermented raw material into it. As the raw material we used collagen containing by-products of bovine animals of the 2nd category – lips and ears were used. The lactulose syrup and linseed flour were used as growth-promoting substances. The fermentation of the raw material was conducted by freeze-dried starter of the bacteria of Propionic Culture PS–4 and Probio–Tec ВВ–12, and also bacterial concentrate Bifilact-Pro. The fermentation parameters: the temperature 37°С, the time of the fermentation is 3 hours. The changes, taking place in the tissues under the biotechnological processing, were established with the method of the histological samples test. As the result of the conducted microstructure tests of prototypes it was determined that in the biomodification process under the influence of the propionic and bifidus bacteria marked changes occurred in the histological structure of modeling systems in the comparison with the control sample. At the same time it was ascertained that under the influence of the ferment processing a loosening of collagen fascicles happens to isolated fibrils and their fragmentation occurs. As the result, when composing protein compositions an emulsion (which is homogeneous by the structure comes out. In the future it is recommended to use the emulsion in the receipts of boiled sausages and minced half-finished goods

  12. Chemical composition of the clays as indicator raw material sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high calcium content corresponds to the addition of river shells, the high content of silicon results from sand addition. A more interesting picture has been revealed in the course of studies of the so-called “trace elements” (microelements. Nine groups of ceramics with different elemental set have been distinguished. The first two groups consist of imported ceramics; other groups have demonstrated a rather pronounced elemental composition. The most notable variations are observed in chromium, vanadium and nickel content. Similar microelement composition variety has been observed in clays from deposits of different localization, while the concentration of the mentioned elements in a variety of clays also differs considerably. Therefore, marker elements typical of different clays have been identified. A comparative analysis of the data obtained for clay raw materials and ceramics has been conducted. The results demonstrate the potential of studying the elemental composition in order to determine the localization of the raw material sources for ceramic production.

  13. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  14. Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Fabrics of Different Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra ADOMAITIENĖ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes dependence of mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on integrated fabric structure factor j and raw material density r, among the fabrics of different raw material (cotton, wool, polypropylene, polyester and polyacrylnitrile and woven in different conditions. The received results demonstrate that sometimes strong dependences exist (wool, polypropylene and polyacrylnitrile, whereas in some cases (cotton and polyester there is no correlation. It was also discovered that the breaking force and elongation at break in the direction of weft increase, when fabric structure becomes more rigid. In the meantime variations of the curves in the direction of warp are insignificant. Regarding static friction force and static friction coefficient (found in two cases, when fabrics were rubbing against leather and materials, it was discovered that consistency of the curves is irregular, i. e. they either increase or decrease, when integrated fabric structure factor j growth. It was also identified that some dependences are not strong and relationship between explored and analyzed factors does not exist. Variation of all these mechanical properties with respect to material density r enables to conclude that increase of material density r results in poor dependences or they are whatsoever non-existent.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.487

  15. Quality assurance of herbal raw materials in supply chain: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    The herbal medicine industry is presently adopting modern scientific tools to substantiate the guarantee of efficacy that, in the past, rested only on anecdotal evidence derived from traditional knowledge systems. This is particularly true for the processes of identification of herbal raw materials adopting modern tools for phytochemical fingerprinting. The successful adaptation of available technologies and practices depends on an understanding of the phytochemical complexity and variability innate in biological material. It challenges the "mainstream medicinal mindset" that "tend(s) to reject …. therapies for which mechanisms of action do not fit within Newtonian, biochemical orientation" (Dumoff, 2003). The herbal medicinal industry is independently evolving its own rigid quality assurance and control systems using Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) guidelines, but it faces unique difficulties. These include lack of Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP), lack of transparency in the raw material supply chain so as to preclude the use of unsafe practices, problems in the authentication of herbal raw materials, and a general lack of understanding of the need to reduce phytochemical variability in these materials. This paper explores these difficulties and outlines strategies to overcome them, but these strategies will require coordinated international government regulations to be fully effective.

  16. Valorization of rice straw waste: an alternative ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Guzmán A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of rice a large amount of solid residue is produced, for which alternative utilizations are scarce or are not commonly applied in industry. Rice straw (RS is a waste product of rice harvest that is generated in equal or greater quantities than the rice itself. RS is frequently burned in open air, which makes it a significant source of pollution. In the search for possible uses of RS, it should be noted that its ash (RSA is particularly rich in silica, alkaline and alkaline earth metals and may be used as a source of alkalis and silica for the production of triaxial ceramics. The present research work proposes the production of a ceramic raw material from RS for its use in the fabrication of ceramic materials for the construction industry. Based on the chemical and mineralogical composition of RSA created under different thermal conditions, the most suitable RSA for this purpose was that obtained from treating RS at a temperature of 800 ºC for a time of 2 h. The resulting RSA presented high contents of SiO2 (79.62%, alkaline oxides (K2O (10.53% and alkaline earth oxides (CaO (2.80%. It is concluded that RSA is a new alternative ceramic raw material that can be used as a replacement for the fluxing (mainly feldspar and inert (quartz materials that are used in the production of triaxial ceramics.

  17. PLASTIC MATERIALS IN EUROPEAN AGRICULTURE: ACTUAL USE AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Scarascia-Mugnozza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The world consumption of plastics in agriculture amounts yearly to 6.5 million tons. In addition to conventional polymers used in agriculture for greenhouses and mulches such as PE, PVC, EVA, photo-selective and luminescent polymers have been used, in order to improve the quality of crops. For the same reason plastic nets are used mainly in countries with tropical and Mediterranean climates. For an environmentally friendly agricultural activity, an alternative strategy can be represented by bio-based agricultural raw materials. For low environmental impact applications, biodegradable materials for agricultural films are nowadays produced. An overview of the main methods for the disposal and recycling of plastic materials are presented with the results of mechanical and radiometric tests on recycled plastics. The strategies to reduce the burden of plastics in agriculture are: a correct procedure for the collection, disposal and recycling of post-consumption plastics; the increase of lifetime duration and performance; and the introduction and promotion of bio-based materials.

  18. Insulating materials from renewable raw materials. 4. ed.; Daemmstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhorst, Joerg; Spritzendorfer, Josef; Gildhorn, Kai; Hemp, Markus

    2012-03-27

    The thermal insulation has become a central issue in the construction and renovation of buildings. The question of healthy building materials and appropriate construction follows the desire of a comfartable and allergy-free living. Due to these developments, insulation materials from renewable resources increasingly has raised the consciousness. The brochure under consideration describes the dynamic market of insulation materials consisting of renewable raw materials. Wood fibers, wood wool, sheep wool, flax, hemp, reeds, meadow grass, cork, cellulose, seaweed and bulrushes are considered as renewable raw materials for insulating materials.

  19. Secondary raw materials for synthesising new kind of cements

    OpenAIRE

    Goñi, S.; Macías, Mª A., Peña, E.; Fernández-Escalante, E.

    2001-01-01

    [EN]The present paper is a comparative study of some characteristics of new belite cements obtained from two kind of wastes, which were used as secondary raw materials: fly ash (FA), of low CaO content, from coal combustion, and ash from incineration of municipal solid waste (MSWIA). Cements were synthesised in a range of temperature between 700 °C and 900 ""C from MSWIA and FA, which were previously activated by hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C The evolution of cement...

  20. Monopoly power and the recycling of raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.E.

    1982-06-01

    A leader-follower model of monopolist recycling in the case of the Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA) shows that industry output in the presence of raw-material recycling will be at least as great and sometimes significantly greater than when there is no recycling. Monopoly rents will drop as the technology for scrap recovery or conversion improves, and rise if the scrap leaks into export markets. The consumer benefits if the scrap-recovery sector is separate from the monopolist, but will not be worse off if production is integrated. The monopolist has no incentive for partial integration even if there are no entry barriers. 7 references. (DCK)

  1. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  2. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  3. Selection of Raw Materials for the Reactive Sinterling of Zircon Porous Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENYi; ZHANGWenli; 等

    1999-01-01

    The effect of three kinds of zircon raw materials on the sinterability and properties of porous zircon ceramics have been investigated.The results have shown that all the tested fired compacts are of high porosity,However,the sintering process are different for different raw materials.The preferable selected raw materials for porous zircon ceramics were commercials zircon and quartz.

  4. Regenerative raw materials - High technology without end; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe - Spitzentechnologie ohne Ende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenig, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    Regenerative raw materials are the basis for a multiplicity of environmentally friendly products. Regenerating raw materials fascinate by special qualities and offer the possibility of preserving only restricted existing fossil resources and climatic friendly managing. The review under consideration reports on areas in which vegetable raw materials already are established as well as on future prospects.

  5. Insulating materials from renewable raw materials. 3. upd. ed.; Daemmstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhorst, Joerg; Spritzendorfer, Josef; Gildhorn, Kai; Hemp, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Due to increasing energy prices, obligations to climatic protection and the desire for comfortable, allergy-free living, the thermal insulation is a central question with building and sanitation. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration describes the very dynamic market of the insulating materials from renewable raw materials and deals with the questions of the users. In particular, the following raw materials are considered in the production of insulating materials: Wood fibre, wood chips, wood wool, sheep wool, flax, hemp, reeds, straw, cellulose.

  6. Evaluation of effectiveness of raw materials and materials use in a blast furnace department of a steelworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kardas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the quality of raw materials used in the production of blast furnace pig iron. The ferruginous sinter and pellets are the basic raw materials used in the process. The paper presents the impact of those raw materials quality on the effectiveness of the blast furnace process. The process effectiveness will be specified by means of selected process parameters.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL SECONDARY RAW MATERIAL MARKET AS A FACTOR OF DIVERSIFICATION OF KAZAKHSTAN’S EXPORT POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Konurbaeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Products of the recycling of livestock should become the most important part of the Kazakhstani export potential. Using recycled materials in the finished production cycle would significantly diversify the export component of national agro-industrial sector of the Republic.The article proposes an approach to the placement of industries, processing secondary raw materials in order to obtain market product with high added value, which will result in implementing the existing potential of the agricultural sector of the state.

  8. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  9. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants’ materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system, and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system. As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  10. Utilization of raw material from early thinnings; Ensiharvennuspuun hyoedyntaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Marttina, M.; Toivanen, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-01

    Wood material from early thinnings is one of the most potential new material reserves (4 - 6 million m{sup 3}) for industrial purposes. However, the prerequisites for an enhanced utilisation of this reserve would be, besides more efficient logging, debarking, and chipping, an optimal fractionation of wood material into energy and fibre production. The aim of this project was to promote the use of first-thinning wood as a competitive raw material for energy production by increasing the potential utilisation of the corresponding wood resource for chemical pulping. During the year 1996 the variation of fibre length distribution within the stem and top (total height of 12 m) of a 27-years-old pine wood (Pinus sylvestris) was determined. Tentative calculations indicated that about 67 % of the wood dry matter consists of fibres having an average fibre length more than 2 mm. It was considered that most of this fraction with high quality fibre properties could be recovered and used for pulping. In addition, the detailed FTIR analysis of different samples from the same pine wood showed that there was an adequate correlation between the FTIR spectrometric data and the fibre length averages. (orig.)

  11. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials. PMID:23476134

  12. Characterization and evaluation of golpata fronds as pulping raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, D A Nasima; Islam, M Khalidul

    2006-02-01

    The chemical, morphological and anatomical studies of golpata fronds have been discussed. The lignin, pentosan and alpha-cellulose in golpata fronds were comparable to some common nonwood and hardwood raw materials. The alkali, water and dichloromethane solubility were higher than wood and common nonwood. The fiber length 1.73 mm was observed, which is little bit shorter than softwood and longer than hardwood but fiber diameter was very short. The pulpability of golpata fronds has also been studied. The pulp yield was very low and Kappa number was high. The strength properties were better than that of some common nonwood pulps. FT-IR spectrum and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation products showed that golpata fronds lignin mainly consist of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl units (V).

  13. Raw Materials, Production and Distribution of Xuejiagang Stone Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Lina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Xuejiagang culture is associated with the latter part of the Neolithic period in southern China. Since the 1970s, we have found many cemeteries associated with this culture, in which stone implements make up an important and significant part of the funerary objects. The perforated stone knife, the yue axe and the adze were especially important. Analysis of the frequency and relationships between raw material, technology and tool types provides a basis for distinguishing between the different production sites associated with the Xuejiagang stone industry. This article discusses the relationship between rock types and stone tools, and between stone artefacts from different production sites. Thin-section analysis was used to identify and characterise stone used for implement manufacture.

  14. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rodella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu. This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  15. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  16. The use of foresight methods in strategic raw materials intelligence - an international review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrat Martins, Marco Antonio; Bodo, Balazs; Falck, Eberhard

    2017-04-01

    Foresight methods are systematic attempts to look into the longer term future of science, society, economy and technology. There is a range of tools and techniques that can be used individually or combined, most commonly classified into qualitative, quantitative or semi-quantitative methods, that follow an exploratory or normative approach. These tools can help to identify the longer term visions, orienting policy formulation and decisions, triggering actions, among other objectives. There is an identified lack of European strategic foresight knowledge in the raw materials domain. Since the European Raw Materials Initiative was launched in 2008, the EU has been attempting to overcome challenges related to the future access of non-energy and non-agricultural raw materials. In this context, the ongoing H2020 project, MICA (Mineral Intelligence Capacity Analysis, Grant Agreement No. 689648), has been launched to answer to stakeholders needs by consolidating relevant data, determining relevant methods and tools, and investigating Raw Materials Intelligence options for European mineral policy development, all tailored to fit under the umbrella of a European Raw Materials Intelligence Capacity Platform (EU-RMICP). As part of the MICA activities, an assessment of best practices and benchmarks of international raw materials foresight case studies has been carried out in order to review how EU and non-EU countries have employed foresight. A pool of 30 case studies has been collected and reviewed internationally, one third of which were selected for detailed assessment. These were classified according to their background and goals, in function of methods employed, and to the purpose of each method in the study: a total of 12 different methods were identified in these studies. For longer time frames, qualitative predictive methods such as Scenario Development have been repeatedly observed for mineral raw materials foresight studies. Substantial variations were observed in

  17. Information technologies of strategic planning in raw-material region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Mikhaylovich Lavlinskiy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem discussion of technology formation for development of strategy and program of socio-economic development of the raw-material region. The methodology of indicative planning is offered as the essence of such technology. The modeling tools should be developed according to a trajectory of sustainable development. The mechanism of management decision development using models of regional indicative planning and providing balances of labor and material resources, and also the financial balance of actions is developed. The approach based on the repeated problem solving of developing territory according a trajectory of sustainable development for several sets of scenarios of external conditions is offered for a strategy generation of resource region development. The set of indicative plans received during problem solution allows interpreting the found tendencies and making on this basis the management decision good for external conditions changing, balance and productivity. The examples of such approach implementation for some regions showing a technique of efficient administration development during strategic planning are given.

  18. 出口农产品企业订单基地模式的弊端及加权考核新模式的应用%Disadvantages of Cooperation Mode between Agricultural Products Export Enterprises and Raw Material Bases and Application of New Weighted Evaluation Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军

    2013-01-01

      分析了宁波慈溪地区农产品企业与原料订单基地当前合作的模式和存在的弊端,提出并分析了加权考核新模式的应用。加权考核新模式根据科学的数学计算进行考核,有利于平衡合作双方的利益,更能促进合作机制的稳定完善。%  In the paper, we analyzed cooperation mode between agricultural products export enterprises and raw material bases and its disadvantages, and put forward the application example and key points of new weighted evaluation mode. Based on scientific mathematical calculation, the new mode was helpful to balance of the interests of both cooperation sides, and could promote the improvement and stability of cooperation mechanism better.

  19. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    , establishing a company in China can lower the production cost (since the company buys the products used in its production at a lower price). In the fifth session, they study the raw materials trading based on the futures contracts example. A producer, to avoid a rise in prices of raw materials used in his production can use derivative products on the financial market: futures contracts for instance. This product ensures a quantity and quality for a price and a delivery date agreed upon today. Actually, producers can use a method called Fix price hedging in order to fix the price of a specific product. The main idea is to balance out the "physical position" (spot market) and the "paper position" (futures market). Even if the REE are commercialized in form of a non-perishable's oxide, the flow of the stock must be guaranteed and this is why it is important for producers to secure their supply of raw materials. In the last session, students search local companies that use REE in their production process and study their strategy on the market.

  20. Influence of raw materials composition on firing shrinkage, porosity, heat conductivity and microstructure of ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurovics, E.; Buzimov, A. Y.; Gömze, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work some new raw material compositions from alumina, conventional brick-clays and sawdust were mixed, compacted and heat treated by the authors. Depending on raw material compositions and firing temperatures the specimens were examined on shrinkage, water absorption, heat conductivity and microstructures. The real raised experiments have shown the important role of firing temperature and raw material composition on color, heat conductivity and microstructure of the final product.

  1. Development and Testing the Technology of Complex Transformation of Carbohydrates from Vegetable Raw Materials into Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tsygankov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of development and testing the tentative technology of sweet sorghum and finger millet processing into bioethanol are described. The carbohydrates content and range of the studied vegetable biomass as the raw material is defined. Bioethanol potential output from sugar sorghum and finger millet carbohydrates and key technological parameters of preparation of both types of vegetable raw material for alcohol fermentation are defined. The concept of the tentative technology of bioethanol production from carbohydrate raw material of the first and second generations is offered. Testing of complex transformation of carbohydrates from vegetable raw materials into bioethanol is performed.

  2. Pyrolysis of secondary raw material from used frying oils

    CERN Document Server

    Billaud, Francis; Coniglio, Lucie

    2007-01-01

    A totally green chemistry alternative that would lead both to energy production from renewable feedstocks and to solutions of parts of ecological problems related to waste disposals would be very attractive. Pyrolysis of used frying oils seems to be one option for this attractive alternative as we propose to demonstrate in this study. Since 2002, the whole production of waste edible oils (around 100 000 tons per year in France) must be collected and transformed into secondary raw material by specific companies. The general aim of the present work is to produce one of the following target sources of energy: (i) H2 for fuel cells, (ii) H2/CO in satisfactory ratios to produce biodiesel by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction, or (iii) hydrocarbon mixtures with high added value. Therefore, in this work, the conversion of a crude used frying oil, named VEGETAMIXOIL^(r); from Ecogras Company (France), was investigated (weight composition: C 73.6%; O 9.7%; H 12.2%). In support of our knowledge related to fatty acids and me...

  3. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  4. Texture analysis of cosmetic/pharmaceutical raw materials and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A; Bianchini, R; Jachowicz, J

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify textural properties of cosmetic and pharmaceutical raw materials. Textural parameters such as hardness, consistency, cohesiveness, index of viscosity, stickiness and resilience were evaluated. The measurements were performed using texture analyser - a tensile metre equipped with special probes (in the form of acrylic cylinder and stainless steel sphere), which can penetrate the measured sample of a product recording the force, distance and time. The instrument simulates the action of a human finger touching the surface and probing the properties of an object. The set-up has been previously shown to quantify the rheological/textural properties of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products such as creams, lotion and gels as well as rheological behaviour of human skin. The results include the analysis of water, glycerine and mineral oil as well as aqueous solutions of thickeners such as Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer (Ultrez-20 obtained from Noveon) and carbomer. Solutions of common surfactants and complex surfactant formulations such as shampoos have also been investigated. The results, in the form plots of force as a function of time or distance, resulting from slow bidirectional probe movement (submergence and desubmergence) in the analysed fluid, were interpreted by considering buoyancy, drag and viscous drag force given by Stokes equation. The data can be used to correlate with tactile evaluations of products by trained panel evaluations. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Plant development effects of biochars from different raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, Paola; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gascó, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can provide multiple benefits in the ecosystem. However, the presence of phytotoxic compounds in some biochars is an important concern that needs to be addressed and that depends on the raw material and the pyrolysis conditions used in biochar production. For example, sewage sludge biochars can have elevated heavy metal contents as they were present in the feedstock and were enriched during pyrolysis. Also during carbonization, some phytotoxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyphenols or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be formed representing a risk of contamination to soils and crops. In this work we report the results from seed germination and plant development for three biochars prepared from wood, paper sludge plus wheat husks and sewage sludge. Five higher plant species (cress, lentils, cucumber, tomato and lettuce) were studied. Biochar from wood shows seed inhibition in several species and the paper sludge biochar on lettuce. For the rest, the effect on seed germination was positive. No inhibition of root growth was detected, but in some cases leaves and stems growth were inhibited. Our results are significant in terms of advancing or current understanding on the impacts of biochar on vegetative growth and linking those effects to biochar properties.

  6. Material Consumption in the Czech Republic: Focus on Foreign Trade and Raw Material Equivalents of Imports and Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kovanda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparison of indicators based on an economy-wide material flow analysis, namely imports, exports, domestic material consumption, raw material equivalents of imports, raw material equivalents of exports and raw material consumption. These indicators were calculated for the Czech Republic for 1995-2010 using, besides economy-wide material flow analysis, the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method, which allows for a calculation of raw material equivalents of imports and exports. The results showed that calculation of indicators including raw material equivalents is useful, as they provided some important information which was not obvious from imports, exports and domestic material consumption. This includes the facts that the latter indicators tended to underestimate environmental pressure related to consumption of materials, high dependency of the Czech production system on metal ores from abroad and quite unequal and unfair distribution of environmental pressures between the Czech Republic and its trading partners.

  7. Evaluation of coagulation sludge from raw water treated with Moringa oleifera for agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Jairo Feria

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation-flocculation is a physical-chemical process responsible for producing the largest amount of sludge in the purification of natural raw water. Conventionally, aluminum sulfate or alum has been used as a coagulant. However, disposal of the sludge produced has been problematic for the environment due to excess aluminum. Currently, the convenience of using natural coagulants such as seed extracts from Moringa oleifera (MO is being studied, although, the properties of sewage sludge produced and its possible reuse are unknown. In this paper the physical-chemical, nutritional and dangerous characteristics from MO sludge were evaluated by using standard methods to verify its potential use in agricultural soils. Results indicated that pH, electrical conductivity, ion exchange capacity, organic matter and micronutrients from sludge were suitable for application to soils with agricultural potential; but deficiency of macronutrients and presence of fecal coliforms limits it to be used as soil improver and not as fertilizer. Sludge stabilization with hydrated lime at doses greater than or equal to 3 % was effective to ensure the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and to obtain a Class A sludge, unrestricted for agricultural use and suitable for acid soils.

  8. Comparison of Different Wood Species as Raw Materials for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Klašnja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Most projections of the global energy use predict that biomass will be an important component of primary energy sources in the coming decades. Short rotation plantations have the potential to become an important source of renewable energy in Europe because of the high biomass yields, a good combustion quality as solid fuel, ecological advantages and comparatively low biomass production costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the wood of black locust Robinia pseudoacacia, white willow Salix alba L., poplars Populus deltoides and Populus x euramericana cl.I-214, aged eight years were examined. Immediately after the felling, sample discs were taken to assess moisture content, ash content, the width of growth rings, wood densities and calorific values, according to the standard methodology. Results:The mean values of willow, poplar and black locust wood density were 341 kg/m3, 336 kg/m3 and 602 kg/m3,respectively. The average heating values of willow poplar and black locust wood were 18.599 MJ/kg, 18.564 MJ/kg and 21.196 MJ/kg, respectively. The FVI index (average values was higher for black locust (17.186 than for poplar and willow clones, which were similar: 11.312 and 11.422 respectively. Conclusions: Black locust wood with a higher density, calorific value and ash content compared to poplar and willow wood proved to be a more suitable raw material as RES. However, it is very important, from the aspect of the application of wood of these tree species as RES, to also consider the influence of the biomass yield per unit area of the plantations established as “energy plantations”.

  9. Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Luisa; Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2009-02-01

    Biofuels demand is unquestionable in order to reduce gaseous emissions (fossil CO(2), nitrogen and sulfur oxides) and their purported greenhouse, climatic changes and global warming effects, to face the frequent oil supply crises, as a way to help non-fossil fuel producer countries to reduce energy dependence, contributing to security of supply, promoting environmental sustainability and meeting the EU target of at least of 10% biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. Biodiesel is usually produced from oleaginous crops, such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. However, the use of microalgae can be a suitable alternative feedstock for next generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels, using currently available technology; they have fast growth rate, permit the use of non-arable land and non-potable water, use far less water and do not displace food crops cultures; their production is not seasonal and they can be harvested daily. The screening of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina maxima, Nannochloropsis sp., Neochloris oleabundans, Scenedesmus obliquus and Dunaliella tertiolecta) was done in order to choose the best one(s), in terms of quantity and quality as oil source for biofuel production. Neochloris oleabundans (fresh water microalga) and Nannochloropsis sp. (marine microalga) proved to be suitable as raw materials for biofuel production, due to their high oil content (29.0 and 28.7%, respectively). Both microalgae, when grown under nitrogen shortage, show a great increase (approximately 50%) in oil quantity. If the purpose is to produce biodiesel only from one species, Scenedesmus obliquus presents the most adequate fatty acid profile, namely in terms of linolenic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the microalgae Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp. and Dunaliella tertiolecta can also be used if associated with other

  10. CAN BE BLUEBERRIES THE RISK FOOD AND RAW MATERIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Medvecký2

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of the highbush blueberries are popular for their beneficial effects on human health and for their excellent sweet-vine taste. Our work is focused on risk assessment of selected elements in relation to the content of bioactive compounds in wild and cultivated of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.. Anthocyanins are polyphenols that are widely distributed in plants, and contribute to the brilliant blue, red or purple colour in leaves, flowers or fruits. In the samples the antioxidant capacity by the method of Brand – Williams using DPPH (2,2–difenyl-1-pikrylhydrazyl and the content of anthocyanins by the modified method Lapornik in two samples of wild blueberries from different areas of Slovakia (Čertovica and Oravské Veselé and in 6 cultivated varieties highbush blueberry (Bluejay, Bluecrop, Patriot, Berkeley, Brigitta, Nelson were determined. The contents of risky elements - Cd, Pb were assessed by AAS method. The contents of Pb were in all observed samples higher than the maximum limit given by the legislation (cultivated: 0.5612 – 0.9912 mg.kg-1, wild: 0.792 – 0.874 mg.kg-1. The measured content values of Cd were in all samples of blueberries lower than hygienic limit. The highest content of anthocyanins from analysed samples was in wild blueberries from surrouding Čertovica 4870.125 ± 22.803 mg.dm-3, but in this sample was simultaneously the lowest antioxidant capacity of 61.15 ± 1.002 %. The highest antioxidant capacity was measured in sample of cultivated variety Bluejay 87.175 ± 0.45 %. It is important to carry out monitoring of heavy metals to consumption of safe food raw materials and foodstuffs.

  11. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical...

  12. Introduction to production yield analysis : a new tool for improvement of raw material yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.; Capelle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Mass losses during processing will result in a decrease of production yield. Losses can be separated in wanted and unwanted losses. Wanted losses are necessary to transform raw material into desired final product(s). Unwanted losses will result in additional raw material usage and generate

  13. Novel class of eco-flame retardants based on the renewable raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, A. M.; Sakharov, P. A.; Lomakin, S. M.; Zaikov, G. E.

    2012-07-01

    The present study is focused on development of environmentally friendly intumescent/char forming coatings for wood and polymeric materials. For this purpose we have developed the method of oxidation of raw materials: polysaccharides, seeds and lignin by oxygen in the presence of catalyst. The main products of oxidation of such substrates are the salts of polyoxy- and polyphenoxy acids. The efficiency of fireproofing action of novel surface protecting intumescent coating for wood and polymeric materials based on modified renewable raw materials was studied. Flammability tests of wood and polymers samples treated by oxidized raw materials confirm their high-performance fire protection.

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE MINERAL-RAW MATERIAL SAFETY IN THE URAL FEDERATION DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pahomov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the condition of the mineral-raw material base of firm minerals in the Ural Federation District. Attention is drawn to the fact that a significant portion of mineral resources goes to export, despite the fact that the local mineral-raw material base is largely declining and this poses a threat to the economic safety. It is stated that the entrance of the country into the world market gives it the possibility to use alternative sources of raw materials that can be found over-seas. Therefore, the providing of the mineral- raw material in the Ural industry seems quite optimistic for the time being. In order to provide the Ural industry with a long-term plan, a throughout preparation of a new raw material base is necessary, that will be located in the Ural North.

  15. Secondary raw materials for synthesising new kind of cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goñi, S.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a comparative study of some characteristics of new belite cements obtained from two kind of wastes, which were used as secondary raw materials: fly ash (FA, of low CaO content, from coal combustion, and ash from incineration of municipal solid waste (MSWIA. Cements were synthesised in a range of temperature between 700°C and 900°C from MSWIA and FA, which were previously activated by hydrothermal treatment at 200°C The evolution of cemented phases with the heating temperature was followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results were compared with those obtained from heating the starting FA and MSWIA without the previous hydrothermal treatment. The degree of hydration was quantitatively evaluated by the combined water content, determined from thermogravimetric analyses, during a period of 28 days or 200 days from mixing depending of hydration kinetics of each cement.

    Este trabajo es un estudio comparativo de algunas de las características de nuevos cementos belíticos, obtenidos a partir de dos tipos de residuos, como materia prima secundaria: cenizas volantes (CV de bajo contenido en cal, procedentes de la combustión del carbón y cenizas procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos (CIRSU. Los cementos fueron sintetizados en un rango de temperaturas comprendido entre 700°C y 900°C después de un tratamiento hidrotermal de la CV y CIRSU a 200°C La evolución de las fases cementicias, con la temperatura de calentamiento, fue estudiada por difracción de rayos X (DRX. Los resultados fueron comparados con aquellos obtenidos, directamente, por calentamiento de los residuos, sin un tratamiento hidrotermal previo de los mismos. El grado de hidratación fue cuantitativamente evaluado, por medio del análisis termogravimétrico, a partir del agua combinada de los cementos hidratados durante un período de 28 días o 200 días, dependiendo de la cinética de hidratación de cada cemento.

  16. Leveraging "raw materials" as building blocks and bioactive signals in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renth, Amanda N; Detamore, Michael S

    2012-10-01

    Components found within the extracellular matrix (ECM) have emerged as an essential subset of biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Collagen, glycosaminoglycans, bioceramics, and ECM-based matrices are the main categories of "raw materials" used in a wide variety of tissue engineering strategies. The advantages of raw materials include their inherent ability to create a microenvironment that contains physical, chemical, and mechanical cues similar to native tissue, which prove unmatched by synthetic biomaterials alone. Moreover, these raw materials provide a head start in the regeneration of tissues by providing building blocks to be bioresorbed and incorporated into the tissue as opposed to being biodegraded into waste products and removed. This article reviews the strategies and applications of employing raw materials as components of tissue engineering constructs. Utilizing raw materials holds the potential to provide both a scaffold and a signal, perhaps even without the addition of exogenous growth factors or cytokines. Raw materials contain endogenous proteins that may also help to improve the translational success of tissue engineering solutions to progress from laboratory bench to clinical therapies. Traditionally, the tissue engineering triad has included cells, signals, and materials. Whether raw materials represent their own new paradigm or are categorized as a bridge between signals and materials, it is clear that they have emerged as a leading strategy in regenerative medicine. The common use of raw materials in commercial products as well as their growing presence in the research community speak to their potential. However, there has heretofore not been a coordinated or organized effort to classify these approaches, and as such we recommend that the use of raw materials be introduced into the collective consciousness of our field as a recognized classification of regenerative medicine strategies.

  17. THE MATERIAL FLOW ON AGRICULTURAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D VANECEK

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite that the great importance of logistics in industry, business and other branches is generally acknowledged, this problem is not systematically investigated in agriculture. As a presumption of detailed analysis, the knowledge of the volume and structure of the material flow is necessary. The authors have proposed their own methodical procedure which issues from technological indicators, published by the Czech Ministry of Agriculture for individual plants and categories of animals and which makes possible further classification of these data for enterprises with different level of farming. These published standards of the Ministry serve as basic stones and by means of their combination, the volume of material flow and its structure is possible to calculate during one year's periods. The advantage of proposed method is a fast finding out of necessary data and possibility of taking into account some specific conditions in investigated enterprises.

  18. Aspects regarding the use of the industrial wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of building materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. G. Popa; L. G. Popescu; T. A. Abagiu; C. Popescu; R. Cazalbasu

    2015-01-01

    ...: ash and slag, drilling sludge, metallurgical slag. Also, were established the conditions in which these industrial waste types could be used as raw materials for manufacture some building materials...

  19. Innovative application of mathematical methods in evaluation of ore raw materials for production of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current principles of evaluation of ore raw materials are usually based on a comparison of selected isolated criteria. Today‘s sophisticated technological level of blast furnace process requires the introduction of raw material indicators that provide global characteristics of their quality. This can´t be realized with isolated parameters only. The evaluation should incorporate the key characteristics of iron ore and convert them into a uniform evaluation parameter. This article analyzes the use of mathematical methods in the evaluation of the quality of ore raw materials.

  20. Globalization and its influence to the availability of the Raw material sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinský Vladimír

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Process of globalization does not lead only to concentration of physical and financial capital, and to centralization of its managing, what can be considered as its main signs, but at same time it gives whole raw of new claims to realization of technologies and their material basis.One of very important claims is also change in structure and volume of raw materials, that is gradually viewing in increased change from consumption of so-called classical raw materials, without which it is not possible to create basic components of information technologies.Information technologies are then creating important basis for quickly developed new branches of economy.

  1. INTRAW, the EU Observatory for raw materials: fostering international cooperation and developing new opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Victor; Allington, Ruth; Keane, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A secure supply of raw materials is a European priority that extends beyond country borders and national policies. Recent European initiatives have pioneered the development of an EU strategy on raw materials emphasizing the concept of the "added value chain", which continues to pursue the three pillar strategy to: (1) ensure the fair and sustainable supply of raw materials from international markets, promoting international cooperation with developed and developing countries; (2) foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources, and (3) reduce consumption of primary raw materials by increasing resource efficiency and promoting recycling. This contribution presents the Horizon 2020 funded project INTRAW, the objective of which is to establish the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials. The creation and maintenance of the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials is designed to have a strong impact in two dimensions: 1. To narrow the existing gap in aspects of the raw materials knowledge infrastructure in the EU by providing a link with the same knowledge infrastructure in technologically advanced reference countries. This should contribute to the harmonization of mineral policies all over the EU, by providing data that enables evidence-based policies and appropriate, cost-effective management, planning and adaptation decisions by the public sector. This will benefit businesses, industry and society. The Observatory will also provide to policy makers in the EU and its Member States the data they need to facilitate discussion in multilateral forums. 2. To enable a better alignment of the R&I activities among the individual EU members and international cooperation countries AND between the European Union and international cooperation countries by boosting synergies with international research and innovation programmes. This way the EU's role and scientific capabilities in the raw materials area will be

  2. THE RAW MINERAL SALTS USE IN COSMETICS FORMULATIONS: ASSORTMENT, MINERAL RAW MATERIALS CHARACTERISTICS AND COSMETICS FORMULATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Evseeva; B. B. Sysuev

    2016-01-01

    The application of mineral raw materials (brine lakes, thermal springs, sea water, bischofite) in cosmetics is presented in this article. The assortment of cosmetics that contain mineral salts is presented. The technological characteristics of production of these cosmetic formulations, in particular the ability of mineral salts to influence the stability of formulation and the sensory properties of products are given. The main approaches of that formulation development are described.

  3. THE RAW MINERAL SALTS USE IN COSMETICS FORMULATIONS: ASSORTMENT, MINERAL RAW MATERIALS CHARACTERISTICS AND COSMETICS FORMULATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Evseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of mineral raw materials (brine lakes, thermal springs, sea water, bischofite in cosmetics is presented in this article. The assortment of cosmetics that contain mineral salts is presented. The technological characteristics of production of these cosmetic formulations, in particular the ability of mineral salts to influence the stability of formulation and the sensory properties of products are given. The main approaches of that formulation development are described.

  4. CELLULOSIC PULPS OF CEREAL STRAWS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ECOLOGICAL PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Vargas,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential application of four types of cereal straws: oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley, in order to obtain cellulose pulp through the Specel® process for use in the manufacture of 100% biodegradable and ecological packaging. Raw materials were chemically characterized to determine alcohol-extractives, ash, lignin, holocellulose, and α-cellulose. Cellulosic pulps obtained from raw materials were characterized to determine yield, Kappa number, and viscosity. Paper sheets made from cellulosic pulps were characterized to determine beating degree, tensile index, stretch, burst index, tear index, and brightness. Finally, the results were compared to the raw material used in the industrial manufacturing of packaging (wheat. The four studied raw materials (oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley were judged to be suitable for use in the Specel® process to obtain cellulosic pulp suitable for production of ecological containers.

  5. A Module For Thermal Pest Control In Stored Raw Materials Used In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Module For Thermal Pest Control In Stored Raw Materials Used In Feed Mills / Food Manufacturing Industries. ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2006) > ... The module is an engineering contraption, which uses steam to raise temperature ...

  6. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials; Rapport annuel 1997. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  7. Audio-visual materials usage preference among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audio-visual materials usage preference among agricultural extension workers in rivers ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The use of audio-visual materials in the dissemination of agricultural ...

  8. The mineralogy and chemistry of cement and cement raw materials In the united arab emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sobhi J. [صبحي جابر نصر; El Etr, H.

    1996-01-01

    The raw materials, clinkers and cements from different cement factories in the United Arab Emirates have been investigated using polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analyses. The chemical and mineralogical analyses indicate that the local raw materials are suitable for cement industry. Geological review shows that there is a good potential for industrial-grade local occurrences of limestone, marl, gypsum and iron oxide, that may be ...

  9. FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BASED ON VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS IN THE PRODUCTION OF BAKED GOODS AND PASTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tamazova S. U.; Lisovoy V. V.; Pershakova T. V.; Kasimirova M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The article provides an analysis of currently known technologies and methods of production of food supplements based on vegetable raw materials. It has been established that a great interest from the standpoint of macro and micronutrients we have for nutritional supplements baseв on artichoke. Our analysis led to the conclusion that, despite the significant number of developed and implemented newest technologies, the development of complex processing of vegetable raw materials to produce diet...

  10. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P. [All-Russia Research Institute of Preservation Technology (Russian Federation); Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V. [Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation (Russian Federation); Pavlov, Yu. S., E-mail: rad05@bk.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, A. V., E-mail: pav14@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Strokova, N. E. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Artem’ev, S. A. [Russian Research Institute of Baking Industry (Russian Federation); Polyakova, S. P. [Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  11. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav'yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem'ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  12. Stochastic Modelling and Self Tuning Control of a Continuous Cement Raw Material Mixing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu T. Toivonen

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of a continuously operating system for cement raw material mixing is studied. The purpose of the mixing system is to maintain a constant composition of the cement raw meal for the kiln despite variations of the raw material compositions. Experimental knowledge of the process dynamics and the characteristics of the various disturbances is used for deriving a stochastic model of the system. The optimal control strategy is then obtained as a minimum variance strategy. The control problem is finally solved using a self-tuning minimum variance regulator, and results from a successful implementation of the regulator are given.

  13. Biotechnologies for critical raw material recovery from primary and secondary sources: R&D priorities and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennebel, T.; Boon, N.; Maes, S.; Lenz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw mat

  14. Biotechnologies for critical raw material recovery from primary and secondary sources: R&D priorities and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennebel, T.; Boon, N.; Maes, S.; Lenz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw

  15. Raw material conservation report of Lower Saxony 1998; Rohstoffsicherungsbericht Niedersachsen 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The raw material conservation report 1998 contains the most recent data for the production, consumption, substitution and recycling of raw materials from near-surface and deep deposits. Thereby, the economic development of the Lower Saxonian raw materials industry during the last years is also pointed out. The report takes into account the results of surveys and expertises relevant for judging the future development in the raw materials market, such as, for instance, structural analyses of raw material producing or consuming industries, data on production and consumption, and import and export of individual raw materials. [Deutsch] Der Rohstoffsicherungsbericht 1998 enthaelt die neuesten Daten zu Produktion, Verbrauch, Substitution und Recycling von oberflaechennahen sowie tiefliegenden Rohstoffen. Damit wird auch die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung der niedersaechsischen Rohstoffindustrie fuer die letzten Jahre aufgezeigt. In dem vorliegenden Bericht sind auch die Ergebnisse von Erhebungen und Gutachten eingeflossen, die fuer die Beurteilung der zukuenftigen Entwicklung auf dem Rohstoffmarkt von Bedeutung sind. Wie z.B. Strukturanalysen rohstofferzeugender oder -verbrauchender Industriezweige, Angaben zu Produktion und Verbrauch sowie Import und Export einzelner Rohstoffe. (MSK)

  16. Use of raw materials in the United States from 1900 through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Grecia R.

    2017-08-22

    The economic growth of an industrialized nation such as the United States requires raw materials for construction (buildings, bridges, highways, and so forth), defense, and processing and manufacture of goods and services. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the types and quantities of raw materials used have increased and changed significantly. This fact sheet quantifies the amounts of raw materials (other than food and fuel) that have been used in the U.S. economy annually for a period of 115 years, from 1900 through 2014. It provides a broad overview of the quantity (weight) of nonfood and nonfuel materials used in the economy and illustrates the use and significance of raw nonfuel minerals in particular as building blocks of society.These data have been compiled to help the public and policymakers understand the changing annual flow of raw materials put into use in the United States. Such information can be helpful in assessing the potential effects of materials use on the environment, assessing materials’ intensity of use, and examining the role that these materials play in the economy. The data presented indicate the substitution and shift in materials usage from renewable to nonrenewable materials during the 20th century. The disaggregated quantities by commodity (not shown in this fact sheet) may be tested against supply adequacy and end of life issues.

