WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural production systems

  1. Production management system of ecosafety agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Denysenko

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with suggestions for improving the production management system of ecosafety agricultural products according to international standards in the sphere of quality and environmental protection. The production management algorithm of ecosafety products, including methodological and application platform of forming of administrative decisions has been suggested.

  2. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  3. Production Practices and Systems in Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Interest in sustainable agriculture probably had its roots in the concept of sustainable development. There exist no agricultural production technologies or farming systems that are environmentally benign. The question thus becomes "what is sustainable and what is not?" The two underlying themes that appear in most definitions of sustainability and sustainable farming systems deal with (1) the economic profitability of the farming system over a long period of time; and (2) long-term benefits ...

  4. Utilising intrinsic robustness in agricultural production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Napel, ten, H.M.Th.D.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Bestman, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of utilising robust crops and livestock for improving sustainability of agriculture. Two approaches for dealing with unwanted fluctuations that may influence agricultural production, such as diseases and pests, are discussed. The prevailing approach, which we call the ‘Control Model’, is to protect crops and livestock from disturbances as much as possible, to regain balance with monitoring and intervention and to look for add-on solutions only. There are a nu...

  5. Quality Management System of Agricultural Products Based on Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhao, Quan-dong

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of important property of the integrated management of agricultural product quality safety system, analyzes the lightweight characteristics of Spring technical system, hierarchical organization of MVC, and the technology SSH+ Ajax associated with the Spring framework system. On the basis of this technical system, we design the quality management system of agricultural products under B/S model. This article points out that this system is realized mainly through co...

  6. Agricultural production systems and environmental health.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, T B

    1990-01-01

    By the turn of the century, American farmers and ranchers will be producing food and fiber through the application of highly sophisticated systems that involve a broad spectrum of relevant factors--from soil type, to options for fertilizer and pesticide use, to markets and other economic information. These systems will help farmers and ranchers better match land use to land capability, apply needed conservation practices, make environmentally sound production choices, and lower production cos...

  7. Developing conservation agriculture production systems: An analysis of local networks

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, S.; Moore, Keith M.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) has been trumpeted as the solution for reducing soil degradation and increasing agricultural productivity around the world. Some farmland settings, such as in Brazil and the United States, have established substantial hectarage in conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) establishment, while other locations, such as in Africa, have little permanent adoption of CA practices. A close review of the literature on adoption of CA technologies indicates that s...

  8. Quality Management System of Agricultural Products Based on Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of important property of the integrated management of agricultural product quality safety system,analyzes the lightweight characteristics of Spring technical system,hierarchical organization of MVC,and the technology SSH+Ajax associated with the Spring framework system.On the basis of this technical system,we design the quality management system of agricultural products under B/S model.This article points out that this system is realized mainly through consumers’information feedback and order management;then discusses operation environment,expandability,portability and security of the system.

  9. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  10. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  11. Co-existence of agricultural production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Bernhard; Rath, Johannes; Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2006-05-01

    Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of 'subsidiarity', decisions should be made by the lowest authority possible. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for marketing regional products and services, such as tourism. PMID:16545877

  12. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  13. ASSESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available First stage for attaining sustainability in a system is the measurement of current state of sustainability. Indicators are widely used as tools for measurement of sustainability. In this study, a comprehensive index was proposed to measure sustainability in agricultural production systems. This index takes advantage of fuzzy logic to combine all six indexes which were selected as the representative of three dimensions of sustainability. A set of models and sub-models based on the fuzzy inference system were employed to define the index. A case study conducted in two large production farms of maize and wheat, in Iran, proved the feasibility and usability of the model.

  14. A GEO Global Agricultural Water Productivity Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, P. S.; Pozzi, W.; Miller, N. L.; Fekete, B.; Sheffield, J.; Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture is the main consumer of freshwater, and improved precision and accuracy of the terrestrial water cycle requires a more reliable way of monitoring agricultural water use and agricultural water productivity. Wisser et al 2008 reported that agricultural water consumption over the satellite-determined crop acreage (from AVHRR, SPOT VGT), particularly for India and China (Thenkabail et al 2006) was 30% higher than the commonly used Food and Agricultural Organization country-reported agricultural crop census data. We propose further quantification and clarification of this error through the following methodology: 1) greater accuracy in measuring actual area and precise spatial distribution of irrigated and rainfed cropland areas, along with identification of crop types and cropping intensities; 2) satellite monitoring of actual evapotranspiration (water use) by croplands; 3) reconciling agricultural plot information and evapotranspiration against calculated stores of water and water budgets, as derived from a Global Hydrologic Model Multi-Model Ensemble; and (d) modeling and pin-pointing areas of low and high water productivity (WP) to optimize agricultural water use and thus save large quanta of water. We propose producing global irrigated and rainfed areas at finer scales using Landsat 30 m imagery in fusion with MODIS 250 m imagery using the spectral matching technique (Thenkabail et al 2009). Crop water use (water transpired by the crop) and crop water productivity maps can be prepared for terrestrial areas, by using the surface energy balance model, in which evapotranspiration fraction is provided from Landsat ETM+ and\\or MODIS thermal data, combined with locally derived meteorological data such as wind speed, humidity, incoming radiation, and other surface values to derive turbulent diffusion and finally computing reference evapotranspiration (e.g., Penman-Montieth approach), so that sensible heat flux may be deducted from net radiation to derive

  15. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  16. Innovation of Supervision System for Quality and Safety of Edible Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxing; MEI; Zhongchao; FENG

    2014-01-01

    This paper elaborated multidimensional characteristics of quality and safety of agricultural products,introduced current situation of quality and safety supervision of edible agricultural products in China,analyzed existing problems of quality and safety supervision system and corresponding reasons,and finally came up with recommendations for innovation of supervision system for quality and safety of agricultural products.

  17. Exploring agricultural production systems and their fundamental components with system dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the United States is undergoing marked changes due to rapid shifts in consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and environmental impact. Agricultural production systems are comprised of multidimensional components and drivers that interact in complex wa...

  18. Incentives for the Quality and Safety Traceability System of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhen; BAI; Meng; LI

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety traceability system of agricultural products is an important measure to protect the quality and safety of agricultural products. Farmers and food enterprises are main operators of the traceability system. If they are effectively encouraged to practice traceability system,food safety can be guaranteed from the source. This paper studies the incentive problem of agricultural product traceability system from two aspects- vertical contract coordination and government external incentive.

  19. Construction of Network Management Information System of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Based on 3PLs

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shujin; Yang, Qiangxian

    2010-01-01

    The necessity to construct the network management information system of 3PLs agricultural supply chain is analyzed, showing that 3PLs can improve the overall competitive advantage of agricultural supply chain. 3PLs changes the homogeneity management into specialized management of logistics service and achieves the alliance of the subjects at different nodes of agricultural products supply chain. Network management information system structure of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PL...

  20. Utilising intrinsic robustness in agricultural production systems: Inventions for a sustainable development of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Napel, J. ten; Bianchi, F.; Bestman, Monique

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of utilising robust crops and livestock for improving sustainability of agriculture. Two approaches for dealing with unwanted fluctuations that may influence agricultural production, such as diseases and pests, are discussed. The prevailing approach, which we call the ‘Control Model’, is to protect crops and livestock from disturbances as much as possible, to regain balance with monitoring and intervention and to look for add-on solutions only. There are a nu...

  1. Design and Realization of Distribution Management System of Fruit and Vegetable Agricultural Products in Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingwang; WANG

    2013-01-01

    The fruit and vegetable agricultural products are related to the livelihood of people. With the advance of agricultural informatization, using software to carry out operation, sale, and inventory management on fruit and vegetable agricultural products is imperative. Through a lot of market surveys and researches combined with data collection and sorting, I develop the distribution management system of fruit and vegetable agricultural products. The system uses the development tools of C++6.0 and SQL Server 2005, to realize system maintenance, data maintenance, purchase control, sales management, inventory management, expense management, container management, statistical reports and other functional modules. The system can meet informatization management of fruit and vegetable agricultural products in Shanghai farmers’ market, improve work efficiency, and accelerate the process of agricultural informatization.

  2. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  3. Services in the Agricultural Production System. Comparative Structural Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Alecu, Iulian; Marian CONSTANTIN

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic of services in agriculture and offers a description of the dynamics recorded by this sector in the Romanian economy. It is taken into account that services in agriculture have a set of peculiarities, depending on the characteristics of rural environment.

  4. Design and Realization of E-Marketing System for Fresh Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    TAN, Chunmao; Wang, Haishan; Sun, Xiudong; Zhao, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the PHP + Oracle database development technology. Based on B/S structure, using MVC (Model View Controller) framework development mode, and in line with actual demands of fresh agricultural products for e-marketing in Shanghai, it designed and expected to realize e-marketing system for fresh agricultural products in B2B2C mode. It made an in-depth analysis from system demands, design of functional modules, design of database, and relevant technologies for system ...

  5. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Methods Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, ...

  6. Construction of Network Management Information System of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Based on 3PLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The necessity to construct the network management information system of 3PLs agricultural supply chain is analyzed,showing that 3PLs can improve the overall competitive advantage of agricultural supply chain.3PLs changes the homogeneity management into specialized management of logistics service and achieves the alliance of the subjects at different nodes of agricultural products supply chain.Network management information system structure of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is constructed,including the four layers (the network communication layer,the hardware and software environment layer,the database layer,and the application layer) and 7 function modules (centralized control,transportation process management,material and vehicle scheduling,customer relationship,storage management,customer inquiry,and financial management).Framework for the network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is put forward.The management of 3PLs mainly includes purchasing management,supplier relationship management,planning management,customer relationship management,storage management and distribution management.Thus,a management system of internal and external integrated agricultural enterprises is obtained.The network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs has realized the effective sharing of enterprise information of agricultural products supply chain at different nodes,establishing a long-term partnership revolving around the 3PLs core enterprise,as well as a supply chain with stable relationship based on the supply chain network system,so as to improve the circulation efficiency of agricultural products,and to explore the sales market for agricultural products.

  7. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  8. Sustainable land use in Tikopia: Food production and consumption in an isolated agricultural system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Fog, Bjarne;

    2010-01-01

    increasingly unreliable. Local agricultural production and exploitation of marine resources are essential to sustain the population, and with few exceptions farming and fishing techniques remain unchanged. Most of the island is still farmed permanently and the intensive agricultural system has not suffered...

  9. Developing Conservation Agriculture Production Systems in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Arcinal, Gil A.; Edralin, Don Immanuel; Ella, Victor B.; Manuel R. Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Conservation agriculture with trees (CAT) offers solution to this pressing problem through following 5 key principles: Minimum soil disturbance, continuous mulch, maintaining diverse crop species, integrated pests and nutrient management. CAT is very important in soil and water conservation, enhancing agri-diversity, improving farm carbon sequestration potential, maximization of land area usage in the Philippines as well as the reversal of soil degradation thus improving food and nutritional ...

  10. Toward systems-level analysis of agricultural production from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM): scaling from cell to commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah C; Ming, Ray; LeBauer, David S; Long, Stephen P

    2015-10-01

    Systems-level analyses have become prominent tools for assessing the yield, viability, economic consequences and environmental impacts of agricultural production. Such analyses are well-developed for many commodity crops that are used for food and biofuel, but have not been developed for agricultural production systems based on drought-tolerant plants that use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We review the components of systems-level evaluations, and identify the information available for completing such analyses for CAM cropping systems. Specific needs for developing systems-level evaluations of CAM agricultural production include: improvement of physiological models; assessment of product processing after leaving the farm gate; and application of newly available genetic tools to the optimization of CAM species for commercial production. PMID:26094655

  11. On Construction of Supply Chain System for China’s Modern Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    In view of drawbacks in supply chain of China’s traditional agricultural products,this paper proposed building supply chain system for modern agricultural products: taking informationization as basis,channel system as core,organization system as support,and service system and safety system as guarantee,to promote high efficient operation of the supply chain system. The channel system stresses alliance and integration of channel system,informationization of channel management,and terminalization of channel operation; the organization system stresses organization,large scale,group,and brand of participant entities; service system stresses construction of service means,service platform,and operation mechanism; safety system stresses building quality safety based agricultural product supply chain management mode. In order to ensure high efficient operation of supply chain for modern agricultural products,it is required to straighten out supply chain management system,actively cultivate core enterprises of supply chain,strengthen information construction of supply chain,select suitable supply chain mode,and improve benefit allocation mechanism.

  12. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US$). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction. (letter)

  13. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  14. Design and Realization of E-Marketing System for Fresh Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunmao; TAN; Haishan; WANG; Xiudong; SUN; Yannan; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the PHP + Oracle database development technology. Based on B / S structure,using MVC( Model View Controller) framework development mode,and in line with actual demands of fresh agricultural products for e-marketing in Shanghai,it designed and expected to realize e-marketing system for fresh agricultural products in B2B2 C mode. It made an in-depth analysis from system demands,design of functional modules,design of database,and relevant technologies for system realization.

  15. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Agricultural Production Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for managing agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been available in recent year...

  16. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    I. Weindl; Lotze-Campen, H.; Popp, A; C. Müller; Havlik, P.; Herrero, M.; Schmitz, C; S. Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Livestock farming is the world's largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions a...

  17. A comparative study of conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) for tribal people of Odisha, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Aliza; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Lai, Cynthia; Idol, Travis; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Evensen, Carl; Ray, Chittaranjan; Roul, Pravat K.; Mishra, K.N.

    2012-01-01

    Tribal farming in Kendujhar district of Odisha, India is primarily based on traditional shifting cultivation which is becoming unsustainable - resulting in natural resources degradation, reduced production efficiency, and threatened food security. As maize (Zea mays L.) was the primary field crop grown by the tribal farmers, maize-based Conservation Agriculture Production Systems (CAPS) were taken as an innovative approach for conserving resources, enhancing productivity and sustaining liveli...

  18. Varietal trial of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)for Conservation Agriculture Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Arcinal, Gil A.; Bensive Gabitano; Manuel R. Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Sorghum is being cultivated all over the world mainly as feed for animals and in some areas it is used for human consumption and in a variety of industrial application like paper making and used as adhesives. The poster describes a trial of sorghum as a replacement for hybrid maize in conservation agriculture production systems.

  19. Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.; Heuberger, P.S.C.; Drecht, van G.; Hoek, van der K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Here we present an uncertainty analysis of NH3 emissions from agricultural production systems based on a global NH3 emission inventory with a 5×5 min resolution. Of all results the mean is given with a range (10% and 90% percentile). The uncertainty range for the global NH3 emission from agricultura

  20. The problem of sustainability within the complexity of agricultural production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the general systems theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agricultural and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for the development of scientific and technological advances concordant with the agricultural food chain needs of the XX century; which permit an orientation of not only work by profession is who lead the processes of animal and vegetable production, but also creates a sense of pertinence in all of the participants in the chain, highlighting the importance of studying by means of systemic thought, agronomy and animal science, as disciplines that approach to complexities of agriculture which is the angular stone of civilization, such as we know it at the moment

  1. Emergy assessment of three home courtyard agriculture production systems in Tibet Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fa-Chun; Sha, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Wang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Home courtyard agriculture is an important model of agricultural production on the Tibetan plateau. Because of the sensitive and fragile plateau environment, it needs to have optimal performance characteristics, including high sustainability, low environmental pressure, and high economic benefit. Emergy analysis is a promising tool for evaluation of the environmental-economic performance of these production systems. In this study, emergy analysis was used to evaluate three courtyard agricultural production models: Raising Geese in Corn Fields (RGICF), Conventional Corn Planting (CCP), and Pea-Wheat Rotation (PWR). The results showed that the RGICF model produced greater economic benefits, and had higher sustainability, lower environmental pressure, and higher product safety than the CCP and PWR models. The emergy yield ratio (EYR) and emergy self-support ratio (ESR) of RGICF were 0.66 and 0.11, respectively, lower than those of the CCP production model, and 0.99 and 0.08, respectively, lower than those of the PWR production model. The impact of RGICF (1.45) on the environment was lower than that of CCP (2.26) and PWR (2.46). The emergy sustainable indices (ESIs) of RGICF were 1.07 and 1.02 times higher than those of CCP and PWR, respectively. With regard to the emergy index of product safety (EIPS), RGICF had a higher safety index than those of CCP and PWR. Overall, our results suggest that the RGICF model is advantageous and provides higher environmental benefits than the CCP and PWR systems. PMID:27487808

  2. Estimation Of Demand System In An Aids Model:The Opportunity For Exporting Thai Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the estimation of Almost Ideal Demand System(AIDS model is developed to estimate quantity respond based on price. Five major export agricultural products data from the office of Agricultural Economics, Thailand and Biofuel policy from the office of the National Economic and Social Development Broad were used. The AIDS model estimatesdemand of palm, cassava, and sugar are highly response to changed price. Rubber and rice has less response to the changed price. All of major agricultural products are affect expenditure of Thailand export. This result suggest that the opportunity for increasing supply of energy plants, which benefits to Thai farmer communities for expanding market share in energy plants in domestic and global market.

  3. How Could Agricultural Land Systems Contribute to Raise Food Production Under Global Change?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-bin; YU Qiang-yi; Verburg H Peter; YOU Liang-zhi; YANG Peng; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    To feed the increasing world population, more food needs to be produced from agricultural land systems. Solutions to produce more food with fewer resources while minimizing adverse environmental and ecological consequences require sustainable agricultural land use practices as supplementary to advanced biotechnology and agronomy. This review paper, from a land system perspective, systematically proposed and analyzed three interactive strategies that could possibly raise future food production under global change. By reviewing the current literatures, we suggest that cropland expansion is less possible amid iferce land competition, and it is likely to do less in increasing food production. Moreover, properly allocating crops in space and time is a practical way to ensure food production. Climate change, dietary shifts, and other socio-economic drivers, which would shape the demand and supply side of food systems, should be taken into consideration during the decision-making on rational land management in respect of sustainable crop choice and allocation. And ifnally, crop-speciifc agricultural intensiifcation would play a bigger role in raising future food production either by increasing the yield per unit area of individual crops or by increasing the number of crops sown on a particular area of land. Yet, only when it is done sustainably is this a much more effective strategy to maximize food production by closing yield and harvest gaps.

  4. Fuzzy Multi-fractional Programming for Land Use Planning in Agricultural Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Mishra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP approach for multi-objective linear fuzzy goal programming (MOLFGP problem. Here, we consider a problem in which a set of pair of goals are optimized in ratio rather than optimizing them individually. In particular, we consider the optimization of profit to cash expenditure and crop production in various seasons to land utilization as a fractional objectives and used remaining goals in its original form. Further, the goals set in agricultural production planning are conflicting in nature; thus we use the concept of conflict and nonconflict between goals for computation of appropriate aspiration level. The method is illustrated on a problem of agricultural production system for comparison with Biswas and Pal [1] method to show its suitability.

  5. Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for pesticide residues. These were collected at three separate sites (La Lima, Zamorano and Choluteca), each characterized by differing agricultural production systems. The main pesticide residues found in soil samples were dieldrin and p,p'-DDT, while river water samples were found to have detectable levels of heptachlor, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, with lagoon and well water also being shown to contain heptachlor. These pesticides detected were in more than 20% of the samples assessed. In river water samples more pesticide residues at higher concentrations were found to be associated with areas of more intensive agricultural production. The fewest pesticides with lowest concentrations were found in the small subwatershed associated with traditional agricultural production. Although the pesticides found in the soils at the three sites were generally similar they tended to be higher in the southern part of the Cholutecan watershed, followed by the central zone, with the lowest concentrations being found in the more traditional production zone. In lagoon and well water samples more pesticides, but mostly in lower concentrations were detected at the traditional production site than at the others. Ten pesticide compounds were detected in fish tissue, mainly organochlorines, some of which were also found in lagoon sediments. In terms of food products, almost no pesticides were detected in vegetables, but the kidney adipose tissue taken from slaughtered cows was shown to have a tendency to contain some organochlorines. Spring water in the traditional agricultural production zone contained three organochlorine compounds

  6. Vulnerability of Rehabilitated Agricultural Production Systems to Invasion by Nontarget Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Sara G.; Engle, David M.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Langeland, Kenneth A.; Maxwell, Bruce D.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2009-02-01

    Vast areas of arable land have been retired from crop production and “rehabilitated” to improved system states through landowner incentive programs in the United States (e.g., Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs), as well as Europe (i.e., Agri-Environment Schemes). Our review of studies conducted on invasion of rehabilitated agricultural production systems by nontarget species elucidates several factors that may increase the vulnerability of these systems to invasion. These systems often exist in highly fragmented and agriculturally dominated landscapes, where propagule sources of target species for colonization may be limited, and are established under conditions where legacies of past disturbance persist and prevent target species from persisting. Furthermore, rehabilitation approaches often do not include or successfully attain all target species or historical ecological processes (e.g., hydrology, grazing, and/or fire cycles) key to resisting invasion. Uncertainty surrounds ways in which nontarget species may compromise long term goals of improving biodiversity and ecosystem services through rehabilitation efforts on former agricultural production lands. This review demonstrates that more studies are needed on the extent and ecological impacts of nontarget species as related to the goals of rehabilitation efforts to secure current and future environmental benefits arising from this widespread conservation practice.

  7. Construction of the All-region Linkage System for Emergency Management of Agricultural Product Quality and Safety in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; YU; Yanbin; QI; Yubao; YAN

    2013-01-01

    Quality and safety of agricultural products are significant for national socioeconomic development,sustainable development,and vital interests of people.To safeguard quality and safety of agricultural products in west China is to safeguard economic safety and ecological safety of the country,public health and social stability,of which an important task is to properly handle emergencies concerning quality and safety of agricultural products.Considering actual conditions of west China,suggestions are given to construct the all-region linkage system for emergency management of agricultural product quality and safety in the local area,enhance the all-region linkage,and improve the linkage efficiency.

  8. Typologies and Spatialization of Agricultural Production Systems in Rondônia, Brazil: Linking Land Use, Socioeconomics and Territorial Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current Amazon landscape consists of heterogeneous mosaics formed by interactions between the original forest and productive activities. Recognizing and quantifying the characteristics of these landscapes is essential for understanding agricultural production chains, assessing the impact of policies, and in planning future actions. Our main objective was to construct the regionalization of agricultural production for Rondônia State (Brazilian Amazon at the municipal level. We adopted a decision tree approach, using land use maps derived from remote sensing data (PRODES and TerraClass combined with socioeconomic data. The decision trees allowed us to allocate municipalities to one of five agricultural production systems: (i coexistence of livestock production and intensive agriculture; (ii semi-intensive beef and milk production; (iii semi-intensive beef production; (iv intensive beef and milk production, and; (v intensive beef production. These production systems are, respectively, linked to mechanized agriculture (i, traditional cattle farming with low management, with (ii or without (iii a significant presence of dairy farming, and to more intensive livestock farming with (iv or without (v a significant presence of dairy farming. The municipalities and associated production systems were then characterized using a wide variety of quantitative metrics grouped into four dimensions: (i agricultural production; (ii economics; (iii territorial configuration, and; (iv social characteristics. We found that production systems linked to mechanized agriculture predominate in the south of the state, while intensive farming is mainly found in the center of the state. Semi-intensive livestock farming is mainly located close to the southwest frontier and in the north of the state, where human occupation of the territory is not fully consolidated. This distributional pattern reflects the origins of the agricultural production system of Rond

  9. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  10. Soil quality monitoring and evaluation under conventional plow-based and conservation agriculture production systems in southern Philippines.

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.; Reyes, Manuel R.; Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality under conventional plow-based agriculture production systems has been known to degrade over time owing to greater exposure of soil organic matter to microbial attack. This study was conducted to monitor and evaluate soil quality under conventional plow-based and conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) in southern Philippines. Six CAPS treatments in the form of cropping patterns with different cover crops under two fertility levels including plow-based system were estab...

  11. Machine vision system: a tool for quality inspection of food and agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, A; Jha, S N; Khan, M A

    2012-04-01

    Quality inspection of food and agricultural produce are difficult and labor intensive. Simultaneously, with increased expectations for food products of high quality and safety standards, the need for accurate, fast and objective quality determination of these characteristics in food products continues to grow. However, these operations generally in India are manual which is costly as well as unreliable because human decision in identifying quality factors such as appearance, flavor, nutrient, texture, etc., is inconsistent, subjective and slow. Machine vision provides one alternative for an automated, non-destructive and cost-effective technique to accomplish these requirements. This inspection approach based on image analysis and processing has found a variety of different applications in the food industry. Considerable research has highlighted its potential for the inspection and grading of fruits and vegetables, grain quality and characteristic examination and quality evaluation of other food products like bakery products, pizza, cheese, and noodles etc. The objective of this paper is to provide in depth introduction of machine vision system, its components and recent work reported on food and agricultural produce. PMID:23572836

  12. Influence of conservation agriculture and tillage on soil quality in selected crop production systems in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.; Manuel R. Reyes; Padre, R.; Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation describes a study to evaluate the influence of conservation agriculture and tillage on selected physical and chemical soil quality parameters in selected upland crop production systems in the Philippines

  13. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the

  14. Modeling and analysing storage systems in agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Studied the agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Evaluated the impact of storage systems on different supply chain actors. ► Developed a combined simulation/optimization model to evaluate storage systems. ► Compared two satellite storage systems with roadside storage in terms of costs and emitted CO2. ► SS would lead to a more cost-efficient supply chain compared to roadside storage. -- Abstract: In this paper, a combined simulation/optimization model is developed to better understand and evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the costs incurred by each actor in the agricultural biomass supply chain including farmers, hauling contractors and the cellulosic ethanol plant. The optimization model prescribes the optimum number and location of farms and storages. It also determines the supply radius, the number of farms required to secure the annual supply of biomass and also the assignment of farms to storage locations. Given the specific design of the supply chain determined by the optimization model, the simulation model determines the number of required machines for each operation, their daily working schedule and utilization rates, along with the capacities of storages. To evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the delivered costs, three storage systems are molded and compared: roadside storage (RS) system and two satellite storage (SS) systems including SS with fixed hauling distance (SF) and SS with variable hauling distance (SV). In all storage systems, it is assumed the loading equipment is dedicated to storage locations. The obtained results from a real case study provide detailed cost figures for each storage system since the developed model analyses the supply chain on an hourly basis and considers time-dependence and stochasticity of the supply chain. Comparison of the storage systems shows SV would outperform SF and RS by reducing the total delivered cost by 8% and 6%, respectively

  15. Agricultural Technology Adoption and Land Productivity: Evidence from the Rice-Prawn Gher Farming System in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Barmon, Basanta Kumar; Kondo, Takumi; Osanami, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    Rice-prawn gher (RPG) farming system is an indigenous agricultural technology solely developed by farmers since mid 1980s. The present study aims to estimate the land productivity of modern varieties (MV) paddy production under RPG and (year-round modern varieties) YRMV paddy farming systems in the southwest Bangladesh. The RPG farming system has significant impacts on inputs used in MV boro paddy production. The findings of the study indicate that more chemical fertilizers were used in per h...

  16. Biomass production and nitrogen dynamics in an integrated aquaculture/agriculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, L. P.; Hall, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    A combined aquaculture/agriculture system that brings together the three major components of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) - biomass production, biomass processing, and waste recycling - was developed to evaluate ecological processes and hardware requirements necessary to assess the feasibility of and define design criteria for integration into the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Breadboard Project. The system consists of a 1 square meter plant growth area, a 500 liter fish culture tank, and computerized monitoring and control hardware. Nutrients in the hydrophonic solution were derived from fish metabolites and fish food leachate. In five months of continuous operation, 27.0 kg of lettuce tops, 39.9 kg of roots and biofilm, and 6.6 kg of fish (wet weights) were produced with 12.7 kg of fish food input. Based on dry weights, a biomass conversion index of 0.52 was achieved. A nitrogen budget was derived to determine partitioning of nitrogen within various compartments of the system. Accumulating nitrogen in the hypoponic solution indicated a need to enlarge the plant growth area, potentially increasing the biomass production and improving the biomass conversion index.

  17. Agricultural production and stability of settlement systems in Upper Mesopotamia during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Tuna

    This study investigates the relationship between rainfall variation and rain-fed agricultural production in Upper Mesopotamia with a specific focus on Early Bronze Age urban settlements. In return, the variation in production is used to explore stability of urban settlement systems. The organization of the flow of agricultural goods is the key to sustaining the total settlement system. The vulnerability of a settlement system increases due to the increased demand for more output from agricultural lands. This demand is the key for the success of urbanization project. However, without estimating how many foodstuffs were available at the end of a production cycle, further discussions on the forces that shaped and sustained urban settlement systems will be lacking. While large scale fluctuations in the flow of agricultural products between settlements are not the only determinants of hierarchical structures, the total available agricultural yield for each urban settlement in a hierarchy must have influenced settlement relations. As for the methodology, first, Early Bronze Age precipitation levels are estimated by using modern day associations between the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas and the inner regions of Upper Mesopotamia. Next, these levels are integrated into a remote-sensing based biological growth model. Also, a CORONA satellite imagery based archaeological survey is conducted in order to map the Early Bronze Age settlement system in its entirety as well as the ancient markers of agricultural intensification. Finally, ancient agricultural production landscapes are modeled in a GIS. The study takes a critical position towards the traditionally held assumption that large urban settlements (cities) in Upper Mesopotamia were in a state of constant demand for food. The results from this study also suggest that when variations in ancient precipitation levels are translated into the variations in production levels, the impact of climatic aridification on ancient

  18. 农产品电子商务系统%Agricultural Products E-commerce System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜治广

    2015-01-01

    随着Internet的迅速崛起,互联网已日益成为收集提供信息的最佳最快渠道,并快速进入传统的流通领域.互联网具有跨地域、可交互、全天候性,在与传统媒体行业和传统贸易行业的竞争中具备不可抗拒的优势.随着网上购物这种形式被越来越多的人们选择,电子商务运营模式发展的十分迅速,但在农产品领域还没有被广泛应用.做好农产品电子商务体系,一方面客户可以实时监控农产品的质量安全,同时购买的价格又比商店里低;另一方面农户将商品直接销售给客户,能实现利益最大化.本系统基于.Net平台下CSS、FLASH、SQL Server等技术来实现.系统的开发分为视图界面的开发和后台数据库的设计和维护,并把系统划分成两个部分:前台用户和后台管理中心.系统实现了用户注册、登录及管理、顾客购物车管理、顾客定单管理、电脑的浏览和查找等功能.%In recent years, the rapid rise of Internet has made it become the best and fastest channel to collect information and expand into the traditional circulation field quickly. The Internet is cross regional, interactive and all-weather, and has advantages when facing the competition of traditional media and trade industry. As online shopping has become more and more people's choice, the development of E-commerce is very rapid, but still weak in the field of agricultural products. Agricultural product E-commerce system can realize the real-time monitoring of agricultural products'quality safety and give customers lower price, at the same time, farmers can achieve maximum benefits by selling the products directly to customers. This system was realized by using CSS、FLASH、Javascript technology and SQL Server database technology based on the .Net platform. The development of this system was divided into view interface development and backend database design and maintenance. The whole system consisted of two basic

  19. Projection of aggregate and farm benefits of conservation agriculture productions systems using economic surplus analysis and linear programing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Nguema, A.; Norton, George W.; Tamang, Bishal B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Crow, S.; Halbrendt, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of sloping lands, resulting in lower productivity and soil loss. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological research framework to develop improved conservation agriculture practices system (CAPS) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of marginalized tribal farmers. This paper used economic surplus analysis at macro le...

  20. Machine vision system: a tool for quality inspection of food and agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, A.; Jha, S. N.; Khan, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Quality inspection of food and agricultural produce are difficult and labor intensive. Simultaneously, with increased expectations for food products of high quality and safety standards, the need for accurate, fast and objective quality determination of these characteristics in food products continues to grow. However, these operations generally in India are manual which is costly as well as unreliable because human decision in identifying quality factors such as appearance, flavor, nutrient,...

  1. Rice Ratoon Crop: A Sustainable Rice Production System for Tropical Hill Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Faruq

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing and sustainable production of rice in tropical hill area is facing various problems where rice ratooning can overcome the limitations. In this study; 22 rice entries were transplanted into experimental tank placed in the hill slope following Completely Randomized Design with five replications to asses’ agronomic performance of main crop and ratoon crop where Entry 13 demonstrated highest grain yield per plant (42.06 ± 1.2 gm as main crop, as well as ratoon crop (3.37 ± 0.28 gm; Entry 19 produced lowest grain yield per plant (5.01 ± 0.31 gm as main crop and Entry 31 as ratoon crop (0.47 ± 0.03 gm. The grain yield per plant of both the main and ratoon crop demonstrated significant (** at 5% level and *** at 1% level positive correlation with number of tiller per plant (0.64 ** and 0.52; number of fertile tiller per plant (0.66 ** and 0.63 **; grain per panicle (0.72 ** and 0.53; fertile grain per panicle (0.80 *** and 0.63 and thousand-grain weight (0.66 ** and 0.54. The Duncan Multiple Range test and Analysis of Variance also confirmed the different grouping and significant differences of productivity and agronomic performances of the entries. The information of this investigation will helps the rice breeder as well as marginal rice farmers to consider rice ratooning as an important practice for sustainable rice production in tropical agriculture system for maximum gains.

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella spp. from Agricultural Environments in Fruit Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomba, Annancietar; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks involving fresh produce have increased in recent years. The risk of infection from contaminated food is worsened by the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains. This study evaluated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates (n = 263) from agricultural production systems through to the final packed product. Salmonella isolates were preliminarily identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) and API 20E and identities confirmed by invA gene polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed with 15 antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Of the 263 Salmonella isolates assessed, 59.3% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The most frequently detected resistance was against chloramphenicol and kanamycin (46.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (28%), and streptomycin (14%), and the less frequently detected resistance was toward ampicillin (1.14%), amikacin (0.76%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (0.38%). Multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) (resistance to ≥3 antibiotics) was found in 48.7% (76/156) isolates. The most common MAR phenotype was to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-kanamycin (43.6%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was only observed in MAR phenotypes. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, and tetracycline. This study confirms the importance of fresh produce production environments as potential reservoirs and fresh produce as carriers of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. with significant clinical importance. Further studies to evaluate the actual level of health risk from these pathogens should include characterization of the antibiotic resistance determinant genes among the isolates. PMID:27294335

  3. Development of methods for remediation of artificial polluted soils and improvement of soils for ecologically clean agricultural production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research: Development of methods for the remediation of artificial polluted soils and the improvement of polluted lands to ecologically clean agricultural production.The following tasks will be implemented in this project to achieve viable practical solutions: - To determine the priority pollutants, their ecological pathways, and sources of origin. - To form a supervised environmental monitoring data bank throughout the various geo system conditions. - To evaluate the degree of the bio geo system pollution and the influence on the health of the local human populations. - To establish agricultural plant tolerance levels to the priority pollutants. - To calculate the standard concentrations of the priority pollutants for main agricultural plant groups. - To develop a soil remediation methodology incorporating the structural, functional geo system features. - To establish a territory zone division methodology in consideration of the degree of component pollution, plant tolerance to pollutants, plant production conditions, and human health. - Scientific grounding of the soil remediation proposals and agricultural plant material introductions with soil pollution levels and relative plant tolerances to pollutants. Technological Means, Methods, and Approaches Final proposed solutions will be based upon geo system and ecosystem approaches and methodologies. The complex ecological valuation methods of the polluted territories will be used in this investigation. Also, laboratory culture in vitro, application work, and multi-factor field experiments will be conducted. The results will be statistically analyzed using appropriate methods. Expected Results Complex biogeochemical artificial province assessment according to primary pollutant concentrations. Development of agricultural plant tolerance levels relative to the priority pollutants. Assessment of newly introduced plant materials that may possess variable levels of pollution tolerance. Remediation

  4. Problems in Construction of Subsidy System for Agricultural Product Identification and Countermeasures——A Case Study of Xingjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yan

    2012-01-01

    In line with current situations of extension of Xinjiang’s agricultural products,the paper put forward and analyzed existing problems in extension works of agricultural product identification.The problems mainly include:(i) general identification of agricultural products is basically blank and both producers and consumers lack awareness of identification;(ii) creating(famous) brand is a weak point of agriculture in Xinjiang;(iii) certification of non-hazard,green and organic agricultural products lags behind;(iv) it neglects problem of agricultural product packaging.On the basis of these problems,the paper present our recommendations:(i) government provides financial subsidy to actively guide certification of agricultural products;(ii) it should increase financial fund input in brand construction and support(famous) brand construction of agricultural products;(iii) it should provide subsidy for those enterprises creating famous brand,to encourage agricultural producing and processing enterprises to strive for famous brands;(vi) it should stress agricultural product packaging from the source and provide subsidy for agricultural producers who have affixed the identification;(v) it should gradually promote agricultural product identification,to constantly improve the farmers’ awareness of agricultural product identification.

