WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural production landscapes

  1. Achieving production and conservation simultaneously in tropical agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renwick, Anna R.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Potts, Simon G.;

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population size and demand for food in the developing world is driving the intensification of agriculture, often threatening the biodiversity within the farmland itself and in the surrounding landscape. This paper quantifies bird and tree species richness, tree carbon and farmer's gross...... income, and interactions between these four variables, across an agricultural gradient in central Uganda. We showed that higher cultivation intensities in farmed landscapes resulted in increased income but also a decline in species richness of birds and trees, and reductions in tree carbon storage....... These declines were particularly marked with a shift from high intensity smallholder mixed cropping to plantation style agriculture. This was especially evident for birds where significant declines only occurred in plantations. Small scale farming will likely continue to be a key source of cash income...

  2. Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Landis, D.A.; Gardiner, M. M.; Werf, van der, M.J.; Swinton, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Increased demand for corn grain as an ethanol feedstock is altering U. S. agricultural landscapes and the ecosystem services they provide. From 2006 to 2007, corn acreage increased 19% nationally, resulting in reduced crop diversity in many areas. Biological control of insects is an ecosystem service that is strongly influenced by local landscape structure. Here, we estimate the value of natural biological control of the soybean aphid, a major pest in agricultural landscapes, and the economic...

  3. Use of agricultural landscape; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map use of agricultural landscape on the territory of the Slovak Republic is presented. Use of agricultural landscape is expressed by the share of crop production and the rate of farm animals raised per area of agriculturally used land. The rate of agricultural production is represented by a system of points, which express the cost of the individual branches of production. (author)

  4. Landscape agronomy: A new field for addressing agricultural landscape dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Marraccini, Élisa; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Galli, Mariassunta; Lardon, Sylvie; Rapey, Hélène; Thenail, Claudine; Bonari, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Landscape dynamics increasingly challenge agronomists to explain how and why agricultural landscapes are designed and managed by farmers. Nevertheless, agronomy is rarely included in the wide range of disciplines involved in landscape research. In this paper, we describe how landscape agronomy can help explain the relationship between farming systems and agricultural landscape dynamics. For this, we propose a conceptual model of agricultural landscape dynamics that illustrates the specific co...

  5. Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale design to incorporate biomass production into an agricultural system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1) soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO3 by 61 or 59% and N2O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha−1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha−1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits. - Highlights: • Design of a multifunctional landscape by integrating cellulosic biofuel production into an existing agricultural system. • The design does not adversely offset current grain production for bioenergy crops. • Maps of concentrated flow paths, subsurface flow direction, NO3–N hotspots, and intra-field corn yield variability.

  6. Land use and agriculture sustainability: does landscape matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on showing how landscape can play a role in the sustainability of agricultural activities and what conditions have to be required to consider landscape as a sustainable output in this way. Nowadays, agricultural policies in Europe attach a growing importance to the direct management by agricultural producers of the countryside. This actual trend emphasizes the role of non-commodity outputs in the production process, with respect to the multifunctional nature of agricul...

  7. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    Modern cavity ringdown spectroscopy systems (CRDS) enable the continuous measurement of methane concentration. This allows for improved quantification of greenhouse gas emissions associated with various natural and human landscapes. We present a subset of over 4000 km of continuous methane surveying along the east coast of Australia, made using a Picarro G2301 CRDS, deployed in a utility vehicle with an air inlet above the roof at 2.2 mAGL. Measurements were made every 5 seconds to a precision of life-cycle of energy resources to be considered.

  8. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  9. Towards multifunctional agricultural landscapes in Europe: Assessing and governing synergies between food production, biodiversity, and ecosystem services - TALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Martin; Cord, Anna; Demiguel, Ángel; Holzkämper, Annelie; Kaim, Andrea; Kirchner, Mathias; Lienhoop, Nele; Nieto Romero, Marta; Nitsch, Heike; Rutz, Cordula; Saa, Antonio; Schmid, Erwin; Schönhart, Martin; Schramek, Jörg; Strauch, Michael; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; van der Zanden, Emma H.; Verburg, Peter; Willaarts, Bárbara; Zarrineh, Nina; Rivas, David; Hagemann, Nina

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to improve our understanding of the synergies between biodiversity, food and energy production and other regulating or cultural ecosystem services (ESS) and the development of technical and policy measures to support these synergies. Procedures to quantify synergies and trade-offs between ESS and biodiversity are considered as promising solutions to close this gap. The BiodivERsA project TALE aims at developing such methodologies in a set of representative European agricultural landscapes in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, The Netherlands and Spain. This will be done by using i) a framework that links process-based, integrated, and statistical models with optimization algorithms, and ii) a set of land use scenarios and land use policies, iii) a systematic stakeholder integration process that allows the incorporation of expert knowledge in all phases of the research project to safeguard that research results are of practical relevance. Moreover, the project not only addresses experts but provides an innovative online learning environment that is accessible also for students and the general public.

  10. Spatial Trade-Offs between Wind Power Production and Bird Collision Avoidance in Agricultural Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Drechsler; Marcus Eichhorn

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of renewable energy production is seen as an appropriate way to mitigate climate change. Renewable energies are not free of negative external effects on humans and the natural environment. We analyzed the conflict between wind power production and bird protection through the example of one of the most sensitive species, the red kite (Milvus milvus) in West Saxony, Germany. We investigated a large number of potential land use scenarios, defined by whether or not each potential si...

  11. Spatial Trade-Offs between Wind Power Production and Bird Collision Avoidance in Agricultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Drechsler

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energy production is seen as an appropriate way to mitigate climate change. Renewable energies are not free of negative external effects on humans and the natural environment. We analyzed the conflict between wind power production and bird protection through the example of one of the most sensitive species, the red kite (Milvus milvus in West Saxony, Germany. We investigated a large number of potential land use scenarios, defined by whether or not each potential site contained a wind turbine (WT. Based on meteorological and ornithological data, we evaluated the land use scenarios for their annual energy supply and impact on the red kite. We identified the efficient land use scenarios that maximized energy supply for a given ecological impact. Within the scope of our analysis, the current allocation of WTs in the study region was considered inefficient. The set of efficient scenarios allowed us to draw conclusions on the trade-offs involved. We developed an indicator that measures the severity of the conflict between wind power production and bird protection. Increasing the minimum distance of WTs to settlements beyond the legal requirements in order to minimize the impact on humans further intensifies the conflict. Our results can support planning authorities in their development of long-term regional plans by identifying areas that are most suitable for wind power production from an integrated point of view.

  12. Relative pollen productivity estimates in the modern agricultural landscape of Central Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, V.; Kozáková, Radka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 179, JUL 1 (2012), s. 1-12. ISSN 0034-6667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00020701; GA AV ČR IAAX00050801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : relative pollen productivity estimates * Central Bohemia * moss polsters * pollen-vegetation relationship * relevant source area of pollen Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2012

  13. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Emily A.; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by diffe...

  14. Towards productive landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Kshatriya, Mrigesh;

    2016-01-01

    agricultural landscapes in two tropical locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh. Agroforestry systems are compared with subsistence seasonal food-crop-based agricultural systems. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisal, field observation, focus groups and semi-structured interviews of...... compared with the tree establishment and development phase of agroforestry farms. Thus, there is a trade-off between short-term loss of agricultural income and longer-term economic gain from planting trees in farmland. For resource-poor farmers to implement this change, institutional support is needed to...

  15. Landscape-ecological limitations of intensive agricultural activity; 1 : 1 000 000; Soil suitability for cultivation of crops (typological and productivity categories of agricultural soils); 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On these maps the landscape-ecological limitations of intensive agricultural activity as well as soil suitability for cultivation of crops on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. Suitability of soils for crop growing is expressed by the set of four production types (potential arable land, alternating fields, permanent grassland, and territories not suitable for agro-ecosystems) and eleven sustainable use subtypes of production potential of agricultural soils ranging from the most productive arable land to the territories not suitable for growing of agricultural crops. They were defined on the basis of assessment of the relationships between the properties, point value of production capacity of agricultural land, and their suitability for crop growing. (authors)

  16. Reptile assemblages across agricultural landscapes: where does biodiversity hide?

    OpenAIRE

    Biaggini, M.; C. Corti

    2015-01-01

    The transition from traditional to intensive farming, aimed at large–scale production, has rapidly altered agricultural landscapes, leading to the reduction and fragmentation of natural habitats and to the consequent loss of biodiversity. Herpetofauna is seriously threatened by agriculture intensification worldwide, but less is known about its distribution in agro–ecosystems, especially at field scale. We analysed reptile abundance and diversity in eight agricultural and semi–natural land use...

  17. Reptile assemblages across agricultural landscapes: where does biodiversity hide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biaggini, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from traditional to intensive farming, aimed at large–scale production, has rapidly altered agricultural landscapes, leading to the reduction and fragmentation of natural habitats and to the consequent loss of biodiversity. Herpetofauna is seriously threatened by agriculture intensification worldwide, but less is known about its distribution in agro–ecosystems, especially at field scale. We analysed reptile abundance and diversity in eight agricultural and semi–natural land uses, and inside vegetated buffer strips interspersed among fields. Interestingly, most reptiles were recorded in the buffer strips while intensive crops and pastures hosted just one lizard species. Richness of individuals and species increased when strips were connected to semi–natural areas, independently of their width and vegetation structure. In view of our results, that highlight the role of minor landscape features for the presence of vertebrates in intensive agro–ecosystems, we recommend the implementation of buffer strips among the measures for vertebrate conservation in agricultural landscapes.

  18. Spatial variation in biodiversity, soil degradation and productivity in agricultural landscapes in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hadgu, K.M.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Kooistra, L.; Bruggen, van, C.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about food security and sustainability of agricultural production in developing countries. However, there are limited attempts to quantify agro-biodiversity losses and relate these losses to soil degradation and crop productivity, particularly in Tigray, Ethiopia. In this study, spatial variation in agro-biodiversity and soil degradation was assessed in 2000 and 2005 at 151 farms in relation to farm, productivity, wealth, social, developmental and topographic charac...

  19. Types of agricultural landscape; 1 : 750 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of agricultural landscape is expressed by the length of vegetation period, variants of winter season, need of additional moisture, potential water erosion and chemistry of soils. Each unit is characterised by 35 indicators. Applying mathematical and statistical methods, the agricultural landscape of Slovakia was divided into 8 types by the length of vegetation period, 8 subtypes by the winter period, 8 wards by the need of additional moisture, 4 sub-wards by the potential water erosion, and 22 variants by the soil sorption saturation and chemistry. (authors)

  20. Biodiversity Drifts in Agricultural Landscapes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameixa, Olga; Kindlmann, Pavel

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Grillo, O.; Venora, G.), s. 316-331 ISBN 978-953-307-417-7 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : agricultural practices * biodiversity * ecosystems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

    Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural

  2. Agricultural landscapes as multi-scale public good and the role of the Common Agricultural Policy

    OpenAIRE

    LEFEBVRE MARIANNE; ESPINOSA GODED MARIA; GOMEZ Y PALOMA Sergio; PARACCHINI Maria-Luisa; Piorr, Annette; Zasada, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Since 50 years, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has impacted the evolution of agricultural landscapes by driving changes in land use and farming practices in Europe. This viewpoint paper discusses to what extent the CAP does contribute to the management of EU agricultural landscapes. Agricultural landscapes are described as a multi-scale public good. We propose a typology characterizing the scales relevant for landscape management We argue that agricultural landscape planning requires ac...

  3. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: the case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binder Claudia R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small-scale agricultural production, which accounts for a considerable portion of global food crop production. Our approach accounts for dynamics in the contaminant distributions in the environment, as well as patterns of movement and activities performed on an individual level under different safety scenarios. We demonstrate a first prototype using data from a study area in a rural part of Colombia, South America. Results Different safety scenarios of PEA were run by including weighting schemes for activities performed under different safety conditions. We examined the sensitivity of individual exposure estimates to varying patterns of pesticide application and varying individual patterns of movement. This resulted in a considerable variation in estimates of magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure over the model runs for each individual as well as between individuals. These findings indicate the influence of patterns of pesticide application, individual spatial patterns of movement as well as safety conditions on personalized exposure in the agricultural production landscape that is the focus of our research. Conclusion This approach represents a conceptual framework for developing individual based models to carry out PEA in small-scale agricultural settings in the developing world based on individual patterns of movement, safety conditions, and dynamic contaminant distributions. The results of our analysis indicate our prototype model is sufficiently

  4. Ecological and economic principles of rational agricultural lands use based on landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndzya, Olena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the methodological providing and real state of agricultural lands and agrolandscape use in Ukraine. Basic directions of agricultural earth use organization are investigated on landscape basis. The experience of native scientists in forming and developing the theory and practice of landscape approach in agriculture is worked out. Basic directions of the agrolandscape planning are determined. The agricultural typology of land is considered in details and that allows to divide the lands according to their descriptions and constituents. The methodology of the landscape contour and land-reclamation agriculture systems is investigated. Positions of this methodology were put into the Conception of high productive ecologically permanent agrolandscapes forming and improvement of the of agriculture systems based on landscape. The value of the adaptive landscape agricultural system mechanism of forming is reflected. The direction of ecological landscape use and its basic constituents are examined.

  5. Factors Affecting Water Dynamics and Their Assessment in Agricultural Landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensification and extension of agriculture have contributed significantly to the global food production in the last five decades. However, intensification without due attention to the ecosystem services and sustainability of soil and water resources contributed to land and water quality degradation such as soil erosion, decreased soil fertility and quality, salinization and nutrient discharge to surface and ground waters. Land use change from forests to crop lands altered the vegetation pattern and hydrology of landscapes with increased nutrient discharge from crop lands to riverine environment. Global climate change will increase the amount of water required for agriculture in addition to water needed for further irrigation development causing water scarcity in many dry, arid and semi-arid regions. The water and nutrient use efficiencies of agricultural production systems are still below 40% in many regions across the globe. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer use in agriculture have accelerated the cycling of these nutrients in the landscape and contributed to water quality degradation. Such nutrient pollution has a wide array of consequences including eutrophication of inland waters and marine ecosystems. While intensifying drought conditions, increasing water consumption and environmental pollution in many parts of the world threatens agricultural productivity and livelihood, these also provided opportunities for farmers to use improved land and water management technologies and practices to make agriculture resilient to external shocks

  6. Dynamics of Danish Agricultural Landscapes and the Roles of Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Gregor

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture manages about 2/3 of the Danish land area. As a consequence, agricultural land use consequently has a major influence on the appearance of the Danish landscape in terms of its spatial composition and structure. Alterations of agricultural practices always imply potential changes in landscape composition and structure. Qua its definition and ensuing standards, organic farming embodies a particular kind of agricultural production. Consequently, the conversion to organic farming imp...

  7. Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2014-07-01

    With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem

  8. Agriculture and land management: the landscape monitoring system in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marinai

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the reduced weight in the Gross National Product (GDP and the continuous decrease in manpower which has been recorded in the last decades, an important role is recognized to the rural sector in the current developmetn model which justify the heavy financial committment of Europe and Italy to sustain european agriculture.Within this role, land preservation has an important role for the sector competitiveness, the rural space quality and the citizen’s life quality, and this role is nowadays recognized even by the politics for landscape defined for the Piano strategico nazionale 2007-20131. Both action definitions and planning and development of landscape resources firstly require to define landscape monitoring systems pointing out trends, and critical and strength points represented by the great historical and environmental differences of Italian landscapes. This study is a synthesis of the results from a 5 year project aimed to the definition of a landscape monitoring system in Tuscany, ranging from 1800 and 2000 and based on study areas covering around 1% of the regional territory, which will soon be implemented. The first recorded results show a strong decrease of landscape diversity (40-50% in the investigated time period. This study want to be an example for the implementation of the future monitoring system of this resource.

  9. Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard H.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interaction in the commercial agricultural landscape and the resulting impacts on the ecosystem services of water quality and quantity is largely ignored by the current agricultural paradigm that maximizes crop production over other ecosystem services. Three examples at different spatial scales (local, regional, and global) are presented where human and ecosystem interactions in a commercial agricultural landscape adversely affect water quality and quantity in unintended ways in the Delta of northwestern Mississippi. In the first example, little to no regulation of groundwater use for irrigation has caused declines in groundwater levels resulting in loss of baseflow to streams and threatening future water supply. In the second example, federal policy which subsidizes corn for biofuel production has encouraged many producers to switch from cotton to corn, which requires more nutrients and water, counter to national efforts to reduce nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico and exacerbating groundwater level declines. The third example is the wholesale adoption of a system for weed control that relies on a single chemical, initially providing many benefits and ultimately leading to the widespread occurrence of glyphosate and its degradates in Delta streams and necessitating higher application rates of glyphosate as well as the use of other herbicides due to increasing weed resistance. Although these examples are specific to the Mississippi Delta, analogous situations exist throughout the world and point to the need for change in how we grow our food, fuel, and fiber, and manage our soil and water resources.

  10. On New Landscape Agriculture in Yunnan Flatland Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao; YANG; Wufu; QI; Qun; LIU

    2014-01-01

    With the support of national policy of building Yunnan into a gateway in China’s opening up to the Southwest,Yunnan Province offered the great opportunity for second time of starting an undertaking for tourism,and the landscape agriculture welcomes a new development opportunity. On the basis of regional natural and cultural resources,Yunnan Province has created diversified agricultural operating types and colorful farming culture. Thus,it has significant comparative advantage in developing the landscape agriculture,but it should avoid homogeneous competition in construction methods. The landscape agriculture of Yunnan Province should set foot on special features of rural landscape,stick to its " local characteristics",raise core competitiveness of characteristic landscape,and take the ecological and characteristic development road.

  11. Time, Space and the History of Agricultural Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Aagaard Christensen, Andreas

    history, especially as the rate of changes in cultural landscapes has increased during the last 40 years as the result of the development in the agro-industrial sector. However landscape changes rarely occur as abrupt and sudden breaks, but more as gradual process over long time periods corresponding...... to the physical structure of landscapes has a fixed temporal nature depicting the landscape at time of record, often at different spatial scales. This creates a challenge for Environmental history of European agricultural landscapes to produce a framework, which can incorporate these differences in temporal...

  12. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Booij, C.J.H.; Tscharntke, T

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control...

  13. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Scherr Sara J; Shames Seth; Friedman Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate ch...

  14. Landscape patterns and soil organic carbon stocks in agricultural bocage landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaud, Valérie; Lacoste, Marine; Michot, Didier; Walter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) has a crucial impact on global carbon storage at world scale. SOC spatial variability is controlled by the landscape patterns resulting from the continuous interactions between the physical environment and the society. Natural and anthropogenic processes occurring and interplaying at the landscape scale, such as soil redistribution in the lateral and vertical dimensions by tillage and water erosion processes or spatial differentiation of land-use and land-management practices, strongly affect SOC dynamics. Inventories of SOC stocks, reflecting their spatial distribution, are thus key elements to develop relevant management strategies to improving carbon sequestration and mitigating climate change and soil degradation. This study aims to quantify SOC stocks and their spatial distribution in a 1,000-ha agricultural bocage landscape with dairy production as dominant farming system (Zone Atelier Armorique, LTER Europe, NW France). The site is characterized by high heterogeneity on short distance due to a high diversity of soils with varying waterlogging, soil parent material, topography, land-use and hedgerow density. SOC content and stocks were measured up to 105-cm depth in 200 sampling locations selected using conditioned Latin hypercube sampling. Additive sampling was designed to specifically explore SOC distribution near to hedges: 112 points were sampled at fixed distance on 14 transects perpendicular from hedges. We illustrate the heterogeneity of spatial and vertical distribution of SOC stocks at landscape scale, and quantify SOC stocks in the various landscape components. Using multivariate statistics, we discuss the variability and co-variability of existing spatial organization of cropping systems, environmental factors, and SOM stocks, over landscape. Ultimately, our results may contribute to improving regional or national digital soil mapping approaches, by considering the distribution of SOC stocks within each modeling unit and

  15. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr Sara J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate change dynamics related to agriculture suggests that three key features characterize a climate-smart landscape: climate-smart practices at the field and farm scale; diversity of land use across the landscape to provide resilience; and management of land use interactions at landscape scale to achieve social, economic and ecological impacts. To implement climate-smart agricultural landscapes with these features (that is, to successfully promote and sustain them over time, in the context of dynamic economic, social, ecological and climate conditions requires several institutional mechanisms: multi-stakeholder planning, supportive landscape governance and resource tenure, spatially-targeted investment in the landscape that supports climate-smart objectives, and tracking change to determine if social and climate goals are being met at different scales. Examples of climate-smart landscape initiatives in Madagascar’s Highlands, the African Sahel and Australian Wet Tropics illustrate the application of these elements in contrasting contexts. Conclusions To achieve climate-smart landscape initiatives widely and at scale will require strengthened technical capacities, institutions and political support for multi-stakeholder planning, governance, spatial targeting of investments and multi-objective impact monitoring.

  16. Port wine landscape: railroads, phylloxera, and agricultural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand why regions that produce very fine goods such as port wine tend to conceal technological and scientific inputs and praise the uniqueness of the terroir. This paper suggests that, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, viticulture in the Douro region of Portugal was as much a product of soil, local farming traditions, and individual entrepreneurship as it was of modern state science and national politics for agricultural improvement. the unprecedented public projects of building a railroad and fighting phylloxera permanently changed the land of port wine. Moreover, those engineering practices of rationalization, simplification, and standardization that were inscribed on Douro's landscape proved essential for the Portuguese experience of modernization and nation-building. PMID:21563604

  17. The role of agricultural engineering in the management of landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fumagalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Landscape represents the “sensory aspect” of the land and as such it can be appreciated by all the five senses: sight, smelling, hearing, touch and taste. At the same time, landscape evolves over time and its value – ecological, economical and affective – changes as its constitutive elements change. Engineering can help “to drive” this evolution addressing it towards a condition of balance between individual and community requirements, especially referred to the effect of technological development on landscape. This effect can be referred to three dimensions: perceptive, functional and symbolic dimensions. The possible contribution to the management of landscape changes concerns all the three historic souls of Agricultural Engineering; in particular, Agricultural Hydraulics deals with the topic of landscape referring to both irrigation and the possible recreational use of canal systems; Agricultural Engineering determines plot form and size and woodland view; Rural Building deals with both the recovery of existing buildings and the design and making of new ones and their fitting in the landscape; moreover, the sector has developed new methods for the evaluation and the planning of rural land resources, especially about agriculture and forestry productivity, ecological stability and visual quality of rural land itself.

  18. Habitat connectivity and fragmented nuthatch populations in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    1999-01-01

    In agricultural landscapes, the habitat of many species is subject to fragmentation. When the habitat of a species is fragmented and the distances between patches of habitat are large relative to the movement distances of the species, it can be expected that the degree of habitat connectivity affect

  19. Forest floor spiders of woodlots in an agricultural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabelis, A.

    1996-01-01

    An inventory of spiders was made in woodlots, which are situated in an agricultural landscape in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Aim of the study was to test the hypotheses that good dispersers, like spiders, will be distributed randomly over habitat patches and consequently, that there will be

  20. Historical structure of agricultural landscape - part of the village Hrinova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The landscape segment represents what is now a rare relict of historical structures of agricultural landscape with hamlet type of settlement typical for the Carpathian area of Slovakia. The secondary landscape structure (land cover) is represented here by the typical historical landscape, (farm) structures of terraced fields. As much as 639 plots can be found here on an area of one square kilometre. They are arranged in a specific fan-shaped patterns. Scattered houses of the hamlet with a network of narrow lanes and roads represent the settlement structure. The ground plan of the settlement is a mosaic of semi-closed yards with houses and farm buildings. Woody vegetation of other than forest nature forms prevailingly linear micro-structures. The original combination of landscape phenomena creates the regionally specific landscape type/variety. The silhouette of the massif of the Polana Mt. and its side ridges with the regular arrangement of the hamlets and microstructures of seams of the fields creates the visually distinct profound relief zones. The foreland of the Polana Mt. and the bottom of the Zvolenska kotlina Basin with the concentrated settlements of Detva and Hrinova lie in the foreground. The Polana Mt. itself is one of the important symbols of Slovakia. Traditions and folklore complete the overall image of the region. (author)

  1. Investigating biodiversity trajectories using scenarios--lessons from two contrasting agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, Regina; Stenseke, Marie; Cousins, Sara A O; Bengtsson, Jan; Berg, Ake; Gustafsson, Tomas; Sjödin, N Erik; Eriksson, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture is the major land use at a global scale. In addition to food production, multifunctionality of landscapes, including values and ecosystem services like biodiversity, recreation and culture, is now focus for management. This study explores how a scenario approach, involving different stakeholders, may help to improve landscape management for biodiversity conservation. Local farmers and executives at the County Administrative Board were invited to discuss rural development and conditions for farmland biodiversity in two Swedish landscapes. The potential biodiversity for three future land use scenarios for the two landscapes was discussed: nature conservation, outdoor recreation and energy production, and compared with current and historical landscapes in each region. Analyses of habitat areas, connectedness and landscape diversity suggested that the energy and recreation scenarios had a negative impact on farmland biodiversity, whereas the nature conservation scenario, the current and historically reconstructed landscapes had a higher potential for biodiversity. The farmers appreciated the nature conservation scenario, but also the energy production scenario and they highlighted the need of increased subsidies for management of biodiversity. The farmers in the high production area were less interested in nature quality per se. The executives had similar opinions as the farmers, but disagreed on the advantages with energy production, as this would be in conflict with the high biodiversity and recreational values. The local physical and socio-economical conditions differ between landscapes and potentially shaped the stakeholders emotional attachment to the local environment, their opinions and decisions on how to manage the land. We stress the importance of incorporating local knowledge, visions and regional prerequisites for different land uses in conservation, since site and landscape specific planning for biodiversity together with a flexible subsidy

  2. Dairy Chains: Consumer Foodways and Agricultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Wessell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Food is significant as an agent of social change as well as being the subject of activism. The focus of this paper is on nature’s “perfect food”, milk, in t he 1950s, a period of social transition that offers fertile space for reconstructing food activism and giving it a history. Australia’s dairy industry is the country’s largest processed food industry and the fourth largest of the nation’s rural industries. Milk is a fruitful site to consider the relationship between people and their food, production and consumption, the intimate way we bring our food into our bodies and the experience of farmers with personal connections to the ecosystems in which they live . Dense networks connect farm producers and consumers. The dairy industry will be considered as a site of production and consumption where considerable political activity was concentrated in the 1950s. These themes are illuminated in the paper by briefly c onsidering two groups of women caught up in very different family labour systems defined by their relationship to milk – housewives active in the state associations campaigning around milk prices and quality and farm women. The transformation of rural life , home and food culture during this period impacted on both groups of women, it was from their work that they expressed a position and identified, and both engaged in complex processes of negotiation that, I argue, have generated and sustained other moveme nts.

  3. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  4. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Heim

    Full Text Available Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany. Using spatial analysis (GIS, we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water. In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers. Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the

  5. The anthropogenic refuge areas for bee flora in agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were carried out in 2002-2006 in two municipalities of Konopnica and Jastków close to the western part of Lublin, Poland. The aim of the study was to identify the condition of bee flora and determine the floristic richness depending on the biotops in agricultural landscape. Flora of the anthropogenic refuge areas consists of 214 species, among them 80% were flow taxons. Apophytes (162 species - 78% predominated on all types of biotops under consideration. Perennials predominated in flora of boundary strips and bush communities. Mainly annual (40% and biennial (15% species comprise the flora of fallows. A great number of bee taxons represent meadow, segetal or ruderal communities. Most of flow plants compose loose patches, but their successive blooming ensures a source of food for Apoidea from early spring till the end of summer. The flora of boundary strips, bush communities and fallows significantly increases the biodiversity in agricultural landscape. The treatments including sowing, mainly on fallows with nectariferous and polleniferous species, would enrich generally weak flows in highly agricultural landscape.

  6. The policy landscape of agricultural water management in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Wielgosz, Benjamin; Zaidi, Fatima; Ringler, Claudia; Akram, Agha Ali; Bell, Andrew; Issermann, Maikel

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s agriculture; and managing the country’s canal, ground, and surface water resources in a more efficient, equitable, and sustainable way will be crucial to meeting agricultural production challenges, including increasing agricultural productivity and adapting to climate change. The water component of the International Food Policy Research Institute’s Pakistan Strategy Support Program (PSSP) is working to address these topics through high-quality researc...

  7. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  8. Managing Nitrogen in Croplands: Implications for Increasing Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L.

    2011-12-01

    Many agricultural landscapes in the temperate zone are dominated by agroecosystems that are managed with high inputs of agrochemicals, including synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers. The process of agricultural intensification increases crop production per unit area, but also often results in loss of environmental quality (such as N contamination of waters, eutrophication, atmospheric N deposition, and emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas). Loss of biodiversity and its 'functional homogenization' is another concern. Not only does little land in these landscapes remain in natural ecosystems, but there are negative off-site impacts of intensive agriculture on non-target organisms. Segregating agroecosystems with high-input agricultural production from natural ecosystems (land sparing) is one view to support both food security and biodiversity conservation. But proponents of land sparing rarely address the loss of other ecosystem services, such as those related to environmental quality, health, and human well-being (e.g., livelihoods and cultural values). An emerging view is that increased reliance on ecological processes in agroecosystems ('ecological intensification') is more feasible when the landscape mosaic includes planned and unplanned biodiversity. This requires research on how to support multiple ecosystem services through the integration of agricultural production and biodiversity conservation in the same landscape, and how ecological and physico-chemical processes at various spatial scales are interlinked. It is an enormous challenge to increase reliance on ecological processes for N availability for crop productivity. There are skeptics who think that this will be detrimental for food security, despite benefits for other types of ecosystem services. Using examples from agricultural landscapes in California, mechanisms for ecologically-based N cycling will be discussed, such as: 1) increasing the reservoir of soil organic N and the

  9. Phenology of the Landscape: The Role of Organic Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, C.J.M.; Stortelder, A.H.F.

    2004-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the agricultural sector will have to find an additional raison d'être beyond the production of food alone. One of the new services that agriculture can provide is contributing to the environmental quality of rural areas. In this respect a great burden of expect

  10. Evaluation of the Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) in the Semiarid Texas Southern High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, John R.; Robert J. Lascano; Jon D. Booker; Zartman, Richard E.; Timothy S. Goebel

    2013-01-01

    Accurate models to simulate the soil water balance in semiarid cropping systems are needed to evaluate management practices for soil and water conservation in both irrigated and dryland production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) model to simulate soil water content throughout the growing season for several years and for three major soil series of the semiarid Texas Southern High Plains (SHP)....

  11. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1994. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the annual report 1994 of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed. The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. (vhe)

  12. Restoration of degraded agricultural terraces: rebuilding landscape structure and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFevor, M C

    2014-06-01

    The restoration of severely degraded cropland to productive agricultural capacity increases food supply, improves soil and water conservation, and enhances environmental and ecological services. This article examines the key roles that long-term maintenance plays in the processes of repairing degraded agricultural land. Field measurements from Tlaxcala, Mexico stress that restoring agricultural structures (the arrangements of landforms and vegetation) is alone insufficient. Instead, an effective monitoring and maintenance regime of agricultural structures is also crucial if the efforts are to be successful. Consequently, methods of wildland restoration and agricultural restoration may differ in the degree to which the latter must plan for and facilitate a sustained human involvement. An improved understanding of these distinctions is critical for environmental management as restoration programs that employ the technologies of intensive agriculture continue to grow in number and scope. PMID:24355068

  13. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmo Vianello

    Full Text Available Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem’s landscapes but also to differentiate its level of productivity and liveability. The role of soil as part of the landscape is not always so evident, especially when it is covered by vegetation that precludes observation. At times, however, soils show themselves conspicuously, at least on the surface, when the colours of the epipedons invade the landscape and – in the ploughing season – dominate it. While it may be reassuring to see neatly cultivated fields and crops growing luxuriantly and homogeneously, the increasingly marked and evident signs of soil degradation or erosion are a cause for concern. In the recent past, the relationship between man and soil resources was strongly influenced by natural factors inside and outside the soil itself, socio-economic conditions and above all the labour force, i.e. the people employed in the primary sector; consequently, it was based on such factors that crop-growing choices were adapted to the different ecosystems, resulting in a diversification of rural landscapes. Starting from the second half of the twentieth century, the introduction of chemicals, mechanisation and exploitation of various forms of energy drastically transformed land use in the space of just a few years, with a logic aimed at improving the production capacity of farmland and forest land in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As a consequence, farming choices that were formerly adapted to the natural and socio-economic conditions of

  14. Landscape diversity and the resilience of agricultural returns: a portfolio analysis of land-use patterns and economic returns from lowland agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abson David J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional agriculture is increasingly based on highly specialized, highly productive farms. It has been suggested that 1 this specialization leads to farms that lack resilience to changing market and environmental conditions; and 2 that by decreasing agricultural diversity, the resilience of the farming system also decreases. Methods We used agricultural gross margin (GM forecasts from 1966 to 2010 and remote sensing data from agricultural landscapes in the lowland UK, in conjunction with modern portfolio theory, to test the hypothesis that decreasing land-use diversity results in landscapes that provide higher, but more volatile, economic returns. We considered the role of spatial scale on the expected levels of volatility and resilience of agricultural returns. Results We found that: 1 there was a strong linear trade-off between expected GMs and the expected volatility of those GMs in real lowland agricultural landscapes in the UK; 2 land-use diversification was negatively correlated with expected GMs from agriculture, and positively correlated with decreasing expected volatility in GMs; 3 the resilience of agricultural returns was positively correlated with the diversity of agricultural land use, and the resilience of agricultural returns rose quickly with increased land-holding size at small spatial extents, but this effect diminished after landholdings reached 12,000 hectares. Conclusions Land-use diversity may have an important role in ensuring resilient agricultural returns in the face of uncertain market and environmental conditions, and land-holding size plays a pivotal role in determining the relationships between resilience and returns at a landscape scale. Creating finer-grained land-use patterns based on pre-existing local land uses may increase the resilience of individual farms, while maintaining aggregate yield across landscapes.

  15. The residence time of intensively managed agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Laura; Cherkauer, Keith; Chiu, Chun-mei; Rahman, Sanoar

    2015-04-01

    Much of the agricultural landscape across the Midwestern United States is intensively managed through numerous surface and subsurface drainage improvements, and the growing extraction of groundwater resources. The relatively recent glaciation of the North Central region means that the landscape is less dissected and hydrologically connected than older till areas. Low topographic gradients and underlying dense till which restricts vertical water movement, as well as kettle depressions, have led to poorly drained soils and extensive wetlands within the landscape. Large areas of this land could only be farmed once the excess water was removed through artificial surface and subsurface drainage. Conventional wisdom in the region maintains that subsurface tile drainage reduces the occurrence of peak flow events by increasing soil water storage capacity. At the watershed scale, this view does not take into account the coincident increase in surface drainage and reduction in residence time in surface depressions. This paper explores to what degree water management and irrigation has changed surface and subsurface water storage and residence time over the last century and how this has impacted flow duration throughout the Wabash River system in Indiana, USA. The effects of subsurface tile drains, wetlands and aquifer storage are explicitly represented within the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. We maintain a focus on the entire Wabash River, a river system of historic importance that is also representative of many similar areas in the till plain region of the agricultural Midwest, which contribute to water quality and flood dynamics of the Mississippi river system. By lowering the water table, surface and subsurface drainage improvements have increased the subsurface storage capacity at the beginning of rain events, but this is overwhelmed by the decrease in surface storage capacity for intermediate to large events, decreasing the current

  16. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: the case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Binder Claudia R; Leyk Stefan; Nuckols John R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA) are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM) prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small...

  17. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: the case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    S. Leyk; C. R. Binder; Nuckols, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA) are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM) prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small-scale...

  18. Association between patterns in agricultural landscapes and the abundance of wheat aphids and their natural enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-He Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different landscape patterns on insect distribution and diversity was determined by studying wheat fields in complex and simple agricultural landscapes. We studied the influence of simple and complex agricultural landscapes on wheat aphids and their natural enemies in terms of the time of migration, abundance, population growth rate of the aphids and parasitoid abundance. The results indicate that the diversity of natural enemies is greater in the complex agricultural landscape and the effect of natural enemies on the abundance of wheat aphids was greater in the complex non-crop habitat. Wheat aphid hyperparasitoid populations differed in different agricultural landscapes with a greater number of parasites in complex agricultural landscapes. Resident times of predatory natural enemies differ in simple and complex agricultural landscapes. The number and types of predatory natural enemies are higher in complex than simple agricultural landscapes. Aphid population growth rates and the maximum population densities of wheat aphids differed significantly in simple and complex landscapes. Maximum population densities of different wheat aphids were very different in simple and complex landscape structures. The population growth rates and maximum population densities of the different predatory natural enemies and hyperparasitoids differed greatly.

  19. THE TYPOLOGY OF THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF DUBROVAČKO PRIMORJE AS A BASIS FOR DIRECTING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Hrdalo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abandonment of rural areas in Dubrovačko Primorje in the last 50 years resulted with changes of its spatial characteristics and identity. This process defi ned this place as a virtually derelict area. The main goal of this work is to determine landscape types based upon survey and spatial analyses. They can be helpful in a process of determination of spatial qualities. Landscape division was made according to the natural and anthropogenic features of this area. Therefore, landscape was divided on natural (coast, karst terrain and landscapes of the macchia and cultural (settlement and agriculture landscapes. Working methods consisted of several research stages. The fi rst stage comprised a review of relevant literature concerning natural and sociological features of the explored area. Working methods of prof. dr. Marušič were inspiration for evolvement of this research [16]. The next stage of research was the fi eld work by means of observation method which resulted in detailed photo documentation, showing different types of the agricultural landscapes. Indoor work consisted of the orthophoto production, which was a base for further exploration. Consequently, detailed map of the land use, as well as an agricultural map of the area was made according to the structural husbandry character. Digital mapping of the thematical maps in GIS – Arc View software program, produced a database of social and natural elements of the area. Overlapping of all these maps helped in determination of causal processes. Comparison of these outcomes with terrain photo documentation led to the research results and fi nal conclusions. This research showed interesting structural features of agricultural landscapes. Its division was made according to its form which emerged from the land use and its natural character. Consequently, agricultural landscapes are divided into fi elds (with regular parcels and those with irregular land division, dry stone walls with organic

  20. Production management system of ecosafety agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Denysenko

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with suggestions for improving the production management system of ecosafety agricultural products according to international standards in the sphere of quality and environmental protection. The production management algorithm of ecosafety products, including methodological and application platform of forming of administrative decisions has been suggested.

  1. Mimicking biochar-albedo feedback in complex Mediterranean agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzi, E.; Genesio, L.; Toscano, P.; Pieri, M.; Miglietta, F.

    2015-08-01

    Incorporation of charcoal produced by biomass pyrolysis (biochar) in agricultural soils is a potentially sustainable strategy for climate change mitigation. However, some side effects of large-scale biochar application need to be investigated. In particular a massive use of a low-reflecting material on large cropland areas may impact the climate via changes in surface albedo. Twelve years of MODIS-derived albedo data were analysed for three pairs of selected agricultural sites in central Italy. In each pair bright and dark coloured soil were identified, mimicking the effect of biochar application on the land surface albedo of complex agricultural landscapes. Over this period vegetation canopies never completely masked differences in background soil colour. This soil signal, expressed as an albedo difference, induced a local instantaneous radiative forcing of up to 4.7 W m-2 during periods of high solar irradiance. Biochar mitigation potential might therefore be reduced up to ˜30%. This study proves the importance of accounting for crop phenology and crop management when assessing biochar mitigation potential and provides more insights into the analysis of its environmental feedback.