  17. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigáč, Július

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I -SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  18. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strigáč Július

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I –SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  19. Energy and raw materials 2009. Securing the energy and supply of raw materials. Proceedings; Energie und Rohstoffe 2009. Sicherung der Energie und Rohstoffversorgung. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the meeting Energy and Raw Materials 2009 at 09th to 12th September, 2009 in Goslar (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Reserves, resources and availability of energy raw materials - The great energy study of BGR 2009 (B. Cramer et al.); (2) The Austrian plan of raw materials (L. Weber et al.); (3) Quantitative measurement of supply reliability (F.-J. Wodopia); (4) Legal aspects of raw materials supply - Raw materials strategy of the Federal Republic of Germany and the raw material initiative of the European Union (E. Brandt); (5) From the limits of he current paradigm to extended stochastic solutions, applications and monetary value (R. Dimitrakopoulos); (6) The Saxonian raw material register of the spat deposits and ore deposits (W. Schilka); (7) Protection of the supply of raw materials from the foreign country - potentials and ways, experiences and successes (F. Schippers); (8) Raw material protection for the continuation of the open mining development in the brown coal district Lausitz (H. Tudeshki, S. Rossbach); (9) High resolution 3D seismology for the preanalysis of a brown coal opencast mine (T. Karp et al.); (10) The development of the oil shale project El Lajjun in Jordan (B. Lehmann); (11) Integration of different measurement techniques of the monitoring of soil movement as a main element for controlling and optimization of operational processes for the production of oil (N. Benecke, K. Zimmermann); (12) Storage of compressed air in salt caverns - experimental and numerical investigations of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the salt mountain (U. Dueserloh, K.-H. Lux); (13) From the salt production to the storage of energy raw materials - The development of the cavern field Epe in the area of conflict between nature preservation, raw material supply and a contribution to the securing of the german-dutch supply of natural gas (W. Grigo, P. Doerne); (14) Significance of the echo metric cavity measurement for the

  20. Building Energy Efficiency and the Use of Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Luo

    To become a country of energy saving, consumption reduction, low carbon emissions and life has become a national policy background, we need to convert conception of architectural aesthetics and make necessary adjustments and consciousness. Techniques and methods of support, or method of the research are still needed in the construction, building energy conservation, the environmental protection, low carbon and recycling methods are taken measures. Developing, finding and adopingt "native" and "primary" processed materials, or in which inject new technology to form new material is an effective approach to ensure more ways from environmental protection, energy-saving building and building materials in such ideas to implement.

  1. VEGETATIVE RAW MATERIAL FOR RECEPTION OF THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND ENERGY SECURITY OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duca G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increase of energy security of Republic Moldova is examined due to use of own power resources. Application of a biodiesel engine, bioethanol in mixes with traditional kinds of fuel (diesel fuel and gasoline is possible without updating a design of existing engines of internal combustion and can be economic for agriculture and on transport. Results of experiments on definition износоустойчивости lubricants received of vegetative raw material of local manufacture are resulted. Use of bioethanol as the additive to gasoline will lower his{its} cost, will reduce consumption of gasoline to 15-20 % and will allow to reduce considerably harmful emissions in an atmosphere, ecological safety that will favorably be reflected on health of the population will be raised. Manufacture of lubricants with use рапсового oils also will allow to receive serious economic benefit.

  2. Fracture mechanics of polymer mortar made with recycled raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Godoy Jurumenha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show that industrial residues could be used in construction applications so that production costs as well as environmental protection can be improved. The fracture properties of polymer mortar manufactured with recycled materials are investigated to evaluate the materials behaviour to crack propagation. The residues used in this work were spent sand from foundry industry as aggregate, unsaturated polyester resin from polyethylene terephthalate (PET as matrix and polyester textile fibres from garment industry, producing an unique composite material fully from recycled components with low cost. The substitution of fresh by used foundry sand and the insertions of textile fibres contribute to a less brittle behaviour of polymer mortar.

  3. Renewable raw materials new feedstocks for the chemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Ulber, Roland; Hirth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges facing the chemical industry is the transition to sustainable operations. Industries are taking initiatives to reduce resource intensities or footprints, and by adopting safer materials and processes. Such efforts need to be supported by techniques that can quantify the broad economic and environmental implications of industrial operations, retrofi t options and provide new design alternatives. This contemporary overview focuses on cradle-to-grave life cycle assessments of existing or conceptual processes for producing valueadded fuels, chemicals, and/or material

  4. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ``Ceramics``, Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  5. CONTRIBUTION TO THE STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF RAW MATERIALS FOR THE CEMENT INDUSTRY OF SPLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Matijaca

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to the last two decades cement was produced from mari called »tupina« (with about 76% CaCOj which is an ideal mixture for cement production. Due to the quantity decrease of this raw material, cement production went on using the mixture of other members of the flysch series: limestones, marls, clay, loess, sandstones a.o. By the analysis of natural materials the CaCO^ content has mostly been proved. Therefore, knowing the correlation of oxides in mineral raw material is of special significance. The article discusses investigation results of the correlation between CaCO-i and other oxides of the raw material (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Some aspects of the analysis of raw material losses and use of the woodworking industries waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsyuk, Nadiуa Yevhenivna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of the elimination of losses and the mostefficient use of wood waste. In particular, the author pays special attention to the issues of reducingcosts of raw wood materials and more efficient use of secondary materials. The influence ofmethods of waste while wood processing on increasing the use of forestry return waste is described.A sample of classification factors affecting the losses of wood and waste use is set. The scheme ofmovement of raw-material resources and companies’ wood waste is described within the effectivewaste control in the industry under consideration. The distribution of wood industry wastesaccording to the economic content is proposed. The system of synthetic and analytical accountingof production waste within the general plan of accounts and itemization of the production wastecost used as secondary raw material in the reports is proposed for their proper accountingtreatment.

  7. Evaluation of tetracycline raw materials and finished products found on the Kenyan market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muritu, J W; Kibwage, I O; Maitai, C K; Hoogmartens, J

    1994-12-01

    Contents of tetracycline, its degradation products (epitetracycline, epianhydrotetracycline, anhydrotetracycline) and a fermentation impurity (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamidotetracycline) were determined in four raw materials, 12 batches of six ointment products, four eye ointment products and nine batches of five capsule products, all sampled from the Kenyan market. The analytical method was liquid chromatography on a column packed with a poly(styrenedivinyl-benzene) material (8-microns PLRP-S 100 A). All raw materials and finished products had tetracycline contents and impurity levels within the prescribed compendial limits.

  8. Oils and fats as renewable raw materials in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Ursula; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Meier, Michael A R; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schäfer, Hans J

    2011-04-18

    Oils and fats of vegetable and animal origin have been the most important renewable feedstock of the chemical industry in the past and in the present. A tremendous geographical and feedstock shift of oleochemical production has taken place from North America and Europe to southeast Asia and from tallow to palm oil. It will be important to introduce and to cultivate more and new oil plants containing fatty acids with interesting and desired properties for chemical utilization while simultaneously increasing the agricultural biodiversity. The problem of the industrial utilization of food plant oils has become more urgent with the development of the global biodiesel production. The remarkable advances made during the last decade in organic synthesis, catalysis, and biotechnology using plant oils and the basic oleochemicals derived from them will be reported, including, for example, ω-functionalization of fatty acids containing internal double bonds, application of the olefin metathesis reaction, and de novo synthesis of fatty acids from abundantly available renewable carbon sources.

  9. Data fusion-based assessment of raw materials in mammalian cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Xu, Jin; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-11-01

    In mammalian cell culture producing therapeutic proteins, one of the important challenges is the use of several complex raw materials whose compositional variability is relatively high and their influences on cell culture is poorly understood. Under these circumstances, application of spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometrics can provide fast, simple, and non-destructive ways to evaluate raw material quality, leading to more consistent cell culture performance. In this study, a comprehensive data fusion strategy of combining multiple spectroscopic techniques is investigated for the prediction of raw material quality in mammalian cell culture. To achieve this purpose, four different spectroscopic techniques of near-infrared, Raman, 2D fluorescence, and X-ray fluorescence spectra were employed for comprehensive characterization of soy hydrolysates which are commonly used as supplements in culture media. First, the different spectra were compared separately in terms of their prediction capability. Then, ensemble partial least squares (EPLS) was further employed by combining all of these spectral datasets in order to produce a more accurate estimation of raw material properties, and compared with other data fusion techniques. The results showed that data fusion models based on EPLS always exhibit best prediction accuracy among all the models including individual spectroscopic methods, demonstrating the synergetic effects of data fusion in characterizing the raw material quality.

  10. EFFICIENCY OF RAW MATERIAL INVENTORIES IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE of CV. FIVA FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artadi Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and number of processed food industries have slightly increased; as a result, the companies must compete to maximize their profits by conducting their efficient production process. CV. Fiva Food is one of the companies in the field of processed foods, especially in processed meat that has implemented supply chain management. It is necessary for the company to take measurements of its performance and efficiency for the entire supply chain such as procurement of raw materials. The purposes of this study were to analyze the performance of the company's supply chain and determine the most efficient  method of procurement for its raw materials as well as and to provide recommendations for the company to improve its performance of entire supply chain. This study used SCOR in analyzing the performance of supply chain and EOQ and POQ method to be compared with the method that the company uses to determine which method of procurement for raw materials is the most efficient one. The result showed that based on the matrix, the company's performance is unfavorable when it was compared to the benchmark performance of inventory days of supply. In addition, this study showed that the POQ method produces the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp6.647.015 for raw materials of MDM whereas EOQ method produced the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp222.153,78 for raw materials of FQ85CL. Keywords: performance suppy chain, SCOR, fiva food, EOQ, POQ

  11. Efficiency of raw materials. Relief of the economy, environmental protection; Rohstoffeffizienz. Wirtschaft entlasten, Umwelt schonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Federal Statistical Office (Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) present actual data and analyses from environmentally economic total computations. In Germany, the use of raw materials became more efficient. Thus, 580 tons of raw materials per million Euro of gross domestic product were needed in the year 2008, while still 680 tons of raw materials were needed in the year 2000. The economical handling of natural resources relieves the environment and enables economic chances for individual companies and national economy. The lowering of environmental effects is to be in the focus of withdrawal and use of raw materials. This requires a stronger reduction of the consumption of raw materials. Savings potentials and an increased efficiency must be aspired in the short and medium term. The politics must create suitable incentives and framework conditions. The contribution under consideration presents new activities and strategies in order to achieve these targets.

  12. Comparison of Different Wood Species as Raw Materials for Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Bojana Klašnja; Saša Orlović; Zoran Galić

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Most projections of the global energy use predict that biomass will be an important component of primary energy sources in the coming decades. Short rotation plantations have the potential to become an important source of renewable energy in Europe because of the high biomass yields, a good combustion quality as solid fuel, ecological advantages and comparatively low biomass production costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the wood of black locust Robinia pse...

  13. Arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina using raw crop materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Cao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Arachidonic acid (ARA is one of the three essential fatty acids, and it is important for human body to keep healthy and is widely used. At present, expensive materials such as glucose and yeast extract are generally reported to be optimal for ARA production. A new cost-effective fermentation process including cheaper material for ARA production is of great signifi cance. Material and methods. Feasibility of using corn meal and powdered soybean for fungal growth and lipid accumulation was evaluated by means of single factor test. N-hexadecane concentration was optimized, and the effect of temperature on biomass and ARA content was examined. Results. Mortierella alpina made better use of the aforementioned material as carbon and nitrogen sources for both hyphae growth and ARA production compared with glucose and yeast extract. Maximal levels of 10.9 g/L ARA and 26.1 g/L total lipids were obtained when 66 g/L corn meal, 54 g/L soybean meal and 6% (v/v n-hexadecane were supplemented. A temperature-shift strategy involved three steps, namely, 30°C (3 days – 25°C (4 days – 20°C (4 days, which further improved ARA production by 24.7%. Conclusion. Several factors such as carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature and dissolved oxygen had great infl uence on biomass and microbial oil production. Mortierella alpina preferred corn and soybean meal compared with glucose and yeast extract, which would surely alleviate the high cost of ARA production. Based on this study, the new process is both low cost and practicable.

  14. Energy and resource saving raw materials for dactyloscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonnikova Lyubov F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “developing” properties of ferromagnetic fingerprint powders are defined by the chemical nature and the particle sizes of the pigment which form acidity of its surface, adhesive and magnetic properties, and color spectrum. The optimum ratio of these physical and chemical parameters is observed in the pigment consisting of iron-containing sludge tempered at 800°C, which contains α-Fe2O3 and impurity of clay materials.

  15. Industrial Preparation of Bauxite-based Mullite Raw Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhongzheng; DING Baohua

    2008-01-01

    Bauxite-based mullite grogs were prepared with grade II bauxite(≤3mm)and coal gangue(≤3mm)as starting materials with formula of w(Al2O3)=68%~72%.Mill the mixture to particle size≤0.044mm by wet milling to homogenize chemical composition. After shaping by wet extrusion and drying, the materials were fired at 1550℃, 1600℃ and 1700℃ for 6 hours respectively. After cooling apparent porosity and bulk density of fired materials were tested. The results show as follows: the appropriate sintering temperature for bauxite-based mullite with homogeneous and consistent composition and microstructure and properties is 1600℃,at which the mullite has apparent porosity≤1.5%,bulk density≥2.81g·cm-3and refractoriness under load is 1610-1650℃.Compared with the laboratory results, the sintering temperature is lowered about 100℃,bulk density increased 0.06g?cm-3.The industrial feasibility of preparing bauxite-based mullite grogs with the processing is confirmed.

  16. Prospection of Portland cement raw material: A case study in the Marmara region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgüner, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Representative sampling of the raw materials used to make Portland cement, correct calculations for the possible clinker mixtures, sufficient reserves of the raw materials and selection of the correct infrastructure for the location of a cement factory are essential to the protection of the great investment in the factory. The results of chemical analyses of pipe samples taken in the field at right angles to the strikes of favourable limestone, clay, shale, and marl outcrops were used in Kind's lime saturation formula for clinker calculations of the possible mixtures. The cement modulus values were calculated using the corresponding clinker oxide ratios and were confirmed to be within the standard intervals for positive cement raw material mixtures. The most promising raw material source, a double lithologic mixture of limestone and mudstone was found during the prospection in north of Bilecik Province, where rhyolitic tuff outcrops with pozzolanic properties also exist. Some marble quarries nearby have been inclined to dispose of their marble wastes for use in cement production to prevent polluting the environment with them. The nearby Gemlik fertiliser factory provides inexpensive waste gypsum that can be used as a cool cement mixing material. The limestone, mudstone and trass raw material reserves in this area were calculated to be sufficient for the factory's requirements for more than 100 years of operation as results of the detailed geological mapping. The regional infrastructure is most suitable for distribution and marketing of cement products. The cement factory described in this study has been producing cement for the last 3 years, after coring and testing of the raw material reserves.

  17. Arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina using raw crop materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ganggang; Guan, Zhengbing; Liu, Feixian G; Liao, Xiangru; Cai, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) is one of the three essential fatty acids, and it is important for human body to keep healthy and is widely used. At present, expensive materials such as glucose and yeast extract are generally reported to be optimal for ARA production. A new cost-effective fermentation process including cheaper material for ARA production is of great significance. Feasibility of using corn meal and powdered soybean for fungal growth and lipid accumulation was evaluated by means of single factor test. N-hexadecane concentration was optimized, and the effect of temperature on biomass and ARA content was examined. Mortierella alpina made better use of the aforementioned material as carbon and nitrogen sources for both hyphae growth and ARA production compared with glucose and yeast extract. Maximal levels of 10.9 g/L ARA and 26.1 g/L total lipids were obtained when 66 g/L corn meal, 54 g/L soybean meal and 6% (v/v) n-hexadecane were supplemented. A temperature-shift strategy involved three steps, namely, 30°C (3 days) - 25°C (4 days) - 20°C (4 days), which further improved ARA production by 24.7%. Several factors such as carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature and dissolved oxygen had great influence on biomass and microbial oil production. Mortierella alpina preferred corn and soybean meal compared with glucose and yeast extract, which would surely alleviate the high cost of ARA production. Based on this study, the new process is both low cost and practicable.

  18. Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Siegfried; Rose, Thomas; Moser, Matthias

    Sucrose (α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-fructofuranoside) is an inexpensive chemical produced by sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. Chemical and/or biochemical transformations convert it into highly valuable synthetic intermediates such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), bioethylene, 1,2-propylene glycol and levulinic acid. Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies.

  19. Effect of Drying Methods on the Chemical Quality Traits of Cocoa Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irie B. Zahouli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the measurement of some chemical quality properties of raw cocoa dried by solar and heating methods. Sun drying method is considered as standard process. Drying trials were conducted in thin layer using natural sun light drying method, heating methods by exposition of the beans to hot air ventilated oven at 60ºC and in sun light consecutive artificial drying methods. Changes in volatile acidity on the drying method were not very clear. Only sun and mixed dried raw cocoa showed a high volatile acidity. Oven and mixed drying methods have caused higher free acidity and higher Ammonium Nitrogen content in raw cocoa than natural drying methods. Changes in Ammonium Nitrogen in fermented appeared significantly due to the ferm entation. Also all studied drying processes did not influence the production of free fatty acids in raw cocoa. The results obtained from this study are essential in understanding and solving the problems associated with the final quality of raw cocoa material dependent on the drying methods. Better quality of raw cocoa material could be resulted from natural drying process than heating methods.

  20. Cellulose acetate fibers prepared from different raw materials with rapid synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinghuan; Xu, Jikun; Wang, Kun; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2016-02-10

    Transesterification is a mild process to prepare cellulose acetate (CA) as compared with the traditional method. In this study, CA fibers were produced from six cellulose raw materials based on a simple and rapid transesterification method. The properties of the CA solutions and the obtained CA fibers were investigated in detail. Results showed that all of the cellulose raw materials were esterified within 15 min, and spinning dopes could be obtained by concentrating the CA solutions via vacuum distillation. The XRD, FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and HSQC NMR analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of CA. The degree of substitution (DS) of the obtained CA was significantly affected by the degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose raw materials, which further influenced the viscosity of CA solutions as well as the structural, thermal and mechanical properties of the CA fibers.

  1. To the question of peculiarities of thermal activation of natural siliceous raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumachenko Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research of activity enhancement of natural siliceous raw material are given in the article. Fossil meal of Khotynetsky deposit, diatomite of Sharlovsky deposit, silica clay of Balasheika deposit were used as natural active mineral admixtures. The influence of heat-treating temperature and dispersion on activity of different types of siliceous raw material is studied. The increase of activity of fixation of Ca(OH2 in several times is traced after heat-treating at a certain temperature in the range from 100 to 800°C. The type of activity change is discovered. Explanation is given connected with the change of silica structure in the surface layer. Parameters of the highest activity are defined for every type of siliceous raw material.

  2. Chromatographic determination of amino acid enantiomers in beers and raw materials used for their manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, T; Brückner, H

    2000-06-09

    Using gas chromatography (GC) on a chiral stationary phase, accompanied by high-performance liquid chromatography, beers and raw materials used for manufacturing (hops, barley grains, malts) were investigated for the pattern and quantities of amino acid enantiomers. Although L-amino acids were most abundant, certain D-amino acids were detected in all beers and most of the raw materials. Highest amounts of D-amino acids were detected in special beers such as Berliner Weisse that underwent bottle-conditioning with lactic cultures, and Belgian fruit beers produced by spontaneous fermentation. It is demonstrated that GC on chiral stationary phases is highly suitable for the quantitative determination of amino acid enantiomers in beers and raw materials used for their manufacture. Quantities, relative amounts and pattern of amino acid enantiomers can serve in particular as chiral markers for the authenticity of special beers.

  3. Ferroelectric thin films using oxides as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Araújo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an alternative method for the preparation of ferroelectric thin films based on pre-calcination of oxides, to be used as precursor material for a solution preparation. In order to show the viability of the proposed method, PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 and Bi4Ti3O12 thin films were prepared on fused quartz and Si substrates. The results were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Infrared Spectroscopy (IR and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS. The films obtained show good quality, homogeneity and the desired stoichiometry. The estimated thickness for one layer deposition was approximately 1000 Å and 1500 Å for Bi4Ti3O12 and PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 films, respectively.

  4. Mining of Radioactive Raw Materials as an Origin of the Nuclear Fuel Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedřich Michálek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mining of radioactive raw materials may be considered as an origin of the nuclear fuel chain and thus determines the amount of radioactive wastes which have to be stored safety in the final stage of the fuel chain. The paper informs about the existing trends in mining of radioactive raw materials in the world, provides an overview of development in mining in the Czech Republic and of possibilities of future exploiting some uranium deposits. It points a possibility of non-traditional obtaining uranium from mine waters from underground uranium mines closed and flooded earlier.

  5. Fabrication of ZrC–SiC composites using zirconium salt as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ZrC–SiC matrix was fabricated by means of in situ reaction method, using zirconium salt, silicon powder and phenolic resin as raw materials. The performances of zirconium salt determined the possibility of ZrC–SiC matrix fabricated using them. The reactions were completed at a relatively low temperature (∼1500 °C. With this concept to produce a ZrC–SiC matrix costs can be reduced. Three-dimensional needle Cf/ZrC–SiC composites were successfully fabricated via the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP process using zirconium salt, silicon powder and phenolic resin as raw materials.

  6. DELINEATION OF BOUNDARY CONTOURS OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS WITHIN THE DEPOSIT SPACE CONSIDERING THE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomašić

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of performed explorations, in the phase of deposit preparation and development for exploitation the obtained results regarding the raw material quality were transfered to the surface. The results served both for the development and planning of deposit excavation dynamics and for the delineation of boundary contours by mineral raw materials within the deposit space considering the quality, The case presented in the article refers to the marl and limestone open pit for the cement industry, the »Partizan« near Split (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Sensory properties of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) processed from raw material from commercial landings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Durita; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Jette

    2005-01-01

    Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile of marina......Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile...

  8. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  9. Nontraditional clay raw materials as a component of inorganic dispersed phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodchenko Aleksandr Anatol'evich

    Full Text Available The research of raw base for construction materials allows theoretically justifying and experimentally confirming the ability to control the processes of structure formation in order to obtain materials with the desired properties. Clay matter has a complicated chemical and mineral composition. In recent decades the structures and properties of clay minerals have been investigated in detail with the help of modern research methods. Out of the whole quantity of clay deposits the production sector uses only the small part, which satisfies the standard technical documents in force. In case of using non-traditional clay rocks in the production of wall materials it is possible to cross over from traditional raw materials to another - composite binder, obtained on the basis of natural nanodispersed raw material, which helps to speed up neoformation synthesis, change their morphology, optimize microstructure of cementing compounds and consequently improve physical and mathematical properties of the products. Using non-traditional for construction industry clay rocks in the production of silicate materials increases the strength of raw-brick 4...11 times, which facilitates the production of high cavitated product and significantly expands the range of products.

  10. Stellera chamaejasme Roots as Raw Material for Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic pulps were prepared from Stellera chamaejasme roots using soda, soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ, and kraft pulping processes. S. chamaejasme is composed of 73.5% holocellulose, 39.7% α-cellulose, and 17.6% lignin, similar to wheat straw and other non-wood plant materials. The ethanol–benzene extractives content of 9.2% is higher than other non-woods. The conditions used for all pulping experiments were as follows: a liquid/solid ratio of 5:1; a time-to-maximum temperature of 100 min; a maximum temperature of 160 °C; and a time-at-maximum temperature of 50 min. The results showed that the pulp yield was 31.27 to 36.83%, the kappa number was 16.32 to 19.42, and the pulps’ intrinsic viscosity was 854 to 976 mL/g. Tear index, tensile index, burst index, and brightness of the papers made from the above unbleached pulps were 12.60 to 13.62 mN•m2/g, 20.57 to 22.56 mN/g, 2.16 to 2.38 kPa•m2/g, and 15.3 to 18.3%, respectively.

  11. Eucalyptus globulus Stumpwood as a Raw Material for Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gominho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Eucalyptus globulus stumpwood samples collected from six different sites in Portugal were evaluated for their ease of pulping, using two delignification processes (kraft and alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol (ASAM. Morphologically, the stumpwood included fibers with a mean length of 0.930 mm, diameter of 21.4 µm, lumen width of 9.1 µm, and cell-wall thickness of 6.1 µm. The Runkel ratio varied between 1.0 and 1.9, and the slenderness ratio ranged between 50.6 and 35.1. ASAM pulps presented higher yields and kappa numbers (49.3% and 36, respectively when compared to kraft pulps (42.7% and 14, respectively. Extractive-free material increased pulp yield (51.7% and 47.5% for ASAM and kraft, respectively and decreased kappa number (18 and 11. The kraft pulps showed a coarseness of 0.096 mg/m, curl of 5.2%, and 16.7% kinked fibers, while for the ASAM pulps, these values were 0.105 mg/m, 5.2%, and 16.3%, respectively.

  12. Raw material generated from pet bottle recycling and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Almeida Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recycling process is no longer a pejorative connotation business to become the main business of any company not only because of the need to conserve virgin resources, but mainly because of the benefits to the environment. In this sense, this paper aims at assessing the possibility of exports of polyethylene terephthalate - PET known for - a type of product that can be recycled and reprocessed into products of various types and applications. This article has been structured based on exploratory research bibliographic database of scientific articles, books, newspapers and magazines where we analyze the main steps involved in the recycling of PET and its exploitation for export. Support of organizations and associations such as the Brazilian Association of PET (ABIPET contributed to the development of theoretical framework. The market operated and what can still be very large, with the possibility of exponential growth supported by: the economy in the use of virgin resources reduces the impact of chemicals in the environment, saving energy used in the production process, reducing the use of financial resources allocated to the reuse of materials.

  13. Some theoretical and practical approaches to the production of candied fruit based on raw plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepochatykh Tetyana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with studying the impact of external physical factors on the acceleration of the process of candied fruit production. It is proved, that the diffusion of sugar syrup into raw plant carried in by capillary forces or the forces of wetting. The porosity of materials affects this process the most. To reduce cooking time is possible by artificial increasing the porosity of plant material or by the destruction of the cell membrane of the plant material.

  14. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of ranitidine and related substances in raw materials and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, N; Lacroix, P M; Sears, R W; Lovering, E G

    1988-10-01

    High-performance liquid chromatographic methods have been developed for the determination of ranitidine and related compounds in drug raw material and tablets. The method has been shown to resolve at least nine related compounds from the drug. The sensitivity of the method to related compounds is better than 0.01%. Eight raw material samples and 11 tablet samples were examined for related compounds. Total impurities found ranged from 0.31 to 0.79% in raw materials and from 0.40 to 1.75% in tablets. Drug raw materials and tablets were assayed by HPLC; results for raw materials were between 98.2 and 101.1%, and those for tablets were between 96.1 and 102.2%, with a relative standard deviation for the assay of less than 1%. Raw material assay results were confirmed by nonaqueous titration.

  15. Replacement of reserves zinc based on the recycling of technogenic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Bryantseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the perspective trends of the expansion of the mineral-ore base of the Russian producers of zinc by recycling of technogenic raw materials are considered. The important role of recycling of resources for sustainable development of society and improve the environmental safety is justified. The main structural and dynamic characteristics of the use of mineral resource base for the production of zinc in Russia are considered. Raw materials opportunities and constraints for the development of zinc production are analyzed. In the paper, the structure and dynamics of the use of recycled materials by the largest producer of zinc in Russia are investigated. The methodical approach to the estimation of effectiveness of the industrial processing of technogenic metallurgical raw materials with the strategic flexibility of the implementation of projects is proposed and approved. The estimation of the effectiveness of a complex industrial processing of metallurgical zinc-containing dusts in a real production is carried out. The value of the strategic flexibility of the project of the industrial processing of the zinc-containing technogenic raw material is determined on the basis of the developed systematic approach. The value of the processes of recycling for sustainable production of zinc in Russia is revealed.

  16. A raw material storage yard allocation problem for a large-scale steelworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.I.; Koo, J.; Park, B.S. [POSTECH, Pohang (Republic of Korea). Department of Industrial and Management Engineering

    2009-04-15

    This paper addresses a raw material storage yard allocation problem at a large-scale steelworks. At the steelworks, raw materials such as coal and iron ore are imported by ships from overseas, discharged from the ships by unloading equipment, and transported into and stored in the yards. The stored materials then are transported and used in the production equipment such as steel mills. The yard allocation decision, i.e., where to store the materials, determines the travel distance of the materials as well as the storage efficiency of the yards. Here, the yard allocation problem is solved using a mixed integer programming model. The solution compares favorably with the current practice of the steelworks.

  17. PARITY PRICE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, ENERGY AND MATERIAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alpatov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main approaches to parity of agricultural products to energy and material resources, are the price indices for certain types of energy resources, and presents data on the availability of agricultural machinery in agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of growth in energy prices in relation to the specific energy consumption per 1 ha of sown area in the agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation, the consumption of resources such as petroleum products, electricity and fuel. In addition, the article shows the average sales price for agricultural products and logistical resources. Shown the equivalence of the exchange of products between agriculture and industry.

  18. Dependence of quality properties for grey iron on used raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey iron castings keep the first place among castings on base of iron. Present trend in growing entrance production costs of cast stock force manufacturer to cost minimizing. Therefore is most actual deal replacement pig iron by steel scrap. In contribution are presented results research work relating to influence of raw materials on grey iron properties.

  19. Changes in the role of raw and processed materials in the economic future of industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoprete, G.

    The author applies commodity science criteria to review the changes which have occured in the use and development of raw and processed materials. He evaluates the role that commodity consumption plays in influencing the economic growth of individual countries and provides an assessment of future global development and marketing trends.

  20. Consumer acceptability of differently processed bacons using raw materials from entire males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Kathrine; Skuterud, Ellen; Lindahl, Gunilla Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate consumers' acceptability of bacons produced from entire males. Three different processing technologies (brine injection, dry salting with and without fermentation) were used. The raw materials had skatole levels from 0.04 to 0.43 mg/kg. The consumers...

  1. Quality improvement of granular secondary raw building materials by separation and cleansing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, W.

    2004-01-01

    Contaminated granular wastes are potentially reusable because they have similar physical and chemical properties as primary raw building materials. From environmental aspects, the reuse must not result in polluting the soil, groundwater and surface water. Therefore the leaching values of inorganic c

  2. Factors Affecting the Supply of Strategic Raw Materials with Particular Reference to the Aerospace Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    scale of production and technological-industrial problems, chromium, cobalt, hafnium , manganese, niobium, titanium, tungsten and vanadium are all...resources are likely to increase. While the raw materials specified (chromium, cobalt, hafnium , niobium, tantalum, manganese, molybdenum, titanium...are those based on aluminium , nickel, steel and titanium. In engine production nickel, steel and titanium are used respectively for the hot end

  3. Raw material changes and their processing parameters in an extrusion cooking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    In this work, the effects of raw material and process parameters on product expansion in a fish feed extrusion process were investigated. Four different recipes were studied with a pilot-scale twin-screw co-rotating extruder according to a set of pre-defined processing conditions. In the four...

  4. Future-oriented energy and raw materials policy. [in German]. Zukunftsorientierte Energie- und Rohstoffpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, H.; von Benningsen, R.; Bund, K.; Ehrenberg, H.; Frankel, P.H.; Hauff, V.; Liesen, K.; Mandel, H.; Matthoefer, H.; Mommsen, E.W.

    1976-01-01

    On October 13/14, 1975, the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung held an international technical congress on the subject 'Problems of a future-oriented energy and raw materials policy' at the Beethoven Hall, Bonn. This book contains the papers and discussions of this congress, which had 1053 registered participants from 47 countries. (orig.) 891 UA.

  5. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Farcas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain (BGS is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  6. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Farcas; Maria Tofana; Sonia Socaci; Stancuta Scrob; Liana Salanta; Doinita Bors

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain (BGS) is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  7. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - extraction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick S.; Gasser, Christoph A.; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red mud is a by-product of alumina extraction from bauxite by the Bayer process produced in the billion tons scale worldwide. Red muds, or more generally bauxite residues, are regarded as waste, but may potentially be valuable sources of critical raw materials (CRM). In the present study

  8. TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN-CONTAINING RAW MATERIALS FROM THE PRODUCTS OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, secondary resources of vegetable raw materials are widely used in solving the food, environmental and energy issues, as well as an additional source of substances of natural origin. A significant amount of secondary resources is produced during the processing of sunflower seeds - the main oilseed Kuban. Fats industry, while processing seeds, mainly extracts only one component - vegetable oil and is having a huge amount of meal, which is mainly used for agricultural purposes. Valuable property of sunflower meal is that it is high in protein, low cost and lack of toxic and anti-nutrients. Favorable amino acid composition determines the viability of recovering proteins from sunflower meal. Proteins were extracted from sunflower meal with a dispersing agent which may be water, sodium salts, alkalis, acids, or any organic solvent, followed by precipitation of the protein at the isoelectric point with hydrochloric acid. However, this protein has a high content of phenolic compounds, which gives it a dark color. The high concentration of chlorogenic acid in sunflower meal and its ability to form a dark colored complex with proteins limits the use of sunflower proteins in the food industry. All known methods of protein purification products from phenolic compounds, in particular chlorogenic acids, are mainly aimed at reducing the use of solvents and washing using membrane technology. However, in most cases, their use is either inadequate due to removal of phenolic compounds or decreasing the nutritional and biological value of the obtained product due to the toxicity of the solvent used, and an inability to completely remove it from the protein

  9. Use of raw materials in the United States from 1900 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Grecia R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the types and quantities of raw materials used by U.S. manufacturers and consumers have changed over time. This fact sheet quantifies the amounts of those materials (other than food and fuel) that have been input into the U.S. economy annually for a period of 111 years, from 1900 through 2010. It provides a broad overview of all materials used but highlights the use and importance of raw nonfuel minerals in particular. This fact sheet supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3008, which was published in April 2009 and covered the period 1900 through 2006. These data have been compiled to help the public and policymakers understand the flow of raw materials used in the United States in physical terms. Such information can be helpful in assessing the past and potential effects of the materials on the environment, evaluating the materials’ intensity of use, and examining the role that these materials play in the economy. It can also provide insight into what may happen to the materials at the end of their useful life.

  10. High-Temperature Release of SO2 from Calcined Cement Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of alternative fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions may occur and cause reductive decomposition of sulfates from calcined cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2...... concentration, which may cause deposit formation in the kiln system. In this study, the release of sulfur from calcined cement raw materials under both oxidizing and reducing conditions is investigated. The investigations include thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in the temperature interval of 800–1500 °C...... and experiments in a tube furnace reactor in the temperature interval of 900–1100 °C. The investigated conditions resemble actual conditions in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns. It was found that the sulfates CaSO4, K2SO4, and Na2SO4 were all stable under oxidizing conditions but began to decompose...

  11. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2013-06-01

    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  12. EFFECT OF LDPE RAW MATERIAL ON STRENGTH, CORROSION AND SORPTIVITY OF CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MANIKANDRAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers focused on effect of Low Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE on bituminous pavements or concrete to modify the strength and ductility in view of reusing the abundant quantity of non-degradable LDPE material available. It also reduces the use of bituminous materials and disposal problems of such waste material. Developing countries are moving towards construction concrete pavement or converting bituminous pavements into concrete pavements. Hence in this paper an attempt has been made to study the feasibility of using LDPE raw material itself as a modifier in cement concrete with a characteristic compressive strength of 20 MPa. Present study focuses on effect of addition of LDPE raw material (3, 4 and 5% under different temperatures (70°C, 80°C and 90°C and duration of thermal curing (4, 8 and 16 hours on compressive strength, corrosion resistance and sorptivity. It was inferred from the results that, addition of LDPE raw material considerably increases the compressive strength, resistance against corrosion and permeability. Results also revealed that concrete with 3% LDPE modifier for 80°C with 4 hours of thermal curing was found to be optimum.

  13. The properties of weft knitted fabric medical and preventive treatment action using eco-raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavska, L.; Batrak, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new trend in the world is the clothing production using the new types of ecological raw materials application - milk, pineapple, coconut, hemp, banana, eucalyptus, clams, corn, bamboo, soya, nettle yarn. This makes it possible to create textile materials of new generation with unique antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Such materials have a positive preventive and sometimes therapeutic effect on people, and their health. Eco-raw materials clothing is able to protect the human body from the environment harmful effects: cold, heat, rain, dust, opportunely remove from underclothing layer the steam and gases, sweat; maintain in underclothing layer the necessary microclimate for normal organism functioning. Study of knitwear consumer properties, produced with eco-materials, is an urgent task of the world vector, directed on ecological environmental protection. This paper presents the research results of hygroscopicity and capillarity weft knitted fabrics, what knitted from different types of eco-raw materials: bamboo yarn, yarn containing soybean and nettle yarn. Character of influence of the liquid raising level changes depending on the experiment time and the knitting structure is revealed.

  14. USE OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES AS RAW MATERIALS IN CEMENT CLINKER PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos-Triantafyllos Galbenis; Stamatis Tsimas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the possibility of utilizing Construction and Demolition(C&D) wastes as substitutes of Portland cement raw meal. The C&D wastes that were so used, were the Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and the Recycled Masonry Aggregates (RMA) derived from demolished buildings in Attica region, Greece. RCA and RMA samples were selected because of their calcareous and siliceous origin respectively,which conformed the composition of the ordinary Portland cement raw meal. For that reason, six samples of cement raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample, and five by mixing the reference sample with RCA and RMA in appropriate proportions. The effect on the reactivity of the generated mixtures, was evaluated on the basis of the free lime content (fCaO) in the mixtures sintered at 1350℃, 1400℃ and 1450℃. Test showed that the added recycled aggregates improved the burnability of the cement raw meal without affecting negatively the cement clinker properties. Moreover, the formation of the major components (C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF) of the produced clinkers(sintered at 1450℃) was corroborated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

  15. Raw materials exploitation in Prehistory of Georgia: sourcing, processing and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushabramishvili, Nikoloz; Oqrostsvaridze, Avthandil

    2016-04-01

    Study of raw materials has a big importance to understand the ecology, cognition, behavior, technology, culture of the Paleolithic human populations. Unfortunately, explorations of the sourcing, processing and distribution of stone raw materials had a less attention until the present days. The reasons of that were: incomplete knowledge of the archaeologists who are doing the late period archaeology (Bronze Age-Medieval) and who are little bit far from the Paleolithic technology and typology; Ignorance of the stone artifacts made on different kind of raw-materials, except flint and obsidians. Studies on the origin of the stone raw materials are becoming increasingly important since in our days. Interesting picture and situation have been detected on the different sites and in different regions of Georgia. In earlier stages of Middle Paleolithic of Djruchula Basin caves the number of basalt, andesite, argillite etc. raw materials are quite big. Since 130 000 a percent of the flint raw-material is increasing dramatically. Flint is an almost lonely dominated raw-material in Western Georgia during thousand years. Since approximately 50 000 ago the first obsidians brought from the South Georgia, appeared in Western Georgia. Similar situation has been detected by us in Eastern Georgia during our excavations of Ziari and Pkhoveli open-air sites. The early Lower Paleolithic layers are extremely rich by limestone artifacts while the flint raw-materials are dominated in the Middle Paleolithic layers. Study of these issues is possible to achieve across chronologies, the origins of the sources of raw-materials, the sites and regions. By merging archaeology with anthropology, geology and geography we are able to acquire outstanding insights about those populations. New approach to the Paleolithic stone materials, newly found Paleolithic quarries gave us an opportunities to try to achieve some results for understanding of the behavior of Paleolithic populations, geology and

  16. Potential of Technogenic Mineral Raw Materials in Russia and the Issues of its Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Ivanovna Goncharova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing negative impact of mining waste on natural ecosystems often leads to their irreversible destruction, a trend that is gradually becoming global. The particular relevance of the research is explained, on the one hand, by the possibilities of minimization of specific volumes of formation of mining waste in all types of industries; on the other hand, by the possibilities of maximization of comp rehensive use of their valuable components as secondary material resources on an economically rational basis and the possibilities of restoring the disturbed natural environment. The rational use of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials is greatly facilitated by the geological exploration and geological-economic evaluation of the resources, which requires the development of specific methodological approaches to the economic justification of resource estimation parameters for outlining and calculating the multicomponent commercial reserves of raw materials and separate valuable components in them. Analysis shows that researchers’ opinions on a number of methodological principles of sustainable mining, complex processing of multicomponent materials are often contradictory. Scientific publications do not consider the issue of the price valuation of mining waste as secondary material resources. Mining waste processing should be considered as an important part of the overall socio-ecological-economic system for rational nature management. The analysis of the existing practice of using the mining waste should be based on the system approach and take into consideration geological, technological, economic, environmental and social characteristics throughout the cycle of production, combined processing and treatment of secondary waste according to the principle “from the earth to the earth”. The article identifies the main barriers to the recycling of mining wastes, proposes several methodological guidelines for the sustainable mining and

  17. Decomposition of paper wastes in presence of ceramics and cement raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Juan A; Gálvez, Araceli; Fullana, Andrés

    2008-05-01

    Paper recycling is an environmental important activity that is carried out in all the countries, but during the recycling process a paper waste is produced. Generally these wastes are placed in landfill sites but it is possible to profit it as secondary fuel and raw material in manufacture furnaces. In this work the combustion of the waste papers with cement and ceramic raw material has been studied with the objective to analyse the interaction of these substances with the emitted pollutants like PAHs and PCDD/Fs. The results of the study show that the presence of inorganic material produces an increment in the lighter PAH emission but chlorinated compounds are not affected. The PCDD/F emission level found in the combustion of this waste is quite low compared with other wastes subjected to similar conditions.