  5. Locating Logistics Locations of Suspicious Agricultural Production Food Safety Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to locate the suspicious agricultural products in agricultural product safety emergencies, this study builds an agricultural product logistics system from suppliers to retailers based on RFID technology and designs an agricultural product logistics tracking systems, which collects and integrates underlying data from logistics nodes. Tracking queries get logistics node addresses from the address resolution service system by Internet and obtain and synthesize data from all the underlying data sources to trace agricultural product information for effectively locating locations of suspicious agricultural products. It is very important to prevent more extension for safety emergencies.

  6. Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the agricultural production efficiency of all cities and areas in Shaanxi Province in the period 2006-2009 using data envelopment analysis method,and compares the agricultural production efficiency between all cities and areas.The results show that the agricultural production efficiency and scale efficiency of agriculture of Shaanxi Province are high on the whole,but the efficiency of agricultural technology is very low,agricultural development still relies on factor inputs,and the driving role of technological progress is not conspicuous.Finally the following countermeasures are put forward to promote agricultural productivity in Shaanxi Province:improve the construction of agricultural infrastructure,and increase agricultural input;accelerate the project of extending agricultural technology into households,and promote the conversion and use rate of agricultural scientific and technological achievements;establish and improve industrial system of agriculture,and speed up the building of various agricultural cooperative economic organizations.

  7. Product Attributes and Consumer Willingness to Pay for Environmental Management Systems in Agriculture: Using the Choice Modeling Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Matthew O.; Thomassin, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    Consumer concerns in food purchasing contain a number of elements, including food safety, environment, animal welfare, and other social issues. The purpose of this study was to examine consumer perceptions of the potential benefits of products that are produced using an environmental management system (EMS) in agriculture, and to identify those factors that influence choice. The choice modeling technique uses consumer responses (preferences) to estimate Montrealers= willingness to pay (WTP) f...

  8. Production technologies in Ethiopian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kidane, Asmerom; Abler, David G.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and choice among two production technologies in Ethiopian agriculture, one with fertilizer and the other without, using 1989-90 farm-level data. For northwest and central Ethiopia, fertilizer usage determinants are estimated simultaneously with technology-specific production functions. For southern Ethiopia, where fertilizer is rarely used, a single production function is estimated. Three conclusions emerge. First, fertilizer use is not significant...

  9. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  10. Environmental marketing within organic agriculture system management

    OpenAIRE

    O. Shkuratov; V. Kyporenko

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with economic content of environmental marketing in the management system organic agriculture that allows operators of organic market to effectively plan the production of organic agricultural products and ensure the optimal balance between social and economic indicators throughout the life cycle of the product. Structural-logical scheme on the formation of environmentally oriented motivation of organic agricultural products consumer behavior has been grounded.

  11. Application of Evolutionary Encryption 2D Barcode Generation Technology in Agricultural Product Quality and Safety Traceability System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun; ZHONG; Zhijie; LAI; Yan; CHEN; Jianxin; QIAN; Xiaocong; HONG; Caiyi; LI

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional(2D) barcode technology is an electronic tagging technology based on combination of computer and optical technology. It is an important way of information collection and input. 2D barcode technology has been widely used in various fields of logistics,production automation,and e-commerce,but it also has brought about a series of safety problems. Based on evolutionary encryption technology,this paper improved algorithm of traditional 2D barcode generation,to improve forgery- proof performance of 2D barcode. This algorithm is applied to agricultural products quality and safety traceability system and the results show that it is effective.

  12. Pilot material handling system for radiation processing of agricultural and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10 MeV, 10 kW electron LINAC based radiation processing facility is being constructed at Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore for radiation processing of various food products like potatoes, onion, spices, home pack items and medical sterilization. A pilot material handling system has been designed, manufactured, and installed at CAT to verify process parameters viz. conveying speed, dose uniformity, and to study the effect of packing shape and size for radiation processing of different product. This paper describes various features of pilot material handling system. (author)

  13. Improving Agriculture Students' Understanding of Global Production Systems through Distance Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Daniel J.; Cameron, Donald; Conforte, Daniel; Sorokin, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Globalization is a fundamental force currently shaping agricultural sector throughout the world. To make sound decisions in a globalised economy, agricultural producers and agribusiness managers must have a high level of understanding of the international dimensions of their industry. To address this need, we are developing a course aimed at helping agricultural students better understand the managerial environment faced by producers worldwide. This course will provide students an opportunity...

  14. Advanced Agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas R. Zanwar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the advanced system which improves agriculture processes like cultivation on ploughed land, based on robotic platform. We have developed a robotic vehicle having four wheels and steered by DC motor. The advanced autonomous system architecture gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. The obstacle detection problem will also be considered, sensed by infrared sensor. The whole algorithm, calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & sensor interfaced with microcontroller. The result obtained through example activation unit is also presented. The dc motor simulation with feedforward and feedback technique shows precise output. With the help of two examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system, the use of MATLAB and Simulink for modeling, analysis and control is designed.

  15. Economic Analysis on Protection of Farmers’ Benefits Based on Market of Agricultural Means of Production and Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De; CHEN; Dongmei; XIANG; Shengping; SHI

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by many factors,farmers remain very unfavorable position in market transaction and thus fail to ensure their reasonable benefits.In accordance with basic theory of microeconomics,this paper analyzes mutual relation between market of agricultural means of production and agricultural product market,compares economic decisions of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural product circulation service providers in monopoly condition and perfect competitive market,expounds influence of monopoly position of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural products service providers on economic benefits of farmers,and elaborates weak position and economic damage of farmers in transaction with various economic entities.Through analysis,it further recognizes necessity for protection of farmers’benefits and puts forward corresponding countermeasures:(1)regulating providers of agricultural means of production;(2)strengthening construction of agricultural product market circulation system;(3)improving organization of farmers;(4)setting up and improving production subsidy system of farmers.

  16. A Study of Green Logistics for Chinese Agriculture Products

    OpenAIRE

    Na Liu

    2015-01-01

    Although agriculture plays an important role in China, the country is still suffering much from the weakness of the logistics system of its agriculture products, such as outdated facilities, lacking of logistics experts, weak information technology, etc. The weak logistics system causes the loss of many agricultural products in daily delivery and storing. This study addresses the problem by taking a study of green logistics for Chinese agriculture products. We take an SWOT method to analyze t...

  17. Monitoring pathogens from irradiated agriculture products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final food and environmental safety assessment of agriculture product irradiation can only be determined by product history. Product history will be used for future research and development, regulations, commercial practices and implementation of agriculture and food irradiation on a regional basis. The commercial irradiator treats large varieties and amounts of products that are used in various environments. it, in time, will generate a large data base of product history. Field product monitoring begins when food irradiation progresses from the pilot/demonstration phase to the commercial phase. At that time, it is important that there be in place a monitoring system to collect and analyze field data. The systems managers, public health authorities and exotic disease specialists will use this information to assess the reduction of food pathogens on the populace and the environment. (author)

  18. An Agricultural Product E-Business System: Case of Khat E-business in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon Mwanjele MWAGHA, Hilda Kangai Ntong‟ondu

    2014-01-01

    With the consistent increase in level of economic constrains which was as a result of the rapidly increasing travelling costs in Kenya among others, businessmen are eager to come up with various ways to cub financial problems. The night travel ban had really caused a tactic problem to business men in Kenya. People used to travel during the night, perform their activities during the day and go back again over night. The development of (Agribusiness Products E-businesses System) APEBS enabled t...

  19. Typologies and spatialization of agricultural production systems in Rondônia, Brazil : linking land use, socioeconomics and territorial configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, C; Mourao, M. Jr; Dessay, Nadine; Lacques, A.E.; Monteiro, A; Durieux, Laurent; Venturieri, A.; Seyler, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    The current Amazon landscape consists of heterogeneous mosaics formed by interactions between the original forest and productive activities. Recognizing and quantifying the characteristics of these landscapes is essential for understanding agricultural production chains, assessing the impact of policies, and in planning future actions. Our main objective was to construct the regionalization of agricultural production for Rondônia State (Brazilian Amazon) at the municipal level. We adopted a d...

  20. Conservation agriculture and tillage effects on soil organic matter and residual moisture content in selected upland crop production systems in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.; Manuel R. Reyes; Padre, R.; Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a study to analyze the influence of conservation agriculture and tillage on soil organic matter and residual moisture content in selected upland crop production systems in the Philippines LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  1. The Construction of Agricultural Products Traceability System Based on the Internet of Things—The Cases of Pollution-Free Vegetables in Leping of Jiangxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fang

    2013-01-01

    With the problems of food safety happening increasingly, the demand of the public for agricultural products becomes stronger and stronger. This paper declared the status of the production process of pollution-free vegetables in Leping city of Jiangxi Province in detail. At the same time, it put forward the existing problems in the current process and the recommend for new system. In the end, based on the internet of things, it designed the Agricultural Farm System, including the process of pu...

  2. Automated system for generation of soil moisture products for agricultural drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Shekhar, S. S.; Chandrasekar, K.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Drought is a frequently occurring disaster affecting lives of millions of people across the world every year. Several parameters, indices and models are being used globally to forecast / early warning of drought and monitoring drought for its prevalence, persistence and severity. Since drought is a complex phenomenon, large number of parameter/index need to be evaluated to sufficiently address the problem. It is a challenge to generate input parameters from different sources like space based data, ground data and collateral data in short intervals of time, where there may be limitation in terms of processing power, availability of domain expertise, specialized models & tools. In this study, effort has been made to automate the derivation of one of the important parameter in the drought studies viz Soil Moisture. Soil water balance bucket model is in vogue to arrive at soil moisture products, which is widely popular for its sensitivity to soil conditions and rainfall parameters. This model has been encoded into "Fish-Bone" architecture using COM technologies and Open Source libraries for best possible automation to fulfill the needs for a standard procedure of preparing input parameters and processing routines. The main aim of the system is to provide operational environment for generation of soil moisture products by facilitating users to concentrate on further enhancements and implementation of these parameters in related areas of research, without re-discovering the established models. Emphasis of the architecture is mainly based on available open source libraries for GIS and Raster IO operations for different file formats to ensure that the products can be widely distributed without the burden of any commercial dependencies. Further the system is automated to the extent of user free operations if required with inbuilt chain processing for every day generation of products at specified intervals. Operational software has inbuilt capabilities to automatically

  3. Research on Agricultural Products Traceability Mechanism Based on RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuguang Bao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aim is to provide a feasible and effective way for the government supervision, agricultural enterprises and consumers to obtain traceability information. This study researches traceability of agricultural products. Through the analysis of the participators, the influence of the agricultural products circulation pattern of supply chain, traceability security system and tracing process, it constructs a pattern of the agricultural products traceability and puts forward a method to realize agricultural products traceability model. The method uses RFID to collect related information of agricultural products and realize the agricultural products traceability process based on the traceability chain construction of the agricultural products and redesigned trace code. Finally, this study analyzes the concrete application of the proposed method in beef traceability to prove the feasibility of our circulation and method.

  4. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; F. McCabe, Matthew; Cescatti, Alessandro; A. Gitelson, Anatoly

    2015-12-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et al. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between Vmax25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between Vmax25, Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific Vmax25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35-55 μg cm-2 for maize and 20-35 μg cm-2 for soybean) are observed. While

  5. Surface N Balances in Agricultural Crop Production Systems in China for the Period 1980-2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bo; SHEN Run-Ping; A.F.BOUWMAN

    2008-01-01

    Surface nitrogen (N) balances for ChinEs crop production systems was estimated using statistical data collected from 1980 to 2004 at the national and provincial scale and from 1994 to 1999 at the county level.There was a surplus N balance throughout these periods,but the surplus was nearly stable in recent years.Projections using nonseasonal Box-Jenkins model or exponential models show that the N surplus for the total cultivated land in China was likely to increase from 142.8 kg ha-1 in 2004 to 168.6 kg ha-1 in 2015.The N balance surplus in the more developed southeastern provinces was the largest,and was slightly less in the central region,which caused the nitrate pollution in the ground water.The N surplus was much less in the western and northern provinces because of lower synthetic fertilizer inputs.The region with high N risk includes Beijing Municipality and Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Fujian,Guangdong,Hubei,and Shandong provinces for 2002-2004.The projections suggested that 15 provinces (or municipalities) in the middle and southeastern part of China except Jiangxi and Shanxi provinces would become the high-risk region by 2015.The level of economic development,transportation,and labor force condition had an important effect on the N balance surplus at the county level,but the last two factors showed remarkable impact at the provincial level.To decrease the nonpoint pollution (Npp) risk from crop production,the authors suggested to reduce the target level for national grain self-sufficiency to 90%-95% and change the regional structure of grain production by moving some of the future grain production from the high Npp risk areas of eastern China to parts of the central and western provinces where the Npp risk was much less.

  6. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  7. The Network Marketing of Fresh Agricultural Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the connotation of network marketing of fresh agricultural products and analyzed the fundaments of launching the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products in China.The fundaments mainly cover the development of e-commerce,the transformation of consumption concept,the change of life style and the features of Chinese agricultural production.The developmental status of the C2C marketing of Chinese fresh vegetables and fresh fruits is introduced and the plights,including imperfect rural network infrastructure,inadequate talents specialized in network marketing of fresh agricultural products,uneven quality of agricultural products,immature logistics system,uncertainty existed in faced by the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products and imperfect governmental protection system,are pointed out.In the end,the developmental trend of Chinese network marketing of fresh agricultural products on the basis of C2C mode is described.

  8. Meteorological risks, impacts on crop production systems and agricultural insurances in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, A.; Piccard, I.

    2012-04-01

    Devastating weather-related events recorded in recent years have captured the interest of the general public in Belgium. Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods are projected to increase both in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Since more than half of the Belgian territory is managed by the agricultural sector, extreme events have significant impacts on agro-ecosystem services and pose severe limitations to sustainable agricultural land management. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by more limits to aid received for agricultural damage (amendments to EC Regulation 1857/2006) and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers. Current knowledge gaps related to the occurrence of extreme events and the response of agro-ecosystems need to be addressed in conjunction with their vulnerability, resilience and adaptive possibilities. A chain of risks approach starts with assessing the likely frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events by means of probability density functions. Impacts are subsequently based on physically based models that provide information on the state of the damage at any given time and assist in understanding the links between different factors causing damage and in determining bio-physical vulnerability. The output of regional bio-physical models is compared with remote sensing based algorithms applied on SPOT-VGT temporal data. Crop damage and risk indicators are derived from remote sensing, meteorological records, crop modelling and agricultural statistics and compared to damage statistics obtained from the government-based agricultural disaster funds. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Spatio-temporal indicators of drought during the growing season and waterlogging at harvest showed the highest agreement with damage, followed by hail and frost. In general potatoes, flax and

  9. Productivity and Technical Change in Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Carlos Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Brazil's agricultural sector underwent major changes in the past two decades. Though Brazil is abundant in labor, land, and animal power, government subsidies encouraged the use of fertilizer and machines. Since productivity growth arises from technical change, Brazil's drive to modernize its agricultural sector should improve agricultural productivity. However, inefficient production practices arising from subsidies can slow multifactor productivity growth. Recent removal of agricultural sub...

  10. Global and Regional Surface Nitrogen Balances in Intensive Agricultural Production Systems for the Period 1970-2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.F.BOUWMAN; G.Van DRECHT; K.W.Van der HOEK

    2005-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) budgets for intensive agricultural systems were compiled for a 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution. These budgets include N inputs (N fertilizer, animal manure, biological N fixation and atmospheric N deposition) and outputs (N removal from the field in harvested crops and grass and grass consumption by grazing animals, ammonia volatilization,denitrification and leaching). Data for the historical years 1970 and 1995 and a projection for 2030 were used to study changes in the recovery of N and the different loss terms for intensive agricultural systems. The results indicate that the overall system N recovery and fertilizer use efficiency slowly increased in the industrialized countries between 1970 and 1995, the values for developing countries have decreased in the same period. For the coming three decades our results indicate a rapid increase in both the industrialized and developing countries. High values of > 80% for fertilizer use efficiency may be related to surface N balance deficits, implying a depletion of soil N and loss of soil fertility. The projected intensification in most developing countries will cause a gradual shift from deficits to surpluses in the coming decades.The projected fast growth of crop and livestock production, and intensification and associated increase in fertilizer inputs will cause a major increase in the surface N balance surplus in the coming three decades. This implies increasing losses of N compounds to air (ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide), and groundwater and surface water (nitrate).

  11. Conservation agriculture, a sustainable production alternative for the (sub)tropical highlands : toward an integrated evaluation of the system

    OpenAIRE

    Govaerts, Bram

    2007-01-01

    (Sub)tropical highlands of the world are densely populated and intensively cropped. Agricultural sustainability problems resulting from soil erosion and fertility decline have arisen throughout this agro-ecological zone. Major changes are needed in land, livestock and water management in line with traditional lifestyles and customs to remedy the agricultural system. Can conservation agriculture, based on three basic principles (1) minimal soil movement, (2) retention of rational amounts of cr...

  12. Wastewater usage in urban and peri-urban agricultural production systems: scenarios from India

    OpenAIRE

    Vazhacharickal, Prem Jose; Gangopadhyay, Sumita Gupta

    2014-01-01

    The role urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) plays in reducing urban poverty and ensuring environmental sustainability was recognized by the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). India is the world’s largest democratic nation with a population of 1.2 billion. The rapid urbanization and high proportion of people below the poverty line along with higher migration to urban areas make India vulnerable to food crisis and urbanization of poverty. Ensuring jobs and food security among urban poor i...

  13. Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Eduardo A.S. Rosa; Saavedra, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect...

  14. [Applicability of agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM) in simulating the production and water use of wheat-maize continuous cropping system in North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zheng, You-fei; Yu, Qiang; Wang, En-li

    2007-11-01

    The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was applied to simulate the 1999-2001 field experimental data and the 2002-2003 water use data at the Yucheng Experiment Station under Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, aimed to verify the applicability of the model to the wheat-summer maize continuous cropping system in North China Plain. The results showed that the average errors of the simulations of leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and soil moisture content in 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field experiments were 27.61%, 24.59% and 7.68%, and 32.65%, 35.95% and 10.26%, respectively, and those of LAI and biomass on the soils with high and low moisture content in 2002-2003 were 26.65% and 14.52%, and 23.91% and 27.93%, respectively. The simulations of LAI and biomass accorded well with the measured values, with the coefficients of determination being > 0.85 in 1999-2000 and 2002-2003, and 0.78 in 2000-2001, indicating that APSIM had a good applicability in modeling the crop biomass and soil moisture content in the continuous cropping system, but the simulation error of LAI was a little larger. PMID:18260451

  15. Monitoring pathogens from irradiated agriculture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterweck, Joseph S.

    The final food and environmental safety assessment of agriculture product irradiation can only be determined by product history. Product history will be used for future research and development, regulations, commercial practices and implementation of agriculture and food irradiation on a regional basis. The commercial irradiator treats large varieties and amounts of products that are used in various environments. It, in time, will generate a large data base of product history. Field product monitoring begins when food irradiation progresses from the pilot/demonstration phase to the commercial phase. At that time, it is important that there be in place a monitoring system to collect and analyze field data. The systems managers, public health authorities and exotic disease specialists will use this information to assess the reduction of food pathogens on the populace and the environment. The common sources of monitoring data are as follows: 1) Host Monitoring a) Medical Diagnosis b) Autopsy c) Serology Surveys 2) Environmental Monitoring a) Sentinel b) Pest Surveys/Microbial Counts c) Sanitary Inspections 3) Food Industries Quality Assurance Monitoring a) End Product Inspection b) Complaints c) Continual Use of the Product

  16. Precision agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  17. Sustainable governance of agriculture and the Baltic Sea : Agricultural reforms, food production and curbed eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Markus; Granstedt, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural production and nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea are likely to increase following Poland's and the Baltic States' entrance into the EU. According to HELCOM these trends will be highly dependent on the agricultural policies of the EU. The expansion of the EU can be seen as a window of opportunity where agricultural policy could improve the Baltic Sea environment. Longstanding initiatives with local organic food systems and Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) in the eight EU-coun...

  18. Improving agricultural productivity in the savannah of Tabasco State, Mexico: I. Management of maize and sorghum production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of studies was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected biological components of agrosystems, in particular mycorrhizae, earthworms, and Trichoderma on sorghum and maize crop production in an acid Ultisol of the savannah of Huimanguillo, Tabasco state, Mexico. Isotopic techniques using 15N and 32P were used to assess N and P use efficiency of sorghum transgenic lines (citrate over-producers) under nutrient-limited conditions. No significant differences in 15N-fertilizer use efficiency between the lines tested (L8, a citrate over-producer) and a commercial genotype were found. The commercial line and a negative control (L18-2 transgenic line), showed the highest N derived from the fertilizer as well as P uptake derived from rock phosphate. The combined application of the legume green-manure Mucuna pruriens and earthworms (Balanteodrilus pearsei) had a positive effect on N and P uptake and maize yields (78 g grain plant-1 vs. 26 g grain plant-1 for the control). Inoculation of maize with Trichoderma enhanced the effect of N fertilization and the N-uptake efficiency was highest when the fertilizer N was applied at sowing. Both Trichoderma strain C4 and the commercial inoculant 'Tricom' gave the highest values of N-fertilizer use efficiency (43 and 38%, respectively), which was equivalent to a 2.4-fold increase over that found when fertilizer was applied alone. In a field evaluation of maize genotypes, the genotype VS-536 yielded 2.35 Mg grain ha-1 and highest fertilizer N efficiency when 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 of the reactive Baja California PR was applied, suggesting that this genotype could be used in the local production system. Interestingly, inoculation with mycorrhizae did not have positive effects on the fertilized maize. Overall, these data will contribute to establish better management practices for increasing soil fertility and improving crop production in the acid, unfertile savannah soils of Mexico. (author)

  19. Effect of rural transportation system on agricultural productivity in Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ezekiel Olukayode Idowu; Adeolu Babatunde Ayanwale; Kassali Rabirou; Stella Bola Williams

    2012-01-01

    Food farming in Oyo North, Nigeria is characterised by an increasing use of Intermediary Mode of Transportation (IMT) to ease inputs and outputs mobility and farm access. To assess the influence on food farmer’s productivity, a random sample of 230 respondents was selected and data collected on their socio-economic and farm specific characteristics. Descriptive statistics, Herfindhal Index and Technical Efficiency Approach were used to analyse the data. The results indicate that majority of f...

  20. Effect of rural transportation system on agricultural productivity in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Olukayode Idowu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Food farming in Oyo North, Nigeria is characterised by an increasing use of Intermediary Mode of Transportation (IMT to ease inputs and outputs mobility and farm access. To assess the influence on food farmer’s productivity, a random sample of 230 respondents was selected and data collected on their socio-economic and farm specific characteristics. Descriptive statistics, Herfindhal Index and Technical Efficiency Approach were used to analyse the data. The results indicate that majority of food farmers were in their middle age with mean age of 50 years and most of them used one plot at a location between 5 and 10km to their village of residence. They acquired land by inheritance and practiced intensive crop diversification as risk management strategy. The transportation modes used in addition to walking include bicycle, motorcycle, and car with increasing trend in the use of motorcycle. The mean Technical Efficiency (TE of food farmers was 0.82 with significant inefficiency effects. The inefficiency analysis indicates positive effect of distance, crop diversification and un-tarred type of road on farmer’s productivity, while poor level of education among farmers, use of bicycle; trekking and weekly working time negatively affect farmer’s efficiency. The negative effect of trekking and use of bicycle and the excess working time suggest the adoption of more IMT of motorized type to optimize farming time and increase farmer’s productivity.

  1. Farming System and Agricultural Production among Small Farmers in the Uluguru Mountain Area, Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    MASAWE, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    A farming systems approach is used to explain the problems of small scale farmers in the Uluguru Mountain Area in Morogoro region, Tanzania. A survey, involving 60 small farmers selected at random, was conducted by means of questionnaires, discussions as well as field observations. It was revealed that although farmers in this area practice a variety of cropping systems partly taken over the know-how of the older shifting type of cultivation, and considered more appropriate to deal with the f...

  2. NIR-LEDs lighting system for enhancing Brix distinction with saving energy to agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Kil; Kim, Yang-Gyu; Park, Ahn-Jin; Jang, Won-Geun; Park, Youngsik

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the sugar content prediction determination system in optical non-contact type based on the near infrared light emitting diode (NIR-LED) lamp is proposed. As the result NIR-LED lamp reduced 86% of the energy consumption compared to the case of Halogen lamp in the same process of sugar content determination. And the result of prediction of sugar content by NIR-LED lamp is shown to as near the same level of Halogen lamp system.

  3. Rice Ratoon Crop: A Sustainable Rice Production System for Tropical Hill Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Golam Faruq; Rosna Mat Taha; Zakaria H. Prodhan

    2014-01-01

    Increasing and sustainable production of rice in tropical hill area is facing various problems where rice ratooning can overcome the limitations. In this study; 22 rice entries were transplanted into experimental tank placed in the hill slope following Completely Randomized Design with five replications to asses’ agronomic performance of main crop and ratoon crop where Entry 13 demonstrated highest grain yield per plant (42.06 ± 1.2 gm) as main crop, as well as ratoon crop (3.37 ± 0.28 gm...

  4. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  5. SUPPLY CHAINS IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CONDRAȚCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of production and supply chain is increasing worldwide due of the growing consumer concerns over foodsafety and quality together with retailer demands for large volumes of consistent and reliable product. In developedcountries, product losses (post harvest losses are generally small during processing, storage and handling becauseof the efficiency of the equipment, better storage facilities, and control of critical variables by a skilled and trainedstaff. Recently, the concept of Agricultural and Food production has been under development as more effective andefficient management system is required for the food production planning, physical collection of primary producefrom fields and homesteads, processing and storage at various levels, handling, packaging, and distribution of finalproduct.

  6. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  7. Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale design to incorporate biomass production into an agricultural system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1) soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO3 by 61 or 59% and N2O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha−1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha−1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits. - Highlights: • Design of a multifunctional landscape by integrating cellulosic biofuel production into an existing agricultural system. • The design does not adversely offset current grain production for bioenergy crops. • Maps of concentrated flow paths, subsurface flow direction, NO3–N hotspots, and intra-field corn yield variability.

  8. TRIPLING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: MYTH OR REALITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Klimova N. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents downward trend of agrarian production since the pre-reform period using the graphical method. We have reasoned the arguments and given the impossibility of three-time growth of agricultural production in 2020, despite having good potential key resources which are land and labor. The possible priority tools of the effective agricultural policy, as a single integral mechanism aimed at revenue growth of agricultural producers and farmers

  9. Seed quality and its importance in agricultural production and safety of agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    Ilieva, Verica; Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Markova Ruzdik, Natalija; Todorovska, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production depends of a lot of variable factors. Basic catalyst of efficiency of all other factors is the seed. The seed has always been a key factor in agricultural production. Modern crop production and the science of agricultural also confirms that without seed quality we won't have a successful agricultural production. Seed quality is that one which has a genetic purity, physical purity, is healthy and has good physiological condition in accordance with the prescribed standar...

  10. Minilivestock in Argentina. Integration with Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biasatti, NR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative agricultural production can take different forms. In Argentina there is an important diversity of species available to be incorporated into production systems, giving support for the use of natural resources based on taking advantage of the regional fauna. Moreover the use of different animal species can be incorporated under the concept of the optimization of flows of energy and materials, tending to minimize the environmental impact of livestock production, and also to make more efficient use of the ingredients required for developing the activity. The integration of non-traditional species (minilivestock within the context of sustainable agricultural development was the motivation for the present study A module for raising Myocastor coypus (coypu or false nutha was developed, to which was linked a module for raising Eisenia foetida (the socalled red worm, in both cases with a dual purpose. Preliminary estimates were made of the productive aspects of both species, as well as an analysis of their integration, to understand the extent to which diversification linked with complementation tends to optimize the system.

  11. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  12. PRODUCTION OF XYLITOL FROM AGRICULTURAL HEMICELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of value-added co-products from agricultural biomass is an important economic driver for the success of a biorefinery approach to the production of ethanol and other fuels. During most ethanol production methods, significant amounts of hemicellulose by-products are produced which are...

  13. PRINCIPLES OF THE DETERMINATION ENERGY INTENSITY OF THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan F.; Rotari V.; Mocanu A

    2010-01-01

    A set of energy resources is consumed in the primary production and conversion process of agricultural product. Minimal quantity of energy required for the production of agricultural product unit is considered by the notion of energy intensity of agricultural products.

  14. Evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiti, K.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960 with the help of variable quantifies of products, the cultured area and the exported quantifies of products. A comparative analysis of quantifies of studied products shows that after 1960, the agricultural production of basis foodstuffs of the Zairian population has fallen of the order of 91 % in comparison with the first period. This study shows that the system of peasantry introduced in 1936 by the INEAC, the rationalization of cultural methods connected to the governmental explain the agricultural expansion of Zaire before 1960.

  15. Multiple Encryption-based Algorithm of Agricultural Product Trace Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To establish a sound traceability system of agricultural products and guarantee security of agricultural products,an algorithm is proposed to encrypt trace code of agricultural products.Original trace code consists of 34 digits indicating such information as place of origin,name of product,date of production and authentication.Area code is used to indicate enterprise information,the encrypted algorithm is designed because of the increasing code length,such coding algorithms as system conversion and section division are applied for the encrypted conversion of code of origin place and production date code,moreover,section identification code and authentication code are permutated and combined to produce check code.Through the multiple encryption and code length compression,34 digits are compressed to 20 on the basis of ensuring complete coding information,shorter code length and better encryption enable the public to know information about agricultural products without consulting professional database.

  16. Structure, Composition and Diversity of Horticulture Trees and Agricultural Crops Productivity under Traditional Agri-Horticulture System in Mid Hill Situation of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Bijalwan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Productivity of agricultural crops under traditional agri-hortculture system alongwith structure, composition and diversity of fruit trees and shrub species in mid hill situation of Garhwal Himalaya, India between 1000 to 2000 m asl during summer and winter seasons on northern and southern aspect were studied. The tree density, composition and diversity in the system varied depending upon aspect, landholding and requirements of the farmers. A total of 12 fruit tree species were recorded in agri-horticulture system; of which 4 trees were common in northern and southern aspect and 6 trees were only noticed in northern aspect while 2 in the southern. The apple tree (Malus domestica was recorded to be dominant fruit tree species with highest IVI values on both northern and southern aspect with prime preference by the farmers for high additional economic return in agri-horticulture system. Among the shrubs, the 6 shrub species were recorded on the northern aspect whereas there number was 16 on southern aspect. The agricultural crop diversity was higher on the northern aspect in summer and winter season. The average annual productivity of grain under agri-horticulture system recorded 1106 kg·ha–1·year–1 on northern aspect and 1122 kg·ha–1·year–1 on southern with a reduction of 34.56% and 38.29% compared to the sole agriculture crops. The aspect and season also played significantly role in grain, straw and biological productivity of agricultural crops present in agri-horticulture and sole cropping systems. In general there was reduction in yield of agricultural crops under fruit trees but this reduction is supplemented by fruit production which support and sustain the rural community of this hilly region.

  17. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  18. Agricultural Production: Program Planning Guide: Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, William; Wood, Eugene

    The program planning guide for agricultural production was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of animal science, plant science, farm mechanics, and farm business…

  19. Analysis on the Influencing Factors of the Quality Traceable System Established by Edible Agricultural Products Enterprises—Taking Sichuan as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiao; Wu, Xiu-min; Zhao, Zhi-jing

    2011-01-01

    According to the investigation data from 81 edible agricultural products enterprises in Sichuan Province, the influence factors of establishing quality tracing system are empirically analyzed from four aspects, including the enterprise features, the attitudes of operators, management and market competition by using the Logistic model. The results show that the enterprise can establish the quality tracing system after the comprehensive function of a series of internal and external factors. The...

  20. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  1. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Sources and sinks of nitrogen-E phosphorus-based nutrients in cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the report of an expert mission to assist in the initiation of research on sustainable agriculture in rice-based cropping systems as related to the flow of plant nutrients, and on the use of legumes in upland cropping systems. Experimental suggestions include an investigation of the acid tolerance of different soybean strains under upland conditions, an analysis of ways to replace fertilizer nitrogen for rice crops by a green manure such as azolla, and a study of the increase in nutrient availability due to th presence of fish in a paddy field

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    unit. This dissertation presents results and comprehensions from my PhD study on the basis of three papers. The overall aim has been to develop a new identity-based framework, the KPI, to estimate and analyse GHG emissions from agriculture and LUC and apply this on national, regional and global level...... well in relation to what is actually produced. The KPI framework is scale independent and can be applied at any level from field and farm to global agricultural production. Paper I presents the first attempt to develop the KPI identity framework and, as a case study, GHG emissions from Danish crop...... that do not allow for decoupling. In Paper III agricultural production and GHG emissions since 1970, are analysed for nine world regions. Decoupling of emissions from production shows vast regional differences. In general, the more developed regions show the lowest emissions per unit of agricultural...

  3. Agricultural Expert Systems as an Information Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Amany Ramadan Taha

    2007-01-01

    The research discusses the use and usefulness of Agricultural Expert Systems as information source, Those Expert Systems as very important supporting tools for helping people in the decision making process, also this research discusses the role of Central laboratory of Agricultural Expert Systems (CLAES) to support and development the Agricultural Expert System as the main supportive unit to Agricultural Expert Systems in Egypt

  4. Bioethanol production from agricultural wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, José Cardoso; Sàágua, M. C.; Baeta-Hall, Lina; Correia, Anabela; Ribeiro, Belina; Lourenço, V.; Pereira, J.; Paixão, Susana M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been screened for the ability of bioethanol production. Yeasts were grown in synthetic liquid medium containing two different substrates: sucrose at different concentrations (10 to 400g/l) and cane molasses (120g/l of sucrose). The screening was made in batch regime and the growth rates, ethanol and biomass productions were determined. The results indicate a flocculent yeast strain – F as the more suitable microorganism to prod...

  5. Influence of maize-based conservation agriculture production system (CAPS) on some basic soil indices in the hilly terrains of Odisha

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, K.N.; Roul, Pravat K.; Dash, S.N.; A Mohanty; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Idol, Travis; Pradhan, Aliza; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    The soils in the hilly terrains of North Central Plateau agro-climatic zones of Odisha are subjected to various kinds of soil degradation due loss of forest cover, accelerated soil erosion, shifting cultivation and intense mining activities, thus rendering them unproductive. The farmers of this zone are traditionally growing maize as the only rainfed crop under high tillage without any scientific agro-techniques. Conservation agriculture production system (CAPS) involving minimum tillage, leg...

  6. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through proper management, agricultural systems (cropland, pasture, and forest) have the ability to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequester it in soils and wood products. The carbon thus sequestered can help slow the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide currently occurring as a res...