  2. Mimicking biochar-albedo feedback in complex Mediterranean agricultural landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporation of charcoal produced by biomass pyrolysis (biochar) in agricultural soils is a potentially sustainable strategy for climate change mitigation. However, some side effects of large-scale biochar application need to be investigated. In particular a massive use of a low-reflecting material on large cropland areas may impact the climate via changes in surface albedo. Twelve years of MODIS-derived albedo data were analysed for three pairs of selected agricultural sites in central Italy. In each pair bright and dark coloured soil were identified, mimicking the effect of biochar application on the land surface albedo of complex agricultural landscapes. Over this period vegetation canopies never completely masked differences in background soil colour. This soil signal, expressed as an albedo difference, induced a local instantaneous radiative forcing of up to 4.7 W m−2 during periods of high solar irradiance. Biochar mitigation potential might therefore be reduced up to ∼30%. This study proves the importance of accounting for crop phenology and crop management when assessing biochar mitigation potential and provides more insights into the analysis of its environmental feedback. (letter)

  3. Selection of appropriate calculators for landscape-scale greenhouse gas assessment for agriculture and forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter is intended to help potential users select the most appropriate calculator for a landscape-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment of activities for agriculture and forestry. Eighteen calculators were assessed. These calculators were designed for different aims and to be used in different geographical areas and they use slightly different accounting methodologies. The classification proposed is based on the main aim of the assessment: raising awareness, reporting, project evaluation or product assessment. When the aims have been clearly formulated, the most suitable calculator can be selected from the comparison tables, taking account of the geographical area and the scope of the calculation as well as the time and skills required for the calculation. The main issues for interpreting GHG assessments are discussed, highlighting the difficulty of comparing the results obtained from different calculators, mainly owing to differences in scope, calculation methods and reporting units. A major problem is the poor accounting for land use change; the calculators are usually able to account satisfactorily for other emission sources. One of the main challenges at landscape-scale level is to produce a realistic assessment of the various production systems as the uncertainty levels are very high. The results should always give some indication of the link between GHG emissions and the productivity of the area, although no single indicator is able to encompass all the services produced by agriculture and forestry (e.g. food, goods, landscape value and revenue). (letter)

  4. Production technologies in Ethiopian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kidane, Asmerom; Abler, David G.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and choice among two production technologies in Ethiopian agriculture, one with fertilizer and the other without, using 1989-90 farm-level data. For northwest and central Ethiopia, fertilizer usage determinants are estimated simultaneously with technology-specific production functions. For southern Ethiopia, where fertilizer is rarely used, a single production function is estimated. Three conclusions emerge. First, fertilizer use is not significant...

  5. A new view on EU agricultural landscapes: Quantifying patchiness to assess farmland heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    WEISSTEINER Christof; GARCIA FECED CELIA; PARACCHINI Maria-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Mapping and assessment of ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes as required by the EU biodiversity policy need a better characterisation of this landscape typology according to its ecological and cultural values. Such need should be accommodated by a better discrimination of those landscape characteristics linked to the capacity of providing ecosystem services and socio-cultural benefits. Often, these key variables depend on the degree of farmland heterogeneity and landscape patterns....

  6. Changes of local agricultural landscape patterns induced by land consolidation in hilly and mountainous Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen; WEI Chao-fu; ZHANG Wei-hua; XIE De-ti

    2009-01-01

    Land consolidation (LC), as a type of human disturbance, improves land production efficiency and changes landscape distribution through land parcel reallocation. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze the changes of landscape patches before and after a land consolidation project (LCP) and the effects of land levelling, irrigation and drainage work and road engineering on the landscape structure. FRAGSTAT3.3 and buffer zone analysis were used to investigate those changes. The results suggest that the heterogeneity of landscape depressed, and tended to simplification after LC. Dry land was the most highly variable land use pattern, and the change of forestland was least due to its locations at a gradient larger than 25°. LC resulted in a more rational use of land, and could be an important step in promoting rural development in depressed and fragmented agricultural areas through unused land exploitation, small-patch combination, irrigation and water conservancy, and road construction. Land levelling leveled off the gradient field surface and decreased the slope. The fragmentized patches were much more incorporated with increasing slope. On the other hand, the ridge of a field became longer so that the length of field surface and area of patch were increased. Land levelling regulated, simplified and combined patches, so that the complexity degree was reduced. It is found that the buffer distance of 35 m was a turning point of human disturbance by irrigation and drainage systems, and patches presented flaky distribution when the buffer distance was smaller than 35 m. Meanwhile, the distance range between 25 m to 50 m was an impressible area for road engineering, which was sensitive to human actions, and the changes of all landscape metrics were larger than those in other buffer zones. In general, LC not only reallocated fragmented parcels, but also improved agricultural conditions.

  7. Soil governance in the agricultural landscapes of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A Webb

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a valuable natural resource. In the state of New South Wales, Australia, the governance of soil has evolved since Federation in 1901. Following rapid agricultural development, and in the face of widespread soil degradation, the establishment of the Soil Conservation Service marked a turning point in the management of soil. Throughout the 20th century, advances in knowledge were translated into evolving governance frameworks that were largely reactionary but saw progressive reforms such as water pollution legislation and case studies of catchment-scale land and vegetation management. In the 21st century, significant reforms have embedded sustainable use of agricultural soils within catchment- and landscape-scale legislative and institutional frameworks. What is clear, however, is that a multitude of governance strategies and models are utilised in NSW. No single governance model is applicable to all situations because it is necessary to combine elements of several different mechanisms or instruments to achieve the most desired outcomes. Where an industry, such as the sugar industry, has taken ownership of an issue such as acid sulfate soil management, self-regulation has proven to be extremely effective. In the case of co-managing agricultural soils with other landuses, such as mining, petroleum exploration and urban development, regulation, compliance and enforcement mechanisms have been preferred. Institutional arrangements in the form of independent commissioners have also played a role. At the landscape or total catchment level, it is clear that a mix of mechanisms is required. Fundamental, however, to the successful evolution of soil governance is strategic investment in soil research and development that informs the ongoing productive use of agricultural landscapes while preventing land degradation or adverse environmental effects.

  8. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tracy R; Mahoney, Meredith J; Cashatt, Everett D; Noordijk, Jinze; de Snoo, Geert; Musters, C J M

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to the complexity of the surrounding landscape. Our results show taxonomic richness and diversity in field edges is positively related to large scale landscape complexity, but the relationship is negative for field interiors. These unexpected results need further study. PMID:26848691

  9. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHERWANDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape.

  10. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy R. Evans; Mahoney, Meredith J.; Cashatt, Everett D.; Jinze Noordijk; Geert de Snoo; Musters, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to ...

  11. Productivity and Technical Change in Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Carlos Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Brazil's agricultural sector underwent major changes in the past two decades. Though Brazil is abundant in labor, land, and animal power, government subsidies encouraged the use of fertilizer and machines. Since productivity growth arises from technical change, Brazil's drive to modernize its agricultural sector should improve agricultural productivity. However, inefficient production practices arising from subsidies can slow multifactor productivity growth. Recent removal of agricultural sub...

  12. Biodiversity in Organic Farmland - How Does Landscape Context Influence Species Diversity in Organic Vs. Conventional Agricultural Fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufert, V.; Wood, S.; Reid, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Rhemtulla, J.; Ramankutty, N.

    2014-12-01

    The most important current driver of biodiversity loss is the conversion of natural habitats for human land uses, mostly for the purpose of food production. However, by causing this biodiversity loss, food production is eroding the very same ecosystem services (e.g. pollination and soil fertility) that it depends on. We therefore need to adopt more wildlife-friendly agricultural practices that can contribute to preserving biodiversity. Organic farming has been shown to typically host higher biodiversity than conventional farming. But how is the biodiversity benefit of organic management dependent on the landscape context farms are situated in? To implement organic farming as an effective means for protecting biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem services we need to understand better under what conditions organic management is most beneficial for species. We conducted a meta-analysis of the literature to answer this question, compiling the most comprehensive database to date of studies that monitored biodiversity in organic vs. conventional fields. We also collected information about the landscape surrounding these fields from remote sensing products. Our database consists of 348 study sites across North America and Europe. Our analysis shows that organic management can improve biodiversity in agricultural fields substantially. It is especially effective at preserving biodiversity in homogeneous landscapes that are structurally simplified and dominated by either cropland or pasture. In heterogeneous landscapes conventional agriculture might instead already hold high biodiversity, and organic management does not appear to provide as much of a benefit for species richness as in simplified landscapes. Our results suggest that strategies to maintain biodiversity-dependent ecosystem services should include a combination of pristine natural habitats, wildlife-friendly farming systems like organic farming, and high-yielding conventional systems, interspersed in structurally

  13. Mineralization of soil organic matter in biochar amended agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, R.; Clay, D. E.; Schumacher, T. E.; Kumar, S.; Malo, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic biochar materials have been identified as a promising soil amendment to enhance climate resilience, increase soil carbon recalcitrance and achieve sustainable crop production. A three year field study was initiated in 2013 to study the impact of biochar on soil carbon and nitrogen storage on an eroded Maddock soil series - Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) and deposition Brookings clay loam (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) landscape positions. Three biochars produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were incorporated at 9.75 Mg ha-1 rate (≈7.5 cm soil depth and 1.3 g/cm3 soil bulk density) with a rototiller. The changes in chemical fractionation of soil carbon (soluble C, acid hydrolyzable C, total C, and δ13 C) and nitrogen (soluble N, acid hydrolyzable N, total N, and δ14 N) were monitored for two soil depths (0-7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm). Soluble and acid hydrolyzable fractions of soil C and N were influenced by soil series and were not significantly affected by incorporation of biochars. Based on soil and plant samples to be collected in the fall of 2015, C and N budgets are being developed using isotopic and non-isotopic techniques. Laboratory studies showed that the mean residence time for biochars used in this study ranged from 400 to 666 years. Laboratory and field studies will be compared in the presentation.

  14. From Forest Landscape to Agricultural Landscape in the Developing Tropical Country of Malaysia: Pattern, Process, and Their Significance on Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops—rubber and oil palm plantations—has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900-1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s-1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s-1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country’s “health” and sustainability

  15. From forest landscape to agricultural landscape in the developing tropical country of Malaysia: pattern, process, and their significance on policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops--rubber and oil palm plantations--has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900--1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s--1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s--1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country's "health" and sustainability. The

  16. An insight into space and remote sensing technologies concerning agriculture and landscape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi; Brumana, Raffaella; Previtali, Mattia

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing and space technologies are increasingly called to offer innovative solutions for current challenges induced by climatic and global change. One of the main priorities of the European Space Policy regards the economic independence of the old continent in this sector. In terms of research and innovation this inevitably leads to numerous attempts in having independent market of services that would tackle specific needs of the citizens. Agriculture, for example, is one of the sectors majorly subsidized by European funds on national, regional and local level, with the aim to foster a more productive and sustainable development. Due to a large territorial scale at which agricultural phenomena are observed, and thus the spatial resolution required, it is also one of the main sectors that has been monitored from space over the past 30 years. In fact, one of the main missions of USA Landsat satellites was to provide a continuous and systematic overview of the globe for the purposes of an effective monitoring of the environment. This paper represents an overview of the ongoing initiatives in Space research done for the field of agriculture and landscape monitoring. In particular, the paper looks into the future possibilities that will be offered by full, open and free-of-charge data arriving from ongoing Copernicus missions and the contribution of Sentinel satellites to the agricultural sector.

  17. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmo Vianello; Livia Vittori Antisari

    2009-01-01

    Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem&rsq...

  18. Nitrogen transport within an agricultural landscape: insights on how hydrology, biogeochemistry, and the landscape intersect to control the fate and transport of nitrogen in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kröger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a ubiquitous contaminant throughout agricultural landscapes due to both the application of inorganic and organic fertilizers to agricultural fields and the general persistence of nitrate (NO3 ) in oxygenated aqueous environments (Denver et al. 2010; Domagalski et al. 2008; Green et al. 2008; Coupe 2001; Nolan and Stoner 2000). In order to understand why excess N occurs various hydrologic systems (environments), it is important to consider potential sources, the locations of these sources in the watershed, and the timing of the application of sources with respect to the movement of water. To learn how to manage N in a watershed, it is necessary to identify and quantify flow paths and biogeochemical conditions, which ultimately combine to determine transport and fate. If sources, transport mechanisms, and biogeochemical controls were uniformly distributed, it would be possible to manage N uniformly throughout a watershed. However, uniform conditions are rare to nonexistent in the natural world and in the landscape altered for agricultural production. In order to adjust management activities on the landscape to have the greatest effect, it is important to understand the fate and transport N within the intersection of hydrology and biogeochemistry, that is, to understand the extent and duration of the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls as N is routed through and among each hydrologic compartment.

  19. Impact of climate change on the water cycle of agricultural landscapes in Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Irene; Ingwersen, Joachim; Gayler, Sebastian; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    For agricultural production and life in general, water is a necessity. To ensure food and drinking water security in the future an understanding of the impact of climate change on the water cycle is indispensable. The objective of this PhD research is to assess how higher temperatures, higher atmospheric CO2 concentration and changing precipitation patterns will alter the water cycle of agricultural landscapes in Southwest Germany. As representative key characteristics data evaluation will focus on water use efficiency (WUE) and groundwater recharge. The main research question is whether the positive effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on WUE will be overcompensated by a decrease in net primary production due to warming and to altered seasonal water availability caused by higher rainfall variability. Elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulates plant growth and improves WUE, whereas higher temperatures are expected to reduce net primary production and groundwater recharge. Another research question referring to groundwater recharge is whether groundwater recharge will increase in winter and decrease in summer in Southwest Germany. Changed groundwater recharge directly affects drinking water supply and is an indicator for possible temporary water shortages in agricultural production. A multi-model ensemble composed of 16 combinations of four crop growth models, two water regime models and two nitrogen models will be calibrated and validated against sets of field data. Field data will be provided by FOR 1965 from 2009-2015 for the Kraichgau region and the Swabian Alb, two contrasting areas with regard to climate and agricultural intensity. By using a multi model ensemble uncertainties in predictions due to different model structures (epistemic uncertainty) can be quantified. The uncertainty related to the randomness of inputs and parameters, the so-called aleatory uncertainty, will be additionally assessed for each of the 16 models. Hence, a more reliable range of future

  20. The landscape on an asset in Southern European fragile agriculture systems contrasts and contradiction in land managers attitudes and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Correia, Teresa; Menezes, Helena; Barroso, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    Transition theories suggest that there is a spatial, temporal and structural co-existence of several processes of transition from productivism to post-productivism going on in rural areas in multiple combinations resulting in a more complex, contested, variable mix of production, consumption and protection goals. This is particularly true for South European landscapes dominated by extensive agro-silvo-pastoral systems. The fragile agricultural sector is in some cases just enter...

  1. BATS AND BT INSECT RESISTANCE ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A landscape model that utilizes land cover classification data, insect life history, insect movement, and bat foraging pressure is developed that addresses the implementation of genetically modified crops in the Winter Garden region of Texas. The principal strategy for delaying r...

  2. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy R. Evans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to the complexity of the surrounding landscape. Our results show taxonomic richness and diversity in field edges is positively related to large scale landscape complexity, but the relationship is negative for field interiors. These unexpected results need further study.

  3. Planning methodology of agricultural landscape and its application in ecological conservation development area%生态涵养发展区农业景观规划方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁发超; 刘黎明; 曲衍波; 双文元

    2014-01-01

    Scientific and rational planning methodology of agricultural landscape is a core technology of China new countryside construction systems. Scientific approach of agricultural landscape planning is directly related to scientificity, practicability and feasibility of agricultural landscape planning. However, landscape planning approach lacks in the new countryside construction of China. In order to meet the requirements of the new countryside construction, the scientific and integrated planning methodology of agricultural landscape was proposed. In this paper, the definition of agricultural landscape was determined. Agricultural landscape could be defined as mosaics of patches serving agricultural production outside the town. It includes farmland, woodland, orchard, water conservancy facilities, rural roads, rural settlements and other ecosystems. On the basis of dominant landscape functional classification and mapping, agricultural landscapes were classed into 4 classes namely agricultural production landscape, agricultural ecological landscape, agricultural service and facility landscape and rural settlement landscape. These four categoties of landscape were planned respectively, unreasonable agricultural landscape units were adjusted. Based on the natural suitability evaluation of the agricultural production landscape, the paper carried out zoning plan of agricultural production landscape. On the basis of field survey and evaluation on service facilities of the agricultural landscape, the roads landscape and the agricultural tourism and leisure landscape were specially planned. As for results of the suitability evaluation on rural settlement landscape, the rural settlement landscape was divided into different development types and then its internal structure was planned. The agro-ecological landscape was planned from the ecological protection areas, ecological corridors of rivers and ecological corridor of traffic, respectively. Taking advantage of the combination

  4. Agricultural landscape simplification and insecticide use in the Midwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Meehan, Timothy D.; Werling, Ben P.; Landis, Douglas A.; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Agronomic intensification has transformed many agricultural landscapes into expansive monocultures with little natural habitat. A pervasive concern is that such landscape simplification results in an increase in insect pest pressure, and thus an increased need for insecticides. We tested this hypothesis across a range of cropping systems in the Midwestern United States, using remotely sensed land cover data, data from a national census of farm management practices, and data from a regional cr...

  5. Optimizing intermediate ecosystem services in agriculture using rules based on landscape composition and configuration indices

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Ekroos, Johan; Smith, Henrik G.; Brady, Mark V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Important intermediate ecosystem services (ES) such as crop pollination and biological control of pests, which underpin the final ES agricultural yields, are mediated by mobile organisms that depend on availability of habitat and its arrangement in the landscape. It has been suggested that landscape-scale management (LSM) of habitat in a multi-farm setting results in higher provisioning of such ES compared to farm-scale management (FSM). However, to achieve the LSM solution, farmers'...

  6. Contrasting perceptions of anthropogenic coastal agricultural landscape meanings and management in Italy and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targetti, Stefano; Sherren, Kate; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept entails the idea that humans have become the most influential driving factor on the environment. In this context, it is useful to get insights from coastal areas that are affected by a huge impact of human activities in shaping the territory, are prone to several threats linked with climate change, and featured by interlinked economic, cultural and social systems. We compare evidence from three different methods focusing on the perceptions of coastal agricultural landscapes: i) a survey focusing on residents' perceptions of local rural landscape elements; ii) an expert-elicitation multicriteria exercise (Analytic Network Process) focusing on the relationship between economic actors, ecosystem services and local competitiveness; and iii) a Q-methodology survey to identify public discourses concerning management alternatives. The methods were applied in two coastal case studies characterized by land drainage, shoreline barriers and coastal armoring that represent high cultural heritage; created by humans they rely on active management to persist. Moreover, in both the case studies concerns have been raised about the role of agriculture in the rural development context and the perspectives of local stakeholders towards the management of the reclaimed lands. The first area is located on the southern side of the Po River Delta (Emilia Romagna, Italy). The area was reclaimed during the 19th and 20th centuries for agricultural production and is now characterized by intensive agriculture in the hinterlands, an urbanised coastal area with a developed tourism sector, and the presence of remnant wetlands which are mostly included in the Po Delta Natural Park (covering around 30% of the case study). The second area is located in the dykelands of the Bay of Fundy (Nova Scotia, Canada) whose origins go back to the 17th Century when French settlers built the first dykes to reclaim salt marshes for farmland. While some are still farmed, a range of

  7. Optimizing intermediate ecosystem services in agriculture using rules based on landscape composition and configuration indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Ekroos, Johan; Smith, Henrik G.;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Important intermediate ecosystem services (ES) such as crop pollination and biological control of pests, which underpin the final ES agricultural yields, are mediated by mobile organisms that depend on availability of habitat and its arrangement in the landscape. It has been suggested that...... landscape-scale management (LSM) of habitat in a multi-farm setting results in higher provisioning of such ES compared to farm-scale management (FSM). However, to achieve the LSM solution, farmers' land-use decisions need to be coordinated. To this end, we develop rules based on novel landscape composition...... and configuration indices. We model farmers' interdependencies through ES in an agent-based model (ABM) and optimize land use at both the farm and landscape scales for comparison. Our analysis is based on a simple artificial landscape with homogeneous soil quality and uses crop pollination as an...

  8. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  9. Durable strategies to deploy plant resistance in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Frédéric; Rousseau, Elsa; Mailleret, Ludovic; Moury, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of resistant crops often leads to the emergence of resistance-breaking pathogens that suppress the yield benefit provided by the resistance. Here, we theoretically explored how farmers’ main leverages (resistant cultivar choice, resistance deployment strategy, landscape planning and cultural practices) can be best combined to achieve resistance durability while minimizing yield losses as a result of plant viruses. Assuming a gene-for-gene type of interaction, virus epidemics ar...

  10. Biodiversity and agriculture in dynamic landscapes: Integrating ground and remotely-sensed baseline surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Andrew N; Asner, Gregory P; Fernandes, Erick C M; Mafalacusser, Jacinto; Banze, Aurélio; Izidine, Samira; da Fonseca, Ambrósio R; Pacate, Hermenegildo

    2016-07-15

    Sustainable biodiversity and land management require a cost-effective means of forecasting landscape response to environmental change. Conventional species-based, regional biodiversity assessments are rarely adequate for policy planning and decision making. We show how new ground and remotely-sensed survey methods can be coordinated to help elucidate and predict relationships between biodiversity, land use and soil properties along complex biophysical gradients that typify many similar landscapes worldwide. In the lower Zambezi valley, Mozambique we used environmental, gradient-directed transects (gradsects) to sample vascular plant species, plant functional types, vegetation structure, soil properties and land-use characteristics. Soil fertility indices were derived using novel multidimensional scaling of soil properties. To facilitate spatial analysis, we applied a probabilistic remote sensing approach, analyzing Landsat 7 satellite imagery to map photosynthetically active and inactive vegetation and bare soil along each gradsect. Despite the relatively low sample number, we found highly significant correlations between single and combined sets of specific plant, soil and remotely sensed variables that permitted testable spatial projections of biodiversity and soil fertility across the regional land-use mosaic. This integrative and rapid approach provides a low-cost, high-return and readily transferable methodology that permits the ready identification of testable biodiversity indicators for adaptive management of biodiversity and potential agricultural productivity. PMID:27064732

  11. Durable strategies to deploy plant resistance in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Frédéric; Rousseau, Elsa; Mailleret, Ludovic; Moury, Benoit

    2012-03-01

    The deployment of resistant crops often leads to the emergence of resistance-breaking pathogens that suppress the yield benefit provided by the resistance. Here, we theoretically explored how farmers' main leverages (resistant cultivar choice, resistance deployment strategy, landscape planning and cultural practices) can be best combined to achieve resistance durability while minimizing yield losses as a result of plant viruses. Assuming a gene-for-gene type of interaction, virus epidemics are modelled in a landscape composed of a mosaic of resistant and susceptible fields, subjected to seasonality, and a reservoir hosting viruses year-round. The model links the genetic and the epidemiological processes, shaping at nested scales the demogenetic dynamics of viruses. The choice of the resistance gene (characterized by the equilibrium frequency of the resistance-breaking virus at mutation-selection balance in a susceptible plant) is the most influential leverage of action. Our results showed that optimal strategies of resistance deployment range from 'mixture' (where susceptible and resistant cultivars coexist) to 'pure' strategies (with only resistant cultivar) depending on the resistance characteristics and the epidemiological context (epidemic incidence and landscape connectivity). We demonstrate and discuss gaps concerning virus epidemiology across the agro-ecological interface that must be filled to achieve sustainable disease management. PMID:22260272

  12. Intensification of agriculture, landscape composition and wild bee communities: A large scale study in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feon, Le V.; Schermann-Legionnet, A.; Delettre, Y.; Aviron, S.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Hendrickx, F.; Burel, F.

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of agricultural practices and landscape composition on bee communities were investigated in 14 sites located in four Western European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Standardized interviews with farmers assessed agricultural practices in terms of agricultura

  13. The change of nature and the nature of change in agricultural landscapes: Hydrologic regime shifts modulate ecological transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Takbiri, Zeinab; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Schwenk, Jon

    2015-08-01

    Hydrology in many agricultural landscapes around the world is changing in unprecedented ways due to the development of extensive surface and subsurface drainage systems that optimize productivity. This plumbing of the landscape alters water pathways, timings, and storage, creating new regimes of hydrologic response and driving a chain of environmental changes in sediment dynamics, nutrient cycling, and river ecology. In this work, we nonparametrically quantify the nature of hydrologic change in the Minnesota River Basin, an intensively managed agricultural landscape, and study how this change might modulate ecological transitions. During the growing season when climate effects are shown to be minimal, daily streamflow hydrographs exhibit sharper rising limbs and stronger dependence on the previous-day precipitation. We also find a changed storage-discharge relationship and show that the artificial landscape connectivity has most drastically affected the rainfall-runoff relationship at intermediate quantiles. Considering the whole year, we show that the combined climate and land use change effects reduce the inherent nonlinearity in the dynamics of daily streamflow, perhaps reflecting a more linearized engineered hydrologic system. Using a simplified dynamic interaction model that couples hydrology to river ecology, we demonstrate how the observed hydrologic change and/or the discharge-driven sediment generation dynamics may have modulated a regime shift in river ecology, namely extirpation of native mussel populations. We posit that such nonparametric analyses and reduced complexity modeling can provide more insight than highly parameterized models and can guide development of vulnerability assessments and integrated watershed management frameworks.

  14. Quantify Effects of Integrated Land Management on Water Quality in Agricultural Landscape in South Fork Watershed, Iowa River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, M.; Wu, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable biofuel feedstock production — environmental sustainability and economic sustainability — may be achieved by using a multi-faceted approach. This study focuses on quantifying the water sustainability of an integrated landscaping strategy, by which current land use and land management, cropping system, agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and economics play equal roles. The strategy was applied to the South Fork watershed, IA, including the tributaries of Tipton and Beaver Creeks, which expand to 800-km2 drainage areas. The watershed is an agricultural dominant area covered with row-crops production. On the basis of profitability, switchgrass was chosen as a replacement for row crops in low-productivity land. Areas for harvesting agricultural residue were selected on the basis of soil conservation principals. Double cropping with a cover crop was established to further reduce soil loss. Vegetation buffer strips were in place at fields and in riparian areas for water quality control, resource conservation, and eco service improvement. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to evaluate source reduction under various management schemes and land use changes. SWAT modeling incorporated 10-yr meteorological information, soil data, land slope classification, land use, four-year crop-rotation cycle, and management operations. Tile drain and pothole parameters were modeled to assess the fate and transport of nutrients. The influence of landscape management and cropping systems on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, erosion process, and hydrological performance at the sub-watershed scale was analyzed and key factors identified. Results suggest strongly that incorporating agricultural BMPs and conservation strategies into integrated landscape management for certain energy crops in row-crop production regions can be economical and environmentally sustainable.

  15. Soil production in forested landscapes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roering, J. J.; Booth, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fundamental characteristics that defines landscapes is the presence or absence of a soil mantle. In actively eroding terrain, soil (and other natural resources that depend on it) persists only when the rate of soil production is not eclipsed by denudation. Despite successful efforts to empirically estimate long-term rates of soil production, little predictive capability exists as soil formation results from a complex interplay of biological, physical, and chemical processes. Here, we synthesize a suite of observations from the steep, forested Oregon Coast Range (OCR) and anlayze the role of trees in the conversion of bedrock to soil. Pit/mound topography on forest floors attests to the persistent, wholesale overturning of soil by tree root activity. Using airborne LiDAR data for our study site in the western Oregon Coast Range, we calculated how terrain roughness varies with spatial scale. At scales greater than 10m, the well-established ridge/valley structure of the landscape defines the topography; whereas for scales less than 7m, terrain roughness increases rapidly reflecting the stochastic nature of bioturbation associated with large, coniferous trees. Empirical estimates of soil production in the OCR by Heimsath et al (2001, ESPL) reveal that production rates decrease exponentially with depth and the decay constant is 2.68 (1/m). From dozens of soil pits in the OCR, we show that the density of trees roots declines exponentially with depth at a similar rate, 2.57 (1/m). In other words, rates of soil production appear to be well-correlated with root density. Bedrock is often excavated during tree turnover events and we documented that the volume of bedrock incorporated in overturned coniferous rootwads increases rapidly for tree diameters greater than 0.5m (which correponds to a 60-80 yr old Douglas fir tree in Western Oregon). Smaller (and thus younger) trees entrain negligible bedrock when overturned, suggesting that their root systems are

  16. TRIPLING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: MYTH OR REALITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Klimova N. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents downward trend of agrarian production since the pre-reform period using the graphical method. We have reasoned the arguments and given the impossibility of three-time growth of agricultural production in 2020, despite having good potential key resources which are land and labor. The possible priority tools of the effective agricultural policy, as a single integral mechanism aimed at revenue growth of agricultural producers and farmers

  17. Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Landscape: The Role of Isotopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammad; Nguyen, Minh Long

    2014-05-01

    A review of studies from agricultural landscapes indicate that intensification of agricultural activities, inefficient use of reactive nitrogen (N) fertilizers and irrigation water, increasing human population and changes in their diet (more protein demand), high stocking rate (number of grazing livestock per hectare) and intensive cultivation are the major influencing factors for nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions into the atmosphere. Nitrification (both autotrophic and heterotrophic), denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are the three major microbial processes that produce greenhouse N2O and non-greenhouse gas (N2) and can sometimes occur concurrently in a given soil system. The contribution of N2O production from each of these microbial processes is inconclusive because of the complex interactions between various microbial processes and the physical and chemical conditions in soil microsite (s). Nitrous oxide emissions across an agricultural landscape from different N inputs (chemical fertilizers and animal manure) and soil types are also extremely variable both temporally and spatially and range from 1-20% of the applied N and could therefore represent agronomic loss. The available conventional methods such as acetylene (C2H2) inhibition and helium (He) cannot accurately measure both N2O and N2 and their ratio in a given soil. The use of 15N stable isotopic technique offers the best option to measure both N2O and N2 and to identify their source (nitrification and denitrification) with a greater accuracy. Manipulating soil and fertilizer management practices can minimise these gaseous N losses. For example the combined use of urease inhibitor like (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) (trade name Agrotain®) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) with urea (100 kg N ha-1) or animal urine (600 kg N ha-1) was shown to reduce N losses by 39-53 % via denitrification-nitrification-DNRA processes. Other farm management

  18. Typologies and spatialization of agricultural production systems in Rondônia, Brazil : linking land use, socioeconomics and territorial configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, C; Mourao, M. Jr; Dessay, Nadine; Lacques, A.E.; Monteiro, A; Durieux, Laurent; Venturieri, A.; Seyler, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    The current Amazon landscape consists of heterogeneous mosaics formed by interactions between the original forest and productive activities. Recognizing and quantifying the characteristics of these landscapes is essential for understanding agricultural production chains, assessing the impact of policies, and in planning future actions. Our main objective was to construct the regionalization of agricultural production for Rondônia State (Brazilian Amazon) at the municipal level. We adopted a d...

  19. Seed quality and its importance in agricultural production and safety of agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    Ilieva, Verica; Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Markova Ruzdik, Natalija; Todorovska, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production depends of a lot of variable factors. Basic catalyst of efficiency of all other factors is the seed. The seed has always been a key factor in agricultural production. Modern crop production and the science of agricultural also confirms that without seed quality we won't have a successful agricultural production. Seed quality is that one which has a genetic purity, physical purity, is healthy and has good physiological condition in accordance with the prescribed standar...

  20. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  1. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971,in the Meadows report (1972 and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987. The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In such conditions we are obliged to follow a twin-track strategy: (1livestock systems with high productivity potentials; (2traditional pastoral systems and organic agriculture, on marginal lands, which allow the utilisation of extensive grazing lands, the conservation of environment, genetic resources, landscape, the minimisation of the use of non-renewable resources and the production of "natural foods".

  2. PRODUCTION OF XYLITOL FROM AGRICULTURAL HEMICELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of value-added co-products from agricultural biomass is an important economic driver for the success of a biorefinery approach to the production of ethanol and other fuels. During most ethanol production methods, significant amounts of hemicellulose by-products are produced which are...

  3. PRINCIPLES OF THE DETERMINATION ENERGY INTENSITY OF THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan F.; Rotari V.; Mocanu A

    2010-01-01

    A set of energy resources is consumed in the primary production and conversion process of agricultural product. Minimal quantity of energy required for the production of agricultural product unit is considered by the notion of energy intensity of agricultural products.

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions and denitrification rates: A blueprint for smart management and remediation of agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, A.; Hondzo, M.; Kozarek, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have greatly altered the global nitrogen cycle, especially in the agriculturally dominated Midwest, with severe consequences on human and aquatic health. Complete microbial denitrification can be viewed as a nitrogen sink, converting soluble nitrate into inert nitrogen gas. This research aims to quantify and correlate the driving parameters in microbial denitrification and explore the relationship to the abundance of denitrifying genes and the microbial communities at these sites. Denitrifying genes for each step in the denitrification process have been quantified. Data from a field site in Southern Minnesota has been collected throughout the season for two years enabling investigation into the temporal variability of denitrification. Data was collected at two cross-sections across the channel to determine the effect of bank location and moisture content on denitrification. Data were collected in an experimental basin in the summer of 2015 to determine the effect of flooding and benthic organic matter content and quality on microbial denitrification and nitrous oxide production. Four sediment types were investigated in three different flood regimes. After each raising or lowering of the water level, soil cores were taken to determine soil characteristics, the potential denitrification using the denitrification enzyme activity method, nitrous oxide production using a static core method, and the denitrifying gene abundance. Chambers were also deployed over each soil amendment in each flood regime to determine the nitrous oxide production over time. Results from these studies will convey a more complete explanation of denitrification and nitrous oxide production under varying environmental conditions. By determining the driving parameters for microbial denitrification, denitrification hot spots and hot moments can be created and enhanced. One potential consequence of increased denitrification is the possibility of incomplete denitrification

  5. A landscape project for the coexistence of agriculture and nature: a proposal for the coastal area of a Natura 2000 site in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many rural coastal Mediterranean areas suffer from great anthropomorphic pressure. This is due to intensive agriculture, and construction for residential, tourism and industrial uses. The present work investigates the idea of using a landscape project in the Gulf of Gela in South Sicily to recover the dunes and the area behind them. The method used is based on the literature and will evaluate and interpret the dynamics of the landscape, so as to draw up a landscape plan, which can be used to help sustain the assets of the area, in a way, which is compatible with conserving nature. This method was tested in the LIFE11-Leopoldia project, funded by the European Union. The results of the study form part of the landscape project. This project is aimed at connecting the different productive zones in the area, protecting the natural environments and the rural historical patrimony, through combining the modern road networks with the older slower, historic infrastructure. Three different levels of landscape management are proposed: total protection (the dunes, high-level protection (the area behind the dunes where traditional agriculture is practised, buffer areas and ecological connecting areas, medium levels of protection (sustainable agriculture, green connections and ecological corridors. The key aims of the project are as follows: transversality - repairing the agricultural fabric and the relationship between the land and the sea; sustainability - recovering the environmental system and traditional activities; flexibility - agriculture with only minor environmental impact.

  6. Hedgerows Have a Barrier Effect and Channel Pollinator Movement in the Agricultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Felix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification and the subsequent fragmentation of semi-natural habitats severely restrict pollinator and pollen movement threatening both pollinator and plant species. Linear landscape elements such as hedgerows are planted for agricultural and conservation purposes to increase the resource availability and habitat connectivity supporting populations of beneficial organisms such as pollinators. However, hedgerows may have unexpected effects on plant and pollinator persistence by not just channeling pollinators and pollen along, but also restricting movement across the strip of habitat. Here, we tested how hedgerows influence pollinator movement and pollen flow. We used fluorescent dye particles as pollen analogues to track pollinator movement between potted cornflowers Centaurea cyanus along and across a hedgerow separating two meadows. The deposition of fluorescent dye was significantly higher along the hedgerow than across the hedgerow and into the meadow, despite comparable pollinator abundances. The differences in pollen transfer suggest that hedgerows can affect pollinator and pollen dispersal by channeling their movement and acting as a permeable barrier. We conclude that hedgerows in agricultural landscapes can increase the connectivity between otherwise isolated plant and pollinator populations (corridor function, but can have additional, and so far unknown barrier effects on pollination services. Functioning as a barrier, linear landscape elements can impede pollinator movement and dispersal, even for highly mobile species such as bees. These results should be considered in future management plans aiming to enhance the persistence of threatened pollinator and plant populations by restoring functional connectivity and to ensure sufficient crop pollination in the agricultural landscape.

  7. Arthropods Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes: Effects of Land Use and Anthropization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Leis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The greatest proportion of Po river plain is occupied by arable lands. Negative effects of modern intensive agriculture on biodiversity can derive from various phenomena operating at different spatial scales, from local to regional ones. If agricultural fields are subjected to periodical disturbances by farming practices, also landscape structure can influence community structure in the fields providing refugial areas or alternative trophic resources. In the same way in perennial habitats, such as strips and meadows, community structure and composition may be linked to both local factors and surrounding land use, that can influence organism persistence and dispersal mechanisms. We studied some natural and anthropized habitats in a wide agricultural area in the province of Ferrara (conventional annual and perennial fields, herbaceous strips, hedgerows and meadows to investigate relationships between arthropod community structure and both local impact factors (habitat type, management and surronding landscape structure and use. Results from uni and multivariate analysis showed a great influence on trophic and taxonomic structure of habitat type and quality.A less complex landscape had only slightly influence on trophic structure, leading to higher abundance and richness of generalist taxa. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of maintaining high-quality habitats to enhance arthopod diversity in agricultural landscapes.

  8. Effects of farm heterogeneity and methods for upscaling on modelled nitrogen losses in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Dragosits, U;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to illustrate the importance of farm scale heterogeneity on nitrogen (N) losses in agricultural landscapes. Results are exemplified with a chain of N models calculating farm-N balances and distributing the N-surplus to N-losses (volatilisation, denitrification, leaching) ...

  9. Weight watching and the effect of landscape on honeybee colony productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Kryger, Per; Vejsnæs, Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a gradual departure away from traditional agricultural practices has resulted in alterations to the composition of the countryside and landscapes across Europe. In the face of such changes, monitoring the development and productivity of honey bee colonies from different...... sites can give valuable insight on the influence of landscape on their productivity and might point towards future directions for modernized beekeeping practices. Using data on honeybee colony weights provided by electronic scales spread across Denmark, we investigated the effect of the immediate...

  10. Gaming and simulation to explore resilience of contested agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Speelman, E.N.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Complex systems, resilience thinking theory, communal decision-making, agent-based modeling, serious games   Over the past decades, smallholder farming communities have become increasingly affected by an ever larger number of (unexpected) non-local economic and institutional drivers. At the same time, also environmental consequences of past and current agricultural activities have become more apparent. Consequently, farmer’s decision-making is now part of a complex social...

  11. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Kirch, P V; A. S. Hartshorn; O. A. Chadwick; Vitousek, P. M.; Sherrod, D. R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L; Sharp, W. D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the...