  18. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  19. Recycling of iron foundry sand and glass waste as raw material for production of whiteware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Saulo R; Vicenzi, Juliane; Guerino, Kareline; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production feasibility of triaxial whiteware using sand from cast iron moulds as a raw material instead of silica, and recycled glass in place of feldspar. Formulations were prepared using sand, glass waste, and white-firing clay such that only 50% of the composition was virgin material (clay). The ceramic bodies were formed by pressing and fired at different temperatures (between 1100 and 1300 degrees C). Specimens were characterized in terms of green density prior to firing; and their flexural strength, linear shrinkage, and water absorption were measured after firing. The microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Possible environmental impacts of this recycling process were also evaluated, through solubility and leaching tests, according to Brazilian standards. Gaseous emissions during the firing process were also analysed. The results showed that it is possible to produce triaxial ceramics by using such alternative raw materials.

  20. Intra-raw material variability and use-wear accrual: A continuing exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Joseph Lerner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the latest results of an ongoing research initiative into the role of lithic raw material variability in use-wear formation. The present study continues recent exploration of wear formation associated with working dry hide. The work presented here expands on a recently published study of two raw materials from the American Southwest [San Juan Fossiliferous Chert (SJF and Yellow Silicified Wood (YSW] (Lerner, In Press by presenting the analysis of two additional materials [Morrison Undifferentiated Gray Chert (MUG and Brushy Basin Silicified Siltstone (BB] using the same quantitative measures from the previous study (area percent, density, average intensity. The methods used have broad geographic and temporal applicability, thus the potential for contributing to greater standardization in the quantification of archaeological use-wear. 

  1. Database of the radioactivity of norm used as industrial raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2012-12-01

    Most ores used as industrial raw materials are imported mainly because Japan has poor natural resources. The activity concentrations in these materials should be investigated to evaluate the radiation exposure of workers. In this study, imported industrial raw materials were collected, and the activity concentrations in these resources were measured by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and gamma ray spectrometry. Furthermore,  a database of activity concentrations of NORMs was developed by referring to the measured results as well as referring to the literature, and a database on the web was published. The purpose of the database is to relieve anxieties among the general public and to provide extensive data regarding NORM for researchers and regulators. The database provides more than 900 activity concentrations in worldwide NORMs at no fee. (NORM database; http://www.nirs.go.jp/db/anzendb/NORMDB/ENG/index.php).

  2. Agriculture Breaks New Ground. How Biotechnology and Regrowing Materials Are Being Used in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sonderdienst Special Report SO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fritz; Born, Sigrid

    This document provides an overview of the major research priorities of biotechnology and the use of what is known as "regrowing raw materials" in agriculture in the Federal Republic of Germany. Following an introduction, section 2 addresses biotechnology in agriculture, including biotechnology and genetic engineering, the significance of…

  3. The applied problems of marketing of the agroindustrial enterprises on the domestic market of vegetable textile raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    SEMAK B.B.

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the applied marketing problems of agroindustrial enterprises specializing on production and primary processing of vegetable textile raw materials. The approaches to effective marketing activities of agroindustrial enterprises on the domestic market of vegetable textile raw materials were proposed.

  4. Use of pig by-products (bristles and hooves) as alternative protein raw material in fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Ekmann, K.S.; Frørup, J.

    2017-01-01

    into high quality aqua feed raw material (keratin to protein product) is being investigated in Denmark. The success of this novel approach is however highly dependent on the potential acceptability of the resultant raw material resource among fish feed producers as well as the acceptance of fish feed...

  5. Estimation of raw material performance in mammalian cell culture using near infrared spectra combined with chemometrics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Liu, Jun Jay; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-01-01

    Understanding variability in raw materials and their impacts on product quality is of critical importance in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. For this purpose, several spectroscopic techniques have been studied for raw material characterization, providing fast and nondestructive ways to measure quality of raw materials. However, investigations of correlation between spectra of raw materials and cell culture performance have been scarce due to their complexity and uncertainty. In this study, near-infrared spectra and bioassays of multiple soy hydrolysate lots manufactured by different vendors were analyzed using chemometrics approaches in order to address variability of raw materials as well as correlation between raw material properties and corresponding cell culture performance. Principal component analysis revealed that near-infrared spectra of different soy lots contain enough physicochemical information about soy hydrolysates to allow identification of lot-to-lot variability as well as vendor-to-vendor differences. The identified compositional variability was further analyzed in order to estimate cell growth and protein production of two mammalian cell lines under the condition of varying soy dosages using partial least square regression combined with optimal variable selection. The performance of the resulting models demonstrates the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy as a robust lot selection tool for raw materials while providing a biological link between chemical composition of raw materials and cell culture performance.

  6. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  7. Farmers as providers of raw materials and energy. Proceedings; Der Landwirt als Energie- und Rohstoffwirt. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 10th EUROSOLAR conference at 14th to 15th April, 2008, at Leipzig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Bioenergy in the Federal Republic of Germany: Potentials, state of the art and perspectives (M. Kaltschmitt, V. Lenz, D. Thraen); (b) Chances and risks of the energy production from biomass in rural area (G. Thalheim); (c) To the compatibility of utilizing bio energy and environmental preservation (K. Mueschen); (d) Biorefinery systems - industrial material use of regenerative raw materials (B. Kamm); (e) Agriculturists and forestry experts as producers of raw material - current risks and new chances (H. Fischer); (f) Potentials of the improvement of productivity by means of an expansion of options of useful plants (K. Goedeke); (g) Farmers as providers of energy and raw materials (H. Loick); (h) Problems and challenges of the utilization of biomass (P. Volkmer); (i) Energetic recycling management (G. Mehler); (j) Pure fuels instead of fuel mixtures - The farmer as providers of energy and raw materials (P. Schrum); (k) Feed and distribution of bio-natural gas from the view of a regional provider (J. Horn); (l) Biogasification and feed into natural gas networks - by the example of BGA Darmstadt-Wixhausen (M. Schlegel); (m) The right framework for the feed of bio methane into natural gas nets (S. Reichelt); (n) Virtual power plants - Efficient option of the local energy production (G. Weissmueller); (o) The role of bio energy in the power mix renewable energies (R. Bischof); (p) The autonomous power supply - from the bio energy village to the autonomous solar energy village (K. Scheffer); (q) Bio energy villages at the Lake Constance - Model projects for the rural area (B. Mueller); (r) Bio energy region Mureck / Steiermark (K. Totter); (s) The bio energy in the current German legislation process (H.-J. Fell).

  8. Prospects of rice straw as a raw material for paper making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi Kant; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry. Open burning of rice straw releases noxious green house gases to the air and poses serious threats to global air chemistry and human health. So, it is a dual benefit option (for farmers and industries) to use rice straw as a raw material in pulp and paper industry. Organosolv pulping using acids are the prominent choices of researchers to convert this residue into valuable pulp but in developed countries only. Developing world favours the soda and soda-AQ processes as these are economical. As a virtue of less lignin content in comparison to wood, rice straw requires less harsh conditions for cooking and can be easily pulped. Bleaching is a crucial step of paper making but also responsible for causing water pollution. Many studies revealed that during the process more than 500 chlorinated compounds are released that are highly toxic, bioaccumulative and carcinogenic in nature. Most of the industries over the globe switch on to the elemental chlorine free short sequence bleaching methods using chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. This paper presented the effective need of ecofriendly, economically reliable pulping and bleaching sequences in case of rice straw to eliminate the problems of chlorinated compounds in wastewater of paper mills. Such approach of using waste as a raw material with its environmentally safe processing for making paper can prove to be valuable towards sustainable growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ERA-MIN: The European network (ERA-NET) on non-energy raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    vidal, o.; christmann, p.; Bol, d.; Goffé, b.; Groth, m.; Kohler, e.; Persson Nelson, k.; Schumacher, k.

    2012-04-01

    Non-energy raw materials are vital for the EU's economy, and for the development of environmentally friendly technologies. The EU is the world's largest consumers of non-energy minerals, but it remains dependent on the importation of many metals, as its domestic production is limited to about 3% of world production. We will present the project ERA-MIN, which is an ERA-NET on the Industrial Handling of Raw Materials for European industries, financially supported by the European Commission. The main objectives of ERA-MIN are: 1) Mapping and Networking: interconnecting the members of the currently fragmented European mineral resources research area, to the aim of fostering convergence of public research programs, industry, research institutes, academia and the European Commission, 2) Coordinating: establishing a permanent mechanism for planning and coordination of the European non-energy mineral raw materials research community (ENERC). 3) Roadmapping: defining the most important scientific and technological challenges that should be supported by the EU and its state members, 4) Programming: designing a Joint European Research Programme model and implementating it into a call for proposals open to academic and industrial research. The topics of interest in ERA-MIN are the primary continental and marine resources, the secondary resources and their related technologies, substitution and material efficiency, along with transversal topics such as environmental impact, public policy support, mineral intelligence, and public education and teaching. Public scientific research is very central in the scope of the ERA-MIN activity, whose consortium is indeed lead by a public organisation of fundamental research. Thus, universities and public research organisations are warmly invited to play an active role in defining the scientific questions and challenges that shall determine the European Raw Materials Roadmap and should be addressed by joint programming at the European scale

  10. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes II: Influence of raw material composition under catalytic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A; Torres, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the results obtained in catalytic pyrolysis of three plastic waste streams which are the rejects of an industrial packing wastes sorting plant are presented. The samples have been pyrolysed in a 3.5 dm(3) reactor under semi-batch conditions at 440 °C for 30 min in nitrogen atmosphere. Commercial ZSM-5 zeolite has been used as catalyst in liquid phase contact. In every case, high HHV gases and liquids which can be useful as fuels or source of chemicals are obtained. A solid fraction composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials and some char formed in the pyrolysis process is also obtained. The zeolite has shown to be very effective to produce liquids with great aromatics content and C3-C4 fraction rich gases, even though the raw material was mainly composed of polyolefins. The characteristics of the pyrolysis products as well as the effect of the catalyst vary depending on the composition of the raw material. When paper rich samples are pyrolysed, ZSM-5 zeolite increases water production and reduces CO and CO(2) generation. If stepwise pyrolysis is applied to such sample, the aqueous liquid phase can be separated from the organic liquid fraction in a first low temperature step.

  11. The usage of plastic waste as a secondary raw material for the modification of sandcrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.; Venčkauskas, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recently the usage of various industry wastes as a secondary raw material tends to increase its relevancy. One of possible options to decrease the amount of waste is to use them to produce new products or materials. The operation of various secondary raw materials (tire rubber, tire cord, ground glass shards, ground ceramic waste products) during the concrete mixture preparation allows to change its as well as cured concrete properties. Recently polymer and steel fibers are used for concrete reinforcement. This study analyses the usage possibility of plastic shavings for the reinforcement of concrete. The technological properties of cement slurry (sand, fraction of 0/4 and 10 kg/m3, 15 kg/m3 and 20 kg/m3 of plastic shavings) as well as mechanical, physical and porosity properties of cured sandcrete were established during the experimental research. The geometric characteristics of mill-shredded plastic shavings were established. Experimental results revealed that the usage of plastic shavings decreased slurry slump and density. The minor decrease of cured sandcrete density (~2200 kg/m3) was noticed with the addition of plastic shavings within the limits of 10 - 20 kg/m3. The flexural strength of cured sandcrete increased from 36 % to 57 % compared with reference specimen (without plastic shavings). The dependence of flexural force and deflection was obtained. Study revealed that the residual strength after crack opening is bigger with the usage of plastic shavings as a secondary raw material compared with reference specimen.

  12. WATER-JET CUTTING MACHINE NOW AVAILABLE FROM THE CERN RAW MATERIALS STORES

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308

  13. WATER-JET CUTTING MACHINE NOW AVAILABLE FROM THE CERN RAW MATERIALS STORES

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308

  14. Application of Technogenic-Raw Material and Burning Out Additive in Composite Ceramic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga KIZINIEVIČ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the composite ceramic system containing easily fusible hydro-micous clay, technogenic finely dispersed raw material, and burning out waste additive is presented in the article. The properties of the raw materials used are described in the paper. The obtained ceramic bodies were burned at 1000 °C and 1050 °C temperatures, keeping at the highest burning temperature for 4 h. The analysis of physical-mechanical properties of composite ceramics (density, compressive strength, water absorption, its structural parameters (effective and total open porosity, reserve of pore volume, relative wall thickness of the pores and capillaries, and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed. The interdependencies between some structural parameters are described by empirical equations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2443

  15. Cyclone furnace for intensive reprocessing or burning of dispersed mineral raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, E.; Jankowski, S.; Kurdowski, W.; Parda, A.; Zamojdo, R.

    1982-10-30

    In order to reduce emission of solid (or liquid) microparticles of reprocessed or burned dispersed mineral raw material, a separation furnace is proposed which has the appearance of a horizontally lying drum of a steam boiler. The raw material to be reprocessed is fed into the furnace chamber through two cylindrical pipelines arranged in its upper part in the opposite ends, and in the middle between them in the upper part there is a gas line for removal of exhaust gases arranged at a 55/sup 0/ angle to the horizontal. In the lower part there is a device for discharging the accumulated solid microparticles or fluid arranged at a 30/sup 0/ angle to the base plane.

  16. Energies and raw material. Annual report; Energies et matieres premieres. Rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The annual report of the french General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Material (DGEMP) deals with the energy policy. The following subjects are analysed: the french program of fight against the global warming; the biogas; the radioactive wastes management program; the french nuclear industry re-organization; Tchernobyl; the electric power and gas public service; the risk prevention concerning the electric power production; the international Gaz De France protocol; the closing of the Ales mine; the cooperation ELF and TOTAL; the french para-petroleum industry; the raw material prices; the french mining situation; the french energy policy audit by the AIE; the energy accidents of december. The DGEMP organization chart with contacts and the publications are also included. (A.L.B.)

  17. Characterisation of Cements From Dominantly Volcanic Raw Materials of the Carpathian Bend Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmagy Timea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations regarding the production of cements from local raw materials, such as limestone from Varghis, gypsum from Nucsoara, basaltic scoria from Racosul de Jos, volcanic tuff from Racosul de Sus, diatomite from Filia, and red mud from Oradea. The raw mixtures, based on modified Bogue calculations, contain limestone, gypsum, and one or two of the above-mentioned materials. The cements resulted from clinker grinding in a laboratory gas furnace at 1260-1300 °C, with one hour at the peak temperatures, and were characterised for Blaine specific surface area, specific density, and mineral phases. Physico-mechanical properties, such as water content for normal consistency, setting time, soundness, and compressive strength were also determined. Results show that these cements contain belite, ferrite, calcium sulphoaluminate, anhydrite, and some minor compounds.

  18. Application of steam explosion for the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquet, Nicolas; Vanderghem, Caroline; Blecker, Christophe; Paquot, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Application of steam explosion for the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic raw materials. Steam explosion is a thermomechanochemical process which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural components by steam heating, hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds by organic acid formed during the process and shearing forces due to the expansion of the moisture. The process is composed of two distinct stages: vapocracking and explosive decompression. Cumul effects of both phases include modification...

  19. Chemical composition analysis of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the analysis of the chemical compositions of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland. The iron ore sintering process is the largest source of emissions of dust and gas pollution in the iron and steel industry. Hematite ores, magnetite concentrates, admixtures (dolomite, limestone and burnt lime, fuels (coke breeze, anthracite and by-products are used in Poland to produce the sinter mixture.

  20. Utilization of flotation wastes of copper slag as raw material in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Süngün, H

    2008-11-30

    Copper slag wastes, even if treated via processes such as flotation for metal recovery, still contain heavy metals with hazardous properties posing environmental risks for disposal. This study reports the potential use of flotation waste of a copper slag (FWCS) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker. The FWCS appears a suitable raw material as iron source containing >59% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of fayalite (Fe(2)SiO(4)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The clinker products obtained using the FWCS from the industrial scale trial operations over a 4-month period were characterised for the conformity of its chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products was evaluated. The data collected for the clinker products produced using an iron ore, which is currently used as the cement raw material were also included for comparison. The results have shown that the chemical compositions of all the clinker products including those of FWCS are typical of a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the standard mortars prepared from the FWCS clinkers were found to be similar to those from the iron ore clinkers with the desired specifications for the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. Furthermore, the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) have revealed that the mortar samples obtained from the FWCS clinkers present no environmental problems while the FWCS could act as the potential source of heavy metal contamination. These findings suggest that flotation wastes of copper slag (FWCS) can be readily utilised as cement raw material due to its availability in large quantities at low cost with the further significant benefits for waste management/environmental practices of the FWCS and the reduced production and processing costs for cement raw materials.

  1. Regenerative raw materials. High technology without end; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe. Spitzentechnologie ohne Ende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-03

    In recent years, the use of renewable raw materials has developed rapidly. Meanwhile, biomass is one of the most important renewable energy source and a serious alternative to fossil fuel-based industry. The brochure under consideration presents an insight into the complex and promising topic ''Renewable Resources''. In particular, the areas in which renewable resources already are established as well as areas that need to be extended in the future are described.

  2. Utilization of Red Mud as Raw Material in the Production of Field Road Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao; LUO Zhongtao; ZHANG Lei; RONG Hui; YANG Jiujun

    2016-01-01

    The total utilization amount of red mud is limited due to its high content of alkali, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive element. In order to rationalize the use of red mud, a typical ifeld road cement using dealkalized red mud (content of alkali lower than 1%) as raw material was ifrstly prepared in this paper. Then, a preliminary research on the radioactivity of the red mud based ifeld road cement has been carried out. For that reason, two samples of raw materials were prepared. One was with ordinary raw materials, as the control group (CG), the other was with 23w % red mud, as the experimental group (EG). The clinkers were acquired by sintering the above two raw materials at 1 400℃. Subsequently, the two types of cement prepared by the above two kinds of clinkers were tested by measuring the normal consistency, setting time, mechanical strength and drying shrinkage. Meanwhile, the hydration products of the two types of cement were examined by XRD analysis at the curing age of 6 hours, 1, 3, 7, and 28 days, respectively. The radioactivity of the two kinds of cement clinkers was then measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The experimental results indicate that the main mineralogical phases components in the EG ifeld road cement clinkers are C3S, C2S, and C4AF, the 28 days lfexural and compressive strength of the EG ifeld road cement mortars could be up to 8.45 and 53.2 MPa, respectively. The radioactive measuring results of the EG field road cement show that the value of radium equivalent activity index (Raeq) is 254.8 Bq/Kg-1, which is lower than the upper limit.

  3. Raw Material Influence on the Formation of Light Induced Off-Flavors in Cereal Based Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Insa, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Flavor stability has always been of particular interest in the brewing industry. Sunstruck flavor may occur if beer is exposed to light without protection. This work evaluates the potential of different raw materials, malting and brewing process on modifying the content of sunstruck flavor initiators and inhibitors. Furthermore, the results achieved by this work provide a valuable basis for the design of light stable cereal-based beverages. Die Aromastabilität des Bieres ist von jeher von ...

  4. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION OF THE CANDIED FRUITS FROM NON-TRADITIONAL RAW MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Belenkaya; Ya. A. Golinskaya

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the candied fruit market in Ukraine and describes the main technological operations pertainingto processing of non-traditional candied products – celery and parsnip roots. Darkening of the roots surface caused bythe enzyme oxidation is one of the problems arising when processing white roots, which leads to worse marketable conditionof the product. To prevent darkening, the developed technology provides for soaking raw material in 1% citric acid solutionimmediately after p...

  5. Future-orientated energy and raw materials policies. Zukunftsorientierte Energie- und Rohstoffpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, H. (Bundesministerium der Finanzen, Bonn (Germany, F.R.)); Bennigsen, R. v. (VEBA A.G., Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.); Mineraloelwirtschaftsverband e.V., Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)); Bund, K. (Ruhrkohle A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.); Gesamtverband des Deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus, Essen (Germany, F.R.)); Hauff, V.; Matthoefer, H. (Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.)); Liesen, K. (Ruhrgas A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)); Mandel, H. (Deutsches Atomforum e.V., Bonn (Germany, F.R.)); Mommsen, E.W. (Krupp (Friedr.) G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1976-01-01

    The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung held an international experts' congress on the subject 'Problems of future-oriented energy and raw materials policies' on October 13th/14th, 1975, in the Beethoven Hall in Bonn. This volume contains the lectures held and the contributions made to the podium discussions in the presence of 1,053 registered participants from 47 countries.

  6. Determination of Platinum Metals in Carbonaceous Mineral Raw Materials by Stripping Voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kolpakova, Nina Alexandrovna; Oskina, Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Dyachenko, Elena Nikolaevna; Pshenichkin, Anatoliy Yakovlevich

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the possibility of determining platinum metals in mineral raw materials by stripping voltammetry on a graphite electrode modified by metals. Stripping voltammetry method is characterized by low determination limit, wide intervals of determined content and high sensitivity. As a result of the research the conditions for the determination of gold, platinum and palladium by stripping voltammetry have been selected. The comparison of the results of gold, palladium and platinum...

  7. The procurement of lithic raw materials: towards a paleocultural characterisation of palaeoeconomic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Mangado, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of paper is to analyse the character of the lithic industries, and especially raw materials, as one of the spatial and cultural indicators of the exploitation territories of prehistoric communities of hunter gratherers.
    We propose the use of archaeopetrological studies, in relation to geographical context studies and lithic technological analysis to define the palaeocultural characteristics of palaeoeconomic behaviour (mobility patterns) in relation to the procurement and ex...

  8. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...... in RACs at a European level. In this approach, consumption data needs to be converted to edible part of RAC (e-RAC) level using a RAC conversion database. To subsequently use this data in exposure assessments, both e-RACs and RACs analysed in chemical control programmes should be classified via a uniform...... system. Furthermore, chemical concentrations in RACs may need to be converted to e-RAC level using processing factors. To illustrate the use of this approach, we describe how the Dutch RAC conversion database was used to convert consumption data of four national consumption surveys to e-RAC level...

  9. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  10. Raw Materials Inventory and Fermentation Process in Lemea Industry The Traditional Food of Rejang Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Harlina Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional food is a food that is processed from surrounding natural and treated hereditary, so it became one of the pillars of food tenacity. Lemea is a traditional food of Rejang tribe that has not been properly inventoried. The purpose of this study is an inventory and characterization of physical, chemical and organoleptic of Lemea from various small industries in the districts. Characterization of traditional food Lemea required as a basis for the agro-industry design of Lemea of Rejang traditional standardized food (raw materials and processes, so resulting in consistent product quality, hygienic and attractive so as to compete with other containers food products, as well as preserving traditional food. The research method used was a survey method, by interviewing a small industry regarding raw materials used and the fermentation process of Lemea. Results show that the raw materials used are Mayan bamboo sprout (Kepahiyang and North Bengkulu District, Kepea bamboo sprout (South Lebong District and all kinds of bamboo sprout in the Rejang Lebong District, depending on available bamboo sprouts. The fish used in Central Bengkulu and Kepahiyang District is Tilapia fish, South Lebong District (White fish, North Bengkulu (Mayung fish. The fermentation process classified on 2 groups, namely (1 fermentation with the addition of rice porridge as a source of glucose and (2 without the addition of fermented rice porridge as a source of glucose. Lemea from various sources have variations in color, aroma, acidity, integrality, turbidity and overall appearance of different.

  11. Production method of raw material dispersion liquid for reaction layer of gas diffusion electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Choichi; Motoo, Satoshi

    1987-10-13

    Heretofore, in order to make a raw material dispersion liquid of a reaction layer of a gas diffusion electrode, water repellent carbon, polytetrafluoroethylene, water and a surface active agent are mixed, then a cake is made by filtering this mixed liquid and afterwards the cake is heated and dried before being crushed. Since this crushing is done mechanically, homogeneous fine raw material powders cannot be obtained. Accordingly, even when a reaction layer is made by sintering a mixture of this powder, hydrophilic carbon black or hydrophilic carbon black carrying catalyst, and polytetrafluoroethylene, the hydrophilic part and the water repellent part are not distributed homogeneously and the catalytic performance of the reaction layer declines. In order to solve this, this invention proposes a production method that water repellent carbon black, polyterafluoroethylene, water and a surface active agent are mixed, then this mixture is frozen so that the surface active agent may not become active and homogeneous condensed cores of water repellent carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene powders may be formed, and afterwards a homogeneous fine raw material dispersion liquid is made from thawing the condensed cores without change by thawing the above frozen mixture.

  12. Polymorphism in nimodipine raw materials: development and validation of a quantitative method through differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekes, Manoela Klüppel; Pereira, Rafael Nicolay; Rauber, Gabriela Schneider; Cuffini, Silvia Lucia; de Campos, Carlos Eduardo Maduro; Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto; Stulzer, Hellen Karine

    2012-11-01

    Due to the physical-chemical and therapeutic impacts of polymorphism, its monitoring in raw materials is necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative method to determine the polymorphic content of nimodipine (NMP) raw materials based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymorphs required for the development of the method were characterized through DSC, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Raman spectroscopy and their polymorphic identity was confirmed. The developed method was found to be linear, robust, precise, accurate and specific. Three different samples obtained from distinct suppliers (NMP 1, NMP 2 and NMP 3) were firstly characterized through XRPD and DSC as polymorphic mixtures. The determination of their polymorphic identity revealed that all samples presented the Modification I (Mod I) or metastable form in greatest proportion. Since the commercial polymorph is Mod I, the polymorphic characteristic of the samples analyzed needs to be investigated. Thus, the proposed method provides a useful tool for the monitoring of the polymorphic content of NMP raw materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides and their radioactive equilibrium in raw materials and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Kim, Chang-Jong; Jang, Mee; Kang, Mun Ja; Park, Sang Tae

    2015-03-01

    An investigation into the distribution of natural radionuclides and radioactive secular equilibrium in raw materials and by-products in a domestic distribution was conducted to deduce the optimum conditions for the analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides for (238)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th using a gamma-ray spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The range of the specific activities of natural radionuclides was first evaluated by analyzing (228)Ac and (214)Bi, which are (232)Th and (226)Ra indicators, respectively, in about 100 samples of raw materials and by-products through a gamma-ray spectrometer. From further experiments using several samples selected based on the results of the distribution of natural radionuclides, the validation of their analytical evaluations for the indirect measurements using a gamma-ray spectrometer and direct measurements using ICP-MS was assured by comparing their results. Chemically processed products from the raw materials, such as Zr sand and ceramic balls, were generally shown for the type of bead and particularly analyzed showing a definite disequilibrium with above a 50% difference between (238)U and (226)Ra in the uranium series and (232)Th and (228)Ra in the thorium series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Core IV Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul; And Others

    This core curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting a 13-unit vocational agriculture course geared toward high school students living in metropolitan areas. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: employment in agricultural occupations, supervised occupational experience, leadership in…

  15. Valorization of Drinking Water Treatment Sludges as Raw Materials to Produce Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M.R. Zamora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the technical feasibility to valorize sludges, generated and stored at the Los Berros drinking water facility (PPLB, as raw material to produce building products (mortar and concrete for the construction industry. The experimental study was divided into three stages: 1 sampling and characterization of PPLB sludges to determine their potential as raw material (sand substitute and supplementary cementing materials to produce mortar and concrete; 2 production and characterization of specimens, using sludge in different weight ratios of mixtures with cement, lime, commercial mortar and plaster to prepare mortars and concretes and 3 comparison of compressive strength and drying contraction values between each specimen and the Mexican criteria to build mortars and concretes. The characterization results of the PPLB sludges showed that these residues could be used as a sand substitute in mortar and concrete formulations, since they were mainly comprised of this material (46.83%. The specimens prepared with a the binary formulations, sludge-cement and sludge-mortar (90-10% and b the ternary formulation, sludge-lime-cement (90-5-5%, gave the best results (ranging from 130 to 150 kg cm-2 of the compressive strength test. The compressive strength values of these formulations were higher than those of equivalent mortar (types I, II and III and cement mixtures (125 kg cm-2 prepared according to the Mexican complementary technical criteria to design and build masonry. These cementing properties exhibited by the PPLB sludges might be associated to their high content of aluminum and silicon oxides, 31.98 and 33.23%, respectively. Thus, calcium silicate (the main carrier strength in hardened cement can be produced from lime hydration of cement with the active silica present in the sludge. Considering all these results, the PPLB sludges present a high feasibility for being valorized as raw materials (supplementary cementing

  16. Export and Import Situation of Refractories and Refractory Raw Materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANShangxin; ZHANGZhongqi; 等

    2000-01-01

    The article states China is a great nation in producing and exporting refractories and refractory raw materials,which, has earned much foreign exchange for our country ,only a few advanced refactory material, zircon and chrome ore are needed to be imported.The ar-ticle points out the problems in the export and import,and raises suggestions on development.After the entry of WTO,China will expand its co-operations with other countries in science,technology,economy and trade to play a more important role in the world market.

  17. The Feedback Control Cycle of Mineral Supply, Increase of Raw Material Efficiency, and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-W. Wellmer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development with regard to non-renewable resources can best be defined in terms of the inter-generational challenge of the Brundtland commission and the intra-generational challenge worked out in Agenda 21 of the 1992 Rio de Janeiro conference of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED. In meeting these challenges, the trilemma of security of supply under conditions of economic viability and environmental sustainability also needs to be addressed in order to achieve sustainable development. To fulfil the natural resources needs of future generations we have three resources at our disposal: (1 the geosphere or primary resources; (2 the technosphere or secondary resources and (3 human ingenuity and creativity driving innovation. Man does not need natural resources as such, only the intrinsic property of a material that enables the fulfilment of a function is required. Any material that can perform the same function more efficiently or cheaply can replace any other material. In our constant drive to secure the supply of efficient raw materials, the feedback control cycle plays an indispensable role by virtue of it reacting to price signals on both the supply and demand sides. The feedback cycle of course goes hand in hand with a continuous learning process. On the supply side, the learning effects are in technology development around primary resources and the increased use of secondary resources; on the demand side with thriftier use of raw materials.

  18. BACKORDER AND LOST SALES CONTINUOUS REVIEW RAW MATERIAL INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM WITH LEAD TIME AND ORDERING COST REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiena Gustina Amran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to suggest the optimal raw material inventory system alternatives synchronized with the stock out characteristics and the condition can be occurred, the backorder raw material inventory control, beside that it also can reduce lead time and raw material ordering cost. In this case, the inventory models also extent (Q, R Inventory Model Under lead Time and Ordering Cost Reduction with lead time and ordering cost can be reduced. After the calculation, the optimal solution of inventory models can be obtained; those are with backorder condition which produced the annual inventory total cost for the company.

  19. Method for selecting raw materials to preparing ceramic masses: application to raw material for red ceramic; Proposta metodologica de selecao de materias primas para compor massas ceramicas: aplicacao a ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Maria Margarita Torres; Rocha, Rogers Raphael da; Zanard, Antenor, E-mail: mmoreno@rc.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DPM/IGCE/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We studied the raw materials used in a factory building blocks, located in Cesario Lange city (SP). It extracts raw materials from various sources in the region to make the dough. The mixtures were prepared from dry milled powders based on data related to the plasticity of the raw materials. It was obtained with the apparatus Vicat-cone in order to obtain similar levels of water absorption of the samples burned at 900 deg C for all compositions. To quantify the proportion of each clay was used the Lever Rule. In this firing temperature, where sintering is mainly by diffusion from a solid state, different compositions of the same set of four raw materials resulted in similar values. (author)

  20. Raw Materials in Fibre Enriched Biscuits Production as Source of Total Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Šebečić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to scientifically well documented health beneficial effects of dietary fibres and recommendations for an every day intake on an average of 30 g by food (DRI 2005, the confectionery industry has been increasingly engaged in the production of fibre enriched biscuits with the aim to offer such a product as a valuable constituent of proper nutrition and dietetic functional food intended for risky populations. Thereby, commercially available pure fibres or fibre-rich raw materials have been used for the enrichment of biscuits, prevalently pure fibres. To evaluate such products as functional food it is of interest to know how the choice of raw material for biscuit fibre enrichment influences the content of other health protecting compounds which commonly accompany fibres in plant material. With the aim of evaluating fibre rich biscuits as a source of total phenols depending on the origin of fibres, total phenols were determined spectrophotometrically by a modified Folin-Ciocalteau method (Gao et al. 2002 in ten experimentally baked biscuits based on wheat flour type 500 and type 1700 with or without different dietary fibres or fibre rich raw materials added instead of definite amount of white fl our. Results show that shares of total phenols and fibres in biscuits based on the wheat fl our depend on the type of the fl our. Biscuits with pure wheat and oats fibres added were the lowest in phenol content regardless on the highest amount of fibres (0.96 g kg-1 and 1.09 g kg-1, respectively; inulin and amaranth do not changeessentially phenol content; apple fibres, soya fl our, and carob fl our enhance phenol content thereby carob fl our being the most effective giving biscuits 5.53 g total phenols kg-1.

  1. Raw Materials in Fibre Enriched Biscuits Production as Source of Total Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Šebečić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to scientifically well documented health beneficial effects of dietary fibres and recommendations for an every day intake on an average of 30 g by food (DRI 2005, the confectionery industry has been increasingly engaged in the production of fibre enriched biscuits with the aim to offer such a product as a valuable constituent of proper nutrition and dietetic functional food intended for risky populations. Thereby, commercially available pure fibres or fibre-rich raw materials have been used for the enrichment of biscuits, prevalently pure fibres. To evaluate such products as functional food it is of interest to know how the choice of raw material for biscuit fibre enrichment influences the content of other health protecting compounds which commonly accompany fibres in plant material. With the aim of evaluating fibre rich biscuits as a source of total phenols depending on the origin of fibres, total phenols were determined spectrophotometrically by a modified Folin-Ciocalteau method (Gao et al. 2002 in ten experimentally baked biscuits based on wheat flour type 500 and type 1700 with or without different dietary fibres or fibre rich raw materials added instead of definite amount of white fl our. Results show that shares of total phenols and fibres in biscuits based on the wheat fl our depend on the type of the fl our. Biscuits with pure wheat and oats fibres added were the lowest in phenol content regardless on the highest amount of fibres (0.96 g kg-1 and 1.09 g kg-1, respectively; inulin and amaranth do not change essentially phenol content; apple fibres, soya fl our, and carob fl our enhance phenol content thereby carob fl our being the most effective giving biscuits 5.53 g total phenols kg-1.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  3. Incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as an alternative raw material for red ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. P. Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry generates huge amounts of sugarcane bagasse ashes (SCBA. This work investigates the incorporation of a SCBA waste as an alternative raw material into a clay body, replacing natural clay material by up to 20 wt.%. Clay ceramic pieces were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired at temperatures varying from 700 to 1100 ºC. The technological properties of the clay ceramic pieces (linear shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption, and tensile strength as function of the firing temperature and waste addition are investigated. The phase evolution during firing was followed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the SCBA waste could be incorporated into red ceramics (bricks and roofing tiles in partial replacement for natural clay material. These results confirm the feasibility of valorisation of SCBA waste to produce red ceramic. This use of SCBA can also contribute greatly to reducing the environmental problems of the sugarcane industry, and also save the sources of natural raw materials used in the ceramic industry.

  4. Aspects regarding the use of the industrial wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Popa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are present the results of physical and chemical characterisation activities, of industrial wastes: ash and slag, drilling sludge, metallurgical slag. Also, were established the conditions in which these industrial waste types could be used as raw materials for manufacture some building materials. The ash can be assimilated with a lightweight aggregate similar to the natural sands, the oil-well drilling sludge presents an advanced similarity with the suspensions of fine particles of sand clays, the steel melting slag in electric furnace has the characteristics of a dense granular aggregate and the secondary treatment steel slag is characterized by the high content of calcium oxide.

  5. Non-wood plants as raw material for pulp and paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SAIJONKARI-PAHKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was begun in 1990 when there was a marked shortage of short fibre raw material for the pulp industry. During the last ten years the situation has changed little, and the shortage is still apparent. It was estimated that 0.5 to 1 million hectares of arable land would be set aside from cultivation in Finland during this period. An alternative to using hardwoods in printing papers is non-wood fibres from herbaceous field crops. The study aimed at determining the feasibility of using non-wood plants as raw material for the pulp and paper industry, and developing crop management methods for the selected species. The properties considered important for a fibre crop were high yielding ability, high pulping quality and good adaptation to the prevailing climatic conditions and possibilities for low cost production. A strategy and a process to identify, select and introduce a crop for domestic short fibre production is described in this thesis. The experimental part of the study consisted of screening plant species by analysing fibre and mineral content, evaluating crop management methods and varieties, resulting in description of an appropriate cropping system for large-scale fibre plant production. Of the 17 herbaceous plant species studied, monocotyledons were most suitable for pulping. They were productive and well adapted to Finnish climatic conditions. Of the monocots, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. were the most promising. These were chosen for further studies and were included in field experiments to determine the most suitable harvesting system and fertilizer application procedures for biomass production. Reed canary grass was favoured by delayed harvesting in spring when the moisture content of the crop stand was 10-15% of DM before production of new tillers. When sown in early spring, reed canary grass typically yielded 7-8 t ha-1 within three years on clay soil. The yield

  6. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  7. [Determination of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material by headspace gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huilian

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of five kinds of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material was developed by headspace gas chromatography. An HP-FFAP capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm x 1.0 microm), a flame ionization detector and the external standard method were used for the separation and quantitative analysis. The effects of equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time on the determination of residual organic solvents were investigated. The good results were obtained in the equilibrium temperature of 90 degrees C and equilibrium time of 30 min. The standard curves were linear in the range of 0.40-7.93 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethyl acetate, 7.32-146.48 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for methanol, 4.53-90.61 mg/L (r = 0.999 9) for isopropanol, 3.62-72.32 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethanol and 2.31-46.24 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for acetonitrile. The recoveries for the five residual organic solvents were between 95.96% and 100.31% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 6) of 1.97%-3.28%. The detection limits of ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropanol, ethanol and acetonitrile were 0.08, 0.9, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the residual organic solvents in the real sample of flunixin meglumine raw material. The results showed that only isopropanol and ethanol were found in the sample with the contents of 177.44 microg/g and 69.32 microg/g, respectively. The method is rapid, sensitive and accurate for the content determination of residual solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material.

  8. Towards a dynamic assessment of raw materials criticality: linking agent-based demand--with material flow supply modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeri, Christof; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Weil, Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Emerging technologies such as information and communication-, photovoltaic- or battery technologies are expected to increase significantly the demand for scarce metals in the near future. The recently developed methods to evaluate the criticality of mineral raw materials typically provide a 'snapshot' of the criticality of a certain material at one point in time by using static indicators both for supply risk and for the impacts of supply restrictions. While allowing for insights into the mechanisms behind the criticality of raw materials, these methods cannot account for dynamic changes in products and/or activities over time. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework intended to overcome these limitations by including the dynamic interactions between different possible demand and supply configurations. The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model, where demand emerges from individual agent decisions and interaction, into a dynamic material flow model, representing the materials' stocks and flows. Within the framework, the environmental implications of substitution decisions are evaluated by applying life-cycle assessment methodology. The approach makes a first step towards a dynamic criticality assessment and will enhance the understanding of industrial substitution decisions and environmental implications related to critical metals. We discuss the potential and limitation of such an approach in contrast to state-of-the-art methods and how it might lead to criticality assessments tailored to the specific circumstances of single industrial sectors or individual companies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lithic assemblages of Azokh Cave (Nagorno Karabagh, Lesser Caucasus: Raw materials, technology and regional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Asryan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Azokh Cave is a Middle Pleistocene to Holocene site located in Nagorno Karabagh (Lesser Caucasus. The main entrance, Azokh 1, is a large cave that has two geological sequences (lower and upper with nine geo-archaeological units of which only the upper ones (Units I to V have a significant archaeological record.  The faunal remains and lithic artefacts in these units indicate aspects of human occupation, and exploitation of, and association with animals.     The lithic artefacts presented here were recovered from Units V, III and II during the 2002 – 2009 excavation seasons. The available chronological data indicates an age between 293 – 100 Ka for these units. The operational chain is incomplete and artefacts found in the cave are primarily end-products dominated by flake-tools. The assemblage of Unit V is composed primarily of simple, unretouched flakes with a minimal presence of retouched flakes and cores. The Unit II lithic assemblage includes a substantial Levallois component, although with fewer cores and retouched flakes. There are very few flake tools in Unit III. While it is still difficult to assign the Unit V assemblage to a techno-typological group or complex (i.e. Acheulean, Mousterian or other local techno-complexes such as the Kudarian, the Unit II assemblage is clearly associated with Mode 3 or the Mousterian techno-complex.Different local and non-local raw materials were exploited in all units for the production of lithic artefacts, although the range of raw materials is more varied in Unit II. Local chert, flint and basalt were used most commonly, probably due to their easy accessibility. Limestone, jasper and sandstone, from local and non-local sources, are present in small quantities in Units V and II. Obsidian is the only raw material that possibly originates from more distant sources. Flint and chert appear to have been preferentially exploited for flake tool production in all units, but the toolmakers show a

  10. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28; Energies matieres premieres. Lettre n. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  11. Raw material utilization in slaughterhouses – optimizing expected profit using mixed-integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Kjærsgaard, Niels Christian

    Slaughterhouses are major players in the pork supply chain, and supply and demand must be matched in order to generate the highest profit. In particular, carcasses must be sorted in order to produce the “right” final products from the “right” carcasses. We develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP) ...... at slaughterhouses. Finally, we comment on the expected effect of variations in the raw material supply and the demand as well as future research concerning joint modelling of supply chain aspects....