  7. The Forgotten Half of Food System Reform: Using Food and Agricultural Law to Foster Healthy Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Broad Leib, Emily Michele

    2013-01-01

    America is facing widespread problems with its food system, including environmental harms due to externalities from industrial farms; the increasing amount of “food miles” traveled by the products that make up our daily meals; and the growing size and complexity of recent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. Indeed, the entire system that covers the life cycle of food, through production, processing, distribution, consumption, and food waste management, is in crisis. One of the most disturbing o...

  8. Options for enhancing agricultural productivity in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Pender, John L.; Kato, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, economic growth in Nigeria has been strong. Annual GDP grew by 9.1 percent per annum between 2003 and 2005 and by 6 .1 percent per annum between 2006 and 2008. Much of this growth can be attributed to the non-oil economy which has grown rapidly. This is due primarily to agriculture, which contributes approximately 35 percent to total GDP and supports 70 percent of the population. Agricultural research has been shown to be crucial in increasing agricultural productivity and reducin...

  9. Lemon Effect of Green Agricultural Products and Its Marketing Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the lemon effect of green agricultural products,analyzes the formation reasons of the lemon effect of green agricul-tural products and summarizes problems brought by the effect,such as malicious deception and high price.The paper proposes countermeasures toavoid the lemon effect of green agricultural products from a perspective of marketing.The first is to strengthen the quality supervision of green agri-cultural products,upgrade the quality of products,and build up branded products.The government should foster the main body of the products andguide the main body to realize the importance of brand construction and management.The second is to construct a sales channel system of greenagricultural products,making use of the trading center of modern green agricultural products to sell products,developing a long term partnershipwith processing industries,big supermarket and restaurants,making use of internet and selling products online and offline.The third is to propagatethe products.Make a good use of advertisement,personal sales,propagation and public relations to accelerate the healthy development of greenagricultural market.

  10. Climate and Agriculture: Challenges for Efficient Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate has always been and will continue to be an important factor in agricultural production. Evidence of this is apparent when looking at where plants or animals are distributed around the world and the variation among years in terms of grain, forage, vegetable, and fruit production. The recent r...

  11. 我国农产品可追溯体系的现状及问题分析%Status and Problems of China's Agricultural Products Traceability System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娜; 东梅; 李瑾; 魏涛

    2014-01-01

    In recent years , because of the mad cow disease , foot and mouth disease , melamine scandal and the "Horse Meat Crisis "which has not yet subsided in European , food safety problem has aroused more and more attention of the people .However , the retrospective of the quality of agricultural products is an effective way to solve the problem of food security .Based on the analysis of the current situation of the agricultural products traceability system ,this paper provides existing problems of Chinese agricultural products traceability system in the standards , technology , laws, regulations and the cost.,and then puts forward some suggestions .%近年来,从疯牛病、口蹄疫、三聚氰胺事件,到欧洲尚未平息的“马肉风波”,食品安全问题引起了人们越来越广泛的关注。农产品质量追溯是解决食品安全问题的一个有效办法。为此,分析了我国目前农产品可追溯系统的发展现状,找出了我国农产品追溯系统在标准、技术、法律法规和成本等方面存在的问题,并提出了参考建议。

  12. New concepts of energy supply for sustainable agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Frerichs

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of future agricultural production systems requires innovative approaches. For creating a more productive, resource-efficient and low-emission agriculture the systemic development of the agricultural processes, the operating conditions and the organizational processes is necessary. Fundamentally new approaches can be found by defining scenarios. Such a hypothetic concept does field operation without using internal combustion engines. Instead of this the power supply of performant machines can be done by electric direct supply systems or for small machines by battery systems with charging points. However, all this requires the electrical energy supply of agricultural fields. A direct electric energy supply utilizing the Center Pivot approach via rotating structures enables new production systems. Using innovative technologies new solutions with great potential for automation and a productive precision agriculture can be designed. This paper highlights an unconventional approach stimulating the discussion about future developments in agricultural engineering.

  13. Combining modeling approaches for participatory integrated assessment of scenarios for agricultural systems: an application to cereal production systems in Camargue, South of France

    OpenAIRE

    Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lopez Ridaura, Santiago; Barbier, Jean Marc; Wéry, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Models are common tools used for scenario assessment of agricultural systems. In this paper we present the combined application of three modeling approaches for participatory integrated assessment of scenarios for agriculture in the Camargue area (South of France). By means of a land use change analysis (LUC), an agent-based model (ABM), and a bio-economic model (BEM), we assessed with farmers and other stakeholders of the area scenarios related to the CAP reform and the possible extension of...

  14. Industrial use of agricultural products: European prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first discusses how the GATT internal trade agreement has affected Italian and European agricultural practices, especially in that which regards the production of soybean and other vegetable oils. It then assesses how current Italian agricultural policies impact on proposals now being designed to encourage the production of vegetable oils for use as ecological automotive fuel alternatives. The paper cites the need for a greater say by farming associations, and cooperation among fuel oil producers and government bodies in the drafting up of future policies

  15. Recycling of solid wastes in Mexico City in livestock and agricultural production systems as a sustainable alternative

    OpenAIRE

    H. Losada; Cortes, J; Rivera, J.; Vargas, J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of solid organic wastes (manure and  fruit and vegetable refusals) as a way to recycle rubbish from peri-urban areas for the production of crops for local consumption, has been designated by some researchers as an alternate method to partially reduce city waste disposal problems as well as to generate employment and promote the consumption of local products. This model production has also been suggested as a closed system ideally suited for urban environments in order to reduce the us...

  16. MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGRICULTURE AND INTEGRATION OF FARMING PRODUCTION SYSTEMS WITHIN AGRIBUSINESS CHAINS LA AGRICULTURA MULTIFUNCIONAL Y LA INTEGRACION DE LOS SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCION AGROPECUARIA DENTRO DE LAS CADENAS AGROINDUSTRIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cotes Torres

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays is recognized that the agriculture goes beyond that only the food production, so the concept of agricultural multifunctionality is introduced in order to describe this fact, recovering the true sense of the agriculture, and classifying its functions in three groups: 1 food security, 2 environment, and 3 socio-cultural. In each one of these functions, the agricultural production systems generate two categories of products: a the traditional outputs (commodities, such as food, fibers and energy, and b the non traditional outputs (non-commodities, which included aspects related with the environment and territory, employment, human resources and work, food safety and quality, animal welfare, food security and economic autonomy of the rural regions among others. Finally, we explore the evolution that agricultural production systems have had from a productivist focus toward a model where the new paradigm is the multifunctional agriculture, where the developing countries could have an important place.El presente artículo inicialmente aborda el concepto de multifuncionalidad de la agricultura, donde encontramos que actualmente se reconoce que la agricultura va mas allá de la simple producción de alimentos, clasificando sus principales funciones en tres ejes temáticos: 1 seguridad alimentaria, 2 medio ambiente, y 3 socio-cultural. En cada una de estas funciones se evidencia que los sistemas de producción agropecuaria generan dos categorías de productos: a productos tradicionales (“commodities”, como son los alimentos, las fibras y la energía, y b productos no tradicionales (“non-commodities”, los cuales incluyen aspectos relacionados con el medio ambiente y territorio, la generación de empleo, el manejo del recurso humano y de las condiciones laborales, la gestión de la calidad de los alimentos, el bienestar animal, la autonomía económica de las regiones rurales y su seguridad alimentaria, entre otros. Finalmente, se tiene en

  17. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  18. Optimal Quality Assurance Systems for Agricultural Outputs

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Carriquiry; Babcock, Bruce A.; Roxana Carbone

    2003-01-01

    New quality assurance systems (QASs) are being put in place to facilitate the flow of information about agricultural and food products. But what constitutes a proper mix of public and private efforts in setting up QASs is an unsettled question. A better understanding of private sector incentives for setting up such systems will help clarify what role the public sector might have in establishing standards. We contribute to this understanding by modeling the optimal degree of "stringency" or as...

  19. ENHANCEMENT OF THE CREDIT GRANTING SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliya Evgenievna Klishina; Olga Nicolaevna Uglitskikh

    2015-01-01

    The credit granting system of agricultural enterprises which developed now doesn’t promote development of agricultural production in spite of the facts that are accepted and are financed by the state of the development program of agrarian and industrial complex in various directions. Financial credit relations in the sphere of agrarian and industrial complex are in a stage of formation and have no system nature, in them features of agricultural production are insufficiently considered.In arti...

  20. Aglite Lidar: A Portable Elastic Lidar System for Investigating Aerosol and Wind Motions at or Around Agricultural Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Aglite Lidar is a portable scanning lidar that can be quickly deployed at agricultural and other air quality study sites. The purpose of Aglite is to map the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in aerosol plumes from agricultural and other sources. Aglite uses a high-repetition rate low-pulse energy...

  1. ENHANCEMENT OF THE CREDIT GRANTING SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Evgenievna Klishina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The credit granting system of agricultural enterprises which developed now doesn’t promote development of agricultural production in spite of the facts that are accepted and are financed by the state of the development program of agrarian and industrial complex in various directions. Financial credit relations in the sphere of agrarian and industrial complex are in a stage of formation and have no system nature, in them features of agricultural production are insufficiently considered.In article the directions of development of credit support of agricultural industry, participation of the state in system of agricultural crediting are considered, offers on forming of a three-level credit granting system of agricultural industry which is urged to provide availability of credit resources to all categories of agricultural producers are made.

  2. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Classified Marketing of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengying; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Classified marketing of agricultural products was analyzed using the Logistic Regression Model. This method can take full advantage of information in agricultural product database,to find factors influencing best selling degree of agricultural products,and make quantitative analysis accordingly. Using this model,it is also able to predict sales of agricultural products,and provide reference for mapping out individualized sales strategy for popularizing agricultural products.

  3. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

  4. Evaluation of zinc oxide nanoparticle toxicity in sludge products applied to agricultural soil using multispecies soil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Dolores; Alonso-Blázquez, María Nieves; García-Gómez, Concepción; Babin, Mar

    2014-11-01

    To study the environmental impact of nanoparticles, the sludges of wastewater (WWTS) and water treatment (WTS) plants enriched with ZnO nanoparticles were added to agricultural soil, and the toxic effects of the nanoparticles were studied using a microcosm system based on the soil. The WWTS treated soils were characterised by statistically significant decreases (pgermination at the lowest (76.2%) and medium (95.2%) application rates, decreases in the fresh biomass for Triticum aestivum (19.5%), Raphanus sativus (64.1%), V. sativa (37.4%) and Eisenia fetida (33.6%) at the highest application rate and a dose-related significant increase (paestivum and the fresh biomass for R. sativus (31.4%) were only recorded at the highest application doses. In addition, the soil phosphatase enzymatic activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) in both WWTS (dose related) and WTS treatments. For water organisms, a slight inhibition of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris was observed (WWTS treated soils), along with statistically significant dose-related inhibition responses on total glutathione cell content, and statistically significant dose-related induction responses on the glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity and the reactive oxygen species generation on the RTG-2 fish cell line. PMID:25194764

  5. Planning and costing agricultural adaptation to climate change in small-scale maize production system of Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matiya, George; Lunduka, Rodney; Sikwese, Margaret

    2011-09-15

    Malawi has recently experienced an increased incidence of climate change-related hazards. More droughts and floods have occurred in the last decade (2000 - 2010) than in the past three decades before (1970 - 2000). Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors and consequently has suffered from the negative impacts of climate change. As a result, communities, NGOs and the government of Malawi are adapting (adjusting to continue deriving benefits) to the changing conditions in order for Malawian farmers and their families to survive, since their livelihoods are dependent on agriculture. This adaptation is inevitable and will add a cost to the national economy and households. To successfully calculate this there is a need for proper planning and costing of adaptation strategies at household, community and national level. Currently, the exact costs of adaptation are not yet known; hence, this study was undertaken to investigate what adaptation measures are currently available in the maize subsector in Chikhwawa District in the Lower Shire Valley of Malawi and how much it will cost at household, community and national level to continue to carry out such activities. The calculation is based on climate projections that are likely to happen in Chikhwawa in the next 50 years. The study revealed that communities are already coping with climate change through a number of strategies including: use of early and drought-resistant varieties, irrigation systems, selling of assets, winter cropping and diversification. Regarding climate projections, it is expected that the temperatures in Chikhwawa will increase by 3 deg C by 2065, which will translate into having more days in a month with a mean temperature of above 32 deg C. It is also expected that drier conditions will prevail in the future (2046 - 2065). In terms of costs, Chikhwawa will require about US$55,034,932 (over five years) in the maize subsector to adapt to climate change. The results of the study suggest that

  6. Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Emission data for pesticides from agricultural product systems may be based on national and international pesticide usage statistics, but these only provide information on the applied dose. When the field is considered as part of the technosphere, the emissions from the system are those quantitie...

  7. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. F. Bouwman; G. Van Drecht; K. W. van der Hoek

    2005-01-01

    Data for the historical years 1970 and 1995 and the FAO-Agriculture Towards 2030 projection are used to calculate N inputs (N fertilizer, animal manure, biological N fixation and atmospheric deposition) and the N export from the field in harvested crops and grass and grass consumption by grazing animals. In most industrialized countries we see a gradual increase of the overall N recovery of the intensive agricultural production systems over the whole 1970-2030 period. In contrast, low N input systems in many developing countries sustained low crop yields for many years but at the cost of soil fertility by depleting soil nutrient pools. In most developing countries the N recovery will increase in the coming decades by increasing efficiencies of N use in both crop and livestock production systems. The surface balance surplus of N is lost from the agricultural system via different pathways, including NH3 volatilization, denitrification,N2O and NO emissions, and nitrate leaching from the root zone. Global NH3-N emissions from fertilizer and animal manure application and stored manure increased from 18 to 34 Tg.yr-1 between 1970 and 1995, and will further increase to 44 Tg.yr-1 in 2030. Similar developments are seen for N2O-N (2.0 Tg.yr-1 in 1970, 2.7 Tg.yr-1 in 1995 and 3.5 Tg.yr-1 in 2030) and NO-N emissions (1.1 Tg.yr-1 in 1970, 1.5 Tg-yr-1 in 1995 and 2.0 Tg.yr-1 in 2030).

  8. Research on the Performance Evaluation and Advancing Path of Henan Agricultural Products E-marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jingqiang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the traditional marketing management of agricultural products has been unable to meet the diversified demands of market, and the network has been applied to the marketing field of agricultural products, the research on the performance evaluation and advancing path of Henan agricultural products E-marketing is more important than before. Based on current problems of Henan agricultural products E-marketing, a system of performance evaluation is established, which covers website build...

  9. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG, Wuya; Yan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics (4PL), this paper elaborates the concept, background and development plight of agricultural products logistics, advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics, etc. and explores issues of information, efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics, draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost, and ...

  10. Solar installations for drying agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six types of solar installations for drying various agricultural products are presented: the solar drying platform, the solar dryer for granular products, the hotbed dryer, solar dryer with natural draught, radiation-convection solar dryer and solar dryer for cotton. Relative simplicity, cheapness and opportunity of use near to a place of these products cultivation are the general characteristics of these installations. The numerous long tests which have been carried out in the Scientific-Industrial Corporation [Sun] of Turkmenistan Academy of Sciences have proved their efficiency and convenience in operation

  11. Research on Development Status and Countermeasures of Agricultural Cleaner Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the study,the connotation and objectives of agricultural cleaner production were introduced firstly,and then the development status of agricultural cleaner production in China was analyzed,and the problems existing in the development of agricultural cleaner production were pointed out.From the strategy of agricultural sustainable development,the necessity and feasibility of implementing agricultural cleaner production in China were discussed.Finally,some related countermeasures were put forward according...

  12. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei[1,2,3; LI Gan-qiong[1,2,3; LI Zhe-min[1,2,3

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientific work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as well as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamically project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The following conclusions are drawn: i) The production of major agricultural products will continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield, ii) The growth of agricultural consumption will be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufficiency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. iii) Agricultural trade will continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im- ports will slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  13. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei; LI Gan-qiong; LI Zhe-min

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientiifc work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as wel as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamical y project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The fol owing conclusions are drawn:i) The production of major agricultural products wil continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield. i ) The growth of agricultural consumption wil be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufifciency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. i i) Agricultural trade wil continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im-ports wil slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  14. Factors Influencing Price of Agricultural Products and Stability Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Factors leading to rise of prices of agricultural products mainly include tension of supply-demand relationship,promotion of production cost and circulation cost,and speculation of Refugee Capital(Hot Money).Factors leading to low price and difficult sales of agricultural products mainly include asymmetry of supply-demand information,lack of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products and decentralized and small-scaled operation of farmers.On the basis of these factors,this paper presents following countermeasures and suggestions for stabilizing prices of agricultural products:firstly,building long-effect mechanism for production and sales of agricultural products;secondly,expand the production and increase supply of agricultural products;thirdly,control the rising range of production cost for agricultural products;fourthly,enhance organization level of farmers;fifthly,promote innovation and development of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products.

  15. PRINCIPLES OF THE DETERMINATION ENERGY INTENSITY OF THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan F.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A set of energy resources is consumed in the primary production and conversion process of agricultural product. Minimal quantity of energy required for the production of agricultural product unit is considered by the notion of energy intensity of agricultural products.

  16. EL PROBLEMA DE LA SOSTENIBILIDAD DENTRO DE LA COMPLEJIDAD DE LOS SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCION AGROPECUARIOS THE PROBLEM OF SUSTAINABILITY WITHIN THE COMPLEXITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cotes Torres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la sostenibilidad es una temática que desde finales del siglo XX, ha venido preocupando cada vez mas a los diferentes sectores de la sociedad; pasando a ser uno de los temas de mayor interés para empresarios, consumidores, académicos e investigadores, que conforman las diferentes cadenas agroalimentarias del mundo. Este artículo presenta desde el punto de vista de la Teoría General de Sistemas, algunos elementos de reflexión critica, abordando la problemática de la sostenibilidad desde la complejidad de los sistemas de producción agropecuarios, partiendo desde la concepción filosófica original de la agricultura, hasta llegar a plantear algunas consideraciones que se deben tener en cuenta para el desarrollo de avances científicos y tecnológicos acordes con las necesidades de las cadenas agroalimentarias del siglo XXI; las cuales permiten orientar no solo el trabajo de los profesionales que lideran los procesos de producción animal y vegetal, sino que crea un sentido de pertenencia en todos los participantes de la cadena, resaltando la importancia de estudiar a través de un pensamiento sistémico, la Agronomía y la Zootecnia, como disciplinas que se aproximan a las complejidades de la Agricultura la cual es la piedra angular de la civilización, tal y como la conocemos actualmente.The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the General Systems Theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agriculture and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for

  17. Diffusion of innovative agricultural production systems for sustainable development of small islands: A methodological approach based on the science of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Guiseppe; Butera, Federico M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to develop small islands, not only must a vital agricultural system be maintained, but the range of opportunities for tourism must be increased with respect to both the seaside and the environmental features of the rural landscape. As an alternative to the traditional and economically declining ones, many innovative production processes can be identified, but their success depends on their interaction with the physical, biological, economic and social environment. In order to identify the main nodes and the most critical interactions, so as to increase the probability of success of a new productive process, a methodological approach based on the science of complexity is proposed for the cultivation of capers ( Capparis spinosa L.) on the island of Pantelleria. The methodology encompasses the identification of actors and factors involved. the quantitative evaluation of their interactions with the different stages of the productive process, and a quasiquantitative evaluation of the probability that the particular action will be performed successfully. The study of “traditional,” “modernized,” and “modernized-sustainable” processes, shows that the modernized-sustainable process offers mutually reinforcing opportunities in terms of an integrated development of high-quality agricultural products and the enhancement of environmental features, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in a way that suits the development of Pantelleria. There is a high probability of failure, however, as a result of the large number of critical factors. Nevertheless, the present study indicates which activities will enhance the probability of successful innovation in the production process.

  18. Productivity of Agricultural Labour and Land: An International Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Kailash C.; Rao, D.S. Prasada; Shepherd, W F

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines partial agricultural land and labour productivity in 1975 and 1980, for different world regions. The results suggest that land and labour productivity are higher in developed countries relative to developing countries. However, agricultural labour productivity differences are more marked than those for agricultural land productivity. The productivity values for 1975 and 1980 indicate a widening of productivity differences, more so in the case of agricultural labour than la...

  19. Research on the Legal Regulation of Market Access for Agricultural Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining the concept of market access for agricultural products,this paper analyzes the necessity of establishing market access system of agricultural products,proposes the conception of establishing market access system of agricultural products in China;sets up the frame of market access system of agricultural products;analyzes the rationality of the frame of market access system of agricultural products;poses the consideration of economic law regarding setup of market access system of agricultural products.This paper also puts forward the legislative suggestions for establishing market access system of agricultural products as follows:establish the frame of market access system of agricultural products taking quality access as core;establish and perfect the compensation and relief system of guaranteeing benefit of manager and producers;establish the market access system of agricultural products with hierarchical structure;sort out existing laws and form the sound the legal frame of market access system of agricultural products.

  20. Design and development of a LabVIEW-based LED-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system with applications in non-destructive quality assessment of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hamed; Nazeri, Majid; Mireei, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the demand for high quality agricultural products has been remarkably increased. Thus, it is important to use non-destructive methods for product quality monitoring. LED-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has proved its potential for nondestructive detection of some defects in agricultural products, such as tissue browning and bruising. Due to such defects, changes in the polyphenol and chlorophyll contents occur which can be considered as the visible marks of decreasing fruit quality. In the present work, a fluorescence spectrometer (spectrofluorometer) controlled by LabVIEW software was designed and developed. In this spectrometer, a consumer-grade webcam was used as an imaging sensor. The spectrometer was able to measure the fluorescence spectra directly from the fruit and vegetable surface in the desired regions. To do so, the spectrometer was equipped with a suitable fiber-optic probe. The hardware solution was based on data acquisition working on the USB platform and controlled by the application running on the PC. In this system, light emitting diodes with different wavelengths were used as the excitation sources for inducing fluorescence spectra of some famous fruits and vegetables.

  1. Agricultural R&D, technology and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesse, J; Thirtle, C

    2010-09-27

    The relationships between basic and applied agricultural R&D, developed and developing country R&D and between R&D, extension, technology and productivity growth are outlined. The declining growth rates of public R&D expenditures are related to output growth and crop yields, where growth rates have also fallen, especially in the developed countries. However, growth in output value per hectare has not declined in the developing countries and labour productivity growth has increased except in the EU. Total factor productivity has generally increased, however it is measured. The public sector share of R&D expenditures has fallen and there has been rapid concentration in the private sector, where six multinationals now dominate. These companies are accumulating intellectual property to an extent that the public and international institutions are disadvantaged. This represents a threat to the global commons in agricultural technology on which the green revolution has depended. Estimates of the increased R&D expenditures needed to feed 9 billion people by 2050 and how these should be targeted, especially by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), show that the amounts are feasible and that targeting sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia can best increase output growth and reduce poverty. Lack of income growth in SSA is seen as the most insoluble problem. PMID:20713401

  2. Analysis on the Influencing Factors of the Quality Traceable System Established by Edible Agricultural Products Enterprises-Taking Sichuan as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the investigation data from 81 edible agricultural products enterprises in Sichuan Province,the influence factors of establishing quality tracing system are empirically analyzed from four aspects,including the enterprise features,the attitudes of operators,management and market competition by using the Logistic model.The results show that the enterprise can establish the quality tracing system after the comprehensive function of a series of internal and external factors.The four factors include peer pressure;age of enterprise;export and the expectation on improving economic interests have the biggest impact on enterprise to establish the quality tracing system.The factors,including the quality safety certificate obtained by the enterprises,export of products,sampling frequency,peer pressure,the pressure from consumers and media,the expectation on improving the competition of products,the expectation on improving economic interests,play a promotion role in helping enterprises to establish quality tracing system.The countermeasures and suggestion are put forward from strengthening the social responsibility of enterprises;intensifying the law enforcement of government and expanding the experimental enterprises with the quality tracing system.

  3. Quality assurance of weather data for agricultural system model input

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that crop production and hydrologic variation on watersheds is weather related. Rarely, however, is meteorological data quality checks reported for agricultural systems model research. We present quality assurance procedures for agricultural system model weather data input. Problems...

  4. Bottleneck on Supply Chain of Organic Agricultural Products and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-min

    2012-01-01

    Organic agriculture is one of successful models of low-carbon agriculture, and plays an important role in alleviating and adapting to climate change. However, the development of supply chain of organic agricultural products lags behind, which seriously restricts development of organic agricultural product market. In this paper, major models and bottleneck of supply chain of organic agricultural products are analyzed, and finally countermeasures are put forward.

  5. Lemon Effect of Green Agricultural Products and its Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Qi-wen; Du, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Han, Cai-xin; Li, Meng-Meng

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the lemon effect of green agricultural products, analyzes the formation reasons of the lemon effect of green agricultural products and summarizes problems brought by the effect, such as malicious deception and high priced. The paper proposes countermeasures to avoid the lemon effect of green agricultural products from a perspective of marketing. The first is to strengthen the quality supervision of green agricultural products, upgrade the quality of products, and build up...

  6. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  7. Renewable energy: Energy from agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10 percent of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10 percent mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production. Wider applications will require either government incentives or genetic engineering of crops and improve efficiencies in conversion processes to lower costs.

  8. The Role of Biochar in Ameliorating Disturbed Soils and Sequestering Soil Carbon in Tropical Agricultural Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wolde Mekuria; Andrew Noble

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural soils in the tropics have undergone significant declines in their native carbon stock through the long-term use of extractive farming practices. However, these soils have significant capacity to sequester CO2 through the implementation of improved land management practices. This paper reviews the published and grey literature related to the influence of improved land management practices on soil carbon stock in the tropics. The review suggests that the implementation of improved ...

  9. Improving food and agricultural production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1960s, the IAEA and FAO jointly initiated the first in a series of large-scale multi-faceted agricultural field projects using nuclear techniques in agricultural sciences. The first project, in Yugoslavia, served as a model for future ones in India, Brazil, Bangladesh, Republic of Korea, Venezuela, and Thailand. The Thailand project - for the time being the last one of this series - started in January 1986 for a 5-year period, the project carries major objectives centering on the use of isotopes, radiation, and related technologies in three particular areas: Mutation breeding. Scientists are aiming to generate new genetic sources of disease-resistant varieties of crops that are economically important; Soil Science. Aims are to help farmers make the best use of fertilizers, biofertilizers, and water, and to maximize biological nitrogen fixation and the use of local rock phosphates as sources of crop nutrients; Animal science. Project scientists are aiming to improve livestock productivity on small farms

  10. Agricultural Potential for Biogas Production in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kulišić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is renewable energy source with strong local character as its production depends on availability and type of feedstock at a certain location. Utilisation of slurry, manure and beddings from cattle, pig, horse, poultry and other animal breeding together with energy rich substrates such as crops and other organic materials as biogas substrates creates an interesting option both from technical and economic perspective. Other materials suitable for anaerobic digestion are comprised of various residues from agriculture (crops and vegetables, residues from food processing industry and energy crops (maize silage, grass and similar.Primary reason for biogas production is economic gain from energy production and/or organic waste management that adds value to agriculture and food processing residues that would otherwise be treated as waste.The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of biogas production potential of Croatia at the level of statistical administrative units NUTS1 and NUTS2, excluding energy crops growing and agro-food imports but including the seasonality of substrate availability.

  11. Research on Distributed Logistics Distribution System of Agricultural Products%分布式农产品物流配送系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智琦

    2011-01-01

    设计分布式农产品物流配送系统的体系和功能结构,建立配送中心选址和配送路径优化2个核心数学模型,分别运用粒子群优化算法和改进蚁群算法求解,并将分布式技术与GIS技术相结合以实现系统.%The functions and structure of the distributed logistics distribution system for agricultural products were designed, the mathematical models for the two cores of distribution center location and distribution routing optimization were constructed and then solved by particle swarm optimization algorithm and improved ant colony algorithm. The distributed technology was combined with CIS to implement the system.

  12. Agricultural Innovation System In Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath Arumapperuma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document agricultural innovation systems (AIS in Australia. We identified eleven broad categories (actors in terms of their activities, namely: policy, education, finance and credit, marketing, input supply, research, extension and information, logistics, processing and storage, farmers and farm organisations and consumers. Survey results reveal that 11 kinds of innovation-related activities of research and education organisations with corresponding percentage weight are directly involved in innovation diffusion. Twelve pre-identified goals of innovation related activities of the above organisations surveyed with their corresponding percentage weight have also been revealed. The study reveals that the majority of funding (more than 80% for innovation activities comes from the Federal Government and funding bodies. Finally survey results indicate that the main constrains/incentives are other issues such as funding, lack of qualified staff, equipment, environmental and Government policy issues etc.

  13. Global trends in agriculture and food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Halberg, Niels; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Byrne, John; Iyer, Venkatesh; Toly, Noah

    2006-01-01

    Increasing globalization affects agricultural production and trade and has consequences for the sustainability of both conventional and organic agriculture. During the last decades, agricultural production and yields have been increasing along with global fertilizer and pesticide consumption. This development has been especially pronounced in the industrialized countries and some developing countries such as China, where cereal yields have increased a remarkable twofold and 4.5-fold resp...

  14. Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) using MODAPS and LANCE Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, A.; Pak, E. E.; Majedi, A. H.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Pinzon, J. E.; Smith, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies / Global Agricultural Monitoring (GIMMS GLAM) system is a web-based geographic application that offers Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and user interface tools to data query and plot MODIS NDVI time series. The system processes near real-time and science quality Terra and Aqua MODIS 8-day composited datasets. These datasets are derived from the MOD09 and MYD09 surface reflectance products which are generated and provided by NASA/GSFC Land and Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and NASA/GSFC MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS). The GIMMS GLAM system is developed and provided by the NASA/GSFC GIMMS group for the U.S. Department of Agriculture / Foreign Agricultural Service / International Production Assessment Division (USDA/FAS/IPAD) Global Agricultural Monitoring project (GLAM). The USDA/FAS/IPAD mission is to provide objective, timely, and regular assessment of the global agricultural production outlook and conditions affecting global food security. This system was developed to improve USDA/FAS/IPAD capabilities for making operational quantitative estimates for crop production and yield estimates based on satellite-derived data. The GIMMS GLAM system offers 1) web map imagery including Terra & Aqua MODIS 8-day composited NDVI, NDVI percent anomaly, and SWIR-NIR-Red band combinations, 2) web map overlays including administrative and 0.25 degree Land Information System (LIS) shape boundaries, and crop land cover masks, and 3) user interface tools to select features, data query, plot, and download MODIS NDVI time series.

  15. Regional Agriculture, Food Supply Systems and Competitiveness of Agriculture Prodiction Industries in Stavropol Territory

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Nikolaevna Lapina; Natalia Vladimirovna Sobchenko; Larisa Vladimirovna Kuleshova; Svetlana Yurievna Shamrina

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of ensuring the competitiveness of the agriculture and food system currently present in Stavropol Territory. Provision of the local population with locally manufactured food products in sufficient quantities and of the appropriate quality is one of the main challenges for the regional authorities. Assesment for the most advantageous trends for developing agriculture sector in Stavropol Krai considering its supply security, production costs and market demand...

  16. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex; Wuya; ZHONG; Wei; YAN

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics(4PL),this paper elaborates the concept,background and development plight of agricultural products logistics,advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics,etc.and explores issues of information,efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics,draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost,and speed the efficiency of China’s agricultural products logistics.

  17. INDIRECT COSTS ALLOCATION AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a research on the changes occurred inside the accounting system of agricultural organisations in the transitional period. Changes of structure and accounting information system being results of privatisation processes were analysed. The introduction of modern methods in the preparation of relevant management information represents one of the preconditions for development of the privatised agricultural organisation during the transition period. Information prepared by the accounting, especially adapted to management requirements, is essential for rational decision making. Modern management system of reporting is fundamental task of management and a precondition for securing competitive production in agricultural industry. For this reason, it is necessary to define areas of responsibility and to enable application of a modern techniques for calculating expenses. The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the specialised use of accounting information by managers and to develop methods of management reporting in agricultural organisations. We propose an emphasis upon the application of modern management accounting techniques rather than financial accounting reporting approach. We support the contention that the need for high-quality management accounting is not debatable and tend to explain how and why accounting information is developed for the individual parts of a business entity, that is for each department or enterprise of an agricultural organisation. The responsibility accounting system should be introduced in agricultural business entities within our conditions, especially in larger organisations, as a measure of securing competitive production. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between direct and indirect expenses and of using appropriate methods to allocate expenses among departments or enterprises. The research is based on information directly received from the largest agricultural companies in the area of

  18. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971,in the Meadows report (1972 and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987. The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In such conditions we are obliged to follow a twin-track strategy: (1livestock systems with high productivity potentials; (2traditional pastoral systems and organic agriculture, on marginal lands, which allow the utilisation of extensive grazing lands, the conservation of environment, genetic resources, landscape, the minimisation of the use of non-renewable resources and the production of "natural foods".

  19. The Leading Role of Governments in Promoting Chinese Agricultural Clean Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing agricultural clean production,the theoretical basis of the leading role displayed by the government in promoting agricultural clean production is expounded.The characteristics of agricultural products,such as the hidden environment quality of agricultural production,spillover of profits and the benefits,make governments to display the leading role in promoting agricultural clean production at the primary stage in particular.The restrictive factors in promoting Chinese agricultural clean production are put forward,which include idea restriction,technology restriction,talent restriction,economic restriction and policy restriction.Countermeasures which should be adopted by governments on promoting Chinese agricultural clean production are put forward.Firstly,the laws and regulations for promoting agricultural clean production should be established and perfected gradually;secondly,the evaluation system for agricultural clean production should be established;thirdly,the promotion on agricultural clean production should be intensified;fourthly,the practical technologies and applications of agricultural clean production should be guided;fifthly,the industrialized operation of ecological agriculture should be vigorously promoted.

  20. Characteristics of Price Fluctuation of Agricultural Products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Ge, Dang-qiao

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic trend of the price of agricultural products in China, and analyzes the causation of rigid rise of agricultural product price. We also study on the fluctuation characteristics of the prices of Chinese and classification agricultural products.

  1. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  2. Measurement of radioactivity in agricultural products (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity levels and concentration of radionuclides in agricultural products like beans, sesame, potato, etc. were measured by using Low Level Beta/Alpha System and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry system. The levels of radioactivity were found to be less than the Derivedc Intervention Level adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1991 (IAEA BSS safety series No. 115-1). No artificial radionuclides such as fission products, activation products were not found whereas radionuclides found in the samples are only natural occurring radionuclide, K-40. (author)

  3. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  4. System analysis and path choice for modem agricultural development: a case study of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Rongxin; Liu Yansui

    2009-01-01

    From the view of.system theory,modern agriculture in a region embodies elements conformitv,structure optimization,multi-functionality and sustainable development.This paper first expounds on the relationship among agricultural elements,structure,function and development theoretically,compartmentalizes agriculture types based on human-land elements matching,and depicts the development path of agricultural multi-functionality.It shows that the matching of human-land elements is a key to agricultural types,and the multi:functionality is an indication of agricultural development stages.At last,as a case study of Suzhou in easteru coastal area,the paper analyzes the evolvement situation and developing mechanism and some typical models of modern agriculture which suit to agriculture system evolvement.The results show that in Suzhou the agriculture productivity has improved greatly,And along with the agriculture structure optimizing,agriculture function has translated from "production " to "nonproduction and production ".With simulation of agricultural trend in Suzhou,it is found that Suzhou has a LP,dependence (labor productivity) on agricultural element,so Suzhou will has much more potential in land productivity.Based on the above analysis on agricultural system,some typical patterns on modern agriculture in Suzhou are brought up,such as export-oriented agriculture,enterprises-leading agriculture,science and technology parks agriculture,stereoscopic agriculture,and tourism and sightseeing agriculture.