  12. Agricultural policy-induced landscape changes: effects on carabid abundance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameixa, Olga; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 4 (2008), s. 467-476. ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR(CZ) GEDIV/06/E013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : agricultural intensification * biocontrol * density * diversity * species richness * food webs * predatory pressure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.913, year: 2008

  13. Effects of farm heterogeneity and methods for upscaling on modelled nitrogen losses in agricultural landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, T., E-mail: tommy.dalgaard@agrsci.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Hutchings, N. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Dragosits, U. [CEH Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB, Scotland (United Kingdom); Olesen, J.E.; Kjeldsen, C. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Drouet, J.L.; Cellier, P. [INRA, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, BP 01, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this study is to illustrate the importance of farm scale heterogeneity on nitrogen (N) losses in agricultural landscapes. Results are exemplified with a chain of N models calculating farm-N balances and distributing the N-surplus to N-losses (volatilisation, denitrification, leaching) and soil-N accumulation/release in a Danish landscape. Possible non-linearities in upscaling are assessed by comparing average model results based on (i) individual farm level calculations and (ii) averaged inputs at landscape level. Effects of the non-linearities that appear when scaling up from farm to landscape are demonstrated. Especially in relation to ammonia losses the non-linearity between livestock density and N-loss is significant (p > 0.999), with around 20-30% difference compared to a scaling procedure not taking this non-linearity into account. A significant effect of farm type on soil N accumulation (p > 0.95) was also identified and needs to be included when modelling landscape level N-fluxes and greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: > Farm-N balances and the distribution on types of N-losses are modelled for 56 farms. > Farm type significantly affects N-losses and soil-N accumulation. > A non-linear relation between livestock density and ammonia loss is identified. > Approaches for upscaling from farm to landscape level are discussed. > Accounting farm heterogeneity is important when upscaling N-losses. - This study illustrates the importance of including non-linear effects of farm and landscape heterogeneity on the modelling and upscaling of farm nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural landscapes.

  14. Effects of farm heterogeneity and methods for upscaling on modelled nitrogen losses in agricultural landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to illustrate the importance of farm scale heterogeneity on nitrogen (N) losses in agricultural landscapes. Results are exemplified with a chain of N models calculating farm-N balances and distributing the N-surplus to N-losses (volatilisation, denitrification, leaching) and soil-N accumulation/release in a Danish landscape. Possible non-linearities in upscaling are assessed by comparing average model results based on (i) individual farm level calculations and (ii) averaged inputs at landscape level. Effects of the non-linearities that appear when scaling up from farm to landscape are demonstrated. Especially in relation to ammonia losses the non-linearity between livestock density and N-loss is significant (p > 0.999), with around 20-30% difference compared to a scaling procedure not taking this non-linearity into account. A significant effect of farm type on soil N accumulation (p > 0.95) was also identified and needs to be included when modelling landscape level N-fluxes and greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: → Farm-N balances and the distribution on types of N-losses are modelled for 56 farms. → Farm type significantly affects N-losses and soil-N accumulation. → A non-linear relation between livestock density and ammonia loss is identified. → Approaches for upscaling from farm to landscape level are discussed. → Accounting farm heterogeneity is important when upscaling N-losses. - This study illustrates the importance of including non-linear effects of farm and landscape heterogeneity on the modelling and upscaling of farm nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural landscapes.

  15. Agricultural Production: Program Planning Guide: Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, William; Wood, Eugene

    The program planning guide for agricultural production was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of animal science, plant science, farm mechanics, and farm business…

  16. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  17. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1995. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In promoting ecology research, the federal ministry of science and technology (BMBF) pursues the aim to enhance understanding of the natural resources indispensable to the life of man, animals and plant societies and their interrelations, and to point out existing scope for action to preserve or replenish them. Consequently, ecology research makes an essential contribution towards effective nature conservancy and environmental protection. The interactions between climate and ecosystems also form an important part of this. With regard to topical environmental issues concerning agricultural landscapes, rivers and lakes, forests and urban-industrial agglomerations, system interrelations in representative ecosystems are investigated. The results are to be embodied in directives for the protection or appropriate use of these ecosystems in order to contribute towards a sustainable development of these types of landscapes. The book also evaluates and assesses which types of nuisances, interventions and modes of use represent hazards for the respective systems. (orig./VHE)

  18. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Leong

    Full Text Available Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1 rates of bee visitation, 2 viable seed set, and 3 the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set. We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  19. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    unit. This dissertation presents results and comprehensions from my PhD study on the basis of three papers. The overall aim has been to develop a new identity-based framework, the KPI, to estimate and analyse GHG emissions from agriculture and LUC and apply this on national, regional and global level...... well in relation to what is actually produced. The KPI framework is scale independent and can be applied at any level from field and farm to global agricultural production. Paper I presents the first attempt to develop the KPI identity framework and, as a case study, GHG emissions from Danish crop...... that do not allow for decoupling. In Paper III agricultural production and GHG emissions since 1970, are analysed for nine world regions. Decoupling of emissions from production shows vast regional differences. In general, the more developed regions show the lowest emissions per unit of agricultural...

  1. High trees increase sunflower seed predation by birds in an agricultural landscape of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JessicaSchäckermann

    2014-07-01

    We found that seed predation increased with decreasing distance to the closest high tree at the field and landscape scale. At the landscape scale, the percentage of high trees and natural habitat did not increase seed predation. Seed predation in the fields increased by 37 %, with a maximum seed predation of 92 %, when a high tree was available within zero to 50 m to the sunflower fields. If the closest high tree was further away, seed predation was less than 5 %. Sunflower seed predation by birds can be reduced, when avoiding sowing sunflowers within a radius of 50 m to high trees. Farmers should plan to grow crops, not sensitive to bird seed predation, closer to trees to eventually benefit from ecosystem services provided by birds, such as predation of pest insects, while avoiding these locations for growing crops sensitive to bird seed predation. Such management recommendations are directing towards sustainable agricultural landscapes.

  2. Carbon dioxide exchange over agricultural landscape using eddy correlation and footprint modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, H.; Jensen, N.O.; Bøgh, E.;

    2003-01-01

    barley, maize and grass). A sixth system was mounted on top of a 48 m mast to enable landscape-wide flux measurements both in summer and winter. The spatial distribution of the different crop types was mapped by use of satellite images (Landsat TM and SPOT). A very large diversity in carbon functioning......Within an agricultural landscape of western Denmark, the carbon dioxide exchange was studied throughout a year (April 1998-March 1999). During the growing season, five eddy correlation systems were operated in parallel over some of the more important crops (winter wheat, winter barley, spring......) s(-1)) which is moreover 30-40% higher than that of maize and grass. To estimate landscape CO2 fluxes, the measurements from the individual fields are weighted according to their areal contribution. These estimates are found to be in good agreement with the direct measurements conducted from the 48...

  3. Measuring and monitoring linear woody features in agricultural landscapes through earth observation data as an indicator of habitat availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasher, J.; McGovern, M.; Putinski, V.

    2016-02-01

    The loss of natural habitats and the loss of biological diversity is a global problem affecting all ecosystems including agricultural landscapes. Indicators of biodiversity can provide standardized measures that make it easier to compare and communicate changes to an ecosystem. In agricultural landscapes the amount and variety of available habitat is directly correlated with biodiversity levels. Linear woody features (LWF), including hedgerows, windbreaks, shelterbelts as well as woody shrubs along fields, roads and watercourses, play a vital role in supporting biodiversity as well as serving a wide variety of other purposes in the ecosystem. Earth observation can be used to quantify and monitor LWF across the landscape. While individual features can be manually mapped, this research focused on the development of methods using line intersect sampling (LIS) for estimating LWF as an indicator of habitat availability in agricultural landscapes. The methods are accurate, efficient, repeatable and provide robust results. Methods were tested over 9.5 Mha of agricultural landscape in the Canadian Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Approximately 97,000 km of LWF were estimated across this landscape with results useable both at a regional reporting scale, as well as mapped across space for use in wildlife habitat modelling or other landscape management research. The LIS approach developed here could be employed at a variety of scales in particular for large regions and could be adapted for use as a national scale indicator of habitat availability in heavily disturbed agricultural landscape.

  4. Species composition and diversity of non-forest woody vegetation along roads in the agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Attila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-forest woody vegetation represents an important component of green infrastructure in the agricultural landscape, where natural and semi-natural forest cover has only a low land use proportion. This paper focuses on linear woody vegetation structures along roads in the agricultural landscape and analyses them in three study areas in the Nitra Region, Slovakia. We evaluate species composition and diversity, species occurrence frequency or spatial distribution, their structure according to relatively achievable age and origin. For the evaluation of occurrence frequency, a Frequency Factor was proposed and applied. This factor allows a better comparison of different study areas and results in more representative findings. The study areas were divided into sectors based on visual landscape features, which are easily identifiable in the field, such as intersections and curves in roads, and intersections of roads with other features, such as cadastral or land boundaries, watercourses, etc. Based on the species abundance, woody plants present within the sectors were categorised into 1 predominant, 2 complementary and 3 mixed-in species; and with regard to their origin into 1 autochthonous and 2 allochthonous. Further, trees were categorised into 1 long-lived, 2 medium-lived and 3 short-lived tree species. The main finding is that among trees, mainly allochthonous species dominated. Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the predominant tree species in all three study areas. It was up to 4 times more frequent than other predominant tree species. Introduced tree species prevailed also among complementary and mixed-in species. Among shrubs, mainly native species dominated, while non-native species had a significantly lower proportion and spatial distribution. Based on these findings, several measures have been proposed to improve the overall ecological stability, the proportion and spatial distribution of native woody plant species. The recommendations and

  5. Bioethanol production from agricultural wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, José Cardoso; Sàágua, M. C.; Baeta-Hall, Lina; Correia, Anabela; Ribeiro, Belina; Lourenço, V.; Pereira, J.; Paixão, Susana M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been screened for the ability of bioethanol production. Yeasts were grown in synthetic liquid medium containing two different substrates: sucrose at different concentrations (10 to 400g/l) and cane molasses (120g/l of sucrose). The screening was made in batch regime and the growth rates, ethanol and biomass productions were determined. The results indicate a flocculent yeast strain – F as the more suitable microorganism to prod...

  6. Demographic changes and the demands on agricultural landscapes: Refl ections on a new research topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Demographic change suggests substantial effects on future societal demands on agricultural landscape use and thus on rural areas. Demographic change is thereby defined as both the decrease of the population and the shift in the age distribution („aging“ and in the spatial distribution („rural flight“ particularly of young people. The exploration of the research object is based on the starting hypothesis that the demands and preferences of an aging and urbanizing population are changing and have effects on the controlling state interventions, which are also reflected in the agricultural use of landscapes. After a short description of demographic change, a conceptual politico-economic model, which describes the transmission of demographic change on land use, through the analysis of group (age groups, groups of residences demands on agrarian landscape use is presented. The focus is on the demand for land use related non-commodity outputs (NCO. The starting hypothesis is then examined using selected studies. The literature suggests that urban-rural dichotomy is likely to be greatly diminished. In addition, the urbanization of preferences is expected while preferences differentiated against heterogeneous cultural lifestyles seem to become even more important. However, without further research on the related topics, the basic issues cannot be clearly dealt with. Assumptions are finally made regarding changing societal demands for agrarian landscapes due to demographic change. The limitations of the selected approach and the identification of further research needs will be discussed in closing.

  7. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    YAHERWANDI; SYAFRIDA MANUWOTO; DAMAYANTI BUCHORI; PURNAMA HIDAYAT; LILIK BUDIPRASETYO

    2006-01-01

    Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera). There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structura...

  8. Demographic changes and the demands on agricultural landscapes: Refl ections on a new research topic

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, K.; A. Artner; Knierim, A

    2008-01-01

    Demographic change suggests substantial effects on future societal demands on agricultural landscape use and thus on rural areas. Demographic change is thereby defined as both the decrease of the population and the shift in the age distribution („aging“) and in the spatial distribution („rural flight“ particularly of young people). The exploration of the research object is based on the starting hypothesis that the demands and preferences of an aging and urbanizing population are changing and ...

  9. Options for enhancing agricultural productivity in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Pender, John L.; Kato, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, economic growth in Nigeria has been strong. Annual GDP grew by 9.1 percent per annum between 2003 and 2005 and by 6 .1 percent per annum between 2006 and 2008. Much of this growth can be attributed to the non-oil economy which has grown rapidly. This is due primarily to agriculture, which contributes approximately 35 percent to total GDP and supports 70 percent of the population. Agricultural research has been shown to be crucial in increasing agricultural productivity and reducin...

  10. Climate and Agriculture: Challenges for Efficient Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate has always been and will continue to be an important factor in agricultural production. Evidence of this is apparent when looking at where plants or animals are distributed around the world and the variation among years in terms of grain, forage, vegetable, and fruit production. The recent r...

  11. Production Practices and Systems in Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Interest in sustainable agriculture probably had its roots in the concept of sustainable development. There exist no agricultural production technologies or farming systems that are environmentally benign. The question thus becomes "what is sustainable and what is not?" The two underlying themes that appear in most definitions of sustainability and sustainable farming systems deal with (1) the economic profitability of the farming system over a long period of time; and (2) long-term benefits ...

  12. Utilising intrinsic robustness in agricultural production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Napel, ten, H.M.Th.D.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Bestman, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of utilising robust crops and livestock for improving sustainability of agriculture. Two approaches for dealing with unwanted fluctuations that may influence agricultural production, such as diseases and pests, are discussed. The prevailing approach, which we call the ‘Control Model’, is to protect crops and livestock from disturbances as much as possible, to regain balance with monitoring and intervention and to look for add-on solutions only. There are a nu...

  13. A concentric analysis of the impact of urbanization on the threatened European tree frog in an agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Pellet J.; Guisan A.; Perrin N.

    2004-01-01

    Pond-breeding amphibians are affected by site-specific factors and regional and landscape-scale patterns of land use. Recent anthropogenic landscape modifications (drainage, agriculture intensification, larger road networks, and increased traffic) affect species by reducing the suitable habitat area and fragmenting remaining populations. Using a robust concentric approach based on permutation tests, we evaluated the impact of recent landscape changes on the presence of the endangered European...

  14. Home range and habitat use of little owl (Athene noctua) in an agricultural landscape in coastal Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Framis, H.; Holroyd, G. L.; Mañosa, S.

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades agricultural landscapes in Catalonia have undergone a profound transformation as in most of Europe. Reforestation and urban development have reduced farmland and therefore the availability of suitable habitat for some bird species such as the little owl (Athene noctua). The outskirts of the city of Mataró by the Mediterranean Sea exemplify this landscape change, but still support a population of little owl where agriculture is carried out. Three resident little owls were mon...

  15. Monitoring pathogens from irradiated agriculture products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final food and environmental safety assessment of agriculture product irradiation can only be determined by product history. Product history will be used for future research and development, regulations, commercial practices and implementation of agriculture and food irradiation on a regional basis. The commercial irradiator treats large varieties and amounts of products that are used in various environments. it, in time, will generate a large data base of product history. Field product monitoring begins when food irradiation progresses from the pilot/demonstration phase to the commercial phase. At that time, it is important that there be in place a monitoring system to collect and analyze field data. The systems managers, public health authorities and exotic disease specialists will use this information to assess the reduction of food pathogens on the populace and the environment. (author)

  16. Intensification of agriculture, landscape composition and wild bee communities: A large scale study in four European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Le Féon, Violette; Schermann Legionnet, Agnés; Delettre, Yannick; Aviron, Stéphanie; Billeter, Regula; Bugter, Rob; Hendrickx, Frederik; Burel, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of agricultural practices and landscape composition on bee communities were investigated in 14 sites located in four Western European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Standardized interviews with farmers assessed agricultural practices in terms of agricultural inputs (nitrogen fertilization and pesticides), livestock density and crop types. The proportion of semi-natural habitats was calculated for each site. We showed negative effects of agricultural ...

  17. Soil management shapes ecosystem service provision and trade-offs in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; De Simone, Serena; Sigura, Maurizia; Boscutti, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-08-31

    Agroecosystems are principally managed to maximize food provisioning even if they receive a large array of supporting and regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Hence, comprehensive studies investigating the effects of local management and landscape composition on the provision of and trade-offs between multiple ESs are urgently needed. We explored the effects of conservation tillage, nitrogen fertilization and landscape composition on six ESs (crop production, disease control, soil fertility, water quality regulation, weed and pest control) in winter cereals. Conservation tillage enhanced soil fertility and pest control, decreased water quality regulation and weed control, without affecting crop production and disease control. Fertilization only influenced crop production by increasing grain yield. Landscape intensification reduced the provision of disease and pest control. We also found tillage and landscape composition to interactively affect water quality regulation and weed control. Under N fertilization, conventional tillage resulted in more trade-offs between ESs than conservation tillage. Our results demonstrate that soil management and landscape composition affect the provision of several ESs and that soil management potentially shapes the trade-offs between them. PMID:27559064

  18. Industrial use of agricultural products: European prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first discusses how the GATT internal trade agreement has affected Italian and European agricultural practices, especially in that which regards the production of soybean and other vegetable oils. It then assesses how current Italian agricultural policies impact on proposals now being designed to encourage the production of vegetable oils for use as ecological automotive fuel alternatives. The paper cites the need for a greater say by farming associations, and cooperation among fuel oil producers and government bodies in the drafting up of future policies

  19. Spectral tensor parameters for wind turbine load modeling from forested and agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Segalini, A.;

    2015-01-01

    A velocity spectral tensor model was evaluated from the single-point measurements of wind speed. The model contains three parameters representing the dissipation rate of specific turbulent kinetic energy, a turbulence length scale and the turbulence anisotropy. Sonic anemometer measurements taken...... over a forested and an agricultural landscape were used to calculate the model parameters for neutral, slightly stable and slightly unstable atmospheric conditions for a selected wind speed interval. The dissipation rate above the forest was nine times that at the agricultural site. No significant...... constant with height at the forest site, whereas the turbulence became more isotropic with height for the agricultural site. Using the three parameters as inputs, we quantified the performance of the model in coherence predictions for vertical separations. The model coherence of all the three velocity...

  20. Ecologies of Scale: Multifunctionality Connects Conservation and Agriculture across Fields, Farms, and Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Allen McGranahan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Agroecology and landscape ecology are two land-use sciences based on ecological principles, but have historically focused on fine and broad spatial scales, respectively. As global demand for food strains current resources and threatens biodiversity conservation, concepts such as multifunctional landscapes and ecologically-analogous agroecosystems integrate ecological concepts across multiple spatial scales. This paper reviews ecological principles behind several concepts crucial to the reconciliation of food production and biodiversity conservation, including relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions such as productivity and stability; insect pest and pollinator management; integrated crop and livestock systems; countryside biogeography and heterogeneity-based rangeland management. Ecological principles are integrated across three spatial scales: fields, farms, and landscapes.

  1. Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes: A Spatially Explicit Approach to Support Sustainable Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Forouzangohar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km2 in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation. We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes.

  2. Temporal dynamics influenced by global change: bee community phenology in urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Ponisio, Lauren C; Kremen, Claire; Thorp, Robbin W; Roderick, George K

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization and agricultural intensification of landscapes are important drivers of global change, which in turn have direct impacts on local ecological communities leading to shifts in species distributions and interactions. Here, we illustrate how human-altered landscapes, with novel ornamental and crop plant communities, result not only in changes to local community diversity of floral-dependent species, but also in shifts in seasonal abundance of bee pollinators. Three years of data on the spatio-temporal distributions of 91 bee species show that seasonal patterns of abundance and species richness in human-altered landscapes varied significantly less compared to natural habitats in which floral resources are relatively scarce in the dry summer months. These findings demonstrate that anthropogenic environmental changes in urban and agricultural systems, here mediated through changes in plant resources and water inputs, can alter the temporal dynamics of pollinators that depend on them. Changes in phenology of interactions can be an important, though frequently overlooked, mechanism of global change. PMID:26663622

  3. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  4. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Loos

    Full Text Available European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation

  5. Socio-economic and land cover changes analysis in a landscape with agricultural matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Viscosi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research involved the application of CORINE Land Cover categories in order to analyse changes in land cover and in the socio-economic system over the last 50 years in Molise (Southern Italy. The boundaries of the study area corresponded to those of six local councils: Guglionesi, Montecilfone, Montenero di Bisaccia, Petacciato, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni and Termoli. It is an area which has undergone a great anthropic agricultural impact after the II World War, but, however, still has natural settings worth preserving, as can be seen by the presence of seven Sites of Community Interest (sensu “Habitat Directive” 92/43/EC. For the analyses of the land cover changes, geo-databases were consulted or specially constructed. The aerial photographs from GAI 1954-55 flight, appropriately georectified, and the aerial photograph ITA2000 and AGEA 2004 flights were adopted to draw up the land use/cover maps at a scale of 1.10.000.The study of vegetation was performed using the phytosociological method. In brief, the results show that the landscape of the study area has become more fragmented due mostly to effects of continuous human disturbances and agricultural improvement during the study period. Overall, the landscape is today characterised by the predominance of agricultural use and the sparse colonization of the natural vegetation, mainly by linear vegetational formations (mainly riparian woods.

  6. Historical structure of agricultural landscape - part of the village of Liptovska Teplicka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical agricultural landscape structures (HLS) are very well preserved in a part of the Liptovska Teplicka's administrative territory (about 800 m - 1,400 m above sea level). Since the origin of the village in 1634, the individual types of HLS developed under the more or less same influence of man/farmer as comparatively stable biotopes with the locally specific bio-component. Intensification of agriculture was so far the most serious intervention into their development. It took place here as late as the 1970's. In spite of it, the biodiversity of the territory is high and apart from the diversity of land use it is determined by the presence of historical forms of anthropogenic relief determined by agriculture (HFAR). In the administrative territory of the village, where no thermophilous vegetation existed, the HFAR created a 130 km long rampart. On this rampart special sites with thermophilous vegetation originated and contributed to the ecological diversity of this territory. The HFAR is the living example of the surviving traditional farming procedures, tools, use of farm animals for tillage, etc. directly in the landscape. Along with the preserved architectural historical structures in the villages (the Goral three-room log houses, log sheds, log potato cellars) they create the genius loci of Liptovska Teplicka. (author)

  7. The influence of mistletoes on birds in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Castellanos, Ignacio; Gates, J. Edward

    2014-11-01

    Mistletoes are hemiparasitic flowering plants that function as keystone resources in forests and woodlands of temperate regions, where a positive relationship between mistletoe density and avian species richness has been observed. Mistletoes have been less studied in tropical regions and the relationship between birds and mistletoes has seldom been explored in tropical agricultural systems. Therefore, we studied the presence of infected trees and infection prevalence (i.e., number of parasitized trees/total number of trees) by Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes in 23 hedgerows located in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico during the dry and rainy seasons, and investigated the relationship between bird species richness and abundance and the abundance of mistletoes. We found a mean of 74 mistletoe plants per 100-m transect of only one species, Psittacanthus calyculatus. Thirty-one percent of the trees surveyed were infected and tree species differed in infection prevalence, mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) being the most infected species with 86% of the surveyed trees infected. For both seasons, we found a positive and significant association between bird species richness and number of mistletoe plants. The same pattern was observed for total bird abundance. Many resident and Neotropical migratory birds were observed foraging on mistletoes. Our results show that mistletoes are important in promoting a higher bird species richness and abundance in tropical agricultural landscapes.

  8. The Effect ofAgricultural Production Subsidies Reduction in the Economic Variables of Agricultural Sector of Iran: Multifunctional Assessment in CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mehrjou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of public goods like amenity value of the landscape, food security, preservation of rural communities and rural lifestyle, by agricultural sector is a subject that has been widely accepted by experts. However, in many policies and political analyses carried out, solely the production of private goods by the agricultural sector is paid attention and the important function of public goods production is ignored. Given the importance of multifunctional debate of agriculture in policies analysis, this study examined the effect of agricultural multifunctionality in the simulation of the agricultural production subsidiesreduction effects using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model. Simulation results of the effects of agricultural production subsidies reduction in terms of the multifunctionality showed that current practices to support the agricultural sector is non-optimal according to agricultural production and welfare reduction and the optimal level of supports with and without multifunctional agriculture is different. The simulation results showed that the welfare effects of economic reforms in Iran in the agricultural sector in terms of the multifunctionality will be positive. This is on condition that the welfare effects of agricultural reform in terms of the multifunctionality of agriculture are negative.

  9. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Classified Marketing of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengying; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Classified marketing of agricultural products was analyzed using the Logistic Regression Model. This method can take full advantage of information in agricultural product database,to find factors influencing best selling degree of agricultural products,and make quantitative analysis accordingly. Using this model,it is also able to predict sales of agricultural products,and provide reference for mapping out individualized sales strategy for popularizing agricultural products.

  10. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

  11. Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the agricultural production efficiency of all cities and areas in Shaanxi Province in the period 2006-2009 using data envelopment analysis method,and compares the agricultural production efficiency between all cities and areas.The results show that the agricultural production efficiency and scale efficiency of agriculture of Shaanxi Province are high on the whole,but the efficiency of agricultural technology is very low,agricultural development still relies on factor inputs,and the driving role of technological progress is not conspicuous.Finally the following countermeasures are put forward to promote agricultural productivity in Shaanxi Province:improve the construction of agricultural infrastructure,and increase agricultural input;accelerate the project of extending agricultural technology into households,and promote the conversion and use rate of agricultural scientific and technological achievements;establish and improve industrial system of agriculture,and speed up the building of various agricultural cooperative economic organizations.

  12. Selected landscape-ecological limitations of development of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map the selected landscape-ecological limitations of development of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities on the territory of the Slovak Republic is shown. Suitability of location of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities was determined after assessment of three classes of landscape-ecological limitations as given by the types of abiotic complexes, nature protection of nature and natural resources, and the action of stress factors. Their interaction determines the number and class of limitations of agricultural and forest-economic activity. The procedure of processing used is similar to that applied to the maps 4 and 8. (authors)

  13. Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apiformes in the Agricultural Landscape of Bulgaria: Species Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild bees (Apiformes were studied in 4 crop fields and 8 refuge habitats for 2 - 5 years in agricultural landscapes in the Pleven and Plovdiv regions of Bulgaria. In total, 233 bee species were recorded. Bee forage plants visited by the honey bee and wild Apiformes are listed for each refuge habitat. Species composition is given for individual habitats, including fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, oilseed rape (Brassica napus, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, and radish (Raphanus sativus. Species richness and dominance structure of bee communities in the 2 regions are compared, and species responsible for significant differences are identified.

  14. Relationships between bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes and flowers in the Bulgarian agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The species composition and number of visitations of food plants by bees were studied in refuge sites in agricultural landscapes and in selected crops. The habitat fragments of interest are characterised in terms of pollinator diversity at genus level and the use of food plants by individual genera. Trophic and temporal niche overlap is described for individual genera and the honey bee Apis mellifera in different habitat types. Factors influencing the manner of use of individual plant species by pollinating insects are identified

  15. Past experience with the EU Common Agricultural Policy and future challenges for landscape development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Busck, Anne Gravsholt;

    Countries located in north western Europe, have all been influenced by many similar drivers over the past 50 years, and their landscape development trajectory has largely been coordinated with some differences depending on the history, and natural potentials. The EU has influenced land management...... and land use through the Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) and several other policies, however it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between effects of EU policies and the general trends on the European continent. In a Danish perspective, the formal effects of EU membership have been effectuated...

  16. Which regional features of Danish agriculture favour the corn bunting in the contemporary farming landscape?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Corn buntings Miliaria calandra were abundant throughout arable agricultural landscapes in Europe, but have catastrophically declined since the mid 1970s with changes in farming practice and now give serious conservation cause for concern. Corn buntings declined in Denmark during 1976...... on land use correlation and bird surveillance, these results show an association between mixed farming and favourable conservation status of a species now red-listed throughout much of Europe. Further investigations of habitat use at small spatial scales and throughout the annual cycle are urgently...

  17. Development of Sustainable Landscape Designs for Improved Biomass Production in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Ian J.

    Demand for renewable and sustainable energy options has resulted in a significant commitment by the US Government to research pathways for fuel production from biomass. The research presented in this thesis describes one potential pathway to increase the amount of biomass available for biofuel production by integrating dedicated energy crops into agricultural fields. In the first chapter an innovative landscape design method based on subfield placement of an energy crop into row crop fields in central Iowa is used to reduce financial loss for farmers, increase and diversify biomass production, and improve soil resources. The second chapter explores how subfield management decisions may be made using high fidelity data and modeling to balance concerns of primary crop production and economics. This work provides critical forward looking support to agricultural land managers and stakeholders in the biomass and bioenergy industry for pathways to improving land stewardship and energy security.

  18. Monitoring pathogens from irradiated agriculture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterweck, Joseph S.

    The final food and environmental safety assessment of agriculture product irradiation can only be determined by product history. Product history will be used for future research and development, regulations, commercial practices and implementation of agriculture and food irradiation on a regional basis. The commercial irradiator treats large varieties and amounts of products that are used in various environments. It, in time, will generate a large data base of product history. Field product monitoring begins when food irradiation progresses from the pilot/demonstration phase to the commercial phase. At that time, it is important that there be in place a monitoring system to collect and analyze field data. The systems managers, public health authorities and exotic disease specialists will use this information to assess the reduction of food pathogens on the populace and the environment. The common sources of monitoring data are as follows: 1) Host Monitoring a) Medical Diagnosis b) Autopsy c) Serology Surveys 2) Environmental Monitoring a) Sentinel b) Pest Surveys/Microbial Counts c) Sanitary Inspections 3) Food Industries Quality Assurance Monitoring a) End Product Inspection b) Complaints c) Continual Use of the Product

  19. Solar installations for drying agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six types of solar installations for drying various agricultural products are presented: the solar drying platform, the solar dryer for granular products, the hotbed dryer, solar dryer with natural draught, radiation-convection solar dryer and solar dryer for cotton. Relative simplicity, cheapness and opportunity of use near to a place of these products cultivation are the general characteristics of these installations. The numerous long tests which have been carried out in the Scientific-Industrial Corporation [Sun] of Turkmenistan Academy of Sciences have proved their efficiency and convenience in operation

  20. Research on Development Status and Countermeasures of Agricultural Cleaner Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the study,the connotation and objectives of agricultural cleaner production were introduced firstly,and then the development status of agricultural cleaner production in China was analyzed,and the problems existing in the development of agricultural cleaner production were pointed out.From the strategy of agricultural sustainable development,the necessity and feasibility of implementing agricultural cleaner production in China were discussed.Finally,some related countermeasures were put forward according...

  1. Factors Influencing Price of Agricultural Products and Stability Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Factors leading to rise of prices of agricultural products mainly include tension of supply-demand relationship,promotion of production cost and circulation cost,and speculation of Refugee Capital(Hot Money).Factors leading to low price and difficult sales of agricultural products mainly include asymmetry of supply-demand information,lack of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products and decentralized and small-scaled operation of farmers.On the basis of these factors,this paper presents following countermeasures and suggestions for stabilizing prices of agricultural products:firstly,building long-effect mechanism for production and sales of agricultural products;secondly,expand the production and increase supply of agricultural products;thirdly,control the rising range of production cost for agricultural products;fourthly,enhance organization level of farmers;fifthly,promote innovation and development of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products.

  2. PRINCIPLES OF THE DETERMINATION ENERGY INTENSITY OF THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan F.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A set of energy resources is consumed in the primary production and conversion process of agricultural product. Minimal quantity of energy required for the production of agricultural product unit is considered by the notion of energy intensity of agricultural products.

  3. Mapping and determinism of soil microbial community distribution across an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constancias, Florentin; Terrat, Sébastien; Saby, Nicolas P A; Horrigue, Walid; Villerd, Jean; Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Biju-Duval, Luc; Nowak, Virginie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Ranjard, Lionel; Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Despite the relevance of landscape, regarding the spatial patterning of microbial communities and the relative influence of environmental parameters versus human activities, few investigations have been conducted at this scale. Here, we used a systematic grid to characterize the distribution of soil microbial communities at 278 sites across a monitored agricultural landscape of 13 km². Molecular microbial biomass was estimated by soil DNA recovery and bacterial diversity by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Geostatistics provided the first maps of microbial community at this scale and revealed a heterogeneous but spatially structured distribution of microbial biomass and diversity with patches of several hundreds of meters. Variance partitioning revealed that both microbial abundance and bacterial diversity distribution were highly dependent of soil properties and land use (total variance explained ranged between 55% and 78%). Microbial biomass and bacterial richness distributions were mainly explained by soil pH and texture whereas bacterial evenness distribution was mainly related to land management. Bacterial diversity (richness, evenness, and Shannon index) was positively influenced by cropping intensity and especially by soil tillage, resulting in spots of low microbial diversity in soils under forest management. Spatial descriptors also explained a small but significant portion of the microbial distribution suggesting that landscape configuration also shapes microbial biomass and bacterial diversity. PMID:25833770

  4. Edges in agricultural landscapes: species interactions and movement of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Muller, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes can be characterized as a mosaic of habitat patches interspersed with hostile matrix, or as a gradient of patches ranging from suitable to unsuitable for different species. Arthropods moving through these landscapes encounter a range of edges, with different permeability. Patches of native vegetation in these landscapes may support natural enemies of crop pests by providing alternate hosts for parasitic wasps and/or acting as a source for predatory insects. We test this by quantifying species interactions and measuring movement across different edge-types. A high diversity of parasitoid species used hosts in the native vegetation patches, however we recorded few instances of the same parasitoid species using hosts in both the native vegetation and the crop (canola). However, we did find overall greater densities of parasitoids moving from native vegetation into the crop. Of the parasitoid groups examined, parasitoids of aphids (Braconidae: Aphidiinae) frequently moved from native vegetation into canola. In contrast, parasitoids of caterpillars (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) moved commonly from cereal fields into canola. Late season samples showed both aphids and parasitoids moving frequently out of native vegetation, in contrast predators moved less commonly from native vegetation (across the whole season). The season-long net advantage or disadvantage of native vegetation for pest control services is therefore difficult to evaluate. It appears that the different edge-types alter movement patterns of natural enemies more so than herbivorous pest species, and this may impact pest control services. PMID:23555737

  5. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. PMID:27147100

  6. Productivity of Agricultural Labour and Land: An International Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Kailash C.; Rao, D.S. Prasada; Shepherd, W F

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines partial agricultural land and labour productivity in 1975 and 1980, for different world regions. The results suggest that land and labour productivity are higher in developed countries relative to developing countries. However, agricultural labour productivity differences are more marked than those for agricultural land productivity. The productivity values for 1975 and 1980 indicate a widening of productivity differences, more so in the case of agricultural labour than la...

  7. Transformations of rural production landscapes in the global network society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swaffield, Simon; Primdahl, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    , the rationalization and centralisation of supply chains under the open market angenda, and the global integration of information and control systems. These dynamics frequently conflict with place specific socio-cultural values and environmental integrity. The regional and local institutions through...... which these dynamics are managed often express conflicting aims and means, despite clearly stated intentions of 'policy integration'. Comparative analysis has highlighted the way production landscapes continue to intensify, and clear indications are found that these landscapes are converging in...... commodity based quality management processes to be better connected with the needs and administration of local landscape policies; and how to shape institutions at the interface of the spaces of flow and spaces of place that are able to maintain their integrity in the face of asymmetrical power and...

  8. Agricultural R&D, technology and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesse, J; Thirtle, C

    2010-09-27

    The relationships between basic and applied agricultural R&D, developed and developing country R&D and between R&D, extension, technology and productivity growth are outlined. The declining growth rates of public R&D expenditures are related to output growth and crop yields, where growth rates have also fallen, especially in the developed countries. However, growth in output value per hectare has not declined in the developing countries and labour productivity growth has increased except in the EU. Total factor productivity has generally increased, however it is measured. The public sector share of R&D expenditures has fallen and there has been rapid concentration in the private sector, where six multinationals now dominate. These companies are accumulating intellectual property to an extent that the public and international institutions are disadvantaged. This represents a threat to the global commons in agricultural technology on which the green revolution has depended. Estimates of the increased R&D expenditures needed to feed 9 billion people by 2050 and how these should be targeted, especially by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), show that the amounts are feasible and that targeting sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia can best increase output growth and reduce poverty. Lack of income growth in SSA is seen as the most insoluble problem. PMID:20713401

  9. SUPPLY CHAINS IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CONDRAȚCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of production and supply chain is increasing worldwide due of the growing consumer concerns over foodsafety and quality together with retailer demands for large volumes of consistent and reliable product. In developedcountries, product losses (post harvest losses are generally small during processing, storage and handling becauseof the efficiency of the equipment, better storage facilities, and control of critical variables by a skilled and trainedstaff. Recently, the concept of Agricultural and Food production has been under development as more effective andefficient management system is required for the food production planning, physical collection of primary producefrom fields and homesteads, processing and storage at various levels, handling, packaging, and distribution of finalproduct.

  10. Downstream approaches to phosphorus management in agricultural landscapes: regional applicability and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, R; Dunne, E J; Novak, J; King, K W; McLellan, E; Smith, D R; Strock, J; Boomer, K; Tomer, M; Noe, G B

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a critical overview of conservation practices that are aimed at improving water quality by retaining phosphorus (P) downstream of runoff genesis. The review is structured around specific downstream practices that are prevalent in various parts of the United States. Specific practices that we discuss include the use of controlled drainage, chemical treatment of waters and soils, receiving ditch management, and wetlands. The review also focuses on the specific hydrology and biogeochemistry associated with each of those practices. The practices are structured sequentially along flowpaths as you move through the landscape, from the edge-of-field, to adjacent aquatic systems, and ultimately to downstream P retention. Often practices are region specific based on geology, cropping practices, and specific P related problems and thus require a right practice, and right place mentality to management. Each practice has fundamental P transport and retention processes by systems that can be optimized by management with the goal of reducing downstream P loading after P has left agricultural fields. The management of P requires a system-wide assessment of the stability of P in different biogeochemical forms (particulate vs. dissolved, organic vs. inorganic), in different storage pools (soil, sediment, streams etc.), and under varying biogeochemical and hydrological conditions that act to convert P from one form to another and promote its retention in or transport out of different landscape components. There is significant potential of hierarchically placing practices in the agricultural landscape and enhancing the associated P mitigation. But an understanding is needed of short- and long-term P retention mechanisms within a certain practice and incorporating maintenance schedules if necessary to improve P retention times and minimize exceeding retention capacity. PMID:23178830

  11. Simulation and validation of subsurface lateral flow paths in an agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of soil water flow paths to the transport of nutrients and contaminants has long been recognized. However, effective means of detecting subsurface flow paths in a large landscape is still lacking. The flow direction and accumulation algorithm in GIS hydrologic modeling is a cost effective way to simulate potential flow paths over a large area. This study tested this algorithm for simulating lateral flow paths at three interfaces in soil profiles in a 19.5-ha agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania, USA. These interfaces were (1 the surface plowed layers (Ap1 and Ap2 horizons interface, (2 the interface with subsoil clay layer where clay content increased to over 40%, and (3 soil-bedrock interface. The simulated flow paths were validated through soil hydrologic monitoring, geophysical surveys, and observable soil morphological features. The results confirmed that subsurface lateral flow occurred at the interfaces with the clay layer and the underlying bedrock. At these two interfaces, the soils on the simulated flow paths were closer to saturation and showed more temporally unstable moisture dynamics than those off the simulated flow paths. Apparent electrical conductivity in the soil on the simulated flow paths was elevated and temporally unstable as compared to those outside the simulated paths. The soil cores collected from the simulated flow paths showed significantly higher Mn contents at these interfaces than those away from the simulated paths. These results suggest that (1 the algorithm is useful in simulating possible subsurface lateral flow paths if used appropriately with sufficiently detailed digital elevation model; (2 repeated electromagnetic surveys can reflect the temporal change of soil water storage and thus is an indicator of soil water movement over the landscape; and (3 observable Mn content in soil profiles can be used as a simple indicator of water flow paths in soils and over the landscape.

  12. Locating Logistics Locations of Suspicious Agricultural Production Food Safety Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to locate the suspicious agricultural products in agricultural product safety emergencies, this study builds an agricultural product logistics system from suppliers to retailers based on RFID technology and designs an agricultural product logistics tracking systems, which collects and integrates underlying data from logistics nodes. Tracking queries get logistics node addresses from the address resolution service system by Internet and obtain and synthesize data from all the underlying data sources to trace agricultural product information for effectively locating locations of suspicious agricultural products. It is very important to prevent more extension for safety emergencies.