  12. The Future Availability of Strategic Raw Materials and Possible North Atlantic Treaty Organization Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-06

    c’) , — » ^.^^.^.^^..^ ...■..■.. <i^^M»imJKi^»a^a^,,«.....».m.,,..,.^J^:.kt,a.,.t.;,. . . ■ ■■ ■ ?WSP^ piB ^gpWlBW’Wl’B’M...In Africe egslnst white ferity governments In Rhodesia and South Africa could iv —J-^--"-— - — - iAt-i-’-1" provide a catalyst in uniting Black... Africa . The black majorities might try to use their control of certain raw materials to influence (or pressure) Western governments. It is

  13. Industrial lubricants based on renewable raw materials. Report 1. Properties of the natural acylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Mandziuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes and generalizes the information available on animal fats that can be used as secondary raw materials in production of lubricants compatible with the new recycling technologies. The paper reviews the current market of lubricants, analyses the environmental problems in manufacturing of petroleum-based lubricants and suggests a new class of alternative raw materials for the lubricant production. The experimental studies showed that sunflower oil contains the highest number of unsaturated bonds as compared to other fats. The iodine number measurements of the beef and chicken fats indicated that the latter contains more unsaturated carboxylic acids. Dynamic viscosity of the beef fat is much higher than that of other studied fats. The synthetic acylglycerols have higher temperature-dependent and shear viscosity as compared to the original fats. The paper presents the results of experimental physicochemical and rheometric studies of animal fats. It is shown that animal fat-based materials may serve as an alternative source of environmentally-friendly lubricants.

  14. The Feasibility of Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) Trunk for Raw Material of Parquet (Wood Flooring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, A.; Tarigan, A.; Hakim, L.

    2017-03-01

    In the market, parquet was made from high density wood such as teak, merbau, kempas, ulin, oak, lime, maple, or other high density wood. Parquet has been used for flooring in specific buildings, for instance sport hall, library, commercial building (i.e hotel lobby, hypermarket), and office building. Because of the scarcity of high density wood nowadays and in order to find out the alternative material for wood flooring, the utilization of sugar palm trunk was considered. In this contribution, unproductive sugar palm tree was cut down and divided into three sections using chain saw, namely bottom, middle, and tip. For each section, physical and mechanical samples testing were made according to British Standard 373:1957 for small clear specimen. Investigation of both properties was done in ambient temperature with at least three replications. Instron UTM (Universal Testing Machine) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. Results of the physical testing (density, moisture content and tangential shrinkage) showed the entire trunk was suitable for raw material of parquet. However, the results of mechanical testing (hardness, MOE/modulus of elasticity, MOR/modulus of rupture, and compression perpendicular to grain) showed only bottom and middle parts were suitable for raw material of parquet while the upper part was vice versa.

  15. Characterization of MSWI bottom ashes towards utilization as glass raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, R C C; Figueiredo, C F; Alendouro, M S; Ferro, M C; Davim, E J R; Fernandes, M H V

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of the bottom ashes produced by two Portuguese municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) was performed with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using this waste as raw material in the production of glass that can be further processed as glass-ceramics for application in construction. Density and particle size distribution measurements were carried out for physical characterization. Chemical characterization revealed that SiO(2), a network glass former oxide, was present in a relatively high content (52-58wt%), indicating the suitability for this waste to be employed in the development of vitreous materials. CaO, Na(2)O and K(2)O, which act as fluxing agents, were present in various amounts (2-17wt%) together with several other oxides normally present in ceramic and glass raw materials. Mineralogical characterization revealed that the main crystalline phases were quartz (SiO(2)) and calcite (CaCO(3)) and that minor amounts of different alkaline and alkaline-earth aluminosilicate phases were also present. Thermal characterization showed that the decomposition of the different compounds occurred up to 1100 degrees C and that total weight loss was ceramics to be applied in construction.

  16. Quality Improvement of Granular Wastes-The Effective Way to Recycle Secondary Raw Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Wei-hong; Charles Hendriks; Alex Fraaij; Peter Rem

    2004-01-01

    Granular wastes have negative effects on the environment due to contamination. On the other hand, stony components in granular wastes have a potential good perspectives for utilization in civil engineering works as secondary raw building materials. To reuse such materials without environmental risks, all contaminants must be removed or reduced to an acceptable level. Therefore liberation of materials is an important step in waste treatment. For this purpose, separation and cleansing techniques are suitable. Based on the analysis of contaminants in wastes, it is discussed how to select suitable techniques. The rules for technique selection and processes for quality improvement are set up. To evaluate the environmental quality and technical quality of output products, it is necessary to check leaching behaviours and physical properties.

  17. Considering adaptation of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing to peculiarities of thermal energization of mineral raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvezdin, A. V.; Bryanskikh, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives a short overview of technologies of mineral raw material thermal treatment where application of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing is possible. Efficiency of such ovens for vermiculite concentrate and conglomerate roasting is proved by more than 13-years experience of their industrial operation. The paper furthermore considers alternative connections of energotechnological blocks of an oven in order to determine its efficient design for specific technology related to one or another mineral raw material.

  18. Opportunities offered by the raw material boom to German mining machinery manufacturers; Chancen des Rohstoffbooms fuer die deutschen Bergbaumaschinenhersteller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckmann, K. [Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau e.V. (VDMA), Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachverband Bergbaumaschinen

    2008-05-13

    Since the beginning of the raw material boom four years ago the positive trend in the mining machinery branch in Germany has accelerated. The globalisation of the branch was assisted by the good national and international network between manufacturers of mining equipment, associations, consultants, financial institutions and politicians. The branch is currently well established internationally with an export share of 86%. This puts it into a position to continue to utilise the opportunities offered by the raw material boom. (orig.)

  19. Application of results of geological exploration of deposits of solid mineral raw materials in mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloje M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Important application in mining have the results of geological exploration of the deposits of solid mineral raw materials, before all geological data obtained (including their interpretations regarding basic properties of the deposts and their changeability, and regarding quantity and quality (i.e. resources and reserves of the belonging mineral raw material which have an essential significance for mineral projects. The geological data, together with the other relevant data (in the first place technical and economic ones are applied as basic parameters in documentation of mineral projects. Since the successfulness of the projects is dependent upon the confidence of the data, a special attention is dedicated to the acts that contribute to attaining of an adequate level of confidence of the data, as follows: a a gradual realization of the projects through two phases (geological and mining ones having seven development stages (reconnaissance, prospecting, preliminary exploration and detailed exploration stages of the geological phase and mine design, mine construction and mine production stages of the mining phase; b finding out optimal solutions in drawing up a plan of exploratory workings and its carrying out in accordance with basic properties of a deposit and their changeability; c a realistic estimation of mineral resources/reserves as a predominantly geological task (not 'calculation' of the resources/reserves as a mathematical task; d an objective evaluation of the successfulness of a project at the end of every geological stage ‒ presented in corresponding geological analyses and technical-economic studies.

  20. Evaluation of Apple Pomace as a Raw Material for Alternative Applications in Food Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Falqué

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the potential of apple pomace as a raw material for manufacturing food-related products (such as lactic acid, fiber-rich concentrates and pectin, samples from cider industry were assayed for composition and enzymatic digestibility. Alcohol-soluble compounds (monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and malic acid accounted for 32–45 mass percent of oven-dry pomace. Glucose and fructose were the major components of this fraction. The alcohol-insoluble fraction accounted for 55–68 mass percent of oven-dry pomace and was mainly made up of neutral detergent fiber (62–69 percent of the mass fraction and pectin (16.2–19.7 percent of the mass fraction. The feedstock content of N, P and metal ions (K, Mg, Fe and Mn was favourable for further manufacture of lactic acid fermentation media. Apple pomace showed a high susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis: in media with a cellulase loading of 8.5 FPU/g of apple pomace and a cellobiase loading of 5 IU/FPU, about 80 % of the total glucan was converted into glucose after 15 h. Considering the low enzyme charge, liquor to solid ratio employed, reaction time needed to achieve the maximal sugars concentration and N, P and metal ion (K, Mg, Fe and Mn content of samples, it can be concluded that apple pomace is a promising raw material for lactic acid production.

  1. Stone Tool Manufacture Strategies and Lithic Raw Material Exploitation in Coastal Patagonia, Argentina: A Multivariate Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cardillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to characterize strategies of artifact manufacture and lithic raw material exploitation along San Matías Gulf coast, Argentina, using multifactorial and cluster analysis. Multifactorial analysis is a relatively new method that has yet to be used for archaeological analysis; it has the advantage that it allows us to describe data using different groups of qualitative or quantitative variables at the same time. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted on multifactorial axis in a bid to identify grouping patterns. The results obtained from the combination of these two methods suggest that they may be useful in characterizing technological strategies in the study area. Furthermore, they may also be a powerful exploratory and characterization tool able to generate explanations at low spatial scales. The application of these methods on San Matías Gulf study case suggests that along the western and northern coasts of this Gulf the most important variables in determining differences in resource use were the fragmentation ratio and lithic raw materials used in artifact manufacture.

  2. Olive Stone Ash as Secondary Raw Material for Fired Clay Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Eliche-Quesada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the effect of incorporation of olive stone ash, as secondary raw material, on the properties of fired clay bricks. To this end, three compositions containing 10, 20, and 30 wt% olive stone ash in a mixture of clays (30 wt% red, 30 wt% yellow, and 40 wt% black clay from Spain were prepared. The raw materials, clay and olive stone ash, were characterized by means of XRD, XRF, SEM-EDS, and TG-TDA analysis. The engineering properties of the press molded specimens fired at 900°C (4 h such as linear shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, and compressive strength were evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of 10 wt% of olive stone ash produced bricks with suitable technological properties, with values of compressive strength of 41.9 MPa but with a reduced bulk density, by almost 4%. By contrast, the incorporation of 20 wt% and 30 wt% sharply increased the water absorption as a consequence of the large amount of open porosity and low mechanical strength presented by these formulations, which do not meet the standards for their use as face bricks. The bricks do not present environmental problems according to the leaching test.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF RAW MATERIAL ON THE LIQUID MOISTURE TRANSPORT THROUGH KNITTED FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COLDEA Alina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The comfort is undoubtedly the most important human attribute depends upon the moisture transport which in turn depends on the moisture transport behavior of the knitted fabric. Moisture transport is the transfer of liquid water capillary interstices of the yarns and depends on the wettability of fiber surfaces, as well as the structure of the yarn and fabric. Because of its good water absorption property, cotton is often used for next-to-skin wear such as t-shirts, underwear, socks. All these are known as ``moisture management`` which means the ability of a textile fabric to transport moisture away from the skin to the garment’s outer surface in multi-dimensions and it is one of the key performance criteria in today’s apparel industry since it has a significant effect on the human perception of moisture sensations. In order to study, plated knitted fabric for socks were knitted as plated single jersey in the same production conditions, from different types of yarns, produced in different yarn counts (Ne 20, Ne 24, Ne 30 and different raw material. (cotton, bamboo, soybean, polyester, viscose. Were chose two different density on circular knitting machine. The liquid moisture management of the samples was measured in order to determinate moisture transport index. Was study also the influence of raw material and fabric structure related to the moisture transport index. According to the obtained results, it was found that some of the knitted fabrics used in this study have goodmoisture management capability.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the 26 allergens for cosmetic labeling in fragrance raw materials and perfume oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijs, Hans; Broekhans, Joost; van Pelt, Leon; Mussinan, Cynthia

    2005-07-13

    The adoption of the 7th amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC requires any cosmetic product containing any of 26 raw materials identified by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers as likely to cause a contact allergy when present above certain trigger levels to be declared on the package label. Of these 26, 24 are volatile and can be analyzed by GC. This paper describes a method for the quantitative analysis of these volatile raw materials in perfume ingredients as well as complex perfume compositions. The method uses sequential dual-column GC-MS analysis. The full-scan data acquired minimize the false-positive and false-negative identifications that can be observed with alternate methods based on data acquired in the SIM mode. For each sample, allergen levels are determined on both columns sequentially, leading to two numerical results for each allergen. Quantification limits for each allergen in a perfume mixture based on the analysis of a standard are 0.999) and stable for multiple days. Studies on perfumes spiked with multiple allergens at 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg show recoveries close to nominal values.

  5. Relation between quality and production cost for pure biodiesel bases on the mixes of raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanaktsidis, C. G.; Spinthiropoulos, K. G.; Guliyev, Fariz; Dimitriou, D.; Euthaltsidou, K.; Tzilantonis, G. T.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays biodiesel has become more attractive because it is made from renewable resources. The main ingredients of industrial biodiesel are rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked. In this study we verify that, the proportion of these components sets the qualitative composition and energy efficiency of the final product. Essential we link the raw materials (rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked) used in the manufacture of industrial biodiesel the proportion of mixes, with the variation of physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced. According to the quantitative analysis we notice that the physiochemical properties which alter the value for example humidity, acidity, while a large number of physicochemical properties do not change their value depending on the ratio of raw materials in each mixture. The analysis of these changes seems that the presence of fat acids is negative for the quality of the mixture. From the analysis of the cost of the final mixtures that lower cost is achieved in the mixture was 10 and the highest cost was in the mixture 3. Based on a study of the cost of the mixtures can determine a basic relation between the quality and the cost of the final product.

  6. Hunter-gatherer mobility and embedded raw-material procurement strategies in the mediterranean upper paleolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasso, Antonin; Porraz, Guillaume

    2016-05-06

    Since the early 1980s, the sourcing of lithic raw materials has become central to studies of the territorial range and mobility strategies of Pleistocene foraging societies. Results have been fruitful but somehow repetitive. We will discuss the embedded procurement strategy, which presumes that raw material acquisition was part of other subsistence activities rather than an autonomous technological task. We argue that this theoretical assumption, when taken as dogma, restricts the role of technology in human history and also underestimates the way some lithic resources may have affected the organization of past hunter-gatherers. We base our discussion on the Upper Paleolithic (UP) from the Liguro-Provençal arc, with examples from the Proto-Aurignacian and the Epigravettian. Our regional record shows that in this context the movement of rocks over distances greater than 100 km was the norm rather than the exception. We argue that these long-distance procurements mirror technical needs that were oriented toward the selection of high-quality flints. We support the hypothesis that indirect procurement was an important component of regional socio-economic networks.

  7. Scale-up of biopesticide production processes using wastewater sludge as a raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D; Valèro, J R; Surampalli, R Y; Smith, J

    2004-12-01

    Studies were conducted on the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticides to ascertain the performance of the process in shake flasks, and in two geometrically similar fermentors (15 and 150 l) utilizing wastewater sludge as a raw material. The results showed that it was possible to achieve better oxygen transfer in the larger capacity fermentor. Viable cell counts increased by 38-55% in the bioreactor compared to shake flasks. As for spore counts, an increase of 25% was observed when changing from shake flask to fermentor experiments. Spore counts were unchanged in bench (15 l) and pilot scale (5.3-5.5 e(+08) cfu/ml; 150 l). An improvement of 30% in the entomotoxicity potential was obtained at pilot scale. Protease activity increased by two to four times at bench and pilot scale, respectively, compared to the maximum activity obtained in shake flasks. The maximum protease activity (4.1 IU/ml) was obtained in pilot scale due to better oxygen transfer. The Bt fermentation process using sludge as raw material was successfully scaled up and resulted in high productivity for toxin protein yield and a high protease activity.

  8. Mycobiota and aflatoxins in raw materials and pet food in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, S G; Cavaglieri, L R; Fernández Juri, M G; Dalcero, A M; Krüger, C; Keller, L A M; Magnoli, C E; Rosa, C A R

    2008-06-01

    Commercial feedstuffs are a basic element in modern pet husbandry in the world. In dogs, the effect of mycotoxins is severe and can lead to death. Few reports on the influence of dietary mycotoxins were found in the scientific literature. The aims of this work were to isolate and identify the mycoflora and to determine the aflatoxins (AFs) natural occurrence in raw materials and ready dry pet food. Therefore, the aflatoxigenic capacity of Aspergillus flavus species was investigated. Aspergillus was the prevalent genera (65-89%) followed by Penicillium and Fusarium spp. Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species, followed by Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus versicolor. Aspergillus flavus frequencies ranged from 58% to 86% except in sorghum meal. All samples assayed (except corn grains and ready pet food) showed Fusarium spp. contamination. Corn meal and corn meal and gluten samples had 100% Fusarium verticillioides. Fusarium graminearum was isolated from sorghum meal. Aspergillus flavus strains (75%) isolated from raw materials and 57% from pet food were able to produce AFs. All samples showed AFs contamination percentages over 70%; corn and sorghum meal obtained the highest AFs levels. Ready pet food did not show quantitative levels of the tested toxins. This is the first report of the aflatoxigenic capacity by A. flavus from Brazilian pet food.

  9. Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkvist, H; Hansen, A

    1995-08-01

    The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 10(6) cfu/g after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25-30 degree C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to heat of this species as determined by inoculation studies. Among 14 species isolated from retail bread and wheat grains, B. subtilis was the only species associated with ropiness. Samples of raw materials, particularly bran, seeds and oat products, contained low levels (10(0) - 10(2) cfu/g) of Bacillus spores, surviving a heat treatment (100 degree C, 10 min) corresponding to a baking process. Even low spore levels in raw materials with the frequently isolated species, B. licheniformis (49%) and B. subtilis (10%), resulted in 10(7) Bacillus per g bread crumb in two days as determined by test bakings. The results indicate a need for controlling growth of Bacillus in bread.

  10. Waste glass from end-of-life fluorescent lamps as raw material in geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Rui M; Ascensão, G; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays the stunning volume of generated wastes, the exhaustion of raw materials, and the disturbing greenhouse gases emission levels show that a paradigm shift is mandatory. In this context, the possibility of using wastes instead of virgin raw materials can mitigate the environmental problems related to wastes, while reducing the consumption of the Earth's natural resources. This innovative work reports the incorporation of unexplored waste glass coming from end-of-life fluorescent lamps into geopolymers. The influence of the waste glass incorporation level, NaOH molarity and curing conditions on the microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymers was evaluated. Results demonstrate that curing conditions are the most influential factor on the geopolymer characteristics, while the NaOH molarity is less important. Geopolymers containing 37.5% (wt) waste glass were successfully produced, showing compressive strength of 14MPa (after 28days of curing), suggesting the possibility of their use in non-structural applications. Porous waste-based geopolymers for novel applications were also fabricated.

  11. Evaluation of the biodiesel production using three sources of raw material and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Angela Patricia; Fracaro, Cristiane; Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh, Edward; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Fischborn, Marcos; Lobo, Viviane da Silva [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mhanami@utfpr.edu.br; Zara, Ricardo Fiori [Prati Donaduzzi e Cia. Ltda., Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The conversion of different oils in ethyl ester (biodiesel) through the transesterification with anhydrous ethanol, together with its quality and its consumption in mixture with diesel of petroleum in different ratios, they were evaluated using a stationary diesel engine connected to an electric energy generator. The raw materials used in this transformation were oil of refined soybean, oil of refined sunflower and animal fat (swine). In the transesterification reaction it was used an alkaline catalyst (sodium hydroxide), because of its proven effectiveness and the high speed facing other catalyst, beyond being less corrosive and demands less molar' reasons between the alcohol and the vegetal oil. The tests in stationary diesel engine were carried through the dilutions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of biodiesel produced in mixture with diesel of petroleum. The results showed that the yield of biodiesel gotten by different sources is satisfactory. It was also observed that the basic catalysis is adjusted to the production of biodiesel from raw materials with low acidity. The tests in diesel engine appeared to be sufficiently satisfactory once it was not observed any alteration in the functioning of the engine. The consumption was also not modified by the studied dilutions, demonstrating that the biodiesel can be added to the pure diesel reducing the use of the fuel derived from petroleum. (author)

  12. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Nasrin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB, in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its physical and chemical properties, mechanical strength and burning characteristics. It was found that briquettes made either from 100% pulverized EFB or mixed with sawdust exhibited good burning properties. EFB fibre and PKE, due to their physical properties, were recommended to be blended with sawdust in producing quality briquettes. In overall, converting palm biomass into briquettes has increased its energy content and reduced moisture content about minimum of 5% and 38% respectively compared to its raw materials. The properties of palm biomass briquettes obtained from the study were compared to the commercial sawdust briquettes properties and to the minimum requirements of DIN 51731. The details of the study were highlighted in this paper. Palm biomass briquettes can become an important renewable energy fuel source in the future.

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated waste paper--source of raw material for production of liquid biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, Vladimir; Jurena, Tomas; Hlavacek, Viliam; Omelkova, Jirina; Bebar, Ladislav; Gabriel, Petr; Stehlik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste paper is becoming a perspective way to obtain raw material for production of liquid biofuels. Reducing sugars solutions that arise from the process of saccharification are a precursors for following or simultaneous fermentation to ethanol. Different types of waste paper were evaluated, in terms of composition and usability, in order to select the appropriate type of the waste paper for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Novozymes® enzymes NS50013 and NS50010 were used in a laboratory scale trials. Technological conditions, which seem to be the most suitable for hydrolysis after testing on cellulose pulp and filter paper, were applied to hydrolysis of widely available waste papers - offset paper, cardboard, recycled paper in two qualities, matte MYsol offset paper and for comparison again on model materials. The highest yields were achieved for the cardboard, which was further tested using various pretreatment combinations in purpose of increasing the hydrolysis yields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  15. Natural stone muds as secondary raw materials: towards a new sustainable recovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Tori, Alice; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The production of residual sludge is a topical issue, and has become essential to recover and reuse the materials, both for the economics and the environmental aspect. According to environmental EU Directives, in fact ,the stone cutting and processing should characterized by following objectives, targets and actions: the reduction of waste generated, the decreasing of use of critical raw material, the zero landfilling of sludge and decreasing in potential soil contamination, the prevention of transport of dangerous waste, the reduction of energy consumption, the zero impact on air pollution and the cost reduction . There are many industrial sector in which residual sludge have high concentrations of metals and/or elements deemed harmful and therefore hazardous waste. An important goal, for all industrial sectors, is an increase in productivity and a parallel reduction in costs. The research leads to the development of solutions with an always reduced environmental impact. The possibility to decrease the amount of required raw materials and at the same time the reduction in the amount of waste has become the aim for any industrial reality. From literature there are different approaches for the recovery of raw and secondary materials, and are often used for the purpose chemical products that separate the elements constituting the mud but at the same time make additional pollutants. The aim of the study is to find solutions that are environmentally sustainable for both industries and citizens. The present study is focused on three different Piedmont rocks: Luserna, Diorite from Traversella and Diorite from Vico, processed with three different stone machining technologies: cutting with diamond wire in quarry (blocks), in sawmill (slabs) and surface polishing. The steps are: chemical analysis, particle size analysis and mineralogical composition and characterization of the sludge obtained from the various machining operations for the recovery of the metal material by

  16. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  17. Use of precalciners to remove alkali from raw materials in the cement industry. Final report, July 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, E.M.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an efficient means of removing alkali metal compounds (alkalies) from high-alkali aluminosilicate raw materials of the type commonly used as part of cement raw mixes in order to increase the energy efficiency of cement manufacture. The intention of this project was to determine whether the high-alkali raw materials could be pyroprocessed separately to remove the alkalies before they entered the rotary kiln, where they would be mixed with the other raw feed components. If this could be achieved, considerable savings could be made in the energy required to remove alkalies, compared to conventional methods in which the cement raw mix must be treated as a whole. Two different methods of alkali removal were examined, namely, vaporization of alkalies at relatively low temperatures; and alkali-rich melt separation at relativey high temperatures. The results showed that the removal of alkalies by pyroprocessing of high-alkali raw feed components separate from the other cement raw mix components is not likely to be a practical alternative to the best available conventional precalciner technology. (LCL)

  18. Investigations of physicochemical properties of bottom-ash materials for use them as secondary raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'chik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Rodionov, P. V.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper chemical content and particle size distribution of bottom-ash material are defined; results of differential thermal and X-ray analyzes are given; processes of phase transformations occurring during heating, are examined for possible use of the waste to produce ceramic products. Studies have shown that effective specific activity of radionuclides in the material under examination would have no effect on radiation safety of the finished product.

  19. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  20. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  1. Utilization of Savannah Harbor river sediment as the primary raw material in production of fired brick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezencevova, Andrea; Yeboah, Nortey N; Burns, Susan E; Kahn, Lawrence F; Kurtis, Kimberly E

    2012-12-30

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the production of fired bricks from sediments dredged from the Savannah Harbor (Savannah, GA, USA). The dredged sediment was used as the sole raw material, or as a 50% replacement for natural brick-making clay. Sediment bricks were prepared using the stiff mud extrusion process from raw mixes consisted of 100% dredged sediment, or 50% dredged sediment and 50% brick clay. The bricks were fired at temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C. Physical and mechanical properties of the dredged sediment brick were found to generally comply with ASTM criteria for building brick. Water absorption of the dredged sediment bricks was in compliance with the criteria for brick graded for severe (SW) or moderate (MW) weathering. Compressive strength of 100% dredged sediment bricks ranged from 8.3 to 11.7 MPa; the bricks sintered at 1000 °C met the requirements for negligible weathering (NW) building brick. Mixing the dredged sediment with natural clay resulted in an increase of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the sediment-clay bricks fired at 1000 °C was 29.4 MPa, thus meeting the ASTM requirements for the SW grade building brick. Results of this study demonstrate that production of fired bricks is a promising and achievable productive reuse alternative for Savannah Harbor dredged sediments.

  2. Hyperdry amniotic membrane as a suitable biological dressing material for raw wounds in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Noguchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raw wounds in the oral cavity are prone not only to infection but also contraction by scaring and often need a proper dressing to prevent these complications. Autografts using free mucosal and split-skin grafts, which seem biologically ideal, have been used to cover raw wounds in the oral cavity. Those grafts, however, require a separate surgical procedure at donor sites and often cause morbidity associated with delayed healing of the donor site. The amnion has been considered a suitable tissue for allografts, based on its low immunogenicity. It also possesses anti-inflammatory, would –protecting, and scar-reducing properties. Preserved amnions have been used for decades in various clinical fields.  However, there have been some problems in the storage and sterilization of the material. To resolve these problems, we developed hyperdry amniotic membrane (HAM, which can be stored at room temperature for a long period. In my lecture, I will share our clinical experiences of applying HAM into oral surgery, including results of experimental studies on would healing of the oral cavity.

  3. Formation and phase separation during the smelting of sulfide raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, A. V.; Paretsky, V. M.

    2009-10-01

    This paper discusses the most recent developments made at the Gintsvetmet Institute in technologies and equipment for single-stage autogenous smelting of copper sulfide raw materials to produce white metal and blister copper. In particular, the oxygen-flame smelting process and separation of highly basic calcium-containing slags are considered. This technology includes the oxygen-flame smelting process (KFP Process) to produce highly basic self-disintegrating ferrite-calcium slags with their subsequent flotation to recover copper. Also included is a sparging smelting process (FBP Process) to produce combined slags subjected to decopperizing inside the same furnace. Results of special investigations of the slag structure obtained in the KFP and FBP processes and substantiating selection of their chemical and phase composition are presented. These processes meet stringent requirements for advanced technologies with respect to energy conservation and environmental safety with different scales of production and within a wide range of specific conditions of particular operations.

  4. Glances on the year 1998. Energies and raw materials; Regards sur 1998. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes 14 key-topics of the year 1998 in relation with the French energy and economic policy: the new start-up of energy mastery; the nuclear industry between passion and reason; the labour inspection in nuclear power plants; the law project for the modernizing and development of the electric power public utility; the main gas transportation systems; the future of Gardanne`s mining basin; the raw materials in the upheaval; the French refining activity after the Auto-Oil directive; the oil company fusions; the priorities in petroleum technology research; the policy of automotive fuels distribution; the energy in regions; the mining activity in New Caledonia; the end of the BRGM-Normandy partnership. A calendar of remarkable facts is given at the end. (J.S.)

  5. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka; Mihaljevic, Branka; Razem, D. E-mail: razem@rudjer.irb.hr

    2003-03-01

    Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, D{sub first{sub 90%}{sub red}}. The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10/g.

  6. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473).

  7. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Villela Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

  8. Foodborne outbreak of human brucellosis caused by ingested raw materials of fetal calf on Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Yoo, Seung Jin

    2015-02-01

    Since the first reported case of human brucellosis in 2002 in South Korea, its incidence has been increasing nationally. However, bovine brucellosis has not been present from 2005 to date on Jeju Island. Despite Jeju Island being considered a clean area for bovine brucellosis, we experienced an outbreak of human brucellosis between 2012 and 2013. Herein, we report cases with human brucellosis after ingestion of raw materials of fetal calf at a restaurant. Patients were identified by isolation of the Brucella abortus in their blood and joint tissue. Because all patients developed zoonosis by a faulty folk remedy, we emphasize the importance of educational programs to increase the awareness of zoonosis, and the need for active surveillance and detection of illegal distribution channels of the infected animal. After the outbreak, we took control of the involved restaurant and its illegal distribution channel, and there have been no further outbreaks.

  9. Evaluation of Dried Sweet Sorghum Stalks as Raw Material for Methane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296 mL CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12 FPU/g sweet sorghum. PMID:25210715

  10. Sweet whey as a raw material for the dietary supplements obtaining with immunomodulatory effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Didukh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the study of literary sources to prove the viability of the idea of using sweet whey to deep its fractionation, and to obtain biologically active proteins with immunomodulatory effect. We demonstrated methods for fractionation of milk whey (membrane and chromatographic, as well as the technological scheme of concentration of sweet whey. We introduced the composition of sweet whey and protein content of immunomodulatory action. Modern methods of processing whey, which include, basically, only the process of dehydration and concentration of whey and its use in the complete component composition, which limits its use for food purposes are shown. The necessity of processing of secondary resources in a catastrophic ecological situation on the planet and full use of the composite processing of raw materials for food purposes, and also shows properties of proteins immunomodulating actions which are part of the whey are grounded.

  11. Silica nanoparticles produced by DC arc plasma from a solid raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmachev, P. V.; Vlasov, V. A.; Skripnikova, N. K.

    2017-05-01

    Plasma synthesis of SiO2 nanoparticles in experimental atmospheric pressure plasma reactor on the basis of DC arc plasma generator was presented in this paper. Solid high-silica raw materials such as diatomite from Kamyshlovskoye deposit in Russia, quartzite from Chupinskoye deposit in Russia and milled window glass were used. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized based on their morphology, chemical composition and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, nitrogen absorption (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized products. The obtained silica nanoparticles are agglomerated, have spherical shape and primary diameters between 10-300 nm. All samples of synthesized nanopowders were compared with commercial nanopowders.

  12. Interaction between pollutants produced in sewage sludge combustion and cement raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Araceli; Conesa, Juan A; Martín-Gullón, Ignacio; Font, Rafael

    2007-09-01

    Nowadays the use of waste as secondary fuel in clinker kilns is an extensive practice, but the interaction between cement raw material (CRM) and the combustion gases of the fuels has not been extensively studied. Because of that, in this work the effect of the interaction of exhaust from the combustion of sewage sludge and CRM has been studied in a laboratory furnace. The experiments were performed at 300 degrees C, close to the temperature at the cyclones in a cement industry. The behavior of volatile compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAH) and polychloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychloro dibenzofurans (PCCD/F) were analysed in the presence or absence of CRM. The results obtained show that the presence of CRM at the outlet of the combustion gases is beneficial for the decrease of pollutant emissions.

  13. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  14. Innovation processes in technologies for the processing of refractory mineral raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturiya, V. A.

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of the grade of mineral resources of Russia and other countries shows that end products that are competitive in terms of both technological and environmental criteria in the world market can only be obtained by the development and implementation of progressive technologies based on the up-to-date achievements of fundamental sciences. The essence of modern innovation processes in technologies developed in Russia for the complex and comprehensive processing of refractory raw materials with a complex composition is ascertained. These processes include (i) radiometric methods of concentration of valuable components, (ii) high-energy methods of disintegration of highly dispersed mineral components, and (iii) electrochemical methods of water conditioning to obtain target products for solving specific technological problems.

  15. Steam Pyrolysis of Polyimides: Effects of Steam on Raw Material Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Hosaka, Tomoyuki; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-11-17

    Aromatic polyimides (PIs) have excellent thermal stability, which makes them difficult to recycle, and an effective way to recycle PIs has not yet been established. In this work, steam pyrolysis of the aromatic PI Kapton was performed to investigate the recovery of useful raw materials. Steam pyrolysis significantly enhanced the gasification of Kapton at 900 °C, resulting in 1963.1 mL g(-1) of a H2 and CO rich gas. Simultaneously, highly porous activated carbon with a high BET surface area was recovered. Steam pyrolysis increased the presence of polar functional groups on the carbon surface. Thus, it was concluded that steam pyrolysis shows great promise as a recycling technique for the recovery of useful synthetic gases and activated carbon from PIs without the need for catalysts and organic solvents.

  16. Branding Raw Material to Improve Human Rights: Intel’s Ban on Conflict Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osburg Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many companies seek to take over more responsibility for their supply chain and their raw materials. Intel was one of the first companies investigating the origin of conflict minerals like tin, tantalum, gold or tungsten, which are used in many electronic products. Their path to ultimately offering conflict-free microprocessors took more than five years of consistent preparation and intensive reengineering of the business process. They identified smelters as a bottleneck in the supply chain and started cooperating closely with them to trace their minerals’ supply. By developing a bag-and-tag system the company is now able to ensure that their minerals are not sourced from illegal mines, which often finance illegal warlords, for example, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The cooperation with the smelters brings about higher demand and in consequence higher prices for the legally sourced minerals. Many small miners and their families in the region directly benefit from the higher earnings.

  17. Mineralogy of Clay Raw Materials from Cote d'ivoire: Case of the Deposit from Katiola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpangni, E. B.; Andji, Y. Y. J.; Adouby, K.; Oyetola, S.; Kra, G.; Yvon, J.

    This study deals with two clays referenced K1 and K2, used in the local and traditional manufacture of pottery ware at Katiola. Those samples were analysed by X-rays diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal differential and chemical techniques. The results show that the samples (K1 and K2) are mainly composed of montmorillonite, kaolinite and illite. Only K1 is inter-stratified. The mineralogical balance achieved from the reflection (001) of the oriented film, indicate for K1: 74.5% of montmorillonite; 13.5% of inter-stratified clay; 7% of kaolinite and 5.4% of illite and for K2: 73.4% of montmorillonite; 23.5% of kaolinite and 3.1% of illite. The results also indicate that the raw material may not be use only for pottery. It can be consider in the protection of the environment, cosmetic industry, vegetable oil treatment, medicine etc.

  18. Antiradical activity and amount of phenolic compounds in extracts obtained from some plant raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids such as yerba mate, guaraná, white and green tea, coffee seeds, chocolate and cacao seed powder and extracts obtained from these raw materials were investigated for their antioxidant features and the amount of phenolic compounds. The level of phenolic compounds was measured with the colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and antioxidant features was determined with the use of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. Amounts of phenolic compounds were presented in percentages per mass of extracts and mass of raw materials. Antiradical potential was shown as the number of TAUDPPH units per mg of extracts and g of raw materials. The highest number of antiradical units TAUDPPH as well as the amount of phenolic compounds was calculated for white tea and its extracts and lowest for chocolate. The correlation coefficient between the content of phenolics and antiradical features of raw materials is equal to r=0.994.

  19. The use of plasticizing additives based on recycled raw materials in the petrochemical rubber mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the development of alternative products for elastomers based on recycling petrochemical raw materials is a new trend of the rubber industry progress. Petrochemical raw materials include spent lubricants and motor oils are among such recycling products. In this context, the influence of the products of recycling waste engine oil (DVCH and RA in comparison with industrial oil (I-20 on the technological properties of filled elastomeric compositions was investigated. The elastomeric compositions were based on poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers. The plasticizing components were manufactured by IOOO “DVCH-Menedzhment”. They are mixture of hydro-carbons, C16–C20 and differ from each other in the content of linear and branched paraffin. Plastic-elastic properties of rubber compounds on the shear disk viscometer MV2000 in accordance with GOST 10722–76 was carried out. Kinetics of vulcanization on the rheometer ODR2000 according to GOST 12535–84 was defined. It is shown that the introduction of RA test plasticizing component provides a significant effect on Mooney viscosity, as compared to elastomeric compositions containing a plasticizer and I-20 and plasticizing additive DVCH. It revealed that the administration of all components in the studied plasticizing elastomer compositions based on a combination poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers has no significant effect on the rate of relaxation of stress of rubber compounds. It is found that elastomeric compositions containing as additives investigated processing waste oil products (DVCH and RA are characterized by a slightly smaller value of time to reach an optimal degree of vulcanization.

  20. CURRICULUM MATERIALS, DESCRIPTION AND PRICE LIST OF MATERIALS DEVELOPED BY THE OHIO VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS SERVICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    PAMPHLETS, SLIDES, TAPES, MANUALS, AND AN EXAMINATION ARE INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR USE BY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND ADULT FARMER PROGRAMS. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS, CURRICULUM SPECIALISTS, TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS, AND AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL AND ARE…

  1. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p food.

  2. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  3. 1996 Progress report on energies and raw materials; 1996 rapport d`activite energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The 1996 annual progress report, from the French Department of Energy, reviews the key points of the French policy for energy and raw materials: competitiveness, environmental protection, long term supply safety, and public service. 1996 was marked by positive results for the French energy industry, difficulties for the oil refining industry, and a new impetus for renewable energies. Five surveys are presented: nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the european directive on electric power domestic market, evolution of the oil market, conditions of refining in France, and restructuring of the Mine bureau (BRGM). 40 prominent facts are briefly reviewed, concerning sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power and gas, coal, oil products, raw materials. Diagrams on energy and raw materials are also included

  4. INCIDENCE OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI WITH TOXIGENIC POTENTIAL ON SAMPLES OF FEED AND RAW MATERIALS FOR THEIR MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and/or accumulation of mycotoxins in foods intended for human and animal nutrition is a constant concern for the harmful health effects resulting from ingestion. The aims of this communication were to analyze samples of feed and raw materials for manufacturing and to determine the presence of strains of filamentous fungi with toxigenic capacity. The values of frequency in the total samples (N = 422, indicated 63% of contamination, where A. flavus represented the most common (29.8%, while in feed and raw materials separately, indicated A. flavus has the highest value in both categories. In the analysis of different type of raw materials, A. flavus contaminated all types of samples, with the bran and soybean meal substrates having higher values for this Aspergillus, and corn substrate more fungal contamination. These results would demonstrate that the presence of mycobiota with toxigenic potential in food for animal feed is a disturbing reality.

  5. Visual and colorimetric methods for rapid determination of total tannins in vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kalinkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of rapid colorimetric method for determining the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw materials. The sorption-based colorimetric test is determining sorption tannins polyurethane foam, impregnated of FeCl3, receiving on its surface painted in black and green color of the reaction products and the determination of their in sorbent matrix. Selectivity is achieved by determining the tannins specific interaction of polyphenols with iron ions (III. The conditions of sorption-colorimetric method: the concentration of ferric chloride (III, impregnated in the polyurethane foam; sorbent mass in the analytical cartridge; degree of loading his agent; the contact time of the phases. color scales have been developed for the visual determination of the amount of tannins in terms of gallic acid. Spend a digitized image obtained scales using computer program “Sorbfil TLC”, excluding a subjective assessment of the intensity of the color scale of the test. The results obtained determine the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw rapid method using tablets and analytical cartridges. The results of the test determination of tannins with visual and densitometric analytical signal registration are compared to known methods. Spend a metrological evaluation of the results of determining the amount of tannins sorption rapid colorimetric methods. Time visual and densitometric rapid determination of tannins, taking into account the sample preparation is 25–30 minutes, the relative error does not exceed 28 %. The developed test methods for quantifying the content of tannins allow to exclude the use of sophisticated analytical equipment, carry out the analysis in non-laboratory conditions do not require highly skilled personnel.

  6. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  7. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  8. Hydrolysis technology for producing sugars from biomass as raw material for the chemical industry- SugarTech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallioinen, A.; Hytoenen, E.; Haekkinen, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), email: anne.kallioinen@vtt.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    In the SugarTech project, spruce, forest residue, birch and sugar cane bagasse have been studied as raw materials for production of sugars to be processed further to ethanol or other chemicals. These raw materials, containing high proportion of carbohydrates have been analysed and pretreated for enzymatic hydrolysis by steam explosion and oxidative methods. The pretreated materials have been studied in respect to yield and enzymatic hydrolysability. Small carboxylic acids were an interesting side product from oxidation pretreatment. For feasibility study, 8 process cases have been selected and will be compared. Optimal enzyme mixtures have been determined for hydrolysis of pretreated materials. Results show that optimal enzyme composition depends clearly on the raw material and the pretreatment method. Pretreated raw materials were also hydrolysed efficiently in high dry matter conditions with commercial enzymes. Enzyme adsorption and desorption were studied with lignocellulosic substrates aiming at recycling of enzymes in the hydrolysis process. After enzymatic hydrolysis, a major part of the enzymes remained bound to substrate in spite of high degree of hydrolysis. Desorption of enzymes could only be detected with catalytically oxidised spruce. In addition, the induction of hydrolytic system of Trichoderma reesei, which is a widely used fungus for cellulase enzyme production, has been studied in the presence of different substrates. The substrate and the pretreatment method had clear effects on gene expression profile. (orig.)