  5. Capital accumulation and the growth of aggregate agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    This report empirically examines the role which capital accumulation plays in the growth of agricultural production potential. The report assumes that the degree to which available technology can be implemented in a nation's agricultural sector depends on accumulated investments that have been made in the sector. Results from estimating aggregate agricultural production functions show the primary importance of rural labor in accounting for agricultural GDP and crop production. Capital accumul...

  6. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.; F.; Bouwman

    2005-01-01

    ,A.L.,Nitrogen cycling in surface waters and lakes,in Nitrate:Processes,Patterns and Management (eds.Burt,T.P.,Trudgill,S.T.),Chichester:Wiley and Sons,1993,99- 140.[14]Vollenweider,R.A.,Coastal marine eutrophication:Principles and control,Science of the Total Environment,1992,Supplement 1992:1-20.[15]Bouwman,A.F.,Van Drecht,G.Van der Hoek,K.W.,Nitrogen surface balances in intensive agricultural production systems in different world regions for the period 1970-2030,Pedosphere,2005,15(2):137-155.[16]Van der Hoek,K.W.Nitrogen cycling in Asian pastoral livestock production systems:Present and future,Proceedings of the N2004 Conference,Nanjing,2004.[17]Bruinsma,J.E.,World agriculture:Towards 2015/2030.An FAO perspective,London:Earthscan,2003,432.[18]Bouwman,A.F.,Van der Hoek,K.W.,Eickhout,B.et al.,Exploring changes in world ruminant production systems,Agricultural Systems,2005,84(2):121 - 153.[19]IMAGE-team,The IMAGE 2.2 Implementation of the SRES Scenarios.A Comprehensive Analysis of Emissions,Climate Change and Impacts in the 21st Century,CD-ROM Publication 481508018,Bilthoven:National Institute for Public Health and the Environment,2001.[20]FAO,FAOSTAT database collections,http://www.apps.fao.org,Rome:Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,2001.[21]Van der Hoek,K.W.,Nitrogen efficiency in global animal production,in Nitrogen,the Confer-N-s (eds.Van der Hoek,K.W.,Erisman,J.W.,Smeulders,S.et al.),Amsterdam:Elsevier,1998,127-132.[22]Smil,V.,Nitrogen in crop production:An account of global flows,Global Biogeochemical Cycles,1999,13:647-662.[23]Collins,W.J.,Stevenson,D.S.,Johnson,C.E.et al.,Tropospheric ozone in a global-scale three-dimensional Lagrangian model and its response to NOx emission controls,Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry,1997,26:223-274.[24]Olivier,J.G.J.,Berdowski,J.M.,Peters,J.A.H.W.et al.,Applications of EDGAR.Including a description of EDGAR V3.0:Reference database with trend data for 1970-1995.,Report 773301001,Bilthoven:National Institute for Public Health

  7. Modelling Agricultural Systems: Applications to Livestock Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Hattam, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally the evaluation of animal genetic traits has focused primarily on production traits and the construction of selection indices. Selection indices, however, fail to consider the effect of management practices and the environment on productivity. Non-production traits are either under-valued or not valued at all. Given the changing demands placed on agriculture and the increased understanding of the effects of agriculture on the environment, this approach can be considered myopic. W...

  8. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  9. Emergy Evaluations of Denmark and Danish Agriculture. Assessing the Limits of Agricultural Systems to Power Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haden, Andrew C. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Rural Development Studies

    2003-03-01

    As the process of industrialization has run its course over the twentieth century, the relative importance of agriculture as an economic activity and a means of cultural sustenance for nations has declined dramatically. In this thesis, a historical ecological-economic perspective offers insights into both the causes and effects of Danish agriculture's decline in economic importance relative to the economy of Denmark as a whole. Emergy evaluations were made of the national economy and agricultural subsystem of Denmark for the years 1936, 1970 and 1999. Emergy is defined as all the available energy that was used in the work of making a product and expressed in units of one type of energy. In total, six separate emergy analyses were performed. By quantifying the emergy requirements of both a national agricultural system and the economy within which this system is nested, the analysis highlights the changing relationship of these two systems over a temporal scale of 63 years. The ecological sustainability of the studied systems is assessed through the calculation of emergy-based indices and ratios. In accordance with emergy theory, ecological sustainability is considered to be a function of the dependence of a system on renewable emergy, the degree to which the system depends on imported emergy, and the overall load that the system places on the environment. The analysis indicates that as the national economy of Denmark evolved to rely more on the use of nonrenewable emergy and on emergy appropriated through trade to stimulate economic activity and to generate wealth, its sustainability declined, and the importance of the Danish agricultural system to the national economy subsided. While the total amount of emergy supporting the economy of Denmark over the period studied increased substantially, the total emergy supporting agriculture remained relatively constant. Furthermore, though the emergy signature and thermodynamic efficiencies of Danish agricultural

  10. Hazards assessment and technical actions due to the production of pressured hydrogen within a pilot photovoltaic-electrolyser-fuel cell power system for agricultural equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot power system formed by photovoltaic panels, alkaline electrolyser and fuel cell stacks was designed and set up to supply the heating system of an experimental greenhouse. The aim of this paper is to analyse the main safety aspects of this power system connected to the management of the pressured hydrogen, such as the explosion limits of the mixture hydrogen-oxygen, the extension of the danger zone, the protection pressure vessels and the system to make unreactive the plant. The electrolyser unit is the core of this plant and from the safety point of view has been equipped with devices able to highlight the malfunctions before they cause damages. Alarm situations are highlighted and the production process is cut off in safe conditions in the event that the operational parameters have an abnormal deviation from the design values. Also the entire power system has been designed so that any failure to its components does not compromise the workers’ safety even if the risk analysis is in progress because technical operations are being carried out for enhancing the plant functionality, making it more suitable to the designed task of supplying electrically the greenhouse heating system during cold periods. Some experimental data pertinent to the solar radiation and the corresponding hydrogen production rate are also reported. At present it does not exist a well-established safety reference protocol to design the reliability of these types of power plants and then the assumed safety measures even if related to the achieved pilot installation, can represent an original base of reference to set up guidelines for designing the safety of power plants in the future available for agricultural purposes.

  11. Hydrogen Production By Anaerobic Fermentation Using Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes Utilizing a Two-Stage Digestion System

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Reese S

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen production by means of anaerobic fermentation was researched utilizing three different substrates. Synthetic wastewater, dairy manure, and cheese whey were combined together at different concentrations under batch anaerobic conditions to determine the optimal hydrogen producing potential and waste treatment of each. Cheese whey at a concentration of 55% was combined with dairy manure at a concentration of 45% to produce 1.53 liters of hydrogen per liter of substrate. These results...

  12. Modern Agricultural Digital Management Network Information System of Heilongjiang Reclamation Area Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Chun; Zhuang, Wei Dong; Yang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    To meet the need of agriculture management modernization of Heilongjiang reclamation area, further boost large-scale integration level of modern agriculture production and boost management level of agriculture production.On Red Farm, we have established the digital management network information system with the remote sensor technology, GIS technology, GPS technology, database technology, network technology, agriculture intelligent technology, multimedia technology, information auto acquired ...

  13. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normov D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents issues related to the use of electric technologies in agricultural production. The work contains the results of theoretical and practical application of ozone in agriculture

  14. Traceability service system for agricultural products by using hybrid encoding%混合编码模式的农资溯源服务系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方薇; 崔超远; 宋良图

    2012-01-01

    Because of backward technology of supervision and low price of products, the circulation system of Agricultural Products especially its information chain is still imperfect. A traceability service system for products was developed using hybrid encoding method based on electric labels of Rf ID and NetScreen code or Two-dimensional code. The system oriented to serve several kinds of users and includes sensing layer, data layer and service layer. The encoding methods, security measures and the processes of quality traceability were introduced, and a backtracking algorithm for computing of three layers tracing-code was also studied in the paper. The demonstration of the system shows that the system is valuable in reducing usage cost of labels and saving storage space of server as well. Moreover, the system integrates the functions of business supply chain etc. The system plays an important role in purifying the products market, protecting farmers' benefits as well as establishing a good brand image of the enterprise.%针对监管技术落后、产品售价低等因素造成的农资流通体系尤其是信息链不健全问题,该文利用RFID (radio frequency identification)和网屏或二维码相结合的混合编码模式,提出了一种农资信息溯源服务系统并展示了其应用.该系统由感知层、数据层和服务层组成,面向多种农资信息溯源服务对象.重点讨论了电子标签的选择与编码方法、防伪措施以及质量溯源服务中信息追溯过程和追溯码的回溯算法.通过农资信息溯源平台的示范应用表明,该方案具有节约标签使用成本,降低服务器存储空间开销的优点.由于系统集成了农资供应链商务平台等功能,可在保护农民利益、净化农资市场及树立商家品牌形象方面发挥重要作用.

  15. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  16. Shandong Agricultural Products Exports: Growth, Problems and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the reasons of the export growth for the Shandong agricultural products which can be attributed to the Shandong agricultural export enterprises’ efforts and Shandong provincial government’s strong supports. Though Shandong agricultural products exports achieved a big success all over the China, there are still some internal problems and external constraints that hinder its further and sustainable developments. Existing main problems for the exports of Shandong agricultural...

  17. Estimation of pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2002-01-01

    from the system are only those fractions of the applied dose which reach the environment surrounding the field. The routes of emission may be direct through wind drift or indirect through evaporation, leaching, or surface run-off. Based on existing tools for hazard or risk assessment of pesticides, a......Inventory data for the use of pesticides in agricultural or forestry product systems are typically based on the applied dose and the contents of different ingredients in the commercial pesticide product. Normally in LCA, the field is considered as part of the technosphere, and then the emissions...

  18. Sensitive Agricultural Products in the EU under the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Huan-Niemi, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    EU agricultural products are examined by tariff lines at eight digit level to reveal the sensitive agricultural products in the EU after further tariff reductions in the Doha Round. These products are butter, skim milk powder, beef meat, poultry meat, pig meat, white sugar, wheat, barley, and maize. A spreadsheet model is used as an analysis tool to complement the various modelling approaches in identifying the sensitive agricultural products of the EU. The spreadsheet projection model is a s...

  19. Factors Influencing Price of Agricultural Products and Stability Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Ai-hua

    2012-01-01

    Factors leading to rise of prices of agricultural products mainly include tension of supply-demand relationship, promotion of production cost and circulation cost, and speculation of Refugee Capital (Hot Money). Factors leading to low price and difficult sales of agricultural products mainly include asymmetry of supply-demand information, lack of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products and decentralized and small-scaled operation of farmers. On the basis of these factors, th...

  20. Strengthening Branding Construction and Improving the Competitiveness of Tropical Distinctive Agricultural Products in Hainan

    OpenAIRE

    QIU, Meihuan; Zhang, Xiaodong; LIN, Minxia; Zhang, Hongyi; WANG, Zhunian

    2014-01-01

    Brand construction plays an increasingly important role in marketing and competition in modern agricultural industry. There are problems in brand construction of tropical distinctive agricultural products in Hainan, including less famous brand products, weak core competence, strengthening declaration and ignoring management as well as imperfect marketing system, therefore resource integration should be stressed to develop famous brand products and technological innovation should be strengthen...

  1. Differential Marketing of Agricultural Products Dominated by Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Differential marketing is a strategy opposed to competitive convergence mainly characterized by seeking development in differences. Therefore, marketing of agricultural products dominated by rural cooperative economic organizations has an important practical role. Taking Manas County in Xinjiang Province as an example, agricultural marketing system dominated by rural cooperative economic organizations develops rapidly, mainly reflected in â‘ constructing agriculture industry association based...

  2. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-01-01

    The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971),in the Meadows report (1972) and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987). The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In...

  3. SOIL QUALITY AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE "TILMAN-ORG Session"

    OpenAIRE

    Willekens, Koen; Vandecasteele, Bart; De Vliegher, Alex

    2014-01-01

    A multi-year trial was conducted to compare soil management strategies (tillage and fertilization) with regard to their effect on crop performance and soil quality. Two soil management systems were assessed. Farm compost application was combined with reduced non-inversion tillage, whereas animal manure was incorporated by conventional tillage with a moldboard plough. With regard to soil quality, a reduced tillage practice in combination with compost application seemed to be favorable for soil...

  4. Assessing conservation agricultural production systems (CAPS) for small holder farmers in rain-fed farming system in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nambozo, J.; Norton, Jay B.; Okeyo, M.; Judith A Odhiambo; Owori, M.; Oluko, P.; Ogonga, P.

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of sufficient food production by farmers in rainfed farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa is exacerbated by soil degradation and poor soil nutrient status. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of reduced and no tillage and velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) cover crop on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and noxious weed population in alternative cropping practices to maize-bean production. Using a completely randomized block design, four replications of three tillage i...

  5. MODERN TRENDS IN DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION. GERMAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasanova S. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The organic agriculture is an important issue for sustainable development and food quality production. For this reason we analyzed the data on land use in organic production and the volume of the market for organic products in Europe and Russia. The motivation of farmers and the driving factors for the transition to organic farming methods in developed countries and the role of subsidies have been shown. The analysis of the state of organic production in Germany has been carried out. In 2013, Germany reported 23484 organic farms, which represent 8.2% of agricultural production and the total cultivated area 1,045 Mio. ha. In organic production are involved 9 national associations with their own logos, integrated by 12250 farms (52.2%, and the remaining 11 234 biofarms (47.8% use the EU-bio logo. Over the past years there has been observed a significant increase in organic livestock production; e.g. during 2007-2012 milk, poultry meat and eggs production were increased by 58.3, 60,6 and 108.7% respectively. Price of bio eggs in November 2014 was 55.6% higher than in free-range system and 100% higher than in floor housing system. Obviously, organic production is an efficient production system capable of ensuring the economic well-being of rural areas. For further expansion of this sector in Russia is necessary to develop the economic incentives, which encourage conversion from conventional, farming to organic production. Also, it is necessary to raise awareness of producers and consumers about the quality of organic products

  6. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  7. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  8. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.

  9. Sustainable management of library and information systems in agricultural universities

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Nair, R.

    1998-01-01

    Explains the importance of library and information systems in agricultural education, research and development. Points out the challenges offered to library executives by information explosion, developments in computer and communication technology, and information awareness. Opines that agricultural library systems in India as they exist now are not sustainable. They have to be totally recast and made more productive to the needs by application of modern management techniques. Discusses in de...

  10. Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: Concept to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture not only feeds the planet, it also is the biggest overall factor affecting the environment. Thus, innovative sustainable farming systems that produce healthy food and protect the environment at the same time are very much needed. We, as agricultural engineers, need ...

  11. Agricultural Production Restrictions and Market Power: An Antitrust Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotova, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    During the recent decade the organizations of agricultural producers in the national dairy, potato, egg and mushroom industries implemented various pre-production and production restriction practices with the primary objective of agricultural output price stabilization. The buyers of the affected agricultural commodities have challenged the legal status of production restrictions in a number of recent and current antitrust lawsuits, arguing that the Capper-Volstead Act, a limited antitrust ex...

  12. Optimization Model of Close Supply Chain of Green Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Duo-hong; Li, Yu; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Jiang-quan

    2009-01-01

    Close supply chain of green agricultural products is defined, consisting of the supplier, manufacturer, distributor, retailer and consumer (customer). Cost structure of distributor is analyzed, mainly including the order activity-based cost, the inventory cost and the supply transportation cost of agricultural products in upstream and downstream enterprises. Based on this, conceptual model of the close supply chain of green agricultural products is established. According to the idea of dynami...

  13. Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming In Agricultural Production Planning

    OpenAIRE

    H.M.I.U. Herath; Dr. D.M. Samarathunga

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Modern agriculture is characterized by a series of conflicting optimization criteria that obstruct the decision-making process in the planning of agricultural production. Such criteria are usually net profit total cost total production etc. At the same time the decision making process in the agricultural production planning is often conducted with data that accidentally occur in nature or that are fuzzy not deterministic. Such data are the yields of various crops the prices of produc...

  14. Agriculture's Supply and Demand for Energy and Energy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Beckman, Jayson F.; Borchers, Allison; Jones, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Rising energy prices and changing energy and environmental policies have transformed the relationship between the energy and agriculture sectors. Traditionally, the relationship has been one-way, with agriculture using energy products as an input in production; during the past decade, however, the energy sector’s use of agricultural products as renewable-fuel feedstocks has increased substantially. This report examines both sector and farm-level responses to changing market and policy drivers...

  15. DEA Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yao-yan; Cai, Dui

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing some literatures regarding research of agricultural production efficiency by using DEA at home, we conduct empirical analysis on agricultural production efficiency in 18 cities or counties of Hainan Province in the year 2002, 2005 and 2008 by using DEA model. The results show that in 2005 Hainan Province suffered from unusual drought and windstorm, which made the effective value of agricultural production in all cities or counties relatively low; the regions with D...

  16. The Network marketing of Fresh Agricultural Products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the connotation of network marketing of fresh agricultural products and analyzed the fundaments of launching the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products in China. The fundaments mainly cover the development of e-commerce, the transformation of consumption concept, the change of live style and the features of Chinese agricultural production. The developmental status of the C2C marketing of Chinese fresh vegetables and fresh fruits is introduced and the plights, includ...

  17. Energy for agriculture. A computerized information retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, B.A.; Myers, C.A. (comps.)

    1979-12-01

    Energy may come from the sun or the earth or be the product of plant materials or agricultural wastes. Whatever its source, energy is indispensable to our way of life, beginning with the production, processing, and distribution of abundant, high quality food and fiber supplies. This specialized bibliography on the subject of energy for agriculture contains 2613 citations to the literature for 1973 through May 1979. Originally issued by Michigan State University (MSU), it is being reprinted and distributed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The literature citations will be incorporated into AGRICOLA (Agricultural On-Line Access), the comprehensive bibliographic data base maintained by Technical Information Systems (TIS), a component of USDA's Science and Education Administration (SEA). The citations and the listing of research projects will be combined with other relevant references to provide a continuously updated source of information on energy programs in the agricultural field. No abstracts are included.

  18. Sustainable Agricultural Practices and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia: Does Agroecology Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kassie, Menale; Zikhali, Precious; Pender, John; Köhlin, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural practices, in as far as they rely on renewable local or farm resources, present desirable options for enhancing agricultural productivity for resource-constrained farmers in developing countries. In this paper, we used two sets of plot-level data—from a low-rainfall area and from a high-rainfall area of Ethiopia—to investigate the impact of sustainable agricultural practices on crop productivity, with a particular focus on reduced tillage. Specifically, we sought to i...

  19. Agricultural Production Structure Optimization Scheme of Punjab (Province Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the basis for agricultural development constraints. For this we have taken 2013 year as the foundation period then a linear programming model has been established for Punjab Province’s agricultural production structure for year 2020. Later as response to the impact of the current situation of agricultural production structure in Punjab Province and the macroeconomic environment, three kinds of different emphases of production structural adjustment programs will be suggested. At the end, to provide a reference for the development of a specific quantity of agricultural production structural adjustment policies, will be conducting the optimization analysis.

  20. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; HUO; Xin; SHEN; Zhipeng; Huang

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics,this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products,and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results,it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products has smaller fluctuation than that of wholesaler-oriented agricultural products. Besides,both the inventory level and bullwhip effect of above chain are lowered.

  1. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  2. Pests and Agricultural Production under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ameden, Holly A.; David R Just

    2001-01-01

    Although the effect of climate change on agricultural pests has been studied by biologists, thus far, large-scale assessments of climate change and agriculture have not included the impact of pests. We develop a simple theoretical model of farmer-pest interaction under climate change and explore the potential impacts on land values.

  3. Evaluation of Comprehensive Agricultural Production Capacity Based on Factor Analysis: A Case Study of Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Wenzhu

    2013-01-01

    Based on the basic connotation of comprehensive agricultural production capacity, this article establishes the comprehensive agricultural production capacity indicator system on the basis of statistics. This indicator system consists of 5 parts (input scale of factors, output scale of factors, output rate of factors, ability to resist disaster and ensure production, and modern operation level) and 14 specific indicators. Based on factor analysis method, we use this indicator system to conduct...

  4. Increasing rice production in Malaysia: Department of Agriculture approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing rice productivity will continue to be an important agenda in the agricultural development program of the country. This represents a challenge to the Department of Agriculture. To address this challenge, it calls for creativity, innovation, ideas and initiatives in the use of technologies that consist of land leveling, in the field water management, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), production and distribution of quality seeds, effective fertilizer usage and value added activities. Rice areas which have been leveled using laser guided technology have shown yield increase from 3.3 t/ha to 5.1 t/ha. In-field water management increases rice yield, reduces water wastage and ensures timeliness of operations and improve soil water bearing capacity. IPM has proven highly beneficial in the control of field rats, reducing the incidence of diseases such as rice blast, lowering the occurrence of insect pest outbreaks and weed infestation. Fish rearing and fattening of ducklings to adulthood in the rice fields have also been undertaken as profitable enterprises in the rice farming system. In its effort to modernise and increase rice productivity, the Department of Agriculture approach in acquisition of technology from research agencies, and its adaptation and adoption are discussed. Any technology promoted must be economically viable, socially acceptable and technologically feasible for effective implementation. (Author)

  5. Production Structure of Agriculture in Huai’an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the data in 1990-2009 Huai’an Statistical Yearbook and Jiangsu Statistical Yearbook,production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is analyzed.Result shows that economic efficiency of planting industry is significantly lower than that of other industry types of agriculture;and the production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is unbalanced and needs further optimization.The reasons for the imbalance in industrial structure are various,such as the relatively low quality of agricultural employees,the backward marketing of planting,and the lack of standardization management.Finally,corresponding suggestions are put forward,including developing education,conducting vocational training,improving the human capital stock of Huai’an City,cultivating the leading enterprises for agricultural product processing,and realizing the scale agglomeration effect of agricultural production in planting industry.

  6. Risk Evaluation on Logistics Finance of Agricultural Products Based on Fuzzy-AHP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; PANG; Yangkun; XIA

    2015-01-01

    The development of logistics finance business for agricultural products is the best way to realize the common interests of logistics enterprises,small and medium-sized agricultural product enterprises and financial institutions,which will contribute to the development of China’s new socialist rural economy and the construction of " two-oriented society". As the agricultural products have some special attributes,it’s easy to create the risk in carrying out the logistics finance business. The paper constructs a risk evaluation indicator system for logistics finance of agricultural product,and uses the Fuzzy-AHP model to evaluate. The results show that the comprehensive risk level is normal risk,which shows that third-party logistics enterprises can carry out the logistics financial business of agricultural products,but the risks from logistics enterprises and agricultural collateral need to be prevented.

  7. Application of GARCH Model in Research on Price of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the price of grain in Guizhou Province as an example, by establishing GARCH model, I calculate VAR of logarithm return of grain price index, in order to conduct research on the variation law of price of the agricultural products. The results show that VAR of grain in Guizhou has variation. After the year 2010, VAR value is gradually increasing, and the price variation risk of grain market tends to increase progressively. Based on the characteristics of grain price variation, a series of corresponding proposals are put forward to stabilize the grain price as follows: strengthen the agricultural infrastructure construction, and promote the agricultural overall production capacity; reinforce the market supervision on the circulation field of agricultural products, and maintain market order; improve regulation system of agricultural products, and stabilize the price of agricultural products; strengthen mobility regulation, and prevent a flood of speculative cash.

  8. Sustainable Uses of FGD Gypsum in Agricultural Systems: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Dick, Warren A

    2014-01-01

    Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades has attributed to this interest. Currently, published data on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is limited. This has led to organization of the American Society of Agronomy's Community "By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture" and a special collection of nine technical research articles on various issues related to FGD gypsum uses in agricultural systems. A brief review of FGD gypsum, rationale for the special collection, overviews of articles, knowledge gaps, and future research directions are presented in this introductory paper. The nine articles are focused in three general areas: (i) mercury and other trace element impacts, (ii) water quality impacts, and (iii) agronomic responses and soil physical changes. While this is not an exhaustive review of the topic, results indicate that FGD gypsum use in sustainable agricultural production systems is promising. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are mostly positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if properly managed, seems to represent an important potential input into agricultural systems. PMID:25602557

  9. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  10. Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin Xiang [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (China). Centre of Energy and Environmental Protection; Mang, H.P. [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering (China)]|[Centrum fuer Internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    China is still largely rural, with abundant biomass resources including agricultural residues, and animal wastes amounting to about 2.5 billion tons per annum. The first National Strategy for Renewable Rural Biomass Energy Development has developed a strategy which will provide a framework for a sustainable utilization of these resources as well as develop additional resources for renewable energy reduction. To comply with these regulations, under current economic and regulatory conditions, the least-cost response for mist agro-enterprises will be the installation of conventional, ''end of pipe'' waste treatment facilities. The results of an International Seminar on Biogas for Poverty and Sustainable Development in Beijing (Peoples Republic of China) in October 2005 came up with the following strategies for large scale biogas plant implementation: (a) Integration of biogas electricity generation in national feed-in-grid strategies and village electrification; (b) Create models for biogas grids; (c) Testing clear rules for Renewable Energy laws application; (d) Promotion of large scale industrial and community plants; (e) Integration of bio-organic waste and septic/faecal sludge collection system.

  11. A THEORETICAL SPOTLIGHT OVER THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tarcza Teodora

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying and classifying new types of agricultural products, especially in Romania, but not only. As we well know, all the countries all over the world have their own history, traditions, economic structure, and a certain type of agriculture, adapted to their soil, climate, and nevertheless to theirs people needs. So, we know that certain countries used to cultivate certain agricultural products, while others are wellknown for others. Usually, we associate Spain with gre...

  12. Mining, Pollution and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Fernando; Rud, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Most modern mines in the developing world are located in rural areas, where agriculture is the main source of livelihood. This creates the potential of negative spillovers to farmers through competition for key inputs (such as land) and environmental pollution. To explore this issue, we examine the case of gold mining in Ghana. Through the estimation of an agricultural production function using household level data, we find that mining has reduced agricultural productivity by almost 40%. This...

  13. Assessing eco-environmental performance of agricultural production in OECD countries: combination of soil surface, soil system and farm gate methods of nutrient auditing

    OpenAIRE

    Viet-Ngu Hoang; Mohammad Alauddin

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen balance is increasingly used as an indicator of the environmental performance of agricultural sector in national, international, and global contexts. There are three main methods of accounting the national nitrogen balance: farm gate, soil surface, and soil system. OECD (2008) recently reported the nitrogen and phosphorus balances for member countries for the 1985 - 2004 period using the soil surface method. The farm gate and soil system methods were also used in some international p...

  14. Analysis of Factors Influencing Comprehensive Productivity of Agriculture in Henan Province on the Basis of Grey Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data from Henan Statistical Yearbook from 2002 to 2008, from production capital, production conditions, labour inputs and financial support, this paper selects 11 variables influencing comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province. Through calculation and analysis of grey correlation of variables and comprehensive productivity of agriculture, this paper determines the impact of different variables on comprehensive productivity of agriculture. The results show that the agricultural capital has become the most important factor influencing comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province, while the impact of production conditions, labour inputs and financial support on comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province diminishes in turn. Corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to promote the sustainable development of comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province as follows: strengthen agricultural financial system building, and ensure agricultural production expenditure; scientifically arrange allocation of agricultural resources, and improve agricultural production conditions; carry out training of agricultural skills, and elevate the quality of agricultural labour forces; increase financial expenditure for agricultural production, and optimize financial expenditure structure.

  15. The Status of Human Nutrition and Agricultural Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Bonita; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors state that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should be considering productive alternatives for the American farmer, exploring ways to use or export the excess fat, and should be spending at least half of its resources to convince the consumers of the value they are getting from agricultural products. (CT)

  16. Status of Agricultural Production and Crop Variety Improvement in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Chun-hai; GUO Ying; YAO Ming-hua; WAN Zheng-huang

    2012-01-01

    We introduced basic conditions of agricultural production in Thailand, and variety improvement of major crops, including rice, cassava, rubber, and vegetable, in the hope of providing reference for agricultural production and crop variety improvement in Hubei Province and even in the whole country.

  17. Improving agricultural production under water scarcity in Fars province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, M.R.; Haile, A.M.; McClain, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water scarcity is one of the major limiting factor for improving agricultural production in the world, which significantly affects agricultural production and livelihood of millions of people who live in arid and semi-arid regions. This case study presents the analysis of the effectiveness

  18. Decomposition of Gender Differentials in Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Arturo; Carranza, Eliana; Goldstein, Markus; Kilic,Talip; Oseni, Gbemisola

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs decomposition methods to analyze differences in agricultural productivity between male and female land managers in Ethiopia. It employs data from the 2011-2012 Ethiopian Rural Socioeconomic Survey. An overall 23.4 percent gender differential in agricultural productivity is estimated at the mean in favor of male land managers, of which 10.1 percentage points are explained by ...

  19. Guidelines on nitrogen management in agricultural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication deals with the topic of nitrogen management in agro-ecosystems. Nitrogen (N) is an essential plant nutrient, and N deficiency severely restricts crop yields in most cultivated soils. Therefore, substantial N inputs are required for optimum plant growth and adequate food, feed and fibre production. Developing countries use more than 55 million metric tons (t) of N fertilizers at an estimated value of US $16 billion annually, of which approximately 2 million t are used in Africa, 5 in Latin America and 50 in Asia. It is estimated that adequate production of food (in particular cereals) for present and future populations will not be achieved without external inputs of fertilizer N. However, management practices involving fertilizer N should be efficient in order to optimize crop production while minimizing adverse effects on the environment. Moreover, the use of alternative N sources such as organic residues and biological nitrogen fixation should be increased within the context of integrated soil fertility management to ensure food security in areas of the world where fertilizer N is too expensive or simply not available. At present, legumes such as soybean, common bean, groundnuts, chickpeas, cowpeas, etc., are fixing approximately 11 million t of N in developing countries. This publication covers, concisely and comprehensively, key topics dealing with the utilization of all sources of N in farming systems, in particular to demonstrate to scientists in developing countries how isotopic tracer technologies can be used in research to improve overall N use efficiency in agricultural systems while increasing crop yields in a sustainable manner, i.e. conserving the natural resource base and protecting the environment. It is a timely publication; increasing attention is being paid to N management in food production, energy consumption and environmental protection. The subject matter is covered in four chapters, starting with an introduction to N

  20. Research on Agricultural Products Supply Chain Traceability System Based on Ontology%基于本体的农产品供应链可追溯系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴素浓; 章海亮

    2011-01-01

    To standardize the information of agriculture product supply chain which must be traceable when with product quality problem, the concept of ontology was introduced and the method of information was described, and the ontology of agriculture product supply chain traceability information was built, on this basis traceability semantic model of specific agriculrare product supply chain was further discussed. In this way, it was expected to share and reuse information resources in agriculture product supply chain traceability system, and improve the accuracy and efficiency of information management, then provide an effective way to quality control and traceability of agriculture product supply chain.%为规范农产品供应链可追溯信息,引入本体论的思想及其信息描述形式,构建农产品供应链可追溯信息本体,并以此探讨具体的可追溯模型,以期达到农产品供应链可追溯系统中信息资源的共享和重用,促进信息管理精确性及效率化,为农产品供应链质量控制和质量追溯提供一个有效的途径.

  1. AGRICULTURAL TAX SYSTEM IN POLAND AND DIRECTIONS OF THE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Malewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A research problem taken in the article is a question, whether legal solutions applied in the Polish system of the taxation of agriculture have an appropriate shape and whether this system is optimal? If not, what are possible options of changes and whether the in-come tax is good for agricultural activities. A method of analysis of secondary sources was used in order to solve the research problem. Required data was taken from the base of the Główny Urząd Statystyczny and scientific publications of the publishing universi-ty. In the article were formulated the following hypotheses: 1.\tThe system of the taxation of agriculture is different than other existing Polish law and it is regarded as unfair in relation to other social groups. 2.\tChanging the tax system in agriculture is necessary and would lead to positive chang-es in the structure of agriculture. 3.\tThe reform of the taxation system of agricultural production is in many aspects neces-sary and beneficial, but it should nevertheless take into account the specificities of the agricultural activity. 4.\tThe introduction of the income tax has its bad side and carries the disadvantages for both farmers and municipalities.

  2. Agricultural productivity growth and technology progress in developing country agriculture: case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDZIO-BIKA Herve Lezin W.; WEI Long-bao

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to analyze the impact of some production variables (input) on agricultural productivity growth (output) in China from 1989~2002. We selected through random sampling Zhejiang Province for our disaggregate analysis with the use of Cobb-Douglas function. The estimation results showed that all key parameters are significant and are of the expected sign. Labor and that capital and land have positive impact on agricultural productivity growth.

  3. Agriculture and Aggregate Productivity: A Quantitative Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Dennis Tao Yang; Xiaodong Zhu

    2003-01-01

    A decomposition of aggregate labor productivity based on internationally comparable data from FAO and Penn World Tables reveals that high labor shares and low productivity in agriculture are mainly responsible for poor countries current position in the world income distribution. Using a two-sector general equilibrium model, we argue that di erences in total factor productivity (TFP) and barriers to using modern intermediate inputs in agricultural production can largely account for the observe...

  4. Impact of greenhouse gases on agricultural productivity in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is an agricultural developing country. About 68% of the country's population resides in rural areas and is mostly linked with agriculture. Agricultural sector contributes more than 25% to GDP, employees about 45% of the labour force and contributes significantly to export earnings of the country. Energy sector is the major source (80%) of emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Agriculture and livestock sectors are also responsible for GHGs emissions. The emissions of GHGs results in acid rain and earth's temperature rise (global warming). The destabilization of the global climate destroys natural ecosystem and increases natural disasters, such as violent storms, floods, droughts etc. The acid rain and these natural disasters affect the agricultural productivity. The study indicates that the agricultural productivity per capita in Pakistan decreased continuously during the last two decades. The paper concludes that due to emissions of GHGs, the agricultural productivity is significantly affected in the country. The government should take concrete measures to minimize the emissions of GHGs for increasing the agricultural productivity and reducing other harmful impacts in the country. This paper presents the review and analysis of the effects of GHGs emissions on the agricultural productivity in Pakistan. (author)

  5. Research on the Performance Evaluation and Advancing Path of Henan Agricultural Products E-marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingqiang; PAN

    2013-01-01

    Given that the traditional marketing management of agricultural products has been unable to meet the diversified demands of market, and the network has been applied to the marketing field of agricultural products,the research on the performance evaluation and advancing path of Henan agricultural products E-marketing is more important than before. Based on current problems of Henan agricultural products E-marketing,a system of performance evaluation is established,which covers website building and maintenance and other four first-class indexes as well as profit ratio of sales and other thirteen second-class indexes,and then the system is evaluated by comprehensive evaluation method. Meanwhile,it is explored to discuss how to further advance Henan agricultural products E-marketing.

  6. 农产品质量追溯体系建设现状与问题及对策%The Construction of Agricultural Product Quality Tracing System:the Situation,the Problems and the Way-out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 牛静; 高芳

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the current situation and existing problems of quality traceability system construction of agricultural products in China has become a hot topic of government and academia concerned. This article has analyzed the current situation and problems of quality traceability system of agricultural products in China, and summarized the achievements and shortcomings of construction of Chinese quality traceability system. Through research and analysis of quality traceability system of agricultural products in developed countries, it has pointed out that the effect of government and large-scale production, and traceability system from livestock as starting point are the characteristics of traceability system construction in developed countries. Based on the research, we have proposed the countermeasures for improving the Chinese quality traceability system of agricultural products.%目前中国农产品质量追溯体系建设的现状与存在的问题,已经成为政府和学术界关心的热门话题.通过对中国现有的农产品质量追溯体系的现状与问题进行分析,总结出中国农产品质量追溯体系建设的成果和不足;通过对发达国家农产品质量追溯体系的研究与分析,指出发挥政府和大型生产的作用,以及追溯体系从畜牧开始是发达国家农产品质量安全追溯体系建设的特点.在研究和分析的基础上,提出了完善中国农产品质量追溯体系的对策.