  13. Bottleneck on Supply Chain of Organic Agricultural Products and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-min

    2012-01-01

    Organic agriculture is one of successful models of low-carbon agriculture, and plays an important role in alleviating and adapting to climate change. However, the development of supply chain of organic agricultural products lags behind, which seriously restricts development of organic agricultural product market. In this paper, major models and bottleneck of supply chain of organic agricultural products are analyzed, and finally countermeasures are put forward.

  14. Silicate weathering and CO2 consumption within agricultural landscapes, the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, S. K.; Lyons, W. B.; Carey, A. E.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Welch, S. A.; Welch, K. A.

    2012-03-01

    Myriad studies have shown the extent of human alteration to global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is only a limited understanding of the influence that humans have over silicate weathering fluxes; fluxes that have regulated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and global climate over geologic timescales. Natural landscapes have been reshaped into agricultural ones to meet food needs for growing world populations. These processes modify soil properties, alter hydrology, affect erosion, and consequently impact water-soil-rock interactions such as chemical weathering. Dissolved silica (DSi), Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, and total alkalinity were measured in water samples collected from five small (0.0065 to 0.383 km2) gauged watersheds at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) near Coshocton, Ohio, USA. The sampled watersheds in this unglaciated region include: a forested site (70+ year stand), mixed agricultural use (corn, forest, pasture), an unimproved pasture, tilled corn, and a recently (control of dissolved silicate transport. Median DSi yields (2210-3080 kg km-2 yr-1) were similar to the median of annual averages between 1979-2009 for the much larger Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (2560 kg km-2 yr-1). Corn watersheds, which only had surface runoff, had substantially lower DSi yields (fertilizer additions to the corn watershed and from leaf litter decomposition in the forest. This same relation was observed in the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin where dominant landuse types include both agricultural lands receiving nitrogenous fertilizers and forests. Greater gains in DSi with respect to alkalinity losses in the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin than in the NAEW sites suggested that soils derived from younger Pleistocene glacial-till may yield more DSi relative to nitrogenous fertilizer applications than the older NAEW soils. Because silicate weathering occurs via acids released from nitrification, CO2 consumption estimates based on the assumption that silicate

  15. Conservation of newt guilds in an agricultural landscape of Belgium: the importance of aquatic and terrestrial habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Denoël, Mathieu; Ficetola, G. Francesco

    2008-01-01

    1. Amphibians are declining worldwide in response to local and global pressures. Pond-breeding species are particularly vulnerable to environmental change because they rely on two components of the landscape: aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Agricultural practices are changing rapidly at world and local scales. As a consequence, farm ponds and their surrounding terrestrial landscapes will probably be affected. 2. This study investigated the main habitat determinants for the occurrence of fou...

  16. Lemon Effect of Green Agricultural Products and its Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Qi-wen; Du, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Han, Cai-xin; Li, Meng-Meng

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the lemon effect of green agricultural products, analyzes the formation reasons of the lemon effect of green agricultural products and summarizes problems brought by the effect, such as malicious deception and high priced. The paper proposes countermeasures to avoid the lemon effect of green agricultural products from a perspective of marketing. The first is to strengthen the quality supervision of green agricultural products, upgrade the quality of products, and build up...

  17. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  18. REVITALISATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE, ON THE ISLAND OF KORČULA – Cay study municipality Blato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Aničić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural landscapes of the Mediterranean should become one among the bearers of the regional and national identity and in this way give their contribution to tourism and economic progress because of their recognizability and rarity. Since the importance of these landscapes is not currently recognized and designated the aim of this paper, containing the Blato example, on the island of Korčula, is to defi ne a procedure and a possibility of their protection and revitalization. This site is selected due to its natural, cultural and structural diversity, the revitalization of which one can realize, i.e. restore the landscape of an outstanding value. Apart from revitalization of the landscape and the landscape diversity, agriculture can manifest itself as something visually attractive what is positively refl ected in the potential of further tourism development on the island.

  19. Biocultural Refugia: Combating the Erosion of Diversity in Landscapes of Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Barthel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is urgent need to both reduce the rate of biodiversity loss caused by industrialized agriculture and feed more people. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of places that harbor traditional ecological knowledge, artifacts, and methods when preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services in landscapes of food production. We use three examples in Europe of biocultural refugia, defined as the physical places that not only shelter farm biodiversity, but also carry knowledge and experiences about practical management of how to produce food while stewarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. Memory carriers include genotypes, landscape features, oral, and artistic traditions and self-organized systems of rules, and as such reflect a diverse portfolio of practices on how to deal with unpredictable change. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionally distinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through different smallholder practices developed in relation to local environmental fluctuations and carried within biocultural refugia for as long as millennia. Places that transmit traditional ecological knowledge and practices hold important lessons for policy makers since they may provide genetic and cultural reservoirs - refugia - for the wide array of species that have co-evolved with humans in Europe for more than 6000 thousand yrs. Biodiversity restoration projects in domesticated landscapes can employ the biophysical elements and cultural practices embedded in biocultural refugia to create locally adapted small-scale mosaics of habitats that allow species to flourish and adapt to change. We conclude that such insights must be included in discussions of land-sparing vs. land-sharing when producing more food while combating loss of biodiversity. We found the latter strategy rational in domesticated landscapes with a long history of agriculture.

  20. Renewable energy: Energy from agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10 percent of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10 percent mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production. Wider applications will require either government incentives or genetic engineering of crops and improve efficiencies in conversion processes to lower costs.

  1. Influence of subsurface drainage on quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter export from agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Brent J.; King, Jennifer Y.; Mulla, David J.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Sands, Gary R.

    2011-06-01

    Despite its importance for aquatic ecosystem function and watershed carbon budgets, little is known about how land use influences dissolved organic matter (DOM) export. We investigated the influence of subsurface soil drainage, widespread in the Midwestern United States, on DOM export from agricultural fields designed to drain water at either 13 mm d-1 (conventional) or 51 mm d-1 (intense). Intense drainage exported 55% (±22%) more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) per year than conventional drainage due to both increased concentration and water yield. DOC export from plots was strongly dependent on precipitation and showed considerable interannual variability. Mean DOC concentrations in drainage water were low (1.62 and 1.87 mg L-1 for conventional and intense treatments), and fluorescence index (FI) measurements showed that it had a microbial source with little evidence of terrestrially derived material, suggesting that flow through deeper, organic-poor soil horizons is important in regulating DOC export from these plots. We compared DOM in subsurface drains with downstream ditch and stream sites. Increases in DOC concentration and molecular weight accompanied by decreasing FI values at downstream sites showed that streams gain a large amount of terrestrially derived DOM during base flow transport through agricultural landscapes, probably from riparian zones. These results show that DOM compositional characteristics change with catchment area and that the relevant observation scale for DOM dynamics is likely to vary among watersheds. This study also demonstrates that land management practices can directly affect DOC via changes to water flow paths. These results are critical for improving model estimates of DOM export from agricultural landscapes as well as predicting how DOC export will respond to changing land use and climate.

  2. Floral resource limitation severely reduces butterfly survival, condition and flight activity in simplified agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong negative impact on farmland biodiversity (including flower-visiting insects), but understanding the mechanisms involved in this requires experimental work. We document the impact of nectar limitation on the performance of a flower-visiting insect, the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina. We conducted two types of experiments: a field experiment in agricultural landscapes with grasslands of different management intensity and an experiment in outdoor flight cages in which the nectar supply was simulated. For the field experiment, we introduced an array of nectar resources in intensively managed, nectar-poor meadows and in extensively managed, flower-rich grasslands and counted flower visitors. Despite higher butterfly abundance in the extensive meadows, our introduced nectar sources were more frequently visited in intensive meadows, indicating the lack of floral resources. The 48-h confinement under nectar-poor conditions in the flight cages had a strong negative effect on body condition, flight activity and lifetime survival compared to butterflies under nectar-rich conditions. Female lifespan was reduced by 22% and male lifespan even by 43%. Agricultural landscapes that provide limited amounts of floral nectar, and no high-quality, preferred nectar sources relative to the needs of the flower-visiting species, may create ecological sinks. Regards an insect's performance, the simple presence of nectar is not necessarily functionally adequate. The effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes for flower-visiting insects (e.g. flower strips) could be improved based on ecological and evolutionary insights on the effects of specific nectar quantities and qualities. PMID:26541442

  3. Improving food and agricultural production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1960s, the IAEA and FAO jointly initiated the first in a series of large-scale multi-faceted agricultural field projects using nuclear techniques in agricultural sciences. The first project, in Yugoslavia, served as a model for future ones in India, Brazil, Bangladesh, Republic of Korea, Venezuela, and Thailand. The Thailand project - for the time being the last one of this series - started in January 1986 for a 5-year period, the project carries major objectives centering on the use of isotopes, radiation, and related technologies in three particular areas: Mutation breeding. Scientists are aiming to generate new genetic sources of disease-resistant varieties of crops that are economically important; Soil Science. Aims are to help farmers make the best use of fertilizers, biofertilizers, and water, and to maximize biological nitrogen fixation and the use of local rock phosphates as sources of crop nutrients; Animal science. Project scientists are aiming to improve livestock productivity on small farms

  4. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management. PMID:22420748

  5. Minilivestock in Argentina. Integration with Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biasatti, NR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative agricultural production can take different forms. In Argentina there is an important diversity of species available to be incorporated into production systems, giving support for the use of natural resources based on taking advantage of the regional fauna. Moreover the use of different animal species can be incorporated under the concept of the optimization of flows of energy and materials, tending to minimize the environmental impact of livestock production, and also to make more efficient use of the ingredients required for developing the activity. The integration of non-traditional species (minilivestock within the context of sustainable agricultural development was the motivation for the present study A module for raising Myocastor coypus (coypu or false nutha was developed, to which was linked a module for raising Eisenia foetida (the socalled red worm, in both cases with a dual purpose. Preliminary estimates were made of the productive aspects of both species, as well as an analysis of their integration, to understand the extent to which diversification linked with complementation tends to optimize the system.

  6. Agricultural Potential for Biogas Production in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kulišić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is renewable energy source with strong local character as its production depends on availability and type of feedstock at a certain location. Utilisation of slurry, manure and beddings from cattle, pig, horse, poultry and other animal breeding together with energy rich substrates such as crops and other organic materials as biogas substrates creates an interesting option both from technical and economic perspective. Other materials suitable for anaerobic digestion are comprised of various residues from agriculture (crops and vegetables, residues from food processing industry and energy crops (maize silage, grass and similar.Primary reason for biogas production is economic gain from energy production and/or organic waste management that adds value to agriculture and food processing residues that would otherwise be treated as waste.The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of biogas production potential of Croatia at the level of statistical administrative units NUTS1 and NUTS2, excluding energy crops growing and agro-food imports but including the seasonality of substrate availability.

  7. IMPACTS OF DRYNESS AND DROUGHT PHENOMENA ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN THE TITU PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAVRIŞ LOREDANA-ELENA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the dryness and drought phenomena in one of the subsidence areas of the Romanian Plain, namely Titu Plain, located in its central-north part, a region frequently affected by such phenomena, under the influence of persistent continental antyciclones. The topic approached in this study is in line with the current concerns of agriculture stakeholders to undertake climate change adaptation measures for a better management of water resources for crops in the the main agricultural regions of the country. In this paper we focused mainly on the impact of dryness and drought on agricultural landscape, although their direct and indirect effects affect not only agriculture, but also the whole economic activity of the region. The impact of these phenomena was assessed by using relevant statistical-climatological methods (e.g. the Helmann method, the Walter-Lieth climatic diagrams, applied on the monthly temparature and precipitation datasets from four weather stations located in the study region covering a 47-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2007: Târgovişte, Ploieşti, Titu şi Videle. The distribution of elements at risk within the Titu Plain region, included in the vulnerability analysis, was determined using land use map of the region extracted from CLC (Corine Land Cover, 2006, by reclassifying the primary land use classes under GIS, resulting six categories of vulnerable items to dryness and drought. Among these items, the agricultural lands have a share of 66.5% across the study region, the main crops being represented by cereals (wheat and corn, potatoes and sunflowers.

  8. REDD+ and climate smart agriculture in landscapes: A case study in Vietnam using companion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, G; Ligtenberg, A; van Paassen, A; Bregt, A K; Avitabile, V; Herold, M

    2016-05-01

    Finding land use strategies that merge land-based climate change mitigation measures and adaptation strategies is still an open issue in climate discourse. This article explores synergies and trade-offs between REDD+, a scheme that focuses mainly on mitigation through forest conservation, with "Climate Smart Agriculture", an approach that emphasizes adaptive agriculture. We introduce a framework for ex-ante assessment of the impact of land management policies and interventions and for quantifying their impacts on land-based mitigation and adaptation goals. The framework includes a companion modelling (ComMod) process informed by interviews with policymakers, local experts and local farmers. The ComMod process consists of a Role-Playing Game with local farmers and an Agent Based Model. The game provided a participatory means to develop policy and climate change scenarios. These scenarios were then used as inputs to the Agent Based Model, a spatially explicit model to simulate landscape dynamics and the associated carbon emissions over decades. We applied the framework using as case study a community in central Vietnam, characterized by deforestation for subsistence agriculture and cultivation of acacias as a cash crop. The main findings show that the framework is useful in guiding consideration of local stakeholders' goals, needs and constraints. Additionally the framework provided beneficial information to policymakers, pointing to ways that policies might be re-designed to make them better tailored to local circumstances and therefore more effective in addressing synergistically climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives. PMID:26921566

  9. Economic Analysis on Protection of Farmers’ Benefits Based on Market of Agricultural Means of Production and Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De; CHEN; Dongmei; XIANG; Shengping; SHI

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by many factors,farmers remain very unfavorable position in market transaction and thus fail to ensure their reasonable benefits.In accordance with basic theory of microeconomics,this paper analyzes mutual relation between market of agricultural means of production and agricultural product market,compares economic decisions of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural product circulation service providers in monopoly condition and perfect competitive market,expounds influence of monopoly position of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural products service providers on economic benefits of farmers,and elaborates weak position and economic damage of farmers in transaction with various economic entities.Through analysis,it further recognizes necessity for protection of farmers’benefits and puts forward corresponding countermeasures:(1)regulating providers of agricultural means of production;(2)strengthening construction of agricultural product market circulation system;(3)improving organization of farmers;(4)setting up and improving production subsidy system of farmers.

  10. Research on Agricultural Products Traceability Mechanism Based on RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuguang Bao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aim is to provide a feasible and effective way for the government supervision, agricultural enterprises and consumers to obtain traceability information. This study researches traceability of agricultural products. Through the analysis of the participators, the influence of the agricultural products circulation pattern of supply chain, traceability security system and tracing process, it constructs a pattern of the agricultural products traceability and puts forward a method to realize agricultural products traceability model. The method uses RFID to collect related information of agricultural products and realize the agricultural products traceability process based on the traceability chain construction of the agricultural products and redesigned trace code. Finally, this study analyzes the concrete application of the proposed method in beef traceability to prove the feasibility of our circulation and method.

  11. Characteristics of Price Fluctuation of Agricultural Products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Ge, Dang-qiao

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic trend of the price of agricultural products in China, and analyzes the causation of rigid rise of agricultural product price. We also study on the fluctuation characteristics of the prices of Chinese and classification agricultural products.

  12. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of hedgerows in supporting ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Danish agricultural landscape was examined. Nine old, well established single-row hedges were selected for the study, three each of a native species (hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna), a non-native deciduous one (rowan...... beetle assemblages. The number of ground beetle individuals and species were significantly the highest in the hawthorn hedges and significantly decreased from the hedges with rowan toward the spruce hedges. The elevated number of ground beetle individuals and species in the hawthorn hedges were due...... to the forest specialist species, as the number of forest specialist ground beetle individuals and species were significantly higher in the hawthorn hedges compared to the hedges with rowan and spruce. Differences in the number of the grassland and the cropland specialist ground beetle individuals and species...

  13. Biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes: challenges and opportunities of coffee agroforests in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Claude A; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Nath, Cheryl D; Nanaya, Konerira M; Kushalappa, Chepudira G; Raghuramulu, Yenugula; Nasi, Robert; Vaast, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    The new approaches advocated by the conservation community to integrate conservation and livelihood development now explicitly address landscape mosaics composed of agricultural and forested land rather than only protected areas and largely intact forests. We refer specifically to a call by Harvey et al. (2008) to develop a new approach based on six strategies to integrate biodiversity conservation with sustainable livelihoods in Mesoamerican landscape mosaics. We examined the applicability of this proposal to the coffee agroforests of the Western Ghats, India. Of the six strategies, only one directly addresses livelihood conditions. Their approach has a clear emphasis on conservation and, as currently formulated risks repeating the failures of past integrated conservation and development projects. It fails to place the aspirations of farmers at the core of the agenda. Thus, although we acknowledge and share the broad vision and many of the ideas proposed by this approach, we urge more balanced priority setting by emphasizing people as much as biodiversity through a careful consideration of local livelihood needs and aspirations. PMID:20028413

  14. Patterns and drivers of scattered tree loss in agricultural landscapes:Orchard meadows in Germany (1968-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Plieninger; Christian Levers; Martin Mantel; Augusta Costa; Harald Schaich; Tobias Kuemmerle

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 ae...

  15. Influence of regions, land uses and soil properties on termite and ant communities in agricultural landscapes of the Colombian Llanos

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria, Catalina; Dubs, Florence; Lavelle, Patrick; Fonte, Steven J.; Barot, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    International audience Ants and termites, as soil engineers, provide many ecosystem services that can be important for the sustainability of agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of land use on ant and termite communities in Colombian savanna landscapes, and to assess whether this impact is associated with the modification of soil physical and chemical properties. Ants and termites were sampled in five different agricultural and semi-natural systems across three reg...

  16. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  17. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  18. Capital accumulation and the growth of aggregate agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    This report empirically examines the role which capital accumulation plays in the growth of agricultural production potential. The report assumes that the degree to which available technology can be implemented in a nation's agricultural sector depends on accumulated investments that have been made in the sector. Results from estimating aggregate agricultural production functions show the primary importance of rural labor in accounting for agricultural GDP and crop production. Capital accumul...

  19. A Study of Green Logistics for Chinese Agriculture Products

    OpenAIRE

    Na Liu

    2015-01-01

    Although agriculture plays an important role in China, the country is still suffering much from the weakness of the logistics system of its agriculture products, such as outdated facilities, lacking of logistics experts, weak information technology, etc. The weak logistics system causes the loss of many agricultural products in daily delivery and storing. This study addresses the problem by taking a study of green logistics for Chinese agriculture products. We take an SWOT method to analyze t...

  20. Does spatial co-occurrence of carnivores in a Central European agricultural landscape follow the null model?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Červinka, J.; Padyšáková, E.; Kreisinger, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2014), s. 99-107. ISSN 1612-4642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * Co-occurrence * Interspecific competition * Mesopredator release * Agricultural landscape Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2014

  1. Assessment of the foraging and nesting conditions for solitary bees and bumblebees, and their distribution in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    In a survey April through November 1997, a total of 72 solitary bee species and 19 bumblebee species were recorded in the semi-natural habitats of a Danish conventional agricultural landscape. The majority of the solitary non-inquiline bee species (59) were polylectic, but four oligoleges of Salix...

  2. Understanding the role of sink patches in source-sink metapopulations: reed warbler in an agricultural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, R.P.B.; Chardon, J.P.; Liefveld, W.

    2000-01-01

    Populations in agricultural landscapes often occur in source-sink situations: small patches of marginal habitat (sinks) are supported by an immigration flux from larger patches of high-quality habitat (sources). We sought to demonstrate that this situation occurs for Reed Warblers (Acrocephalus scir

  3. Landscape fragmentation and pollinator movement within agricultural environments: a modelling framework for exploring foraging and movement ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Rands

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator decline has been linked to landscape change, through both habitat fragmentation and the loss of habitat suitable for the pollinators to live within. One method for exploring why landscape change should affect pollinator populations is to combine individual-level behavioural ecological techniques with larger-scale landscape ecology. A modelling framework is described that uses spatially-explicit individual-based models to explore the effects of individual behavioural rules within a landscape. The technique described gives a simple method for exploring the effects of the removal of wild corridors, and the creation of wild set-aside fields: interventions that are common to many national agricultural policies. The effects of these manipulations on central-place nesting pollinators are varied, and depend upon the behavioural rules that the pollinators are using to move through the environment. The value of this modelling framework is discussed, and future directions for exploration are identified.

  4. The Network Marketing of Fresh Agricultural Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the connotation of network marketing of fresh agricultural products and analyzed the fundaments of launching the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products in China.The fundaments mainly cover the development of e-commerce,the transformation of consumption concept,the change of life style and the features of Chinese agricultural production.The developmental status of the C2C marketing of Chinese fresh vegetables and fresh fruits is introduced and the plights,including imperfect rural network infrastructure,inadequate talents specialized in network marketing of fresh agricultural products,uneven quality of agricultural products,immature logistics system,uncertainty existed in faced by the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products and imperfect governmental protection system,are pointed out.In the end,the developmental trend of Chinese network marketing of fresh agricultural products on the basis of C2C mode is described.

  5. Erosion processes by water in agricultural landscapes: a low-cost methodology for post-event analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Calligaro, Simone; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the world, agricultural landscapes assume a great importance, especially for supplying food and a livelihood. Among the land degradation phenomena, erosion processes caused by water are those that may most affect the benefits provided by agricultural lands and endanger people who work and live there. In particular, erosion processes that affect the banks of agricultural channels may cause the bank failure and represent, in this way, a severe threat to floodplain inhabitants and agricultural crops. Similarly, rills and gullies are critical soil erosion processes as well, because they bear upon the productivity of a farm and represent a cost that growers have to deal with. To estimate quantitatively soil losses due to bank erosion and rills processes, area based measurements of surface changes are necessary but, sometimes, they may be difficult to realize. In fact, surface changes due to short-term events have to be represented with fine resolution and their monitoring may entail too much money and time. The main objective of this work is to show the effectiveness of a user-friendly and low-cost technique that may even rely on smart-phones, for the post-event analyses of i) bank erosion affecting agricultural channels, and ii) rill processes occurring on an agricultural plot. Two case studies were selected and located in the Veneto floodplain (northeast Italy) and Marche countryside (central Italy), respectively. The work is based on high-resolution topographic data obtained by the emerging, low-cost photogrammetric method named Structure-from-Motion (SfM). Extensive photosets of the case studies were obtained using both standalone reflex digital cameras and smart-phone built-in cameras. Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from SfM revealed to be effective to estimate quantitatively erosion volumes and, in the case of the bank eroded, deposited materials as well. SfM applied to pictures taken by smartphones is useful for the analysis of the topography

  6. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  7. Landscape context mediates influence of local food abundance on wetland use by wintering shorebirds in an agricultural valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely understood that local abundance of benthic invertebrates can greatly influence the distribution and abundance of wetland birds, no studies have examined if wetland landscape context can mediate this relationship. We studied the influence of wetland food abundance and landscape context on use of agricultural wetlands by wintering dunlin (Calidris alpina) and killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, over two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall and subsequent habitat distribution. We monitored bird use (frequency of occurrence and abundance) at a sample of wetlands differing in local food abundance (density and biomass) and landscape context [adjacent shorebird habitat (defined as ha of wet habitat with less than 50% vegetative cover and within a 2-km radius) and nearest neighbor distance]. We evaluated predictive models for bird use using linear regression and the Cp criterion to select the most parsimonious model. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), dunlin exhibited greater use of sites with higher invertebrate density and biomass but also with more adjacent shorebird habitat and closest to a wetland neighbor. However, neither landscape context nor food abundance were important predictors of dunlin use during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Use of sites by killdeer was unrelated to either local food abundance or landscape context measures during both winters. Our findings contribute to a growing recognition of the importance of landscape structure to wetland birds and highlight a number of implications for the spatial planning and enhancement of wetlands using a landscape approach.

  8. The bee community and its relationship to canola productivity in homogenous agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidia Witter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Canola crop productivity is benefited by bee pollination and it has been shown that bee communities can be affected by landscape composition. The aim of this study was to analyse the bee community and its relationship to canola seed production in agricultural areas. The density, abundance and richness of floral visitors of Brassica napus cultivar Hyola 61 in six commercial fields in southern Brazil were studied, and their relationships with seed production and the ratio of semi-natural, forested and agricultural areas surrounding the crops were examined. It was observed that canola fields of southern Brazil are surrounded by a homogeneous landscape dominated by agricultural areas. The survey of bees detected a low abundance and richness of native bees in contrast to the high abundance of Apis mellifera. Except for a negative correlation between the abundance of honey bees and the proportion of forested areas within a 2000 m radius from the field (R = -0.90; P = 0.012, no other correlations were found among bee abundance and richness and landscape composition. Although there was not a relationship between A. mellifera and seed set, there was a positive correlation between insect density and seed weight per plant (R = 0.87; P = 0.024. As honey bees were the most captured insect (79%, much of the pollination in this system was probably achieved by honey bees.

  9. Tightly-Coupled Plant-Soil Nitrogen Cycling: Comparison of Organic Farms across an Agricultural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Timothy M; Hollander, Allan D; Steenwerth, Kerri; Jackson, Louise E

    2015-01-01

    How farming systems supply sufficient nitrogen (N) for high yields but with reduced N losses is a central challenge for reducing the tradeoffs often associated with N cycling in agriculture. Variability in soil organic matter and management of organic farms across an agricultural landscape may yield insights for improving N cycling and for evaluating novel indicators of N availability. We assessed yields, plant-soil N cycling, and root expression of N metabolism genes across a representative set of organic fields growing Roma-type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in an intensively-managed agricultural landscape in California, USA. The fields spanned a three-fold range of soil carbon (C) and N but had similar soil types, texture, and pH. Organic tomato yields ranged from 22.9 to 120.1 Mg ha-1 with a mean similar to the county average (86.1 Mg ha-1), which included mostly conventionally-grown tomatoes. Substantial variability in soil inorganic N concentrations, tomato N, and root gene expression indicated a range of possible tradeoffs between yields and potential for N losses across the fields. Fields showing evidence of tightly-coupled plant-soil N cycling, a desirable scenario in which high crop yields are supported by adequate N availability but low potential for N loss, had the highest total and labile soil C and N and received organic matter inputs with a range of N availability. In these fields, elevated expression of a key gene involved in root N assimilation, cytosolic glutamine synthetase GS1, confirmed that plant N assimilation was high even when inorganic N pools were low. Thus tightly-coupled N cycling occurred on several working organic farms. Novel combinations of N cycling indicators (i.e. inorganic N along with soil microbial activity and root gene expression for N assimilation) would support adaptive management for improved N cycling on organic as well as conventional farms, especially when plant-soil N cycling is rapid. PMID:26121264

  10. Silicate weathering and CO2 consumption within agricultural landscapes, the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Welch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Myriad studies have shown the extent of human alteration to global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is only a limited understanding of the influence that humans have over silicate weathering fluxes; fluxes that have regulated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and global climate over geologic timescales. Natural landscapes have been reshaped into agricultural ones to meet food needs for growing world populations. These processes modify soil properties, alter hydrology, affect erosion, and consequently impact water-soil-rock interactions such as chemical weathering. Dissolved silica (DSi, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3–, and total alkalinity were measured in water samples collected from five small (0.0065 to 0.383 km2 gauged watersheds at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW near Coshocton, Ohio, USA. The sampled watersheds in this unglaciated region include: a forested site (70+ year stand, mixed agricultural use (corn, forest, pasture, an unimproved pasture, tilled corn, and a recently (−2 yr–1 were similar to the median of annual averages between 1979–2009 for the much larger Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (2560 kg km−2 yr–1. Corn watersheds, which only had surface runoff, had substantially lower DSi yields (−2 yr–1 than the perennial-flow watersheds. The lack of contributions from Si-enriched groundwater largely explained their much lower DSi yields with respect to sites having baseflow. A significant positive correlation between the molar ratio of (Ca2++Mg2+/alkalinity to DSi in the tilled corn and the forested site suggested, however, that silicate minerals weathered as alkalinity was lost via enhanced nitrification resulting from fertilizer additions to the corn watershed and from leaf litter decomposition in the forest. This same relation was observed in the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin where dominant landuse types include both agricultural lands receiving nitrogenous fertilizers and forests. Greater gains in DSi with

  11. Typologies and Spatialization of Agricultural Production Systems in Rondônia, Brazil: Linking Land Use, Socioeconomics and Territorial Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current Amazon landscape consists of heterogeneous mosaics formed by interactions between the original forest and productive activities. Recognizing and quantifying the characteristics of these landscapes is essential for understanding agricultural production chains, assessing the impact of policies, and in planning future actions. Our main objective was to construct the regionalization of agricultural production for Rondônia State (Brazilian Amazon at the municipal level. We adopted a decision tree approach, using land use maps derived from remote sensing data (PRODES and TerraClass combined with socioeconomic data. The decision trees allowed us to allocate municipalities to one of five agricultural production systems: (i coexistence of livestock production and intensive agriculture; (ii semi-intensive beef and milk production; (iii semi-intensive beef production; (iv intensive beef and milk production, and; (v intensive beef production. These production systems are, respectively, linked to mechanized agriculture (i, traditional cattle farming with low management, with (ii or without (iii a significant presence of dairy farming, and to more intensive livestock farming with (iv or without (v a significant presence of dairy farming. The municipalities and associated production systems were then characterized using a wide variety of quantitative metrics grouped into four dimensions: (i agricultural production; (ii economics; (iii territorial configuration, and; (iv social characteristics. We found that production systems linked to mechanized agriculture predominate in the south of the state, while intensive farming is mainly found in the center of the state. Semi-intensive livestock farming is mainly located close to the southwest frontier and in the north of the state, where human occupation of the territory is not fully consolidated. This distributional pattern reflects the origins of the agricultural production system of Rond

  12. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normov D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents issues related to the use of electric technologies in agricultural production. The work contains the results of theoretical and practical application of ozone in agriculture

  13. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  14. Bedrock composition limits mountain ecosystem productivity and landscape evolution (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, C. S.; Hahm, W.; Lukens, C.

    2013-12-01

    We used measurements of bedrock geochemistry, forest productivity and cosmogenic nuclides to explore connections among lithology, ecosystem productivity and landscape evolution across a lithosequence of 21 sites in the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Our sites span a narrow range in elevations and thus share similar climatic conditions. Meanwhile, underlying bedrock varies from granite to diorite and spans nearly the entire range of geochemical compositions observed in Cordilleran granitoids. Land cover varies markedly, from groves of Giant Sequoia, the largest trees on Earth, to pluton-spanning swaths of little or no soil and vegetative cover. This is closely reflected in measures of forest productivity, such as remotely sensed tree-canopy cover, which varies by more than an order of magnitude across our sites and often changes abruptly at mapped contacts between rock types. We find that tree-canopy cover is closely correlated with the concentrations in bedrock of major and minor elements, including several plant-essential nutrients. For example, tree-canopy cover is virtually zero where there is less than 0.3 mg/g phosphorus in bedrock. Erosion rates from these nearly vegetation-free, nutrient deserts are more than 2.5 times slower on average than they are from surrounding, relatively nutrient-rich, soil-mantled bedrock. Thus by influencing soil and forest cover, bedrock nutrient concentrations may provoke weathering-limited erosion and thus may strongly regulate landscape evolution. Our analysis suggests that variations in bedrock nutrient concentrations can also provoke an intrinsic limitation on primary productivity. These limitations appear to apply across all our sites. To the extent that they are broadly representative of conditions in granitic landscapes elsewhere around the world, our results are consistent with widespread, but previously undocumented lithologic control of the distribution and diversity of vegetation in mountainous terrain.

  15. Assessing the mitigation potential of agricultural systems by optimization of the agricultural management: A modeling study on 8 agricultural observation sites across Europe with the process based model LandscapeDNDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The use of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers increase crop yields but cause the biggest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and strongly contribute to surface water eutrophication (e.g. nitrate leaching). The necessity to identify affordable strategies that improve crop production while improving ecosystem services are in continuous debate between policy decision makers and farmers. In this line, a lack commitment from farmers to enforce laws might result in the reduction of benefits. For this reason, farmers should aim to increase crop production and to reduce environmental harm by the adoption of precision climate smart agriculture tools applied to management practices for instance. In this study we present optimized strategies for 8 sites (agricultural and grassland ecosystems) with long term field observation across Europe to show the mitigation potential to reduce reactive nitrogen losses under the constrain of keeping yields at observed levels. LandscapeDNDC simulations of crop yields and associated nitrogen losses (N2O emissions and NO3 leaching) were evaluated against long term field measurements. The sites presented different management regimes including the main commodity crops (maize, wheat, barley, rape seeds, etc) and fertilization amendments (synthetic and organic fertilizers) in Europe. The simulations reproduced the observed yields, captured N2O emissions and NO3 leaching losses with high statistical presicion (r2), acurrency (ME) and agreement (RMSPEn). The mitigation potentials to reduce N losses while keeping yields at observed levels for all 8 sites were assesed by Monte Carlo optimizations of the individual underlying multi year agricultural management options (timings of planting and harvest, fertilization & manure applications and rates, residues management). In this study we present for all 8 agricultural observations sites their individual mitigation potentials to reduce N losses for multi year rotations. The conclusions

  16. Shandong Agricultural Products Exports: Growth, Problems and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the reasons of the export growth for the Shandong agricultural products which can be attributed to the Shandong agricultural export enterprises’ efforts and Shandong provincial government’s strong supports. Though Shandong agricultural products exports achieved a big success all over the China, there are still some internal problems and external constraints that hinder its further and sustainable developments. Existing main problems for the exports of Shandong agricultural...

  17. Sensitive Agricultural Products in the EU under the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Huan-Niemi, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    EU agricultural products are examined by tariff lines at eight digit level to reveal the sensitive agricultural products in the EU after further tariff reductions in the Doha Round. These products are butter, skim milk powder, beef meat, poultry meat, pig meat, white sugar, wheat, barley, and maize. A spreadsheet model is used as an analysis tool to complement the various modelling approaches in identifying the sensitive agricultural products of the EU. The spreadsheet projection model is a s...

  18. Factors Influencing Price of Agricultural Products and Stability Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Ai-hua

    2012-01-01

    Factors leading to rise of prices of agricultural products mainly include tension of supply-demand relationship, promotion of production cost and circulation cost, and speculation of Refugee Capital (Hot Money). Factors leading to low price and difficult sales of agricultural products mainly include asymmetry of supply-demand information, lack of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products and decentralized and small-scaled operation of farmers. On the basis of these factors, th...

  19. Sustainable governance of agriculture and the Baltic Sea : Agricultural reforms, food production and curbed eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Markus; Granstedt, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural production and nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea are likely to increase following Poland's and the Baltic States' entrance into the EU. According to HELCOM these trends will be highly dependent on the agricultural policies of the EU. The expansion of the EU can be seen as a window of opportunity where agricultural policy could improve the Baltic Sea environment. Longstanding initiatives with local organic food systems and Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) in the eight EU-coun...

  20. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  1. Silicate weathering and CO2 consumption within agricultural landscapes, the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Welch

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Myriad studies have shown the extent of human alteration to global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is only a limited understanding of the influence that humans have over silicate weathering fluxes; fluxes that have regulated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and global climate over geologic timescales. Natural landscapes have been reshaped into agricultural ones to meet food needs for growing world populations. These processes modify soil properties, alter hydrology, affect erosion, and consequently impact water-soil-rock interactions such as chemical weathering. Dissolved silica (DSi, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3−, and total alkalinity were measured in water samples collected from five small (0.65 to 38.3 ha gauged watersheds at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW near Coshocton, Ohio, USA. The sampled watersheds in this unglaciated region include: a forested site (70+ yr stand, mixed agricultural use (corn, forest, pasture, an unimproved pasture, tilled corn, and a recently (−1 a−1 were similar to the median of annual averages between 1979–2009 for the much larger Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (25.6 kg ha−1 a−1. Corn watersheds, which only had surface runoff, had substantially lower DSi yields (−1 a−1 than the perennial-flow watersheds. The lack of contributions from Si-enriched groundwater largely explained their much lower DSi yields with respect to sites having baseflow. A significant positive correlation between the molar ratio of (Ca2+ + Mg2/alkalinity to DSi in the tilled corn and the forested site suggested, however, that silicate minerals weathered as alkalinity was lost via enhanced nitrification resulting from fertilizer additions to the corn watershed and from leaf litter decomposition in the forest. This same relation was observed in the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin where dominant landuse types include both agricultural lands receiving nitrogenous fertilizers and forests. Greater gains in DSi with respect to

  2. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H.J. Vlok

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  3. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  4. Cultural Landscape Evolution of Traditional Agricultural Villages in North China——Case of Qianzhai Village in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yangang; LIU Jisheng

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural village is an important rural type in China. The evolution process and mechanism of its cultural landscape are different from those of the industrialized village. The paper focuses this theme by a case study of Qianzhai Village of Qufu City, Shangdong Province. In the case of Qianzhai Village, the evolution of its settlement has experienced three stages: mechanical expansion, sprawling expansion and hollowing, and recentralization. The land-scape evolution of residents' houses has undergone three phases: traditional quadrangle house, one-storied house and multistoried house. The evolution of its land use has experienced three stages: circled stratification, fragment and in-tensive use, and concentration and extensive use. We can see that the main driving factors of cultural landscape evolu-tion of agricultural village are the changes of rural population, seciety, economy and culture, which are influenced by the change of urban-rural relation, the national modernization process and economic development, the reform of family planning and land system, and the changes in governmental policies. In the future, the modernization, ecological trend, and individualization for residents' houses of agricultural villages in China will develop step by step. The recentraliza-tion of settlement and the scaled, sustainable, intensive land use are likely to be the trends of agricultural villages in China.

  5. Multiple-Use Zoning Model for Private Forest Owners in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Truax

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many small-scale private forest owners increasingly focus their management on amenity functions rather than on wood production functions. This paradigm shift is an opportunity to implement novel forestry management approaches, such as forested land zoning. Forest zoning consists in separating the land base in three zones that have different management objectives: (1 conservation zones; (2 ecosystem management zones; and (3 intensive production zones, which locally increase productivity, as a trade off to increase the land area dedicated to conservation and ecosystem management. We evaluate the ecological feasibility of implementing forest zoning on a private property (216 ha at St-Benoît-du-Lac, Québec (Canada characterised by agricultural and forest land uses. As a basis for delineating conservation and ecosystem management zones, historical and contemporary data and facts on forest composition and dynamics were reviewed, followed by a detailed forest vegetation analysis of forest communities. Delineating intensive production zones was straightforward, as fertile agricultural field margins located downslope were used to establish multifunctional hybrid poplar buffers. At St-Benoît-du-Lac, a realistic zoning scenario would consist of (1 conservation zones covering 25% of the forestland (37 ha; (2 ecosystem management zones covering 75% of the forestland (113 ha, including restoration zones on 24 ha; and (3 intensive production zones on 2.8 ha. Based on a yield projection of 13 t/ha/year for hybrid poplars, only 5.6% of agricultural field areas would need to be converted into agroforestry systems to allow for the loss of wood production in a conservation zone of 37 ha of forest. Ecosystem services provision following the implementation of zoning would include increased habitat quality, biodiversity protection and enhancement (by restoration of some tree species, carbon storage, non-point source aquatic pollution control, local biomass

  6. A survey of insect assemblages responding to volatiles from a ubiquitous fungus in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    We report here a first survey of insect orientation to fungal cultures and fungal volatiles from a community ecology perspective. We tested whether volatiles from a ubiquitous yeast-like fungus (Aureobasidium pullulans) are broadly attractive to insects in an agricultural landscape. We evaluated insect attraction to fungal cultures and synthetic compounds identified in fungal headspace (2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol) in a spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) plantation. Three findings emerged: (1) 1,315 insects representing seven orders and 39 species oriented to traps, but 65 % of trapped insects were Dipterans, of which 80 % were hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae); (2) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 481 % more insects than unbaited control traps on average, and contained more diverse (Shannon's H index) and species rich assemblages than control traps, traps baited with Penicillium expansum, or uninoculated media; and (3) insects oriented in greatest abundance to a 1:1:1 blend of A. pullulans volatiles, but mean diversity scores were highest for traps baited with only 2-phenylethanol or 2-methyl-1-butanol. Our results show that individual components of fungal headspace are not equivalent in terms of the abundance and diversity of insects that orient to them. The low abundance of insects captured with P. expansum suggests that insect assemblages do not haphazardly orient to fungal volatiles. We conclude that volatiles from a common fungal species (A. pullulans) are attractive to a variety of insect taxa in an agricultural system, and that insect orientation to fungal volatiles may be a common ecological phenomenon. PMID:23564294

  7. The restoration and protection of the swampy meadow within an agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Mactaggart, Barbara; Bauer, Johannes; Goldney, David; Rawson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses some implications our limited understanding of the swampy meadow landform has on agricultural production and sustainable water management. The ecological and hydrological consequences of current water management practices have lead to a revaluation of natural approaches as an alternative to instream engineering solutions. One such approach would be the restoration/rehabilitation of the swampy meadow. These landforms act as buffering agents for floods and droughts, allow f...