  9. UTILIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL BYPRODUCT AS RAW MATERIAL IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY- A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAISHALI SAHU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A large quantity of sludge rich in nutrients and microorganisms is generated every year from water and wastewater treatment plants, the final destination of which affects the environment. Generally, dewatered sludge is disposed of by spreading on the land or by land filling. However, space limitations on existing landfill sites and problems of waste stabilization have prompted investigation into alternative reuse techniques and disposal routes for sludge. A more reasonable approach is to view the sludge as a resource that can be recycled or reused. Many researchers have exploited the reuse of lime sludge from water treatment plant and sewage sludge ash as an inexpensive source of soil stabilizer in sub grade stabilization and soft cohesive soil respectively. Sewage sludge pellets (SSP has replaced sand in concrete manufacturing for pavements. The use of SSP as substituting material in raw mix formulation in Portland cement manufacturing has been studied by many researchers. Experimental results showed the feasibility of the partial replacement (15 and 30% of cement by sewage sludge ash (SSA in mortars. This paper highlights the potential of dried sludge, sludge pellets and sludge ash in various building materials for construction.

  10. A NEW FAST-GROWING RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PAPERMAKING-GUANGYECHU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochun Lei; Jiachuan Chen; Guihua Yang; Zhiqiang Pang

    2004-01-01

    A new pulp papermaking raw material, Guangyechu,is introduced in this paper, including material characteristics and ultilization of bast, wood pole and leaf. The fiber morphological characteristics,chemical composition of wood pole and feasibility of pulping and papermaking by APMP process are studied in the laboratory. The results show that wood pole can be put to use in papermaking industry. The APMP pulp is produced using 5.2% sodium hydroxide and 5.0% hydrogen peroxide. The novel technology has offered breaking length of 4.74km,tearing index 3.08mN @m2 @g-1, brightness of 71.6%ISO, bursting index 2.07 KPa@m2@ g-1, opacity 84.5%and yield of 75.7%. As a pulp for newsprint, offset point paper and information paper, the Guangyechu APMP shows its advantages both quality and cost-efficienty. It is significative to apply the pole of Guangyechu, which is only firing at present to the paper industry.

  11. A NEW FAST-GROWING RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PAPERMAKING--GUANGYECHU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaochunLei; JiachuanChen; GuihuaYang; ZhiqiangPang

    2004-01-01

    A new pulp papermaking raw material, Guangyechu, is introduced in this paper, including material characteristics and ultilization of bast, wood pole and leaf. The fiber morphological characteristics, chemical composition of wood pole and feasibility of pulping and papermaking by APMP process are studied in the laboratory. The results show that wood pole can be put to use in papermaking industry. The APMP pulp is produced using 5.2% sodium hydroxide and 5.0% hydrogen peroxide. The novel technology has offered breaking length of 4.74km. tearing index 3.08mN·m2·g-1, brightness of 71.6% ISO, bursting index 2.07 KPa·m2@g-1, opacity 84.5% and yield of 75.7%. As a pulp for newsprint, offset point paper and information paper, the Guangyechu APMP shows its advantages both quality and cost-efficienty. It is significative to apply the pole of Guangyechu, which is only firing at present to thepaper industry.

  12. A hazardous waste from secondary aluminium metallurgy as a new raw material for calcium aluminate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan; Pérez, Carlos; Alguacil, Francisco José; López, Félix Antonio

    2009-06-15

    A solid waste coming from the secondary aluminium industry was successfully vitrified in the ternary CaO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2) system at 1500 degrees C. This waste is a complex material which is considered hazardous because of its behaviour in the presence of water or moisture. In these conditions, the dust can generate gases such as H(2), NH(3), CH(4), H(2)S, along with heat and potential aluminothermy. Only silica sand and calcium carbonate were added as external raw materials to complete the glasses formula. Different nominal compositions of glasses, with Al(2)O(3) ranging between 20% and 54%, were studied to determine the glass forming area. The glasses obtained allow the immobilisation of up to 75% of waste in a multicomponent oxide system in which all the components of the waste are incorporated. The microhardness Hv values varied between 6.05 and 6.62GPa and the linear thermal expansion coefficient, alpha, varied between (62 and 139)x10(-7)K(-1). Several glasses showed a high hydrolytic resistance in deionised water at 98 degrees C.

  13. Electrostatic painting residues as an alternative raw material for red clay industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basegio, Tania; Machado, Andréa; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Bergmann, Carlos Pérez

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the viability of using electrostatic painting residues--paint sludge--as a raw material to the red clay industry was investigated. Red clay-based ceramic masses containing electrostatic paint residues were formulated during the study. The clays were obtained from the Rio do Rastro deposit, in Gravataí, and were of the standard formulation used in industry. Different ceramic mass formulations with additions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt.% electrostatic painting residue in addition to a formulation with no residue addition (standard formulation), were evaluated. The samples were uniaxially pressed in a double-effect press and were fired in an electric oven at 900, 950 and 1000 degrees C. The firing at constant temperature lasted 8 h, and heating rate was 150 K h(-1). After processing the samples were characterized in terms of their physical and mechanical properties. Environmental compatibility was also considered by the evaluation of gaseous emissions and leaching and solubilization tests according to the Brazilian standards NBR 10.005 and NBR 10.006, respectively. The results showed that it was possible to produce ceramic materials containing electrostatic painting residues within their formulations.

  14. MICROBIAL PROBLEMS IN PAPER AND PAPERBOARD MILLS USING RECOVERED PAPER AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami İmamoğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the decreasing limited forest resources, the increasing paper consumption and the pressure from the environmental movements, the recycled fibre has become increasingly important. Today’s modern paper and paperboard industry is the exclusive user of recycled fibre as a raw material. On the other hand, the recycled fibre inevitably presents a number of new challenges to the paper industry, as the recycled fibres are drained more slowly, often contaminated with other materials and fibre strength is diminished with the recycling number. Microbial growth is another common problem in the papermaking system. Besides the use of recycled fibre in paper and paperboard mills, the increased closure of the water and the conversion to neutral/alkaline systems exacerbate microbiological problems and decrease mill performances. Problems caused by micro organisms that are typically encountered in paper making systems include slime spots and holes, offensive odours, corrosion, paper breaks, brightness loss, additive spoilage, and shower and stock line plugging. These problems are costly because they lead to poor runnability, low production rates, off-quality paper, and even shortened equipment life due to accelerated corrosion rates. Microbiological growth control has therefore become more and more important within the paper industry. The proper control of microbiological growth involves properly identifying the problem and finding the best solution.

  15. DEVELOPING CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS INSTITUTE 1966 WORKSHOP REPORT (JUNE 6-JULY 15, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater. Research Foundation.

    THIRTY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS FROM 11 STATES DEVELOPED THESE CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR A 2-YEAR HIGH SCHOOL COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAM FOR OCCUPATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL SALES AND SERVICE, AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, AND HORTICULTURE. A RATIONALE FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, AN EXPLANATION OF THE CURRICULUM, AND AN EXPLANATION OF THE…

  16. Adopting Microwave Techniques to Analyze Raw Quartz and Clay Materials in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made into dielectric properties of quartz crystals, brown-clay, grey-clay, whitish-clay and some rocks found in Uganda under temperatures of about 25ºC and pressure of approximately 66.0 cm of mercury. This study was conducted at Makerere University in Uganda some time back and revisited in 2009. The analysed materials were provided by the Department of Geology Entebbe, Ministry of Survey and Natural Resources Uganda. Measurements were carried out in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz, using circular cavities energized in the TM01n family of modes; the signal frequency had no effect on, n, as this was not in the axis of propagation. The relation D = cxn / (πfc √∈r was used to calculate the dielectric constant ∈r for cut-off frequency fc, xn is the nth root of the first kind of the Bessel function J1(x = 0 and c is the velocity of light. The study revealed that in Uganda there are: (i crystals of dielectric constant 0r in the range ∈r = 4.48 - 4.57 and these values of ∈r are close to that of Piezo-electric crystal whose ∈r = 4.6, (ii clays and black rock whose dielectric constants ∈r = 1. The study revealed that when a raw material is put in a cavity its dielectric constant can be determined by observing the resonance or (absorption frequency. Material with higher dielectric constants had correspondingly lower frequency than those with lower dielectric constants.

  17. Characteristics of the potential crop of raw materials for biodiesel and its adoption by family farms; Caracteristicas das potenciais culturas materias-primas do biodiesel e sua adocao pela agricultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (CEPAN/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronegocios], Email: thaisy@terra.com.br; Machado, Joao Armando Dessimon [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PGDR/CEPAN/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios], Email: joao.dessimon@ufrgs.br

    2006-07-01

    Beyond the economic advantages and the ambient benefits, the production of bio diesel in wide scale will be important instrument of generation of income in the agricultural way, with significant impact on familiar agriculture. One of the biggest motivations for the production of this alternative fuel was given by the federal government by means of the 'Social Combustible Stamp', that it foresees that producing industries buy deriving raw materials of bio diesel of familiar agriculture. Several are the viable cultures for the small property, thus being, in this article become an analysis of the potentialities of each culture raw material of biodiesel, to be produced for familiar agriculture in small properties, in the different Brazilian regions. The exploration research was used that it aimed at to provide to more familiarity with the question biodiesel x familiar agriculture and involved bibliographical survey and interviews the specialists. Several are the alternatives of cultivates with positive agronomic potential that can promote the inclusion of familiar agriculture in the chain productive of biodiesel, taking in consideration the characteristics of each Brazilian region, being the oil plants of bigger prominence: dende, coconut, babacu, sunflower, canola, castor, tame nut and sesame. (author)

  18. Fast and accurate method for total 4-desmethyl sterol(s) content in spreads, fat-blends and raw materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchateau, G.S.M.J.E.; Bauer-Plank, C.G.; Louter, A.J.H.; Ham, M. van der; Boerma, J.A.; Rooijen, J.J.M. van; Zandbelt, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Plant sterols are added as their FA esters to vegetable oil table spreads at levels of approximately 8% as a means to reduce blood cholesterol levels. A new chromatographic method was designed to quantify quickly the level of plant sterol FA esters in incoming (raw) materials and to monitor their

  19. Environmental assessment of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production--a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Li, Xiangzhi

    2011-06-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted. Results showed the impact generated from respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories had an important contribution to overall environmental impact, due to energy, clinker, and limestone production stages. Also, uncertainty analysis results showed the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production had little or no effect on changing the overall environmental potential impact generated from general cement production. Accordingly, using the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production is a good choice for reducing the pressure on the environment from dramatically increased sludge disposal. In addition, increasing electricity recovery rate, choosing natural gas fired electricity generation technology, and optimizing the raw material consumption in clinker production are highly recommended to reduce the adverse effects on the environment.

  20. The influence of raw material, added emulsifying salt and spray drying on cheese powder structure and hydration properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå

    2017-01-01

    The present work has evaluated how raw material, addition of emulsifying salts (ES) and drying technology affect particle characteristics, structure, and hydration of cheese powders. In this context the spray drying technology induced the strongest effect on morphology and swelling of cheese powder...

  1. Inorganic raw materials economy and provenance of chipped industry in some stone age sites of northern and central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietti, Amilcare; Boschian, Giovanni; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; Danese, Ermanno; De Francesco, Anna Maria; Dini, Mario; Fontana, Federica; Giampietri, Alessandra; Grifoni, Renata; Guerreschi, Antonio; Liagre, Jérémie; Negrino, Fabio; Radi, Giovanna; Tozzi, Carlo; Tykot, Robert

    2004-06-01

    An opportunistic and local choice of raw materials is typically attested in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries throughout Italy. The quality of the raw material usually affected the flaking technology and quality of the products. In the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, raw material procurement strategies were more complex. Flint was exploited both locally, in areas where abundant outcrops of raw materials were available (such as the Lessini mountains), and in distant localities, after which it was transported or exchanged over medium/long distances. Different routes of exchange were thus followed in the various periods; good reconstruction of these routes have been provided by a study of the Garfagnana sites in Northern Tuscany, and the Mesolithic deposit of Mondeval de Sora (Dolomites). An interesting example of a Late Upper Paleolithic flint quarry and workshop were found in Abruzzo, in the San Bartolomeo shelter. The extended trade of obsidian from Lipari, Palmarola and Sardinia to the Italian Peninsula is attested in the Neolithic, with some differences concerning the age and different areas.

  2. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - purification of rare earth elements by liquid/liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick; Gasser, Christoph; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical raw materials (CRM) are crucial to Europe's economy and essential to maintaining and improving our quality of life due to their usage for production of many devices. Red mud is generated from alumina production where bauxite is digested in hot sodium hydroxide solution during

  3. Prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in food raw materials used in REPFEDs manufactured in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Frédéric; Broussolle, Véronique; Perelle, Sylvie; Litman, Sonia; Fach, Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Food raw materials used in refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) manufactured in France were surveyed for Clostridium botulinum types A, B and E using PCR-Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) and mouse bioassay for detection respectively of cells and toxins in enrichment broth. Portions of 25 to 50 g of food were analysed. A total of 8 out of the 102 samples of fish and shellfish, 12 out of the 143 samples of meat and poultry, 1 out of the 62 samples of aroma, sauce and gravy, 4 out of the 25 samples of thickening agents, 3 out of the 26 samples of dehydrated dairy ingredients, and none of the 65 samples of spices, herbs and dehydrated mushroom were positive for C. botulinum in PCR-ELISA, i.e., 6.6% of all the samples tested. The 28 positive samples comprised 10 type A, 10 type B, 4 with both types A and B, and 4 undetermined by PCR typing. No sample positive for type E was detected. Of the 28 samples positive in PCR-ELISA, 15 were also positive in the mouse bioassay. The MPN count was between 1 and 3 C. botulinum/kg of food, which is similar to or in the lower range of values reported in the literature.

  4. Industrial wastes as alternative raw materials to produce eco-friendly fired bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quero, V.; Maza-Ignacio, O. T.; Guerrero-Paz, J.; Campos-Venegas, K.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) and silica fume (SF) wastes as an alternative raw material into clay bricks, replacing clay by up to 40 wt.%. Fly ash (FA) was used as reference. The plasticity of the batches was determined by Atterberg’s consistency limits. Bricks were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired a 900 and 1000°C. Physical properties (fired shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and Initial water absorption rate) and mechanical properties (compressive strength and flexural strength) as function of the firing temperature and type waste were investigated. The results showed that wastes into clay body increase its global plasticity. 80%Clay-20%SCBA mixture has the lower linear shrinkage. After firing process, the brick produced with clay-SCBA show the higher water absorption and apparent porosity, regardless of the firing temperature. The brick produced with 60%clay-40%SF show the water absorption and apparent porosity similar to control bricks. The SCBA waste additions tend to decrease the mechanical strength of the clay bricks, therefore amounts of 40% SCBA waste should be avoided because it reduce the mechanical strength of the red fired bricks. The fired bricks with 40% SF, firing a 900°C show mechanical properties similar control bricks.

  5. Effect of calcium phosphate addition on sintering of El-Oued sand quartz raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Foughali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the development of an eventual low cost ceramic insulating or microfiltration membrane supports from inexpensive raw materials such Eloued quartz sand (EQS and calcium phosphate (CP using uniaxially dry compaction method. The prepared samples were sintered at different temperatures ranging between 1200 and 1550 ºC. Subsequently, the effects of sintering temperature and amount of CP on samples proprieties were investigated. It is observed that X-ray diffracion measurements confirmed that EQS was transformed into cristobalite and tridymite phases when both sintering temperature and holding time were increased. This transformation is favored with increasing amount of CP, it is observed also formation of CaSiO3 and Ca(Fe(AlPO4. The SEM images of the samples sintered at different temperatures illustrate that silica grains, CP grains, intergranular phase contents (Si, Ca, P, and O and an important open porosity depend on the sintering temperature. The porosity ratio changes in the range between 37% and 34% according to sintering temperature and to CP content; these values are in good agreement with SEM images. The thermal expansion behavior shows a weak expansion in the range of temperature between 600 and 1000 ºC which is situated between 1.27% and 1.33% (variation of 0.05% at 400 ºC.

  6. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vasques Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 °C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.

  8. Lithic raw material procurement for projectiles points in the prehistory of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María López Mazz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on current research on early colonisation of the Atlantic coast of South America during the early Holocene. We present advances in the investigation of raw material procurement at the Rincón de los Indios site, located in the eastern part of Uruguay. The technological studies suggest that some aspects of different styles of projectile points are related with environmental adaptation processes, experienced by the first American people in the New World. The occupation of new spaces and new forms of exploitation of resources changes the organisation of lithic technology. The distance to good quality rocks were critical for the opportunities and economic organisation of hunting groups. The study of changes in lithic procurement strategies for projectile points helps us develop a more comprehensive knowledge of this important social adaptation process which occurred during this period. These patterns started to become stabilised in the latter part of the early Holocene across the extended territory and confirm the efficient land occupation associated an intensive hunter-gatherer economies.

  9. Synthesis of steel slag ceramics:chemical composition and crystalline phases of raw materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hua Zhao; Wei Wei; Hao Bai; Xu Zhang; Da-qiang Cang

    2015-01-01

    Two types of porcelain tiles with steel slag as the main raw material (steel slag ceramics) were synthesized based on the CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 and CaO–MgO–SiO2 systems, and their bending strengths up to 53.47 MPa and 99.84 MPa, respectively, were obtained. The presence of anorthite,α-quartz, magnetite, and pyroxene crystals (augite and diopside) in the steel slag ceramics were very different from the composition of traditional ceramics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) results illustrated that the addition of steel slag reduced the temperature of extensive liquid generation and further decreased the firing temperature. The considerable contents of glass-modifying oxide liquids with rather low viscosities at high temperature in the steel slag ceramic adobes promoted element diffusion and crystallization. The results of this study demonstrated a new approach for extensive and effective recycling of steel slag.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF LECTINS OF ZEA MAYS RAW MATERIAL AND THE STUDY OF LECTIN ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiuk UV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aime of the study was to identify lectins in the Zea mays raw material: roots, stems, heads, leaves and corn silk and study their activity. Lectins activity has been studied using the biological method of ratuserytroagglutination. This method is based on formation of aggregates of lectins and rats erythrocytes. The activity unit was the floor amount of lectins that agglutinate erythrocytes. The protein nature of extracts that agglutinate has been determined using Bradford method. The lectins activity of Zea mays roots was 6,21±0,11 unit/mg of protein; of heads – 2,61±0,17 unit/mg of protein; of leaves – 0,62 ±0,05 unit/mg of protein; of corn silk – 1,06±0,08 unit/mg of protein; of stems – 0,97±0,09 unit/mg of protein. The greatest lectins activity was in leaves, stems and corn silk.

  11. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Fast – Fired Clinker Tiles Based on Wierzbka I Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajek M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research on microstructural and mechanical properties of floor tiles clinker manufactured on the basis of Wierzbka I raw material, which is part of the deposit Wierzbka, near Suchedniów. Wierzbka I clay was added in various volume fractions to the standard tile compositions used in industrial practice. The samples were pressed in a range of from 21 MPa to 42 MPa and fired in the laboratory furnace at 1130°C to 1190°C. Selected compositions were pressed at 28 MPa and fired in a standard industrial environment. The process of firing was conducted in an industrial kiln at temperature of 1160°C for 38 minutes, with holding for 4 minutes at maximum operating temperature. The samples, which were prepared in the laboratory and industrial conditions were evaluated for the effect of addition of the Wierzbka I clay on their microstructural and mechanical properties based on the measurement results of linear shrinkage, bulk density, open porosity, water absorption and flexural strength (Ϭ of the tiles. Microstructural changes were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results revealed that the tested tiles were characterized by a high degree of sintering, an apparent density of 2.5 g/cm3, an open porosity and water absorption below 0.5%. The measurement results of mechanical bending strength showed that the tested samples had a high strength of 50 MPa.

  12. Emergy efficiency analysis of sugarcane as a raw material for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Leandro da Vitória

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil and its growing importance in the Brazilian economy have been driven by a sharp increase in fuel alcohol production. This increase in fuel alcohol production was accompanied by increasing interest regarding the impacts of fuel crops in Brazil. In this study, regions of sugarcane expansion into deforested areas in the Atlantic Forest were studied by applying the emergy theory and indices. Environmental and economic inputs and the sustainability of the sugarcane production system were evaluated with the emergy method. The transformity (TR was equal to 1.78E+11 seJ kg-1, the yield rate (EYR was equal to 1.30, the investment rate was equal to 3.29, the environmental load rate was equal to 4.33, the renewability rate was equal to 18.77, and the exchange rate was equal to 1.09. The emergy indices of corn, cassava, wheat, and sugarcane (as raw materials for ethanol production were used. In Brazil, sugarcane production for ethanol production was more emergetically sustainable based on the analysed emergy indices.

  13. The key numbers of the mineral raw materials; Les chiffres cles des matieres premieres minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Directeur General de l`Energie et des Matieres Premieres, France (France)]|[Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Mineral raw materials come from fossil reserves or ores resulting from the geologic and climatic history of the Earth. The access to economic development for 80% of the worldwide population and the high rate of demographic growth (probably 8 billions of inhabitants in 2025) are important factors that can greatly multiply the worldwide consumption of ores. In parallel, environmental concerns and the increasing need for a better equilibrium between wildlife preservation and the supply of economic needs, lead to a more reasonable and mastered use of natural resources. The aim of this book is to shade light and give global elements of thoughts on mineral resources, and for the main of those (about 30 metals and mineral substances), to review the most useful data and references about their production and consumption. For each question, chapters are devoted to the situation of France in its worldwide context. One chapter concerns the uranium ores (reserves, production, prices evolution, consumption, economic flux and companies involved). (J.S.).

  14. Sintering and dielectric properties of a technical porcelain prepared from economical natural raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasrani, S.; Harabi, A.; Barama, S.-E.; Foughali, L.; Benhassine, M. T., E-mail: souad478@yahoo.fr, E-mail: harabi52@gmail.com, E-mail: sebarama@usa.com, E-mail: foughali_lazhar@yahoo.fr, E-mail: mtb25dz@gmail.com [Ceramics Lab. Mentouri University of Constantine (Algeria); Aldhayan, D.M., E-mail: aldhayan@ksu.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Riyadh, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the production of a technical porcelain, for the ceramic dielectric applications by using economical natural raw materials, was investigated. The basic porcelain composition was selected consisting of 30 wt% kaolin, 45 wt% potash-feldspar and 25 wt% quartz. The obtained phases in the sintered samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, and scanning electron microscopy images. It has been confirmed by these techniques that the main crystalline phases were quartz and mullite. Dielectric measurements of technical porcelains have been carried out at 1 kHz from room temperature to 200 °C. The dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric loss tangent, and resistivity of the porcelain sample sintered at 1160 °C were 22-25, 0.32-1.80, 0.006-0.07, and 0.2-9 x 10{sup 13} Ω.cm, respectively. The value of dielectric constant was significantly high when compared to that of conventional porcelains which did not exceed generally 9. (author)

  15. Chemical Changes of Raw Materials and Manufactured Binderless Boards during Hot Pressing: Lignin Isolation and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermomechanical pulp (TMP is used for fiber production in binderless boards industries. Milled wood lignin (MWL and enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL isolated from raw material and from binderless boards (BB were comparatively analyzed to investigate the effects of chemical changes on the bonding performance in BB. The results showed that acid-insoluble lignin of the BB were increased during the sodium silicate solution pretreatment after hot-pressing. The lignin fractions obtained were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, and 1H-13C correlation heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that 31.1% of EMAL (based on Klason lignin with low molecular weight (Mw=1630 g/mol was isolated from the BB. The increased total phenolic OH groups (3.97 mmol/g of EMAL from sodium silicate solution pretreated BB indicated that there was degradation of lignin and cleavage of lignin-carbohydrate linkages during hot-pressing. In addition, the content of β-O-4' aryl ether linkages of EMAL from the BB increased to 69.2%, which was higher than that of the untreated sample (60.1%. It was found that S units (syringyl-like lignin structures were preferentially condensed by hot pressing over G (guaiacyl-like lignin structures units, and the S/G ratio increased after the hot-pressing process.

  16. Dense poplar plantations as the raw material for the production of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Bojana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher heating value of wood and bark was determined for several poplar (Populus spp clones. The study included the juvenile one year old plants of the following clones: P.×euramericana cl. ostia, P. nigra cl.53/86, P. deltoides cl. PE 19/66, P.×euramericana cl. I-214, P. deltoides cl. S6-7 and P.×euramericana cv. robusta. By using FVI which takes into account ash content, wood bulk density, and moisture content, it was determined that poplar wood can be a significant energy raw material, primarily thanks to its short rotation cycle and a very high wood volume increment. Significant differences were determined in the values of wood basic density which affect the higher heating value of the study poplar clones, and consequently the yield (weight of biomass produced per unit area of dense plantations. This is reflected also on the estimated amount of energy that can be produced by the combustion of biomass of the whole one year old plants.

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION OF THE CANDIED FRUITS FROM NON-TRADITIONAL RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Belenkaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the candied fruit market in Ukraine and describes the main technological operations pertainingto processing of non-traditional candied products – celery and parsnip roots. Darkening of the roots surface caused bythe enzyme oxidation is one of the problems arising when processing white roots, which leads to worse marketable conditionof the product. To prevent darkening, the developed technology provides for soaking raw material in 1% citric acid solutionimmediately after peeling. To improve the diffusion and osmotic processes and to soften roots before boiling in sugar syrup,the steam blanching has been applied. The constructed Gantt diagram proves that the developed technology can shorten thecandied fruit cooking period. The biochemical indicators of the obtained new products have been studied. It was establishedthat the candied fruit possess the appropriate physical and chemical indicators and original organoleptic properties resulting ina demand by consumers. The results of the taste evaluation of the experimental specimen confirmed a high quality of the products.

  18. Use of weathered diesel oil as a low-cost raw material for biosurfactant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Mariano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the capability of biosurfactant production by Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, using weathered diesel oil from a long-standing spillage as raw material. The effect of the culture media (Robert or Bushnell-Haas and of the carbon source (spilled diesel oil or commercial diesel oil on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Erlenmeyer flasks (250 mL containing the cell broth were agitated (240 rpm for 144 h at 27±2ºC. Biosurfactant production was monitored according to the De Nöuy ring method using a Krüss K6 tensiometer. Considering the possibility of intracellular storage of biosurfactant in the cell wall of the cultures S. hominis and K. palustris, experiments were also done applying ultrasound as a way to rupture the cells. For the conditions studied, the cultures did not indicate production of biosurfactants. Results obtained with a hydrocarbon biodegradability test based on the redox indicator 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol showed that only the commercial diesel was biodegraded by the cultures.

  19. Sintering and dielectric properties of a technical porcelain prepared from economical natural raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kasrani

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the production of a technical porcelain, for the ceramic dielectric applications by using economical natural raw materials, was investigated. The basic porcelain composition was selected consisting of 30 wt% kaolin, 45 wt% potash-feldspar and 25 wt% quartz. The obtained phases in the sintered samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, and scanning electron microscopy images. It has been confirmed by these techniques that the main crystalline phases were quartz and mullite. Dielectric measurements of technical porcelains have been carried out at 1 kHz from room temperature to 200 °C. The dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric loss tangent, and resistivity of the porcelain sample sintered at 1160 °C were 22-25, 0.32-1.80, 0.006-0.07, and 0.2-9 x 1013 Ω.cm, respectively. The value of dielectric constant was significantly high when compared to that of conventional porcelains which did not exceed generally 9.

  20. Study of Raw Materials Treatment by Melting and Gasification Process in Plasma Arc Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter KURILLA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world consumption of metals and energy has increased in last few decades and it is still increasing. Total volume production results to higher waste production. Raw material basis of majority metals and fossil fuels for energy production is more complex and current waste treatment has long term tendency. Spent power cells of different types have been unneeded and usually they are classified as dangerous waste. This important issue is the main topic of the thesis, in which author describes pyrometallurgical method for storage batteries – power cells and catalysts treatment. During the process there were tested a trial of spent NiMH, Li – ion power cells and spent copper catalysts with metal content treatment by melting and gasification process in plasma arc reactor. The synthetic gas produced from gasification process has been treated by cogenerations micro turbines units for energy recovery. The metal and slag from treatment process are produced into two separately phases and they were analyzing continually.

  1. Optimum Ratio Between Waste Cooking Oil and Coconut Oilas Raw Material for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthia Elma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a energy that is processed from biological processes and employ agriculture products rather than geological processes. Waste Cooking Oil (WCO and Coconut Oil (CO are some of agriculture products that have been applied for this work. The utilization of WCO enables to cycle the waste from the environment and also CO may promote local home industries. The aims of this work are to produce biodiesel from mixture of waste cooking oil and coconut oil. This work is also to study the optimum composition between these two materials (0% to 100% WCO or CO in reverse in producing biodiesel. Several methods were applied in this work: i.e. esterification, trans-esterification, washing, drying and filtering processes. Some steps of characterization were conducted to fulfil the International Standard (EN 14214.Yield of biodiesel produced was 97.65% with oil mixture composition of50% WCO and50% CO. The FAME component in 50% WCO and 50% CO showed as the nonanoic acid methyl ester (C15H20O2 with composition of 37,79%.

  2. Washery wastes as a source of raw materials for ceramic products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmistrov, V.N.; Tambovtseva, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the output of walling products and the exhaustion of raw material sources for brickmaking have brought to the fore the urgency of devising methods of utilizing coal-mining wastes in the production of rough ceramics, i.e., ceramic walling products, and sewage pipes. The method developed in the VNIIstrom Institute for the production of walling products from washery wastes has now been approved by the Joint Authorities Commission and recommended for commercial exploitation. However, these wastes can only be used (like the traditional clay materials) provided they are uniform in composition and properties. Significant variations lead to a lower product quality and reduced cost effectiveness. The composition and properties of washery wastes vary to an extent which depends on the composition variations in the rock over- and under-lying the coal seam, the proportions of rock included in the mined product, the production rhythm in the washery and the labor organizations at the mining, transportation, and cleaning stages. A survey of the variations in composition of the rocks over- and under-lying coal seams in the Donbas has shown that the average ashes are 88% above and 83% below the seam; the variability coefficients are comparatively low (13 and 16.3%, respectively). Correspondingly, the long-term average variability of the ash of the tailings from half the washeries is below 15%. The construction of modern washeries attached to the large pits will further reduce the variability in the ash of the washery wastes. We took samples from No. 1 and No. 2 washeries at the Cherevopets I and SW to investigate the variability of the tailings composition and properties.

  3. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  4. Modernization of geology and future directions of the raw materials base formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Vladimirovich Dushin

    2011-06-01

    technological and in resource section. To ensure sustained economic growth in the future, we should base on the accelerated development of raw materials for high-tech industries.

  5. UTILIZATION OF RICE HUSK AS RAW MATERIAL IN SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS SILICATES MCM-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanta Suyanta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research about synthesis and characterization of MCM-41 from rice husk has been done. Silica (SiO2 was extracted from rice husk by refluxing with 3M hydrochloric solution at 80 °C for 3 h. The acid-leached rice husk was filtered, washed, dried and calcined at 650 °C for 6 h lead the rough powder of rice husk silica with light brown in color. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD and FTIR spectroscopy method. Rice husk silica was dissolved into the sodium hydroxide solution leading to the solution of sodium silicate, and used as silica source for the synthesis of MCM-41. MCM-41 was synthesized by hydrothermal process to the mixture prepared from 29 g of distilled water, 8.67 g of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB, 9.31 g of sodium silicate solution, and amount mL of 1 M H2SO4. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 °C in a teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave heated in the oven for 36 h. The solid phase was filtered, then washed with deionised water, and dried in the oven at 100 °C for 2 h. The surfactant CTMAB was removed by calcination at 550 °C for 10 h with heating rate 2 °C/min. The as-synthesized and calcined crystals were characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and N2 physisorption methods. In order to investigate the effect of silica source, the same procedure was carried out by using pure sodium silicate as silica source. It was concluded that silica extracted from rice husk can be used as raw materials in the synthesis of MCM-41, there is no significant difference in crystallinity and pore properties when was compared to material produced from commercial sodium silicate.

  6. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  7. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  8. Non-Conformitity in raw material: Quality problems and environmental impacts in a dairy processor in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ruelis Fabbro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management has been discussed by researchers and practitioners along recent years. Relations between quality and environmental issues have been treated, since quality problems interfere on environmental impacts. In dairy system, according to a report on dairy cleaner production by FIESP (2008, processors are concerned especially with rational use of water, energy saving techniques and equipment, use of less toxic raw materials, recycling, water and effluent treatment. Some studies have highlighted the importance of agriculture (milk producers when it comes to environmental problems along the chain, giving less relevance to dairy processing, packaging, consume phase and waste management. Thus, milk reception control in dairy companies is an important stage for environmental management. Considering the importance of coordination among agents, the aim of this paper was to analyze processor conduct concerning raw material non-conformity, linking quality and environmental issues. This qualitative research was accomplished through a study in a dairy plant in Paraná, which processes200,000 liters of milk per day and sells products nationally. The company works with 1,500 milk suppliers on average. Legal requirements are followed along the process, and ISO 1400 implementation in the company is in progress. According to interviews with quality supervisor and industrial manager, one of the most important critical point is milk reception, and a number of non-conformities are controlled. The presence of antibiotics is the most relevant of them, since it results in material rejection. Other problems, such as acidity and cryoscopy, are less critical, since it is possible to direct input to co-products. Interviewees informed that a low amount of milk is contaminated with antibiotics (about 1% of total input. Concerning antibiotic contamination, intensive training and constant visits have been developed with producers, especially to inform them

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL SECONDARY RAW MATERIAL MARKET AS A FACTOR OF DIVERSIFICATION OF KAZAKHSTAN’S EXPORT POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Products of the recycling of livestock should become the most important part of the Kazakhstani export potential. Using recycled materials in the finished production cycle would significantly diversify the export component of national agro-industrial sector of the Republic.The article proposes an approach to the placement of industries, processing secondary raw materials in order to obtain market product with high added value, which will result in implementing the existing potential of the ag...

  10. Usage of abrasion-resistant materials in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Votava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil-processing machines are subject to an extensive abrasive wear. This paper analyses technical materials and their fitness to exchangeable parts of plough bottoms, such as edge-tools and whole plough cutting edges. There were tested abrasion-resistant steels with different microstructures: austenite, martensite-bainite, and carbide. Steel with the pearlite-ferrite structure was used as an etalon. Abrasion resistance tests were processed in compliance with the norm CSN 01 5084, which is a test of abrasion wear on abrasive cloth.

  11. Analysis on the source of raw material of the celadon bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln and Qingliangsi kiln by PIXE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Weijuan; GUO Musen; JIN Wenqing; LI Guoxia; XIE Jianzhong; Guo Min; Lu Xiaoke; GAO Zhengyao; CHEN Huansheng; Zhang Bin; SUN Xinmin

    2004-01-01

    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is used to measure the chemical ingredients of seven main elements of each sample of celadon body from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng County and Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou City.The PIXE data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method,and the trend cluster diagram is obtained to determine their relation of classification and provenance. The result shows that the producing area of raw material of Ru porcelain bodies is concentrated in Qingliangsi kiln, while that of celadon bodies is slightly scattered in Zhanggongxiang kiln. The raw material origin of Ru porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng County is different from that of Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou City. The materials of Ru Guan porcelain bodies and Ru Civil porcelain bodies in Qingliangsi kiln are basically the same.

  12. Utilization of Shrimp Skin Waste (Sea Lobster) As Raw Material for the Membrane Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoman Rupiasih, Ni; Sumadiyasa, Made; Suyanto, Hery; Windari, Putri

    2017-05-01

    In view of the increasing littering of the sea banks by shells of crustaceans, a study was carried out to investigate the extraction and characterization of chitosan from skin waste of sea lobster i.e. ‘Bamboo Lobster’ (Panulirus versicolor). Chitosan was extracted using conventional methods such as pretreatment, demineralization, deprotienization, and deacetylation. The result showed that the degree of deacetylation of chitosan obtained is 70.02%. The FTIR spectra of the chitosan gave a characteristic of -NH2 band at 3447 cm-1 and carbonyl group band at 1655 cm-1. This chitosan has been used to prepare membrane. The chitosan membrane 2% has been prepared using phase inversion method with precipitation by solvent evaporation. The membranes were characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer, Nova 1200e using BJH method, and filtration method. The results show that thickness of the membrane is about 134 μm. The FTIR spectra show that functional groups present in the membrane are -NH, -CH, C=O, and -OH. Using BJH method obtained that the pore diameter is 3.382 nm with pore density is 8.95 x 105 pores/m3. By filtration method obtained that pure water flux (PWF) of the membrane are 386.662 and 489.627 1/m2.h at pressure 80-85 kPa and 90-100 kPa, respectively. These results show that skin waste of sea lobster was discovered as a raw material to prepare chitosan membrane. The membrane obtained is belonged to mesoporous group which may use in microfiltration process.

  13. Synthesis of Chalcone and Flavanone Compound Using Raw Material of Acetophenone and Benzaldehyde Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismiyarto Ismiyarto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of flavanoid compounds of chalcone and flavanone groups have been conducted. Flavanoid Is one of the group natural products which is mostly found in plants and have been proved to have physiological activity as drug. In this research, chalcone proup compounds that being synthesized are: chalcone, 3,4-dimethoxychalcone, 2'-hidroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone where as compound of flavanone group that being synthesized is 3',4'-dimethoxyflavanone. The synthesis of chalcone group are carried out based on Claisen-Schmidt reaction by using raw material of aromatic aldehydes and aromatic ketones. The synthesis in carried out by stirring at the room temperature using alkali solution as catalyst and ethanol as solvent. The synthesis of 3',4'-dimethoxyflanone is made based on the nucleophilic 1,4 addition of the unsaturated α,β ketone. The synthesis is made by refluxing 2'-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone in alkali condition for 12 hours. The identification of flavanoid compound is carried out by using spectroscopic IR, GC-MS and 1H-NMR methods. The result of each synthesis chalcone group are follows: chalcone as yellowish solid with m.p= 50 °C and the yield is 83.39%; 3,4-dimethoxychalcone as yellow solid with m.p= 57°C and the yield is 76.00% ; 2'-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone as orange solid with m.p= 90 °C and the yield is 74.29%, for 3',4'-dimethoxyflavanone as pale yellow solid with m.p= 80 °C and the yield is 72.00%.

  14. Raw material balance and yield of biomass from early thinnings; Biomassatase ja energiapuun kertymae ensiharvennuksissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Utilization of small-sized wood from early thinnings is a serious problem in the Finnish forestry. The cost of harvesting is high, loss of potential pulpwood in logging and debarking is excessive, and the technical properties of wood are not well known. Project 105 of the Finnish Bioenergy Research Program is aimed to promote the utilization of biomass from early thinnings for pulp and energy. The variation of technical properties of wood (percentage of bark, basic density of wood and bark, amount of acetone extractive and ash, fiber length, moisture content, and fuel value) within the tree, between trees and between sites is studied. Distribution of the above-ground biomass of trees into potential pulpwood and energy wood is determined, and efficient delimbing-debarking methods for segregation of the fiber component from the fuel component are developed. The methods studied include single-log debarking with ring debarkers, and multiple-treatment of logs or tree-sections with drum debarkers and flail delimber-debarkers. A new method, combination of flail debarking-delimbing and dry-drum debarking, is introduced. Biomass balance, showing the recovery and loss of fiber and fuel in the process, is calculated for the options studied. The new method has great development potential for segregation of the fiber and energy components in small-diameter tree-sections. It is shown that high-quality chips can be produced from tree-sections, and it is suggested that special pulps are produced from the raw material under consideration

  15. Energy and Raw Materials in the Selection of Technologies for Iron and Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Otavio Macedo

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the selection of metal extraction technologies according to the regional availability of energy resources. The most important energy sources in iron and steel production are determined from a review of current technologies to inform possible future scenarios of capacity replacement or expansion according to geography. Alternative technologies are not discussed, considering that actual investment in capacity is most often dominated by high degrees of risk aversion. As such, only technologies proven at a reasonable scale are included in the selection matrix. Scenarios of capacity choice are defined in terms of actions from external agents, those which are not directly involved in the industry but have the capacity to regulate actions by metal producing players. Two extreme scenarios corresponding to closed and open economies are used to set bounds for future expectations. Among steelmaking processes under fully open trade conditions, it is found that EAF steelmaking with charge pre-heat should be the technology of choice in all regions of the world except for South America and Europe, where Integrated Steel Mills have a cost advantage. In fully closed exchange scenarios, Integrated Steel Mills would be the prevalent technology in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and the former USSR, EAF with scrap pre-heating prevailing in all other regions. On the other hand, HYL-ZR would be the iron making technology of choice in all regions under full exchange scenarios. Under fully closed exchange conditions, Mini-Blast Furnaces, COREX, and HYL-ZR would find regional applications. Increases in raw materials and energy costs of 38 pct in steelmaking and 63 pct in ironmaking are found in going from fully open to fully closed exchange regimes. It is also found that Southeast Asia is the most suitable region for deploying new steelmaking capacity, while Australia and Russia are the best selection for new iron making capacity.