  7. What Do We Need to Know to Enhance the Environmental Sustainability of Agricultural Production? A Prioritisation of Knowledge Needs for the UK Food System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Sutherland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about global environmental change and food security have focused attention on the need for environmentally sustainable agriculture. This is agriculture that makes efficient use of natural resources and does not degrade the environmental systems that underpin it, or deplete natural capital stocks. We convened a group of 29 ‘practitioners’ and 17 environmental scientists with direct involvement or expertise in the environmental sustainability of agriculture. The practitioners included representatives from UK industry, non-government organizations and government agencies. We collaboratively developed a long list of 264 knowledge needs to help enhance the environmental sustainability of agriculture within the UK or for the UK market. We refined and selected the most important knowledge needs through a three-stage process of voting, discussion and scoring. Scientists and practitioners identified similar priorities. We present the 26 highest priority knowledge needs. Many of them demand integration of knowledge from different disciplines to inform policy and practice. The top five are about sustainability of livestock feed, trade-offs between ecosystem services at farm or landscape scale, phosphorus recycling and metrics to measure sustainability. The outcomes will be used to guide on-going knowledge exchange work, future science policy and funding.

  8. Agricultural Production Efficiency of Chongqing Based on DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Literatures about agricultural production efficiency are reviewed.Concept of DEA Method,as well as the definition methods of effective DEA and scale efficiency increase are introduced.According to the relevant statistical data in the years 1997-2007 in Chongqing Municipality,efficiency of agricultural economy is calculated from the year 1997 to 2007 by DEA method and the scale efficiency is also analyzed by taking the total output of agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery industry as the output index.And the input index includes total workforce in agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery,the total sown area of crops,the total power of agricultural machinery,chemical fertilizer application,the draft animal,and the effective irrigation area.Result shows that Chongqing City became a municipality directly under the central government;its agricultural production efficiency is still low.And the sustainable development capacity of agricultural is weak in Chongqing,and the agricultural resources are not fully used.Based on this,related suggestions are put forward to improve the agricultural production efficiency of Chongqing,such as implementing an appropriate management scale of land,improving the organization degree of peasant households and the rate of industrialization management,enhancing the quality of the rural labor force,strengthening the agricultural science and technology input and extension,perfecting the construction of rural infrastructure,and improving the rate of resource utilization.

  9. Regional Agriculture, Food Supply Systems and Competitiveness of Agriculture Prodiction Industries in Stavropol Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Lapina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of ensuring the competitiveness of the agriculture and food system currently present in Stavropol Territory. Provision of the local population with locally manufactured food products in sufficient quantities and of the appropriate quality is one of the main challenges for the regional authorities. Assesment for the most advantageous trends for developing agriculture sector in Stavropol Krai considering its supply security, production costs and market demands for the manufactured products is quite essential. Results of the assesment ensured preparation of the market maps for Stavropol Territory with reference to the main product groups, that allowed to rank them in accordance with the identified indicators. To assess efficiency of the industries, the analysis of the investment strategic positions within the main agriculture product groups was prepared and involved imlementation of adjusted BCG matrix. Based on the obtained data the following was prepared: ranking for agricultural industries considering their socio-economic importance for the Stavropol Territory, and recommendations on the feasible trends for particular industries.

  10. Evaluation on Core Competitiveness of Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products Based on CWAA Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.

  11. Pour une agriculture mondiale, productive et durable

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Ancien directeur du département Agriculture et développement durable de la Banque mondiale, Michel Petit nous livre un essai directement inspiré de son expérience au service des agricultures du monde. La critique du productivisme, en particulier de son impact sur les ressources naturelles, peut-elle faire l’impasse sur le rôle déterminant de la productivité agricole dans les processus de développement économique ? Dans la lignée des travaux de Théodore Schultz, prix Nobel d’économie en 1979 p...

  12. Networking agricultural information systems and services in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, V.

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides an overview on the networking of the Agricultural Information Systems and Services in India. Covers a range of issues related to Agricultural Research Information System (ARIS) of ICAR in India. It discusses in detail the Agricultural Research Information System Network (ARISNET) for India and its modules consists of Agricultural Research Personnel Information System (ARPIS), Agricultural Research Financial Information System (ARFIS), Agricultural Research Library Informati...

  13. Establishment of Agricultural Logistics Warehouse Receipt Pledge System in New Rural Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; PANG; Jiage; ZHAI

    2014-01-01

    New rural construction needs a strong financial support. However,agriculture is a high-risk industry; one big obstacle restricting Chinese rural economic development is financing difficulty in the agricultural products producing and processing enterprises. This paper,on the foundation of analyzing the current situation of Chinese agricultural products market,with the theory of modern logistics finance,puts forward the approach of establishing Chinese agricultural products logistics pledge system,and illustrates the function of agricultural products logistics warehouse receipt pledge system in the new rural construction.

  14. Exposures from consumption of agricultural and semi-natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of food from different production systems to the internal dose from radiocesium, was investigated in selected study sites in Ukraine and Russia. Food products from semi-natural ecosystems are major contributors to the individual internal dose to rural population in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. At the selected study sites it is estimated in 1995 that foods from private farms and forests contribute on average 35% to 60%, to the individual internal dose, variation relating to soil types and implemented countermeasures. The importance of food products from private farms and particularly forest products increases with time since Cs concentration in some of the natural food products have longer ecological half life than food products from agricultural systems. A significant relationship was observed between consumption of mushrooms and whole body content of radiocesium in rural people. The contribution to the collective dose of food products produced in the semi-natural ecosystems is less than the contribution to the individual internal dose for the local rural population

  15. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  16. EFFICIENT USE OF ROMANIA AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL BY INCREASING LABOR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOR CRISTIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania has a significant agricultural potential and agriculture in our country has an important share among sectors of the national economy. However, even if the Romanian labor productivity in agriculture had a positive development in the period 2007-2014, the level is lower than that achieved in the agricultural performance in the European Union. In order to improve labor productivity in Romanian agriculture, it is necessary to take a series of measures in order to reduce the disparities in this sector compared with the performance level from EU. For increasing the Romanian labor efficiency in agriculture, it is necessary to encourage investment and to improve the level of technology in mechanization; for the physical work done by Romanian farmer, to adjust with the performance benefits of using mechanization.

  17. Secondary aerosol production from agricultural gas precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of air quality indicate that agricultural emissions may impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Increasing evidence from both laboratory and field work suggests that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but some volatile org...

  18. Enhancing environmental quality in agricultural systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stanghellini, C.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Knies, P.

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouses have been extremely successful in providing abundant, cheap and high-quality produce, by using resources (water, minerals, pesticides) with a very high economic efficiency. Marginal agricultural land is being rapidly converted into protected cultivation in many (semi-arid) regions of the world, hoping to pros-per both from primary and secondary activities. Water use efficiency of greenhouse production is about five times as high as field production of vegetables. However, in spite...

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND FOOD PRODUCTION SUSTAINABILITY IN BANGLADESH AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Sanzidur

    1999-01-01

    Although `Green Revolution' technology is the major technological breakthrough in agricultural history, which is adopted by nations worldwide, including Bangladesh, to boost their foodgrain production, it is increasingly felt that productivity from this new agricultural technology is declining and is a threat to sustainability of economic development. The present study attempted to evaluate the role of technological change in augmenting aggregate crop growth and sustaining food production for...

  20. STATISTICAL CONTROL OF PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dražen Horvat; Andrijana Eđed; Đuro Banaj

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental concept of statistical process control is based on decision-making about the process on the basis of comparison of data collected from process with calculated control limits. Statistical process and quality control of agricultural products is used to provide agricultural products that will satisfy customer requirements in a view of quality pretension as well as costumer requirements in a cost price. In accordance with ISO 9000, quality standards for process and products are define...

  1. "Land Productivity and Economic Development: Caloric Suitability vs. Agricultural Suitability"

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Galor; Omer Ozak

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes that the Caloric Suitability Index (CSI) dominates the commonly used measure of agricultural suitability in the examination of the effect of land productivity on comparative economic development. The analysis demonstrates that the agricultural suitability index does not capture the large variation in the potential caloric yield across equally suitable land, reflecting the fact that land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for the most caloric-intensive ...

  2. Study on the Architecture of Agricultural Product Traceability System Based on SOA Concept%基于SOA思想的农产品质量追溯系统架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洋; 王雷

    2012-01-01

    Business processes and function modules of agricultural product traceability system were analyzed, and the service-oriented architecture and its special features were introduced. The agricultural products quality traceability system based on SOA-concept was built and demonstrated and the service design of the system architecture was described.%分析了农产品质量追溯系统的业务流程与功能模块,介绍了面向服务体系架构及其特点,构建了基于SOA (Sevice-oriented Architecture)思想的农产品质量追溯系统,并对系统架构中的服务设计进行了描述.

  3. Utilization of low rank coal and agricultural by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekinci, E.; Yardim, M.F.; Petrova, B.; Budinova, T.; Petrov, N. [Istanbul Technical University, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The present investigation deals with alternative utilization processes to convert low rank coal and agricultural by products into solid, liquid and gaseous products for a more efficient exploitation of these materials. Low rank coals and different agricultural by-products were subjected to different thermochemical treatments. The composition and physico-chemical properties of liquid products obtained from agricultural by-products were investigated. The identified compounds are predominantly oxygen derivatives of phenol, dihydroxybenzenes, guaiacol, syringol, vanilin, veratrol, furan and acids. Liquids from low rank coals contain higher quality of aromatic compounds predominantly mono- and bicyclic. The amount of oxygen containing structures is high as well. By thermo-chemical treatment of liquid products from agricultural by-products, low rank coals and their mixtures with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} carbon adsorbents with very low ash and sulfur content are obtained. Using different activation reagents large scale carbon adsorbents are prepared from agricultural by-products and coals. The results of the investigations open-up possibilities for utilization of low rank coals and agricultural by-products. 18 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Energy of the wood – to quality of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rijov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The group of authors is engaged in development and deployment in production of products of biomass of the wood in agriculture. Lately we introduced in production more than five domestic import-substituting products, more than 20 applications for inventions are submitted, 4 patents are taken out, more than 30 articles on this subject are published.

  5. Feminization of Agriculture in Melamchi, Nepal? Addressing gender in agricultural production and household decisions.

    OpenAIRE

    Laxaa, Gunnhild

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based on two months of fieldwork in Melamchi, Nepal in 2014. The objective of this study is to examine whether a feminization of agriculture" has occurred in the study area by investigating the local farming system and the gendered division of agricultural labour and managerial responsibilities. According to the household survey (n=54), a strong gendered division of agricultural tasks exist in this area, thus men and women have clear responsibilities and restrictions. By t...

  6. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future. PMID:20643935

  7. Mearsurement and control system for agricultural robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Zhang, Fangming; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Automation of agricultural equipments in the near term appears both economically viable and technically feasible. This paper describes measurement and control system for agriculture robot. It consists of a computer, a pair of NIR cameras, one inclinometer, one potentionmeter and two encoders. Inclinometer, potentionmeter and encoders are used to measure obliquity of camera, turning angle of front-wheel and velocity of rear wheel, respectively. These sensor data are filtered before sending to PC. The test shows that the system can measure turning angle of front-wheel and velocity of rear wheel accurately whether robot is at stillness state or at motion state.

  8. Microfinance, Efficiency and Agricultural Production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, K. M. Zahidul

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to make a detailed and systematic empirical analysis of microfinance borrowers and non-borrowers in Bangladesh and also examine how efficiency measures are influenced by the access to agricultural microfinance. In the empirical analysis, this study used both parametric and non-parametric frontier approaches to investigate differences in efficiency estimates between microfinance borrowers and non-borrowers. This thesis, based on five articles, applied data obt...

  9. Precision Agriculture Technology Adoption for Cotton Production

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Kenneth W.; Mishra, Ashok K.; Chintawar, Sachin; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, Burton C.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Marra, Michele C.; Larkin, Sherry L.; Reeves, Jeanne M.; Martin, Steven W

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on the adoption of precision technologies have generally used logit models to explain the adoption behavior of individuals. This study investigates factors affecting the number of specific types of precision agriculture technologies adopted by cotton farmers. Particular attention is given to the influence of spatial yield variability on the number of precision farming technologies adopted, using a Count data estimation procedure and farm-level data. Results indicate that farmers ...

  10. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, A. U.; I. B. Obot; Umoren, S. A.; Mkpenie, V.; Asuquo, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis), raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri), stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays), fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera), sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum), pear wood (Manilkara obovata), stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus), sugarcane baggase (Sac...

  11. Sensitive Product Treatment in Agricultural Trade Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Wailes, Eric J; Sharp, Misti

    2011-01-01

    The fact that trade, and especially agricultural trade, remains far from free is puzzling, since the superiority of free trade receives overwhelming support among economists (Gawande and Krishna, 2003; Rodrik, 1994). International trade scholars have devoted significant resources to forecasting the impact of trade policy reforms (for a survey of these studies see Congressional Budget Office, 2005), and their findings are relevant inputs for officials negotiating a trade agreement as well as f...

  12. What Determines Productivity Growth of Agricultural Cooperatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Chatura B.; Featherstone, Allen M; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines productivity of a sample of grain marketing and farm supply cooperatives from 1990 to 1998. The cooperative industry’s productivity or growth was mainly due to improvement in technology rather than improvement in pure efficiency or scale. The cooperative industry’s productivity was primarily associated with the grain, fertilizer, and agrochemical product lines. Policies that raise fertilizer prices would encourage a cooperative to be technically more productive. In gen...

  13. Establishment and Application of Assessment Indicator System of Agricultural Catastrophe Vulnerability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To give play to the role of agricultural catastrophe risk fund in spreading agricultural catastrophe risk,we select natural conditions,economic conditions,social conditions,as the external vulnerability assessment indicators;select commodity rate of agricultural products,substitutability of agricultural products,the extent of agricultural products being related to the national economy and the people’s livelihood,as the internal vulnerability assessment indicators.We assign weight to indicators using Analytic Hierarchy Process,and establish assessment indicator system of agricultural catastrophe vulnerability,to analyze the compensation for losses of different agricultural products arising from agricultural catastrophe in different regions.And we take the case of rice in Sichuan Province,to demonstrate the role this indicator system.

  14. Organization of Accounting of the Costs for Processing of Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoriya Rozhelyuk

    2014-01-01

    Accounting of processing of agricultural products is one of the most difficult areas in the system of accounting at a processing company. The article addresses the special characteristics of the process of accounting of costs associated with the processing of agricultural products by the entities of various forms of ownerships as well as the refinement of the structure of expenditure items with regard to the production technology. Determined is the optimal grouping of items of expenditures fo...

  15. Strengthening Brand Construction and Improving the Competitiveness of Tropical Distinctive Agricultural Products in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihuan; QIU; Xiaodong; ZHANG; Minxia; LIN; Hongyi; ZHANG; Zhunian; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Brand construction plays an increasingly important role in marketing and competition in modern agricultural industry. There are problems in brand construction of tropical distinctive agricultural products in Hainan,including less famous brand products,weak core competence,strengthening declaration and ignoring management as well as imperfect marketing system,therefore resource integration should be stressed to develop famous brand products and technological innovation should be strengthened to promote core competence of enterprise.

  16. STUDY ON THE FRAMEWORK SYSTEM OF DIGITAL AGRICULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    China is a great agricultural country with large population, limited soil resources and traditional farming mode, so the central government has been attaching great importance to the development of agriculture and put forward a new agricultural technology revolution - the transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture and from extensive farming to intensive farming. Digital agriculture is the core of agricultural informatization. The enforcement of digital agriculture will greatly promote agricultural technology revolution, two agricultural transformations and its rapid development, and enhance China′ s competitive power after the entrance of WTO. To carry out digital agriculture, the frame system of digital agriculture is required to be studied in the first place. In accordance with the theory and technology of digital earth and in combination with the agricultural reality of China, this article outlines the frame system of digital agriculture and its main content and technology support.

  17. Current Situations and Problems of Logistics for Guangxi Fresh Agricultural Products in the New Period and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,Guangxi realized consecutive bumper harvests in fresh agricultural products,leading increase of logistics demand;logistics infrastructure begins to take shape,and logistics of fresh agricultural products takes on diversified development form with wholesale market as main form. However,traditional fresh agricultural products are not selling well and it lacks construction of supply chain; the construction of logistics information system for fresh agricultural products lags behind; organizational level of production and operation of fresh agricultural products is low. Through analyzing current situations and existing problems of logistics of Guangxi fresh agricultural products in the new period( 21 st century),this paper came up with recommendations for developing logistics of fresh agricultural products of Guangxi. Government should increase policy and financial support,build and manage supply chain of fresh agricultural products,accelerate construction of logistics information system for agricultural products,and improve organizational level of logistics of fresh agricultural products,to ensure healthy development of logistics of fresh agricultural products in Guangxi.

  18. The Origins of Agriculture Production in the Area of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Food production, that is to say agricultural production begins independently in three different geographical areas: the Near East, the Far East and Central America. From the Near East agriculture spread to the entire Europe. Locations of domestication and spreading routes of Triticum dicoccum, Triticum monococcum, sheep and cattle enable us to establish directions of the spread of agriculture. Growing precision of 14C method by which date of biological material is determined makes it possible to determine the beginnings of agricultural production in specific areas and the rapidity of its spreading. Food production created the conditions for significant population growth and rapid social development. Discovery of human genome and development of a new interdisciplinary science of arhaeogenetics led to knowledge about dates of appearance of certain human haplotypes, from which the spread of agriculture by demographic diffusion or by acquiring food production know-how can be inferred. In the period between 7000 and 5000 BC developing pottery cultures were spreading simultaneously with agriculture. For the understanding of spread of agriculture to Croatia and its further advance, archaeological data on the Impresso, Starèevo, Korenovo (as a part of Linear Pottery complex, Danilo and Lengyel - Sopot cultures are of great importance.

  19. Computerised image analysis of biocrystallograms originating from agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens-Otto; Henriksen, Christian B.; Laursen, J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1999-01-01

    Procedures are presented for computerised image analysis of iocrystallogram images, originating from biocrystallization investigations of agricultural products. The biocrystallization method is based on the crystallographic phenomenon that when adding biological substances, such as plant extracts...

  20. Establishing an evaluation index system of quality safety of planting agricultural products%种植类农产品质量安全评价指标及权重确定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵明晖; 吴彪; 李宁; 王帅

    2015-01-01

    With the improvementof life quality in China due to the giant achievements on economics in the latest decades ,the quality safety of agricultural products has become one of the most significant issues on the national health and the construction of harmonious society .The actuality and influential factors on the quality safety of planting agricultural products are discussed . An evaluation index system based on Analytic Hierarchy Process method is established . It provides the theoretical foundation for the development of Chinese agriculture and ensures the quality safety of agricultural products .%随着我国经济发展和人民生活水平的提高,农产品质量安全问题已成为关系国民身体健康、构建和谐社会的重大问题。以种植类农产品为研究对象,分析其质量安全现状,讨论影响其质量安全的相关因素,根据专家咨询意见及实地调研构建种植类农产品质量安全评价体系,并基于层次分析法确定指标权重。

  1. More energy and production from agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchaim, U.

    1982-07-01

    This is a report on the Nefah project in Israel which is supported by the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure and carried out by the Research and Development Institute of Kibbutz Industries. Its aim is to transform agricultural wastes into methane gas by anaerobic digestion process, and to utilize the residues of the process as a livestock and fish food supplement. A demonstration plant based on a herd of over 500 cows and serving a kibbutz of 700 persons is already functioning satisfactorily. A computer model is able to decide upon the optimal installation for any given farm. An economic analysis is also performed.

  2. An evaluation of climate change effects on agricultural systems: the case of Trasimeno Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boggia; Fabrizio Luciani; Gianluca Massei; Luisa Paolotti; Lucia Rocchi; Tommaso Sediari

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a current matter that is viewed as controversial by the general public, within scientific communities and by governments. Among the production sectors, agriculture is the most significantly influenced by the effect of climate change. This study is aimed at understanding and measuring the changes that occur in agricultural systems due to climate, and at determining how climate change can affect both agricultural productivity and the environmental impacts of agricultural syste...

  3. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guangtao

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) s...

  4. Productivity Gaps Between European and United States Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Ball, V. Eldon; Butault, Jean Pierre; Barkaou, Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    A set of purchasing power parities was constructed for the inputs and the outputs of the agricultural sector in 10 European countries and the United States. This made it possible to deflate both spatially and in time the nominal agricultural accounts. Real values of inputs and outputs made it possible to construct spatial indexes of productivity. These indexes measure the productivity gaps between countries for a given year. Extrapolation between 1973 and 1989 measures how these gaps have cha...

  5. Ordering Strategy for Fresh Agricultural Products in External Financing Condition

    OpenAIRE

    DU, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the two stage supply chain consisting of single agricultural product producer and fund restraint retailer. Then, it analyzed the influence of bank interest rate on order quantity, wholesale price and expected profit of retailer and producer on the condition of retailer taking external loan strategy. Studies have shown that when the bank interest rate is in (0, 0.9), the order quantity of agricultural products is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when t...

  6. Radiation Processed Materials in Products from Polymers for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication results from a technical meeting on radiation processed materials in products from polymers for agricultural applications, which was held from 8 to 12 July 2013 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting provided a forum for the sharing of practical experiences and lessons learned, and reviewed the recent developments in the use of radiation technologies for the preparation of environmental friendly products based on polymers for agricultural applications

  7. Learning our way towards a sustainable agri-food system Three cases from Sweden: Stockholm Farmers market, Ramsjö Community Supported Agriculture and Järna Initiative for Local Production

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Steffen; Fung, Stephanie; Huber, Gwendolyn; Young, Lee

    2003-01-01

    This research is based on case studies of the Stockholm Farmers Market, Ramsjö Community Supported Agriculture, and Järna Initiative for Local Production. These cases are examples of alternative consumerproducer links in the Swedish agri-food system. An adapted SWOT analysis highlights key strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and constraints in each case from the multiple perspectives of producers, consumers, the organization, as well as the environment and society. Diagrams show where learni...

  8. A THEORETICAL SPOTLIGHT OVER THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at identifying and classifying new types of agricultural products, especially in Romania, but not only. As we well know, all the countries all over the world have their own history, traditions, economic structure, and a certain type of agriculture, adapted to their soil, climate, and nevertheless to theirs people needs. So, we know that certain countries used to cultivate certain agricultural products, while others are wellknown for others. Usually, we associate Spain with great wines, Belgium with delicious chocolate, Turkey with coffee, India with rice, Romania with grain, Russia with cereals, SUA – tobacco, etc.\\r\

  9. Android Application Agriculture Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Rachana P.Koli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Android mobile use in Agriculture is as the core components to more helpful to increase productivity of crops and indirectly to increase GDP of India reduce poverty. The main challenges for crop selection traditional methods. This is android application which will be useful for farmers & agricultural institutes for cultivation of various kind of crops in various type of atmosphere. This smart phone app is easy to use and in affordable cost which will suggest most probable matching crops to people according to weather condition. By this farmers can cultivate more suited crop and increase production ratio .Here application needed basic inputs like water availability in mm , average temperature , average soil Ph of farm , locality of farm , soil type etc so by certain calculation at backend this application will show most probable crops for that farm . It is one farmer’s friend kind of application.

  10. 农产品供应链生产阶段发展循环经济微观经济组织评价指标体系构建%Constructing Evaluation Index System of the Supply Chain of Agricultural Products in Production Stage to Develop Agricultural Cycle of Economic Microeconomic Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳; 冷志杰

    2011-01-01

    通过对农产品供应链生产阶段发展循环经济评价因素的综合分析,建立了包括财务、附产品的增值效益、环境管理绩效、物流服务水平、学习与发展能力等5个一级指标、16个二级指标的评价指标体系。通过对评价指标确立原则和影响因素的分析,建立了生产阶段发展循环经济微观组织评价指标体系,该体系适用于对农产品供应链生产阶段发展循环经济能力综合评价,得到的评价结果可以为政府找到合适的投资主体,也可以为政府投资或推进循环经济项目提供依据和指导。%Through comprehensive analysis of the factors about the supply chain of agricultural products in production stage to develop agricultural cycle of economic,we established an evaluation index system which includes 5 level indicators and 16 secondary indicators.The level indicators include finance,value added product benefits,environmental performance management,logistics service level,and learning and development ability.Based on the analysis of the evaluation indexes and affecting factors for establishing principles,the production stages of developing circular economy microstructure evaluation index system is established,which is the key members develop circular economy,and we used this method to evaluate the agricultural products supply chain in production stage developing circular economy.The evaluation results can help for the government to find suitable investors,and it can also provide evidence and guidance for the government investment or to promote circular economy project.

  11. Inequality and agricultural production: Evidence from aggregate agriculture and sugarcane farms in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ngepah, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of inequality in productivity in South African agriculture and differentiates between small-scale and large-scale farms in the sugarcane sector. The findings suggest that inequality slows down productivity and that land redistribution slightly improves it. Farm type-specific effects reveal that redistribution per se does not lead to higher production, but only improves production for those who farm the land effectively and go on to harvest the crop. Much...

  12. Corresponding Measures in Establishment of the Traceability System for Agricultural Products Quality and Security in China%我国建立农产品质量安全可追溯系统的对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹玉伶; 何静

    2011-01-01

    Food safety related directly to the people's life safety and body health and it is key to construct the traceability system about agricultural products quality and safety for ensuring food quality and safety. In present paper, situation of agricultural products quality and safety traceability system concerning research and development at home and abroad was introduced, and the existing problems facing us in the establishment of the traceability system about agricultural products quality and safety in our country was analyzed. On this proposes corresponding strategy was put forward.%食品安全直接关系着人们的生命安全和身体健康,建立农产品质量安全可追溯系统是确保食品安全的关键.介绍了农产品质量安全可追溯系统的国内外研究和发展现状,分析了我国在建立农产品质量安全可追溯系统过程中面临的问题,并提出应对策略.

  13. 农产品安全追溯系统的云计算技术性能提升设计%Performance improving design on cloud computing for agricultural products safety traceability system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈联诚; 胡月明; 张飞扬; 段文杰; 余平祥

    2013-01-01

    农业生产及环境的信息采集是农业信息系统的重要环节,无线传感器网络以它的低成本、无线传输等优势广泛应用于农产品安全追溯的信息采集中。由于无线传感器网络长年不间断信息采集的积累,数据库的大信息量及网站用户高访问量将对网站服务器造成高负载的压力,这将导致网站的响应速度大大降低。采用高存储、高负载处理性能云计算计算技术,能提高网站访问的响应速度,提高网站的访问性能。该文设计了基于私有云的农产品安全追溯网站,研究了Hill-Climbing搜索算法优化云平台配置及MapReduce对大数据的并行计算,提高了私有云上的农产品安全追溯系统的性能。通过将网站系统迁移至私有云的前后的比较试验,说明将网站系统迁移至私有云后各方面性能得到较大提升,网站访问响应速度提高了33%。%Information collection of the production, supply and marketing chain in agriculture is an absolutely necessary part in the driving process of construction of agricultural informationization. As a new technique in collecting information, and relying on its low cost, low power consumption and wireless transmission, a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has already permeated into the agriculture area. For an agricultural information system which employs a wireless sensor as its collection terminal, there is no doubt that the uninterrupted process for information collection, transmission, and storage, as well as inquiries from a large number of users, puts so much pressure on the system server, resulting in a low speed for web access and inquiry. The response time and response rate when visiting a web site are key points of a web site’s performance. A supporting platform that has the capacity of mass storage and dealing with high concurrency traffic, therefore, is necessary for a Safety Tracing System for Agricultural Products. A cloud

  14. Agricultural pricing systems and transportation policy in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gersovitz, M

    1991-01-01

    When agricultural production is taxed, the system of producer prices, transport logistics, and decisions on investments in transport for exports must be considered together. Many African states raise revenue by taxing export crops. A common tool for this purpose is marketing boards. Marketing boards purchase crops at depots established near areas of cultivation, at prices that yield a profit to the board. The boards also arrange for processing and the transport of the product from depots to p...

  15. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  16. Advanced Manufacturing and Value-added Products from US Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, Ruxton H.; Child, Dennis R.; Acock, Basil

    1992-01-01

    An objective of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is to develop technology leading to a broad portfolio of value-added marketable products. Modern scientific disciplines such as chemical engineering are brought into play to develop processes for converting bulk commodities into high-margin products. To accomplish this, the extremely sophisticated processing devices which form the basis of modern biotechnology, namely, genes and enzymes, can be tailored to perform the required functions. The USDA/ARS is a leader in the development of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) for agriculture in the broadest sense. Applications of IPE are found in the production, processing, grading, and marketing aspects of agriculture. Various biotechnology applications of IPE are discussed.

  17. Efficiency of Production Factors and Financial Performance of Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Novotná

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relationship between efficiency of use of the production factors in agricultural enterprises in Czech Republic and their financial performance. The aim of the article is to define common economic features of agricultural enterprises which labour productivity has been growing for a long time and, at the same time; they have been increasing value of their fixed assets (investing. The analysis was focused on 1098 agricultural enterprises classified according to the European Commission as micro, small and medium enterprises. The analysis showed that above-average agricultural enterprises (high growth of labour productivity and fixed assets, regardless of their size, have higher profitability indicators, higher indebtedness and lower quick ratio. Summarizing the results of the analysis of individual size classes, it can be said that the smaller size class, the bigger difference.

  18. An Empirical Analysis on Agricultural Materials Logistics Control and Agricultural Products Safety: A Case Study of Bi-chains Management Model for Veterinary Drugs in Pinggu District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianqi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Through an empirical analysis of the agricultural logistics model and agricultural products quality control system in Pinggu district of Beijing, a model was studied to control the agricultural quality by agricultural logistics. The model adopts modern logistics supply chain, which firstly, establishes a modern logistics distribution system for veterinary drugs by the means of suppliers control, chain management and cold chain distribution; secondly, organizes the veterinary experts and doctors to provide real-time technical services so as to control the abuse of drugs; thirdly, realizes the supervision of local veterinary drugs and diseases. Thus the quality of animal products is guaranteed, and the model is worthy to be popularized.

  19. Parallel Factor Analysis in Dual-class Tax Impacts of Agricultural Products: An Economic Research from Macro Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishen Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products using the parallel factor analysis. Along with the rapid economic development of China, the growing purchasing power of Chinese residents has been accelerated; particularly in the expensive agricultural products market. China has adjusted taxable items of consumption tax to narrow the gap between rich and poor and to promote social equity. The atrophy of the expensive agricultural products market brought by the tax may curb the growth and development of domestic agricultural products industry. In this study, the parallel factor analysis is employed to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products. The results indicate that the taxation system should be taken from a forward-looking aspect. The market supply and demand for expensive agricultural products and consumer behaviors should be combined with an overall consideration. Hence, specific adjustments China expensive agricultural products market have been eventually put forward.

  20. Evaluation Indicator System for China’s Agricultural Industrial Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingpeng; GAO; Bin; CHEN; Qinyang; LI

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of new characteristics and trend of China’s agricultural development in the post-WTO period,combining analysis of factors influencing agricultural industrial safety,this paper builds an evaluation indicator system for China’s agricultural industrial safety by scientific indicator system design method.This indicator system includes risk factor indicators(showing risk degree)and capacity factor indicators(showing guaranteeing ability),and consists of 7 subsystems:consumption safety,production safety,industrial controlling capacity,industrial development capacity,industrial development environment,government functions and industrial foundation condition.Risk factor is divided into 5 levels:higher risk,high risk,medium risk,low risk and lower risk;guarantee risk is also divided into five levels:strong,healthy,normal,weak and disabled.According to the overall evaluation score obtained from weighting sum,the agricultural industrial safety includes 5 types:very safe,safe,basically safe,not safe and hazardous.This evaluation indicator system is expected to providing theoretical reference for evaluating China’s agricultural industrial safety.

  1. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products;we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism,bearing education and training functions,forming low-carbon value,building low-carbon identification system,as well as realizing low-carbon value.According to these situations,we systematically analyze operation mechanism of farmers’ professional cooperatives suitable for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.To promote cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products,we put forward following suggestions,including government guidance and encouragement,social acceptance and active cooperation,and integration into global low-carbon development system to share benefit of low-carbon development.

  2. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  3. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  4. Energy analysis of organic and conventional agricultural systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bertilsson, Göte; Kirchmann, Holger; BERGSTRÖM, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Energy parameters of a Swedish long-term field experiment comparing organic and conventional agricultural systems were evaluated. There is great potential for misinterpretation of system comparisons as a result of choice of data and how energy data are expressed. For example, reported yields based on single crops and not the whole rotation can result in significantly different interpretations. Energy use per unit yield was lower in organic crop and animal production than in the corresponding ...

  5. Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad,we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets;then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket,and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation;finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers,put forward corresponding policy suggestions:establish government support policy;set relevant standard of industry;establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.

  6. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks....... Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case...

  7. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Hong; Shen, Xin; Huang, Zhipeng

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics, this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products, and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results, it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-...

  8. Grassland production under global change scenarios for New Zealand pastoral agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    E. D. Keller; W. T. Baisden; L. Timar; Mullan, B.; Clark, A.

    2014-01-01

    We adapt and integrate the Biome-BGC and Land Use in Rural New Zealand models to simulate pastoral agriculture and to make land-use change, intensification of agricultural activity and climate change scenario projections of New Zealand's pasture production at time slices centred on 2020, 2050 and 2100, with comparison to a present-day baseline. Biome-BGC model parameters are optimised for pasture production in both dairy and sheep/beef farm systems, representing a new applic...

  9. Public Investment and Environrnental Sustainability of Agricultural Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jing; Li Yousheng

    2004-01-01

    The excessive application of fertilizer and pesticides in grain production in China has posed a threat to the environrnental sustainability of agricultural production. One of the major reasons of the increasing usage of chemical inputs by farmers is their trying to reach higher yields, especially in absence of adequate public inputs, such as development and extension of appropriate technology and necessary production infrastructure, etc. Based on the cropspecific data of the past 20 years, this paper examines how the public investments in agricultural researches could impact on the reduction of farmers' private material inputs of major grain crops in China. It manifests that the increased investments in public sector, especially in agricultural researches, is a favorable and effective way to reduce farmers' private material inputs and should be given a priority consideration in the policy emendation to increase yields and improve production sustainability.

  10. Agricultural Supply Chain Traceability System Based on Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to overcome defects in existing ASCTS(Agricultural Supply Chain Traceability System,a new traceability system based on Multi-Agent System(MAS) is put forward.By qualitative method,I analyze problems of application of Agent technology in tracing quality of agricultural products.Physical model is built for this system and structure of traceability system is determined.Finally,algorithm is presented for major entities.From analysis of algorithm,it is proved that this system has some reference value in improving breadth and depth of product traceability.

  11. Computerised image analysis of biocrystallograms originating from agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens-Otto; Henriksen, Christian B.; Laursen, J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1999-01-01

    the subset, thereby reducing the within-group variance, the scores were markedly improved. Classifications of the total set and the subset showed scores up to 84.8 and 100%, respectively. A number of parameters showed a monotonic relationship with degradation day number. Multiple linear regressions......Procedures are presented for computerised image analysis of iocrystallogram images, originating from biocrystallization investigations of agricultural products. The biocrystallization method is based on the crystallographic phenomenon that when adding biological substances, such as plant extracts...... farming systems on crop quality. The circular structures contain predominantly a single centre from where ramifications expand in a zonal structure. In previous studies primarily texture analysis was applied, and the images analysed and classified by means of a circular region-of-interest (ROI), i.e., the...