  8. Agricultural Production Restrictions and Market Power: An Antitrust Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotova, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    During the recent decade the organizations of agricultural producers in the national dairy, potato, egg and mushroom industries implemented various pre-production and production restriction practices with the primary objective of agricultural output price stabilization. The buyers of the affected agricultural commodities have challenged the legal status of production restrictions in a number of recent and current antitrust lawsuits, arguing that the Capper-Volstead Act, a limited antitrust ex...

  9. Optimization Model of Close Supply Chain of Green Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Duo-hong; Li, Yu; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Jiang-quan

    2009-01-01

    Close supply chain of green agricultural products is defined, consisting of the supplier, manufacturer, distributor, retailer and consumer (customer). Cost structure of distributor is analyzed, mainly including the order activity-based cost, the inventory cost and the supply transportation cost of agricultural products in upstream and downstream enterprises. Based on this, conceptual model of the close supply chain of green agricultural products is established. According to the idea of dynami...

  10. Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming In Agricultural Production Planning

    OpenAIRE

    H.M.I.U. Herath; Dr. D.M. Samarathunga

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Modern agriculture is characterized by a series of conflicting optimization criteria that obstruct the decision-making process in the planning of agricultural production. Such criteria are usually net profit total cost total production etc. At the same time the decision making process in the agricultural production planning is often conducted with data that accidentally occur in nature or that are fuzzy not deterministic. Such data are the yields of various crops the prices of produc...

  11. Agriculture's Supply and Demand for Energy and Energy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Beckman, Jayson F.; Borchers, Allison; Jones, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Rising energy prices and changing energy and environmental policies have transformed the relationship between the energy and agriculture sectors. Traditionally, the relationship has been one-way, with agriculture using energy products as an input in production; during the past decade, however, the energy sector’s use of agricultural products as renewable-fuel feedstocks has increased substantially. This report examines both sector and farm-level responses to changing market and policy drivers...

  12. DEA Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yao-yan; Cai, Dui

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing some literatures regarding research of agricultural production efficiency by using DEA at home, we conduct empirical analysis on agricultural production efficiency in 18 cities or counties of Hainan Province in the year 2002, 2005 and 2008 by using DEA model. The results show that in 2005 Hainan Province suffered from unusual drought and windstorm, which made the effective value of agricultural production in all cities or counties relatively low; the regions with D...

  13. The Network marketing of Fresh Agricultural Products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the connotation of network marketing of fresh agricultural products and analyzed the fundaments of launching the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products in China. The fundaments mainly cover the development of e-commerce, the transformation of consumption concept, the change of live style and the features of Chinese agricultural production. The developmental status of the C2C marketing of Chinese fresh vegetables and fresh fruits is introduced and the plights, includ...

  14. Promoting landscape heterogeneity to improve the biodiversity benefits of certified palm oil production: Evidence from Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrul Azhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO is responsible for the certification of palm oil producers that comply with sustainability standards. However, it is not known whether RSPO-certified plantations are effective in maintaining biodiversity. Focusing on Peninsular Malaysia, we show that both RSPO-certified plantations and uncertified large-scale plantations are characterized by very low levels of landscape heterogeneity. By contrast, heterogeneity measures were many times higher in palm oil producing smallholdings, despite their lack of RSPO certification. The low heterogeneity of large-scale oil palm plantations, including those certified by the RSPO, is likely to severely limit their value for biodiversity conservation. Uncertified smallholdings, in contrast, are much more heterogeneous and therefore hold substantially greater promise for the integration of palm oil production and biodiversity conservation than large-scale plantations. With oil palm agriculture further expanding, certification schemes should mandate producers to improve biodiversity conservation through landscape management that promotes greater landscape heterogeneity.

  15. Sustainable Agricultural Practices and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia: Does Agroecology Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kassie, Menale; Zikhali, Precious; Pender, John; Köhlin, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural practices, in as far as they rely on renewable local or farm resources, present desirable options for enhancing agricultural productivity for resource-constrained farmers in developing countries. In this paper, we used two sets of plot-level data—from a low-rainfall area and from a high-rainfall area of Ethiopia—to investigate the impact of sustainable agricultural practices on crop productivity, with a particular focus on reduced tillage. Specifically, we sought to i...

  16. Agricultural Production Structure Optimization Scheme of Punjab (Province Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the basis for agricultural development constraints. For this we have taken 2013 year as the foundation period then a linear programming model has been established for Punjab Province’s agricultural production structure for year 2020. Later as response to the impact of the current situation of agricultural production structure in Punjab Province and the macroeconomic environment, three kinds of different emphases of production structural adjustment programs will be suggested. At the end, to provide a reference for the development of a specific quantity of agricultural production structural adjustment policies, will be conducting the optimization analysis.

  17. Farming for Ecosystem Services: An Ecological Approach to Production Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Robertson, G; Gross, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Landis, Douglas A.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Swinton, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other bi...

  18. The role of linear structures in agricultural landscape in the maitenance of xerothermic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czarnecka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of different types of linear structures in the preservation of four xerothermic species (Centaurea scabiosa, Euphorbia cyparissias, Melampyrum arvense, and Salvia verticillata and two weeds (Euphorbia exigua and Thymelaea passerina. Observations were conducted in the agricultural landscape of Western Volhynia with fields of different land use intensity (a large-scale farming system and small traditional arable fields. The total length of the studied structures was 4760 m and the following five categories of structures were distinguished: field road verges adjacent to large (1 and small fields (2, field margins between the patches of xerothermic grasslands as well as large (3 or small fields (4 and balks (5. The distribution and abundance of species mentioned above were recorded there. The survey showed that linear habitats are not suitable for all the studied species; margins between arable fields and grasslands were the most important habitats for both grassland and weed species. Factors responsible for their abundance and distribution along these margins included the following: type of farming system, exposure of the margin, and soil moisture. Grassland species occupied habitats adjacent to small traditional fields with other than southern exposure; weeds were more abundant in drier microhabitas.

  19. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  20. Pests and Agricultural Production under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ameden, Holly A.; David R Just

    2001-01-01

    Although the effect of climate change on agricultural pests has been studied by biologists, thus far, large-scale assessments of climate change and agriculture have not included the impact of pests. We develop a simple theoretical model of farmer-pest interaction under climate change and explore the potential impacts on land values.

  1. Applying an agent-based model of agricultural terraces coupled with a landscape evolution model to explore the impact of human decision-making on terraced terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubius, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural terraces impact landscape evolution as a result of long-term human-landscape interactions, including decisions regarding terrace maintenance and abandonment. Modeling simulations are often employed to examine the sensitivity of landscapes to various factors, such as rainfall and land cover. Landscape evolution models, erosion models, and hydrological models have all previously been used to simulate the impact of agricultural terrace construction on terrain evolution, soil erosion, and hydrological connectivity. Human choices regarding individual terraces have not been included in these models to this point, despite recent recognition that maintenance and abandonment decisions alter transport and storage patterns of soil and water in terraced terrain. An agent-based model of human decisions related to agricultural terraces is implemented based on a conceptual model of agricultural terrace life cycle stages created from a literature review of terracing impacts. The agricultural terracing agent-based model is then coupled with a landscape evolution model to explore the role of human decisions in the evolution of terraced landscapes. To fully explore this type of co-evolved landscape, human decision-making and its feedbacks must be included in landscape evolution models. Project results may also have implications for management of terraced terrain based on how human choices in these environments affect soil loss and land degradation.

  2. Detecting Land Use And Land Cover Changes In Northern German Agricultural Landscapes To Assess Ecosystem Service Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Dörnhöfer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC and their changes in share and number of classes can be documented by remote sensing techniques. Information on LULC is needed for the assessment of ecosystem services and is used as input data for mapping and modelling. This information is important for decision-making and management of ecosystems and landscapes. In this study, LULC were analysed in two agricultural areas in Northern Germany by means of a pixel-based maximum likelihood classification approach of 11 Landsat TM 5 scenes between 1987 and 2011 followed by a post-classification refinement using the tool IRSeL. In this time period, grassland declined by about 50 % in both case study areas. This loss in grassland area can be associated with changes in provisioning ecosystem services as the supply of fodder and crops and the number of livestock declined from 1987 to 2007. Furthermore, an on-going increase in maize cultivation area, which is nowadays more and more used as biomass for biogas production, documents the addition of another provisioning service, i.e., biomass for energy. Combining remote sensing and research on ecosystem services supports the assessment and monitoring of ecosystem services on different temporal, spatial, and semantic scales.

  3. Impact of landscape characteristics on the stream carbon and nitrogen export: example of a small agricultural catchment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T.; Exbrayat, J.F.; Schelde, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    investigates the relative influence of different landscape characteristics on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses into streams. It not only focuses on the "classical" agricultural nitrogen pollutants of nitrate (NO3) and ammonia (NH4) but also hypothesises that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an important......Agriculture plays an important role on the environment, notably the quality of water draining cultivated soils. Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and stream quality is crucial to sustain a good quality of water and to develop adapted policies. Therefore, this study...... organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured whereas DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH and flow velocity were simultaneously measured during sampling. Statistical analyses show significant differences in these water quality parameters between the northern...

  4. Characterisation and change detection of the agricultural terraced landscape of Costa Viola (Calabria, Italy) in view of its sustainable management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, Giuseppe; Praticò, Salvatore; Lanucara, Simone; Di Fazio, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The research presented in this paper aimed at the dynamic characterisation of the historical terraced landscape of 'Costa Viola', a coastal region in South Italy, in view of its sustainable management. Here the agricultural terraces, used for vineyards, over time have occupied very steep sites and today are recognised as worthy of protection because of their high cultural and scenic value. During the last century, because of the loss of economic competitiveness, the agricultural terraces have undergone progressive abandonment, followed by landscape deterioration and increase of hydrogeologic risk. As a consequence it has recently emerged the need to support the permanence of terraced agriculture through a sensitive management of the area, based on a precise and updated knowledge of the landscape system and its ongoing dynamics of change. To this end the main characteristics of the Costa Viola dry-stone terraces and the Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) evolution between 1955 and 2012 were analysed. Taking into consideration the very steep slopes of Costa Viola and the need to analyse with high precision the historical evolution of the terraced landscape, they were implemented investigation methods coupling the use of precision tools with in-situ detailed surveys. A parallel diachronic study was also carried out, covering nearly 60 years and aiming to identify the local geomorphological processes and forms (such as landslides) through stereoscopic analysis of high resolution historic aerial photograms (1955 and 1976) compared to full colour digital orthophotos (1988, 2006, 2008, 2012), direct on-field verification, analysis of cadastral data and pluviometric data series. The geomorphological processes were analysed also in relation with the changes occurred over time in the agricultural terraces and in the urban/rural interface evolution. They were implemented a geographic database based on PostGIS and a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) developed in a GFOSS (Geographic

  5. Environmental vulnerability and agriculture in the karstic domain: landscape indicators and cases in the Atlas Highlands, Morocco.

    OpenAIRE

    Akdim Brahim; Amyay Mohammed

    1999-01-01

    After the brief presentation of the major karstic areas in Morocco, the article focused essentially on the Atlas mountains to investigate the impact of the agriculture on the natural systems equilibrium. Socio-economic changes (demographic pressure, escalation of the landscape use, utilisation of new techniques in water harvesting, etc...) have sometimes fathered mechanisms of degradation. Many indicators seem to reflect these mechanisms. The pedologic indicators, soil erosion, the hydrologic...

  6. Contrast in Edge Vegetation Structure Modifies the Predation Risk of Natural Ground Nests in an Agricultural Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Nicole A.; Low, Matthew; Arlt, Debora; Pärt, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Nest predation risk generally increases nearer forest-field edges in agricultural landscapes. However, few studies test whether differences in edge contrast (i.e. hard versus soft edges based on vegetation structure and height) affect edge-related predation patterns and if such patterns are related to changes in nest conspicuousness between incubation and nestling feeding. Using data on 923 nesting attempts we analyse factors influencing nest predation risk at different edge types in an agric...

  7. Production Structure of Agriculture in Huai’an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the data in 1990-2009 Huai’an Statistical Yearbook and Jiangsu Statistical Yearbook,production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is analyzed.Result shows that economic efficiency of planting industry is significantly lower than that of other industry types of agriculture;and the production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is unbalanced and needs further optimization.The reasons for the imbalance in industrial structure are various,such as the relatively low quality of agricultural employees,the backward marketing of planting,and the lack of standardization management.Finally,corresponding suggestions are put forward,including developing education,conducting vocational training,improving the human capital stock of Huai’an City,cultivating the leading enterprises for agricultural product processing,and realizing the scale agglomeration effect of agricultural production in planting industry.

  8. Landscape machines: productive nature and the future sublime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncken, P.A.; Stremke, S.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Design and research in landscape design have yet to be balanced into a fine triad of theory, method and practice. Many practitioners worry that such academic seriousness may weaken the imaginative aspects of landscape design. Their trouble reveals a typical weakness in contemporary landscape archite

  9. Home range and habitat use of little owl (Athene noctua in an agricultural landscape in coastal Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Framis, H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades agricultural landscapes in Catalonia have undergone a profound transformation as in most of Europe. Reforestation and urban development have reduced farmland and therefore the availability of suitable habitat for some bird species such as the little owl (Athene noctua. The outskirts of the city of Mataró by the Mediterranean Sea exemplify this landscape change, but still support a population of little owl where agriculture is carried out. Three resident little owls were monitored with telemetry weekly from November 2007 until the beginning of August 2008 in this suburban agricultural landscape. Mean home range ± SD was 10.9 ± 5.5 ha for minimum convex polygon (MCP100 and 7.4 ± 3.8 ha for Kernel 95% probability function (K95. Home ranges of contiguous neighboring pairs overlapped 18.4% (MCP100 or 6% (K95. Home range varied among seasons reaching a maximum between March and early August but always included the nesting site. Small forested patches were associated with roosting and nesting areas where cavities in Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua were important. When foraging in crop fields, the owls typically fed where crops had recently been harvested and replanted. All three owls bred successfully.

  10. A THEORETICAL SPOTLIGHT OVER THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tarcza Teodora

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying and classifying new types of agricultural products, especially in Romania, but not only. As we well know, all the countries all over the world have their own history, traditions, economic structure, and a certain type of agriculture, adapted to their soil, climate, and nevertheless to theirs people needs. So, we know that certain countries used to cultivate certain agricultural products, while others are wellknown for others. Usually, we associate Spain with gre...

  11. Mining, Pollution and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Fernando; Rud, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Most modern mines in the developing world are located in rural areas, where agriculture is the main source of livelihood. This creates the potential of negative spillovers to farmers through competition for key inputs (such as land) and environmental pollution. To explore this issue, we examine the case of gold mining in Ghana. Through the estimation of an agricultural production function using household level data, we find that mining has reduced agricultural productivity by almost 40%. This...

  12. Developing conservation agriculture production systems: An analysis of local networks

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, S.; Moore, Keith M.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) has been trumpeted as the solution for reducing soil degradation and increasing agricultural productivity around the world. Some farmland settings, such as in Brazil and the United States, have established substantial hectarage in conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) establishment, while other locations, such as in Africa, have little permanent adoption of CA practices. A close review of the literature on adoption of CA technologies indicates that s...

  13. Evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiti, K.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960 with the help of variable quantifies of products, the cultured area and the exported quantifies of products. A comparative analysis of quantifies of studied products shows that after 1960, the agricultural production of basis foodstuffs of the Zairian population has fallen of the order of 91 % in comparison with the first period. This study shows that the system of peasantry introduced in 1936 by the INEAC, the rationalization of cultural methods connected to the governmental explain the agricultural expansion of Zaire before 1960.

  14. The Status of Human Nutrition and Agricultural Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Bonita; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors state that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should be considering productive alternatives for the American farmer, exploring ways to use or export the excess fat, and should be spending at least half of its resources to convince the consumers of the value they are getting from agricultural products. (CT)

  15. Status of Agricultural Production and Crop Variety Improvement in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Chun-hai; GUO Ying; YAO Ming-hua; WAN Zheng-huang

    2012-01-01

    We introduced basic conditions of agricultural production in Thailand, and variety improvement of major crops, including rice, cassava, rubber, and vegetable, in the hope of providing reference for agricultural production and crop variety improvement in Hubei Province and even in the whole country.

  16. Improving agricultural production under water scarcity in Fars province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, M.R.; Haile, A.M.; McClain, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water scarcity is one of the major limiting factor for improving agricultural production in the world, which significantly affects agricultural production and livelihood of millions of people who live in arid and semi-arid regions. This case study presents the analysis of the effectiveness

  17. Decomposition of Gender Differentials in Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Arturo; Carranza, Eliana; Goldstein, Markus; Kilic,Talip; Oseni, Gbemisola

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs decomposition methods to analyze differences in agricultural productivity between male and female land managers in Ethiopia. It employs data from the 2011-2012 Ethiopian Rural Socioeconomic Survey. An overall 23.4 percent gender differential in agricultural productivity is estimated at the mean in favor of male land managers, of which 10.1 percentage points are explained by ...

  18. L’agriculture en Arabie du Sud avant l’Islam South Arabian Pre-Islamic Agriculture: Piecing Together Ancient Landscapes & Agricultural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Charbonnier

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article vise à reconstituer les différents systèmes de culture d’Arabie du sud antique. Pour ce faire, les études archéobotaniques sont mises en perspective avec les recherches sur les paysages et les techniques de culture anciennes. Il apparaît ainsi, qu’entre l’âge du Bronze et la période sudarabique, le Yémen n’a cessé de s’enrichir de l’arrivée de nouvelles plantes, en provenance de Proche-Orient, de l’Afrique et du Monde indien. Leurs capacités propres et les nouvelles combinaisons dont elles offraient l’opportunité ont permis à l’homme de diversifier les systèmes de culture afin de tirer au maximum parti des terres et d’être plus flexible face aux altérations du climat et de l’environnement.This paper aims at recognizing and understanding the various agro-systems of the ancient South Arabia. Archaeobotanical data are confronted with studies concerning pre-Islamic landscapes and agricultural techniques. It appears that, during the Bronze Age and the South Arabian period, new cultivars, coming from the Near-East, Africa and India, have regularly reached the region. Because of their own specificities and of the new associations they permitted, these plants have allowed Man to enrich agro-systems and to be more flexible in order to cope with climatic and environmental changes.

  19. A landscape project for the coexistence of agriculture and nature: a proposal for the coastal area of a Natura 2000 site in Sicily (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Riguccio; Laura Carullo; Patrizia Russo; Giovanna Tomaselli

    2016-01-01

    Many rural coastal Mediterranean areas suffer from great anthropomorphic pressure. This is due to intensive agriculture, and construction for residential, tourism and industrial uses. The present work investigates the idea of using a landscape project in the Gulf of Gela in South Sicily to recover the dunes and the area behind them. The method used is based on the literature and will evaluate and interpret the dynamics of the landscape, so as to draw up a landscape plan, which can be used to ...

  20. Building a shared representation of the landscape as a socio-ecological system and visualizing the challenges of climate-smart agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Fallot, Abigaïl; Le Coq, Jean-François; Salinas, Julio Cesar; Aguilar, Teresa; Cronenbold, Romy; Vides-Almonacid, Roberto; Devisscher, Tahia

    2015-01-01

    Climate threats exacerbate issues of natural resource management in rural landscapes, namely water, forest and agricultural land. In order to consistently address these issues, we highlight the usefulness of a joint vision of the landscape where the actors share their knowledge on the mechanisms at work when considering the central problem that affect the landscape as well as the proposed solutions. On the basis of several case studies, we present and analyze participatory conceptual modellin...

  1. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  2. Agricultural productivity growth and technology progress in developing country agriculture: case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDZIO-BIKA Herve Lezin W.; WEI Long-bao

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to analyze the impact of some production variables (input) on agricultural productivity growth (output) in China from 1989~2002. We selected through random sampling Zhejiang Province for our disaggregate analysis with the use of Cobb-Douglas function. The estimation results showed that all key parameters are significant and are of the expected sign. Labor and that capital and land have positive impact on agricultural productivity growth.

  3. Agriculture and Aggregate Productivity: A Quantitative Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Dennis Tao Yang; Xiaodong Zhu

    2003-01-01

    A decomposition of aggregate labor productivity based on internationally comparable data from FAO and Penn World Tables reveals that high labor shares and low productivity in agriculture are mainly responsible for poor countries current position in the world income distribution. Using a two-sector general equilibrium model, we argue that di erences in total factor productivity (TFP) and barriers to using modern intermediate inputs in agricultural production can largely account for the observe...

  4. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  5. Impact of greenhouse gases on agricultural productivity in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is an agricultural developing country. About 68% of the country's population resides in rural areas and is mostly linked with agriculture. Agricultural sector contributes more than 25% to GDP, employees about 45% of the labour force and contributes significantly to export earnings of the country. Energy sector is the major source (80%) of emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Agriculture and livestock sectors are also responsible for GHGs emissions. The emissions of GHGs results in acid rain and earth's temperature rise (global warming). The destabilization of the global climate destroys natural ecosystem and increases natural disasters, such as violent storms, floods, droughts etc. The acid rain and these natural disasters affect the agricultural productivity. The study indicates that the agricultural productivity per capita in Pakistan decreased continuously during the last two decades. The paper concludes that due to emissions of GHGs, the agricultural productivity is significantly affected in the country. The government should take concrete measures to minimize the emissions of GHGs for increasing the agricultural productivity and reducing other harmful impacts in the country. This paper presents the review and analysis of the effects of GHGs emissions on the agricultural productivity in Pakistan. (author)

  6. Tree Species Abundance Predictions in a Tropical Agricultural Landscape with a Supervised Classification Model and Imbalanced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Graves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping species through classification of imaging spectroscopy data is facilitating research to understand tree species distributions at increasingly greater spatial scales. Classification requires a dataset of field observations matched to the image, which will often reflect natural species distributions, resulting in an imbalanced dataset with many samples for common species and few samples for less common species. Despite the high prevalence of imbalanced datasets in multiclass species predictions, the effect on species prediction accuracy and landscape species abundance has not yet been quantified. First, we trained and assessed the accuracy of a support vector machine (SVM model with a highly imbalanced dataset of 20 tropical species and one mixed-species class of 24 species identified in a hyperspectral image mosaic (350–2500 nm of Panamanian farmland and secondary forest fragments. The model, with an overall accuracy of 62% ± 2.3% and F-score of 59% ± 2.7%, was applied to the full image mosaic (23,000 ha at a 2-m resolution to produce a species prediction map, which suggested that this tropical agricultural landscape is more diverse than what has been presented in field-based studies. Second, we quantified the effect of class imbalance on model accuracy. Model assessment showed a trend where species with more samples were consistently over predicted while species with fewer samples were under predicted. Standardizing sample size reduced model accuracy, but also reduced the level of species over- and under-prediction. This study advances operational species mapping of diverse tropical landscapes by detailing the effect of imbalanced data on classification accuracy and providing estimates of tree species abundance in an agricultural landscape. Species maps using data and methods presented here can be used in landscape analyses of species distributions to understand human or environmental effects, in addition to focusing conservation

  7. Multiple Encryption-based Algorithm of Agricultural Product Trace Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To establish a sound traceability system of agricultural products and guarantee security of agricultural products,an algorithm is proposed to encrypt trace code of agricultural products.Original trace code consists of 34 digits indicating such information as place of origin,name of product,date of production and authentication.Area code is used to indicate enterprise information,the encrypted algorithm is designed because of the increasing code length,such coding algorithms as system conversion and section division are applied for the encrypted conversion of code of origin place and production date code,moreover,section identification code and authentication code are permutated and combined to produce check code.Through the multiple encryption and code length compression,34 digits are compressed to 20 on the basis of ensuring complete coding information,shorter code length and better encryption enable the public to know information about agricultural products without consulting professional database.

  8. Analysis of Employment Flow of Landscape Architecture Graduates in Agricultural Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xia; He, Linchun

    2012-01-01

    A statistical analysis of employment flow of landscape architecture graduates was conducted on the employment data of graduates major in landscape architecture in 2008 to 2011. The employment flow of graduates was to be admitted to graduate students, industrial direction and regional distribution, etc. Then, the features of talent flow and factors…

  9. Agricultural Production Efficiency of Chongqing Based on DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Literatures about agricultural production efficiency are reviewed.Concept of DEA Method,as well as the definition methods of effective DEA and scale efficiency increase are introduced.According to the relevant statistical data in the years 1997-2007 in Chongqing Municipality,efficiency of agricultural economy is calculated from the year 1997 to 2007 by DEA method and the scale efficiency is also analyzed by taking the total output of agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery industry as the output index.And the input index includes total workforce in agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery,the total sown area of crops,the total power of agricultural machinery,chemical fertilizer application,the draft animal,and the effective irrigation area.Result shows that Chongqing City became a municipality directly under the central government;its agricultural production efficiency is still low.And the sustainable development capacity of agricultural is weak in Chongqing,and the agricultural resources are not fully used.Based on this,related suggestions are put forward to improve the agricultural production efficiency of Chongqing,such as implementing an appropriate management scale of land,improving the organization degree of peasant households and the rate of industrialization management,enhancing the quality of the rural labor force,strengthening the agricultural science and technology input and extension,perfecting the construction of rural infrastructure,and improving the rate of resource utilization.

  10. Woodchip bioreactors for N-source reduction in a highly managed agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kult, K.; Jones, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Excess nutrification and the resulting hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico are increasingly understood to originate in managed landscapes of the Upper Mississippi River basin. Nitrogen inputs to cropped fields are high in landscapes with soils containing high organic nitrogen content that, when mineralized, releases nitrogen in the soluble nitrate form. These in situ sources supply extensive subsurface drainage systems that rapidly transport nitrogen to streams and ultimately the Gulf. Aggressive in-field N management can reduce loading to streams, but will not reduce loads to sufficiently impact Gulf hypoxia. Edge of Field (EOF) treatment will be needed to reach water quality objectives. Denitrification bioreactors are one technology being studied for practical and economical EOF nitrate reduction. Bioreactors intercept the high-N tile-drain effluent with woodchip substrates that provide carbon and energy to support denitrification. Iowa Soybean Association (ISA) installed six bioreactors. Design of the ISA bioreactors has focused on the diameter of the field tile and the catchment area. Designs balance discharge with retention times. The bioreactors have been designed to have a 4-hour hydraulic retention time (HRT) capable of treating 20% of peak flow. Denitrification is assumed to follow zero-order kinetics given the high NO3 concentrations in the studied systems. Aerobic organisms must deplete DO sufficiently so anaerobic denitrifying organisms can compete. Insufficient HRT results in unsatisfactory NO3 reductions. Conditions favoring incomplete denitrification can lead to emission of the greenhouse gas N2O. Excessive retention times allow for complete denitrification enabling SO4-reducing bacteria to thrive. This produces undesirable results: conversion of SO4 to H2S, C-source depletion, production of toxic CH3Hg+, and methanogenesis. A flow control structure (FCS) allows for management of HRT by modifying the position of stop logs. Increased HRT reduces the amount

  11. Changes in Carbon Pools 50 Years after Reversion of a Landscape Dominated by Agriculture to Managed Forests in the Upper Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Trettin, C.; Parresol, B. R.; Li, C.

    2010-12-01

    The landscape of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina in the late 1940’s was typified by rural agricultural communities and farms comprising cleared fields and mixed-use woodlots. Approximately 80,000 ha of that landscape was appropriated by the US Government in the early 1950’s to form the Savannah River Site which is now managed by the US Dept. of Energy. The US Forest Service was engaged to reforest the agricultural parcels, 40% of the tract, and to develop sustainable management practices for the woodlots and restored areas. As part of the acquisition process in 1951, a complete inventory of the land and forest resources were conducted. In 2001, an intensive forest survey was conducted which encompassed 90% of the tract, detailing the above-ground biomass pools. We’ve used those inventories in conjunction with soil resource data to assemble a carbon balance sheet encompassing the above and belowground carbon pools over the 50 year period. We’ve also employed inventories on forest removals, forest burning and runoff to estimate fluxes from the landscape over the same period. There was a net sequestration of 5,486 Gg of C in forest vegetation over the 50 yr. period (1.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1), with carbon density increasing from 6.3 to 83.3 Mg ha-1. The reforestation of the agricultural land and the increased density of the former woodlots was the cause of the gain. Fifty years after imposition of silvicultural prescriptions, the forest composition has changed from being dominated by hardwoods to pine. The forest floor increased by 311 Gg carbon. Fluxes in form of harvested wood and oxidation from burning were 24% and 10% respectively of the net gain in vegetative biomass. These findings document real changes in carbon storage on a landscape that was changed from mixed agricultural use to managed forests, and they suggest responses that should be similar if reforestation for biofuels production is expanded.

  12. Pour une agriculture mondiale, productive et durable

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Ancien directeur du département Agriculture et développement durable de la Banque mondiale, Michel Petit nous livre un essai directement inspiré de son expérience au service des agricultures du monde. La critique du productivisme, en particulier de son impact sur les ressources naturelles, peut-elle faire l’impasse sur le rôle déterminant de la productivité agricole dans les processus de développement économique ? Dans la lignée des travaux de Théodore Schultz, prix Nobel d’économie en 1979 p...

  13. Challenges in linking agricultural soil erosion studies to landscape scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.-H.; Norton, L. D.; Flanagan, D. C.

    2009-04-01

    have to shift from the annual cycle of crop management and rotation, i.e., a field scale process, to a much longer time scale as sediment transport and deposition processes in the landscape have a very long response time. Agricultural management practices have different response times depending on where the focus is. Crop yield and water conservation can usually be observed in annual cycles. Changes in aggregate stability and soil erodibility can take several years or even decades. It is often observed that sediments eroded from a field are deposited within the field boundary and sediments transported in stream channels may have been those already deposited decades ago in stream banks and flood plains. Without knowing the transient nature of the sediment movement, or a distribution of travel time for the sediments from fields to stream channels, it can be very difficult to assess the conservation or management effects at the watershed scale where geomorphic processes become dominant. In this presentation, we will provide a cursory review of US agricultural soil erosion research and development, which was intended for developing field scale erosion prediction technology. We will then discuss how we propose to address the scaling issue in assessing conservation effects at the watershed scale for sediments.

  14. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. EFFICIENT USE OF ROMANIA AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL BY INCREASING LABOR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOR CRISTIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania has a significant agricultural potential and agriculture in our country has an important share among sectors of the national economy. However, even if the Romanian labor productivity in agriculture had a positive development in the period 2007-2014, the level is lower than that achieved in the agricultural performance in the European Union. In order to improve labor productivity in Romanian agriculture, it is necessary to take a series of measures in order to reduce the disparities in this sector compared with the performance level from EU. For increasing the Romanian labor efficiency in agriculture, it is necessary to encourage investment and to improve the level of technology in mechanization; for the physical work done by Romanian farmer, to adjust with the performance benefits of using mechanization.

  16. Secondary aerosol production from agricultural gas precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of air quality indicate that agricultural emissions may impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Increasing evidence from both laboratory and field work suggests that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but some volatile org...

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND FOOD PRODUCTION SUSTAINABILITY IN BANGLADESH AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Sanzidur

    1999-01-01

    Although `Green Revolution' technology is the major technological breakthrough in agricultural history, which is adopted by nations worldwide, including Bangladesh, to boost their foodgrain production, it is increasingly felt that productivity from this new agricultural technology is declining and is a threat to sustainability of economic development. The present study attempted to evaluate the role of technological change in augmenting aggregate crop growth and sustaining food production for...

  18. STATISTICAL CONTROL OF PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dražen Horvat; Andrijana Eđed; Đuro Banaj

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental concept of statistical process control is based on decision-making about the process on the basis of comparison of data collected from process with calculated control limits. Statistical process and quality control of agricultural products is used to provide agricultural products that will satisfy customer requirements in a view of quality pretension as well as costumer requirements in a cost price. In accordance with ISO 9000, quality standards for process and products are define...

  19. The relative importance of fertilization and soil erosion on C-dynamics in agricultural landscapes of NE Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Madlen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Hagemann, Ulrike; Jurisch, Nicole; Remus, Rainer; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The hummocky ground moraine landscape of north-east Germany is characterized by distinct small-scale soil heterogeneity on the one hand, and intensive energy crop cultivation on the other. Both factors are assumed to significantly influence gaseous C exchange, and thus driving the dynamics of soil organic carbon stocks in terrestrial, agricultural ecosystems. However, it is not yet clear to which extent fertilization and soil erosional status influence soil C dynamics and whether one of these factors is more relevant than the other. We present seasonal and dynamic soil C balances of biogas maize for the growing season 2011, recorded at different sites located within the CarboZALF experimental area. The sites differ regarding soils (non-eroded Albic Luvisols (Cutanic), extremely eroded Calcaric Regosol and depositional Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol,) and applied fertilizer (100% mineral N fertilizer, 50% mineral and 50% N organic fertilizer, 100% organic N fertilizer). Fertilization treatments were established on the Albic Luvisol (Cutanic). Net-CO2-exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) were measured every four weeks using a dynamic flow-through non-steady-state closed manual chamber system. Gap filling was performed based on empirical temperature and PAR dependency functions to derive daily NEE values. At the same time, daily above-ground biomass production (NPP) was estimated based on biomass samples and final harvest, using a sigmoidal growth function. In a next step, dynamic soil C balances were generated as the balance of daily NEE and NPP considering the initial C input due to N fertilizers. The resulted seasonal soil C balances varied from strong C losses at the Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol (602 g C m-2) to C gains at the Calcaric Regosol (-132 g C m-2). In general, soils exerted a stronger impact on seasonal and dynamic C balances compared to differences in applied N fertilizer. There are indications that inter-annual variations in climate conditions

  20. "Land Productivity and Economic Development: Caloric Suitability vs. Agricultural Suitability"

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Galor; Omer Ozak

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes that the Caloric Suitability Index (CSI) dominates the commonly used measure of agricultural suitability in the examination of the effect of land productivity on comparative economic development. The analysis demonstrates that the agricultural suitability index does not capture the large variation in the potential caloric yield across equally suitable land, reflecting the fact that land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for the most caloric-intensive ...

  1. Utilization of low rank coal and agricultural by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekinci, E.; Yardim, M.F.; Petrova, B.; Budinova, T.; Petrov, N. [Istanbul Technical University, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The present investigation deals with alternative utilization processes to convert low rank coal and agricultural by products into solid, liquid and gaseous products for a more efficient exploitation of these materials. Low rank coals and different agricultural by-products were subjected to different thermochemical treatments. The composition and physico-chemical properties of liquid products obtained from agricultural by-products were investigated. The identified compounds are predominantly oxygen derivatives of phenol, dihydroxybenzenes, guaiacol, syringol, vanilin, veratrol, furan and acids. Liquids from low rank coals contain higher quality of aromatic compounds predominantly mono- and bicyclic. The amount of oxygen containing structures is high as well. By thermo-chemical treatment of liquid products from agricultural by-products, low rank coals and their mixtures with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} carbon adsorbents with very low ash and sulfur content are obtained. Using different activation reagents large scale carbon adsorbents are prepared from agricultural by-products and coals. The results of the investigations open-up possibilities for utilization of low rank coals and agricultural by-products. 18 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Energy of the wood – to quality of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rijov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The group of authors is engaged in development and deployment in production of products of biomass of the wood in agriculture. Lately we introduced in production more than five domestic import-substituting products, more than 20 applications for inventions are submitted, 4 patents are taken out, more than 30 articles on this subject are published.

  3. Lemon Effect of Green Agricultural Products and Its Marketing Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the lemon effect of green agricultural products,analyzes the formation reasons of the lemon effect of green agricul-tural products and summarizes problems brought by the effect,such as malicious deception and high price.The paper proposes countermeasures toavoid the lemon effect of green agricultural products from a perspective of marketing.The first is to strengthen the quality supervision of green agri-cultural products,upgrade the quality of products,and build up branded products.The government should foster the main body of the products andguide the main body to realize the importance of brand construction and management.The second is to construct a sales channel system of greenagricultural products,making use of the trading center of modern green agricultural products to sell products,developing a long term partnershipwith processing industries,big supermarket and restaurants,making use of internet and selling products online and offline.The third is to propagatethe products.Make a good use of advertisement,personal sales,propagation and public relations to accelerate the healthy development of greenagricultural market.

  4. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future. PMID:20643935

  5. Microfinance, Efficiency and Agricultural Production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, K. M. Zahidul

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to make a detailed and systematic empirical analysis of microfinance borrowers and non-borrowers in Bangladesh and also examine how efficiency measures are influenced by the access to agricultural microfinance. In the empirical analysis, this study used both parametric and non-parametric frontier approaches to investigate differences in efficiency estimates between microfinance borrowers and non-borrowers. This thesis, based on five articles, applied data obt...

  6. Precision Agriculture Technology Adoption for Cotton Production

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Kenneth W.; Mishra, Ashok K.; Chintawar, Sachin; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, Burton C.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Marra, Michele C.; Larkin, Sherry L.; Reeves, Jeanne M.; Martin, Steven W

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on the adoption of precision technologies have generally used logit models to explain the adoption behavior of individuals. This study investigates factors affecting the number of specific types of precision agriculture technologies adopted by cotton farmers. Particular attention is given to the influence of spatial yield variability on the number of precision farming technologies adopted, using a Count data estimation procedure and farm-level data. Results indicate that farmers ...

  7. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, A. U.; I. B. Obot; Umoren, S. A.; Mkpenie, V.; Asuquo, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis), raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri), stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays), fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera), sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum), pear wood (Manilkara obovata), stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus), sugarcane baggase (Sac...

  8. Sensitive Product Treatment in Agricultural Trade Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Wailes, Eric J; Sharp, Misti

    2011-01-01

    The fact that trade, and especially agricultural trade, remains far from free is puzzling, since the superiority of free trade receives overwhelming support among economists (Gawande and Krishna, 2003; Rodrik, 1994). International trade scholars have devoted significant resources to forecasting the impact of trade policy reforms (for a survey of these studies see Congressional Budget Office, 2005), and their findings are relevant inputs for officials negotiating a trade agreement as well as f...