  16. Development of internal dose assessment procedure for workers in industries using raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Kyu; KIm, Yong Geon; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon Cheol; Chang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    It is necessary to assess radiation dose to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to ensure radiological safety required by the Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The objective of this study is to develop an internal dose assessment procedure for workers at industries using raw materials containing natural radionuclides. The dose assessment procedure was developed based on harmonization, accuracy, and proportionality. The procedure includes determination of dose assessment necessity, preliminary dose estimation, airborne particulate sampling and characterization, and detailed assessment of radiation dose. The developed dose assessment procedure is as follows. Radioactivity concentration criteria to determine dose assessment necessity are 10 Bq·g-1 for 40K and 1 Bq·g-1 for the other natural radionuclides. The preliminary dose estimation is performed using annual limit on intake (ALI). The estimated doses are classified into 3 groups (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, and >0.3 mSv). Air sampling methods are determined based on the dose estimates. Detailed dose assessment is performed using air sampling and particulate characterization. The final dose results are classified into 4 different levels (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, 0.3-1 mSv, and >1 mSv). Proper radiation protection measures are suggested according to the dose level. The developed dose assessment procedure was applied for NORM industries in Korea, including coal combustion, phosphate processing, and monazite handing facilities. The developed procedure provides consistent dose assessment results and contributes to the establishment of optimization of radiological protection in NORM industries.

  17. The human impact on natural rock reserves using basalt, anorthosite, and carbonates as raw materials in insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Clausen, Anders U.; Hansen, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Typical crustal rocks such as basalt, limestone, and anorthosite are used in stone wool insulation products. The raw materials for stone wool production are not specific to any rare mineral source but depend upon the mixture of materials having the correct chemical composition, exemplified by 40 ...... materials serve as excellent source materials for new products. Moreover, current production lines exploit more than 30 natural and 20-30 synthetic source materials that circumvent regional depletion and contribute to the recycling of other industrial materials.......Typical crustal rocks such as basalt, limestone, and anorthosite are used in stone wool insulation products. The raw materials for stone wool production are not specific to any rare mineral source but depend upon the mixture of materials having the correct chemical composition, exemplified by 40 wt...... exploration. Globally, anorthositic provinces comprise smaller volumes than do limestone or basalt, but still occur in sufficient amounts to supply for the production of insulation materials indefinitely. An evaluation of the modern consumption rates and reserves shows that the crustal inventories...

  18. [Discriminant analysis of raw milk adulterated with botanical filling material using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Ding, Wu

    2010-05-01

    In order to find out a fast measure method of adulterated milk based on near infrared spectroscopy, milk adulterated with plant butter, vegetable protein and starch was collected respectively. Using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy to scan the samples, the spectrum data were obtained. The samples were scanned in the spectral region between 4 000 and 12 000 cm(-1) by FT-NIR spectrometer with an optic fiber of 2 mm path-length and an InGaAs detector. Then all data were analyzed by principal component analysis combined with Fisher line discriminant analysis (FLDA) and partial least squares (PLS). Results show that the accumulative reliabilities of the first six components were more than 99%, so the first six components were applied as FLDA inputs and the values of the type of milk were applied as the outputs. An adulterated milk qualitative discriminant model based on Fisher line discriminant analysis was developed finally. The result indicated that the accuracy of detection of calibration samples is 97.78%. The unknown test samples were tested by this model and the correct identification rate is 94.44%. Partial least square models for detecting the content of material added to raw milk were set up with good veracity. The predictive correlation coefficient (R2) of calibration sets of milk adulterated with plant butter, vegetable protein and starch are 99.08%, 99.96% and 99.39%, respectively, while the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) of the three calibration sets are 0.304%, 0.013 5% and 0.060%, respectively. The R2 of validation sets of the three kinds of adulterated milk are 98.50%, 99.94% and 98.50%, respectively, while the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of the three validation sets are 0.323%, 0.028 8% and 0.068%, respectively. All of these suggested that near infrared spectroscopy has good potential for rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of milk adulterated with botanical filling material.

  19. Raw materials and energy - effects of globalization on the safety of German's supply sufficiency; Rohstoffe und Energie. Auswirkungen der Globalisierung auf die Versorgungssicherheit Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellmer, F.W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Raw material deposits are not mobile, so globalisation has always been an important element of raw materials production and trade. Raw materials production and transport should be regarded as a large-scale system. Lower freight rates have made overseas transport possible even for bulk raw materials. If we look at Germany's raw materials supply, we find that we are customers buying from the whole world. [German] Da Lagerstaetten ortsgebunden sind, ist Globalisierung seit jeher ein wesentliches Element von Rohstoffgewinnung und handel. Rohstoffgewinnung und Transportmoeglichkeiten muessen als Grosssystem betrachtet werden. Nicht zuletzt wegen der gesunkenen Frachtraten ist der ueberseeische Transport heute selbst fuer Massenrohstoffe moeglich geworden. Betrachtet man die Rohstoffversorgung Deutschlands, wird deutlich, dass wir Kunde der ganzen Welt sind. (orig.)

  20. Simulation of a hydrogen production and purification system for a PEM fuel-cell using bioethanol as raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunta, Pablo; Amadeo, Norma; Laborde, Miguel [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Pabellon de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mosquera, Carlos [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-01-10

    A process to produce 'fuel-cell grade' hydrogen from ethanol steam reforming is analyzed from a thermodynamic point of view. The hydrogen purification process consists of WGS and COPROX reactors. Equations to evaluate the efficiency of the system, including the fuel cell, are presented. A heat exchange network is proposed in order to improve the exploitation of the available power. The effect of key variables such as the reformer temperature and the ethanol/water molar feed ratio on the fuel-cell efficiency is discussed. Results show that it is feasible to carry out the energy integration of the hydrogen catalytic production and purification-PEM fuel-cell system, using ethanol as raw material. The technology of 'fuel-cell grade' hydrogen production using ethanol as raw material is a very attractive alternative to those technologies based in fossil fuels. (author)

  1. Comparative studies on physico-mechanical properties of composite materials of low density polyethylene and raw/calcined kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mallik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the preparation of the composite materials of low density polyethylene (LDPE as the base mixed separately with raw kaolin and the same calcined at 800 °C under the same variation in weight percentage using single-screw extruder and a mixing machine operated at a temperature between 190 and 200 °C. Some of the mechanical and physical properties such as Young's modulus, elongation at break, shore hardness and water absorption were determined at different weight fractions of filler (0, 2, 7, 10 and 15%. It was found that the addition of filler increases the mechanical properties. Absorption test was done in water at different immersion times for different composites. The degree of water absorption of composite materials was found to decrease with increasing wt% of kaolin filler (0–15% according to Fick's law. Calcined kaolin produces better mechanical properties than raw kaolin.

  2. Palm Olein as Renewable Raw Materials for Industrial and Pharmaceutical Products Applications: Chemical Characterization and Physicochemical Properties Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darfizzi Derawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm olein (POo is widely produced as edible oil in tropical countries. POo is considered as renewable raw material for the new industrial and pharmaceutical products synthesis based on its characterization. Palm olein was good on its viscosity index, oxidative stability, and flash and fire point. POo contained unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs: POO (33.3%; POP (29.6% which plays an important role in chemical modification process to produce new industrial products. The double bond was detected on 1H-NMR (5.3 ppm and 13C-NMR (130 ppm spectra. The chemical compositions of POo were tested by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography (GC techniques. This unsaturated oil is potentially to be used as renewable raw materials in chemical modification process to synthesise polyols, polyurethane, and biolubricant for industrial and pharmaceutical products application.

  3. The heavy metals cadmium, lead and mercury in raw materials of animal origin: evaluation of data from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, J; Knödler, M; Kühn, M; Lipinski, A; Steinhoff, B

    2015-01-01

    Raw materials from animal origin are widely used in homoeopathy. Due to the lack of dedicated limits, the quality requirements for herbal drugs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and/or the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (Homöopathisches Arzneibuch, HAB), including limits for heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and mercury, have been applied. A recent database evaluation shows that for some raw materials of animal origin the Ph. Eur. limits for herbal drugs cannot be met in practice. For this reason proposals for new limits for cadmium, lead and mercury are made based on recent experiences from the companies' daily practice. These specific limits are suggested to be included in the individual monographs of the Ph. Eur. or at least the German HAB, respectively, for Ambra grisea, Euspongia officinalis, Formica rufa and Sepia officinalis.

  4. Optical and spectroscopic characterizations of Algerian silica raw material to predict high quality solar-grade silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheloufi, A.; Bobocioiu, E.; Kerkar, F.; Kefaifi, A.; Anas, S.; Medjahed, S. A.; Belkacem, Y.; Keffous, A.

    2017-03-01

    We assess the potential use as raw material for photovoltaics of Algerian silica samples from the quartz veins of the Tirek deposit and quartz sandstones of the Ain Barda deposit. With 97-98% purity, they all require enrichment before their industrial utilization. Acid leaching and gravimetric separation are used to remove the impurities at the grain boundaries and within the crystal lattice. We obtain course, middle, and fine products. The acid leaching process and the gravimetric separation increase the content of SiO2 up to 99.68%; the residue concentration of iron, alumina and zirconium is decreased to 70, 72 and 58 ppm respectively. These values are in agreement with requirements for silica as raw material destined for solar-grade silicon production.

  5. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  6. Study on Pressure Swing Adsorption Removing C+2 from Natural Gas as Raw Material for Thermal Chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sulan Xia; Jiahua Zhu; Xiaobin Zeng; Zhaohua Feng; Xinyu Cheng

    2004-01-01

    The experimental investigation demonstrates that a satisfactory result can be expected for pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purification of natural gas as raw material for thermal chlorination process. Using hh-4 molecular sieve as adsorbent for removing C2+ components, the suitable adsorption pressure is 0.4-0.45 MPa, desorption vacuum is 0.08-0.09 MPa and circulation time is 20-21 min.

  7. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles, Gandemer

    2009-01-01

    Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subj...

  8. Reducing industrial use of fossil raw materials:techno-economic assessment of relevant cases in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Arvola, J. (Jouko)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Climate change and global warming are currently widely discussed topics, both of which potentially impact all the nations and industries. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and other green house gases (GHG) are seen as a major challenge. This doctoral dissertation aims to conduct techno-economic calculations on the possibilities of reducing the industrial use of fossil raw materials in Northern Finland. This doctoral dissertation analyses industrial CO2 emissions from five complementary pe...

  9. Complex evaluation of health status and life quality of employees occupied in mining and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    G.G. Gimranova; A.B. Bakirov; L.K. Karimova; Z.F. Gimaeva; N.A. Beigul

    2016-01-01

    A complex social-hygienic investigation for the assessment of health-related life quality and living standards among 1200 male workers occupied in mining and primary processing of hydrocarbon raw materials has been performed. The study included the method of the anonymous survey for the employee with using a questionnaire developed by WHO experts for the realization of Health, environment and social capital management in enterprises (HESME). The health risk factors’ prevalence associated with...

  10. Enzymatic production of DFA III from fresh dahlia tubers as raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiwati, Thelma A.; Ratnaningrum, D.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Dahlia is an annual ornamental plants and tubers that have not been widely used in Indonesia. Dahlia tubers contain nearly 70 per cent of the starch in the form of inulin. Inulin addition can be used as a food ingredient can also be used as a raw material for making DFA III (ie functional oligosaccharides), using inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) Nonomuraea sp. In this study conducted production of DFA III through enzymatic reactions and yeast fermentation, using inulin from fresh dahlia tubers and fresh dahlia tuber extract. Dahlia tubers which is one source of inulin, do blanching before extracted. Most dahlia tuber extract used directly for enzymatic reactions in the production of DFA III and some extracts are processed to produce inulin by precipitation using ethanol and then inulin is used for the enzymatic reaction. Syrup DFA III was measured volume and viscosity, and then do decolorization and then crystallization. The analysis was done of Thin Layer Chromatography (to see DFA III formed) and HPLC to see the purity of the product. The results showed that the average of inulin from precipitation with ethanol in the two batch of 113,5 g with an average water content of 7.41%, average whiteness degree 62.29% and an average yield 7.345% (w/w, wb dahlia tuber). From the average of DFA III liquid of 480 mL with density of 14.15%, the result of the average of DFA III crystal from enzyme reaction in the two reactor using inulin dahlia tubers as a substrate, was obtained of 55.4 g with an average whiteness degree of 93.8%, and the average of yield 3.56% w/w (wb dahlia tuber) or 48.89% w/w (db inulin). And then from the average of 475 mL with density of 16.85% was obtained an average DFA III crystals of 29 g from the enzyme reaction in the two reactor using fresh dahlia tuber extract as a substrate, with an average whiteness degree o 80.75% and the average of the yield of 1.86% w/w (wb dahlia tuber).

  11. Processing of Banana Flour Using a Local Banana as Raw Materials in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value in the process into banana flour (BF. Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a. Janten, b. Kepok Manado, c. Muli and d, Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on rendement, nutritional value, total sugar and whiteness. Organoleptic test was done for knowing customer preferences (color, flavor and texture by 20 panelists with score 1 to 7 (very not like s/d really like. Results showed that rendement of BF from Janten was the highest (range of recovery 35-36% followed by BF from Raja Nangka (20-21%, Kepok Manado (20% and Muli (16-17%. The highest total sugar was BF from Muli i.e .7.784% followed by Raja Nangka (4.985%, Kepok Manado (4.961% and Janten (3.732%, whereas whiteness ranges from 42.85 to 61, 55% with the highest levels of whiteness of BF from Kepok Manado (61.55%, followed Janten (54%, Raja Nangka (43.25% and the lowest of Muli (42.85%. The BF contained protein (from 2.545 to 3.407%, fat (from 0.433 to 0.583%, carbohydrate (from 83.400 to 88.005%, ash (from 2.053 to 3.031%, crude fiber (from 0.524 to 1.897 and moisture content (from 5.586 to 6.603%. The BF from Raja Nangka showed good characters (color = 5.92, (texture = 5.69, and (flavor = 5.31 and panelist acceptance. Based on consideration of several aspects such as rendement, total sugar, consumer preferences, availability of raw materials and business analyses, the best bananas to be processed into flour in Lampung was the Raja Nangka banana and be able to increase the added value of > 15% with B/C ratio of 1.32 and competent to be developed.

  12. The use of Bacillus genus to dressing of silicate raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štyriaková Iveta

    2000-09-01

    Fe releasing during the bacterial leaching of kaolin. The release of the structural element, dissolved Fe from mica, and Fe from oxyhydroxides were used as indicators of the mineral dissolution and beneficiation of kaolin quality in this study report. They confirmed that bacteria of Bacillus genus are capable of a significant (52% iron removal in different times from kaolin either found as oxyhydroxides or also when it is bound in the mica structure. The significant enrichment by fine-grained fraction as a result of bacterial leaching is important also for the quality improvement of kaolins. These experimental results are important also for a possible development of a new industrial technology of kaolin raw material treatment.Bacteria and fungi interact with clay minerals and synthesize an array of organic compounds that have been shown to affect the mobility of metal ions.

  13. Detection of the presence of used frying oil as raw material in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of compounds giving information on the use of used frying oils as raw material in the production of biodiesel is of interest to guarantee the quality of the product. In this study, the most characteristic groups of compounds formed after used frying oil transesterification were analyzed by means of the standard technique using gas chromatography at a high temperature (EN 14105. Dimeric fatty acid methyl esters (dimeric FAME is the most important group to be considered as they are present in significant amounts after used frying oil transesterification. On the other hand, they are absent in the bleached oils used for biodiesel production. The concentration of the dimeric FAME in the polar fraction of biodiesel, easily obtained by adsorption chromatography, allowed detection of this group of compounds even in very low concentrations.La detección de compuestos característicos de los aceites de fritura usados como materia prima de bajo coste en la obtención de biodiesel, es de interés para garantizar su calidad. En este estudio, se analizan los grupos de compuestos más característicos obtenidos tras la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura mediante la técnica estándar que utiliza cromatografía de gases a temperatura elevada (European Standard EN 14105. Los dímeros de ésteres metílicos son los compuestos más importantes para detectar el aceite de fritura como materia prima, debido a su presencia en cantidades significativas después de la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura y a su ausencia en los aceites decolorados que se utilizan en la obtención de biodiesel. La concentración de los dímeros en la fracción polar del biodiesel, fácilmente obtenida mediante cromatografía de adsorción, permite detectar los citados compuestos incluso a concentraciones muy bajas.

  14. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  16. The effect of different nitrogen fertilization rates on yield and quality of marigold (Calendula officinalis L. 'Tokaj' raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is an annual ornamental plant which is also grown for herbal raw material (flower heads used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in the Experimental Farm of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The study was conducted on loess soil with the granulometric composition of silt loam. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of different nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 kg N × ha-1 on some morphological features of flower heads as well as on yield and quality of pot marigold raw material. Flowering of pot marigold was shortest in the control treatment (32 days and longest (43 days in the plot where nitrogen fertilization had been applied at the highest rate (160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization had a significant influence on the number of flower heads per plant, but no significant difference was found in diameter as well as in ligulate flowers and tubular flowers in the flower head. It was found to increase significantly raw material yield after the application of 80 kg N × ha-1, compared to the control treatment. Yield of flower heads did not differ markedly for fertilization rates from 80 to 160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization modified slightly essential oil content (this content increased with increasing nitrogen rates, but at the same time it decreased the percentage of flavonoid compounds.

  17. Fermentanomics: Relating quality attributes of a monoclonal antibody to cell culture process variables and raw materials using multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Kumar Singh, Sumit; Pathak, Mili; Read, Erik K; Brorson, Kurt A; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Khan, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Fermentanomics is an emerging field of research and involves understanding the underlying controlled process variables and their effect on process yield and product quality. Although major advancements have occurred in process analytics over the past two decades, accurate real-time measurement of significant quality attributes for a biotech product during production culture is still not feasible. Researchers have used an amalgam of process models and analytical measurements for monitoring and process control during production. This article focuses on using multivariate data analysis as a tool for monitoring the internal bioreactor dynamics, the metabolic state of the cell, and interactions among them during culture. Quality attributes of the monoclonal antibody product that were monitored include glycosylation profile of the final product along with process attributes, such as viable cell density and level of antibody expression. These were related to process variables, raw materials components of the chemically defined hybridoma media, concentration of metabolites formed during the course of the culture, aeration-related parameters, and supplemented raw materials such as glucose, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. This article demonstrates the utility of multivariate data analysis for correlating the product quality attributes (especially glycosylation) to process variables and raw materials (especially amino acid supplements in cell culture media). The proposed approach can be applied for process optimization to increase product expression, improve consistency of product quality, and target the desired quality attribute profile.

  18. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, capillary electrophoresis (CE and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  19. Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2008-10-01

    The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials.

  20. Optimization and validation of post-column assay for screening of radical scavengers in herbal raw materials and herbal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Bumblauskiene, Lina; Jakstas, Valdas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2010-12-03

    On-line method, which combines HPLC distribution and post-column reaction, was designed for the search of individual antioxidants. Optimization of the assay was performed evaluating optimal ABTS(+) radical cation concentration in the reactor, reaction time, impact of flow rate, reaction coil length. HPLC-ABTS assay validation in this work was performed by assessing reference antioxidant negative peak areas in radical scavenging chromatogram. Sample free radical scavenging activity is expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Optimized and validated method was applied in detection of compounds possessing free radical scavenging ability in complex mixtures. Antioxidant compounds were studied in perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. crispa f. viridis) herbal raw material and its preparations. The HPLC-separated antioxidant compounds were identified using HPLC-photodiode array coupled to mass spectrometer, using a reference mass for determining accurate masses. Radical scavenging characteristics of rosmarinic acid, which is the dominant phenolic compound in medicinal herbal raw material of perilla and its preparations, were confirmed by the calculated TEAC values. Compounds responsible for antioxidant effect in herbal raw materials and herbal preparations were identified, evaluated and compared.

  1. Challenges for critical raw material recovery from WEEE - The case study of gallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberschaar, Maximilian; Otto, Sarah Julie; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2017-02-01

    Gallium and gallium compounds are more frequently used in future oriented technologies such as photovoltaics, light diodes and semiconductor technology. In the long term the supply risk is estimated to be critical. Germany is one of the major primary gallium producer, recycler of gallium from new scrap and GaAs wafer producer. Therefore, new concepts for a resource saving handling of gallium and appropriate recycling strategies have to be designed. This study focus on options for a possible recycling of gallium from waste electric and electronic equipment. To identify first starting points, a substance flow analysis was carried out for gallium applied in integrated circuits applied on printed circuit boards and for LEDs used for background lighting in Germany in 2012. Moreover, integrated circuits (radio amplifier chips) were investigated in detail to deduce first approaches for a recycling of such components. An analysis of recycling barriers was carried out in order to investigate general opportunities and risks for the recycling of gallium from chips and LEDs. Results show, that significant gallium losses arose in primary production and in waste management. 93±11%, equivalent to 43,000±4700kg of the total gallium potential was lost over the whole primary production process until applied in electronic goods. The largest share of 14,000±2300kggallium was lost in the production process of primary raw materials. The subsequent refining process was related to additional 6900±3700kg and the chip and wafer production to 21,700±3200kg lost gallium. Results for the waste management revealed only low collection rates for related end-of-life devices. Not collected devices held 300 ± 200 kg gallium. Due to the fact, that current waste management processes do not recover gallium, further 80 ± 10 kg gallium were lost. A thermal pre-treatment of the chips, followed by a manual separation allowed an isolation of gallium rich fractions, with gallium mass fractions up to

  2. Research Progress on Biogas Production from Multiple Raw Materials with Co-Digestion Technology%多元原料混合发酵制备沼气技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽琴; 章伟伟; 谢君

    2016-01-01

    So far, livestock manure and agricultural straws are the main biogas production raw materials in China. With the development of anaerobic digestion technology, more types of waste have gradually drawn our attention. As a kind of renewable energy resource, various biomass materials are of great significance for biogas production in the construction of ecological civilization in China. In this paper, we reviewed the characteristics of biomass resources in China, such as livestock manure, crop straw, agricultural products processing waste, municipal organic waste and energy crop, and the advantages and disadvantages of them as biogas fermentation raw material, then compared the biogas potential of these raw materials. The anaerobic digestion technology of mixed raw materials and some important exogenous additives which can promote biogas production were discussed.%目前,我国沼气的发酵原料主要是禽畜粪便和农作物秸秆,随着厌氧发酵技术的发展,更多种类废弃物也逐步受到人们的关注。有机废弃物沼气化利用在我国生态文明建设中有着重大意义。论文综述了我国生物质资源,如禽畜粪便、农作物秸秆、农产品加工废弃物、市政有机废弃物和能源作物的特性和作为沼气发酵原料的优缺点,比较了这些原料的沼气生产潜力,探讨了混合原料发酵技术及重要的几种沼气发酵外源添加剂。

  3. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Kendall R.; Byrt, Caitlin S.; Bauer, Stefan; DeBolt, Seth; Chambers, Don; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Karem, Ghazwan; Henderson, Marilyn; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie T.; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Betts, Natalie S.; Burton, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like—rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47–50% w/w) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16–22% w/w), and whole leaves were low in lignin (9–13% w/w). Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85–95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41–48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition. PMID:26305101

  4. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Kendall R; Byrt, Caitlin S; Bauer, Stefan; DeBolt, Seth; Chambers, Don; Holtum, Joseph A M; Karem, Ghazwan; Henderson, Marilyn; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie T; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Betts, Natalie S; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like--rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47-50% w/w) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16-22% w/w), and whole leaves were low in lignin (9-13% w/w). Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85-95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41-48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition.

  5. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall R Corbin

    Full Text Available Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like--rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47-50% w/w and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16-22% w/w, and whole leaves were low in lignin (9-13% w/w. Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85-95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41-48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition.

  6. Hydrolysis technology for producing sugars from biomass as raw material for the chemical industry - SugarTech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallioinen, A.; Haekkinen, M.; Pakula, T. (and others) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: anne.kallioinen@vtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    In SugarTech project, spruce, forest residue, birch and sugar cane bagasse have been studied as a raw material for production of sugars to be processed further to ethanol and other chemicals. These raw materials containing high proportion of carbohydrates have been analysed and pretreated for enzyme hydrolysis by steam explosion and oxidative methods. The pretreated materials have been studied in respect to yield and enzymatic hydrolysability. Birch and bagasse could easily be pretreated with steam explosion. Catalytic and alkaline oxidation treatment of spruce produced material with superior hydrolysability to steam exploded material. Enzyme adsorption and desorption were studied with lignocellulosic substrates aiming at recycling of enzymes in the hydrolysis process. After enzymatic hydrolysis, a major part of the enzymes remained bound to substrate in spite of high degree of hydrolysis. Desorption of enzymes could be detected only with catalytically oxidised spruce. In addition, the hydrolytic system of Trichoderma reesei, which is a widely used fungus for cellulase enzyme production, has been studied in the presence of different substrates. The substrate and the pretreatment method had clear effects on gene expression profile. (orig.)

  7. Combined effects of raw materials and solvent systems on the preparation and properties of regenerated cellulose fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinghuan; Guan, Ying; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xueming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2015-09-05

    To investigate the combined effects of materials and solvents on the preparation, structural and mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibers, four cellulosic materials (microcrystalline cellulose, cotton linter pulp, bamboo pulp and bleached softwood sulfite dissolving pulp) and six non-derivative solvents (NaOH/urea aqueous solution, N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride, N-methyl-morpholine-N-oxide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) were used to prepare fibers with wet spinning method. The results showed that the dissolvability of solvent was the determining factor in cellulose dissolution, and the dissolving time was influenced by the raw materials' properties, such as molecular weight, exposed area and hemicellulose content. The crystallinity and elongation at break of the fibers were almost fixed and not affected by the materials and solvents. However, the tensile strength of the fibers was directly proportional to the molecular weight of the raw materials, and varied with the type of solvents through cellulose degradation.

  8. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part I: Effect of raw material and processing technology on flavor, color and fatty acid composition of peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts have a strong impact on consumer acceptability. They can be influenced by
    raw material and processing technology. Raw peanuts of various market types, origins and grades were processed
    by different technologies to produce 134 unique samples, which were pro

  9. Clay raw materials from the Triassic Red Beds (Northern JaéUy Spain for making ceramic construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of Triassic Red Beds from northern Jaén in the production of structural clay products has been evaluated. These materials have high phyllosilicate contents (36-69%, although some samples are enriched in quartz (<8-54% and feldspars (<5-2I%. Dolomite (<5-20% and calcite (< 7% are present. Illite is the main phyllosilicate (96-74%, kaolinite values are rather low (<17% and chlorite is present in low content (<14%. The studied samples have high silica (39.2-74.8% and alumina (6.9-18.3% content. K4ost of the samples have low CaO and MgO concentrations (<6%. <2 pm (64-36% and 2-20 pm (68-36% are the predominant grain size fraction of the studied samples. Low plasticity for extrusion process of the Triassic Red Beds is not appropriated for making bricks and roofing tiles by themselves. However, water absorption and linear shrinkage values are often suitable for manufacturing bricks. A small number of samples are appropriated for making roofing tiles, due to the its high firing shrinkage. Mixing of these materials with different proportions of complementary raw materials would allow to make porous bodies.

    En este trabajo se ha evaluado el uso de las Capas Rojas Triásicas de la Cobertera Tabular del Macizo Ibérico del norte de la provincia de Jaén para elaborar materiales cerámicos. Estos materiales tienen altos contenidos en filosilicatos (36-69%, aunque algunas muestras son ricas en cuarzo (hasta 54% y feldespatos (hasta 21%. Los carbonatos presentes en las muestras son dolomita (<5-20% y calcita (<7%. La illita es el principal filosilicato (96-74%, mientras que la caolinita y la clorita están presentes en bajos contenidos (< 17%. Las muestras estudiadas tienen altos contenidos en sílice (39,2-74,8% y alúmina (6,9-18,3%. La mayoría de estas arcillas tienen bajas concentraciones de CaO y MgO (<6%. Las fracciones granulométricas predominantes son la< 2 pm (64-36% y la situada entre 2 y 20 pm (68-36%. La baja plasticidad

  10. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2005 Direction Generale de L'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  11. Sludge from paper mill effluent treatment as raw material to produce carbon adsorbents: An alternative waste management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaria, Guilaine; Silva, Carla Patrícia; Ferreira, Catarina I A; Otero, Marta; Calisto, Vânia

    2017-03-01

    Pulp and paper industry produces massive amounts of sludge from wastewater treatment, which constitute an enormous environmental challenge. A possible management option is the conversion of sludge into carbon-based adsorbents to be applied in water remediation. For such utilization it is important to investigate if sludge is a consistent raw material originating reproducible final materials (either over time or from different manufacturing processes), which is the main goal of this work. For that purpose, different primary (PS) and biological sludge (BS) batches from two factories with different operation modes were sampled and subjected to pyrolysis (P materials) and to pyrolysis followed by acid washing (PW materials). All the materials were characterized by proximate analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (IC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and N2 adsorption isotherms (specific surface area (SBET)and porosity determination). Sludge from the two factories proved to have distinct physicochemical properties, mainly in what concerns IC. After pyrolysis, the washing step was essential to reduce IC and to considerably increase SBET, yet with high impact in the final production yield. Among the materials here produced, PW materials from PS were those having the highest SBET values (387-488 m(2) g(-1)). Overall, it was found that precursors from different factories might originate final materials with distinct characteristics, being essential to take into account this source of variability when considering paper mill sludge as a raw material. Nevertheless, for PS, low variability was found between batches, which points out to the reliability of such residues to be used as precursors of carbon adsorbents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Usage of Local Raw Material in the Construction of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18, Bujang Valley, Kedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.

  13. Raw materials potential and long-term raw materials supply in the pit-and-quarry sector: The Niedersachsen experience; Rohstoffpotential sowie Rohstoffsicherung fuer Steine-Erden-Rohstoffe - Erfahrungen in Niedersachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, A. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The contribution outlines the potential of nometallic minerals in Niedersachsen, e.g. gravel and sand, raw materials for brick and gypsum production, and oil shales. Measures taken to ensure long-term supply and the experience gained in this sector are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Beitrag beschaeftigt sich mit dem Potential an Steine-Erden-Rohstoffen in Niedersachsen, wie u.a. Kiese und Sande, Rohstoffe der Ziegelindustrie, Rohstoffe fuer die Gipsindustrie und Oelschiefervorkommen. Zudem werden die Massnahmen und die Erfahrungen bei der Rohstoffsicherung geschildert.

  14. Perspectives of the waste management and raw materials industry in Germany; Perspektiven der Entsorgungs- und Rohstoffwirtschaft in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, Peter [Bundesverband der Deutschen Entsorgungs-, Wasser- und Rohstoffwirtschaft e.V. (BDE), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In order to provide the industrial structures that are necessary for ecologically and economically effective waste management and recycling - from the collecting of valuable waste materials to the marketing of the secondary raw materials obtained -, the BDE (Bundesverband der Deutschen Entsorgungswirtschaft e.V., Federal Association of the German Waste Management Industry) considers that free movement of goods must be ensured in the whole European Union. This means Europe-wide prohibition of dumping of untreated waste, common European environmental standards and their enforcement. If the potential of waste materials is to be developed in Europe, politicians must develop consequent understanding of waste as a raw material and commodity. Europe needs open frontiers and free trade in this important sector. (orig.) [German] Um die fuer eine oekologisch und oekonomisch effektive Kreislaufwirtschaft zwingend erforderlichen industriellen Strukturen - von der Sammlung werthaltiger Abfaelle bis hin zur Vermarktung der gewonnenen Sekundaerrohstoffe - zu schaffen, muss aus Sicht des BDE fuer alle Abfallstroeme der Grundsatz der Warenverkehrsfreiheit im gesamten Bereich der Europaeischen Union gelten. Voraussetzungen dafuer sind ein europaweites Deponieverbot fuer unbehandelte Abfaelle, europaweit einheitliche Umweltstandards und ein einheitlicher Vollzug. Wenn wir tatsaechlich das Potenzial, das im europaeischen Abfallberg steckt, heben wollen, muss auch die Politik ein konsequentes Verstaendnis fuer die Ressource Abfall als Ware entwickeln. Wir brauchen in Europa fuer diesen wichtigen Stoffstrom offene Grenzen und freien Handel. (orig.)

  15. Indicators for the use of raw materials in the context of sustainable development in Germany; Indikatoren/Kennzahlen fuer den Rohstoffverbrauch im Rahmen der Nachhaltigkeitsdiskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giegrich, Juergen; Liebich, Axel; Lauwigi, Christoph; Reinhardt, Joachim [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Raw material productivity is a key indicator in the German strategy for sustainable development located in the chapter about ''conservation of resources''. Raw material productivity relates the gross domestic product (GDP) to the sum of domestically extracted abiotic raw materials and imported abiotic raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products. The main objective of this research project was to further develop or supplement this existing indicator. First of all the basic concepts of ''natural resource'' and ''raw material'' was clearly defined and put into the context of existing resource strategies. The broad concept of natural resource was adopted and six types of natural resources were identified (raw material, energy, water, land, biodiversity and the sink function of environmental media) Headline indicators were suggested for each of them. An aggregated indicator was developed and discussed which was called Environmental Impact Load (EVIL). The pressures represented by four resource indicators and four environmental indicators for the sink function were calculated for all imported goods with the help of 130 resource and environmental profiles and the German import statistics of the year 2005. This step was necessary to resolve the asymmetric approach of calculating the pressures caused by imports and domestic production and consumption. The ''rucksacks'' of the imports were accounted with domestic figures and the export ''rucksacks''. The raw material demand of imported goods expressed in raw material equivalent was derived to be twice as high as the domestic material extraction. Finally the function of the different resource indicators to represent each other was tested with the help of correlations. As a first approximation a certain correlation exists between some indicators. But it is recommended that each resource indicator should be kept

  16. Replacement Of Reserves Zinc Producers In The Russian Federation Based On The Recycling Of Technogenic Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the key stage of the value chain in the zinc industry of the Russian Federation is considered. The study aims to examine the impact of technological change on the development of value chains in the mining and metallurgical complex in the Urals region. The relevance of the assessment of the impact of technological change on the development of value chains in the processing of primary and technogenic raw materials in terms of the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Complex is grounded. The methodological scheme of analysis of value chains and the impact on them of new technologies are developed in the study. It is shown that the analysis of value chains should be carried out, using as an analytical tool value added as well as a heuristic tool study of the value chain. Analysis of the value chain in the production of primary zinc and technogenic raw materials made in accordance with the proposed approach. An assessment of the value added in the production of zinc from primary raw materials held in the article. The gross volume and dynamics of revenue, net income and the cost of segments of the value chain in zinc production are analyzed. The leading role of the metallurgical segment in the value chain of the zinc industry is established. Share indexes of the metallurgical segment as a control link of the value chain in the structure of the consolidated revenue, profit, cost considered in the dynamics, the dynamics of change in the total expenditure on scientific and technological development and R & D expenditure are investigated. The conclusion about essential influence of new technologies on the change of value chains in terms of zinc production is confirmed.

  17. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in

  18. Presence of central nervous system tissues as bovine spongiform encephalopathy specified risk material in Turkish raw meat ball (cig kofte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Hulusi DİNÇOĞLU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE is a virulent disease which may infect by affecting the central nervous system (CNS tissues in cattle and causes degeneration in nerves. Central nervous system tissues such as brain and spinal cord which are classified as specified risk materials (SRMs are regarded to be main source of infection. The contamination of the meat with the specific risk materials (SRMs can occur in phases of slaughter, fragmentation of carcass and processing. This study was conducted in order to investigate the existence of CNS tissues in raw meat ball (cig kofte which is commonly consumed in the Southeastern Region of Turkey, particularly in Şanlıurfa. For this purpose, 145 samples of raw meat ball were tested. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (Ridascreen risk material 10/5, R-biofarm GmbH which determine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP as determinant were used. As a result of the analyses, positivity was detected in 21 of totally 145 samples of raw meat ball (14.48%. 6 (4.14% of the samples gave low level of positivity (≥ 0.1 standard absorbance, 10 (6.90% gave medium level of positivity (>0.2 standard absorbance and 5 (3.45% gave high level of positivity (≥0.5 standard absorbance. As a consequence, meats are contaminated in any phase of both slaughter and meat production even if accidentally. Regarding this matter, necessary measures should be taken and hygiene rules should be applied.

  19. Effect of raw material source, processing systems, and processing temperatures on amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Parsons, C M

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate amino acid digestibility of 32 commercial meat and bone meals (MBM) varying in raw material source and produced in seven different commercial cooking systems and at two processing temperatures (low vs high) that differed by 15 to 20 C. Raw material sources included all beef, all pork, mixed species, and high bone MBM. True digestibilities of amino acids were determined using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of six MBM varying greatly in amino acid digestibility was determined with chicks fed 10% CP diets containing a MBM as the sole source of dietary protein. The 32 MBM samples averaged 53.2% CP, 2.73% Lys, 0.6% Cys, and 0.75% Met on a DM basis. True digestibility averaged 82% for Lys, 87% for Met, and 47% for Cys. True digestibilities of amino acids varied substantially among processing systems and temperatures, particularly for Lys and Cys. For example, Lys and Cys digestibility ranged from 68 to 92% and from 20 to 71%, respectively, among different MBM. The higher processing temperature generally yielded lower amino acid digestibility than did the low processing temperature. A smaller, less consistent, effect was observed for raw material source. The PER values of the six selected MBM varied from 0.97 to 2.68 and were highly correlated with amino acid digestibility. These results indicated that very high amino acid digestibility MBM can be produced in commercial rendering systems. However, differences in processing systems and temperatures can cause substantial variability in amino acid digestibilities.

  20. Trace element contents in raw materials and products of the confectionary industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, J. (Edesipari Vallalat, Szerencs (Hungary)); Kiss, B. (Allategeszseguegyi es Elelmiszerellenoerzoe Koezpont, Budapest (Hungary))

    Based on measurements by X-ray radiation analysis, the zinc content of raw ingredients for the confectionary industry varies between 27,2 and 56,4 mg/kg and their copper content between 6,2 and 34,3 mg/kg. The same values for bitter chocolates: 22,3 to 28,8 mg/kg for zinc and 10,8 to 18,8 mg/kg for copper resp.; values in milk chocolates: 15,9 to 19,8 mg/kg (zinc) and 2,6 to 6,1 mg/kg (copper). Contents of zinc and copper in cocoa powders are much higher than the above values: 78,1 to 102,5 mg/kg (zinc) and 45,9 to 48,6 mg/kg (copper), resp. Zinc and copper contents in the end products depend in the first place on the raw ingredients; contamination during manufacturing is unlikely. 8 refs.

  1. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the raw material of the herbal drug Olivae folium and its counterfeits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakušić Branislava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree leaf is a very significant plant raw material from the medical and economic points of view (Ph. Eur. 5, PDR. In the region of Southeast Europe, olive leaves are most commonly adulterated with oleander leaves and the leaves of Pittosporum tobira. This paper deals with the morphological and anatomical features of leaves of the following species: Olea europaea, Nerium oleander and Pittosporum tobira. The aim of this research was to define concrete diagnostic parameters permitting detection of adulterants in commercial samples of the herbal drug Olivae folium.

  2. Development of a technology for obtaining flotation reagent oxane-3 for carbon mineral raw materials of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kalugin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the results of development of a technology for obtaining oxane-3 and its application for enrichment of carbon mineral raw materials. Studies on enrichment of a shungite rock showed that the increase of a pulp temperature to 30°C significantly improves the characteristics and rate of the flotation process. Measured indicators of a shungite rock enrichment using Flotol B were lower in comparison with an enrichment by oxane-3. For schungite mineral, it was established that the obtained heterocyclic compound can replace existing industrial flotation reagents in enrichment processes.

  3. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V; Nielsen, K V; Thygesen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w/w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, w...

  4. Determination of β-Carotene in Supplements and Raw Materials by Reversed-Phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpylka, John; DeVries, Jonathan W.; Bhandari, S.; Bui, M.H.; Ji, D.; Konings, E.; Lewis, R.; Maas, P.; Parish, H.; Post, B.; Schierle, J.; Sullivan, D.; Taylor, A.; Wang, J.; Ware, G.; Woollard, D.; Wu, T.

    2008-01-01

    Twelve laboratories representing 4 countries participated in an interlaboratory study conducted to determine all-trans-β-carotene and total β-carotene in dietary supplements and raw materials. Thirteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results obtained from 11 laboratories are reported. For products composed as softgels and tablets that were analyzed for total β-carotene, the reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 3.35 to 23.09% and the HorRat values ranged from 1.06 to 3.72. For these products analyzed for trans β-carotene, the reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 4.28 to 22.76% and the HorRat values ranged from 0.92 to 3.37. The RSDr and HorRat values in the analysis of a beadlet raw material were substantial and it is believed that the variability within the material itself introduced significant variation in subsampling. The method uses high pressure liquid chromatography (LC) in the reversed-phase mode with visible light absorbance for detection and quantitation. If high levels of α-carotenes are present, a second LC system is used for additional separation and quantitation of the carotene species. It is recommended that the method be adopted as an AOAC Official Method. PMID:16385976

  5. manufacturing of emery cloth (sand paper)from local raw materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The materials and their sources requires for the production of the emery cloth are discussed and also the physical properties of the materials are considered.