  12. Detecting Chaos from Agricultural Product Price Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Su; Yi Wang; Shengsen Duan; Junhai Ma

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the characteristics of agricultural product price volatility and trend forecasting are necessary to formulate and implement agricultural price control policies. Taking wholesale cabbage prices as an example, a multiple test methodology has been adopted to identify the nonlinearity, fractality, and chaos of the data. The approaches used include the R/S analysis, the BDS test, the power spectra, the recurrence plot, the largest Lyapunov exponent, the Kolmogorov entropy, and the corr...

  13. Learning from Carchi: agricultural modernisation and the production of decline

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Provided its natural endowments, generally educated rural population, infrastructure and market access to two countries, the Province of Carchi, located in the northernmost highlands of Ecuador, is potentially one of the most productive agriculture regions in the Andes. In the 1960s development experts and the government targeted the region as a model for agricultural modernisation. Following land reform and rapid organisation around industrial era technologies, potato farming in Carchi boome...

  14. SOME CURRENT ISSUES IN THE MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Bob

    1986-01-01

    The subject of 'marketing' as a field of agricultural policy and applied research is discussed in this paper. Agribusiness approaches to marketing advanced in recent years are argued to have made little contribution to policy or research and are rejected in favour of the more traditional framework of applied economic analysis. Developments in government policy on national statutory marketing authorities for agricultural products are appraised along with some evidence on the allocation of rese...

  15. MEASURING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CAPITAL IN UNITED STATES AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Cole R.

    1986-01-01

    The agricultural sector has operated in a period of high real interest rates for over half a decade. Some are concerned that this has limited capital availability and stagnated the historic capital for labor substitution occurring in the sector. This study proposes new procedures for estimating the aggregate production function of United States agriculture. Improvements include incorporation of total returns and revised measures of both durable and nondurable capital inputs. Results indicate ...

  16. Production Function, Institutional Credit and Agricultural Development in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Habib A. Zuberi

    1989-01-01

    This study, based on the time-series data covering the period from 1956 to 1986, estimates production function in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. The strategy for agricultural development in the country has been based on greater utilization of "high pay-off low-cost technology. The government advanced loans through financial institutions to make it possible for the farmers to acquire this technology. Despite the infusion of seed-fertilizer technology, per acre yield of major crops like w...

  17. Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Food Security: Evidence from Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Breisinger; Olivier Ecker; Perrihan Al-Riffai; Richard Robertson; Rainer Thiele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a model-based assessment of local and global climate change impacts for the case of Yemen, focusing on agricultural production, household incomes and food security. Global climate change is mainly transmitted through rising world food prices. Our simulation results suggest that climate change induced price increases for food will raise agricultural GDP while decreasing real household incomes and food security. Rural nonfarm households are hit hardest as they tend to be net...

  18. China, GMOs and World Trade in Agricultural and Textile Products

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Yao, Shunli

    2002-01-01

    China has always strived for self-sufficiency in farm products, particularly staple foods. Its rapid industrialization following its opening up to global markets during the past two decades has been making that more difficult, and its accession to the WTO may add to that difficulty. New agricultural biotechnologies could ease that situation. The adoption and spread of some of those biotechnologies in agriculture have, however, raised concerns, particularly over the environmental and food safe...

  19. Subsidy Policy System for Agricultural Natural Disasters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; LUO; Fengxian; YAN; Jun; GE

    2014-01-01

    From theories and cases,this paper analyzed current situation of subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters in China.Improvement and perfection of subsidy policies for agricultural natural disasters need clear classification and additional special subsidy plan.It is recommended to improve and perfect subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters through attaching importance to scientific studies on reduction and prevention of agricultural disasters and gradually supplementing agricultural disaster reduction and prevention system.

  20. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Braide; I. A. Kanu; S.U. Oranusi; S. A. Adeleye

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark) and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk) was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total re...

  1. Agricultural Potential for Biogas Production in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Kulišić; Vjekoslav Par

    2009-01-01

    Biogas is renewable energy source with strong local character as its production depends on availability and type of feedstock at a certain location. Utilisation of slurry, manure and beddings from cattle, pig, horse, poultry and other animal breeding together with energy rich substrates such as crops and other organic materials as biogas substrates creates an interesting option both from technical and economic perspective. Other materials suitable for anaerobic digestion are comprised of vari...

  2. INDIRECT COSTS ALLOCATION AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Marijan Karić; Ljubica Ranogajec

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces a research on the changes occurred inside the accounting system of agricultural organisations in the transitional period. Changes of structure and accounting information system being results of privatisation processes were analysed. The introduction of modern methods in the preparation of relevant management information represents one of the preconditions for development of the privatised agricultural organisation during the transition period. Information prepared by the ...

  3. Interactions of U.S. Agricultural Production with Climatic Stresses and Reactive Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehl, R. J.; Robertson, G. P.; Bruulsema, T. W.; Kanter, D.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rotz, C. A.; Williams, C. O.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production both contributes to and responds to climatic variations across spatial and temporal continuums. The agriculture sector is responsible for over 6% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, primarily as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases emitted by agricultural activities. Agriculture activities specifically account for about 69% of U.S. N2O emissions, largely as a result of production practices including fertilizer management, cropping systems, and manure management. Fertilizers, together with manure and legume fixation, are the three main inputs of N to US agricultural soils. All three sources have been increasing over the past two decades, while the rate at which they are removed in the form of harvested crops has been increasing at a slightly slower rate. The outlook for continued large areas of cultivation in the U.S., specifically for corn production and supported by biofuel production goals, is a major factor in sustaining demand for N fertilizer. However, rising fertilizer prices and environmental pressures on producers are encouraging increased adoption of emerging technologies such as precision agriculture, cultivars with higher N use efficiency, and enhanced-efficiency N sources such as controlled-release forms or forms with urease or nitrification inhibitors. Crop productivity also responds to climatic changes, as crop growth is affected by variables including heat, drought, ozone (O3), and increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). We summarize sources and fates of N for cropping systems and intensive animal systems and assess how climate change will affect crop response to and recovery of N and subsequent cascading effects on Nr. The complex interactions between agricultural Nr and climate present opportunities for mitigation/adaption relative to N use. N fertilizer and manure management, tillage, technology, and decision support models provide significant opportunities for climate mitigation and adaption in U.S. agriculture

  4. FORMATION OF AN EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhanko G. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of creating an effective organizational-economic mechanism of management in agricultural production and the substantiation for the use of a problem-oriented approach in the management of business structures. The article is an exploratory, it has reflected the fact that it dealt with the peculiarities of agricultural production in modern conditions, and it has identified factors increase the effectiveness of entrepreneurial activity in agriculture, the necessity, in order to improve production efficiency, of the use of a problem-oriented approach in the management of business structures. The article considers specific features of agriculture, without which it is impossible to ensure the desired performance of a functioning business structures. It is proved that the solution of the problems of modern development of agricultural production, enhance the competitiveness of domestic enterprises in connection with the entry into WTO is closely linked to the identification of such features and the determination of their effect (stimulating or inhibiting the final results of functioning of economic entities in the agricultural sector. In the article, much attention is paid to the issue of performance management entrepreneurship business entities engaged directly in agricultural production, which represents a system of organizational and technological management, providing specified volumes of production and raw materials for the processing industry, meeting the requirements of quality and sustainability and affordable prices for a wide range of consumers, as well as the definition of the specific objectives of the performance management of agricultural producers. In the article the urgency of the problem-oriented approach with identified problems identify the factors increasing the efficiency of agricultural production and to develop an optimal management decisions for specific agrifood systems

  5. Study on the Factors Effect of Adopting Application in Agricultural Products Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the intense impact of global competition, the agriculture of our country appeared the characteristics of low level of industrialization, the low level of management, the value chain of low level, low degree of information technology, organizational dispersed and in recent years the continuous emergence of food quality and safety problems, such as China's agricultural development has sounded the alarm. In order to improve the agricultural supply chain operation efficiency and competitiveness is the key to the problem of solving. Application of Internet of things in the agricultural supply chain helps to improve the agricultural supply chain information technology level, so that the operating efficiency of the supply chain of agricultural products to enhance the whole supply chain integration, the. This study establishes a can optimize the facilities fruit and vegetable cultivation resources, reduce production cost and improve the facility cultivation of a set of decision system of cultivation technology level, reduce the facilities fruit and vegetable production cost, improves the product yield, quality and market competitiveness, not only the follow-up research and popularization of agricultural technology of the Internet of things to lay the foundation, but also can effectively to enhance agriculture IOT application level and has practical application value and practical significance.

  6. Application Of Colored Petri Net In Modeling Ofan Agricultural Enterprise Informationmanagement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangtian; Wang, Kaiyi; Sui, Jin; Liu, Chang; Liu, Zhongqiang

    Business system modeling of an agricultural enterprise is one of the difficulties in developing and researching an agricultural enterprise management information system. Given the inadequate description of concurrent and synchronal events in the traditional modeling methods, this paper presents a modeling method, which uses Colored Petri Net. The paper discusses the application of Colored Petri Net in system modeling with the example of an agricultural enterprise production management system model, and analyzes the feasibility and effectiveness of that model.

  7. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  8. [Determination of Butroxydim in Agricultural Products by LC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatani, Tomiaki; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Tada, Hiroyuki; Goto, Kotaro; Nemoto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of butroxydim in agricultural products by LC-MS was developed. Butroxydim was extracted with acetonitrile and an aliquot of the crude extract was cleaned up on an octadecyl silanized silica gel (C18) cartridge column (1,000 mg), followed by a salting-out step to remove water. Before purification on a silica gel (SI) cartridge column (690 mg), polar matrices were precipitated by adding ethyl acetate, n-hexane and anhydrous sodium sulfate successively. This process effectively removed caffeine and catechins and improved recovery when analyzing residual butroxydim in tea leaves. Recovery and repeatability were good; the relative standard deviations were less than 5% for all 12 tested agricultural products (brown rice, soybean, potato, spinach, cabbage, apple, orange, grapefruit, lemon, tomato, peas with pods, and tea). Average recoveries for 11 agricultural products, except for lemon, were 74-92%. PMID:26699270

  9. Life cycle assessment of coupling household biogas production to agricultural industry: A case study of biogas-linked persimmon cultivation and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas plant construction has been boosted in rural China not only due to the immediate merit from biogas production but also the succeeding benefit from by-product utilization in agro-industry, both of which are significant strategies to address energy shortage and global warming issues. However, little work has been done to evaluate the coupling of biogas projects to traditional agrosystems from a life-cycle perspective, which is most important in process and system optimization in different senses. By taking persimmon cultivation and processing with supports from a household biogas plant as a case study, this study conducts a life cycle assessment of coupling biogas production to agro-industry in terms of energy, environmental and economic performance. The results suggest that each production stage following the biogas/digestate utilization chain (biogas operation-persimmon cultivation-product processing) is beneficial across all three aspects. However, a tradeoff only exists in utilizing digestate as top-dressing and employing biogas utilization as engine fuel, while biogas application in fresh-keeping and digestate reuse as base fertilizer fails to increase either energy production or greenhouse gas mitigation. The coupled system can be hopefully optimized through increasing fermentation efficiency and joint operation of biogas digesters. -- Highlights: •Biogas/digestate utilization is overall beneficial in all production stages. •Each bioresource application may not be profitable in all respects. •Tradeoffs in using biogas and digestate vary among different utilization ways. •Multi-user operation and fermentation efficiency elevation optimize system

  10. Study and Application of the Traceability System of Agricultural Products Quality and Safety%农产品质量安全可追溯系统的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万硕; 张习锋; 夏萍; 冯东

    2011-01-01

    近年来,各种食品安全问题的不断出现,表明我国农产品质量安全方面存在着极大的安全隐患,研究和建立农产品质量安全可追溯系统对保障农产品的质量安全和维护消费者的合法权益具有重要意义.可追溯系统的建立使农产品的生产加工有迹可循,从而能有效监管其生产过程,保证生产出的产品质量,保证消费者的食用安全.可追溯系统的构成一般包含产品标识、数据存储、数据采集和传递及信息查询四个方面;可追溯系统的研究重点在于产品编码的一致性和产品信息的有效性.%Nowadays, a variety of food safety issues have been reported showing the quality and safety of agri-cultural products in China face to big security risks, so it is important to study on the establishment of tracea-bility system which ensures agricultural products' quality and safety to benefit consumers'legitimate rights and interests is very important. The establishment of traceability system that make agricultural production and pro-cessing can be traced, so that it can effectively monitor the production process to ensure production of quality products to ensure consumer food safety. The composition of traceability system typically includes product I-dentification, data storage, data acquisition and transmission and information retrieval. The critical point of traceability system is the consistency of product code and the validity of product information.

  11. Measuring Productivity Growth in the Bahraini Agriculture and Fisheries Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Shebeb, Bassim

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to measure and analyze one of the major components of economic performance, multifactor productivity (MFP) growth rate adjusted for economies of scale, and to measure and analyze the growth rate of partial (input-specific) productivity in the Bahraini Agriculture and Fisheries Sector (primary sector) over the time period 1980-2002. A dual cost measure of multifactor productivity growth was developed to obtain a highly interpretable measure of economic perfo...

  12. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  13. THE NEED TO IMPROVE PRACTICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURE AND SPECIALIZED INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Cătălin CREŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the establishment of the market economy has required the elaboration and implementation of agricultural, alimentary and nutritional policies, based on scientific criteria, to ensure that the structure of Romanian agriculture would come close to that of the European Union agriculture. Agricultural policy needs to be coherent, flexible and directed towards the economic, social and environmental protection performance. Worldwide practice shows that empiric experience of economic agents does not suffice, but requires plenty of scientific knowledge. The hereby study undertakes to carry out a radiography of the production potential of agricultural operations in Romania and to demonstrate the need for improving practical information systems in agriculture and specialized industry.

  14. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  15. Ecological Assessment and Improvement for Agricultural Production Systems of Households in Cropping and Pasture Transition Zone of Northern China%北方农牧过渡带农户农业生产系统模式的生态评价和改良研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊江文; 梁飚

    2002-01-01

    Six households agricultural production systems were defined based on investigating and analyzing production situation of households in 3 geo-economic districts in transition zone of cropping and pasture(Chifeng, Inner Mongolia).Three production systems, e.g., pasture-pig system, cropping-cattle fattening system and agro-animal husbandry system,were selected through ecological assessment. The improved suggestion for the systems was provided according to existing problems of these systems.

  16. Agricultural production as a source of irradiation of populations in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the agricultural production sphere in case of a radiation accident with radionuclide release is one of the most important sources of additional irradiation for population. As a result, realisation of the measures for mitigating the consequences of the accident in agro-industrial complex assumes the leading role in total system of measures providing radiation safety. The possibility to obtain agricultural production meeting the radiological standards is one of the main indications of effectiveness of liquidation of the accident consequences. First, obtaining of agricultural production meeting the radiological standards provides decreasing of the total radiation dose. The evidence is obtained in the 8-year experience of liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident that the 70% decrease of the internal dose for population became possible through a complex of protection measures in agriculture (during the first year after the accident, the contribution of internal dose into the total one amounted to 45%, and that of external irradiation - 52%; for the 70-year period these values are 39% and 60%, respectively). Second, the possibility to obtain 'pure' agricultural production is one of the most important factors of psychological stability for population. Third, obtaining of consumable (as to radionuclide content) agricultural production in private small holdings is one of the guarantees of stability of demographic sector in the accident-affected zone. From the point of view of organization of agricultural production in liquidation of the consequences of accidents with radioactive releases into environment, some periods can be distinguished: (i) the first (early) period takes 10-12 days after the accident. The main measures in the field of agricultural production are in operative assessment of the radiological situation, organization of radiation survey, express classification of agricultural products ready to consumption. If radionuclide content

  17. A DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Wicks, Santhi; Howitt, Richard E.; Klonsky, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The economic viability of alternative and more sustainable agriculture farming systems depend on the value of farm profits. These values may be estimated through short or long-run of profit maximization, but there is a difference in these methods. In short-run profit maximization the instantaneous marginal benefits are equated to the marginal costs of production. Where as in the long-run maximization of profits the capital value of soil resources are quantify in addition to the direct revenue...

  18. Application of Remote Video Monitoring in Agricultural Products Quality Traceability System%远程视频监控在农产品质量安全追溯系统中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健宁; 郑业鲁; 罗卫强; 李小军

    2012-01-01

    将远程视频监控技术集成到农产品质量安全追溯体系的建设中,能够对数据采集过程进行有效监督,保证追溯数据的准确性和真实性,提高追溯系统的信息质量。分析了远程视频监控系统对农产品质量安全追溯能力的提升作用,从集成方式、关键技术等方面进行详细阐述,介绍了其在东莞市生猪质量安全追溯系统中的应用。%Integrating remote video monitoring technology into the agricultural product quality traceability system can carry out effective supvision on the process of data collection, ensure traceability data accuracy and authenticity, and improve the information quality of traceability system. In this paper, after the analysis of the effect of integrating remote video monitoring technology into the agricultural product quality traceability system, the key techniques were described from several aspects of integrating method, key technology and finally the application in Dongguan pig quality traceability system was introduced.

  19. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  20. Improvement of land information system of agricultural lands in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Bordyuzha

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature of the state land cadastre, aspects of the land cadastral system functioning. Role of the land cadastre to create an effective agricultural land management system has been presented. Value of a land information system of the agricultural land in the management sphere and sustainable agricultural land use has been described.

  1. The Subtropical Grasslands LTAR: balancing agricultural production and conservation goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Boughton, E.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.; Sparks, J. P.; Silveira, M.; Boughton, R. K.; Swain, H.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical grazing lands of peninsular Florida have been shaped by a long evolutionary history of lightning ignited fire followed by flooding resulting in a vast treeless prairie region in south-central Florida. In these grassland ecosystems fire return intervals are between 1-3 years. Beginning in the 1500's, Andalusian cattle began grazing in this region and the cattle industry began in earnest in the late 1800s/early 1900s. Today, Florida's prairie region is largely occupied by cow/calf ranch operations and also occupies the Northern Everglades watershed where water quality/quantity issues are at the forefront of environmental concerns. Florida ranches are characterized by a gradient of management intensities, ranging from sown pastures (most intensively managed) to semi-native pastures with a mix of introduced and native grasses, and rangeland (least managed ecosystem). Located at Archbold Biological Station, MacArthur Agro-ecology Research Center, and University of Florida Range Cattle Research Center (www.maerc.org; www.rcrec-ona.ifas.ufl.edu), a primary goal of the Subtropical Grasslands US Department of Agriculture Long-term Agro-Ecosystem Research LTAR is to balance intensification of sown pastures while enhancing management of native systems in a way that maximizes other ecosystem services (regulating, supporting, cultural, biodiversity). Here, we describe our proposed experimental design to compare ecosystem delivery from conventional and aspirational management regimes in sown pastures and native systems. Aspirational management goals are to (i) maximize productivity in sown pastures with a neutral effect on other ecosystem services, and (ii) manage native systems in a way that maximizes regulating, supporting, and biodiversity ecosystem services by utilizing patch burn grazing. Ultimately, we will determine if enhanced production in sown pasture under the aspirational management system can offset any reduction in productivity in semi

  2. Integrated Model of Bioenergy and Agriculture System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    approach that builds on Life Cycle Inventory and carries out Life Cycle Impact Assessment for a con- sequential Life Cycle Assessment on integrated bioenergy and agriculture systems. The model framework is built in Python which connects various freely available soft- ware that handle different aspects of...... the overall model. C- TOOL and Yasso07 are used in the carbon balance of agri- culture, Dynamic Network Analysis is used for the energy simulation and Brightway2 is used to build a Life Cycle Inventory compatible database and processes it for vari- ous impacts assessment methods. The model is success...

  3. Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming In Agricultural Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M.I.U. Herath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Modern agriculture is characterized by a series of conflicting optimization criteria that obstruct the decision-making process in the planning of agricultural production. Such criteria are usually net profit total cost total production etc. At the same time the decision making process in the agricultural production planning is often conducted with data that accidentally occur in nature or that are fuzzy not deterministic. Such data are the yields of various crops the prices of products and raw materials demand for the product the available quantities of production factors such as water labor etc. In this paper a fuzzy multi-criteria mathematical programming model is presented. This model is applied in a region of 10 districts in Sri Lanka where paddy is cultivated under irrigated and rain fed water in the two main seasons called Yala and Maha and the optimal production plan is achieved. This study was undertaken to find out the optimal allocation of land for paddy to get a better yield while satisfying the two conflicting objectives profit maximizing and cost minimizing subjected to the utilizing of water constraint and the demand constraint. Only the availability of land constraint is considered as a crisp in nature while objectives and other constraints are treated as fuzzy. It is observed that the MOFLP is an effective method to handle more than a single objective occurs in an uncertain vague environment.

  4. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  5. Non-professional Agricultural Production Villages Establishing a New Rural Cooperative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes problems in the agricultural development of non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City.Firstly,low technical and scientific content of production and low standardization level.Secondly,scattered sales and non-fixed marketing channels.Thirdly,difficulties in group cooperation of farm crops with special benefits.Fourthly,imperfect service of rural committees of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City.A new rural cooperative is to be founded to help villagers in non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City to be engaged in agricultural production and management activities,and to improve their overall incomes.On the one hand,a perfect and scientific cooperative operating system is to be built specifically including three functions.Firstly,fully playing the leading and bridging role of rural primary organizations.Secondly,fully carrying out the pushing role of capable persons in the administrative village.Lastly,fully playing the role of active participation and cooperation of villagers.On the other hand,constructions of normalization,standardization and brand orientation with special emphasis should be achieved under the guidance of local governments.The key of building a cooperative of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City is discussed.One is that rural cadres should have strong awareness of serving the people.The other is that governments at all levels should energetically support the establishment and management of rural cooperatives.

  6. Learning from Carchi: agricultural modernisation and the production of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherwood, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Provided its natural endowments, generally educated rural population, infrastructure and market access to two countries, the Province of Carchi, located in the northernmost highlands of Ecuador, is potentially one of the most productive agriculture regions in the Andes. In the 1960s development expe

  7. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  8. Materials with Adsorptive Properties from Agricultural By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

  9. Investigating the Connections between Climate Change, Drought and Agricultural Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hayes, M.; Wilhite, D. A.; Svoboda, M.; Trnka, Miroslav

    Northampton: Edward Elgar publ, 2011 - (Dinar, A.; Mendelsohn, R.), s. 73-86 ISBN 978-1-84980-116-4 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : climate change * drought * agricultural production Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. STATISTICAL CONTROL OF PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Horvat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental concept of statistical process control is based on decision-making about the process on the basis of comparison of data collected from process with calculated control limits. Statistical process and quality control of agricultural products is used to provide agricultural products that will satisfy customer requirements in a view of quality pretension as well as costumer requirements in a cost price. In accordance with ISO 9000, quality standards for process and products are defined. There are many institutions in Croatia that work in accordance with these standards. Implementation of statistical process control and usage of a control charts can greatly help in convergence to the standards and in decreasing of production costs. To illustrate the above mentioned we tested a work quality of a nozzle at the eighteen meter clutch sprayer.

  11. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  12. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  13. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  14. Agricultural production and water use scenarios in Cyprus under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Zoumides, Christos; Camera, Corrado; Pashiardis, Stelios; Zomeni, Zomenia

    2014-05-01

    In many countries of the world, food demand exceeds the total agricultural production. In semi-arid countries, agricultural water demand often also exceeds the sustainable supply of water resources. These water-stressed countries are expected to become even drier, as a result of global climate change. This will have a significant impact on the future of the agricultural sector and on food security. The aim of the AGWATER project consortium is to provide recommendations for climate change adaptation for the agricultural sector in Cyprus and the wider Mediterranean region. Gridded climate data sets, with 1-km horizontal resolution were prepared for Cyprus for 1980-2010. Regional Climate Model results were statistically downscaled, with the help of spatial weather generators. A new soil map was prepared using a predictive modelling and mapping technique and a large spatial database with soil and environmental parameters. Stakeholder meetings with agriculture and water stakeholders were held to develop future water prices, based on energy scenarios and to identify climate resilient production systems. Green houses, including also hydroponic systems, grapes, potatoes, cactus pears and carob trees were the more frequently identified production systems. The green-blue-water model, based on the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach, has been set up to compute agricultural water demand and yields for all crop fields in Cyprus under selected future scenarios. A set of agricultural production and water use performance indicators are computed by the model, including green and blue water use, crop yield, crop water productivity, net value of crop production and economic water productivity. This work is part of the AGWATER project - AEIFORIA/GEOGRO/0311(BIE)/06 - co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation.

  15. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  16. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  17. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vázquez-Arellano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  18. Transfer of radionuclides into and their removal from agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer of radionuclides to agricultural products and their removal before ingestion are reviewed briefly. Ingestion of 137Cs through various food groups were intensively has been studied from 1960s. The results of these studies indicated that cereals were relatively important food groups in Japan, while dairy products were a critical food group in Western countries. However, Westernization of Japanese diet and other factors recently make dairy products more important. In the case of 137Cs ingestion from the Chernobyl accident, 43% of total 137Cs intake was ingested through dairy products. The removal of radionuclides from food by washing, preparing and cooking is also discussed. (author)

  19. Transfer of radionuclides into and their removal from agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Takizawa, Yukio

    1996-12-31

    Transfer of radionuclides to agricultural products and their removal before ingestion are reviewed briefly. Ingestion of {sup 137}Cs through various food groups were intensively has been studied from 1960s. The results of these studies indicated that cereals were relatively important food groups in Japan, while dairy products were a critical food group in Western countries. However, Westernization of Japanese diet and other factors recently make dairy products more important. In the case of {sup 137}Cs ingestion from the Chernobyl accident, 43% of total {sup 137}Cs intake was ingested through dairy products. The removal of radionuclides from food by washing, preparing and cooking is also discussed. (author)

  20. Promotion of Agricultural Products Competitive Power in Heilongjiang Province with Modern Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper studied the competitive power of agricultural products in Heilongjiang Province by analyzing the revealed comparative advantage,and drew the conclution that agricultural products' competitive power was decreasing in Heilongjiang Province.There were three main reasons for this status: firstly,the cost of circulation of agricultural products was increasing;secondly,the commodity rate of agricultural products was low;thirdly,the marketing power of agricultural product was weak because of lacking the ...

  1. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  2. Cost Accounting Methods and Calculation Agricultural Products` Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule B. Spatayeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the condition of the current market the effective manage of expenses and calculation accountancy of cost production in agriculture must be aimed to control for resources usage at any level of technology process and getting the accountancy database needed for gaining the management targets.The improving the technologies and set up aspects of business entity activity, taken place for the last decades, which caused a significant influence on condition and structure expenses but could not provide the increase of economic effectiveness in agriculture.

  3. Improvement system of land management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    O. Atamaniuk

    2012-01-01

    The article proved the importance of improving the land management through the implementation of specific, research-based projects land management for agricultural land, which are owned or used by agricultural enterprises

  4. Biomass energy production in agriculture: A weighted goal programming analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy production from biomasses can be an important resource that, when combined with other green energies such as wind power and solar plants, can contribute to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. A multi-period Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied to identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production under three concurrent constraints: water, labour and soil availability. Alternative scenarios are considered that take into account the effect of climate change and social change. The MpWGP model was tested with data from the Rovigo county area (Italy) over a 15-year time period. Our findings show that trade-off exists between the two optimisation targets considered. Although the optimisation of the first target requires traditional agricultural crops, which are characterised by high revenue and a low production of biomass energy, the latter would be achievable with intensive wood production, namely, high-energy production and low income. Our results also show the importance of the constraints imposed, particularly water availability; water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production. - Research Highlights: → The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. → A multi-period (15-year) Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied. → We identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production. → Three concurrent constraints have been considered: water, labour and soil availability.→ Water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production.

  5. The forecast of agricultural crop production contamination by Cs 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The saved up experimental data on the influence of various factors on radionuclides transition in plants allows predicting their contents in production of agricultural crops. It is established, that receipt radionuclides in plants depends on a kind and a grade of cultivated cultures, types of ground, granulometric structure, parameters of soil fertility, humidifying grounds, levels of application of mineral fertilizers and other factors. The determining factor on Cs 137 receipt in plants is presented in ground exchange potassium. The forecast of Cs 137 transition from ground in plants is widely used in an agricultural production at planning and realization of a complex of protective actions. According to predicted levels of Cs 137 accumulation in production the directions of its use are determined. (authors)

  6. Total Factor Productivity in the Peruvian Agriculture: Estimation and Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco B. Galarza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose an estimation of the agriculture productivity using micro data forPeru. The method used builds on recent production function’s estimation techniques developed for panel data (e.g., Gandhi et al., 2013 but using cross-section data. Data constraints urge us to impose functional forms for the estimation. In particular, we choose the constant elasticity of substitution function, which is more flexible that other functions used by prior literature in Peru (such as the Cobb-Douglas. We find no evidence of the existence of increasing returns to scale in the Peruvian agriculture, and that the productivity is positively correlated with age, sex, andeducation, and negatively correlated with the farming unit’s acreage and market power.

  7. Insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect infestation is a major cause of post-harvest food loss. Use of chemical pesticides is one of the main methods of controlling storage losses caused by insects. Decades of research conducted worldwide on radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products have shown that this method could be an alternative to the chemical treatment of foods. The advantages of irradiation processing include no undesirable residues in the foods, no resistance developed by the insects and no significant changes in the physicochemical properties or the nutritive value of the treated products. This volume contains the proceedings of the final Research Co-ordination Meeting on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation, held in May 1987. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Research on Fresh Agricultural Product Based on the Retailer's Overconfidence under Options and Spot Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Nie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the application of options contract in the special commodity supply chainsuch asfresh agricultural products. This problem is discussed from the point of the retailer. When spot market andfuture market are both available, we discuss how the retailer chooses the optimal production. Furthermore,overconfidence is introduced to the supply chain ofthe fresh agricultural products, which has not happenedbefore. Thenbased on the overconfidence of the retailer, we explore how overconfidence affects the supplychain system under different circumstances. At last, we get the conclusion that different overconfidencelevel has different affection on retailer’s optimalordering quantity and profit.

  9. Application of fuzzy inference system to increase efficiency of management decision-making in agricultural enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Balanovskаya, Tetiana Ivanovna; Boretska, Zoreslava Petrovna

    2014-01-01

    Application of fuzzy inference system to increase efficiency of management decision- making in agricultural enterprises. Theoretical and methodological issues, practical recommendations on improvement of management decision-making in agricultural enterprises to increase their competitiveness have been intensified and developed in the article. A simulation example of a quality management system for agricultural products on the basis of the theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic has been proposed...

  10. ADVANTAGES OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM MONITORING AND STOCKS AGRICULTURAL PRICES. CASE STUDY – ROSIM

    OpenAIRE

    Elena COFAS

    2013-01-01

    Abstract agricultural policy in our country is based on information dispersed, especially because there is no centralized monitoring system, who to provide reliable information, while the agricultural and food market is experiencing a general feeling of instability - basically, it consists of channels and a dysfunctional organizational structure, based on communication systems do not operate in real time.. An integrated on-line monitoring of prices of agricultural products is of great interes...

  11. Conservation agriculture cropping systems in temperate and tropical conditions, performances and impacts . A review

    OpenAIRE

    Triomphe, Bernard; Affholder, François; Da Silva, Fernando Antonio Macena; Corbeels, Marc; Xavier, José Humberto Valadares; Lahmar, Rabah; Recous, Sylvie; BERNOUX, MARTIAL,; Blanchart, Eric; Mendes, Ieda de Carvalho; de Tourdonnet, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in a context of climate change, economical uncertainties and social pressure to mitigate agriculture externalities, farmers have to adopt new cropping systems to achieve a sustainable and cost-effective grain production. Conservation agriculture consists of a range of cropping systems based on a combination of three main principles: (1) soil tillage reduction, (2) soil protection by organic residues and (3) diversification in crop rotation. Conservation agriculture has been promoted...

  12. Implications of climate mitigation for future agricultural production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is projected to negatively impact biophysical agricultural productivity in much of the world. Actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate future climate changes, are thus of central importance for agricultural production. Climate impacts are, however, not unidirectional; some crops in some regions (primarily higher latitudes) are projected to benefit, particularly if increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is assumed to strongly increase crop productivity at large spatial and temporal scales. Climate mitigation measures that are implemented by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to reductions both in the strength of climate change and in the benefits of carbon dioxide fertilization. Consequently, analysis of the effects of climate mitigation on agricultural productivity must address not only regions for which mitigation is likely to reduce or even reverse climate damages. There are also regions that are likely to see increased crop yields due to climate change, which may lose these added potentials under mitigation action. Comparing data from the most comprehensive archive of crop yield projections publicly available, we find that climate mitigation leads to overall benefits from avoided damages at the global scale and especially in many regions that are already at risk of food insecurity today. Ignoring controversial carbon dioxide fertilization effects on crop productivity, we find that for the median projection aggressive mitigation could eliminate ∼81% of the negative impacts of climate change on biophysical agricultural productivity globally by the end of the century. In this case, the benefits of mitigation typically extend well into temperate regions, but vary by crop and underlying climate model projections. Should large benefits to crop yields from carbon dioxide fertilization be realized, the effects of mitigation become much more mixed, though still positive globally and beneficial in many food insecure

  13. Implications of climate mitigation for future agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Schmid, Erwin

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is projected to negatively impact biophysical agricultural productivity in much of the world. Actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate future climate changes, are thus of central importance for agricultural production. Climate impacts are, however, not unidirectional; some crops in some regions (primarily higher latitudes) are projected to benefit, particularly if increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is assumed to strongly increase crop productivity at large spatial and temporal scales. Climate mitigation measures that are implemented by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to reductions both in the strength of climate change and in the benefits of carbon dioxide fertilization. Consequently, analysis of the effects of climate mitigation on agricultural productivity must address not only regions for which mitigation is likely to reduce or even reverse climate damages. There are also regions that are likely to see increased crop yields due to climate change, which may lose these added potentials under mitigation action. Comparing data from the most comprehensive archive of crop yield projections publicly available, we find that climate mitigation leads to overall benefits from avoided damages at the global scale and especially in many regions that are already at risk of food insecurity today. Ignoring controversial carbon dioxide fertilization effects on crop productivity, we find that for the median projection aggressive mitigation could eliminate ∼81% of the negative impacts of climate change on biophysical agricultural productivity globally by the end of the century. In this case, the benefits of mitigation typically extend well into temperate regions, but vary by crop and underlying climate model projections. Should large benefits to crop yields from carbon dioxide fertilization be realized, the effects of mitigation become much more mixed, though still positive globally and beneficial in many food insecure

  14. THE DESIGN OF AN INFORMATIC MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL VEGETAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela VLAD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present exists a concern over the inability of the small and medium farms managers to accurately estimate and evaluate production systems efficiency in Romanian agriculture. This general concern has become even more pressing as market prices associated with agricultural activities continue to increase. As a result, considerable research attention is now orientated to the development of economical models integrated in software interfaces that can improve the technical and financial management. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an estimation and evaluation model designed to increase the farmer’s ability to measure production activities costs by utilizing informatic systems.