  9. Riparian strip efficiency assessment in agricultural landscapes using stereoscopic very high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokmani, Karem; Novoa, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Riparian strips are used worldwide to protect riverbanks and water quality in agricultural zones because of their several environmental benefits. A metric called the Riparian Strip Quality Index, which is based on the percentage area of riverine vegetation found on the riparian strip, is used to evaluate their ecological condition. This index could be considered an indicator of the potential capacity of riparian strips to filter sediments, retain pollutants, and provide shelter to terrestrial and aquatic species. Thus, in order to know if a riparian strip is truly efficient in agricultural lands, which means that it is fulfilling those ecological functions, it is necessary to understand their ability to intercept surface runoff. The latter is the major cause of water pollution and erosion in these productive areas. Besides vegetation coverage, topographic and hydrologic parameters must be included to model the intensity and spatial distribution of runoff streamflow at local scales. The geospatial information used to assess the ecological efficiency of riparian strips was extracted from very-high-spatial-resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery. This information was then processed using current geospatial techniques such as object-based image analysis and was used to develop a Riparian Strip Efficiency Index. The results show that this index might be used to assess the efficiency of riparian strips, which will enable land managers to monitor changes occurring over time, identify priority areas for restoration activities. This, in turn, might ensure optimal allocation of private or public funds towards the most inefficient and threatened riparian strips.

  10. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    Buffer strips on agricultural land have been shown to protect surface water quality by reducing erosion and diffuse pollution. They can also play a key role in nature conservation and flood risk mitigation as well as in the design of bioenergy landscapes resilient to changes in climate....... This paper reviews the biophysical knowledge on buffer functioning and associated ecosystem services. It describes how a three-zone buffer design, with arable fields buffered in combination by grassland, short rotation forestry (SRF) or coppice (SRC) and undisturbed vegetation along water courses, can...

  11. Strong discrepancies between local temperature mapping and interpolated climatic grids in tropical mountainous agricultural landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Faye

    Full Text Available Bridging the gap between the predictions of coarse-scale climate models and the fine-scale climatic reality of species is a key issue of climate change biology research. While it is now well known that most organisms do not experience the climatic conditions recorded at weather stations, there is little information on the discrepancies between microclimates and global interpolated temperatures used in species distribution models, and their consequences for organisms' performance. To address this issue, we examined the fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in air, crop canopy and soil temperatures of agricultural landscapes in the Ecuadorian Andes and compared them to predictions of global interpolated climatic grids. Temperature time-series were measured in air, canopy and soil for 108 localities at three altitudes and analysed using Fourier transform. Discrepancies between local temperatures vs. global interpolated grids and their implications for pest performance were then mapped and analysed using GIS statistical toolbox. Our results showed that global interpolated predictions over-estimate by 77.5 ± 10% and under-estimate by 82.1 ± 12% local minimum and maximum air temperatures recorded in the studied grid. Additional modifications of local air temperatures were due to the thermal buffering of plant canopies (from -2.7 °K during daytime to 1.3 °K during night-time and soils (from -4.9 °K during daytime to 6.7 °K during night-time with a significant effect of crop phenology on the buffer effect. This discrepancies between interpolated and local temperatures strongly affected predictions of the performance of an ectothermic crop pest as interpolated temperatures predicted pest growth rates 2.3-4.3 times lower than those predicted by local temperatures. This study provides quantitative information on the limitation of coarse-scale climate data to capture the reality of the climatic environment experienced by living organisms. In highly

  12. Some physicochemical properties of surface layer soils shelterbelts in agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskulska, R.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    Shelterbelts belong to very efficient biogeochemical barriers. They decrease the migration of chemical compounds between ecosystems. The investigations were carried out in the Chlapowski's Agroecological Park in Turew situated 40 km South-West of Poznań, Poland. This area is located on loamy soils, which contains 70% cultivated fields and 14% shelterbelts and small afforestations. The shelterbelts represent different ages and the content of plants as well as humus quantity in surface layer. The first one is 100-year-old shelterbelt, where predominant species is Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Quercus rober L., and Fraxinus excelsior (L.) and is characterized by a well-developed humus level. The other one is 14-year-old shelterbelt. It includes 13 species of trees and revealed a small amount of humus. The soil under both shelterbelts is mineral, grey-brown podzolic in surface layer compound from light loamy sands and weakly loamy sands. The soil samples were taken from surface layer (0-20 cm). pH 1N KCl, hydrolytic acidity, cation-exchange capacity, total proper area, total organic carbon and dissociation constants were determined in soils. The study showed that the soil under shelterbelts revealed acidic properties. It was observed that soils of 100-year-old shelterbelt characterizing lowest values pH = 4.2 revealed highest values of hydrolytic acidity equaled to 7.8 cmol(+)ṡkg-1. The physicochemical properties of investigated soils shoved specific surface areas (22.8 m2ṡg-1), cationic sorptive capacity (12.9 cmol(+)ṡkg-1). TOC (1.6%) 100-year-old shelterbelt was higher than in 14-year-old shelterbelt. The dissociation constants were determined by potentiometric titration. This investigation revealed that the pK value was the highest in the humus of 100-year-old shelterbelt (pKa = 3.1). However, soils of 14-year-old shelterbelt characterized by the lovest pK equaled to 2.8. The surface layer soils shelterbelts in agricultural landscape with good humus development

  13. What Determines Productivity Growth of Agricultural Cooperatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Chatura B.; Featherstone, Allen M; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines productivity of a sample of grain marketing and farm supply cooperatives from 1990 to 1998. The cooperative industry’s productivity or growth was mainly due to improvement in technology rather than improvement in pure efficiency or scale. The cooperative industry’s productivity was primarily associated with the grain, fertilizer, and agrochemical product lines. Policies that raise fertilizer prices would encourage a cooperative to be technically more productive. In gen...

  14. Assessement of landscape efficiency in matter retention in submontane agricultural catchments of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Libor; Procházka, J.; Hais, M.; Pecharová, E.; Eiseltová, M.; Bodlák, L.; Šulcová, J.; Kröpfelová, L.

    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2005 - (Dunne, E.; Reddy, K.; Carton, O.), s. 34-38 ISBN 9076998612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Landscape sustainability * Matter losses * temperature distribution * water discharge Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  15. Ecologies of Scale: Multifunctionality Connects Conservation and Agriculture across Fields, Farms, and Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Devan Allen McGranahan

    2014-01-01

    Agroecology and landscape ecology are two land-use sciences based on ecological principles, but have historically focused on fine and broad spatial scales, respectively. As global demand for food strains current resources and threatens biodiversity conservation, concepts such as multifunctional landscapes and ecologically-analogous agroecosystems integrate ecological concepts across multiple spatial scales. This paper reviews ecological principles behind several concepts crucial to the reconc...

  16. Spatial distribution of soils determines export of nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon from an intensively managed agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wohlfart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The surrounding landscape of a stream has crucial impacts on the aquatic environment. This study pictures the hydro-biogeochemical situation of the Tyrebækken creek catchment in central Jutland, Denmark. The intensively managed agricultural landscape is dominated by rotational croplands. The small catchment mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and land use on stream water quality. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN, nitrate (NO3, ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were measured, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electrical conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged stream parts, especially for NO3 concentrations with average values between 1.4 mg N l−1 and 9.6 mg N l−1. Furthermore, throughout the sampling period DON concentrations increased to 2.8 mg N l−1 in the northern stream contributing up to 81% to TDN. Multiple-linear regression analyses performed between chemical data and landscape characteristics showed a significant negative influence of organic soils on instream N concentrations and corresponding losses in spite of their overall minor share of the agricultural land (12.9%. On the other hand, organic soil frequency was positively correlated to the corresponding DOC concentrations. Croplands also had a significant influence but with weaker correlations. For our case study we conclude that the fractions of coarse textured and organic soils have a major influence on N and DOC export in this intensively used landscape. Meanwhile, the contribution of DON to the total N

  17. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agricultureproduction systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  18. The Origins of Agriculture Production in the Area of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Food production, that is to say agricultural production begins independently in three different geographical areas: the Near East, the Far East and Central America. From the Near East agriculture spread to the entire Europe. Locations of domestication and spreading routes of Triticum dicoccum, Triticum monococcum, sheep and cattle enable us to establish directions of the spread of agriculture. Growing precision of 14C method by which date of biological material is determined makes it possible to determine the beginnings of agricultural production in specific areas and the rapidity of its spreading. Food production created the conditions for significant population growth and rapid social development. Discovery of human genome and development of a new interdisciplinary science of arhaeogenetics led to knowledge about dates of appearance of certain human haplotypes, from which the spread of agriculture by demographic diffusion or by acquiring food production know-how can be inferred. In the period between 7000 and 5000 BC developing pottery cultures were spreading simultaneously with agriculture. For the understanding of spread of agriculture to Croatia and its further advance, archaeological data on the Impresso, Starèevo, Korenovo (as a part of Linear Pottery complex, Danilo and Lengyel - Sopot cultures are of great importance.

  19. The Challenge of Governing Africa’s New Agricultural Investment Landscapes: An Analysis of Policy Arrangements and Sustainability Outcomes in Ethiopia and Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    George C. Schoneveld

    2014-01-01

    In the context of globalization, market liberalization, and deregulation, many African governments are embracing the potential of private agricultural investment to address structural issues within their agricultural economies. Sustainably integrating these investments into target landscapes, however, poses a number of governance challenges since it requires careful reconciliation of competing needs, priorities, and land uses. This paper examines the effectiveness of existing policy arrangeme...

  20. Computerised image analysis of biocrystallograms originating from agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens-Otto; Henriksen, Christian B.; Laursen, J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1999-01-01

    Procedures are presented for computerised image analysis of iocrystallogram images, originating from biocrystallization investigations of agricultural products. The biocrystallization method is based on the crystallographic phenomenon that when adding biological substances, such as plant extracts...

  1. Simulating Sustainable P Management Practices in Tile-Drained Landscapes of Central Ohio Using the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. I., III; King, K.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite extensive application of conservation practices to minimize sediment P delivery to streams, hypoxic conditions and harmful algal blooms persist in receiving water bodies. Tile-drainage networks are a focal point for reducing soluble P in the food-producing Midwestern United States in that they promote higher connectivity between upland soils and stream channels which decreases soil contact time, and biogeochemical alterations. A critical next step to reduce the environmental impact and maintain sustainable agriculture is to implement best management practices (BMPs) under a holistic framework that considers adverse effects to water resources and crop production, while maintaining economic feasibility. The objective of this study was to apply a robust numerical model, the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX), in a tile-drained landscape in Central Ohio in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of BMPs on soluble and particulate P delivery to stream channels. The model was applied and evaluated at two adjacent edge-of-field sites with similar soil, topographic and management characteristics (except for tillage and tile installation on the south field in 2012, preceded by more than 20 years of no-till operations). Three years of daily discharge, total suspended solids, soluble P, soluble N (NO3 and NH4), total P, total N, and crop yields were utilized to verify the model performance. Prevalent BMPs simulated within the modeling framework included drainage water management, tillage and crop rotations, the 4Rs framework (right fertilizer source, rate, time, and placement), and bioreactors. Results of the study quantify the ability of the numerical model to simulate hydrology and P transport for surface runoff and subsurface tile drainage and highlight modifications that improve model performance. Further, results highlight BMPs that effectively reduce P loads to streams while maintaining crop yields, which can later be used to inform BMPs

  2. More energy and production from agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchaim, U.

    1982-07-01

    This is a report on the Nefah project in Israel which is supported by the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure and carried out by the Research and Development Institute of Kibbutz Industries. Its aim is to transform agricultural wastes into methane gas by anaerobic digestion process, and to utilize the residues of the process as a livestock and fish food supplement. A demonstration plant based on a herd of over 500 cows and serving a kibbutz of 700 persons is already functioning satisfactorily. A computer model is able to decide upon the optimal installation for any given farm. An economic analysis is also performed.

  3. Balancing Ecosystem Services and Disservices: Smallholder Farmers' Use and Management of Forest and Trees in an Agricultural Landscape in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tola Gemechu Ango

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmers' practices in the management of agricultural landscapes influence biodiversity with implications for livelihoods, ecosystem service provision, and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we examined how smallholding farmers in an agriculture-forest mosaic landscape in southwestern Ethiopia manage trees and forests with regard to a few selected ecosystem services and disservices that they highlighted as "beneficial" or "problematic." Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from six villages, located both near and far from forest, using participatory field mapping and semistructured interviews, tree species inventory, focus group discussions, and observation. The study showed that farmers' management practices, i.e., the planting of trees on field boundaries amid their removal from inside arable fields, preservation of trees in semimanaged forest coffee, maintenance of patches of shade coffee fields in the agricultural landscape, and establishment of woodlots with exotic trees result in a restructuring of the forest-agriculture mosaic. In addition, the strategies farmers employed to mitigate crop damage by wild mammals such as baboons and bush pigs, e.g., migration and allocation of migrants on lands along forests, have contributed to a reduction in forest and tree cover in the agricultural landscape. Because farmers' management practices were overall geared toward mitigating the negative impact of disservices and to augment positive services, we conclude that it is important to operationalize ecosystem processes as both services and disservices in studies related to agricultural landscapes.

  4. Quality Management System of Agricultural Products Based on Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhao, Quan-dong

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of important property of the integrated management of agricultural product quality safety system, analyzes the lightweight characteristics of Spring technical system, hierarchical organization of MVC, and the technology SSH+ Ajax associated with the Spring framework system. On the basis of this technical system, we design the quality management system of agricultural products under B/S model. This article points out that this system is realized mainly through co...

  5. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guangtao

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) s...

  6. Productivity Gaps Between European and United States Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Ball, V. Eldon; Butault, Jean Pierre; Barkaou, Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    A set of purchasing power parities was constructed for the inputs and the outputs of the agricultural sector in 10 European countries and the United States. This made it possible to deflate both spatially and in time the nominal agricultural accounts. Real values of inputs and outputs made it possible to construct spatial indexes of productivity. These indexes measure the productivity gaps between countries for a given year. Extrapolation between 1973 and 1989 measures how these gaps have cha...

  7. Ordering Strategy for Fresh Agricultural Products in External Financing Condition

    OpenAIRE

    DU, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the two stage supply chain consisting of single agricultural product producer and fund restraint retailer. Then, it analyzed the influence of bank interest rate on order quantity, wholesale price and expected profit of retailer and producer on the condition of retailer taking external loan strategy. Studies have shown that when the bank interest rate is in (0, 0.9), the order quantity of agricultural products is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when t...

  8. Radiation Processed Materials in Products from Polymers for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication results from a technical meeting on radiation processed materials in products from polymers for agricultural applications, which was held from 8 to 12 July 2013 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting provided a forum for the sharing of practical experiences and lessons learned, and reviewed the recent developments in the use of radiation technologies for the preparation of environmental friendly products based on polymers for agricultural applications

  9. Environmental vulnerability and agriculture in the karstic domain: landscape indicators and cases in the Atlas Highlands, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akdim Brahim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available After the brief presentation of the major karstic areas in Morocco, the article focused essentially on the Atlas mountains to investigate the impact of the agriculture on the natural systems equilibrium. Socio-economic changes (demographic pressure, escalation of the landscape use, utilisation of new techniques in water harvesting, etc... have sometimes fathered mechanisms of degradation. Many indicators seem to reflect these mechanisms. The pedologic indicators, soil erosion, the hydrologic and geomorphic indicators, are apprehended to demonstrate existent correlation between different variables and the often negative impacts of land over-use in the karstic domain of the Middle Atlas.

  10. A THEORETICAL SPOTLIGHT OVER THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at identifying and classifying new types of agricultural products, especially in Romania, but not only. As we well know, all the countries all over the world have their own history, traditions, economic structure, and a certain type of agriculture, adapted to their soil, climate, and nevertheless to theirs people needs. So, we know that certain countries used to cultivate certain agricultural products, while others are wellknown for others. Usually, we associate Spain with great wines, Belgium with delicious chocolate, Turkey with coffee, India with rice, Romania with grain, Russia with cereals, SUA – tobacco, etc.\\r\

  11. Inequality and agricultural production: Evidence from aggregate agriculture and sugarcane farms in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ngepah, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of inequality in productivity in South African agriculture and differentiates between small-scale and large-scale farms in the sugarcane sector. The findings suggest that inequality slows down productivity and that land redistribution slightly improves it. Farm type-specific effects reveal that redistribution per se does not lead to higher production, but only improves production for those who farm the land effectively and go on to harvest the crop. Much...

  12. Utilising intrinsic robustness in agricultural production systems: Inventions for a sustainable development of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Napel, J. ten; Bianchi, F.; Bestman, Monique

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of utilising robust crops and livestock for improving sustainability of agriculture. Two approaches for dealing with unwanted fluctuations that may influence agricultural production, such as diseases and pests, are discussed. The prevailing approach, which we call the ‘Control Model’, is to protect crops and livestock from disturbances as much as possible, to regain balance with monitoring and intervention and to look for add-on solutions only. There are a nu...

  13. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  14. Advanced Manufacturing and Value-added Products from US Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, Ruxton H.; Child, Dennis R.; Acock, Basil

    1992-01-01

    An objective of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is to develop technology leading to a broad portfolio of value-added marketable products. Modern scientific disciplines such as chemical engineering are brought into play to develop processes for converting bulk commodities into high-margin products. To accomplish this, the extremely sophisticated processing devices which form the basis of modern biotechnology, namely, genes and enzymes, can be tailored to perform the required functions. The USDA/ARS is a leader in the development of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) for agriculture in the broadest sense. Applications of IPE are found in the production, processing, grading, and marketing aspects of agriculture. Various biotechnology applications of IPE are discussed.

  15. Efficiency of Production Factors and Financial Performance of Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Novotná

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relationship between efficiency of use of the production factors in agricultural enterprises in Czech Republic and their financial performance. The aim of the article is to define common economic features of agricultural enterprises which labour productivity has been growing for a long time and, at the same time; they have been increasing value of their fixed assets (investing. The analysis was focused on 1098 agricultural enterprises classified according to the European Commission as micro, small and medium enterprises. The analysis showed that above-average agricultural enterprises (high growth of labour productivity and fixed assets, regardless of their size, have higher profitability indicators, higher indebtedness and lower quick ratio. Summarizing the results of the analysis of individual size classes, it can be said that the smaller size class, the bigger difference.

  16. Labour productivity of agricultural business companies and cooperatives in the Czech Republic: A micro-regional level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ženka Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on empirical evidence from the Czech Republic, differences in agricultural labour productivity at the micro-regional level are examined. The role of geographical factors: natural conditions, landscape fragmentation, localisation and urbanization economies, are discussed. In addition, we also test the effects of farm size structure to capture the results of internal scale economies. The key importance of natural conditions is confirmed: they were significantly more important than farm characteristics such as size structure, ownership status and mode of production. Regional agricultural labour productivity was positively influenced by the nominal price of agricultural land and population density. Surprisingly, micro-regions dominated by large farms performed at lower productivity levels than micro-regions with fragmented farm size structure in the Czech Republic.

  17. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  18. Agricultural production systems and environmental health.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, T B

    1990-01-01

    By the turn of the century, American farmers and ranchers will be producing food and fiber through the application of highly sophisticated systems that involve a broad spectrum of relevant factors--from soil type, to options for fertilizer and pesticide use, to markets and other economic information. These systems will help farmers and ranchers better match land use to land capability, apply needed conservation practices, make environmentally sound production choices, and lower production cos...

  19. The importance of riparian zones on stream carbon and nitrogen export in a temperate, agricultural dominated landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wohlfart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The surrounding landscape of a stream has crucial impacts on the aquatic environment. This study pictures the hydro-biogeochemical situation of the Tyrebaekken creek catchment in central Jutland, Denmark. The intensively managed agricultural landscape is dominated by rotational croplands. One northern and one southern stream run through the catchment before converging to form a second order brook. The small catchments mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the riparian zone of the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and land use on stream water quality. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009. On each sampling day, 20 points along the stream were sampled as well as eight drain outlets and two groundwater wells. Total dissolved nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were measured and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electro-conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling.

    Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged stream parts, especially for nitrate concentrations with average values of 9.6 mg N l−1, 1.4 mg N l−1 and 3.0 mg N l−1, respectively. Furthermore, throughout the sampling period DON concentrations increased from 0.1 mg N l−1 to 2.8 mg N l−1 and from 0.1 mg N l−1 to 0.8 mg N l−1in the northern and southern streams, respectively. This corresponded to a contribution of up to 81% to total dissolved nitrogen. Multiple-linear regression analyses performed between chemical data and landscape charateristics showed a significant negative influence of organic soils on instream N concentrations and corresponding losses in spite of their overall minor share of the agricultural land

  20. Analysis of the effects of agricultural land use change on rural environment and landscape through historical cartography and GIS tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Statuto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human activities and the social and economic transformations occurred during the last century led modifications in the agro-forestry areas. This paper shows a study case study in which the dynamics of land use are analysed using a geographic information system applied to historical maps in order to evaluate the consequences of these land transformations over the last 179 years on the rural environment and landscape. The use of three-dimensional reconstructions, obtained through the creation of different digital terrain model, has allowed to appreciate the landscape modifications, in term of morphological and vegetation variation, determining its aesthetic quality. The analysis shows a common dynamic present in many rural areas of Southern Italy, i.e., the increase of agricultural areas replacing forested surfaces in an older period followed by the further phenomenon of spontaneous re-naturalisation of many of these areas, due to the abandonment of extensive cultivated areas. Moreover, through comparison with historical documents, it was possible to analyse how the agricultural activities influenced the quality of the forest ecosystem. The methodology employed in this study allows a detailed analysis of the processes that occurred in different rural context and the creation of appropriate tools for sustainable land management.

  1. Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin Xiang [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (China). Centre of Energy and Environmental Protection; Mang, H.P. [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering (China)]|[Centrum fuer Internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    China is still largely rural, with abundant biomass resources including agricultural residues, and animal wastes amounting to about 2.5 billion tons per annum. The first National Strategy for Renewable Rural Biomass Energy Development has developed a strategy which will provide a framework for a sustainable utilization of these resources as well as develop additional resources for renewable energy reduction. To comply with these regulations, under current economic and regulatory conditions, the least-cost response for mist agro-enterprises will be the installation of conventional, ''end of pipe'' waste treatment facilities. The results of an International Seminar on Biogas for Poverty and Sustainable Development in Beijing (Peoples Republic of China) in October 2005 came up with the following strategies for large scale biogas plant implementation: (a) Integration of biogas electricity generation in national feed-in-grid strategies and village electrification; (b) Create models for biogas grids; (c) Testing clear rules for Renewable Energy laws application; (d) Promotion of large scale industrial and community plants; (e) Integration of bio-organic waste and septic/faecal sludge collection system.

  2. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  3. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  4. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

  5. Delineating a Wildlife Corridor in an Agricultural Mosaic. Effects of Landscape and Conservation Pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paudel, Prakash K.

    1st ed. Dodrecht: Springer, 2012 - (Kindlmann, P.), s. 197-213. (Biomedical and Life Sciences). ISBN 978-94-007-1801-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : corridor * landscape * land use * land management * mapping Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Control of the spread of inorganic elements by shelterbelt in agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Życzyńska-Bałoniak, Irena; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    water samples were taken from the wells located (a) in the border between adjoining cultivated fields and shelterbelts, and (b) in the distances 62 m, 104 m and 125 m from the edge of the shelterbelt. The concentrations of calciumand magnesium and also mineral carbon were studied by examining ground water filtered by the filter paper Whatman GT/C. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium were investigated by the method by Hermanowicz. Dry masses were isolated by the freeze-dried and drying to the constant of weight at 105oC. Total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and mineral carbon were measured on Total Organic Carbon Analyzer 5050A, ASI 5000A auto sampler, SSM - 5000A solid sample module, (Shimadzu, Japan). Total amount of yearly rainfall was in 2000 - 671 mm, 2001 - 544 mm, 2002 - 495 mm, 2003 - 449 mm, 2004 - 672 mm, 2005 - 551 mm, 2006 - 578 mm. Mean temperatures ranged from 9.2 to 13.3oC. The highest temperature +23.5oC was measured in July 2000, and the lowest -6.4oC observed in January 2006. The precision based on replicate analyses, were ± 4% for Ca+2, ± 3% for Mg+2, ± 4% for dry mass. All the determinations were run in triplicate, and the results were averaged. The differences among the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and mineral carbon were attributed solely of width of the shelterbelt. Shelterbelt revealed the improvement in the quality of ground water. Concerns over the environmental impacts of the elements of agricultural landscapes have focused attention on the study of calcium, magnesium, mineral carbon in ground water. These investigations have shown high contents of chemical compounds migrates ground water from cultivated fields. Ground water under cultivated field revealed high concentrations of calcium, which yearly mean contents are equaled from 81.9 to 179.2 mg/l. It was proved that biogeochemical barrier such as shelterbelt efficiency decrease the quantity of chemical compounds in ground water. The highest decrease of determined

  7. Control of the spread of inorganic elements by shelterbelt in agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Życzyńska-Bałoniak, Irena; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    water samples were taken from the wells located (a) in the border between adjoining cultivated fields and shelterbelts, and (b) in the distances 62 m, 104 m and 125 m from the edge of the shelterbelt. The concentrations of calciumand magnesium and also mineral carbon were studied by examining ground water filtered by the filter paper Whatman GT/C. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium were investigated by the method by Hermanowicz. Dry masses were isolated by the freeze-dried and drying to the constant of weight at 105oC. Total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and mineral carbon were measured on Total Organic Carbon Analyzer 5050A, ASI 5000A auto sampler, SSM - 5000A solid sample module, (Shimadzu, Japan). Total amount of yearly rainfall was in 2000 - 671 mm, 2001 - 544 mm, 2002 - 495 mm, 2003 - 449 mm, 2004 - 672 mm, 2005 - 551 mm, 2006 - 578 mm. Mean temperatures ranged from 9.2 to 13.3oC. The highest temperature +23.5oC was measured in July 2000, and the lowest -6.4oC observed in January 2006. The precision based on replicate analyses, were ± 4% for Ca+2, ± 3% for Mg+2, ± 4% for dry mass. All the determinations were run in triplicate, and the results were averaged. The differences among the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and mineral carbon were attributed solely of width of the shelterbelt. Shelterbelt revealed the improvement in the quality of ground water. Concerns over the environmental impacts of the elements of agricultural landscapes have focused attention on the study of calcium, magnesium, mineral carbon in ground water. These investigations have shown high contents of chemical compounds migrates ground water from cultivated fields. Ground water under cultivated field revealed high concentrations of calcium, which yearly mean contents are equaled from 81.9 to 179.2 mg/l. It was proved that biogeochemical barrier such as shelterbelt efficiency decrease the quantity of chemical compounds in ground water. The highest decrease of determined

  8. Regional agricultural landscape pattern changes along the Yellow River in Henan Province from 1987 to 2002%河南黄河下游沿岸地区农业景观格局演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国付; 丁圣彦; 李志恒

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural landscape along the riparian zones is designated as important landscape components for partly controlling water quality, biodiversity, as well as for their aesthetic role in landscapes. Therefore, the change of agricultural landscape along the riparian zones is at the top of the agenda for many policy makers and landscape planners. As a basis for conservation management,sufficient information about landscape structure should be provided. In the present study, we reconstructed the former landscape structure and elucidated the changes in landscape patterns during a period of about 15 years. Two sets of maps were used: a landsat-5 TM image (1987) and landsat-7 ETM image (2002). The frequency index, landscape diversity index and landscape fragmentation index were calculated for analyses. The results showed that: (1) the areas of the irrigated land, river, forest and beach landscape classes presented a decreasing trend while the areas of landscape classes of pool,paddy fields, dry land and construction land increased. (2) Disturbed by human activity, landscape diversity index increased but landscape fragmentation index decreased. In short, Human activities have had important influences on agricultural landscape of the riparian zones along the Yellow River in Henan Province.

  9. Public Investment and Environrnental Sustainability of Agricultural Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jing; Li Yousheng

    2004-01-01

    The excessive application of fertilizer and pesticides in grain production in China has posed a threat to the environrnental sustainability of agricultural production. One of the major reasons of the increasing usage of chemical inputs by farmers is their trying to reach higher yields, especially in absence of adequate public inputs, such as development and extension of appropriate technology and necessary production infrastructure, etc. Based on the cropspecific data of the past 20 years, this paper examines how the public investments in agricultural researches could impact on the reduction of farmers' private material inputs of major grain crops in China. It manifests that the increased investments in public sector, especially in agricultural researches, is a favorable and effective way to reduce farmers' private material inputs and should be given a priority consideration in the policy emendation to increase yields and improve production sustainability.

  10. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  11. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  12. Allometry and partitioning of above- and below-ground biomass in farmed eucalyptus species dominant in Western Kenyan agricultural landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmers in developing countries are one of the world's largest and most efficient producers of sequestered carbon. However, measuring, monitoring and verifying how much carbon trees in smallholder farms are removing from the atmosphere has remained a great challenge in developing nations. Devising a reliable way for measuring carbon associated with trees in agricultural landscapes is essential for helping smallholder farmers benefit from emerging carbon markets. This study aimed to develop biomass equations specific to dominant eucalyptus species found in agricultural landscapes in Western Kenya. Allometric relationships were developed by regressing diameter at breast height (DBH) alone or DBH in combination with height, wood density or crown area against the biomass of 48 trees destructively sampled from a 100 km2 site. DBH alone was a significant predictor variable and estimated aboveground biomass (AGB) with over 95% accuracy. The stems, branches and leaves formed up to 74, 22 and 4% of AGB, respectively, while belowground biomass (BGB) of the harvested trees accounted for 21% of the total tree biomass, yielding an overall root-to-shoot ratio (RS) of 0.27, which varied across tree size. Total tree biomass held in live Eucalyptus trees was estimated to be 24.4 ± 0.01 Mg ha−1, equivalent to 11.7 ± 0.01 Mg of carbon per hectare. The equations presented provide useful tools for estimating tree carbon stocks of Eucalyptus in agricultural landscapes for bio-energy and carbon accounting. These equations can be applied to Eucalyptus in most agricultural systems with similar agro-ecological settings where tree growth parameters would fall within ranges comparable to the sampled population. -- Highlights: ► Equation with DBH alone estimated aboveground biomass with about 95% accuracy. ► Local generic equations overestimated above- and below-ground biomass by 10 and 48%. ► Height, wood density and crown area data did not improve model accuracy. ► Stems, roots

  13. Even the smallest non-crop habitat islands could be beneficial: distribution of carabid beetles and spiders in agricultural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Knapp

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles and ground-dwelling spiders inhabiting agroecosystems are beneficial organisms with a potential to control pest species. Intensification of agricultural management and reduction of areas covered by non-crop vegetation during recent decades in some areas has led to many potentially serious environmental problems including a decline in the diversity and abundance of beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes. This study investigated carabid beetle and spider assemblages in non-crop habitat islands of various sizes (50 to 18,000 square metres within one large field, as well as the arable land within the field, using pitfall traps in two consecutive sampling periods (spring to early summer and peak summer. The non-crop habitat islands situated inside arable land hosted many unique ground-dwelling arthropod species that were not present within the surrounding arable land. Even the smallest non-crop habitat islands with areas of tens of square metres were inhabited by assemblages substantially different from these inhabiting arable land and thus enhanced the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. The non-crop habitat area substantially affected the activity density, recorded species richness and recorded species composition of carabid and ground-dwelling spider assemblages; however, the effects were weakened when species specialised to non-crop habitats species were analysed separately. Interestingly, recorded species richness of spiders increased with non-crop habitat area, whereas recorded species richness of carabid beetles exhibited an opposite trend. There was substantial temporal variation in the spatial distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods, and contrasting patterns were observed for particular taxa (carabid beetles and spiders. In general, local environmental conditions (i.e., non-crop habitat island tree cover, shrub cover, grass cover and litter depth were better determinants of arthropod assemblages than non

  14. Even the smallest non-crop habitat islands could be beneficial: distribution of carabid beetles and spiders in agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Michal; Řezáč, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Carabid beetles and ground-dwelling spiders inhabiting agroecosystems are beneficial organisms with a potential to control pest species. Intensification of agricultural management and reduction of areas covered by non-crop vegetation during recent decades in some areas has led to many potentially serious environmental problems including a decline in the diversity and abundance of beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes. This study investigated carabid beetle and spider assemblages in non-crop habitat islands of various sizes (50 to 18,000 square metres) within one large field, as well as the arable land within the field, using pitfall traps in two consecutive sampling periods (spring to early summer and peak summer). The non-crop habitat islands situated inside arable land hosted many unique ground-dwelling arthropod species that were not present within the surrounding arable land. Even the smallest non-crop habitat islands with areas of tens of square metres were inhabited by assemblages substantially different from these inhabiting arable land and thus enhanced the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. The non-crop habitat area substantially affected the activity density, recorded species richness and recorded species composition of carabid and ground-dwelling spider assemblages; however, the effects were weakened when species specialised to non-crop habitats species were analysed separately. Interestingly, recorded species richness of spiders increased with non-crop habitat area, whereas recorded species richness of carabid beetles exhibited an opposite trend. There was substantial temporal variation in the spatial distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods, and contrasting patterns were observed for particular taxa (carabid beetles and spiders). In general, local environmental conditions (i.e., non-crop habitat island tree cover, shrub cover, grass cover and litter depth) were better determinants of arthropod assemblages than non-crop habitat island

  15. Coupling landscape water storage and supplemental irrigation to increase productivity and improve environmental stewardship in the U.S. Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Ochsner, Tyson E.

    2012-05-01

    Agriculture must increase production for a growing population while simultaneously reducing its environmental impacts. These goals need not be in tension with one another. Here we outline a vision for improving both the productivity and environmental performance of agriculture in the U.S. Midwest, also known as the Corn Belt. Mean annual precipitation has increased throughout the region over the past 50 years, consistent with climate models that attribute the increase to a warming troposphere. Stream gauge data indicate that higher precipitation has been matched or exceeded by higher stream flows, contributing to flooding, soil loss, and excessive nutrient flux to the Gulf of Mexico. We propose increasing landscape hydrologic storage through construction of ponds and restoration of wetlands to retain water for supplemental irrigation while also reducing flood risks. Primary productivity is proportional to transpiration, and analysis shows that in the U.S. Midwest both can be sustainably increased with supplemental irrigation. The proposed strategy should reduce interannual yield variability by limiting losses due to transient drought, while facilitating adoption of cropping systems that "perennialize" the landscape to take advantage of the full potential growing season. When implemented in concert, these practices should reduce the riverine nitrogen export that is a primary cause of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Erosive sediment losses should also be reduced through the combination of enhanced hydrologic storage and increased vegetative cover. Successful implementation would require watershed-scale coordination among producers and landowners. An obvious mechanism to encourage this is governmental farm policy.

  16. Detecting Chaos from Agricultural Product Price Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Su; Yi Wang; Shengsen Duan; Junhai Ma

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the characteristics of agricultural product price volatility and trend forecasting are necessary to formulate and implement agricultural price control policies. Taking wholesale cabbage prices as an example, a multiple test methodology has been adopted to identify the nonlinearity, fractality, and chaos of the data. The approaches used include the R/S analysis, the BDS test, the power spectra, the recurrence plot, the largest Lyapunov exponent, the Kolmogorov entropy, and the corr...

  17. Learning from Carchi: agricultural modernisation and the production of decline

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Provided its natural endowments, generally educated rural population, infrastructure and market access to two countries, the Province of Carchi, located in the northernmost highlands of Ecuador, is potentially one of the most productive agriculture regions in the Andes. In the 1960s development experts and the government targeted the region as a model for agricultural modernisation. Following land reform and rapid organisation around industrial era technologies, potato farming in Carchi boome...

  18. SOME CURRENT ISSUES IN THE MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Bob

    1986-01-01

    The subject of 'marketing' as a field of agricultural policy and applied research is discussed in this paper. Agribusiness approaches to marketing advanced in recent years are argued to have made little contribution to policy or research and are rejected in favour of the more traditional framework of applied economic analysis. Developments in government policy on national statutory marketing authorities for agricultural products are appraised along with some evidence on the allocation of rese...

  19. MEASURING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CAPITAL IN UNITED STATES AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Cole R.

    1986-01-01

    The agricultural sector has operated in a period of high real interest rates for over half a decade. Some are concerned that this has limited capital availability and stagnated the historic capital for labor substitution occurring in the sector. This study proposes new procedures for estimating the aggregate production function of United States agriculture. Improvements include incorporation of total returns and revised measures of both durable and nondurable capital inputs. Results indicate ...

  20. Production Function, Institutional Credit and Agricultural Development in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Habib A. Zuberi

    1989-01-01

    This study, based on the time-series data covering the period from 1956 to 1986, estimates production function in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. The strategy for agricultural development in the country has been based on greater utilization of "high pay-off low-cost technology. The government advanced loans through financial institutions to make it possible for the farmers to acquire this technology. Despite the infusion of seed-fertilizer technology, per acre yield of major crops like w...

  1. Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Food Security: Evidence from Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Breisinger; Olivier Ecker; Perrihan Al-Riffai; Richard Robertson; Rainer Thiele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a model-based assessment of local and global climate change impacts for the case of Yemen, focusing on agricultural production, household incomes and food security. Global climate change is mainly transmitted through rising world food prices. Our simulation results suggest that climate change induced price increases for food will raise agricultural GDP while decreasing real household incomes and food security. Rural nonfarm households are hit hardest as they tend to be net...

  2. China, GMOs and World Trade in Agricultural and Textile Products

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Yao, Shunli

    2002-01-01

    China has always strived for self-sufficiency in farm products, particularly staple foods. Its rapid industrialization following its opening up to global markets during the past two decades has been making that more difficult, and its accession to the WTO may add to that difficulty. New agricultural biotechnologies could ease that situation. The adoption and spread of some of those biotechnologies in agriculture have, however, raised concerns, particularly over the environmental and food safe...

  3. Co-existence of agricultural production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Bernhard; Rath, Johannes; Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2006-05-01

    Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of 'subsidiarity', decisions should be made by the lowest authority possible. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for marketing regional products and services, such as tourism. PMID:16545877

  4. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Braide; I. A. Kanu; S.U. Oranusi; S. A. Adeleye

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark) and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk) was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total re...

  5. Agricultural Potential for Biogas Production in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Kulišić; Vjekoslav Par

    2009-01-01

    Biogas is renewable energy source with strong local character as its production depends on availability and type of feedstock at a certain location. Utilisation of slurry, manure and beddings from cattle, pig, horse, poultry and other animal breeding together with energy rich substrates such as crops and other organic materials as biogas substrates creates an interesting option both from technical and economic perspective. Other materials suitable for anaerobic digestion are comprised of vari...

  6. Weight Watching and the Effect of Landscape on Honeybee Colony Productivity: Investigating the Value of Colony Weight Monitoring for the Beekeeping Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Kryger, Per; Vejsnæs, Flemming; Bruun Jensen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a gradual departure away from traditional agricultural practices has resulted in alterations to the composition of the countryside and landscapes across Europe. In the face of such changes, monitoring the development and productivity of honey bee colonies from different sites can give valuable insight on the influence of landscape on their productivity and might point towards future directions for modernized beekeeping practices. Using data on honeybee colony weights provided by electronic scales spread across Denmark, we investigated the effect of the immediate landscape on colony productivity. In order to extract meaningful information, data manipulation was necessary prior to analysis as a result of different management regimes or scales malfunction. Once this was carried out, we were able to show that colonies situated in landscapes composed of more than 50% urban areas were significantly more productive than colonies situated in those with more than 50% agricultural areas or those in mixed areas. As well as exploring some of the potential reasons for the observed differences, we discuss the value of weight monitoring of colonies on a large scale. PMID:26147392

  7. Weight Watching and the Effect of Landscape on Honeybee Colony Productivity: Investigating the Value of Colony Weight Monitoring for the Beekeeping Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Kryger, Per; Vejsnæs, Flemming; Bruun Jensen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a gradual departure away from traditional agricultural practices has resulted in alterations to the composition of the countryside and landscapes across Europe. In the face of such changes, monitoring the development and productivity of honey bee colonies from different sites can give valuable insight on the influence of landscape on their productivity and might point towards future directions for modernized beekeeping practices. Using data on honeybee colony weights provided by electronic scales spread across Denmark, we investigated the effect of the immediate landscape on colony productivity. In order to extract meaningful information, data manipulation was necessary prior to analysis as a result of different management regimes or scales malfunction. Once this was carried out, we were able to show that colonies situated in landscapes composed of more than 50% urban areas were significantly more productive than colonies situated in those with more than 50% agricultural areas or those in mixed areas. As well as exploring some of the potential reasons for the observed differences, we discuss the value of weight monitoring of colonies on a large scale. PMID:26147392

  8. Daily Evolution of the Insect Biomass Spectrum in an Agricultural Landscape Accessed with Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Gebru, Alem; Kirkeby, Carsten; Åkesson, Susanne; Smith, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    We present measurements of atmospheric insect fauna intercepted by a static lidar transect over arable and pastoral land over one day. We observe nearly a quarter million of events which are calibrated to optical cross section. Biomass spectra are derived from the size distribution and presented against space and time. We discuss detection limits and instrument biasing, and we relate the insect observations to relevant ecological landscape features and land use. Future directions and improvements of the technique are also outlined.