  6. Reactivity and burnability of cement raw materials witt high manganese content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been verified that high manganese content in raw mixes causes alters the mineralogical composition of clinkers. New phases like 2 CaO.Mn02 and Ca2AIMnO5 are developed and C3A formation can be inhibited. Manganese is a flux similar to iron in the traditional raw mixes. The presence of manganese will modify the expressions of the lime saturation factor (LSF, silica modulus (Ms and aluminum modulus (Mf. This has as consequence an increase of the proportion of interstitial phase in the obtained clinkers.

    Se ha comprobado que contenidos elevados de manganeso en el crudo provoca una modificación significativa en la composición mineralógica del clinker. Se desarrollan las fases no tradicionales 2 CaO.Mn02 y Ca2AIMnO5 , y se puede llegar, incluso, a inhibir la formación de alumínate tricálcico. El manganeso tiene un comportamiento fundente muy similar al jugado por el hierro en los crudos tradicionales, por lo que la incorporación de óxidos de manganeso al crudo produce una alteración significativa en los módulos tradicionales (LSF, Ms y Mf. Esto tiene como consecuencia inmediata un gran incremento en la proporción de fase intersticial en los clínkeres producidos.

  7. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  8. Two-stage digestion of renewable raw materials. Applying the flooding process to utilizing grass silage; Zweiphasige Vergaerung nachwachsender Rohstoffe. Einsatz des Einstau-Verfahrens zur Verwertung von Grassilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielonka, S.; Lemmer, A.; Oechsner, H. [Hohenheim Univ. (Germany). Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaftliches Maschinen- und Bauwesen; Jungbluth, T. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik

    2008-08-15

    The input of fibre-rich renewable raw materials, e.g. grass silage, as a co-substrate in agricultural biogas plants, often caused technical problems. Within the framework of this project a process is being developed, which makes it possible to digest grass silage as a single substrate, a process which additionally through a two-stage process better supplies what the bacteria involved require. An intermittently operating two- stage process is being used, which has had good results with degradation and methane yields. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guanshen; Ren, Jie; Ouyang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Liying; Wang, Mengze; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bolin; Zhu, Baoqing

    2016-10-02

    This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E)-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FERMENTED WHEAT RAW MATERIALS IN THE STUDY OF PROCESSES OF HEAT- AND MASS TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pribytkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents the results of a study of thermophysical properties of fermented wheat raw materials used are described in this experimental method, explained the behavior of graphic curves under different external conditions, given the opportunity to use the results. Possibilities of application of physical characteristics in the design of various designs dryers. Introduced the concept of the fermented wheat feedstock described the appearance of the product and the conditions for its receipt, showing the influence of temperature and moisture on the investigational product. Shows the design of the stand to determine the thermal characteristics of the fermented wheat raw materials using the method of transient thermal regime and describes how it works. Introduced empirical regression equation adequately describe thermal characteristics. Depending on the results of the study are the coefficients of thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal diffusivity on the moisture content and temperature. The linear dependence shows that with increasing temperature and moisture content of the physical characteristics increase.

  11. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshen Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  12. Bacterial polymer production using pre-treated sludge as raw material and its flocculation and dewatering potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, T T; Yan, S; Hoang, N V; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2012-10-01

    Sterilization, alkaline-thermal and acid-thermal treatments were applied to different sludge solids concentrations (17.0; 22.4; 29.8; 37.3; 44.8 g/L, respectively) and the pre-treated sludge was used as raw material for Serratia sp.1 to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). After 72 h of fermentation, total EPS of 2.3 and 3.4 g/L were produced in sterilized and alkaline-thermal treated sludge as compared to that of 1.5 g/L in acid-thermal treated sludge. Lower EPS were produced at relatively higher solids concentrations (37.3; 44.8 g/L). Broth, crude forms of capsular and slime EPS were extracted from fermented broths and used as conditioning agents by combining with 150 mg of Ca(2+)/L of kaolin suspensions. Maximum flocculation activity of 79.1% and increased dewatering by 52.2% was achieved using broth and crude capsular EPS, respectively. The results demonstrated that EPS having high flocculating capability could be produced using wastewater sludge as sole raw material.

  13. Evaluation of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of oxidation reaction in biodiesel from a quaternary mixture of raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gomes Angilelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of vegetable oil and animal fat as raw materials was optimized by simplex-centroid mixture design to produce a type of biodiesel with good oxidative stability, flow properties and reaction yield. Further, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of oxidation reaction were determined by the accelerated method at different temperatures. Biodiesel produced with sodium methoxide as catalyst presented 6.5°C of cloud point, 2.0°C of pour point, and oxidative stability at 110°C equal to 8.98h, with a reaction yield of 96.04%. Activation energy of the oxidation reaction was 81.03 kJ mol-1 for biodiesel produced with sodium hydroxide and 90.51 kJ mol-1 for sodium methoxide. The positive values for DH‡ and DG‡ indicate that the oxidation process is endothermic and endergonic. The less negative DS‡ for biodiesel produced with sodium methoxide (-28.87 JK-1 mol-1 showed that the process of degradation of this biofuel was slower than that produced with NaOH. The mixture of raw materials proposed, transesterified with the methoxide catalyst, resulted in a biofuel that resisted oxidation for longer periods, making unnecessary the addition of antioxidant

  14. Effect of raw material properties and die geometry on the density of biomass pellets from composted municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedin Zafari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Densification of biomass feedstocks, such as pelletizing, can increase bulk density, improve storability, reduce transportation costs, and ease the handling of biomass using existing handling and storage equipment for grains. In order to study the pelletizing process, compost pellets were produced under controlled conditions. The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of raw material properties and the die geometry on the true density of formed pellets and also find the optimal conditions of the densification process for producing pellets with high density. Compost was extruded into cylindrical pellets utilizing open-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables, including the raw material moisture content (35 to 45% (wet basis, hammer mill screen size (0.3 to 1.5 mm, speed of piston (2 to 10 mm/s, and die length (8 to 12 mm on pellet density, were determined using response surface methodology. A quadratic model was proposed to predict the pellet density, which had high F and R2 values along with a low p value, indicating the predictability of the model. Moisture content, speed of piston, and particle size significantly affected (P 0.05.

  15. End-product quality of composts produced under tropical and temperate climates using different raw materials: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverial, Julie; Boval, Maryline; Sierra, Jorge; Sauvant, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A meta-analysis on end-product quality of 442 composts was performed to assess the effects of climate and raw materials on compost quality. The analysis was performed using an ANOVA including a mixed model with nested factors (climate, raw material and publication effect). Tropical composts presented lower carbon, nitrogen, potassium and soluble-carbon contents, and higher electrical conductivity. The results suggest that compost quality in the tropics was affected by weather conditions during composting (e.g. high temperature and rainfall), which induced high losses of carbon and nutrients. For most properties, industrial, sewage sludge and manure-based composts displayed the highest quality under both climates, while the contrary was found for household and municipal solid waste-based composts. The publication effect represented >50% of total variance, which was mainly due to the heterogeneity of the composting procedures. The meta-analysis was found to be a helpful tool to analyse the imbalanced worldwide database on compost quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and Validation of a Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Norfloxacin in Raw Material by FTIR Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natori, Jéssica Sayuri Hisano; Tótoli, Eliane Gandolpho; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-11-01

    Norfloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, widely used in humans and animals for the treatment of urinary tract infections. It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone. Several analytical methods to analyze norfloxacin have been described in the literature. However, most of them are complex and require the use of large amounts of organic solvents. This paper describes the development and validation of a green analytical method for the determination of norfloxacin in raw material by FTIR spectrophotometry. This method does not require the use of organic solvents, minimizing waste generation in the process and its environmental impacts. The development of methods that promote the reduction, prevention, or elimination of waste generation has become highly attractive to the pharmaceutical industry because of the growing demand from civil society and government authorities for environmentally friendly products and services. The FTIR spectrophotometry method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, showing adequate linearity (r = 0.9936), precision, accuracy, and robustness. This validated method can be used as an environmentally friendly alternative for the quantification of norfloxacin in raw material in QC routine analysis.

  17. Did Raw Material Shortages Decide World War Two? New Data for the Example of Nazi Rubber Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ferdinand Schmelzing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a well-established literature on the economics of World War Two, to this day reliable statistics on overall raw material supplies for Nazi Germany are lacking. The operations of shell companies, the special de jure status of occupied areas, and the Wehrmacht practice to “live off the land” have led to a significant underestimation of de facto resource endowments of the Third Reich. For the example of rubber—one of the prime “scarce war commodities”—this article demonstrates the extent and sources of deficiencies, and offers new data. On this basis, and in contrast to recent arguments that view raw materials as a “basic constraint” of the German economy, it is shown that surprisingly comfortable supplies existed between December 1941 and May 1944, during which Nazi-controlled Europe seemed ready to allow a realization of Hitler’s ‘Lebensraum’ designs. The failure to realize those designs originated in military setbacks—which subsequently impacted economic performance as a secondary effect.

  18. Valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag as raw material for low energy belite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobescu, R I; Koumpouri, D; Pontikes, Y; Saban, R; Angelopoulos, G N

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, the valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in the production of low energy belite cements is studied. Three types of clinkers were prepared with 0 wt.% (BC), 5 wt.% (BC5) and 10 wt.% (BC10) EAFS, respectively. The design of the raw mixes was based on the compositional indices lime saturation factor (LSF), alumina ratio (AR) and silica ratio (SR). The clinkering temperature was studied for the range 1280-1400°C; firing was performed at 1380°C based on the results regarding free lime and the evolution of microstructure. In order to activate the belite, clinkers were cooled fast by blown air and concurrent crushing. The results demonstrate that the microstructure of the produced clinkers is dominated by belite and alite crystals, with tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium-alumino-ferrite present as micro-crystalline interstitial phases. The prepared cements presented low early strength development as expected for belite-rich compositions; however the 28-day results were 47.5 MPa, 46.6 MPa and 42.8 MPa for BC, BC5 and BC10, respectively. These values are comparable with OPC CEMI 32.5 N (32.5-52.5 MPa) according to EN 197-1. A fast setting behaviour was also observed, particularly in the case of BC10, whereas soundness did not exceed 1mm.

  19. Biogenic hydrogen production from organic raw materials and residues; Biogene Wasserstofferzeugung aus organischen Roh- und Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Rechtenbach, D.; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer AbfallRessourcenWirtschaft

    2007-02-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is considered as an energy source for the future. Laboratory scale thermophilic fermentation tests were carried out in three different test systems (500 ml Sensomat system, 6 l anaerobic test system (ATS) and a 30 l continuously stirred tank reactor CSTR). Hydrogen was produced from glucose and agricultural products as substrates in batch and discontinuous tests at 60 C. The inoculum consisted of heat-treated digested sewage sludge. The best specific hydrogen production of 280 Nml H{sub 2}/g VSS was achieved with glucose at a pH 5.5 in batch operation in the CSTR. Corn starch produced 211 Nml H{sub 2}/g VSS and potato starch 123 Nml H{sub 2}/g VSS. The agricultural products sugar beet, fodder beet, potato, turnip, corn and bio-waste potato peel showed good potential for biological hydrogen production with conversion yields between 24 - 60%. In the discontinuous test system, hydrogen production rates of between 0.4 Nl/(l{sub R}.d) and 1.3 Nl/(l{sub R}.d) were produced, corresponding to yields of between 83 to 445 Nml H{sub 2}/g VSS. (orig.)

  20. Effects of raw material extrusion and steam conditioning on feed pellet quality and nutrient digestibility of growing meat rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuoyao Liao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material extrusion and steam conditioning on feed pellet quality and nutrient digestibility of growing meat rabbits, in order to determine appropriate rabbit feed processing methods and processing parameters. In Exp. 1, an orthogonal design was adopted. Barrel temperature, material moisture content and feed rate were selected as test factors, and acid detergent fiber (ADF content was selected as an evaluation index to research the optimum extrusion parameters. In Exp. 2, a two-factor design was adopted. Four kinds of rabbit feeds were processed and raw material extrusion adopted optimum extrusion parameters of Exp. 1. A total of 40 healthy and 42-day-old rabbits with similar weight were used in a randomized design, which consisted of 4 groups and 10 replicates in each group (1 rabbits in each replicate. The adaptation period lasted for 7 d, and the digestion trial lasted for 4 d. The results showed as follows: 1 ADF was significantly affected by barrel temperature (P < 0.05; the optimum extrusion parameters were barrel temperature 125 °C, moisture content 16% and feed rate 9 Hz. 2 Raw material extrusion and steam conditioning both significantly decreased powder percentage, pulverization ratio and protein solubility (P < 0.05, significantly improved hardness and starch gelatinization degree of rabbit feed (P < 0.05. They both had significant interaction effects on the processing quality of rabbit feed (P < 0.05. 3 Extrusion significantly improved the apparent digestibility of dry matter and total energy (P < 0.05. Extrusion and steam conditioning both significantly improved the apparent digestibility of crude fiber (CF, ADF and NDF (P < 0.05, but they had no interaction effects on the apparent digestibility of rabbit feed. Thus, using extrusion and steam conditioning technology at the same time in the weaning rabbits feed processing can improve the pellet quality and

  1. 7 CFR 29.6033 - Raw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.6033 Section 29.6033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6033 Raw. Tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and...

  2. Characterization of traditional raw materials used in housing construction in Huambo region - Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Elsa; Duarte, Isabel; Varum, Humberto; Pinho, António; Norman, Antónia

    2016-04-01

    The sustainability of buildings associated to the use of raw earth has motivated the studies and the development of techniques and methods in the context of this type of construction. In the region of Huambo, Angola, these construction techniques are widely used, especially for low-income families who represent the majority of the population. Much of the buildings in Huambo province are built with adobe. Due to the climate in this region, subtropical, hot and humid, with altitudes above 1000 meters and extensive river system, these buildings are particularly vulnerable to the action of water and develop, in many situations, early degradation. The Huambo Province is located in central Angola, has 36 km2 area and approximately 2 million inhabitants. This work aims to evaluate, by conducting in-situ tests, physical and mechanical properties of adobe blocks typically used in the construction of those buildings. The methodology is based on field campaigns where in-situ expeditious tests were performed in soils (smell test, color, touch, brightness, sedimentation, ball, hardness, etc.) and tests on adobes blocks made with traditional procedures, particularly in terms of durability and erodibility (erosion test at Geelong method; evaluation test of wet / dry cycle, applying the New Zealand standards 4297: 1998; 4297: 1998 and 4297: 1999). The results will contribute to the characterization of the geomaterials and methods used in construction with earth in Huambo Province, contributing to the improvement of these sustainable solutions, with a strong presence in this region. The results of this study will also contribute to the proposal of constructive solutions with improved performance characteristics, comfort, safety and durability.

  3. Use of Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash and Other Industrial Wastes as Raw Materials for the Manufacture of Calcium Sulphoaluminate Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroccoli, M.; Montagnaro, F.; Pace, M. L.; Telesca, A.; Valenti, G. L.

    Calcium sulphoaluminate cements, mainly composed by 4CaO·3Al2O3·SO3 and 2CaO·SiO2, are special hydraulic binders which require limestone, bauxite and gypsum as natural raw materials for their manufacture. In order to save bauxite and natural gypsum, it has been explored the possibility of using, among the raw mix components, FBC waste together with pulverised coal fly ash or anodization mud and, when necessary, flue gas desulphurization gypsum. Mixtures containing limestone (29-39%), FBC waste (30-44%), pulverised coal fly ash (0-13%) or anodization mud (0-32%), bauxite (0-18%) and flue gas desulphurization gypsum (0-8%) were heated for 2 hours in a laboratory electric oven at temperatures ranging from 1150° to 1300°C. The X-ray diffraction patterns on the burnt products generally showed a good conversion of the reactants and a high selectivity degree towards 4CaO·3Al2O3·SO3, particularly at 1250°C.

  4. Review: Agricultural Wastes as a Source of Silica Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Permatasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Silica is the most abundant components in the earth's crust and is made by way of synthesis for use in the application of technology. Silica are generally found commercially as alkoxysilane compounds (i.e such as tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, sodium silicate, and tetramethylorthosilicat. However, these compounds can have a negative impact on health. Thus, further approaches to find the source of silica that is safer, cheaper, and more environmentally friendly is inevitable. However, not all summary journals are thoroughly discussed the silica sources. Further, method of isolation and application of the silica from agricultural waste is limited. This paper reported studied several sources of silica derived from agricultural waste, such as rice husk, rice straw, corn cobs, and bagasse. In addition, this paper discussed also about the method of isolation of silica from agricultural waste, and its application as a catalyst.

  5. Geography and Dynamics of the Industries Processing Raw Materials of Animal Origin in the Villages of Kharkiv Region during the NEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lapchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background research related to the lack of researches in the given topic historiography. Territorial boundaries cover a large region — Kharkiv region, which until 1925 largely coincide with the boundaries of Kharkov province. And in 1925, it was divided into several provinces — Kharkov, Sumy, Kupiansk, Izyumskogo, Romney. The chronological boundaries article dated from 1921–1929’s, during which was implemented new economic polityka.Osnovnu attention paid to the article features geographically-sectoral design small-scale production of animal products in the region in 20 years of the twentieth century. On the basis of the detected and studied complex of sources the author analyzes the source base peasant industries in Kharkiv in this period. Found total number of farmers who were engaged in crafts processing animal products. Also revealed the specific industry Kharkov peasantry during nepu. Isnuvav number of factors that pushed the peasant engage in crafts: surplus agricultural products and raw materials; meet a wide range of numerous industrial, domestic and cultural needs; urgent need to replenish the family budget; surplus labor; free time from agricultural work (especially in winter and others. The development of rural industries processing animal products in the years 1921–1929 in the Kharkiv region characterized by strength and diversity. Village artisans representing an original way of small private commodity production. Basically crafts processing animal products involved in two socio-professional groups: lone artisan and peasant host of crafts. The social basis of industrial employment accounted malozemelni without sowing without Traction economy, which crafts were an important source of household income. The attention is focused on characteristic features of the state policy on «small business » peasants. Attention is paid to co-operation and effects of these industries on the further development rozvytok. Kooperatyvna form

  6. Processing of cassava to produce ethanol - effect of raw material preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, P.F.; Brooks, R.B.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of disintegration severity on starch hydrolysis and ethanol production from cassava roots and stems has been evaluated. It was found that a considerable fraction of the starch in the roots was made available for hydrolysis with relatively crude processing; all such material was readily fermented. To achieve a very high fermentables yield, either very intensive processing or, preferably, a two stage process, with the second stage being applied only to the oversize material, is required. Whether it is economically viable to process the oversize material further depends on a number of site-specific factors. The two stage option appears the more attractive alternative especially in small to medium size cassava to ethanol plants because of the need to minimise power requirements and thereby steam usage.

  7. High-frequency electro-thermal processing of secondary nonmetallic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Livshits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large number of studies in industrial waste processing, this field is still a challenge. In this regard, new processing capabilities emerging from the use of high frequency (RF and microwave (MW heat equipment are a positive factor to be researched.In HF and MW processing the heating process is determined by absorption of electromagnetic wave power through the processed material. This electromagnetic wave power is transmitted by the substance atoms and spent for heating a sample, polarization, and initiation of chemical reactions. The non-conductor (dielectric and semiconductor material heat is explained by the existing effect of dielectric losses due to losses caused by the through electrical conductivity and slow processes of polarization. The dielectric losses due to electrical conductivity result from the Joule heat released when through-current flows through the dielectric.The differences in frequency radiation of HF and microwave equipment define their different technological capabilities. HF-radiation represents almost homogeneous field between the plates of a running capacitor. With multiple reflection from the chamber walls MW-radiation is randomly distributed within the chamber. Thus, radiation partly returns to the generator, thereby affecting the equipment performance capability and life time. Microwave heating is uneven. The depth of penetration into the material is much less to HF-processing. HF heating features are high penetration of radiation and uniform heating of the material. Together with pre-pressing it can afford an opportunity to join the non-standard pieces of plastic to have the larger insulating items.The fact of the selective effect on the material is positive when processing the waste. Since the tangent of angle of dielectric losses of materials such as wood is directly proportional to humidity, the heating automatically stops as wood dries. This fact was used to produce for the fuel briquettes, which were

  8. Cork - a renewable raw material: forecast of industrial potential and development priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana; Bordado, João

    2015-02-01

    This article aims to report the main applications of cork material from ancient times until nowadays, describing its industrial potential for other applications under study. It is also described the cork origin, the extraction process and the relationship between composition and cellular structure with properties.

  9. Cotton: a sustainable raw material for value-added nonwoven textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability of the materials and services we use today and protection of our environment are very strong initiatives, worldwide. Cotton is an annually renewable cash crop that is critically important to national economies of many countries, including the United States which is the 3rd largest pr...

  10. Reed canary grass as energy and fiber raw material; Roerflen som energi- och fiberraavara. En system- och ekonomistudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Rolf; Rosenqvist, H.; Vinterbaeck, J.; Burvall, J.; Finell, M.

    2001-12-01

    In this report, a system and economic analysis is reported for cultivation of RCG for energy purpose and as a raw material for the paper industry. The interest in cultivation of Reed Canary Grass (RCG) is growing in Sweden due to the new tax on waste disposal, since sewage sludge could be recycled in RCG cultivation. Increased carbon sinks in soil is another positive factor. Plant selection work in Finland and Sweden have resulted in 20% higher harvests than the feed varieties of RCG. Silty/sandy soils give highest yields. Before investments could be made in paper industry, a production volume of about 100,000 tons/year would have to be reached, demand a cultivation area of about 40,000 ha. The initial market before this level is reached should be the energy sector, specially smaller district heating systems. Processed to pellets, briquettes or powder, RCG can substitute fuel oil.

  11. Biomass based energy. A review on raw materials and processing methods; Energie aus Biomasse. Eine Uebersicht ueber Rohstoffe und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellauer, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book reviews the variety of biogenic raw materials and the technologically important biomass conversion techniques. The chapter on the different kinds of biomass includes a) wood from forestry, landscape culturing and saw mills, bark and old wood; b) plants (corn, miscanthus, cannabis, wheat, rye, sugar beets, grass, rape, etc.), residuals and wastes (straw, liquid manure, slaughthouse wastes, kitchen wastes, sewage sludge, others). The chapter on biomass conversion processing discusses combustion, oxidation in spercritical water, gasification and reforming, fermentation, extrusion or extraction, and downstream processes. The chapter on biomass based electricity and mechanical energy includes refrigeration engineering, direct utilization: Otto engines, Diesel engines, microgas turbine fuel cells, and heat processing: Striling engine, vapour turbine, ORC turbine, externally fired gas turbine, and the Kalina process.

  12. Utilization of sludge waste from natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for clay-ceramic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaphund, S; Intiya, W; Kongkaew, A; Loykulnant, S; Thavorniti, P

    2012-12-01

    The possibility of utilization of the sludge waste obtained from the natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for producing clay ceramics was investigated. To prepared clay-based ceramic, the mixtures of traditional clay and sludge waste (10-30 wt%) were milled, uniaxilly pressed and sintered at a temperature between 1000 and 1200 degrees C. The effect of sludge waste on the properties of clay-based ceramic products was examined. The results showed that the amount of sludge waste addition had an effect on both sinterability and properties of the clay ceramics. Up to 30 wt% of sludge waste can be added into the clay ceramics, and the sintered samples showed good properties.

  13. Effect of the Ratio of Raw Material Components on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Keun Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material ratio on the physicochemical characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausages. Experiment design was divided into 12 treatments, based on protein level (P, fat level (3P, 3.5P, and 4P, and water level (4P+10, 4P+15, 4P+20, and 4P+25. The pH and shear force values were significantly higher in T7 (3.5P fat and 4P+20 water than those of other treatments. The lightness and redness were greatly reduced by increasing the quantity of water. The treatments containing 3P fat and 4P+20 water had the highest values of cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness. On the whole, when the protein (P and fat (3P, 3.5P, 4P levels were fixed, an increase over the appropriate moisture level deteriorated many physicochemical characteristics.

  14. Proposed program for and present status of the Geological Survey's investigation of domestic resources of radioactive raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulter, A.P.; Killeen, P.L.; Page, G.B.; Rubey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This interim report is designed to show the present status of the Geological Survey's information and the parts of a comprehensive program necessary to improve our information about the raw material resources of uranium and thorium. Rarely in geologic work has it been necessary. to determine so completely a nation's resources of useful minerals in so brief a span of time. Ordinarily, information on mineral resources Is accumulated during a long period of years. However, uranium and thorium were suddenly thrust from a position of subsidiary economic interest into one of great strategic importance. Information concerning their occurrence must, therefore, be obtained as rapidly as reliable methods of investigation will permit. Accordingly the program must be at once comprehensive and carried out over an area more extensive than is usual in the search for and appraisal of most other mineral resources.

  15. Effect of the Ratio of Raw Material Components on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Hur, Sun-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material ratio on the physicochemical characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausages. Experiment design was divided into 12 treatments, based on protein level (P), fat level (3P, 3.5P, and 4P), and water level (4P+10, 4P+15, 4P+20, and 4P+25). The pH and shear force values were significantly higher in T7 (3.5P fat and 4P+20 water) than those of other treatments. The lightness and redness were greatly reduced by increasing the quantity of water. The treatments containing 3P fat and 4P+20 water had the highest values of cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness. On the whole, when the protein (P) and fat (3P, 3.5P, 4P) levels were fixed, an increase over the appropriate moisture level deteriorated many physicochemical characteristics. PMID:26732451

  16. Survey of Aspergillus and Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in raw materials and poultry feeds from Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Carina Elizabeth; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the present work were: (1) to determine both mycobiota in raw materials and finisher poultry feed, as well as the ability to produce aflatoxin B1 by A. flavus strains, and (2) to evaluate the natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in poultry feed by LC-MS/MS. Nineteen percent of raw materials and 79% of finisher poultry feed samples exceeded the maximum allowed total fungal count (1 × 10(4) CFU g(-1)) to ensure hygienic quality. Aspergillus flavus was the only species belonging to section Flavi which was isolated while Fusarium verticilliodes was the prevalent species. Forty-seven percent of A. flavus strains were aflatoxin B1 producers and the highest frequency of aflatoxigenic strains was isolated from finisher poultry feeds. Principal component analysis showed that corn grains are closely related with total fungal and Fusarium counts. This positive relationship suggests that total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts in poultry feed might come mainly from corn grains. Regarding poultry feeds, in ground finisher type, Aspergillus spp. counts increased as water activity (aw) diminished. A positive relationship among aw, total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts was observed in both ground finisher and ground starter feed. Several mycotoxins were monitored in feeds by applying the LC MS/MS technique. One hundred percent of poultry samples were contaminated with FB1, and the highest levels were detected in pelleted finisher poultry. AFB1, gliotoxin, DAS, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin were not detected in any poultry feed. The scarcity of available mycotoxicological studies from Argentinean poultry feed using a multitoxin analysis technique enhances the contribution of the findings of this report.

  17. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-05-01

    To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into the cropping systems and reduce the need for fertilizer applications. Furthermore, when using such wheat and clover-grass mixtures as raw material, addition of urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be reduced in the whole ethanol manufacturing chain. Using second generation ethanol technology mixtures of relative proportions of wheat straw and clover-grass (15:85, 50:50, and 85:15) were pretreated by wet oxidation. The results showed that supplementing wheat straw with clover-grass had a positive effect on the ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments, and the effect was more pronounced in inhibitory substrates. The highest ethanol yield (80% of theoretical) was obtained in the experiment with high fraction (85%) of clover-grass. In order to improve the sugar recovery of clover-grass, it should be separated into a green juice (containing free sugars, fructan, amino acids, vitamins and soluble minerals) for direct fermentation and a fibre pulp for pretreatment together with wheat straw. Based on the obtained results a decentralized biorefinery concept for production of biofuel is suggested emphasizing sustainability, localness, and recycling principles.

  18. Complex evaluation of health status and life quality of employees occupied in mining and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Gimranova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A complex social-hygienic investigation for the assessment of health-related life quality and living standards among 1200 male workers occupied in mining and primary processing of hydrocarbon raw materials has been performed. The study included the method of the anonymous survey for the employee with using a questionnaire developed by WHO experts for the realization of Health, environment and social capital management in enterprises (HESME. The health risk factors’ prevalence associated with alcohol, smoking, low physical activity, poor nutrition, stress in the workplace has been established. The feeling of stress and nervousness is generated by the fear of dismissal (18 % of employees, conflicts with administration (4% and by financial problems. About 47% of persons are anxious about social and economic instability. Not more than 4% of employees consider that the health deterioration is directly related to harmful working conditions. The survey has revealed an inflated self-esteem regarding the health. Thus 59.00 % of employee considers their health status to be excellent or normal, while an objective assessment revealed only 29.7 % of healthy employee. Due to the employee’s opinion, the saving of health is conditioned by healthy lifestyle, but the practice of self-preservation behavior is poorly spread. Not more than 37 % of respondents follow the doctors’ recommendations. Among the positive process there are changes in dietary habits in everyday life, namely 60 % of the respondents have chosen the balanced diet. The obtained data regarding the quality and way of life of the employee, occupied in mining and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, should be taken into consideration when developing complex social development programs on an enterprise.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of sources of raw material of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Warriors and Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高正耀; 赵维娟; 李国霞; 谢建忠; 韩国河; 冯松林; 范东宇; 张颖; 柴之芳; 李融武; 张仲立; 朱君孝

    2003-01-01

    There have been selected 83 samples of terracotta warriors and horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Mausoleum, 20 samples of clays taken from around Qin's Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. All these samples have been measured by instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and as many as 32 kinds of element contents of each sample are measured. The following conclusion has been reached when fuzzy cluster analysis is conducted to element contents of all these samples: (i) The samples are roughly classified into five categories: namely, samples from pits No. 1 and No. 2; samples from pit No. 3; loam layers; the mixture of loam and loess; and Yaozhou porcelain bodies. (ii) The terracottawarriors and horses in pits No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 are relatively independent from one another. The clays from which they were made are not entirely identical.We have found that samples in pit No. 3 are very closely related and their claysources are comparatively concentrated. Samples in pits No. 1 and No. 2 are less related and their clay sources are comparatively scattered. (iii) The clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made are closely related to theloam layer near Qin's Mausoleum, particularly to the loam layer of Zaoyuan village and Gaoxing village, but they are not so related to loess layers there, nor to the loam layers of Anhoubao, even less related to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. Arational deduction thus drawn is that the raw material of clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made might probably be taken from loam layers around Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, or loam layers near Qin's Mausoleum whose properties are identical with those of loam layers of Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, rather than loess layers around the above places. Since the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from loam near Qin's Mausoleum, it could be deductedthat the kiln sites might be located in around Qin's Mausoleum.

  20. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Silvio R., E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Souza, Agda E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira — FEIS, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira – SP (Brazil); Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja — IETCC, CSIC, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings.

  1. PRACTICAL PROPOSALS AS A RESULT OF THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE PROCESS OF EXTRACTION FROM RAW MATERIALS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shishatskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Theoretical and experimental researches of extraction processes from plant origin raw materials: barley, acorns and chicory with liquid carbon dioxide, as well as lupin with cheese whey were carried out. Quality indicators of extracts and secondary raw materials are defined. It is established that they are perspective raw sources for the enriched and functional products as they contain amino acids, vitamins and microelements. The dairy-vegetative lupine extract, for example, contains 17 amino acids, including the essential as well as vitamins and minerals. The studies of secondary raw materials, barley, acorns, chicory and lupine quality showed the expediency of their use for foods enrichment. Quality indicators of secondary raw materials are presented in the tables form in the given work. It formed the basis for the development of hardware-technological schemes of obtaining СО2-extracts and their use. The hardware-technological scheme of obtaining СО2-extracts from barley, acorns and chicory includes a number of equipment units: motor transport for raw materials delivery to the enterprise, the scraper hydroconveyor, the jet washer, a photoseparator for of poor-quality raw materials and impurities removal, a blowing machine for removing surface moisture from the raw materials, a jet washer for peeling, a cutter, drying and frying device, a crusher, a roller machine tool and an extracting unit. Hardware providing for yoghurt technology enriched with amino acids, microelements and vitamins which are present in a dairy-plant extract differs from the mentioned above one in the following. The extract used is a cheese whey, and the extraction of a target component is carried out in a vibrating extractor. The hardwaretechnological scheme is made according to Russian technology of yoghurt and furnished with the equipment for dairy-vegetative extract feeding into a product. It includes the following: a vibrating extractor (not shown in fig

  2. Characteristics of the magnetic control of separable ferrous impurities contained in raw construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Sandulyak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency of using the method of magnetic control of ferrous impurities for construction materials was noted. Especially it is important because of magnetic separators which are widely used for elimination of these impurities. There were shown the necessity of upgrading the present approach in order to realize the method of magnetic control. For example, it is necessary to take into account not only the rest of ferrous impurities (that is inevitable after limited numbers of operations but also a factor of involving sand particles. The concrete proposal how to develop the existing system of magnetic control of ferrous impurities in construction materials subjected to magnetic separation, is stated. The experimental-calculation model for such control is also shown. The main parameters of such model were estimated on the example of quartz sand and feldspar. The errors of standard methods of magnetic control were revealed for the first time.

  3. CERAMIC WASTES AS RAW MATERIALS IN PORTLAND CEMENT CLINKER FABRICATION.· CHARACTERIZATION AND ALKALINE ACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    [EN] The world-wide cementindustry is seeking experimentalavenues that wi// lead to cementproduction that is less energy-intensive/ less damaging to the surrounding environment and less prolific in GHGemissions. In Spain andEurope in general, this approach is who//y consistent with the concept of sustainability and compliance with the Kyoto Protocol. The use ofdifferent kinds of industrial waste and by-products as alternative materials in cement manufacture has proved to ...

  4. Application of steam explosion for the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquet, Nicolas; Vanderghem, Caroline; Blecker, Christophe; Paquot, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Steam explosion is a thermomechanochemical process which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural components by steam heating, hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds by organic acid formed during the process and shearing forces due to the expansion of the moisture. The process is composed of two distinct stages: vapocracking and explosive decompression. Cumul effects of both phases include modification of the physical properties of the material (specific surface area, water retention capaci...

  5. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall R Corbin; Byrt, Caitlin S.; Stefan Bauer; Seth DeBolt; Don Chambers; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Ghazwan Karem; Marilyn Henderson; Jelle Lahnstein; Beahan, Cherie T.; Antony Bacic; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Natalie S Betts; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was chara...

  6. Permittivity Investigations of the Road Construction Raw Materials for Purposes of GPR Data Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiński, Lech

    2014-05-01

    Permittivity is the major material property governing the formation of GPR response signal in diagnostic measurements. Every quantitative interpretation refers explicitly or implicitly to discussion of permittivity values. Thus, the recognition of permittivity for materials typical of the given technological area is necessary to make use of diagnostic measurements. Collection of several tens of stone cores representing different outcrops was investigated in order to obtain cross-sectional view of permittivity for stone materials being in use in Polish road construction industry as components of stone-asphalt mixtures. The main task was to estimate the typical permittivity values for stone materials treated as representation of several major petrological types. The capacimetry (at 50 MHz) was used as major and very efficient method of permittivity assessment and formation of the samples was subordinated to demands of this method. This method allows for determination of permittivity variability on the lateral surface of the cylindrical sample, giving the insight into the major features of the permittivity spatial distribution characteristic for the given rock. For the most homogeneous samples (in terms of permittivity distribution) the permittivity was measured also on the core top at frequency 2 GHz using impulse GPR reflectometry. No clear proofs for considerable permittivity frequency dependence were found (in the frame of the two methods precision) for these rocks. This conclusion can be related generally to major rock-forming minerals at least in dry igneous rocks. Only solid rocks obtained from regular massive outcrops were included to this first cross-sectional sampling, while artificial synthetic materials and natural gravels of postglacial origin were omitted since additional problems occur in these cases. This first experience allowed to recognize practical problems related to the sampling procedure. The collected data allow for provisional identification

  7. A polyethylene glycol-assisted carbothermal reduction method to synthesize LiFePO4 using industrial raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Huang, Kai-Pin; Kao, Hsien-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2011-03-01

    Olivine LiFePO4 is synthesized by a carbothermal reduction method (CTR) using industrial raw materials with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a reductive agent and carbon source. A required amount of acetone is added to the starting materials for the ball milling process and the precursor is sintered at 973 K for 8 h to form crystalline phase LiFePO4. The structure and morphology of the LiFePO4/C composite samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and magnetic susceptibility. Electrochemical measurements show that the LiFePO4/C composite cathode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 150 mAh g-1 at a 0.2C-rate between 4.0 and 2.8 V, and almost no capacity loss is observed for up to 50 cycles. Remarkably, the cell can sustain a 30C-rate between 4.6 and 2.0 V, and this rate capability is equivalent to charge or discharge in 2 min. The simple technique, low-cost starting materials, and excellent electrochemical performance make this process easier to commercialize than other synthesized methods.

  8. Consumption and Use of Non-Renewable Mineral and Energy Raw Materials from an Economic Geology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Steinbach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We outline a path to sustainable development that would give future generations the chance to be as well-off as their predecessors without running out of natural resources, especially metals. To this end, we have to consider three key resources: (1 the geosphere or primary resources, (2 the technosphere or secondary resources, which can be recycled and (3 human ingenuity and creativity. We have two resource extremes: natural resources which are completely consumed (fossil fuels versus natural resources (metals which are wholly recyclable and can be used again. Metals survive use and are merely transferred from the geosphere to the technosphere. There will, however, always be a need for contributions from the geosphere to offset inevitable metal losses in the technosphere. But we do have a choice. We do not need raw materials as such, only the intrinsic property of a material that enables it to fulfil a function. At the time when consumption starts to level off, chances improve of obtaining most of the material for our industrial requirements from the technosphere. Then a favorable supply equilibrium can emerge. Essential conditions for taking advantage of this opportunity: affordable energy and ingenuity to find new solutions for functions, to optimize processes and to minimize losses in the technosphere.

  9. USE OF LOCAL NATURAL SILICEOUS RAW MATERIAL AND WASTES FOR PRODUCTION OF HEAT-INSULATING FOAMCONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. U. Matsapulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the resource base, reserves and the use of siliceous rocks, their economic feasibility of the use for production of building materials of new generation with low-energy and other costs. Presented are the results of laboratory research and testing technology of production of insulating foam from a composition based on an aqueous solution of sodium silicate obtained from the local siliceous rocks (diatomite and the liquid alkali component - soapstock, hardener from ferrochrome slag and waste carbonate rock able to harden at a low temperature processing ( 100-110 ° C.

  10. Development of an innovative pyrolysis plant for the production of secondary raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    This project was born with the aim of developing an environmentally and financially sustainable process to dispose of end-life tires. In this perspective was devised an innovative static bed batch pilot reactor where pyrolysis can be carried out on the whole tires in order to recover energy and materials and simultaneously save the energy costs of their shredding. The innovative plant is also able to guarantee a high safety of the process thanks to the presence of a hydraulic guard. The pi...

  11. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL OF TETRACYCLINE AND ITS RELATED SUBSTANCES BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NABILA PERVEEN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An isocratic method for the analysis of tetracycline (TC by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer packing material is described. The method allows the complete separation of TC, 4-epitetracycline, anhydrotetracycline (ATC, 4-epianhydrotetracycline (EATC. A fermentation impurity, 2-acetyl-2-decarboxamidetetracycline is also resolved from TC. The mobile phase combines tert.-butanol, water and phosphate buffer, tetrabutylammonium sulphate and sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate at pH 9.0 for elution at a temperature of 60°C. Among the organic modifiers examined, only tetrahydrofuran and tert.-butanol gave good results. For practical reasons, tert.-butanol was retained as the final organic modifier. The preliminary experiments were carried out on polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer packing material (PRP-I and PLRP-S columns. The selectivity of the columns is comparable. PLRP-S column was chosen as it shows better separation of tetracycline – anhydrotetracycline. The method was used to analyse the commercial samples.

  12. Raw materials for the ceramics industry from norte de santander. I. Mineralogical, chemical and physical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cely-Illera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia las principales características de una arcilla utilizada para la fabricación de piezas cerámicas de construcción del área metropolitana de San José de Cúcuta. La investigación se llevó a cabo utilizando una muestra arcillosa de tipología rojiza de la formación Guayabo de la región del Zulia en Norte de Santander. El material se molió por vía seca y se realizó el procedimiento de preparación adecuado para el desarrollo de los análisis de caracterización como fueron difracción de rayos X (DRX, fluorescencia de rayos X (FRX, granulometrías por tamizado en seco y por la técnica del hidrómetro 152 H. Se determinó su relación arcilla/cuarzo, su plasticidad y su comportamiento en el proceso de secado y cocción. El proceso de conformado utilizado fue el de extrusión. Los resultados de la investigación mostraron que el material es apto para fabricar productos estructurales y de revestimiento para pisos y paredes, además de arrojar excelentes propiedades para fabricar productos refractarios.