  15. Value of Available Global Soil Moisture Products for Agricultural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Iliana; Bolten, John; Crow, Wade; de Jeu, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The first operationally derived and publicly distributed global soil moil moisture product was initiated with the launch of the Advanced Scanning Microwave Mission on the NASA's Earth Observing System Aqua satellite (AMSR-E). AMSR-E failed in late 2011, but its legacy is continued by AMSR2, launched in 2012 on the JAXA Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) mission. AMSR is a multi-frequency dual-polarization instrument, where the lowest two frequencies (C- and X-band) were used for soil moisture retrieval. Theoretical research and small-/field-scale airborne campaigns, however, have demonstrated that soil moisture would be best monitored using L-band-based observations. This consequently led to the development and launch of the first L-band-based mission-the ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission (2009). In early 2015 NASA launched the second L-band-based mission, the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP). These satellite-based soil moisture products have been demonstrated to be invaluable sources of information for mapping water stress areas, crop monitoring and yield forecasting. Thus, a number of agricultural agencies routinely utilize and rely on global soil moisture products for improving their decision making activities, determining global crop production and crop prices, identifying food restricted areas, etc. The basic premise of applying soil moisture observations for vegetation monitoring is that the change in soil moisture conditions will precede the change in vegetation status, suggesting that soil moisture can be used as an early indicator of expected crop condition change. Here this relationship was evaluated across multiple microwave frequencies by examining the lag rank cross-correlation coefficient between the soil moisture observations and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A main goal of our analysis is to evaluate and inter-compare the value of the different soil moisture products derived using L-band (SMOS

  16. Subsidy Policy System for Agricultural Natural Disasters in China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Rong; YAN, Fengxian; Ge, Jun

    2014-01-01

    From theories and cases, this paper analyzed current situation of subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters in China. Improvement and perfection of subsidy policies for agricultural natural disasters need clear classification and additional special subsidy plan. It is recommended to improve and perfect subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters through attaching importance to scientific studies on reduction and prevention of agricultural disasters and gradually su...

  17. Conditions of Agricultural Catastrophe Risks in China and Establishment of Agricultural Risks Protection Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural risks in our country have been introduced:firstly,disasters are multiple and frequently happened;secondly,widely affected and seriously suffered.Features of risks also are introduced:the first is the agricultural risk unit is large;the second is the agricultural risk is strongly regional;the third is the agricultural risk is universally half revival.The paper discusses the limits of the agricultural risks management,pointing out that in the management systems of agricultural risks,government finance is strongly burdened,compensations on the catastrophe is small in region,low in level.Based on the above analysis,the protection systems of agricultural risks have been constructed:the first is to establish the reassurance systems of agricultural risks;the second is to establish the risk funds of single agricultural item;the third is to transfer the catastrophe risks through stocks;the fourth is to construct multi leveled countermeasures of agricultural risks.

  18. Evolutionary ecology of mycorrhizal functional diversity in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Erik; Toby Kiers, E

    2010-09-01

    The root systems of most agronomic crops are colonized by diverse assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), varying in the functional benefits (e.g. nutrient transfer, pathogen protection, water uptake) provided to hosts. Little is known about the evolutionary processes that shape the composition of these fungal assemblages, nor is it known whether more diverse assemblages are beneficial to crop productivity. In this review we aim to identify the evolutionary selection pressures that shape AMF diversity in agricultural systems and explore whether promotion of AMF diversity can convincingly be linked to increases in agricultural productivity and/or sustainability. We then ask whether farmers can (and should) actively modify evolutionary selection pressures to increase AMF functioning. We focus on three agriculturally imposed selection regimes: tillage, fertilization, and continuous monoculture. We find that the uniform nature of these practices strongly selects for dominance of few AMF species. These species exhibit predictable, generally non-beneficial traits, namely heavy investment in reproduction at the expense of nutrient scavenging and transfer processes that are beneficial for hosts. A number of focus-points are given based on empirical and theoretical evidence that could be utilized to slow down negative selection pressures on AMF functioning, therein increasing crop benefit. PMID:25567946

  19. Agrification: Agriculture for the industry and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new aspect of agrification is the production of alternative products, which can replace fossil sources. This substitution is necessary in order to replace hazardous materials and to find a solution for the problem of depletion of conventional energy sources and basic materials. Attention is paid to some developments in Germany: agricultural products for the production of energy, and new industrial applications for vegetable filaments. With regard to energy production from agricultrual products one should distinguish between (a) solid energy sources (biomass), f.e. straw, fast-growing wood, elephant's grass, hay and rapeseed, and (b) fluid and gaseous energy sources, f.e. purified and partly refined rapeseed oil, rapeseed oil methyl-ester (RME), ethanol from sugar beet, methanol from straw and hydrogen from straw and/or elephant's grass. 4 figs., 7 refs

  20. Conservation Agriculture versus Conventional Agriculture: The Influence of Agriculture System, Fertilization and Plant Protection on Wheat Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Adrian GRIGORAS; Agatha POPESCU; Doru PAMFIL; Ioan HAS; Mihai GIDEA

    2012-01-01

    The paper aimed at making a comparison between conservation agriculture and conventional agriculture on wheat yield, in a three crop rotation (wheat, maize and soybean) system. A three factorial experiment based on the split-plot model and variance analysis was set in the Transylvania area of Romania, as follows: A factor-agriculture system: A1-tillage, A2-no-tillage, B factor-fertilization: B1-N40P40 kg/ha. B2-N40P40 kg/ha+N50P30 kg/ha; C factor- treatments: C1-4 treatments, C2-3 treatments,...

  1. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  2. 基于物联网的农产品质量安全溯源系统%Agricultural products traceability system for quality and safety based on internet of things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白红武; 孙爱东; 陈军; 孙立荣; 卢海燕; 梁颖; 刘贤进

    2013-01-01

    By using QR two-dimension code, traceability and information technology, agricultural products traceability system for quality and safety based on internet of things (IOT) was developed. The system is characterized by multilevel, multi-role and multifunction. The system includes web management, SMS management, smartphone management, barcode printing system, supermarket system, and website. Environmental information is automatically collected to the central database by IOT equipment, and the photos of production process are uploaded with mobile phone via 3G net. The traceability code has 20 numbers, including type, administrative division, company, product, date and batch number. Consumers could get the safety information of products purchased by the QR code, which is made of the system with 20 traceability codes. In other word, the system could be a kind of service platform for agricultural products safety evaluated by consumers.%采用QR二维码、溯源、物联网等技术,结合农产品产业链的特点,开发了多层次、多角色、多功能的农产品质量安全溯源系统.该系统包括网络管理、短信管理、智能手机管理、条码打印、查询机软件和查询网站.通过物联网自动采集环境信息和手机拍照快速上传生产过程图片,作为农产品的源头信息.使用20位的农产品追溯码(由类别、行政区划、公司、产品、日期和批次组成),并对此码进行网址转换,自动生成通用的QR溯源码,形成一个具有三方满意和消费者评级功能的便民服务平台.

  3. Biomass and multi-product crops for agricultural and energy production - an AGE analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops. T

  4. Multi-Product Crops for Agricultural and Energy Production : an AGE Analysis for Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops fo

  5. The Supply and Demand of Agricultural Products in China Based on Balanced Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Promoting agricultural production and ensuring the supply of agricultural products has always been the main task of agricultural development in China,but the agricultural production in China has not yet been combined with the Chinese residents’ dietary needs to formulate reasonable development goals,with a certain blindness in production. According to the dietary standards in The Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents developed by the Chinese Nutrition Society,we calculate the demand of various types of agricultural products in China under the conditions of balanced diet. In comparison with the output of various types of agricultural products in China at present,we find that the output of most of agricultural products in China has exceeded the reasonable demand of the Chinese residents under the conditions of balanced diet. Therefore,adjusting the agricultural production structure in China and advocating balanced diet has become an important way to solve the problem of balance between supply and demand of agricultural products.

  6. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis. PMID:26451699

  7. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  8. Hydrogen production from agricultural waste by dark fermentation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xin Mei; Trably, Eric; Latrille, Eric; Carrere, Helene; Steyer, Jean-Philippe [INRA, UR050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, F-11100 Narbonne (France)

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of the natural environment and the energy crisis are two vital issues for sustainable development worldwide. Hydrogen is considered as one of the most promising candidates as a substitute for fossil fuels. In this context, biological processes are considered as the most environmentally friendly alternatives for satisfying future hydrogen demands. In particular, biohydrogen production from agricultural waste is very advantageous since agri-wastes are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. Considering that such wastes are complex substrates and can be degraded biologically by complex microbial ecosystems, the present paper focuses on dark fermentation as a key technology for producing hydrogen from crop residues, livestock waste and food waste. In this review, recent findings on biohydrogen production from agricultural wastes by dark fermentation are reported. Key operational parameters such as pH, partial pressure, temperature and microbial actors are discussed to facilitate further research in this domain. (author)

  9. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling......In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their...... of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co...

  10. Analysis of Constraints to Agricultural Production in the Sudano Savanna Zone of Cameroon and Implication for Research Priority Setting

    OpenAIRE

    M'Biandoum, M.; Njoya, A.; Kenga, R.

    2005-01-01

    A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) survey approach was used to identify the major constraints to agricultural production and to describe the major production systems in the sudano savanna and sudano sahelian zone of northern Cameroon. Relative emphasis was placed on the household level characterization to have a better understanding of the land use system, farmers' constraints to production and opportunities, so as to better target agricultural technologies and interventions in this vast a...

  11. Systems of Agriculture Farming in the Uttranchal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural practices are the main stay of the people of Uttranchal. Out of the total population,more than 75% people are engaged either with the main occupation of agriculture or its allied practices,dominated by traditional subsistence cereal farming.Among them, the main crops are rice, wheat, millet,barley, all types of pulses, all types of oilseeds and almost all types of fruits. The crops, vegetables and fruits of all varieties are grown in the different climatic zones such as tropical, temperate, and cold because, the region is characterized by the different altitudinal zones elevated from 200 m to more than 8000m. As a result, different climates are found from hot tropical to sub temperate and chilly cold. Pulses varieties are grown extensively. Among vegetables,potato, onion, carrot, all types of green leaf vegetables,brinzal, pumpkin, ladyfinger, pea, gram, radish,ginger, garlic, etc, are grown widely. All fruit varieties are grown in the different altitudinal zones. The main fruits are orange, malta (a big size of orange),elephant citrus, lemon and all other types of citrus,apple, stone fruits including peach and pears, many kinds of nuts, and the fruits which are grown in the low lying areas. In spite of feasible climatic conditions,agricultural dominant society, and availability of all types of crops, the production and productivity of these crops are very low, even they are unable to meet the grain-need of the people in Uttaranchal.Agricultural crops are grown almost in all the altitudinal zones - from the low-lying areas, which are growing seasons vary according to the heights. The present paper aims to discuss the agricultural practices including cropping season, cropping pattern,land use, production of crops and ecological aspect of agricultural system in this Himalayan state and suggest some measures for developing farming system,which could lead the sustainability, in terms of meeting the food grain needs of the people on the one hand and

  12. The contribution of animal production to agricultural sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Doreau, Michel; Harinder P. S. Makkar; Lecomte, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for animal products for a growing world population, use of a large amount of feed ingredients in competition with human food coup led with the urgent need for mitigating environmental effects, livestock farming has to transform. New mo dels of sustainability, that are acceptable to all stakeholders, must be explored. Reducing negative environmental impacts of various agricultural practices is a major global challenge. However, to avoid making inappropriate decisio...

  13. Pretreaments of Chinese Agricultural residues to increase biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Development of biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas is one approach to utilize straw comprehensively. However, high lignin contents of lignocellulosic materials results in low degradation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate pre-treatment to increase biogas production from Chinese agricultural residues. In this study, Chinese corn stalk, rice plant and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates by applying three different pre-treatments. The inves...

  14. Agricultural production, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Gopalakrishnan, Badri N.; Sahin, Sebnem; Escurra, Jorge J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses an advanced Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model coupled with biophysical data on future changes in crop yields due to climate change to examine: 1) the consequences of climate change for India’s agricultural and food products; 2) the extent to which water scarcity can affect the irrigation adoption and demand for water; and 3) how water scarcity, climate change, and trade jointly alter land use changes across the Indian subcontinent. It shows that when water scarcity is...

  15. Dutch (organic) agriculture, carbon sequestration and energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Burgt, van der, Maarten; Staps, S.; Timmermans, B.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in soils is often mentioned in the discussions about climate changes. In this paper the opportunities for carbon sequestration in Dutch agriculture are discussed at farm and national level. Farm internal carbon sources are already completely used in livestock farming. The effect under arable conditions is limited in time and very limited compared to national CO2 emission. External sources are scarce. Energy production out of crop residues and manure via biogas installatio...

  16. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Project findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the terminal report of a United Nations Development Program project to improve food and agricultural production in Thailand by means of nuclear and related technology. The project resulted in improved mutant material to be made available to plant breeders as well as in reports and recommendations on soil-water-plant management practices and livestock management. An additional benefit has been the specialized training that has been provided to many researchers in the country through the project

  17. Cost Accounting Methods and Calculation Agricultural Products` Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Saule B. Spatayeva

    2015-01-01

    In the condition of the current market the effective manage of expenses and calculation accountancy of cost production in agriculture must be aimed to control for resources usage at any level of technology process and getting the accountancy database needed for gaining the management targets.The improving the technologies and set up aspects of business entity activity, taken place for the last decades, which caused a significant influence on condition and structure expenses but could not prov...

  18. The macrofauna of the soil in systems of agricultural production: Answers to the perturbations and handling perspectives. A case of study in the Oriental Plains of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 20 years, numerous investigations were dedicated to the understanding of the relationships between soil macro-invertebrates and the abiotic factors that determine soil function. Important effects of macro-fauna activities were observed in soil organic matter dynamics, cycles of assimilable nutrients, soil structure and plant growth. Actual investigation in the Eastern Plains of Colombia (Investigation Centre of Carimagua and Matazul Farm) aims to identify sustainable and macrofauna-protecting systems of production; managing savanna results in important changes in soil faunal communities. Sowing improved pastures increases the activity of local macro-invertebrates populations (especially earthworms) and conserves the initial biodiversity of the savanna. On the other hand, monocrops have a dramatic effect on the whole soil macrofauna. An appropriate management of soil tillage and plant residues may minimize the negative effects of such monocrops. Other alternative is the use of rotations and/or juxtapositions of suitable and unfavorable situations, which may facilitates macrofaunal migrations from one system to another

  19. University degrees consistent with agricultural production in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigones, Alicia; del Cerro, Jesus; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Benedicto, Susana; García, Jose Luis

    2013-04-01

    Degrees clearly oriented to rural and agricultural engineering are distinguished from the rest of the engineering areas by the need to involve the biological phenomena of engineering calculations. These degrees, which include subjects such as crop production, biotechnology and physics, among others, have evolved tremendously over the last ten years, implanting new curricula and introducing new specialties such as those dedicated to the environment or rural development, thereby adapting new social, economic and environmental aspects of each country. Currently being finalized to implement new titles in most Spanish universities, and in rest of Europe, following the guidelines set by Bologna. The process of elaboration of these degrees is complicated precisely because of the great variety of areas and subjects involved in these degrees. In this paper we study, for several countries of the European Union, the core subjects of the university degrees of agricultural engineering and the correlations between the core contents and the importance of the related uses of the soil in the different sectors of crop production (arable crops, horticulture, fruit growing, gardening, etc.) as well as other socio-economic criteria. The objective is to detect if the design of the core content is consistent in each country with the importance of the related socio-economic sector. Key-words: curriculum, crop production, agricultural engineer.

  20. Ordering Strategy for Fresh Agricultural Products in External Financing Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyi; DU

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the two stage supply chain consisting of single agricultural product producer and fund restraint retailer.Then,it analyzed the influence of bank interest rate on order quantity,wholesale price and expected profit of retailer and producer on the condition of retailer taking external loan strategy.Studies have shown that when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.9),the order quantity of agricultural products is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),wholesale price of agricultural products decreases with increase in the bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.6),the expected profit of retailer is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),the expected profit of producer decreases with increase in the bank interest rate.Finally,through simulation calculation examples,it verified suitability of the conclusion,in the hope of providing reference and application value for management of supply chain.

  1. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS RESEARCH AND THE EXPERIMENT STATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Debertin, David L.; Bradford, Garnett L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of agricultural economics research within the land-grant university system. Fundamental differences between research in the biological sciences and the social sciences are delineated. Implications of these differences for experiment station research programs are discussed. Recommendations are made which have potential for enhancing the role of agricultural economics within colleges of agriculture.

  2. Evaluation on the Influencing Factors of Agricultural Land Productivity in Huang-Huai Plain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Huang-Huai Plain as an example,evaluation index system is established from four aspects,including the resources condition,the social and economic condition,the agricultural science and technology condition,and the disaster resistant and sustainable production condition.Correlation coefficient method and expert consultation method are used to determine the weight of evaluation index.After the standardization of extreme value,weighted sum method and multiple regression method are adopted to evaluate the influencing factors of agricultural land productivity in Huang-Huai Plain,China.Evaluation result shows that agricultural science and technology condition has a lower contribution rate to the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain than that to Henan Province.Resources condition has a higher contribution rate to the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain than that to Henan Province.Both the social and economic condition and the disaster control and sustainable production condition show relatively small contribution rate to the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain.It can be concluded that the main factors affecting the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain are the backward agricultural science and technology level,the poor farmland quality and the farmland infrastructure.Based on this,relevant suggestions are put forward to improve the farmland productivity of Huang-Huai Plain.

  3. The Relationship between Customer Knowledge Management and Performance of Agricultural Product Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes an overview of the CKM and the performance of agricultural product innovation from contents of agricultural product innovation and customer knowledge management (CKM) ,the relation between CKM and agricultural product innovation. On the basis of the overview, it builds the theoretical framework of CKM and agricultural product innovation. It points out that enterprises can satisfy demands of customers through acquisition,share,utilization and innovation of customer knowledge,and improve performance of agricultural product innovation through speeding up agricultural product innovation.

  4. Sttudy on intelligent spatial decision support system of agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rong-mei; SUN Jie-li

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies how to apply GIS, ES, and Data mining and WEB technologies in agriculture Decision Support System, with the researching background of Hebei expert system for farming soil variable rate fertilization. A model of agriculture intelligent spatial decision support system is built and the key technologies to implement this system are described in details.

  5. Total Factor Productivity in the Peruvian Agriculture: Estimation and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Galarza, Francisco B.; J. Guillermo Díaz

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we propose an estimation of the agriculture productivity using micro data forPeru. The method used builds on recent production function’s estimation techniques developed for panel data (e.g., Gandhi et al., 2013) but using cross-section data. Data constraints urge us to impose functional forms for the estimation. In particular, we choose the constant elasticity of substitution function, which is more flexible that other functions used by prior literature in Peru (such as the ...

  6. Hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons-an example of Bok-choy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Ma, Kuo-Chen; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2015-04-01

    The torrential rain and strong wind brought by typhoons usually cause huge damages to agricultural products. This study aims at hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons. The factors affecting the hazard of agricultural products due to typhoons include the duration of flooding, flooding depth, wind speed, and rainfall intensity. High rainfall intensity and high wind speed may knock down the leaves or fruits of the plants. The long-duration of flooding or high flooding depth may chock the plant or rotten the roots. In order to get the information needed for making hazard map due to assumed scenarios, an overland flow simulations is performed for getting the duration of flooding and maximum flooding in the study area. The data of wind speed is obtained from metrological stations. Four levels of hazard are defined due to the characteristic of the chosen agricultural products- Bok-choy (such average height of mature Bok-choy). The final goal of this study is to establish a real-time hazard evaluation system for the specific agricultural products.

  7. Research on Site Selection Model of Distribution Center of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the practical situation of logistics distribution of agricultural products,we primarily select transportation factor,economic factor,environment factor,and other factors,to establish evaluation index system of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.And then we adopt the analytic hierarchy process method to calculate weight of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.Under the circumstance that the evaluation information is interval number,we use uncertain and multiple attribute decision making method to establish site selection model of distribution center of agricultural products.Finally,taking one city as an example,we discuss the application of this model in site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.The results of empirical analysis show that the model we established fully considers the randomness and uncertainty in the process of evaluation,so as to make the results of evaluation more objective,in line with reality.So the effect of evaluation is better as against the former real number evaluation calibration.

  8. The impact of using alternative forages on the nutrient value within slurry and its implications for forage productivity in agricultural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity V Crotty

    Full Text Available Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense, lucerne (Medicago sativa or kale (Brassica oleracea would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum, compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha⁻¹ with 100 kg N ha⁻¹ inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha⁻¹ year-1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (Pred clover (81 kg >kale (44 kg >ryegrass (26 kg ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹. These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass, 52% (kale, 47% (red clover and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P = 0.005. Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001. Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks.

  9. Intensity, productivity and efficiency in agriculture in Finland and implications for N and P fertiliser management

    OpenAIRE

    BÀckman, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intensity, productivity and efficiency in agriculture in Finland and show implications for N and P fertiliser management. Environmental concerns relating to agricultural production have been and still are focused on arguments about policies that affect agriculture. These policies constrain production while demand for agricultural products such as food, fibre and energy continuously increase. Therefore the importance of increasing productivity is a gre...

  10. Forecasting and Analysis of Agricultural Product Logistics Demand in Tibet Based on Combination Forecasting Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfeng; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Over the years,the logistics development in Tibet has fallen behind the transport. Since the opening of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in2006,the opportunity for development of modern logistics has been brought to Tibet. The logistics demand analysis and forecasting is a prerequisite for regional logistics planning. By establishing indicator system for logistics demand of agricultural products,agricultural product logistics principal component regression model,gray forecasting model,BP neural network forecasting model are built. Because of the single model’s limitations,quadratic-linear programming model is used to build combination forecasting model to predict the logistics demand scale of agricultural products in Tibet over the next five years. The empirical analysis results show that combination forecasting model is superior to single forecasting model,and it has higher precision,so combination forecasting model will have much wider application foreground and development potential in the field of logistics.

  11. 关于农产品质量安全举报制度的几点思考%Some Thinking About Whistle-blowing System for Quality and Safety of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅; 张忠潮

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural products are experience goods and credence goods ,which make the market regulation failure in the quality and safety of agricultural products .Market failure is the premise of government intervention . But the cost is too high in getting the information of illegal behavior by government itself .Whistle-blowing is an important way of getting information in low cost .The whistle-blowing system of quality and safety of agricultural products is not perfect in China ,such as lack of economic incentives to the informers ,lack of detailled legal norm of the procedure of whistle-blowing dispose ,and unsound existing mechanism to protect the informers .Faced with these problems ,it is recommended to perfect reward system ,specify procedures for dealing with cases and improve the system of whistleblower protection .%农产品经验品和信用品的质量特性使市场调节失灵,政府监管成为必要。在小规模分散经营占主体的农业生产经营模式下,政府利用自身资源获取执法信息成本太高,群众举报是政府低成本获取执法信息的重要途径。虽然《农产品质量安全法》及相关法律法规中都规定了举报制度,但该项制度并没有产生应有的效果。主要原因是我国的农产品质量安全举报制度还存在许多不完善之处,如对举报人缺乏激励,举报处理程序太笼统,对举报人法律保护不足。针对这些问题,建议完善举报奖励制度、规范举报案件处理程序和完善举报人保护制度。

  12. Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in Sub-Saharan Africa - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biazin, B.; Sterk, G.; Temesgen, M.; Abdulkedir, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural water scarcity in the predominantly rainfed agricultural system of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is more related to the variability of rainfall and excessive non-productive losses, than the total annual precipitation in the growing season. Less than 15% of the terrestrial precipitation takes

  13. Agricultural Extension, Collective Action and Innovation Systems: Lessons on Network Brokering from Peru and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellin, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: New approaches to extension service delivery are needed that stimulate increased agricultural production, contribute to collective action and which also foster the emergence of agricultural innovation systems. Research in Peru and Mexico explores some of these new approaches. Design/methodology/approach: In both countries, a qualitative…

  14. Application of the Agent in Agricultural Expert System Inspection Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In reference to the status quo of research and the application of the agricultural expert system, this paper analyzes problems existing in the current development, and puts forward the idea of research and development for agriculturespecific software. The agent application is discussed, and an agent-based Agricultural Expert System Inspection Tool is constructed. In addition, this paper addresses the outlook in application, potential problems and the development trend of multi-agent-based inspection software for the agricultural expert system.

  15. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows: first, the cost is high; second, the technological content is low; third, the upstream main body lacks competitiveness; fourth, the structure of investment is irrational. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward to develop marketing channels of agricultural products as follows: perfect the service function of wholesale market of agricultural products; propel the construction of integration and expansion of wholesale market; develop the circulation cooperatives of agricultural products; develop the integrated organization of production and sales of agricultural products.

  16. Biogas production from energy crops and agriculture residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential in term of ml CH4 produced per g of VS-added and (b) the amount of methane produced per m3 of reactor volume. (Author)

  17. Integrating crops and livestock in subtropical agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Iain A; Tarawali, Shirley; Blümmel, Michael; Gerard, Bruno; Teufel, Nils; Herrero, Mario

    2012-03-30

    As the demand for livestock products increases, and is expected to continue to increase over the next few decades, especially in developing countries, smallholder mixed systems are becoming more intensive. However, with limited land and water resources and concern about the environmental impact of agricultural practices and climate change, the challenge is to find ways of increasing productivity that do not compromise household food security, but rather increase incomes equitably and sustain or enhance the natural resource base. In developed countries there has been increased specialisation of crop and livestock production. In contrast, the majority of livestock in developing countries is kept in mixed crop/livestock systems. Crops (cereal grains and pulses) and crop residues provide the basis of the diet for animals, e.g. cereal straw fed to dairy cattle or sweet potato vines fed to pigs. Animal manure can provide significant nutrient inputs to crops. Water productivity is higher in mixed crop/livestock systems compared with growing crops alone. Mixed systems allow for a more flexible and profitable use of family labour where employment opportunities are limited. They also spread risks across several enterprises, a consideration in smallholder systems that may become even more important under certain climate change scenarios. Integrated crop/livestock systems can play a significant role in improving global food security but will require appropriate technological developments, institutional arrangements and supportive policy environments if they are to fulfil that potential in the coming decades. PMID:21769884

  18. The Building of Grass-roots Agricultural Technology Extension System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YANG; Jian; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey of 154 farmers in Guiyang City, we analyze the basic situation of building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system in Guiyang City. Then we point out some problems in the building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system in Guiyang City: the function of grass-roots agricultural technology extension center weakens; the content of agricultural technology extension is difficult to adapt to farmers’ needs for technology; the extension mode of agricultural technology departments does not adapt to the needs of modern agriculture. In order to perfect the building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system, the countermeasures and recommendations are put forth as follows: strengthening the input of funds, and ensuring that the basic work of public welfare agricultural technology extension is smoothly carried out; innovating upon the system, and improving the function of grass-roots agricultural technology extension center; implementing management on agricultural technology extension personnel’s performance, and promoting the extension efficiency; strengthening the building of extension team in rural areas, and cultivating high-quality agricultural technology extension personnel; exploring the advanced service mode to meet farmers’ needs.

  19. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

  20. Organic, fair and social: Cooperation between ethical standards systems in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Spoor, BSc Gijs

    2002-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made between three voluntary standardisation systems in agriculture. The organic agriculture system, the fair trade system and the social accountability system have all been developed by non-governmental organisations to promote production, trade and consumption based on ecological and social principles, and all involve monitoring, certification, labelling and codes of conduct. Context of this research is a two-year collaboration project, started in May 2001, be...

  1. An Empirical Analysis on Agricultural Materials Logistics Control and Agricultural Products Safety :A Case Study of Bi-chains Management Model for Veterinary Drugs in Pinggu District

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, TIANQI

    2013-01-01

    Through an empirical analysis of the agricultural logistics model and agricultural products quality control system in Pinggu district of Beijing, a model was studied to control the agricultural quality by agricultural logistics. The model adopts modern logistics supply chain, which firstly, establishes a modern logistics distribution system for veterinary drugs by the means of suppliers control, chain management and cold chain distribution; secondly, organizes the veterinary experts and docto...

  2. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy introduced in 2007 mandates a 10% blend (E10) of bioethanol with gasoline. This study investigates the potential for the development of a cellulosic ethanol industry based on the availability of agricultural residues and models the number of commercial processing facilities that could be sited in the six Geo-political zones. The potential for cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria is 7556 km3 per annum exceeding the mandate of 10% renewable fuel required and providing the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium-scale processing facilities based on the use of a single feedstock. Cassava and yam peelings provided in excess of 80% of the process residues available with enough feedstock to supply 10 large-scale facilities with a fairly even distribution across the zones. Sorghum straw, millet straw and maize stalks represented 75% of the potential resource available from field residues with the potential to supply 2 large- and 7 medium-scale processing facilities, all of which would be located in the north of the country. When a multi-feedstock approach is used, this provides the potential for either 29 large- or 58 medium-scale facilities based on outputs of 250 and 125 km3 per annum respectively. - Highlights: • Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy mandates a 10% blend of bioethanol with gasoline. • Total bioethanol production from agricultural residues was 7556 km3 per annum. • Process residues offer the greatest potential accounting for 62% of production. • Nigeria has the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium scale commercial. • The use of mixed feedstocks significantly increases the potential for production

  3. 农产品及食品质量安全追溯系统关键技术研究进展%Key Technologies for Establishment Agricultural Products and Food Quality Safety Traceability Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨信廷; 钱建平; 孙传恒; 吉增涛

    2014-01-01

    Traceability systems gain more attention in worldwide as an effective method for controlling agricultural products and food quality safety.The concepts of traceable and traceability system were discriminated.Key technologies for establishment traceability systems,such as coding and identification,real-time record keeping in the supply chain,intelligent decision making and early warning and data exchange and query,were summarized.Combined IOT(internet of things) technology,the technology framework of traceability system including one kernel,two axes and three chains was constructed.One kernel means to implement the goal of agricultural products and food quality safety traceability.Two axes are the supply chain from farm to table as the horizontal axe and the IOT technologies from information sensing,information transmission to intelligent decision as the vertical axe.Three chains include products chain for supply lifecycle,service chain for supply chain actors and technology chain for IOT.Furthermore,the urgent problems for implement the traceability system were put forward,which included unified encoding,low cost and quick information collection equipment,application system with intelligent decision model and collaborative traceability platform.%追溯系统作为控制农产品及食品质量安全的有效方法在国内外日益受到重视.首先辨析了可追溯性和追溯系统概念;在此基础上从追溯编码与产品标识技术、供应链各环节信息快速采集技术、质量安全智能决策与预警技术和溯源数据交换与查询技术四方面综述了国内外研究进展;结合物联网的技术特点构建了“一核、双轴、三链”的农产品及食品质量安全追溯系统技术体系框架;最后分析了实施追溯系统急需解决的问题.

  4. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xin-yu; Wu, Xux-ian

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research including both domestic market and foreign market, the system design features of water market are analyzed. The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right, the close construction of market structure, reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage. The practica...

  5. Farming for Ecosystem Services: An Ecological Approach to Production Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Robertson, G; Gross, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Landis, Douglas A.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Swinton, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other bi...

  6. [Discussion on agricultural product quality and safety problem from ecological view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Dong, Nan; Lyu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    There are many different perspectives about the sustainable agriculture, which had been proposed since the last three decades in the world. While China's ecologists and agronomists proposed a similar concept named 'ecological agriculture'. Although ecological agriculture in China has achieved substantial progress, including theory, models and supporting technologies nearly several decades of practice and development, its application guidance still is not yet clear. The organic agriculture model proposed by European Union is popular, but it is limited in the beneficiary groups and the social and ecological responsibility. In this context, the article based on an ecological point of view, analyzed the shortcomings of ecological imbalance caused by a single mode of agricultural production and the negative impact on the quality of agricultural products, and discussed the core values of ecological agriculture. On this basis, we put forward the concept of sustainable security of agricultural products. Based on this concept, an agricultural platform was established under the healthy ecosysphere environment, and from this agricultural platform, agricultural products could be safely and sustainably obtained. Around the central value of the concept, we designed the agricultural sustainable and security production model. Finally, we compared the responsibility, benefiting groups, agronomic practices selection and other aspects of sustainable agriculture with organic agriculture, and proved the advancement of sustainable agricultural model in agricultural production quality and safety. PMID:26685623

  7. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chun-mei

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows, first, the cost is high; second, the t...

  8. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products, by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain, this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation. The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows: the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly; the circulation cost hovers at high level; the ...

  9. The Relationship between Customer Knowledge Management and Performance of Agricultural Product Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-Jia

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes an overview of the CKM and the performance of agricultural product innovation from contents of agricultural product innovation and customer knowledge management (CKM), the relation between CKM and agricultural product innovation. On the basis of the overview, it builds the theoretical framework of CKM and agricultural product innovation. It points out that enterprises can satisfy demands of customers through acquisition, share, utilization and innovation of customer knowledge...

  10. The application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqin; Luo, Ying

    The quality and security of agricultural products is the hot issue with public attention in China and also one of the issues that Chinese government attaches great importance to. This paper describes the principle of data mining technology and based on the environmental information data of agricultural production and the quality-security testing data of agricultural products, analyses the application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products.

  11. Application of Mixed Group Decision Making to Safety Evaluation of Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiao-hong

    2012-01-01

    In view of the gravity of issues concerning safety of agricultural products and urgency of resolving these issues, after analyzing the problems existing in safety of agricultural products, this article offers a method for evaluating safety of agricultural products on the basis of mixed group decision making. First of all, it introduces the factors influencing safety evaluation of agricultural products; subsequently, given that the judgment matrices offered by the group of experts contain both...

  12. Grassland production under global change scenarios for New Zealand pastoral agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    E. D. Keller; W. T. Baisden; L. Timar; Mullan, B.; Clark, A.

    2014-01-01

    We adapt and integrate the Biome-BGC and Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) models to simulate pastoral agriculture and to make land-use change, intensification and climate change scenario projections of New Zealand's pasture production at time slices centred on 2020, 2050 and 2100, with comparison to a present-day baseline. Biome-BGC model parameters are optimised for pasture production in both dairy and sheep/beef farm systems, representing a new appli...

  13. Production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture; Produktionsfoerutsaettningar foer biobraenslen inom svenskt jordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture and how these conditions can vary due to different factors. The conclusion is that the potential for producing bioenergy in Swedish agriculture will vary significantly depending on which energy crops are cultivated, which type of agricultural land is utilised and the geographical location of the production. Furthermore, different crop residues and other by-products from agriculture, utilised for energy purposes, will affect the bioenergy potential. To which extent this physical/biological potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. The report starts with a description of current crop production in Sweden, expressed in energy terms, the energy needed for this production and the regional variation in crop yields. The local variations in cultivation conditions are also analysed, as well as variations over the area of a single farm. Another aspect discussed is the production conditions of energy crops on previous farm land not currently utilised. The report includes an analysis of the potential supply of crop residues and other by-products for energy purposes, such as straw, tops and leaves of sugar beets, manure etc, as well as the regional variation of these residues and by-products. A similar analysis is made of the regional production conditions and potential biomass yields of traditional crops and new energy crops. These analyses also include energy balance calculations showing the energy input needed for different production systems in relation to the harvested biomass yield, and the potential for increased biomass yields in the future. Based on the findings of these various analyses, calculations are made showing some examples of how much bioenergy Swedish agriculture can deliver, depending on how much agricultural land is utilised for

  14. Microbial biomass and size-density factions differ between soils of organic and conventional agricultural systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fliessbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural production systems have to combine management practices in order to sustain soil quality and also pro®tability. We investigated microbial biomass and size-density fractions of soils from a long-term field trial set up in 1978 at Therwil, Switzerland. It compares the economic and ecological performance of organic and conventional agricultural systems. Main differences of the systems were the amount and form of fertiliser as well as the plant protection strategy, whilst crop rotati...