  9. Daily Evolution of the Insect Biomass Spectrum in an Agricultural Landscape Accessed with Lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Brydegaard Mikkel; Gebru Alem; Kirkeby Carsten; Åkesson Susanne; Smith Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of atmospheric insect fauna intercepted by a static lidar transect over arable and pastoral land over one day. We observe nearly a quarter million of events which are calibrated to optical cross section. Biomass spectra are derived from the size distribution and presented against space and time. We discuss detection limits and instrument biasing, and we relate the insect observations to relevant ecological landscape features and land use. Future directions and improvem...

  10. [Determination of Butroxydim in Agricultural Products by LC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatani, Tomiaki; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Tada, Hiroyuki; Goto, Kotaro; Nemoto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of butroxydim in agricultural products by LC-MS was developed. Butroxydim was extracted with acetonitrile and an aliquot of the crude extract was cleaned up on an octadecyl silanized silica gel (C18) cartridge column (1,000 mg), followed by a salting-out step to remove water. Before purification on a silica gel (SI) cartridge column (690 mg), polar matrices were precipitated by adding ethyl acetate, n-hexane and anhydrous sodium sulfate successively. This process effectively removed caffeine and catechins and improved recovery when analyzing residual butroxydim in tea leaves. Recovery and repeatability were good; the relative standard deviations were less than 5% for all 12 tested agricultural products (brown rice, soybean, potato, spinach, cabbage, apple, orange, grapefruit, lemon, tomato, peas with pods, and tea). Average recoveries for 11 agricultural products, except for lemon, were 74-92%. PMID:26699270

  11. Vulnerability of Rehabilitated Agricultural Production Systems to Invasion by Nontarget Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Sara G.; Engle, David M.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Langeland, Kenneth A.; Maxwell, Bruce D.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2009-02-01

    Vast areas of arable land have been retired from crop production and “rehabilitated” to improved system states through landowner incentive programs in the United States (e.g., Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs), as well as Europe (i.e., Agri-Environment Schemes). Our review of studies conducted on invasion of rehabilitated agricultural production systems by nontarget species elucidates several factors that may increase the vulnerability of these systems to invasion. These systems often exist in highly fragmented and agriculturally dominated landscapes, where propagule sources of target species for colonization may be limited, and are established under conditions where legacies of past disturbance persist and prevent target species from persisting. Furthermore, rehabilitation approaches often do not include or successfully attain all target species or historical ecological processes (e.g., hydrology, grazing, and/or fire cycles) key to resisting invasion. Uncertainty surrounds ways in which nontarget species may compromise long term goals of improving biodiversity and ecosystem services through rehabilitation efforts on former agricultural production lands. This review demonstrates that more studies are needed on the extent and ecological impacts of nontarget species as related to the goals of rehabilitation efforts to secure current and future environmental benefits arising from this widespread conservation practice.

  12. Impact of landscape characteristics on the stream carbon and nitrogen export: example of a small agricultural catchment in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfart, T.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Schelde, K.; Dalgaard, T.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture plays an important role on the environment, notably the quality of water draining cultivated soils. Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and stream quality is crucial to sustain a good quality of water and to develop adapted policies. Therefore, this study investigates the relative influence of different landscape characteristics on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses into streams. It not only focuses on the "classical" agricultural nitrogen pollutants of nitrate (NO3) and ammonia (NH4) but also hypothesises that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an important pathways of N losses. In the Bjerringbro area in central Jutland, Denmark, the landscape is dominated by intensively managed croplands draining into the Tyrebaekken creek. More precisely, one northern and one southern stream run through the catchment (842.7 ha) before converging to form a second order brook. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009 (April to September). On each sampling day, 20 points along the stream were sampled as well as eight directly contributing drainages and two groundwater wells. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NO3, NH4 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured whereas DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH and flow velocity were simultaneously measured during sampling. Statistical analyses show significant differences in these water quality parameters between the northern, southern and converged stream parts, especially when considering NO3-N concentrations with average values of 9.6 mg N/L, 1.4 mg N/L and 3.0 mg N/L, respectively. This is despite the fact that differences in land use were only minor between the two stream sections. Meanwhile, DON concentrations rose by about one order of magnitude from 0.1 mg N/L to 2.8 mg N/L and from 0.1 mg N/L to 0.8 mg N/L in the northern and southern streams, respectively, during the research period

  13. Measuring Productivity Growth in the Bahraini Agriculture and Fisheries Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Shebeb, Bassim

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to measure and analyze one of the major components of economic performance, multifactor productivity (MFP) growth rate adjusted for economies of scale, and to measure and analyze the growth rate of partial (input-specific) productivity in the Bahraini Agriculture and Fisheries Sector (primary sector) over the time period 1980-2002. A dual cost measure of multifactor productivity growth was developed to obtain a highly interpretable measure of economic perfo...

  14. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  15. Accelerated export of sediment and carbon from a landscape under intensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, M; Brazier, R E

    2014-04-01

    The export of total organic carbon (particulate and dissolved) from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems has important implications for water quality and the global carbon cycle. However, most research to date has focused on DOC losses from either forested or peaty catchments, with only limited studies examining the controls and rates of total fluvial carbon losses from agricultural catchments, particularly during storm events. This study examined the controls and fluxes of total suspended sediment (SS), total particulate (TPC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from two adjacent catchments with contrasting intensive agricultural and semi-natural land-use. Data from 35 individual storm events showed that the agricultural catchment exported significantly higher SS concentrations on a storm-by-storm basis than the semi-natural catchment, with peak discharge exerting a greater control over SS, TPC and DOC concentrations. Baseflow DOC concentrations in the agricultural catchment were significantly higher. DOC quality monitored during one simultaneous rainfall event differed between the two study catchments, with more humic, higher molecular weight compounds prevailing in the agricultural catchment and lower molecular weight compounds prevailing in the semi-natural catchment. During an eight month period for which a comparable continuous turbidity record was available, the estimated SS yields from the agricultural catchment were higher than from the semi-natural catchment. Further, the agricultural catchment exported proportionally more TPC and a comparable amount of DOC, despite a lower total soil carbon pool. These results suggest that altered hydrological and biogeochemical processes within the agricultural catchment, including accelerated soil erosion and soil organic matter turnover, contributed to an enhanced fluvial SS and carbon export. Thus, we argue that enhancing semi-natural vegetation within intensively farmed catchments could reduce sediment and carbon losses

  16. Landscapes and Production in History. Approaches and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Novoa Jáuregui

    2010-01-01

    This paper is presented as a general consideration, from two cases, about the analysis of the landscape in two different historical moments, responding to stimuli equally mixed, but sharing its concern at the environmental changes resulting from the productionof man, in the Archeology within a consolidating, in our country, as an autonomous science, social science.

  17. Landscapes and Production in History. Approaches and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Novoa Jáuregui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is presented as a general consideration, from two cases, about the analysis of the landscape in two different historical moments, responding to stimuli equally mixed, but sharing its concern at the environmental changes resulting from the productionof man, in the Archeology within a consolidating, in our country, as an autonomous science, social science.

  18. "Science" and "Art" in landscape architecture knowledge production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within landscape architecture, two main approaches exist in the discipline- one art and one science related approach. Much criticism arose on outdoor space design that relies on either ‘art’ or ‘science’ approaches. This caused avoidance and underuse of many outdoor spaces. At the basis are two prob

  19. Quality Management System of Agricultural Products Based on Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of important property of the integrated management of agricultural product quality safety system,analyzes the lightweight characteristics of Spring technical system,hierarchical organization of MVC,and the technology SSH+Ajax associated with the Spring framework system.On the basis of this technical system,we design the quality management system of agricultural products under B/S model.This article points out that this system is realized mainly through consumers’information feedback and order management;then discusses operation environment,expandability,portability and security of the system.

  20. Daily Evolution of the Insect Biomass Spectrum in an Agricultural Landscape Accessed with Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brydegaard Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of atmospheric insect fauna intercepted by a static lidar transect over arable and pastoral land over one day. We observe nearly a quarter million of events which are calibrated to optical cross section. Biomass spectra are derived from the size distribution and presented against space and time. We discuss detection limits and instrument biasing, and we relate the insect observations to relevant ecological landscape features and land use. Future directions and improvements of the technique are also outlined.

  1. Spatial distribution of soils determines export of nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon from an intensively managed agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T; Exbrayat, J-F; Schelde, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    % to TDN. Multiple-linear regression analyses performed between chemical data and landscape characteristics showed a significant negative influence of organic soils on instream N concentrations and corresponding losses in spite of their overall minor share of the agricultural land (12.9%). On the other...... catchment mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and land use on stream water quality. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009. Total dissolved...... nitrogen (TDN), nitrate (NO3−), ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electrical conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed...

  2. Comparison of the ranging behavior of Scotophilus kuhlii (Lesser Asiatic Yellow Bat) in agricultural and urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiqah, Nur; Akbar, Zubaid; Syafrinna, Ubaidah, Nur; Foo, Ng Yong

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge on home range sizes and movement patterns of animals through the environment is crucial for determining effects of habitat disturbance and fragmentation. To gauge the effects of land-use changes on Scotophilus kuhlii, a telemetric study was conducted between February 2014 and April 2014 in Tasik Chini, Pahang and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi Campus. The home range sizes and movement patterns of S. kuhlii inhabiting agricultural landscape (Tasik Chini, Pahang) versus urban landscape (UKM) were compared. A total of ten individuals were successfully radio-tracked. Comparison of home range sizes of both sexes showed male S. kuhlii at Tasik Chini have larger mean home range sizes compared to UKM while female S.kuhlii in UKM have larger mean home range sizes compared to Tasik Chini. All individuals from both localities showed random movement. It is suggested that the home range and activity patterns might be influenced by food availability in the study area, food preferences and diet segregation and breeding behavior. This study provides baseline information on habitat utilization by S. kuhlii in relation to habitat perturbations.

  3. Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming In Agricultural Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M.I.U. Herath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Modern agriculture is characterized by a series of conflicting optimization criteria that obstruct the decision-making process in the planning of agricultural production. Such criteria are usually net profit total cost total production etc. At the same time the decision making process in the agricultural production planning is often conducted with data that accidentally occur in nature or that are fuzzy not deterministic. Such data are the yields of various crops the prices of products and raw materials demand for the product the available quantities of production factors such as water labor etc. In this paper a fuzzy multi-criteria mathematical programming model is presented. This model is applied in a region of 10 districts in Sri Lanka where paddy is cultivated under irrigated and rain fed water in the two main seasons called Yala and Maha and the optimal production plan is achieved. This study was undertaken to find out the optimal allocation of land for paddy to get a better yield while satisfying the two conflicting objectives profit maximizing and cost minimizing subjected to the utilizing of water constraint and the demand constraint. Only the availability of land constraint is considered as a crisp in nature while objectives and other constraints are treated as fuzzy. It is observed that the MOFLP is an effective method to handle more than a single objective occurs in an uncertain vague environment.

  4. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  5. Landscape configuration is the primary driver of impacts on water quality associated with agricultural expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Hamel, Perrine; Sharp, Richard; Kowal, Virgina; Wolny, Stacie; Sim, Sarah; Mueller, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Corporations and other multinational institutions are increasingly looking to evaluate their innovation and procurement decisions over a range of environmental criteria, including impacts on ecosystem services according to the spatial configuration of activities on the landscape. We have developed a spatially explicit approach and modeled a hypothetical corporate supply chain decision representing contrasting patterns of land-use change in four regions of the globe. This illustrates the effect of introducing spatial considerations in the analysis of ecosystem services, specifically sediment retention. We explored a wide variety of contexts (Iowa, USA; Mato Grosso, Brazil; and Jiangxi and Heilongjiang in China) and these show that per-area representation of impacts based on the physical characterization of a region can be misleading. We found two- to five-fold differences in sediment export for the same amount of habitat conversion within regions characterized by similar physical traits. These differences were mainly determined by the distance between land use changes and streams. The influence of landscape configuration is so dramatic that it can override wide variation in erosion potential driven by physical factors like soil type, slope, and climate. To minimize damage to spatially-dependent ecosystem services like water purification, sustainable sourcing strategies should not assume a direct correlation between impact and area but rather allow for possible nonlinearity in impacts, especially in regions with little remaining habitat and highly variable hydrological connectivity.

  6. Learning from Carchi: agricultural modernisation and the production of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherwood, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Provided its natural endowments, generally educated rural population, infrastructure and market access to two countries, the Province of Carchi, located in the northernmost highlands of Ecuador, is potentially one of the most productive agriculture regions in the Andes. In the 1960s development expe

  7. Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Emission data for pesticides from agricultural product systems may be based on national and international pesticide usage statistics, but these only provide information on the applied dose. When the field is considered as part of the technosphere, the emissions from the system are those quantitie...

  8. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  9. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  10. Materials with Adsorptive Properties from Agricultural By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

  11. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  12. Investigating the Connections between Climate Change, Drought and Agricultural Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hayes, M.; Wilhite, D. A.; Svoboda, M.; Trnka, Miroslav

    Northampton: Edward Elgar publ, 2011 - (Dinar, A.; Mendelsohn, R.), s. 73-86 ISBN 978-1-84980-116-4 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : climate change * drought * agricultural production Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. STATISTICAL CONTROL OF PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Horvat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental concept of statistical process control is based on decision-making about the process on the basis of comparison of data collected from process with calculated control limits. Statistical process and quality control of agricultural products is used to provide agricultural products that will satisfy customer requirements in a view of quality pretension as well as costumer requirements in a cost price. In accordance with ISO 9000, quality standards for process and products are defined. There are many institutions in Croatia that work in accordance with these standards. Implementation of statistical process control and usage of a control charts can greatly help in convergence to the standards and in decreasing of production costs. To illustrate the above mentioned we tested a work quality of a nozzle at the eighteen meter clutch sprayer.

  14. INDIRECT COSTS ALLOCATION AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a research on the changes occurred inside the accounting system of agricultural organisations in the transitional period. Changes of structure and accounting information system being results of privatisation processes were analysed. The introduction of modern methods in the preparation of relevant management information represents one of the preconditions for development of the privatised agricultural organisation during the transition period. Information prepared by the accounting, especially adapted to management requirements, is essential for rational decision making. Modern management system of reporting is fundamental task of management and a precondition for securing competitive production in agricultural industry. For this reason, it is necessary to define areas of responsibility and to enable application of a modern techniques for calculating expenses. The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the specialised use of accounting information by managers and to develop methods of management reporting in agricultural organisations. We propose an emphasis upon the application of modern management accounting techniques rather than financial accounting reporting approach. We support the contention that the need for high-quality management accounting is not debatable and tend to explain how and why accounting information is developed for the individual parts of a business entity, that is for each department or enterprise of an agricultural organisation. The responsibility accounting system should be introduced in agricultural business entities within our conditions, especially in larger organisations, as a measure of securing competitive production. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between direct and indirect expenses and of using appropriate methods to allocate expenses among departments or enterprises. The research is based on information directly received from the largest agricultural companies in the area of

  15. Application of nitrogen and phosphorus criteria for streams in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, P A; Benoy, G A; Brua, R B; Culp, J M

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to control eutrophication of water resources in agriculturally dominated ecosystems have focused on managing on-farm activities to reduce nutrient loss; however, another management measure for improving water quality is adoption of environmental performance criteria (or 'outcome-based standards'). Here, we review approaches for setting environmental quality criteria for nutrients, summarize approaches developed in Canada for setting 'ideal' and 'achievable' nutrient criteria for streams in agricultural watersheds, and consider how such criteria could be applied. As part of a 'National Agri-Environmental Standards Initiative', the Government of Canada committed to the development of non-regulatory environmental performance standards that establish total P (TP) and total N (TN) concentrations to protect ecological condition of agricultural streams. Application of four approaches for defining ideal standards using only chemistry data resulted in values for TP and TN spanning a relatively narrow range of concentrations within a given ecoregion. Cross-calibration of these chemically derived standards with information on biological condition resulted in recommendations for TP and TN that would likely protect aquatic life from adverse effects of eutrophication. Non-point source water quality modelling was then conducted in a specific watershed to estimate achievable standards, i.e. chemical conditions that could be attained using currently available and recommended management practices. Our research showed that, taken together, short-term achievable standards and ultimate ideal standards could be used to set policy targets that should, if realized, lower N and P concentrations in Canadian agricultural streams and improve biotic condition. PMID:22156121

  16. Riparian buffer strips as a multifunctional management tool in agricultural landscapes: Introduction to the special collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutter, M.I.; Chardon, W.J.; Kronvang, B.

    2012-01-01

    Catchment riparian areas are considered key zones to target mitigation measures aimed at interrupting the movement of diffuse substances from agricultural land to surface waters. Hence, unfertilized buffer strips have become a widely studied and implemented “edge of field” mitigation measure assumed

  17. Innovative best management practices for improving nutrient reductions in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the burgeoning human population increases pressures on agriculture for increasing yields, the concomitant strain on the aquatic environment downstream is elevated through non-point source pollution. Traditional management practices of conservation tillage, terracing, and cover crops are good prac...

  18. Effects of landscape fabrics on pest control in a raised-bed trough system for strawberry production without fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape fabrics are geotextiles that have been used to control weeds. The objective of this study was to determine the performance of landscape fabrics for the control of nematodes and fungal pathogens for strawberry fruit production. Four different commercially available landscape fabrics were us...

  19. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  20. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  1. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  2. Transfer of radionuclides into and their removal from agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer of radionuclides to agricultural products and their removal before ingestion are reviewed briefly. Ingestion of 137Cs through various food groups were intensively has been studied from 1960s. The results of these studies indicated that cereals were relatively important food groups in Japan, while dairy products were a critical food group in Western countries. However, Westernization of Japanese diet and other factors recently make dairy products more important. In the case of 137Cs ingestion from the Chernobyl accident, 43% of total 137Cs intake was ingested through dairy products. The removal of radionuclides from food by washing, preparing and cooking is also discussed. (author)

  3. Transfer of radionuclides into and their removal from agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Takizawa, Yukio

    1996-12-31

    Transfer of radionuclides to agricultural products and their removal before ingestion are reviewed briefly. Ingestion of {sup 137}Cs through various food groups were intensively has been studied from 1960s. The results of these studies indicated that cereals were relatively important food groups in Japan, while dairy products were a critical food group in Western countries. However, Westernization of Japanese diet and other factors recently make dairy products more important. In the case of {sup 137}Cs ingestion from the Chernobyl accident, 43% of total {sup 137}Cs intake was ingested through dairy products. The removal of radionuclides from food by washing, preparing and cooking is also discussed. (author)

  4. Promotion of Agricultural Products Competitive Power in Heilongjiang Province with Modern Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper studied the competitive power of agricultural products in Heilongjiang Province by analyzing the revealed comparative advantage,and drew the conclution that agricultural products' competitive power was decreasing in Heilongjiang Province.There were three main reasons for this status: firstly,the cost of circulation of agricultural products was increasing;secondly,the commodity rate of agricultural products was low;thirdly,the marketing power of agricultural product was weak because of lacking the ...

  5. Nitrate fate and transport through current and former depressional wetlands in an agricultural landscape, Choptank Watershed, Maryland, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, J.M.; Ator, S.W.; Lang, M.W.; Fisher, T.R.; Gustafson, A.B.; Fox, R.; Clune, J.W.; McCarty, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    denitrification were limited, particularly where reducing conditions did not extend throughout the entire thickness of the surficial aquifer allowing NO3 to pass conservatively beneath a wetland along deeper groundwater flow paths. The complexity of N fate and transport associated with depressional wetlands complicates the understanding of their importance to water quality in adjacent streams. Although depressional wetlands often contribute low NO3 water to local streams, their effectiveness as landscape sinks, for N from adjacent agriculture varies with natural conditions, such as the thickness of the aquifer and the extent of reducing conditions. Measurement of such natural geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical conditions are therefore fundamental to understanding N mitigation in individual wetlands.

  6. The importance of natural habitats to Brazilian free-tailed bats in intensive agricultural landscapes in the Winter Garden Region of Texas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of natural lands to agriculture affects the distribution of biological diversity across the landscape. In particular, cropland monocultures alter insect abundance and diversity compared to adjacent natural habitats, but nevertheless can provide large numbers of insect pests as prey i...

  7. Responses of common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) to land use changes in agricultural landscapes of Western France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butet, A.; Michel, N.; Rantier, Y.; Comor, V.N.R.; Hubert-Moy, L.; Nabucet, J.; Delettre, Y.R.

    2010-01-01

    In front of land use changes, there has been a wide decline in biodiversity. In this study, we analysed the numerical response of two diurnal raptor species, the common buzzard and the Eurasian kestrel to different agricultural landscape contexts. We carried out a 3-year survey of the abundance of t

  8. Cost Accounting Methods and Calculation Agricultural Products` Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule B. Spatayeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the condition of the current market the effective manage of expenses and calculation accountancy of cost production in agriculture must be aimed to control for resources usage at any level of technology process and getting the accountancy database needed for gaining the management targets.The improving the technologies and set up aspects of business entity activity, taken place for the last decades, which caused a significant influence on condition and structure expenses but could not provide the increase of economic effectiveness in agriculture.

  9. Road verges and winter wheat fields as resources for wild bees in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I; Langer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based on the...... percentage of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape at 1-km scale. Mean density of high value bee plants per Raunkiaer circle was significantly higher in organic winter wheat fields and their adjacent road verges than in their conventionally farmed counterparts. The effect of organic farming was...... even more pronounced on the flowering stage of high value bee plants, with 10-fold higher mean density of flowering plants in organic fields than in conventional fields and 1.9-fold higher in road verges bordering organic fields than in those bordering conventional fields. In summary, organic farming...

  10. Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Biomass energy production in agriculture: A weighted goal programming analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy production from biomasses can be an important resource that, when combined with other green energies such as wind power and solar plants, can contribute to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. A multi-period Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied to identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production under three concurrent constraints: water, labour and soil availability. Alternative scenarios are considered that take into account the effect of climate change and social change. The MpWGP model was tested with data from the Rovigo county area (Italy) over a 15-year time period. Our findings show that trade-off exists between the two optimisation targets considered. Although the optimisation of the first target requires traditional agricultural crops, which are characterised by high revenue and a low production of biomass energy, the latter would be achievable with intensive wood production, namely, high-energy production and low income. Our results also show the importance of the constraints imposed, particularly water availability; water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production. - Research Highlights: → The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. → A multi-period (15-year) Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied. → We identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production. → Three concurrent constraints have been considered: water, labour and soil availability.→ Water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production.

  12. Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) using MODAPS and LANCE Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, A.; Pak, E. E.; Majedi, A. H.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Pinzon, J. E.; Smith, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies / Global Agricultural Monitoring (GIMMS GLAM) system is a web-based geographic application that offers Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and user interface tools to data query and plot MODIS NDVI time series. The system processes near real-time and science quality Terra and Aqua MODIS 8-day composited datasets. These datasets are derived from the MOD09 and MYD09 surface reflectance products which are generated and provided by NASA/GSFC Land and Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and NASA/GSFC MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS). The GIMMS GLAM system is developed and provided by the NASA/GSFC GIMMS group for the U.S. Department of Agriculture / Foreign Agricultural Service / International Production Assessment Division (USDA/FAS/IPAD) Global Agricultural Monitoring project (GLAM). The USDA/FAS/IPAD mission is to provide objective, timely, and regular assessment of the global agricultural production outlook and conditions affecting global food security. This system was developed to improve USDA/FAS/IPAD capabilities for making operational quantitative estimates for crop production and yield estimates based on satellite-derived data. The GIMMS GLAM system offers 1) web map imagery including Terra & Aqua MODIS 8-day composited NDVI, NDVI percent anomaly, and SWIR-NIR-Red band combinations, 2) web map overlays including administrative and 0.25 degree Land Information System (LIS) shape boundaries, and crop land cover masks, and 3) user interface tools to select features, data query, plot, and download MODIS NDVI time series.

  13. Factors influencing wild boar presence in agricultural landscape: a habitat suitability modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Morelle, Kevin; Lejeune, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) population has increased in most parts of Europe during the last three decades. As a consequence, population distribution ranges have shifted to more agricultural areas. These newly colonized areas are characterized by highly fragmented forest cover and a preponderance of crop fields and grasslands, thus increasing the risk of problematic interactions with farming activities and small game species. Although plasticity of wild boar to various environmental conditi...

  14. Data on four criteria for targeting the placement of conservation buffers in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Zeyuan; Dosskey, Michael G.; Kang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Four criteria are generally used to prioritize agricultural lands for placing conservation buffers. The criteria include soil erodibility, hydrological sensitivity, wildlife habitat, and impervious surface rate that capture conservation buffers’ benefits in reducing soil erosion, controlling runoff generation, enhancing wildlife habitat, and mitigating stormwater impacts, respectively. This article describes the data used to derive the values of those attributes and a scheme to classify the v...

  15. The relationship between pond habitat depth and functional tadpole diversity in an agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Queiroz, Cássia; da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues; de Cerqueira Rossa-Feres, Denise

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important goals of biodiversity studies is to identify which characteristics of local habitats act as filters that determine the diversity of functional traits along environmental gradients. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the environmental variables of ponds and the functional trait diversity distribution of anuran tadpoles in an agricultural area in southeastern Brazil. Our results show that the functional trait diversity of frog tadpoles has a bell-c...

  16. Riparian buffer strips as a multifunctional management tool in agricultural landscapes: Introduction to the special collection

    OpenAIRE

    Stutter, M. I.; Chardon, W.J.; B. Kronvang

    2012-01-01

    Catchment riparian areas are considered key zones to target mitigation measures aimed at interrupting the movement of diffuse substances from agricultural land to surface waters. Hence, unfertilized buffer strips have become a widely studied and implemented “edge of field” mitigation measure assumed to provide an effective physical barrier against nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sediment transfer. To ease the legislative process, these buffers are often narrow mandatory strips along streams...

  17. Movement of nitrogen through a riparian forest in a tropical, agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Riparian zones have been widely reported to function as effective buffers, removing nitrate (NO₃⁻) from groundwater before it is discharged into adjacent streams. This is particularly important in agricultural catchments where additional nitrogen (N) from fertilisers may be leached into groundwater. On coastal plains, NO₃⁻ in groundwater discharged into streams can potentially enrich coastal waters. The permanent removal of NO₃⁻ through denitrification can improve water quality, however incom...

  18. The forecast of agricultural crop production contamination by Cs 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The saved up experimental data on the influence of various factors on radionuclides transition in plants allows predicting their contents in production of agricultural crops. It is established, that receipt radionuclides in plants depends on a kind and a grade of cultivated cultures, types of ground, granulometric structure, parameters of soil fertility, humidifying grounds, levels of application of mineral fertilizers and other factors. The determining factor on Cs 137 receipt in plants is presented in ground exchange potassium. The forecast of Cs 137 transition from ground in plants is widely used in an agricultural production at planning and realization of a complex of protective actions. According to predicted levels of Cs 137 accumulation in production the directions of its use are determined. (authors)

  19. Total Factor Productivity in the Peruvian Agriculture: Estimation and Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco B. Galarza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose an estimation of the agriculture productivity using micro data forPeru. The method used builds on recent production function’s estimation techniques developed for panel data (e.g., Gandhi et al., 2013 but using cross-section data. Data constraints urge us to impose functional forms for the estimation. In particular, we choose the constant elasticity of substitution function, which is more flexible that other functions used by prior literature in Peru (such as the Cobb-Douglas. We find no evidence of the existence of increasing returns to scale in the Peruvian agriculture, and that the productivity is positively correlated with age, sex, andeducation, and negatively correlated with the farming unit’s acreage and market power.

  20. Insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect infestation is a major cause of post-harvest food loss. Use of chemical pesticides is one of the main methods of controlling storage losses caused by insects. Decades of research conducted worldwide on radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products have shown that this method could be an alternative to the chemical treatment of foods. The advantages of irradiation processing include no undesirable residues in the foods, no resistance developed by the insects and no significant changes in the physicochemical properties or the nutritive value of the treated products. This volume contains the proceedings of the final Research Co-ordination Meeting on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation, held in May 1987. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Classification of crops across heterogeneous agricultural landscape in Kenya using AisaEAGLE imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piiroinen, Rami; Heiskanen, Janne; Mõttus, Matti; Pellikka, Petri

    2015-07-01

    Land use practices are changing at a fast pace in the tropics. In sub-Saharan Africa forests, woodlands and bushlands are being transformed for agricultural use to produce food for the rapidly growing population. The objective of this study was to assess the prospects of mapping the common agricultural crops in highly heterogeneous study area in south-eastern Kenya using high spatial and spectral resolution AisaEAGLE imaging spectroscopy data. Minimum noise fraction transformation was used to pack the coherent information in smaller set of bands and the data was classified with support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. A total of 35 plant species were mapped in the field and seven most dominant ones were used as classification targets. Five of the targets were agricultural crops. The overall accuracy (OA) for the classification was 90.8%. To assess the possibility of excluding the remaining 28 plant species from the classification results, 10 different probability thresholds (PT) were tried with SVM. The impact of PT was assessed with validation polygons of all 35 mapped plant species. The results showed that while PT was increased more pixels were excluded from non-target polygons than from the polygons of the seven classification targets. This increased the OA and reduced salt-and-pepper effects in the classification results. Very high spatial resolution imagery and pixel-based classification approach worked well with small targets such as maize while there was mixing of classes on the sides of the tree crowns.

  2. Adapting Landscape Mosaics of medIteranean Rainfed Agrosystems for a sustainable management of crop production, water and soil resources: the ALMIRA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Frédéric; Mekki, Insaf; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    In the context of mitigating the pressures induced by global change combined with demography and market pressures, there is increasing societal demand and scientific need to understand the functioning of Mediterranean Rainfed Agrosystems (MRAs) for their potential to provide various environmental and economic services of importance such as food production, preservation of employment and local knowhow, downstream water delivery or mitigation of rural exodus. Efficient MRAs management strategies that allow for compromises between economic development and natural resources preservation are needed. Such strategies require innovative system based research, integration across approaches and scales. One of the major challenges is to make all contributions from different disciplines converging towards a reproducible transdisciplinary approach. The objective of this communication is to present the ALMIRA project, a Tunisian - Moroccan - French project which lasts four years (2014 - 2017). The communication details the societal context, the scientific positioning and the related work hypothesis, the study areas, the project structure, the expected outcomes and the partnership which capitalizes on long term collaborations. ALMIRA aims to explore the modulation of landscape mosaics within MRAs to optimize landscape services. To explore this new lever, ALMIRA proposes to design, implement and test a new Integrated Assessment Modelling approach that explicitly i) includes innovations and action means into prospective scenarii for landscape evolutions, and ii) addresses landscape mosaics and processes of interest from the agricultural field to the resource governance catchment. This requires tackling methodological challenges in relation to i) the design of spatially explicit landscape evolution scenarii, ii) the coupling of biophysical processes related to agricultural catchment hydrology, iii) the digital mapping of landscape properties and iv) the economic assessment of the

  3. Implications of climate mitigation for future agricultural production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is projected to negatively impact biophysical agricultural productivity in much of the world. Actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate future climate changes, are thus of central importance for agricultural production. Climate impacts are, however, not unidirectional; some crops in some regions (primarily higher latitudes) are projected to benefit, particularly if increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is assumed to strongly increase crop productivity at large spatial and temporal scales. Climate mitigation measures that are implemented by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to reductions both in the strength of climate change and in the benefits of carbon dioxide fertilization. Consequently, analysis of the effects of climate mitigation on agricultural productivity must address not only regions for which mitigation is likely to reduce or even reverse climate damages. There are also regions that are likely to see increased crop yields due to climate change, which may lose these added potentials under mitigation action. Comparing data from the most comprehensive archive of crop yield projections publicly available, we find that climate mitigation leads to overall benefits from avoided damages at the global scale and especially in many regions that are already at risk of food insecurity today. Ignoring controversial carbon dioxide fertilization effects on crop productivity, we find that for the median projection aggressive mitigation could eliminate ∼81% of the negative impacts of climate change on biophysical agricultural productivity globally by the end of the century. In this case, the benefits of mitigation typically extend well into temperate regions, but vary by crop and underlying climate model projections. Should large benefits to crop yields from carbon dioxide fertilization be realized, the effects of mitigation become much more mixed, though still positive globally and beneficial in many food insecure

  4. Implications of climate mitigation for future agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Schmid, Erwin

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is projected to negatively impact biophysical agricultural productivity in much of the world. Actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate future climate changes, are thus of central importance for agricultural production. Climate impacts are, however, not unidirectional; some crops in some regions (primarily higher latitudes) are projected to benefit, particularly if increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is assumed to strongly increase crop productivity at large spatial and temporal scales. Climate mitigation measures that are implemented by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to reductions both in the strength of climate change and in the benefits of carbon dioxide fertilization. Consequently, analysis of the effects of climate mitigation on agricultural productivity must address not only regions for which mitigation is likely to reduce or even reverse climate damages. There are also regions that are likely to see increased crop yields due to climate change, which may lose these added potentials under mitigation action. Comparing data from the most comprehensive archive of crop yield projections publicly available, we find that climate mitigation leads to overall benefits from avoided damages at the global scale and especially in many regions that are already at risk of food insecurity today. Ignoring controversial carbon dioxide fertilization effects on crop productivity, we find that for the median projection aggressive mitigation could eliminate ∼81% of the negative impacts of climate change on biophysical agricultural productivity globally by the end of the century. In this case, the benefits of mitigation typically extend well into temperate regions, but vary by crop and underlying climate model projections. Should large benefits to crop yields from carbon dioxide fertilization be realized, the effects of mitigation become much more mixed, though still positive globally and beneficial in many food insecure

  5. A GEO Global Agricultural Water Productivity Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, P. S.; Pozzi, W.; Miller, N. L.; Fekete, B.; Sheffield, J.; Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture is the main consumer of freshwater, and improved precision and accuracy of the terrestrial water cycle requires a more reliable way of monitoring agricultural water use and agricultural water productivity. Wisser et al 2008 reported that agricultural water consumption over the satellite-determined crop acreage (from AVHRR, SPOT VGT), particularly for India and China (Thenkabail et al 2006) was 30% higher than the commonly used Food and Agricultural Organization country-reported agricultural crop census data. We propose further quantification and clarification of this error through the following methodology: 1) greater accuracy in measuring actual area and precise spatial distribution of irrigated and rainfed cropland areas, along with identification of crop types and cropping intensities; 2) satellite monitoring of actual evapotranspiration (water use) by croplands; 3) reconciling agricultural plot information and evapotranspiration against calculated stores of water and water budgets, as derived from a Global Hydrologic Model Multi-Model Ensemble; and (d) modeling and pin-pointing areas of low and high water productivity (WP) to optimize agricultural water use and thus save large quanta of water. We propose producing global irrigated and rainfed areas at finer scales using Landsat 30 m imagery in fusion with MODIS 250 m imagery using the spectral matching technique (Thenkabail et al 2009). Crop water use (water transpired by the crop) and crop water productivity maps can be prepared for terrestrial areas, by using the surface energy balance model, in which evapotranspiration fraction is provided from Landsat ETM+ and\\or MODIS thermal data, combined with locally derived meteorological data such as wind speed, humidity, incoming radiation, and other surface values to derive turbulent diffusion and finally computing reference evapotranspiration (e.g., Penman-Montieth approach), so that sensible heat flux may be deducted from net radiation to derive

  6. Using remote sensing products to classify landscape. A multi-spatial resolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llamas, Paula; Calvo, Leonor; Álvarez-Martínez, José Manuel; Suárez-Seoane, Susana

    2016-08-01

    The European Landscape Convention encourages the inventory and characterization of landscapes for environmental management and planning actions. Among the range of data sources available for landscape classification, remote sensing has substantial applicability, although difficulties might arise when available data are not at the spatial resolution of operational interest. We evaluated the applicability of two remote sensing products informing on land cover (the categorical CORINE map at 30 m resolution and the continuous NDVI spectral index at 1 km resolution) in landscape classification across a range of spatial resolutions (30 m, 90 m, 180 m, 1 km), using the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain) as study case. Separate landscape classifications (using topography, urban influence and land cover as inputs) were accomplished, one per each land cover dataset and spatial resolution. Classification accuracy was estimated through confusion matrixes and uncertainty in terms of both membership probability and confusion indices. Regarding landscape classifications based on CORINE, both typology and number of landscape classes varied across spatial resolutions. Classification accuracy increased from 30 m (the original resolution of CORINE) to 90m, decreasing towards coarser resolutions. Uncertainty followed the opposite pattern. In the case of landscape classifications based on NDVI, the identified landscape patterns were geographically structured and showed little sensitivity to changes across spatial resolutions. Only the change from 1 km (the original resolution of NDVI) to 180 m improved classification accuracy. The value of confusion indices increased with resolution. We highlight the need for greater effort in selecting data sources at the suitable spatial resolution, matching regional peculiarities and minimizing error and uncertainty.

  7. Chromatin landscaping in algae reveals novel regulation pathway for biofuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngan, Chew Yee; Wong, Chee-Hong; Choi, Cindy; Pratap, Abhishek; Han, James; Wei, Chia-Lin

    2013-02-19

    The diminishing reserve of fossil fuels calls for the development of biofuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable resources, including photosynthetic organisms, generating clean energy. Microalgae is one of the potential feedstock for biofuels production. It grows easily even in waste water, and poses no competition to agricultural crops for arable land. However, little is known about the algae lipid biosynthetic regulatory mechanisms. Most studies relied on the homology to other plant model organisms, in particular Arabidopsis or through low coverage expression analysis to identify key enzymes. This limits the discovery of new components in the biosynthetic pathways, particularly the genetic regulators and effort to maximize the production efficiency of algal biofuels. Here we report an unprecedented and de novo approach to dissect the algal lipid pathways through disclosing the temporal regulations of chromatin states during lipid biosynthesis. We have generated genome wide chromatin maps in chlamydomonas genome using ChIP-seq targeting 7 histone modifications and RNA polymerase II in a time-series manner throughout conditions activating lipid biosynthesis. To our surprise, the combinatory profiles of histone codes uncovered new regulatory mechanism in gene expression in algae. Coupled with matched RNA-seq data, chromatin changes revealed potential novel regulators and candidate genes involved in the activation of lipid accumulations. Genetic perturbation on these candidate regulators further demonstrated the potential to manipulate the regulatory cascade for lipid synthesis efficiency. Exploring epigenetic landscape in microalgae shown here provides powerful tools needed in improving biofuel production and new technology platform for renewable energy generation, global carbon management, and environmental survey.