  13. Monitoring system for raw material quantity in the vacuum chamber of extruder%挤出机真空室泥料量的监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张夏

    2015-01-01

    介绍了一种真空挤泥机真空室泥料量监控系统.采用该系统,一延长轴承使用寿命;二监测泥料量的减少和增多,准确掌控真空室内的总泥料量,使挤出机的操作稳定.%This paper introduces a monitoring system for raw material quantity in the vacuum chamber of ex?truder. This system can prolong the bearing life, monitor the raw material quantity, accurately control the total raw material quantity in the vacuum chamber, and stadily operate of the extruder.

  14. Enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation – Brief data survey for cellulase performance characterization on behalf of the Sauter mean diameter of raw material particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Glaser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here supports the informational background of enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation, cellulase characterization, and sugar yield prediction for the work “Enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation – Sauter mean diameter of raw materials as a basis for cellulase performance characterization and yield prediction” by Glaser [1]. Glucose yields from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the raw materials were shown as a function of cellulase enzyme loading as well as of particle size with different solid loading. The data for the proposed methods of the determination of enzyme activity in inhomogeneous samples of lignocellulosic raw materials are presented. The data of the empirical model that was developed for the prediction of hydrolysis yields for different enzyme concentrations, substrate specific particle size, and solid loadings, are given. Data are also given in relation of terms of scale-up opportunities.

  15. Utilization Of Laban Wood Vitex Pubescens Vahl As Raw Materials Traditional Charcoal By Communitis A Case Study At Jembayan Village East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out about the activities of society in decision-wood Laban as well as perceptions and participation concerning the preservation of raw material resources for sustaining livelihoods. The results showed Laban wood Vitex pubescens Vahl is one type that is widely used as a raw material in the manufacture of traditional charcoal and charcoal high-value results. The public aware of their dependence on forest landlaban but people still do not realize when they changed the place of business of land allocation will be a negative impact on livelihoods. Public participation to the preservation of forest resources and sources of raw materials charcoal as a source of livelihood is quite high although in public settings still choose no interference from other parties.

  16. RELATION BETWEEN PARTICLES SIZE OF RAW MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES OF MULLITE–ZrO2 COMPOSITES PREPARED BY REACTION-SINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RAHMANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the mullite–zirconia composites were prepared by reaction-sintering of alumina and zircon powder. Besides, the slip casting method was employed for fabrication of these composites and different times of milling process were used for reducing the particles size of raw materials. Then, the effect of raw materials particles size on the properties of these composites was investigated. The physical properties, fracture toughness, flexural strength, phase composition and microstructure of these composites after firing at 1600°C were studied. The results showed that the milling time and then, particles size of raw materials have a great effect on the phase composition and properties of mullite–zirconia composites. The formation of tetragonal-zirconia is favored by reducing of particle size which, leads to increasing of the fracture toughness and flexural strength of these composites.

  17. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Raw materials supply and demand (Report 2); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Rohstoffe zwischen Angebot und Nachfrage (Teilbericht 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The demand for both energetic and non-energetic raw materials has been increasing continuously during the past few decades. Especially during the last few years, the threat of structural shortages of supply or availability came into focus. The discussion is highly controversial, especially in the case of petroleum. This sub-report presents an analysis of the supply situation of energetic and non-energetic raw materials, i.e. petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels on the one hand as well as iron and steel, chromium, nickel, cobalt, aluminium, magnesium, copper, platinum and platinum metals, industrial minerals, boron salts, phosphate, zirconium and zirconium oxide on the other hand. It is important to discuss also regional availability patterns in order to arrive at a regional picture of potential supply risks and resulting conflicts over raw materials as this is the best way to assess the danger of impending conflicts. (orig.)

  18. Mineralogical composition and phase-to-phase relationships in natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement - raw materials and burnt products revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard; Racek, Martin; Přikrylová, Jiřina

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to modern process of production of cement clinker, traditional burning of natural hydraulic lime below sintering temperature relied on the formation of new phases from ion migration between neighbouring mineral grains composing raw material. The importance of the mineralogical composition and spatial distribution of rock-forming minerals in impure limestones used as a raw material for natural hydraulic lime presents not well explored issue in the scientific literature. To fill this gap, the recent study focuses in detailed analysis of experimentally burnt impure limestones (mostly from Barrandian area, Bohemian Massif). The phase changes were documented by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) coupled with x-ray elemental mapping. The latest allowed for visualization of distribution of elements within raw materials and burnt products. SEM/EDS study brought valuable data on the presence of transitional and/or minor phases, which were poorly detectable by other methods.

  19. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE DELIVERY OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS USED FOR BUILDING MATERIALS PRODUCTION TO THE CITY OF ZAGREB AND THE ZAGREB COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Novak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral raw material transport directly affects a product’s unit price and exhaust gases amounts. Transportation length is proportional to raw material price; its low price enables short transportation distances only. Taking into account stone aggregates delivered to Zagreb, the consequence of exploitation fields closure in the Zagreb area, particularly within the Medvednica Nature Park, we tried to answer the question of the impact of transport distances on the greenhouse gas emissions. Certain models will present environmental impact of the stone aggregate transportation and of nearby city quarries. The generally accepted public opinion on the closure of nearby city quarries as the best solution to environmental pollution will have to be reviewed. Mining works are predestined by mineral resources sites and limited by real possibilities and intentions of the community, therefore the experts, i.e. miners, geologists and other geoscientists, should be actively involved in spatial planning. During the years of intensive construction, millions of tons have been delivered from distances up to 100 km. The question arises whether some more rational solutions could be generated by more appropriate spatial planning? (the paper is published in Croatian

  20. Innovations of Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions in Management of Special Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonghua; LIU; Haifang; CHEN; Lixin; CUI; Chunyang; MENG; Ran; HUO; Minghui; HU

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,the Ministry of Agriculture has increased input in agricultural scientific research projects.As a result,the procurement amount and quantity of special materials are increasing gradually,and the management of special materials becomes more standardized.In order to do well in management of special materials,the authors made exploration and thinking about further strengthening management of special materials in combination with actual conditions,including establishing regulations and systems,enhancing procurement process,strengthening requisition and safekeeping,and reinforcing general ledger management of special materials.

  1. Evaluation of benefits resulting from innovation of input raw materials dosing process in sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of blast furnace sinter is among the processes with the highest energy and material requirements. Fuel consumption is especially significant cost item here. The presence of grate sintered in charge, i.e. return sinter from 12 to 22 mm in size, can have fundamental impact on the technical and economic indicators of the sintering process. Grate sinter can be used as a foundation layer under the sintering mixture, to increase air permeability of charge and to improve the gas-dynamic conditions. The article analyzes the impact of grate sinter on the sintering process, based on an analysis of the acquired production indicators within the scope of the research in question.

  2. Synthesis of organic carbonates based on CO{sub 2} as raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Dibenedetto, A. [University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    The global market of carbonates (open chain or cyclic) and polycarbonate is increasing very rapidly. The conventional syntheses are based on the use, as starting material, of phosgene, a dangerous chemical. The possibility of developing alternative technologies that substitute phosgene with carbon dioxide for the synthesis of carbonates is very attractive. In fact CO{sub 2} is non toxic, very cheap and potentially ubiquitous. In this paper the potential of the utilisation of CO{sub 2} for the synthesis of carbonates and polycarbonate is discussed. An assessment of the different synthetic strategies of dimethylcarbonate will be also given using LCA and the potential of utilisation of CO{sub 2} will be defined. 23 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Contribution to the determination of the expanding properties of ceramic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann, Hans

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa creciente necesidad de áridos de poco peso ha conducido a la búsqueda de materias primas adecuadas y a métodos de enjuiciamiento de su idoneidad. En este trabajo se describen métodos de investigación y procedimientos de laboratorio que permiten hacer una investigación sistemática del comportamiento a la fusión y expansión de las materias primas cerámicas. Mediciones de acuerdo con estos procedimientos han dado como resultado que, sin modificar la composición material, las medidas de preparación y la técnica de procedimientos solas influyen notoriamente sobre la capacidad de expansión.

  4. The influence of the ionic reactions on the refining secondary raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlafka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of refining with the use of slag activated with carbide coating. It pointed out the important role of stimulators of ionic reactions. The results of research from the melting of the CuAl10Fe4Ni4 alloy obtained from recycled materials in metallurgical conditions were shown. The changes in the structure of the alloy depending on the nature of the used simulators were indicated. Chemical reagents used and the stimulants in the form of haloids helped to improve the molding sand exchange process. The use of chemical regent in the form of calcium carbide and stimulants has also contributed to the formation of a protective atmosphere in the furnace bottom.

  5. Detection of trace melamine in raw materials used for protein pharmaceutical manufacturing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zai-Qing; Li, Guiyang; Ren, Da

    2011-05-01

    Melamine, a nitrogen-rich molecule, was found as an adulterant in pet foods in 2007 in North America and in milk products in 2008 in China. These scandalous abuses of melamine have alarmed the biopharmaceutical industry and the FDA and alerted them to potential adulteration and contamination of melamine in raw materials used to make protein therapeutics. Highly sensitive analytical methods are needed to screen melamine adulteration and contamination in raw materials. We conducted surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) experiments to test trace melamine spiked in three raw materials commonly used for protein pharmaceutical formulation and purification, including sucrose, urea, and arginine, with a portable Raman device and gold nanoparticles. The detection limit of 10 ppb in raw material dissolved in 30:70% water/acetonitrile is equivalent to 0.5 ppm in solid raw material. It has excellent linearity in the concentration range measured. The cross-validation regression coefficient R(2) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) are 0.960 and 7.18 ppb, respectively, in sucrose. The R(2) and SEP are 0.958 and 9.15 ppb in urea. It has a relatively lower R(2) = 0.630 and a SEP of 35.0 ppb in arginine, which could be due to the competitive adsorption of arginine molecules to the surfaces of gold nanoparticles. The detection of melamine using the SERS technique is rapid (within 3 minutes), convenient, and requires no extraction procedure, offering an alternative method for screening melamine in raw materials at biopharmaceutical manufacture sites.

  6. Development and validation of the analytical method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for Lamotrigine raw material Development and validation of the analytical method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for Lamotrigine raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Nishijo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently when all roads lead to the pursuit of total quality in production of drugs, it is essential to fully understand each phase of a production process. In this case, validation is the appropriate tool to ensure reliability of a production process involving new equipment and the analytical methodology, either in the pharmaceutical, food, computer, microelectronics area or any other area where the quality of the manufactured product is one of the main reasons for the existence of a given company. This study aimed to analyze the main aspects of the validation of analytical methods for Lamotrigine, new drug for bipolar disorder with wide use today. In conclusion, the proposed analytical method for determination of the lamotrigine content in raw materials is adequate, effective and capable of reproducing reliable results during analysis. This method is fast (running time of 10 minutes, selective, accurate, precise and robust for the determination of the drug, with no observed interfering substances in the optimum wavelength. It could be concluded that this may be a routine method for quality control laboratories to certify the quality of Lamotrigine.Currently when all roads lead to the pursuit of total quality in production of drugs, it is essential to fully understand each phase of a production process. In this case, validation is the appropriate tool to ensure reliability of a production process involving new equipment and the analytical methodology, either in the pharmaceutical, food, computer, microelectronics area or any other area where the quality of the manufactured product is one of the main reasons for the existence of a given company. This study aimed to analyze the main aspects of the validation of analytical methods for Lamotrigine, new drug for bipolar disorder with wide use today. In conclusion, the proposed analytical method for determination of the lamotrigine content in raw materials is adequate, effective and capable of

  7. Determination of cations and metals in samples of beer and raw materials for beer production by ion chromatography (IC) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) methods

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković, Miloš B.; Sredović-Ignjatović, Ivana; Ignjatović, Ljubiša; Nedović, Viktor; Prijić, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    In order to control the quality of beer and raw materials for beer production, methods as ion chromatography (IC) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were applied. Water was analyzed as a raw material for beer production (urban, technological and demineralized water). Measurements of pH values indicated the increased pH values in the sample of tehnological water, but it had no impact on wort hopping, since the tested samples of wort, young beer and final product had a pH value in th...

  8. Poultry manure as raw material for mercury adsorbents in gas applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Lima, I.M.; Boihem, L.L. [USDA ARS, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2009-09-30

    The quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large, and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. At the same time, increased emphasis on the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may, in the future, require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream, where they could adsorb the mercury. The sorbents (now containing mercury) would be removed via filtration or other means from the flue gas. Our preliminary work has demonstrated that activated carbon made from poultry manure can adsorb mercury from air with good efficiency. In laboratory experiments, an activated carbon made from turkey cake manure removed the majority of elemental mercury from a hot air stream. Other activated carbons made from chicken and turkey litter manure were also efficient. In general, unwashed activated carbons made from poultry manure were more efficient in removing mercury than their acid-washed counterparts. The results suggest that the adsorption of mercury was mainly due to chemisorption on the surface of the carbon. Other potential uses for the activated carbons are the removal of mercury from air and natural gas.

  9. Leaching of the potentially toxic pollutants from composites based on waste raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Anja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of the fly ash generated in coal based power-plants may pose a significant risk to the environment due to the possible leaching of hazardous pollutants, such as toxic metals. Also, there is a risk of leaching even when fly ash is built-in the construction composites. Fly ashes from various landfills were applied in several composite samples (mortar, concrete and brick without any physical or thermal pre-treatment. The leachability of the potentially toxic pollutants from the fly ash based products was investigated. The leaching behavior and potential environmental impact of the 11 potentially hazardous elements was tracked: Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Ba, Sb and Se. A detailed study of physico-chemical characteristics of the fly ash, with accent on trace elements and the chemical composition investigation is included. Physico/chemical properties of fly ash were investigated by means of X-ray fluorescence, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods. Scanning electron microscope was used in microstructural analysis. The results show that most of the elements are more easily leachable from the fly ash in comparison with the fly ash based composites. The leaching of investigated pollutants is within allowed range thus investigated fly ashes can be reused in construction materials production.

  10. Influence of carbon-bearing raw material on microfungus Blakeslea Trispora biomass producing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Myronenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates influence of hydrated fullerenes on degree of accumulation bioactive substances of microfungus Blakeslea trispora. Materials and methods. In this research effort detection of fatty-acid composition in amino acids, carotenoids and sterols biomass by means of using methods of high-performance liquid chromatography, adsorption and disjunctive chromatography in thin-layer sorbent and spectrophotometric; gravimetric method; method of direct spectrophotometration in benzene took place. Results and discussion. It has been induced that application of hydrated fullerenes in microfungus Blakeslea trispora nutrient medium promotes increasing accumulation in biomass quantity of carotene on 32,3 %; asparaginic, glutamic acids and leucine. Reproportion carbon to nitrogen by means of adding to microfungus Blakeslea trispora nutrient culture medium hydrated fullerenes did not influence on the biomass amino acid structure any. Obtained data of fatty-acid composition in microfungus Blakeslea trispora lipoid fraction indicate about significant predominance unsaturated fatty acids and, as a result of this, we have advance of use microfungus Blakeslea trispora biomass as a source of biologically active substances for establishing a new kind of prophylactic action goods.

  11. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique.

  12. Brazilian natural fiber (jute as raw material for activated carbon production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA F.S. ROMBALDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jute fiber is the second most common natural cellulose fiber worldwide, especially in recent years, due to its excellent physical, chemical and structural properties. The objective of this paper was to investigate: the thermal degradation of in natura jute fiber, and the production and characterization of the generated activated carbon. The production consisted of carbonization of the jute fiber and activation with steam. During the activation step the amorphous carbon produced in the initial carbonization step reacted with oxidizing gas, forming new pores and opening closed pores, which enhanced the adsorptive capacity of the activated carbon. N2 gas adsorption at 77K was used in order to evaluate the effect of the carbonization and activation steps. The results of the adsorption indicate the possibility of producing a porous material with a combination of microporous and mesoporous structure, depending on the parameters used in the processes, with resulting specific surface area around 470 m2.g–1. The thermal analysis indicates that above 600°C there is no significant mass loss.

  13. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah B. Karman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast, and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Biosorption-based biosynthesis is proposed as a means of removing heavy metals from wastewaters and soils as it aids the development of heavy metal nanoparticles that may have an application within the technology industry. Phytomining provides a further green method of managing the metal content of wastewater. These approaches represent a viable means of removing toxic chemicals from the effluent produced during the process of manufacturing, and the bioremediation process, furthermore, has the potential to save metal resources from depletion. Biomimetic resource management comprises bioremediation, biosorption, biosynthesis, phytomining, and further methods that provide innovative ways of interpreting waste and pollutants as raw materials for research and industry, inspired by materials, structures, and processes in living nature.

  14. Moessbauer studies of raw materials from Misti volcano of Arequipa (Peru) for its potential application in the ceramic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Peru); Capel, Francisco; Barba, Flora, E-mail: flora@icv.csic.es; Callejas, Pio [Consejo Superior de investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (Spain); Guzman, Rivalino [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin de Arequipa (Peru); Trujillo, Alejandro [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Peru)

    2009-04-15

    We would like to introduce, the study of two different colour 'sillar' samples: white and pink, belonging to the Anashuayco quarry in the Arequipa Region (Peru). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the presence of several mineralogical phases, such as feldpars and biotite for the both white and pink 'sillar' whereas cristobalite and quartz are detected only in the first sample and amorphous phase in the second one. In room temperature, Moessbauer spectroscopy, the presence of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was detected as the main phase for both samples, this was not detected in the XRD measurements. Moreover, corresponding doublets in the Moessbauer spectra indicate the presence of iron in the aluminium-silicate minerals. The rates Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} are 0.0752 and 0.0526 to the white and pink samples respectively. The minerals composing the white tuff form a heterogeneous aggregate of uniform aspect. Mining of these materials generates a great amount of waste in the form of lumps of varying size and which are raw materials studied in the present work for potential application in the ceramic field.

  15. Environmentally-Friendly Dense and Porous Geopolymers Using Fly Ash and Rice Husk Ash as Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ziegler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the feasibility of two industrial wastes, fly ash (FA and rice husk ash (RHA, as raw materials for the production of geopolymeric pastes. Three typologies of samples were thus produced: (i halloysite activated with potassium hydroxide and nanosilica, used as the reference sample (HL-S; (ii halloysite activated with rice husk ash dissolved into KOH solution (HL-R; (iii FA activated with the alkaline solution realized with the rice husk ash (FA-R. Dense and porous samples were produced and characterized in terms of mechanical properties and environmental impact. The flexural and compressive strength of HL-R reached about 9 and 43 MPa, respectively. On the contrary, the compressive strength of FA-R is significantly lower than the HL-R one, in spite of a comparable flexural strength being reached. However, when porous samples are concerned, FA-R shows comparable or even higher strength than HL-R. Thus, the current results show that RHA is a valuable alternative to silica nanopowder to prepare the activator solution, to be used either with calcined clay and fly ash feedstock materials. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of the global warming potential (GWP was performed for the three investigated formulations. With the mix containing FA and RHA-based silica solution, a reduction of about 90% of GWP was achieved with respect to the values obtained for the reference formulation.

  16. Location of quarries of magnesian lime used as raw material of Roman plasters in western Lombardy (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bugini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime as building material was widely diffused in Roman architecture of western Lombardy. The presence of magnesite (magnesium carbonate was detected in painted plasters coming from roman sites of Milano: magnesite indicates the use of dolomite to make the lime. Dolomite rocks widely outcrop in the Lombard Prealps: light grey dolomites and dolomitic limestones (Dolomia del Salvatore, Ladinian-Anisian; grey dolomites, sometimes with cyclothemes (Dolomia Principale, Norian. There is no evidence of Roman lime quarries or kilns in this area; the Romans probably exploited the same dolomite outcrops, located along the eastern shore of lake Maggiore, where lime was produced from the Middle Ages onwards. The glacio-fluvial deposits of the middle course of the river Adda (cobbles, pebbles of siliceous limestone together with limestone and dolomite outcropping in the river basin were another medieval and modern source of raw material, mainly to make a moderately hydraulic lime (called “calce forte”, but this kind of lime is lacking in Roman plasters.

  17. Stability of spray-dried chitosan salts derived from lobster chitin as a raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilia De la Paz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this work was to develop and validate a method for determining the degree of molar deacetylation of chitosan acetate and chitosan lactate, as well as to study the stability of both salts. Materials and Methods: A spectrophotometric method was validated according to internationally-established quantitative techniques. Three industrial batches of chitosan acetate and chitosan lactate, obtained by spray drying, were stored under shelf life conditions for twelve months. Organoleptic characteristics, the degree of molar deacetylation, pH, loss on drying and microbiological count were determined at the beginning and end of the study. Results and Discussion: The statistical data proved that the two methods complied with international standards for the validation of analytical techniques. It was shown that the procedures developed were linear, specific, precise and accurate, so they can be used for the purposes of quality control and stability study of the polymer salts. Salts remained in powder form, with a light-yellow to dark-yellow coloration. Values of loss on drying (2.5 - 5.2 % of chitosan salt using acetic or lactic acid, as a solvent, indicated the good quality of spray-dried particles of chitosan. Similar behavior was obtained regarding pH. The two salts stayed within the parameters that determine their quality, both in the initial stage and after twelve months at room temperature. Conclusion: Spray drying chitosan acetate and chitosan lactate, stored at room temperature in a dry place, in double polyethylene bags and multilayer paper bags, kept their physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics for a period of twelve months.

  18. The Dilemmas of Modernizing Peasant Agriculture in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, Joseph A.

    In 1965, the Nigerian government charged Nigerian agriculture with the long term developmental task of providing: (1) an adequate and well balanced food supply for the increasing population; (2) agricultural raw materials for domestic industries; (3) agricultural export earnings; (4) employment for the increasing labor force; and (5) capital for…

  19. Research on moisture retention of cigarette raw materials%卷烟原料的保润性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安丰; 刘春波; 申钦鹏; 刘志华; 陕绍云; 杨光宇; 荆磊磊; 陈永宽

    2016-01-01

    Using baking oven method,dynamic vapor sorption,gas chromatograph mass spectrometer( GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope technology,the difference of moisture retention in cigarette raw materials were researched. Results showed that:①The e-quilibrium moisture content of cut tobacco, expanded cut tobacco, mixture cut tobacco and cut stem was 12. 68%, 12. 45%, 12. 07%,11. 99%,respectively,according to the differences of the samples'structure,the filling value show significant differences.②Owing to the significant differences of the samples'microstructure,the rate of moisture loss of cut tobacco,expanded cut tobacco, mixture cut tobacco and cut stem was 7. 24%,7. 61%,8. 37%,11. 95%,respectively,It showed that physical moisture retention of cut tobacco was better.③Comprehensive analysis about the components and content of tobacco raw materials,the content of aroma components of cut tobacco and expanded cut tobacco was higher,then was mixture cut tobacco and cut stem was the least.%采用烘箱法、动态水分吸附分析系统、气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)以及电子扫描显微镜技术比较了卷烟原料保润性的差异.结果表明:①原料烟丝平衡含水率为12.68%,膨胀丝为12.45%,混合丝为12.07%,梗丝为11.99%,而且依据不同原料自身结构的不同,填充值差异性明显.②由于原料微结构存在明显性差异,烟丝失水率为7.24%,膨胀丝为7.61%,混合丝为8.37%,梗丝为11.95%,表明了烟丝的物理保润性效果较好.③综合分析原料挥发性成分及含量,烟丝与膨胀丝致香成分含量较多,混合丝次之,梗丝较少.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of sources of raw material of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Warriors and Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhengyao; Zhao, Weijuan; Li, Guoxia; Xie, Jianzhong; Han, Guohe; Feng, Songlin; Fan, Dongyu; Zhang, Ying; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Rongwu; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Junxiao

    2003-02-01

    There have been selected 83 samples of terracotta warriors and horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s Mausoleum, 20 samples of clays taken from around Qin’s Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. All these samples have been measured by instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and as many as 32 kinds of element contents of each sample are measured. The following conclusion has been reached when fuzzy cluster analysis is conducted to element contents of all these samples: (i) The samples are roughly classified into five categories: namely, samples from pits No. 1 and No. 2; samples from pit No. 3; loam layers; the mixture of loam and loess; and Yaozhou porcelain bodies. (ii) The terracotta warriors and horses in pits No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 are relatively independent from one another. The clays from which they were made are not entirely identical. We have found that samples in pit No. 3 are very closely related and their clay sources are comparatively concentrated. Samples in pits No. 1 and No. 2 are less related and their clay sources are comparatively scattered. (iii) The clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made are closely related to the loam layer near Qin’s Mausoleum, particularly to the loam layer of Zaoyuan village and Gaoxing village, but they are not so related to loess layers there, nor to the loam layers of Anhoubao, even less related to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. A rational deduction thus drawn is that the raw material of clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made might probably be taken from loam layers around Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, or loam layers near Qin’s Mausoleum whose properties are identical with those of loam layers of Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, rather than loess layers around the above places. Since the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from loam near Qin’s Mausoleum, it could be deducted that the kiln sites might be located in around Qin’s Mausoleum.

  1. Studies of wood fuel systems with raw material from young forest stands. Final report; Systemstudier ungskogsbraensle. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, J.E. [Dalarna Univ., Falun (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    The three-year project 'Studies of wood fuel systems with raw material from young forest stands' has been carried out during the period March 1998 to February 2001. New technology for harvesting small trees has created a possibility to develop efficient wood fuel systems using raw material from young forest stands. This possibility coincides with a great demand for tending of young stands from a silvicultural point of view. The main aim of the project has been to analyse and assess wood fuel systems based on this concept. The spectrum of criteria for assessment has been broad, including productivity, profitability, safety and health aspects, employment and environmental impact. As an example of a new technology which has been developed and studied during the project period can be mentioned a new felling head which can be used for cutting and handling several trees at the same time. The weight of the felling head is only about 270 kg, which has done it possible to use it on smaller base-machines as well as larger machines. The productivity has shown to be about 150-250 trees/hour in stands with a diameter of 5-10 cm. The productivity, expressed as biomass, is about 2-3 tonnes dry substance/hour. In the design of production system, bundling of trees early in the process is considered to be especially promising. The development of such a system is ongoing, but is not at the market yet. Some experimental studies have been done on transportation, storing and chipping of such bundles with varying size and varying tree-species. The calculated cost of this system will be lower then for traditional chipping-systems, because of the higher density for the handle units. It is much easier to handle bundles than small non-bundled trees, the chipping-productivity will be high and the transportation can be done with regular timber trucks. The calculation cost for the bundle-system will be about 120-130 SEK/MWh in stands with a diameter of some 7-10 cm, which can be

  2. Use of new raw materials and industrial wastes to improve the possibilities of using ceramic materials from Bailén (Jaén, southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán-Arboledas, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials used by the ceramic industry in Jaén (southern Spain consist of mixtures of carbonated clays from the Guadalquivir Basin and red clays from the Iberian Massif. The mixtures formulation usually obeys empirical experience developed by this industry for many generations. This work evaluates different possibilities of using these raw materials to manufacture new ceramic products on the basis of clay physical-chemical properties and analyzes limitations to produce high added value products. As an alternative to overcome these limitations, the mixture of these clays with raw materials from near regions (pyrophyllite clay and with different industrial wastes is proposed. These wastes are screen glass from monitors and oil impregnated diatomaceous earth. The study of the technological properties shows that the new mixtures are suitable for the processing of ceramic products in which structural and thermal insulating properties are improved or kept.La materia prima empleada por la industria cerámica de Jaén consiste en mezclas de margas de la Depresión del Guadalquivir con arcillas rojas del Macizo Ibérico. La formulación de estas mezclas responde generalmente a la experiencia empírica desarrollada por esta industria durante generaciones. El presente trabajo evalúa las posibilidades de utilización de estas materias primas para fabricar nuevos productos cerámicos de construcción basándose en sus propiedades físico-químicas y analiza las limitaciones que presentan para la fabricación de productos de mayor valor añadido. Como alternativa para superar estas limitaciones se propone la mezcla con arcillas pirofilíticas de áreas geográficamente cercanas y con diferentes residuos industriales. Estos residuos son vidrio de pantalla descontaminado y tierras diatomeas impregnadas con aceites vegetales. El estudio de caracterización tecnológica muestra que las nuevas mezclas permiten el procesamiento de piezas cerámicas y que en

  3. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  4. Towards a Multiple Input-Multiple Output paper mill: Opportunities for alternative raw materials and sidestream valorisation in the paper and board industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousios, Spyridon; Worrell, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    The paper and board industry (PBI) faces a series of challenges, ranging from shifts in the availability and quality of raw materials to the generation of large amounts of sidestreams whose disposal entails significant costs. The concept of the “Multiple Input-Multiple Output (MIMO) Paper Mill” is

  5. Transfer of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 from naturally contaminated raw materials to beer during an industrial brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri, A; Bertuzzi, T; Agosti, B; Donadini, G

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the fate of aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) naturally occurring in raw materials (maize grit and malted barley) during four industrial brewing processes. The aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) level in raw materials varied from 0.31 to 14.85 microg kg(-1), while the fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) level (only in maize grit) varied from 1146 to 3194 microg kg(-1). The concentration in finished beer ranged from 0.0015 to 0.022 microg l(-1) for AFB(1) and from 37 to 89 microg l(-1) for FB(1); the other aflatoxins and fumonisin B(2) were not found in beer samples. The average percentage of toxins recovered in finished beer, referring to the amounts contained in raw materials, were 1.5% +/- 0.8% for AFB(1) and 50.7% +/- 4.7% for FB(1). These results were mainly due to the different solubility of the two mycotoxins during the mashing process. If raw materials comply with the limits fixed by European Commission Regulations, the contribution of a moderate daily consumption of beer to AFB(1) and FB(1) intake does not contribute significantly to the exposure of the consumer.

  6. Brief analysis of conveying equipment for metallurgical raw materials%冶金企业物料输送设备浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊明

    2013-01-01

    物料输送设备是冶金生产企业中极其重要的机械设备,在企业的机械设备中占有很大的比例,在企业生产中起着十分关键的作用。文章对冶金企业中物料输送设备中的带式输送机、螺旋输送机、斗式提升机、大倾角皮带输送机、链式输送机的特点和使用情况进行分析,以利于冶金企业物料输送机械的选型和日常维护保养。%Raw material conveying equipment is of vital importance to metallurgical enterprises. In these enterprises, raw material conveying equipment makes up quite a large proportion of their mechanical equipment, and plays a critical role in their production process. This article provides a brief analysis of the characteristics and use of such metallurgical raw material conveying equipment as belt conveyors, screw conveyors, bucket elevators, large angle belt conveyors, chain conveyors so as to facilitate your selection and maintenance of metallurgical raw material conveying equipment.

  7. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  8. A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João L; Figueira, José A; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Ornelas, Laura P; Branco, Ricardo N; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S

    2014-10-01

    The volatile metabolomic patterns from different raw materials commonly used in beer production, namely barley, corn and hop-derived products - such as hop pellets, hop essential oil from Saaz variety and tetra-hydro isomerized hop extract (tetra hop), were established using a suitable analytical procedure based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC-qMS). Some SPME extraction parameters were optimized. The best results, in terms of maximum signal recorded and number of isolated metabolites, were obtained with a 50/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS coating fiber at 40 °C for 30 min. A set of 152 volatile metabolites comprising ketones (27), sesquiterpenes (26), monoterpenes (19), aliphatic esters (19), higher alcohols (15), aldehydes (11), furan compounds (11), aliphatic fatty acids (9), aliphatic hydrocarbons (8), sulphur compounds (5) and nitrogen compounds (2) were positively identified. Each raw material showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. Monoterpenes in hop essential oil and corn, sesquiterpenes in hop pellets, ketones in tetra hop and aldehydes and sulphur compounds in barley were the predominant chemical families in the targeted beer raw materials. β-Myrcene was the most dominant volatile metabolite in hop essential oil, hop pellets and corn samples while, in barley, the predominant volatile metabolites were dimethyl sulphide and 3-methylbutanal and, in tetra hop, 6-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among beer raw materials.

  9. Treatment of dispersed iron-bearing raw materials and modeling of the protection systems against air-pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Anđić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the non-standard iron-bearing raw materials treatment process and the results of real composition measurements of the flue gas, the study of hazards by identification of harmful substances that occur in the accident, as well as the modeling of the system of protection against air-pollution due to the cancellation of work the bag filter was carried out. Applying the model (Aloha software package provides an overview of possible developments of events and zones of propagation of the precipitated particulate matter through the share of cadmium (Cd in them. In the case of malfunction of filter system, emissions of particulate matter enormously exceed the permitted values. In the conditions of the simulated accident, particle velocity of flue gases was amounted E≈738mg/s or 2657g/h of dust. The propagation of the precipitated particulate matter in the lower layer of the atmosphere, downwind, given trough the share of Cd in them, is 100m from the source of pollution for the characteristic density of 5mg/m2×day and 140m for the characteristic density of 2mg/m2×day, in the stable state of the atmosphere, i.e. 870m and 1100m, respectively, in the neutral state of the atmosphere.

  10. HYDRAULIC AND LEACHING BEHAVIOUR OF BELITE CEMENTS PRODUCED WITH ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE STEEL SLAG AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacobescu R. I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three belite-rich cements consisting of a clinker made with 0 (BC, 5 (BC5 and 10 wt. % (BC10 electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS as raw material, were studied for their hydraulic and leaching behaviour. Hydration behaviour was studied by FTIR, TG/DTG and SEM analyses. The cements with EAFS resulted in a higher C2S/C3S and C4AF/C3A ratio compared to the reference body. As a result, the rate of hydration was low at early days whereas the structure was porous with scattered AFm and C–S–H crystals. At 28 days, a comparable dense microstructure consisting largely of C–S–H is observed in all mortars. Leaching was studied for V and Cr by means of tank test according to standard NEN 7345. The results showed V release below 2 μg/l. Chromium release calculated per 24 h was 1.4 μg/l in BC5 and 2.4 μg/l in BC10, which is much lower than the parametric value of 50 μg/l specified by the European Directive for drinking water (98/83/EC.

  11. Criteria definition and approaches in green supplier selection – a case study for raw material and packaging of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Banaeian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated framework for deciding about the green supplier selection criteria in food supply chain and also proposes different methods that account for single and multiple sourcing of supplier selection. Green supplier selection relies on green criteria, so determination of suitable set of criteria will affect decision-maker results directly. In this research, an operational model including combination of general and environmental criteria is introduced for green supplier selection criteria in raw material and packaging of food industry. This model reviewed a literature on general and environmental criteria that help us to know and make a set of common green criteria. Afterward, weighting criteria and collecting of sub-criteria are done by an expert team using the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Delphi method. The expert team tried to propose important and practical sub-criteria which are well fitted to food industry. Finally, in the section of supplier selection, two kinds of qualitative and quantitative data are discussed when single and multiple sourcing are required, respectively. Fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis is proposed to ranking suppliers in presence of qualitative and imprecise data. Also linear programming is used to present a model which can select the best suppliers and allocate the orders among them optimally.

  12. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  13. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from waste activated bleaching earth as raw material in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Enoch Y; Sato, Masayasu; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry using lipase from Candida cylindracea was investigated in a 50-L pilot plant. Diesel oil or kerosene was used as an organic solvent for the transesterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. When 1% (w/w) lipase was added to waste ABE, the FAME content reached 97% (w/w) after reaction for 12 h at 25 degrees C with an agitation rate of 30 rpm. The FAME production rate was strongly dependent upon the amount of enzyme added. Mixtures of FAME and diesel oil at ratios of 45:55 (BDF-45) and 35:65 (BDF-35) were assessed and compared with the European specifications for biodiesel as automotive diesel fuel, as defined by pr EN 14214. The biodiesel quality of BDF-45 met the EN 14214 standard. BDF-45 was used as generator fuel, and the exhaust emissions were compared with those of diesel oil. The CO and SO2 contents were reduced, but nitrogen oxide emission increased by 10%. This is the first report of a pilot plant study of lipase-catalyzed FAME production using waste ABE as a raw material. This result demonstrates a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME from industrial waste resources containing vegetable oils for use as a biodiesel fuel.

  14. 原料堆场地基加固设计%Foundation Strengthening Design Of Raw Material Storage Yard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣杰; 彭国萍

    2012-01-01

    The raw material storage yard located in the intermediate zone between plain and mountains and kop and its foundation need to be strengthened to avoid large -area sliding unstability and settlement. The foundation deep strengthening scheme ineluding the methods of plastic drainage board and surcharge preloading, dynamic gravel pile replacement, sand gravel pile replacement; CFG pile, plain concrete pile and cement mixing pile.%某原料堆场建设场地地貌属海积平原及残山孤丘山前过渡带,需进行地基加固处理,处理后地基要求不发生大面积滑动失稳,并适当控制沉降。地基深层加固方案一般有插塑板堆载预压法、强夯碎石桩置换法、砂桩置换法、CFG桩法、素砼桩法、水泥搅拌桩法等。

  15. Biomass as a raw material for energy: a future potential energy source; Biomasse als Energierohstoff: Ein zukunftstraechtiger Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestebroer, S.I. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnheim (Netherlands); Smakman, G.J.J. [Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kwant, K.W. [Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1996-07-01

    Growing interest in the utilization of biomass in energy production in the Netherlands had led to the foundation of a commission, in which all partners participating in electricity supply in the Netherlands work collectively on evaluating the further development of converting biomass to energy and also on formulating the arrangement solutions. The commission has come to the conclusion that the combined combustion of organic residues and the operation of smaller independent plants for biomass processing are, at the present time, realistic options. After the year 2000, the introduction of wood as a raw material for energy on a larger scale will be taken into consideration. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das wachsende Interesse an der Nutzung von Biomasse in der Energieerzeugung fuehrte in den Niederlanden zur Gruendung einer Kommission, in der alle an der niederlaendischen Energieversorgung beteiligten Partner gemeinsam an der Bewertung der weiteren Entwicklung der Umwandlung von Biomasse in Energie sowie an der Formulierung von Loesungsansaetzen arbeiteten. Die Kommission kam zu dem Schluss, dass die Mitverbrennung organischer Rueckstaende und der Betrieb kleinerer eigenstaendiger Anlagen zur Biomasse-Verstromung zum heutigen Zeitpunkt realistische Optionen sind. Nach dem Jahre 2000 wird die Einfuhr von Holz als Energierohstoff im groesseren Massstab in Erwaegung gezogen. (orig.)

  16. Mycotoxin occurrence in feed and feed raw materials worldwide: long-term analysis with special focus on Europe and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Elisabeth; Naehrer, Karin; Rodrigues, Inês; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2013-09-01

    During an 8-year period, 17 316 samples of feed and feed raw materials from all over the world were analysed for contamination with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. Overall, 72% of the samples tested positive for at least one mycotoxin and 38% were found to be co-contaminated. Mycotoxin concentrations were generally low and the majority of the samples were compliant with the most stringent EU guidance values or maximum levels for mycotoxins in feed. However, in their present state these regulations do not address co-contamination and associated risks. Long-term trends are difficult to establish as strong yearly variations were observed regarding mycotoxin prevalence and contamination levels. In some cases unusual weather conditions can be linked with high observed mycotoxin loads. An exception to this rule is South-East Asia, where a steady increase of aflatoxin prevalence has been observed. The percentage of aflatoxin-positive samples in this region rose from 32% in 2005 to 71% in 2011.

  17. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages.

  18. Mathematical models of functioning and allocation indicators of road-transport complex resources in the fuel and raw materials region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyvis, V. A.; Novichikhin, A. V.; Temlyantsev, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    A number of features of coal industry functioning was determined for the conditions of Kemerovo region, and the specifics of planning and organization of coal transportation were revealed. The analysis of indicators of motor and railway types of transport in the process of coal transportation was executed. The necessity of improving the tools of coal products transportation in the modern conditions is substantiated. Specific features of functioning of a road-transport complex in the fuel and raw material region (on the example of Kemerovo region) are determined. The modern scientific and applied problems of functioning and allocation of the road-transport complex resources are identified. To justify the management decisions on the development and improvement of road-transport complex a set of indicators are proposed: infrastructural, transportation performance, operating, social and economic. Mathematical models of indicators are recommended for formulation and justification of decisions made during operational and strategic planning of development, evaluation and development of algorithms of functioning and allocation of road-transport sector in Kemerovo region in the future.

  19. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V.

    2005-01-01

    but was more cellulose rich. Steam explosion, wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment were used for defibration of retted hemp fibers. These pretreatmentsremoved lignin and hemicellulose resulting in loss of dry matter of 15-73% w/w and in loss of cellulose of 0-69% w/w. Steam explosion treatment generally......Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w....../w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, whileFutura and Fasamo contained least cellulose. Hemp yarn had the same color as retted hemp fibers...

  20. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriani Kasim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 at low concentrations (1% using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the observed reducing sugar levels by using a method Luff Schoorl. The results showed that setting temperature and time influence on sugar levels resulting hydrolyzate where the optimum temperature and time to produce the highest sugar content reducing at 130 ° C with a long 60 minutes, with the resulting reducing in sugar content was 3.51%. The results obtained are much higher than previous studies conducted by researchers who carried out the straw fibers under the same conditions by using a solution of 1% H2SO4 and hydrolysis time 1 hour, but no temperature control and heating is only done on a gas stove, which acquired sugar 0.22%. As for the gain of 0.78% sugar, hydrolysis takes 4 hours, with a concentration of 10% sulfuric acid.