  15. A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Blasi, C.; Tanzi, V.; Lanzetta, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dip di Ingegneria Chimica, Napoli (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    The Italian production of agricultural residues has been evaluated with a view to energy recovery through gasification. Two main categories of residues have been identified: the first, (A) is associated with the growing and collection of products with a nutritional value, whereas the second (B) includes the residues associated with the subsequent processing in order to obtain final products for commercialization. Category A, which comprises three further sub-categories: straw (A1); woody residues (A2); and stems and leaves (residues from vegetables, tobacco, sugar beet, (A3)), results in about 16.5 mt yr. The average amount of straw (A1) is 11 mt/yr, of which about 60% is waste to be eliminated. Woody residues (A2) (mainly pruning off-cuts from vineyards and olive groves) are about 3.5 mt/yr (85% unused). Category A3 amounts to about 2 mt/yr (90% unused). Straw is available mainly in the northern part of the country, whereas the other two sub-categories are widely distributed in central and southern regions. The yields of category B are estimated at 4 mt/yr, of which more than 3 mt/yr are waste products from grape and olive processing. Other residues, such as rice, sunflower and soya-bean husks (about 0.65 mt/yr), almond and nut shells and fruit stones (about 0.2 mt/yr), although not widely available on a national scale, can be significant on a local basis. The total amount of unused agricultural residues is about 14.5 mt/yr, which, if completely exploited through gasification, can contribute as much as 7-10% to the current national electricity needs. The regions of Veneto, Puglia, Friuli, Lombardia and Emilia Romagna appear to be good candidates for electricity production, given the significant surface concentration of unused residues (105-55 t km{sup 2}). (author)

  16. An Analysis of Current Energy Consumption in China’s Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; ZHANG; Zongshou; CAI; Lihong; CHEN; Dezheng; ZHANG; Zhe; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is one of the important symbols of modern agriculture,and it is also an important input in modern agricultural production. The study on the agricultural energy consumption not only has a positive significance to agricultural energy saving,emission reduction and ecological environment protection,but also can greatly reduce the cost of agricultural production and improve the economic benefit of farmers. Through the analysis of the national statistical data about energy consumption for agriculture production from 2005 to 2012 year,the results show that the amount of energy consumption for agricultural production in China has increased year by year since 2005. Because of the continued growth of the total energy consumption in China,the proportion of energy consumption for agricultural production to the total energy consumption of China has declined slightly since 2005. At present,the energy consumption structure for agricultural production in China is diesel fuel,coal,electric power,gasoline,and indirect energy consumption. With the rapid development of the agricultural technology in recent years,the total agricultural output value in China has increased greatly,the direct and indirect agricultural energy consumption per unit of agricultural output value in China has decreased year by year,and the efficiency of energy consumption for agricultural production has increased consequently.

  17. Aquaponic systems as excellent agricultural research instruments in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIGERS BAKIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponic systems are recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS that incorporate the production of plants without soil. Recirculating systems are designed to raise large quantities of fish in relatively small volumes of water by treating the water to remove toxic waste products and then reusing the water many times. The accumulated metabolic by-products, like non-toxic nutrients and organic matter, need not be wasted if they are channeled into secondary crops that have economic value or in some way benefit the primary fish production system. We plan to use as secondary crops, terrestrial plants grown in conjunction with fish. This integrated system is referred to as an aquaponic system. The goal is to culture a vegetable that will generate the highest level of income per unit area per unit time. Culinary herbs are the best choice. We think that there may be also good potential for growing traditional medicinal plants in aquaponic systems, especially in Albania, which is one of the leading exporters of medicinal herbs in Europe. The aims and objectives of building an aquaponic system in the Agricultural University of Tirana are 1. to create an excellent scientific research environment inside the greenhouses, where the aquaponic systems can be equipped with all necessary monitoring instruments in order to evaluate the performance of several experiments that can be performed by PhD students under the assistance of technical staff members and 2. to establish a perfect scientific environment where new ideas may come out from the collaborations between PhD students, researchers and professors.

  18. Zigbee Based Real - Time Monitoring System of Agricultural Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit P. Goyal; Dr. Archana Bhise

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation System is required to be automize in the area of agricultural field. Presently automatic systems have few manual operations, insufficient flexibility and accuracy. Therefore agricultural field prefer automatic control system and provide adequate irrigation to specific area. Proposed system is primarily designed for wide range control applications and to replace the existing non-standard technologies. Current system control parameter like temperature and soil moistur...

  19. Integration of agricultural and energy system models for biofuel assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a coupled modeling framework to capture the dynamic linkages between agricultural and energy markets that have been enhanced through the expansion of biofuel production, as well as the environmental impacts resulting from this expansion. The framework incorpor...

  20. Enhancement of Agricultural Production Through Sustainable Agriculture and Poverty Allevition in Kot, Manazary Baba (Malakand Agency Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar Khan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable agriculture can bring both environmental and economic benefits for farmers, communities and nations. Sustainable agriculture plays a vital role for poverty alleviation through enhancement of crops and vegetable production. The present study was conducted to compare the production of traditional agriculture (existent with sustainable agriculture and to demonstrate its economic role. The project are (12500 acres consists on both irrigated and non-irrigated land. Keeping in mind the climatic condition, the wheat, maize and different vegetable was cultivated in ways of sustainable agriculture. The wheat production increased from 40-50% on irrigated land but 20-30% on rain-fed land, the maize production enhanced from 20-25% on irrigated land and 10-15% on rain-fed land. Similarly, the vegetable like okra, onion, garlic and tomato production were increased from 30-32% on irrigated land while 28-30% on rain-fed land. If the sustainable agriculture practices are carried out on the whole agriculture land of the project area properly then it is possible that the inhabitants will not only meet the food requirements from their local fields but they will also be able to export to the market of other areas. From experimental result, it is concluded that this practice will reduce the consumption of food requirements and can be used for poverty alleviation.

  1. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  2. Cultivated Capital: Agriculture, Food Systems and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Webb

    2002-01-01

    Cultivated capital lies at the heart of concerns about sustainable development for 3 reasons: First, sustaining agricultural productivity is essential to meeting the world’s still growing demand for food. Without adequate food consumption, nutrition and labour productivity are impaired, which in turn limits the pace of economic growth and poverty alleviation. Second, removing poverty requires income growth among the rural poor, many of whom continue to rely on agriculture-based economic syste...

  3. The Estimation Methods for Agricultural Surplus Labor Based on Stochastic Frontier Production Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaozhou; LU; Yanfen; LUO

    2014-01-01

    The existing calculation methods for the number of agricultural surplus labor have a common flaw,that is,they can not reflect the impact of technical efficiency changes in agricultural production on the surplus labor. Based on the basic principle of stochastic frontier production function,this paper calculates the agricultural production technical efficiency of various provinces,and selects the province with the highest technical efficiency to assume that its agricultural labor is fully utilized,and there is no agricultural surplus labor. With the ratio of agricultural labor number to agricultural output value in this province as a reference,this paper calculates the number of agricultural surplus labor in other provinces. This calculation method makes up for the shortcomings of the existing calculation methods; it reflects the relationship between the number of agricultural surplus labor and production technical efficiency.

  4. Integrating Sensory/Actuation Systems in Agricultural Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Emmi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles.

  5. Integrating sensory/actuation systems in agricultural vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles. PMID:24577525

  6. Sustainable Agriculture and Innovation Adoption in a Tropical Small-Scale Food Production System: The Case of Yam Minisetts in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Beckford, Clinton L.

    2009-01-01

    Grown in Jamaica since the days of slavery, food yams are major staples in local diets and a significant non-traditional export crop. The cultivation system used today is the same as 300 years ago, with alleged unsustainable practices. A new cultivation system called minisett was introduced in 1985 but the adoption rate twenty four years later is extremely low. This paper analyzes the prospects for the widespread adoption of minisett and sustainable yam cultivation and advocates that greater ...

  7. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-xia; Shao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent. We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy, introduce the third-party logistics companies, establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, and strengthen information sharing, to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural produc...

  8. Theoretical Application of Supervision over Quality and Safety of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; CHENG; Ying; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products has received high attention of management department.Competent authorities have formulated and issued many measures to strengthen supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products and improve China’s agricultural product quality and safety level.From the perspective of management science,this paper elaborates basic contents of two basic management theories,Broken Windows Effect and Effect of Heat Furnace.Then,it analyzes influence of Broken Windows Effect and Effect of Heat Furnace on supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products.Finally,it comes up with recommendations for supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products.

  9. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products,by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain,this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation.The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows:the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly;the circulation cost hovers at high level;the factor inputs of agricultural products are short;inflation pressure is incessantly mounting;the profit distribution of supply chain is irrational.Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  10. Soil nitrogen fluxes in Swedish and Nigerian agricultural systems

    OpenAIRE

    Röing, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study selected processes of N fluxes in Swedish and Nigerian agricultural systems and relate them to the use of mineral and organic amendments and other agricultural management practices. Long-term effects of crop rotation, crop residue treatment and mineral fertiliser application levels on topsoil carbon (C), plant N uptake, net N mineralisation and soil organic matter fractions in temperate soils were investigated using soils from Swedish long-term agricultural...

  11. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  12. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  13. Sustainable Agriculture and Innovation Adoption in a Tropical Small-Scale Food Production System: The Case of Yam Minisetts in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton L. Beckford

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Grown in Jamaica since the days of slavery, food yams are major staples in local diets and a significant non-traditional export crop. The cultivation system used today is the same as 300 years ago, with alleged unsustainable practices. A new cultivation system called minisett was introduced in 1985 but the adoption rate twenty four years later is extremely low. This paper analyzes the prospects for the widespread adoption of minisett and sustainable yam cultivation and advocates that greater use be made of farmers’ extensive knowledge of the complex agro-ecological, socio-cultural and economic milieu in which they operate.

  14. Consumer Behavior Analysis under the "Lemon Dilemma" in the Market of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the connotation of "lemon market" and the phenomenon of "lemon" in the market of agricultural products,the consumers’ behaviors in the "lemon market" of agricultural products are analyzed.Firstly,consumers feel unfair in their minds in the process of negotiation;secondly,the purchase decision rule tends to be simplified in the "lemon market" of agricultural products;thirdly,the consumers tend to follow the masses in the "lemon market" of agricultural products.The economics significance of the impact of "lemon dilemma" of agricultural products on consumers is analyzed.The causes of the impact are analyzed from two aspects the uncertainty of collecting the information of agricultural information and the uncertainty of using the agricultural information.The suggestions and countermeasures are put forward in order to solve the "lemon" problems in agricultural market.In the first place,the excellent mechanism for producing the information of agricultural products should be constructed;in the second place,the government should encourage the multi-channel,multi-form and multi-level operation mode of agricultural products,to promote the optimization of market functions;in the third place,the government should widen the channel of information dissemination for agricultural products and establish the high efficiency feedback path;in the fourth place,the traditional thought pattern of consumers should be changed,so as to promote the healthy,orderly and benign development of agricultural products market.

  15. SWOT Analysis of Agricultural Producers in the Supply Chain of Chinese Agro-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining the producers in the supply chain of agricultural products,the SWOT analysis is adopted to analyze the advantages,disadvantages,opportunities and threats of producers in the supply chain of Chinese agricultural products.The paper analyzes the advantages of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products from three aspects including land resources,technology level of producers and input costs.The disadvantages of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from three aspects including scale level,mechanization and technology level and profit level.The opportunities of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from the aspects of laws,policies,capitals and technologies.The threats confronted by the producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from foreign producers,negotiation control of supply chain of agricultural chain,environment protection and quality safety standard.On the basis of the analysis,the relevant suggestions on facilitating the interests of producers in the supply chain of Chinese agricultural products are put forward,including fully displaying the advantages of land resources;improving the knowledge and technology level of supply chain of agricultural production;establishing the alliances of producers of agricultural products to expand production scale;improving the quality of agricultural products to satisfy the relevant safety quality standard and environmental protection standard.

  16. The Effects of Premium Payment in Turkey Agricultural Supports System

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Gülistan; ERDAL, Hilmi

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of premium payment on cotton, sun flower, soybean, canola, aspire and maize productions in Turkey. This research was carried between 1980-2006 periods. Granger causality test was used to determine the relationship among production area, product prices and premium payment given in different years for these agricultural products. According to Granger causality test results, there was no relationship between production areas and premium payment...

  17. Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Product Export to the United States of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    Taking major agricultural product importers at the American market as reference object and using market share and growth rate,this paper analyzed current situation of the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to the United States of America. It used the Exports Similarity Index to evaluate the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and it analyzed the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA by the shift share method. Research results indicate that China’s agricultural products occupy small portion of American market and are faced with intense competition of many developing countries,especially the Thailand. However,China still has strong export competitiveness and ranks the second place only second to India. Finally,it came up with recommendations for raising the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and promoting China’s agricultural product export to USA.

  18. 关于加快我国农产品质量安全追溯系统发展的几点建议%Suggestions on Accelerating the Development of Agricultural Product Quality Safety Traceability System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春燕

    2015-01-01

    在全球经济一体化的背景下,食品安全问题已成为全球性的战略问题。采用全球统一标识系统建立食品安全追溯体系刻不容缓。我国在食品安全追溯方面已初具规模,但还存在一些问题,本文简要叙述了国内外农产品质量安全追溯系统发展的现状,并针对我国存在的问题提出几点建议。%In the context of global economic integration, food safety has become a global strategic issue. It is urgent to establish a food safety traceability system by using the identity system. China's food safety traceability have been issued by the size, but there are still some problems. This paper gives a brief description of the quality and safety of agricultural products at home and abroad traceability system development present situation, and in view of the problems existing in our country put forward several suggestions.

  19. Land Use/Cover and Productivity in the Compact Agricultural Areas of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Soria-Ruiz; Yolanda Fernandez-Ordoñez; Guillermo Medina-Garcia; Gabriel Diaz-Padilla

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to associate land use/cover with productivity in 16 Agrotech Observatories (AOTs) in Mexico. Compact agricultural areas in Mexico have been identified, which are monitored as to their behavior concerning production and rural productivity in a network of AOTs, which is a compact agricultural area representative of agro-ecological, technological and social conditions in the country. To optimize production and agricultural productivity in compact...

  20. Knowledge Representation and Fuzzy Reasoning of an Agricultural Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴顺祥; 倪子伟; 李茂青

    2002-01-01

    The design scheme of an agricultural expert system based on longan and cauliflower planting techniques is presented. Using an object-oriented design and a combination of the techniques in multimedia, database, expert system and artificial intelligence, an in-depth analysis and summary are made of the knowledge features of the agricultural multimedia expert system and data models involved. According to the practical problems in agricultural field, the architectures and functions of the system are designed, and some design ideas about the hybrid knowledge representation and fuzzy reasoning are proposed.

  1. Energy policy and allocation of agricultural production; Politica energetica e alocacao espacial da producao agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.I.; Stulp, V.J.; Dagord, C.J.L.; Rohr, E. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    Agriculture reacts to changes in costs and prices. The allocation of energy, which is a cost factor in agricultural production, is a function of the availability and transportation of its sources. Thus, the use of political incentives, for local production of energy, contributes to the reduction of costs and to create efficiency in agricultural production. A national model was developed to identify: comparative advantages in agricultural production; responses of production to change in prices of products and inputs; impacts of alternative economic policies related to energy, upon production and transportation. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed

  3. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 106/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs

  4. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  5. Quantification of isotopic turnover in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic turnover, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic turnover is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic turnover of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic turnover is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic turnover is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the turnover rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The

  6. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  7. Environmental impacts of organic and conventional agricultural products--are the differences captured by life cycle assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias S; Stoessel, Franziska; Jungbluth, Niels; Juraske, Ronnie; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment tools are needed that reliably describe environmental impacts of different agricultural systems in order to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimal impacts on the environment. Today, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess and compare the environmental sustainability of agricultural products from conventional and organic agriculture. However, LCA studies comparing agricultural products from conventional and organic farming systems report a wide variation in the resource efficiency of products from these systems. The studies show that impacts per area farmed land are usually less in organic systems, but related to the quantity produced impacts are often higher. We reviewed 34 comparative LCA studies of organic and conventional agricultural products to analyze whether this result is solely due to the usually lower yields in organic systems or also due to inaccurate modeling within LCA. Comparative LCAs on agricultural products from organic and conventional farming systems often do not adequately differentiate the specific characteristics of the respective farming system in the goal and scope definition and in the inventory analysis. Further, often only a limited number of impact categories are assessed within the impact assessment not allowing for a comprehensive environmental assessment. The most critical points we identified relate to the nitrogen (N) fluxes influencing acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential, and biodiversity. Usually, N-emissions in LCA inventories of agricultural products are based on model calculations. Modeled N-emissions often do not correspond with the actual amount of N left in the system that may result in potential emissions. Reasons for this may be that N-models are not well adapted to the mode of action of organic fertilizers and that N-emission models often are built on assumptions from conventional agriculture leading to even greater

  8. Productivity of Premodern Agriculture in the Cucuteni-Trypillia Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme; Videiko, Mykhailo; Henderson, Kate; Shiel, Robert; Dolukhanov, Pavel; Pashkevich, Galina

    2015-07-01

    We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area. We allow for the archeologically attested contributions of domesticated and wild animal products to the diet, develop plausible estimates of the yield of ancient cereal varieties cultivated with ancient techniques, and quantify the yield dependence on the time after initial planting and on rainfall (as a climate proxy). Our conclusions involve analysis of the labor costs of various seasonal parts of the agricultural cycle of both an individual and a family with a majority of members that do not engage in productive activities that require physical fitness, such as tillage. Finally, we put our results into the context of the exploitation territory and catchment analysis, to project various subsistence strategies into the exploitation territory of a farming settlement. The simplest economic complex based on cereals and domestic and wild animal products, with fallow cropping, appears to be capable of supporting an isolated, relatively small farming settlement of 50-300 people (2-10 ha in area) even without recourse to technological improvements such as the use of manure fertilizer. Our results strongly suggest that dairy products played a significant role in the dietary and labor balance. The smaller settlements are typical of the earliest Trypillia A stage but remain predominant at the later stages. A larger

  9. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. PMID:26994788

  10. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lei; Cheng, Yu-gui

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products. In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products; we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism, bearing education and training functions, forming low-carbon value, building low-carbon identification system, as well as realizing low-carbon value. According to these situati...

  11. Mapping organizational linkages in the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temel, T.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the evolving context and organisational linkages in the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan and suggests ways to promote effective organisational ties for the development, distribution and use of new or improved information and knowledge related to agriculture. Graph-th

  12. Improvement of the agricultural land use information system structure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bordiuzha

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with most informative land and cadastral indicators reflecting the state of the land plot for agricultural purposes, and the systematization is held. Ranking of leading indicators in the management of land resources and the costs of their preparation has been performed. Organizational arrangements on improving the structure of the information system of agricultural land use are justified.

  13. Integrated food–energy systems for climate-smart agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanski Anne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food production needs to increase by 70%, mostly through yield increases, to feed the world in 2050. Increases in productivity achieved in the past are attributed in part to the significant use of fossil fuels. Energy use in agriculture is therefore also expected to rise in the future, further contributing to greenhouse emissions. At the same time, more than two-fifths of the world’s population still depends on unsustainably harvested wood energy for cooking and heating. Both types of energy use have detrimental impacts on the climate and natural resources. Continuing on this path is not an option as it will put additional pressure on the already stressed natural resource base and local livelihoods, while climate change is further reducing the resilience of agro-ecosystems and smallholder farmers. Ecosystem approaches that combine both food and energy production, such as agroforestry or integrated crop–livestock–biogas systems, could substantially mitigate these risks while providing both food and energy to rural and urban populations. Information and understanding on how to change course through the implementation of the practices outlined in this paper are urgently needed. Yet the scientific basis of such integrated systems, which is essential to inform decision-makers and to secure policy support, is still relatively scarce. The author therefore argues that new assessment methodologies based on a systems-oriented analysis are needed for analyzing these complex, multidisciplinary and large-scale phenomena.

  14. The impact of using alternative forages on the nutrient value within slurry and its implications for forage productivity in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Felicity V; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R; Marley, Christina L

    2014-01-01

    Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha⁻¹) with 100 kg N ha⁻¹ inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha⁻¹ year-1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (Pred clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P = 0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (Psustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks. PMID:24830777

  15. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  16. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  17. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  18. Systemic productivity must complement structural productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lavie, René-Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Linguistic productivity is not just structural productivity (the making of assemblies), it also contains 'systemic productivity' (the productive placement within pluridimensional paradigms). An occurrential, dynamic model provides a cognitively founded explanation of systemic productivity.

  19. A Competitive Analysis on the Agricultural Products of China and Thailand in the U. S. Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects China and Thailand as a reference object. Based on the U. S. market,it analyzes the export competitiveness of the agricultural products of China and Thailand by market share and growth rate,measures the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competition degree by export product similarity index and estimates the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competitiveness strength by shift share method. The results show that: At present,in the U. S. market,the competition of the agricultural products of China and Thailand is fierce,but export growth of China’s agricultural products is faster and more competitive. Finally on how to further improve China’s agricultural exports competitiveness in the U. S. market and promote China’s agricultural export trade to the U. S. it puts forward the related countermeasures and suggestions.

  20. Sistema automático para secagem de produtos agrícolas em camada fina = Automated system for thin-layer drying of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Geralmente, o controle do processo de secagem em camada fina, é realizado com base na pesagem de amostras, retirando-se periodicamente a bandeja do secador e levando-a até uma balança, para determinar, por diferença de massa, a quantidade de água que foi retirada do produto durante o processo. Essa operação é a principal fonte de erro na determinação das taxas de secagem, tendo em vista a interrupção do processo de secagem ou a perda de parte da amostra durante a etapa de pesagem. Este trabalho propõe a automaçãodo controle da secagem em camada fina, utilizando-se um sistema baseado em uma célula de carga e em dispositivos eletrônicos endereçáveis. Os valores obtidos pelo monitoramento realizado pelo sistema proposto são armazenados e comparados com valores finais prédefinidos para o processo de secagem. Quando não houver diferença significativa entre os valores medidos e os pré-definidos, encerra-se o processo. O sistema proposto foi testado e validado, fornecendo uma série de resultados confiáveis, com elevada precisão e um excelente desempenho.Generally, the control of thin-layer grain drying is done based on weighing the samples, periodically removing the sample from the dryer and taking it to a precision scale in order to determine, by the difference in weight, the amount of water removed from the productduring the process. This operation is the main source of error in determining drying rates, due to the interruption of the drying process or the sample losses during the weighing stage. In this work, the automation of thin-layer grain drying control is proposed through the use of a system based on a load cell and on addressable electronic devices. The results are recorded in a file and compared with the final pre-defined values for the drying process. The process is terminated when there is no significant difference between the measured values and the pre-defined ones. The proposed system was tested and validated

  1. Ecological and economic assessment of organic agricultural production (for example, Rivne region)

    OpenAIRE

    G.M. Shevchuk

    2011-01-01

    The ecological and economic ground of transition of economies of the Rivne region to organic agriculture is conducted . Economic efficiency of conduct of agricultural production is expected without (from) a stabilizing period and with a brief transitional period.

  2. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  3. Professional applied physical training of future specialists of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabanov Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and experimentally prove the contents, methods and forms of physical training of future specialists of agricultural production. This takes into account advanced course of professional applied physical preparation means kettlebell sport. Material : The study involved 141 students. Duration of study is 5 years. Results : It was found that a significant increase in indicators of flexibility, strength, coordination abilities of students promoted the use of exercises using weights of different weights. Confirmed the legitimacy of the use of such means of physical education for the development of muscle strength of the upper body, back, legs, abdominals. These muscles are the most loaded in the performance of professional activities of mechanical engineers. Conclusions : The program meets the basic criteria for the formation of curriculum for physical education. The program promotes the development of professional applications of physical qualities, motor skills and improve physical performance of students.

  4. Actor Network Theory Approach and its Application in Investigating Agricultural Climate Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.

  5. Evidence on trends in the single factoral terms of trade in African agricultural commodity production

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Euan M.; Fleming, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The ability of African countries to achieve sustained improvements in agricultural incomes depends on their ability to generate total factor productivity (TFP) change in their agricultural sectors and adjust to movements in agricultural output and input prices. The single factoral terms of trade index measures these changes, calculated as changes in the product of TFP and the agricultural terms of trade. Estimates of the single factoral terms of trade index for the selected commodities over t...

  6. Status and Countermeasures for the Green Marketing of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises in Yinchuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Ling-xiang

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview and characteristics of agricultural products processing enterprises in Yinchuan City, green marketing status of agricultural products processing enterprises in Yinchuan City is introduced from the aspects of product strategy, pricing strategy, distribution strategy and promotion strategy. Problems in the green marketing of agricultural products processing enterprises are analyzed, such as the obvious contradiction between the processing demand and the raw materials, low ...

  7. Optimal use of agrometeorological information for sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid regions of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of sustainable agriculture encompasses ecological, economic and social problems in which weather and climate can be of great importance. Despite considerable technological advancement and improved irrigation facilities, Indian farmers are still dependent on seasonal rains, which are highly variable both in time and space. Inclement weather events like droughts, floods, cold and heat waves, hails, squalls, tropical storms severely affect the agricultural production. Their harmful effects may be partially reduced if the occurrence of these events is predicted in advance and farmers are suitably advised to take preventive/corrective measures. With the objective to help the farmers maximize profits by decreasing weather related losses, increasing the timeliness of farm operations and to reduce environmental pollution through the optimal use of agricultural chemicals, the location specific/regional Agrometeorological Advisory Service was initiated in the year 1991. The forecasting skills of most of the weather parameters at Hisar have improved considerably over the years. Now, it is time to integrate and make use of vast agrometeorological information available online in preparing weather based advisories for in-season agricultural operations both for single locations and on a meso or regional scale as desired. This can be further strengthened through input from new technologies such as neural network, remote sensing, GIS, ground measurements and modeling applications along with traditional wisdom available with the farming communities should be integrated to further strengthen the location specific weather forecasting system for the development of sustainable and more efficient crop production systems. (author)

  8. Rethinking the history of modern agriculture: British pig production, c.1910-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a study of pig production in Britain, c.1910-65, to rethink the history of modern agriculture and its implications for human-animal relationships. Drawing on literature written by and for pig producers and experts, it challenges existing portrayals of a unidirectional, post-Second World War shift from traditional small-scale mixed farming to large, specialized, intensive systems. Rather, 'factory-style' pig production was already established in Britain by the 1930s, and its fortunes waxed and waned over time in relation to different kinds of outdoor production, which was still prominent in the mid-1960s. In revealing that the progressive proponents of both indoor and outdoor methods regarded them as modern and efficient, but defined and pursued these values in quite different ways, the article argues for a more historically situated understanding of agricultural modernity. Analysis reveals that regardless of their preferred production system, leading experts and producers were keen to develop what they considered to be natural methods that reflected the pig's natural needs and desires. They perceived pigs as active, sentient individuals, and believed that working in harmony with their natures was essential, even if this was, ultimately, for commercial ends. Such views contradict received accounts of modern farming as a utilitarian enterprise, concerned only with dominating and manipulating nature. They are used to argue that a romantic, moral view of the pig did not simply pre-date or emerge in opposition to modern agriculture, but, rather, was integral to it. PMID:23045887

  9. Preliminary analysis of agriculture land for vegetable farming system

    OpenAIRE

    HAYTOVA, Dimka; STEFANOVA, Vera; ARNAUDOVA, Zhulieta; BILEVA, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable sector is one of the important components of Bulgarian agriculture where diversity in vegetable cropping brought by different agro-ecological regions of the country. The main aim of the article is to analyze and evaluate the state of the sector and Bulgarian agriculture land for vegetables crop production with relevance for GIS database. The article suggests that the results in the horticulture sector are far below of biological potential of vegetables and effectively using of lands...

  10. When Does Variable Rate Technology for Agricultural Sprayers Pay? A Case Study for Cotton Production in Tennessee

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Daniel; Larson, James; Roberts, Roland; English, Burton

    2009-01-01

    Producers interested in precision agriculture lack information on the profitability of variable rate technology (VRT) systems for agricultural sprayers. A partial budgeting framework was developed to evaluate the level of input savings required to pay for investments in VRT. To illustrate this framework, a case study for cotton production in Tennessee is provided. Ownership and information costs were determined for two commerciallyavailable VRT systems and compared to extension recommended in...

  11. Evaluation of the Average Wage in Agriculture Depending on the Value of Gross Agricultural Production in Different Regions in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozárová Ivana Kravčáková

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture is currently not among highly attractive, highly productive and profitable sectors, but its importance for the country and economy is unquestionable. It turns out that the level of labour productivity as well as other factors reflects the different wage level. Lower average nominal wages of workers in rural areas are a factor causing overall economy lagging of rural regions. The aim of this paper is to determine the dependence of the average wage level from gross agricultural production in different regions of Slovakia and confirm respectively refute the hypothesis of wage inequalities between regions

  12. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products,we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent.We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy,introduce the thirdparty logistics companies,establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products,and strengthen information sharing,to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural products in China.The results show that applying low-carbon economy to process reengineering of cold chain logistics of agricultural products,has advantages of increasing added value of products,promoting scale merit and abating lag,plays a role in promoting emission reduction,high efficiency and environmental protection in the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural products in China.

  13. The commercial use of gamma facilities in North and South America for agricultural product processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of agriculture and food products with ionizing radiation has been proven to be safe, effective, economical, and according to consumer surveys, the end product is better. However, commercial implementation of food irradiation has been slow because of the following: the lack of profit incentives; the failure of the political system to deal with antinuclear groups; the failure of public health authorities to actively support this technology. Food irradiation cannot be considered successfully implemented until the commercial industry is making a profit by the use of this technology. Use of this technology will: (1) reduce food borne infections (FBI); (2) decrease the hazards of the use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry production; (3) reduce the need for agriculture quarantine procedures; and (4) increase shelf-life of perishable foods. However, only (1) and (3) are being considered as economic alternatives by the present day's food industry. Previously, agriculture has focused on technology that would increase production and reduce costs. Today this is rapidly changing to implementing technology that markets a product the consumer wants and is perceived as being safer and environmentally responsible. (author)

  14. Is there a Long-Term Relationship between Agricultural GHG Emissions and Productivity Growth? The Case of Italian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Coderoni, Silvia; Esposti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The paper adopts a long single-country panel dataset (Italian regions) to analyse the relationship between agricultural GreenHouse Gases (GHG) emissions and agricultural productivity growth and, thus, to assess emissions sustainability. The modelling approach and the empirical specification include the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) as one of the possible outcomes. The hypothesis of emission sustainability is assessed by estimating alternative panel model specifications with conventional a...

  15. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-01-01

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs. PMID:22869542

  16. The impact of German biogas production on European and global agricultural markets, land use and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its climate policy, Germany promotes the production of biogas via its so-called Renewable-Energy-Act (EEG). The resulting boost in biogas output went along with a significant increase in production of green maize, the dominant feedstock. Existing studies of the EEG have analysed its impacts on German agriculture without considering market feedback. We thus expand existing quantitative analysis by also considering impacts on European and global agricultural markets, land use and the environment by combining a detailed location model for biogas plants, the Regionalised Location Information System-Maize (ReSi-M2012), with a global Partial Equilibrium model for agriculture, the Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact (CAPRI) model. Our results indicate that the German biogas production is large enough to have sizeable impacts on global agricultural markets in prices and quantities, causing significant land use change outside of Germany. While profits in the agricultural sector increase, food consumer face higher prices, and subsidies for biogas production are passed on to electricity consumers. The German biogas program, as long as it is almost entirely based on non-waste feedstocks, is probably not a promising avenue towards a GHG-saving renewable energy production, but a rather expensive one. - Highlights: • Recent changes to that program decrease green maize use but increase land demands. • The program could raise EU prices for cereals by 3%. • Agricultural land use expansion outside of the EU estimated at 1 Mio ha

  17. FPGA Based Real Time Monitoring System for Agricultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dinesh,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important factors for the quality and productivity of plant growth are temperature, humidity, light and the level of the carbon dioxide. Continuous monitoring of these environmental variables gives information to the grower to better understand, how each factor affects growth and how to manage maximal crop productiveness .The optimal greenhouse climate adjustment can enable us to improve productivity and to achieve remarkable energy savings - especially during the winter in northern countries. The system itself was usually simple without opportunities to control locally heating, lights, ventilation or some other activity, which was affecting the greenhouse interior climate. This all has changed in the modern greenhouses. The typical size of the greenhouse itself is much bigger what it was before, and the greenhouse facilities provide several options to make local adjustments to the lights, ventilation, heating and other greenhouse support systems.However, more measurement data is also needed to make this kind of automation system work properly. Increased number of measurement points should not dramatically increase the automation system cost. It should also be possible to easily change the location of the measurement points according to the particular needs, which depend on the specific plant, on the possible changes in the external weather or greenhouse structure and on the plant placement in the greenhouse. For the implementation of agricultural technologies, low cost and real time remote monitoring are needed, in this sense, programmable Logic Devices (PLDs present as a good option for the technology development and implementation, because PLDs allow fast development of prototypes and the design of complex hardware systems using FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Complex Programmable Logic Devices.

  18. Radiation method for hygienization food and agriculture products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of food and agriculture products have been used for several goals. That are: disinsectization, disinfection, sprout inhibition and retardation of mattering. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology). The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and and industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author)

  19. Grassland production under global change scenarios for New Zealand pastoral agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Timar, L.; Mullan, B.; Clark, A.

    2014-10-01

    We adapt and integrate the Biome-BGC and Land Use in Rural New Zealand models to simulate pastoral agriculture and to make land-use change, intensification of agricultural activity and climate change scenario projections of New Zealand's pasture production at time slices centred on 2020, 2050 and 2100, with comparison to a present-day baseline. Biome-BGC model parameters are optimised for pasture production in both dairy and sheep/beef farm systems, representing a new application of the Biome-BGC model. Results show up to a 10% increase in New Zealand's national pasture production in 2020 under intensification and a 1-2% increase by 2050 from economic factors driving land-use change. Climate change scenarios using statistically downscaled global climate models (GCMs) from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report also show national increases of 1-2% in 2050, with significant regional variations. Projected out to 2100, however, these scenarios are more sensitive to the type of pasture system and the severity of warming: dairy systems show an increase in production of 4% under mild change but a decline of 1% under a more extreme case, whereas sheep/beef production declines in both cases by 3 and 13%, respectively. Our results suggest that high-fertility systems such as dairying could be more resilient under future change, with dairy production increasing or only slightly declining in all of our scenarios. These are the first national-scale estimates using a model to evaluate the joint effects of climate change, CO2 fertilisation and N-cycle feedbacks on New Zealand's unique pastoral production systems that dominate the nation's agriculture and economy. Model results emphasise that CO2 fertilisation and N-cycle feedback effects are responsible for meaningful differences in agricultural systems. More broadly, we demonstrate that our model output enables analysis of decoupled land-use change scenarios: the Biome-BGC data products at a national or regional level can be re

  20. Predicting the Affects of Climate Change on Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Productivity of Semi-arid Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, L.; Tyler, S. W.; Zheng, C.; Pohll, G. M.; Yao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Many arid and semi-arid regions around the world are experiencing water shortages that have become increasingly problematic. Since the late 1800s, upstream diversions in Nevada's Walker River have delivered irrigation supply to the surrounding agricultural fields resulting in a dramatic water level decline of the terminal Walker Lake. Salinity has also increased because the only outflow from the lake is evaporation from the lake surface. The Heihe River basin of northwestern China, a similar semi-arid catchment, is also facing losses from evaporation of terminal locations, agricultural diversions and evapotranspiration (ET) of crops. Irrigated agriculture is now experiencing increased competition for use of diminishing water resources while a demand for ecological conservation continues to grow. It is important to understand how the existing agriculture in these regions will respond as climate changes. Predicting the affects of climate change on groundwater flow, surface water flow, ET and agricultural productivity of the Walker and Heihe River basins is essential for future conservation of water resources. ET estimates from remote sensing techniques can provide estimates of crop water consumption. By determining similarities of both hydrologic cycles, critical components missing in both systems can be determined and predictions of impacts of climate change and human management strategies can be assessed.