  8. A Methodological Approach for Spatiotemporally Analyzing Water-Polluting Effluents in Agricultural Landscapes Using Partial Triadic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J J; Darwiche-Criado, N; Sorando, R; Comín, F A; Sánchez-Pérez, J M

    2015-09-01

    Multivariate techniques for two-dimensional data matrices are normally used in water quality studies. However, if the temporal dimension is included in the analysis, other statistical techniques are recommended. In this study, partial triadic analysis was used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in water quality variables sampled in a northeastern Spain river basin. The results highlight the spatiality of the physical and chemical properties of water at different sites along a river over 1 yr. Partial triadic analysis allowed us to clearly identify the presence of a stable spatial structure that was common to all sampling dates across the entire catchment. Variables such as electrical conductivity and Na and Cl ions were associated with agricultural sources, whereas total dissolved nitrogen, NH-N concentrations, and NO-N concentrations were linked to polluted urban sites; differences were observed between irrigated and nonirrigated periods. The concentration of NO-N was associated with both agricultural and urban land uses. Variables associated with urban and agricultural pollution sources were highly influenced by the seasonality of different activities conducted in the study area. In analyzing the impact of land use and fertilization management on water runoff and effluents, powerful statistical tools that can properly identify the causes of pollution in watersheds are important. Partial triadic analysis can efficiently summarize site-specific water chemistry patterns in an applied setting for land- and water-monitoring schemes at the landscape level. The method is recommended for land-use decision-making processes to reduce harmful environmental effects and promote sustainable watershed management. PMID:26436278

  9. Measurement of radioactivity in agricultural products (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity levels and concentration of radionuclides in agricultural products like beans, sesame, potato, etc. were measured by using Low Level Beta/Alpha System and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry system. The levels of radioactivity were found to be less than the Derivedc Intervention Level adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1991 (IAEA BSS safety series No. 115-1). No artificial radionuclides such as fission products, activation products were not found whereas radionuclides found in the samples are only natural occurring radionuclide, K-40. (author)

  10. Evaluating root zone water quality impacts associated with various biomass production systems across landscape positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, W.; Zhou, X.; Helmers, M. J.; Schulte Moore, L.; Isenhart, T.; Kolka, R.

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating the water quality impacts of biomass production systems is essential to assessing biomass production systems' environmental impacts. The objective of this study is to determine potential water quality impacts of various production systems across different landscape positions. Five production systems are being evaluated: (1) continuous corn, (2) corn-soy/triticale-soy, (3) switchgrass, (4) triticale/sorghum, and (5) triticale/trees, at five landscape locations: (1) summit, (2) shoulder, (3) backslope, (4) toeslope, and (5) floodplain. Each production system is randomly assigned within three replicates at each landscape location. Soil water samples are taken monthly during the growing season from two suction lysimeters per plot at a depth of 60cm. Initial results indicate significant differences between the production systems and a likely association between fertilizer input and NO3-N concentrations with corn plots having the highest concentration and the tree plots having the lowest. Relatively high concentrations in the corn and sorghum plots following fertilization were observed the first year and similar results are being observed early in the second year of observations. A significant landscape effect was observed late in the growing season during the first year of this study. Quantifying the environmental impacts of biomass production systems will aid in optimizing deployment as producers gear up to meet biomass production demand.

  11. Agrification: Agriculture for the industry and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new aspect of agrification is the production of alternative products, which can replace fossil sources. This substitution is necessary in order to replace hazardous materials and to find a solution for the problem of depletion of conventional energy sources and basic materials. Attention is paid to some developments in Germany: agricultural products for the production of energy, and new industrial applications for vegetable filaments. With regard to energy production from agricultrual products one should distinguish between (a) solid energy sources (biomass), f.e. straw, fast-growing wood, elephant's grass, hay and rapeseed, and (b) fluid and gaseous energy sources, f.e. purified and partly refined rapeseed oil, rapeseed oil methyl-ester (RME), ethanol from sugar beet, methanol from straw and hydrogen from straw and/or elephant's grass. 4 figs., 7 refs

  12. The composition of agricultural landscapes influences life history traits of honeybee workers

    OpenAIRE

    Requier, Fabrice; Brun, François; Aupinel, Pierrick; Odoux, Jean Francois; Bretagnolle, Vincent; DECOURTYE, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Honeybee workers play a major role within the colony by taking care of the breeding of larvae until the supply in food of the entire colony, by division of tasks. The age polyethism offers to the worker the capacity to carry out successively the totality of these tasks, following its age. It is known that the worker switches the tasks following a gradient internal-outside the hive during its imago life, the oldest workers making the foraging tasks. However, the available food in agricultural ...

  13. Data on four criteria for targeting the placement of conservation buffers in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zeyuan; Dosskey, Michael G; Kang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Four criteria are generally used to prioritize agricultural lands for placing conservation buffers. The criteria include soil erodibility, hydrological sensitivity, wildlife habitat, and impervious surface rate that capture conservation buffers' benefits in reducing soil erosion, controlling runoff generation, enhancing wildlife habitat, and mitigating stormwater impacts, respectively. This article describes the data used to derive the values of those attributes and a scheme to classify the values in multi-criteria analysis of conservation buffer placement in "Choosing between alternative placement strategies for conservation buffers using borda count" [1]. PMID:27222843

  14. Phytocenotic structure and physico-chemical properties of a small water body in agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sender

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Small water bodies, until recently considered as wasteland, are an essential element of the so-called small water retention. Their main use can vary significantly, but they always play a positive role by increasing water resources and enhancing the natural values of the landscape. Moreover, by increasing bio- diversity thanks to plants forming habitats for many species of flora and fauna, small water bodies act as a biofilter, improving water quality. But these small reservoirs belong to the groups of waters that are most exposed to damage, especially within the catchment area. Because of the invaluable role of small farmland water bodies, a study was undertaken to investigate their phytocenotic structure. In addition, an attempt was made to assess the level of threats and to indicate their role in the development of habitat conditions. The investigated reservoir was created in 2007. Before that time, it functioned as a part of the Zemborzycki reservoir, as they were close to each other. Almost the entire surrounding of this small reservoir consisted of farmland. In 2011 a revitalization project was carried out in the reservoir. Plants typical for wetland habitats were mainly introduced, while synanthropic vegetation was removed. Based on chemical and physical analyses, it can be concluded that the investigated reservoir serves as a natural biofilter thanks to the qualitative and quantitative changes in the structure of macrophytes. After the revitalization project, the investigated pond gained new aesthetic and ecological qualities.

  15. MODERN TRENDS IN DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION. GERMAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasanova S. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The organic agriculture is an important issue for sustainable development and food quality production. For this reason we analyzed the data on land use in organic production and the volume of the market for organic products in Europe and Russia. The motivation of farmers and the driving factors for the transition to organic farming methods in developed countries and the role of subsidies have been shown. The analysis of the state of organic production in Germany has been carried out. In 2013, Germany reported 23484 organic farms, which represent 8.2% of agricultural production and the total cultivated area 1,045 Mio. ha. In organic production are involved 9 national associations with their own logos, integrated by 12250 farms (52.2%, and the remaining 11 234 biofarms (47.8% use the EU-bio logo. Over the past years there has been observed a significant increase in organic livestock production; e.g. during 2007-2012 milk, poultry meat and eggs production were increased by 58.3, 60,6 and 108.7% respectively. Price of bio eggs in November 2014 was 55.6% higher than in free-range system and 100% higher than in floor housing system. Obviously, organic production is an efficient production system capable of ensuring the economic well-being of rural areas. For further expansion of this sector in Russia is necessary to develop the economic incentives, which encourage conversion from conventional, farming to organic production. Also, it is necessary to raise awareness of producers and consumers about the quality of organic products

  16. Biomass and multi-product crops for agricultural and energy production - an AGE analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops. T

  17. Multi-Product Crops for Agricultural and Energy Production : an AGE Analysis for Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops fo

  18. Do we know how to reconcile preservation of landscapes with adaptation of agriculture to climate change? A case-study in a hilly area in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenti, Massimo; Alfieri, Silvia; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Limited impacts of climate change on agricultural yields are unlikely to induce any significant changes in current landscapes. Larger impacts, unacceptable on economic or social ground, are likely to trigger interventions towards adaptation of agricultural production systems by reducing or removing vulnerabilities to climate variability and change. Such interventions may require a transition to a different production system, i.e. complete substitution of current crops, or displacement of current crops at their current location towards other locations, e.g. at higher elevations within the landscape. We have assessed the impacts of climate change and evaluated options for adaptation of a valley in Southern Italy, dominated by vine and olive orchards with a significant presence of wheat. We have first estimated the climatic requirements of several varieties for each dominant species. Next, to identify options for adaptation we have evaluated the compatibility of such requirements with indicators of a reference (current) climate and of future climate. This climate - compatibility assessment was done for each soil unit within the valley, leading to maps of locations where each crop is expected to be compatible with climate. This leads to identify both potential crop substitutions within the entire valley and crop displacements from one location to another within the valley. Two climate scenarios were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050) climate, the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data consists of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. We evaluated the adaptive capacity of the "Valle Telesina" (Campania Region, Southern Italy). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was used to describe the hydrological conditions in response to climate for each

  19. Agricultural production and stability of settlement systems in Upper Mesopotamia during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Tuna

    This study investigates the relationship between rainfall variation and rain-fed agricultural production in Upper Mesopotamia with a specific focus on Early Bronze Age urban settlements. In return, the variation in production is used to explore stability of urban settlement systems. The organization of the flow of agricultural goods is the key to sustaining the total settlement system. The vulnerability of a settlement system increases due to the increased demand for more output from agricultural lands. This demand is the key for the success of urbanization project. However, without estimating how many foodstuffs were available at the end of a production cycle, further discussions on the forces that shaped and sustained urban settlement systems will be lacking. While large scale fluctuations in the flow of agricultural products between settlements are not the only determinants of hierarchical structures, the total available agricultural yield for each urban settlement in a hierarchy must have influenced settlement relations. As for the methodology, first, Early Bronze Age precipitation levels are estimated by using modern day associations between the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas and the inner regions of Upper Mesopotamia. Next, these levels are integrated into a remote-sensing based biological growth model. Also, a CORONA satellite imagery based archaeological survey is conducted in order to map the Early Bronze Age settlement system in its entirety as well as the ancient markers of agricultural intensification. Finally, ancient agricultural production landscapes are modeled in a GIS. The study takes a critical position towards the traditionally held assumption that large urban settlements (cities) in Upper Mesopotamia were in a state of constant demand for food. The results from this study also suggest that when variations in ancient precipitation levels are translated into the variations in production levels, the impact of climatic aridification on ancient

  20. The Supply and Demand of Agricultural Products in China Based on Balanced Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Promoting agricultural production and ensuring the supply of agricultural products has always been the main task of agricultural development in China,but the agricultural production in China has not yet been combined with the Chinese residents’ dietary needs to formulate reasonable development goals,with a certain blindness in production. According to the dietary standards in The Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents developed by the Chinese Nutrition Society,we calculate the demand of various types of agricultural products in China under the conditions of balanced diet. In comparison with the output of various types of agricultural products in China at present,we find that the output of most of agricultural products in China has exceeded the reasonable demand of the Chinese residents under the conditions of balanced diet. Therefore,adjusting the agricultural production structure in China and advocating balanced diet has become an important way to solve the problem of balance between supply and demand of agricultural products.

  1. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Theobald

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL, the Netherlands (NL, France (FR, Italy (IT, Scotland (UK and Denmark (DK were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha−1yr−1, respectively. However, all landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with landless large-scale poultry farming. So, whereas the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha−1yr−1, the landscape average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1yr−1, respectively when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm N balances are a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater, measured during the landscape data collection campaign from 2007–2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an independent dataset for validation of measured and modelled N emissions in agricultural landscapes. However, no significant correlation was found to N measured in surface waters, probably because of the short time horizon of the study. A case study of the development in N surplus from the landscape in DK from 1998–2008 showed a 22 % reduction, related to statistically significant effects (p < 0.01 of

  2. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes - a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Dragosits, U.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha-1yr-1, respectively. However, all landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with landless large-scale poultry farming. So, whereas the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha-1yr-1, the landscape average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha-1yr-1, respectively) when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm N balances are a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater, measured during the landscape data collection campaign from 2007-2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an independent dataset for validation of measured and modelled N emissions in agricultural landscapes. However, no significant correlation was found to N measured in surface waters, probably because of the short time horizon of the study. A case study of the development in N surplus from the landscape in DK from 1998-2008 showed a 22 % reduction, related to statistically significant effects (p livestock farms. Based on the large

  3. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  4. Hydrogen production from agricultural waste by dark fermentation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xin Mei; Trably, Eric; Latrille, Eric; Carrere, Helene; Steyer, Jean-Philippe [INRA, UR050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, F-11100 Narbonne (France)

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of the natural environment and the energy crisis are two vital issues for sustainable development worldwide. Hydrogen is considered as one of the most promising candidates as a substitute for fossil fuels. In this context, biological processes are considered as the most environmentally friendly alternatives for satisfying future hydrogen demands. In particular, biohydrogen production from agricultural waste is very advantageous since agri-wastes are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. Considering that such wastes are complex substrates and can be degraded biologically by complex microbial ecosystems, the present paper focuses on dark fermentation as a key technology for producing hydrogen from crop residues, livestock waste and food waste. In this review, recent findings on biohydrogen production from agricultural wastes by dark fermentation are reported. Key operational parameters such as pH, partial pressure, temperature and microbial actors are discussed to facilitate further research in this domain. (author)

  5. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling......In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their...... of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co...

  6. The Challenge of Governing Africa’s New Agricultural Investment Landscapes: An Analysis of Policy Arrangements and Sustainability Outcomes in Ethiopia and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Schoneveld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, market liberalization, and deregulation, many African governments are embracing the potential of private agricultural investment to address structural issues within their agricultural economies. Sustainably integrating these investments into target landscapes, however, poses a number of governance challenges since it requires careful reconciliation of competing needs, priorities, and land uses. This paper examines the effectiveness of existing policy arrangements in managing these conflicts within two environmentally significant investment landscapes, the Oban-Korup Forest Block, Nigeria, and Lower Baro-Akobo River Basin, Ethiopia. Findings reveal that investments tend to conflict with socially and environmentally valuable land uses, largely as a result of institutional failings. The paper identifies a number of underlying institutional challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve sustainable development objectives within Africa’s many emerging investment landscapes. Findings have relevance for the development of sustainable landscape governance systems and the alignment of global governance innovations with landscape-level policy arrangements.

  7. Contemporary Danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Brandt, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring of...... the countryside. The values of the Danish landscape pertain mainly to the coastal landscapes. The threats include the industrilization of the agricultural landsclaes and,in places urban sprawl....

  8. The contribution of animal production to agricultural sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Doreau, Michel; Harinder P. S. Makkar; Lecomte, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for animal products for a growing world population, use of a large amount of feed ingredients in competition with human food coup led with the urgent need for mitigating environmental effects, livestock farming has to transform. New mo dels of sustainability, that are acceptable to all stakeholders, must be explored. Reducing negative environmental impacts of various agricultural practices is a major global challenge. However, to avoid making inappropriate decisio...

  9. Pretreaments of Chinese Agricultural residues to increase biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Development of biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas is one approach to utilize straw comprehensively. However, high lignin contents of lignocellulosic materials results in low degradation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate pre-treatment to increase biogas production from Chinese agricultural residues. In this study, Chinese corn stalk, rice plant and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates by applying three different pre-treatments. The inves...

  10. Agricultural production, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Gopalakrishnan, Badri N.; Sahin, Sebnem; Escurra, Jorge J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses an advanced Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model coupled with biophysical data on future changes in crop yields due to climate change to examine: 1) the consequences of climate change for India’s agricultural and food products; 2) the extent to which water scarcity can affect the irrigation adoption and demand for water; and 3) how water scarcity, climate change, and trade jointly alter land use changes across the Indian subcontinent. It shows that when water scarcity is...

  11. Dutch (organic) agriculture, carbon sequestration and energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Burgt, van der, Maarten; Staps, S.; Timmermans, B.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in soils is often mentioned in the discussions about climate changes. In this paper the opportunities for carbon sequestration in Dutch agriculture are discussed at farm and national level. Farm internal carbon sources are already completely used in livestock farming. The effect under arable conditions is limited in time and very limited compared to national CO2 emission. External sources are scarce. Energy production out of crop residues and manure via biogas installatio...

  12. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Project findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the terminal report of a United Nations Development Program project to improve food and agricultural production in Thailand by means of nuclear and related technology. The project resulted in improved mutant material to be made available to plant breeders as well as in reports and recommendations on soil-water-plant management practices and livestock management. An additional benefit has been the specialized training that has been provided to many researchers in the country through the project

  13. Cost Accounting Methods and Calculation Agricultural Products` Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Saule B. Spatayeva

    2015-01-01

    In the condition of the current market the effective manage of expenses and calculation accountancy of cost production in agriculture must be aimed to control for resources usage at any level of technology process and getting the accountancy database needed for gaining the management targets.The improving the technologies and set up aspects of business entity activity, taken place for the last decades, which caused a significant influence on condition and structure expenses but could not prov...

  14. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-01-01

    The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971),in the Meadows report (1972) and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987). The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In...

  15. Multiple-Use Zoning Model for Private Forest Owners in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Truax; Daniel Gagnon; France Lambert; Julien Fortier

    2015-01-01

    Many small-scale private forest owners increasingly focus their management on amenity functions rather than on wood production functions. This paradigm shift is an opportunity to implement novel forestry management approaches, such as forested land zoning. Forest zoning consists in separating the land base in three zones that have different management objectives: (1) conservation zones; (2) ecosystem management zones; and (3) intensive production zones, which locally increase productivity, as...

  16. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  17. University degrees consistent with agricultural production in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigones, Alicia; del Cerro, Jesus; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Benedicto, Susana; García, Jose Luis

    2013-04-01

    Degrees clearly oriented to rural and agricultural engineering are distinguished from the rest of the engineering areas by the need to involve the biological phenomena of engineering calculations. These degrees, which include subjects such as crop production, biotechnology and physics, among others, have evolved tremendously over the last ten years, implanting new curricula and introducing new specialties such as those dedicated to the environment or rural development, thereby adapting new social, economic and environmental aspects of each country. Currently being finalized to implement new titles in most Spanish universities, and in rest of Europe, following the guidelines set by Bologna. The process of elaboration of these degrees is complicated precisely because of the great variety of areas and subjects involved in these degrees. In this paper we study, for several countries of the European Union, the core subjects of the university degrees of agricultural engineering and the correlations between the core contents and the importance of the related uses of the soil in the different sectors of crop production (arable crops, horticulture, fruit growing, gardening, etc.) as well as other socio-economic criteria. The objective is to detect if the design of the core content is consistent in each country with the importance of the related socio-economic sector. Key-words: curriculum, crop production, agricultural engineer.

  18. Ordering Strategy for Fresh Agricultural Products in External Financing Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyi; DU

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the two stage supply chain consisting of single agricultural product producer and fund restraint retailer.Then,it analyzed the influence of bank interest rate on order quantity,wholesale price and expected profit of retailer and producer on the condition of retailer taking external loan strategy.Studies have shown that when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.9),the order quantity of agricultural products is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),wholesale price of agricultural products decreases with increase in the bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.6),the expected profit of retailer is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),the expected profit of producer decreases with increase in the bank interest rate.Finally,through simulation calculation examples,it verified suitability of the conclusion,in the hope of providing reference and application value for management of supply chain.

  19. Increasing rice production in Malaysia: Department of Agriculture approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing rice productivity will continue to be an important agenda in the agricultural development program of the country. This represents a challenge to the Department of Agriculture. To address this challenge, it calls for creativity, innovation, ideas and initiatives in the use of technologies that consist of land leveling, in the field water management, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), production and distribution of quality seeds, effective fertilizer usage and value added activities. Rice areas which have been leveled using laser guided technology have shown yield increase from 3.3 t/ha to 5.1 t/ha. In-field water management increases rice yield, reduces water wastage and ensures timeliness of operations and improve soil water bearing capacity. IPM has proven highly beneficial in the control of field rats, reducing the incidence of diseases such as rice blast, lowering the occurrence of insect pest outbreaks and weed infestation. Fish rearing and fattening of ducklings to adulthood in the rice fields have also been undertaken as profitable enterprises in the rice farming system. In its effort to modernise and increase rice productivity, the Department of Agriculture approach in acquisition of technology from research agencies, and its adaptation and adoption are discussed. Any technology promoted must be economically viable, socially acceptable and technologically feasible for effective implementation. (Author)

  20. Spatial variation analyses of Thematic Mapper data for the identification of linear features in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A need exists for digitized information pertaining to linear features such as roads, streams, water bodies and agricultural field boundaries as component parts of a data base. For many areas where this data may not yet exist or is in need of updating, these features may be extracted from remotely sensed digital data. This paper examines two approaches for identifying linear features, one utilizing raw data and the other classified data. Each approach uses a series of data enhancement procedures including derivation of standard deviation values, principal component analysis and filtering procedures using a high-pass window matrix. Just as certain bands better classify different land covers, so too do these bands exhibit high spectral contrast by which boundaries between land covers can be delineated. A few applications for this kind of data are briefly discussed, including its potential in a Universal Soil Loss Equation Model.

  1. Stakeholder and expert-guided scenarios for agriculture and landscape development in a groundwater protection area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Lone S.;

    2011-01-01

    Nitrate and pesticide leaching led to the designation of groundwater protection zones in Denmark. The protective measures in these zones often clash with local interests in agriculture. Scenarios were used to evaluate the development of a groundwater protection zone in a farming area. Stakeholders...... are accorded strong influence on the scenarios. Scenario inputs comprised land cover, land use and farmers' plans and preferences, as registered in interviews with farmers. Scenarios were evaluated regarding the effect on nitrate leaching, extent of pesticide-free area and farm income. The scenarios...... proved effective in modelling coupled development in land use/land cover and nitrate leaching and pesticide-free area. Voluntary commitment to schemes, calculated according to stakeholder preferences, reduced nitrate leaching by up to 15%. Scenarios with additional inputs from experts who formulated more...

  2. The Relationship between Customer Knowledge Management and Performance of Agricultural Product Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes an overview of the CKM and the performance of agricultural product innovation from contents of agricultural product innovation and customer knowledge management (CKM) ,the relation between CKM and agricultural product innovation. On the basis of the overview, it builds the theoretical framework of CKM and agricultural product innovation. It points out that enterprises can satisfy demands of customers through acquisition,share,utilization and innovation of customer knowledge,and improve performance of agricultural product innovation through speeding up agricultural product innovation.

  3. ASSESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available First stage for attaining sustainability in a system is the measurement of current state of sustainability. Indicators are widely used as tools for measurement of sustainability. In this study, a comprehensive index was proposed to measure sustainability in agricultural production systems. This index takes advantage of fuzzy logic to combine all six indexes which were selected as the representative of three dimensions of sustainability. A set of models and sub-models based on the fuzzy inference system were employed to define the index. A case study conducted in two large production farms of maize and wheat, in Iran, proved the feasibility and usability of the model.

  4. Total Factor Productivity in the Peruvian Agriculture: Estimation and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Galarza, Francisco B.; J. Guillermo Díaz

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we propose an estimation of the agriculture productivity using micro data forPeru. The method used builds on recent production function’s estimation techniques developed for panel data (e.g., Gandhi et al., 2013) but using cross-section data. Data constraints urge us to impose functional forms for the estimation. In particular, we choose the constant elasticity of substitution function, which is more flexible that other functions used by prior literature in Peru (such as the ...

  5. Estimation of pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2002-01-01

    from the system are only those fractions of the applied dose which reach the environment surrounding the field. The routes of emission may be direct through wind drift or indirect through evaporation, leaching, or surface run-off. Based on existing tools for hazard or risk assessment of pesticides, a......Inventory data for the use of pesticides in agricultural or forestry product systems are typically based on the applied dose and the contents of different ingredients in the commercial pesticide product. Normally in LCA, the field is considered as part of the technosphere, and then the emissions...

  6. Intensity, productivity and efficiency in agriculture in Finland and implications for N and P fertiliser management

    OpenAIRE

    BÀckman, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intensity, productivity and efficiency in agriculture in Finland and show implications for N and P fertiliser management. Environmental concerns relating to agricultural production have been and still are focused on arguments about policies that affect agriculture. These policies constrain production while demand for agricultural products such as food, fibre and energy continuously increase. Therefore the importance of increasing productivity is a gre...

  7. A simulation of soil water content based on remote sensing in a semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, N.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez-Ruiz, M.; Torres, E.; Calera, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper shows the application of a water balance based on remote sensing that integrated a Landsat 5 series from 2009 in an area of 1,300 km{sup 2} in the Duero Basin (Spain). The objective was to simulate the daily soil water content (SWC), actual evapotranspiration, deep percolation and irrigation rates. The accuracy of the application is tested in a semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural landscape with crops over natural conditions. The results of the simulated SWC were compared against 19 in situ stations of the Soil Moisture Measurement Stations Network (REMEDHUS), in order to check the feasibility and accuracy of the application. The theoretical basis of the application was the FAO56 calculation assisted by remotely sensed imagery. The basal crop coefficient (Kcb), as well as other parameters of the calculation came from the remote reflectance of the images. This approach was implemented in the computerized tool HIDROMORE+, which integrates various spatial databases. The comparison of simulated and observed values (at different depths and different land uses) showed a good global agreement for the area (R{sup 2} = 0.92, RMSE = 0.031 m{sup 3} m{sup -}3, and bias = -0.027 m{sup 3} m{sup -}3). The land uses better described were rainfed cereals (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 0.030 m{sup 3} m{sup -}3, and bias = -0.025 m{sup 3} m{sup -}3) and vineyards (R{sup 2} = 0.86, RMSE = 0.016 m{sup 3} m{sup -}3, and bias = -0.013 m{sup 3} m{sup -}3). In general, an underestimation of the soil water content is noticed, more pronounced into the root zone than at surface layer. The final aim was to convert the application into a hydrological tool available for agricultural water management. (Author) 42 refs.

  8. Environmental attitudes and drift reduction behavior among commercial pesticide applicators in a U.S. agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Adam P; Prokopy, Linda S

    2012-12-30

    Pesticide drift is a significant environmental problem in rural regions, and can result in losses to certain non-target crops and livestock, water and air pollution, and threats to human health. While state agencies seek to control the harmful effects of pesticides through licensing and certificate programs, the adoption rates of drift-reducing practices by commercial applicators remain highly variable. In order to effectively target outreach efforts to commercial applicators, managers need to better understand current use patterns and the motivations behind the adoption and non-adoption of preferred practices. Using a web and mail survey, this study explored environmental attitudes, awareness and concern for pesticide drift, and current practice adoption for drift reduction by commercial pesticide applicators in Indiana. Researchers surveyed three distinct applicator types: industrial weed management (utility right-of-way), agriculture, and aerial (which are mostly spraying in an agricultural setting). Overall, applicators exhibited positive environmental attitudes, but low concern for pesticide drift in the geographic areas where they operate. Adoption rates for several drift reduction technologies were high, particularly for equipment and spray modifications such as low-drift spray nozzles (88%) and increased spray droplet size (92%). Applicators were less familiar with specialty equipment (such as band sprayers, 13% adoption rate) and methods for identifying sensitive sites such as bee colonies and organic crops. Among the three groups, industrial weed management applicators had the lowest adoption rates. Applicators were motivated to adopt drift-reduction practices by the desire to be a good neighbor and a desire to be a good land steward. There is potential for use of more innovative, voluntary approaches to raise awareness of sites sensitive to pesticide drift in rural landscapes. PMID:23062271

  9. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Fire in Slash and Burn Agriculture Landscape: A Case Study from Nagaland, India

    OpenAIRE

    Padalia, H.; Mondal, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing incidences of fire from land conversion and residue burning in tropics is the major concern in global warming. Spatial and temporal monitoring of trends of fire incidences is, therefore, significant in order to determine contribution of carbon emissions from slash and burn agriculture. In this study, we analyzed time-series Terra / Aqua MODIS satellite hotspot products from 2001 to 2013 to derive intra- and inter-annual trends in fire incidences in Nagaland state, located ...

  10. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows: first, the cost is high; second, the technological content is low; third, the upstream main body lacks competitiveness; fourth, the structure of investment is irrational. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward to develop marketing channels of agricultural products as follows: perfect the service function of wholesale market of agricultural products; propel the construction of integration and expansion of wholesale market; develop the circulation cooperatives of agricultural products; develop the integrated organization of production and sales of agricultural products.

  11. Biogas production from energy crops and agriculture residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential in term of ml CH4 produced per g of VS-added and (b) the amount of methane produced per m3 of reactor volume. (Author)

  12. Landscape Effects of a Non-Native Grass Facilitate Source Populations of a Native Generalist Bug, Stenotus rubrovittatus, in a Heterogeneous Agricultural Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, A.; Takada, M. B.; Washitani, I.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native plant species can provide native generalist insects, including pests, with novel food and habitats. It is hypothesized that local and landscape-level abundances of non-native plants can affect the population size of generalist insects, although generalists are assumed to be less sensitive to habitat connectivity than specialists. In a heterogeneous landscape in Japan, the relationship between the density of a native pest of rice (Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Heteroptera: Mir...

  13. Agriculture, landscape and human impact in some karst areas of Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burri Ezio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Italy is made up for about 1/5 of its surface by soluble rocks, which represent the arena of karst environments. The karst morpho-units, some hundreds, are mainly distributed inside the alpine structure of the Mediterranean mountains. A very large number of rock formations are present, different in facies, lithology, age, etc. Among these, carbonate rocks prevail, followed by gypsum and salt. Most of the carbonate rocks are limestones sedimented in a platform environment and they show a wide range of porosity, frequency of fractures and bedding planes. The climatic processes, the expression of some different sub-types of Mediterranean climate (from the typical Mediterranean to sub-atlantic and sub-continental varieties, are the main control of the recent morphodynamics inside the karst morpho-units. In some areas the variability of precipitation is very high. The soil-water deficit during summer, together with the steep slopes, makes these environments highly vulnerable to human impact, especially in relation to soil use for grazing and agriculture. The soils, with enriched mineral contents from the fall of loess-like sediments or of volcanic ashes, were surely very appealing to the first farmers.

  14. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  15. Tall tower landscape scale N2O flux measurements in a Danish agricultural and urban, coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Lequy, Émeline; Loubet, Benjamin; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2015-04-01

    eastern coastline of the Roskilde fjord on the Danish island Zealand. The tower is surrounded by the fjord, by agricultural area, forests and, in the South by the urban area of the City of Roskilde. The City of Roskilde operates a waste incinerator and a waste water treatment plant, which drains treated waste water into the fjord. The level of the measured flux values was generally relatively low. Based on the clear definition of the lag time between N2O concentrations and the vertical wind speed, fluxes were measureable over larger periods. The fluxes showed clear directional relationships indicating their large spatial and temporal variability in the landscape. Footprint calculations were performed to attribute source areas to the measured fluxes ...(Kormann and Meixner, 2001; Neftel et al., 2008). The footprint of the flux measurement included areas between 200 m and several kilometres distance from the tower. A preliminary approach was developed to generate monthly maps of N2O fluxes around the tower. Here we present the results from the first seven months of flux measurements. Based on these results we discuss the potential and the limitations of tall tower eddy covariance measurements to estimate maps of N2O fluxes and the integral value of the landscape N2O flux. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by the EU-FP7 InGOS project. We thank Ebba Dellwik (Technical University of Denmark) for providing sonic anemometer data. References: Kormann, R. and Meixner, F.X., 2001. An Analytical Footprint Model For Non-Neutral Stratification. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 99(2): 207-224. Neftel, A., Spirig, C. and Ammann, C., 2008. Application and test of a simple tool for operational footprint evaluations. Environmental Pollution, 152(3): 644-652.

  16. The Discussion of Leisure Agricultural Manor Landscape Design Based on Mental-map of the Rural Landscape%基于乡村景观意象的休闲农庄景观规划设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雨; 李婷婷; 王崑

    2012-01-01

    At present the direction to the orientation of the leisure agricultural manor landscape in northeast China is not clear. The planning to the mental-map of the rural landscape just started. The author summarized the theory, concepts, and the characteristics of the mental-map of the rural landscape. Based on the design of the leisure agricultural Manor of Harbin Hananxincheng in cold region, the author reinterpretation the mental-map of the rural landscape and put forward the content and the characteristics to the mental-map of the rural landscape in cold region. In accordance with the basic characteristics of countryside in cold region we discussed the landscape planning and design method of the leisure agricultural manor in cold region which has Manchu ethnic customs. People hoped to provide reference to the planning and design practices to the regional characteristics of the rural tourism development and promote the exploration and development of the mental-map of the rural landscape research.%目前中国东北地区休闲农庄景观定位方向尚不清晰明确,乡村景观意象规划还在起步阶段.在总结前人对乡村景观意象的理论研究的基础上,归纳出乡村景观意象的概念与基本特征.结合哈尔滨市哈南新城寒地休闲农庄规划设计项目对乡村景观意象进行了新的解读,提出了寒地乡村景观意象的内容与特征要素,并根据寒地乡村的基本特点,探讨了具有满族风情的寒地休闲农庄景观规划设计方法,为寒地乡村发展地域特色性乡村旅游建设提供规划设计实践参考,推动景观意象角度上的探索与开拓.

  17. Drug-device combination products: regulatory landscape and market growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarri, L

    2015-08-01

    Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic products that combine drugs, devices and/or biological products, leading to safer and more effective treatments thanks to careful and precise drug targeting, local administration and individualized therapy. These technologies can especially benefit patients suffering from serious diseases and conditions such as cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis and diabetes, among others. On the other hand, drug-device combination products have also introduced a new dynamic in medical product development, regulatory approval and corporate interaction. Due to the increasing integration of drugs and devices observed in the latest generation of combination products, regulatory agencies have developed specific competences and regulations over the last decade. Manufacturers are required to fully understand the specific requirements in each country in order to ensure timely and accurate market access of new combination products, and the development of combination products involves a very specific pattern of interactions between manufacturers and regulatory agencies. The increased sophistication of the products brought to market over the last couple of decades has accentuated the need to develop drugs and devices collaboratively using resources from both industries, fostering the need of business partnering and technology licensing. This review will provide a global overview of the market trends, as well as (in the last section) an analysis of the drug-device combination products approved by the FDA during the latest 5 years. PMID:26380388

  18. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy introduced in 2007 mandates a 10% blend (E10) of bioethanol with gasoline. This study investigates the potential for the development of a cellulosic ethanol industry based on the availability of agricultural residues and models the number of commercial processing facilities that could be sited in the six Geo-political zones. The potential for cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria is 7556 km3 per annum exceeding the mandate of 10% renewable fuel required and providing the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium-scale processing facilities based on the use of a single feedstock. Cassava and yam peelings provided in excess of 80% of the process residues available with enough feedstock to supply 10 large-scale facilities with a fairly even distribution across the zones. Sorghum straw, millet straw and maize stalks represented 75% of the potential resource available from field residues with the potential to supply 2 large- and 7 medium-scale processing facilities, all of which would be located in the north of the country. When a multi-feedstock approach is used, this provides the potential for either 29 large- or 58 medium-scale facilities based on outputs of 250 and 125 km3 per annum respectively. - Highlights: • Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy mandates a 10% blend of bioethanol with gasoline. • Total bioethanol production from agricultural residues was 7556 km3 per annum. • Process residues offer the greatest potential accounting for 62% of production. • Nigeria has the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium scale commercial. • The use of mixed feedstocks significantly increases the potential for production

  19. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J.; Bleeker, A.;

    2012-01-01

    N balances are a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater, measured during the landscape data collection campaign from 2007–2009. This......Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and...... was concluded that N-surplus reductions of 25–50 % as compared to the present level were realistic in all landscapes. The implemented N-surplus method was thus effective at comparing and synthesizing results on farm N emissions and the potentials of mitigation options, and is recommended for use in...

  20. Caesium-137 root uptake by agricultural and wild crops in post-Chernobyl landscape: the possibilities for phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Komissarova, Olga; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In spite of long term period after Chernobyl fallout (≈25 years after the accident) the level of Cs-137 in soils of contaminated landscapes remains several times more than radiation safety standard (= 37 kBq/m2). In particular, within the area of Plavsk radioactive hot spot (Tula region, Russia) current Cs-137 activities in soil are 460-500 Bq/kg (170-200 kBq/m2) on watershed, 580-680 Bq/kg (200-220 kBq/m2) in arable lower parts of slopes and 620-710 Bq/kg (210-280 kBq/m2) in untilled foots of slopes and river floodplains. To estimate the process of Cs-137 root uptake and incorporation of the radionuclide in plant tissues 6 agricultural crops of typical field rotation (spring barley, maize, summer rape, galega, potatoes, amaranth) as well as natural ecosystems of dry and wet meadows were selected for the detailed study. Total bioproductivity of agricultural crops varies between 1.7-3.9 kg/m2, natural grass ecosystems - 1.9-2.2 g/m2, and is obviously unaffected by radioactive land contamination. At the same time Cs-137 activity in total biomass slightly increases with Cs-137 activity in soil (correlation coefficient r=0.45) and with total biomass (correlation coefficient r=0.51) in the row: rape (5 Bq/kg) phytoremediation purposes, as 86-97% of the radionuclide inventory is associated with roots and remains in soil after cutting of aboveground parts. On the other hand, galega and amaranth could be considered as agricultural crops potentially being used for phytoremediation, since 87-93% of Cs-137 inventory is located in shoots. Potatoes having rather high aboveground biomass and easily removed from soil underground part could be also used for phytoremediation. However, it should be clearly understood that in total Cs-137 inventory in "soil-plant" system the annual amount of the radionuclide's consumption (that may be alienated when harvesting) is less than 0.01%, while the rate of Cs-137 radioactive decay is estimated as about 2% per year. Study was conducted with

  1. [Discussion on agricultural product quality and safety problem from ecological view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Dong, Nan; Lyu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    There are many different perspectives about the sustainable agriculture, which had been proposed since the last three decades in the world. While China's ecologists and agronomists proposed a similar concept named 'ecological agriculture'. Although ecological agriculture in China has achieved substantial progress, including theory, models and supporting technologies nearly several decades of practice and development, its application guidance still is not yet clear. The organic agriculture model proposed by European Union is popular, but it is limited in the beneficiary groups and the social and ecological responsibility. In this context, the article based on an ecological point of view, analyzed the shortcomings of ecological imbalance caused by a single mode of agricultural production and the negative impact on the quality of agricultural products, and discussed the core values of ecological agriculture. On this basis, we put forward the concept of sustainable security of agricultural products. Based on this concept, an agricultural platform was established under the healthy ecosysphere environment, and from this agricultural platform, agricultural products could be safely and sustainably obtained. Around the central value of the concept, we designed the agricultural sustainable and security production model. Finally, we compared the responsibility, benefiting groups, agronomic practices selection and other aspects of sustainable agriculture with organic agriculture, and proved the advancement of sustainable agricultural model in agricultural production quality and safety. PMID:26685623

  2. Changes in water budgets and sediment yields from a hypothetical agricultural field as a function of landscape and management characteristics--A unit field modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Crop agriculture occupies 13 percent of the conterminous United States. Agricultural management practices, such as crop and tillage types, affect the hydrologic flow paths through the landscape. Some agricultural practices, such as drainage and irrigation, create entirely new hydrologic flow paths upon the landscapes where they are implemented. These hydrologic changes can affect the magnitude and partitioning of water budgets and sediment erosion. Given the wide degree of variability amongst agricultural settings, changes in the magnitudes of hydrologic flow paths and sediment erosion induced by agricultural management practices commonly are difficult to characterize, quantify, and compare using only field observations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to simulate two landscape characteristics (slope and soil texture) and three agricultural management practices (land cover/crop type, tillage type, and selected agricultural land management practices) to evaluate their effects on the water budgets of and sediment yield from agricultural lands. An array of sixty-eight 60-year simulations were run, each representing a distinct natural or agricultural scenario with various slopes, soil textures, crop or land cover types, tillage types, and select agricultural management practices on an isolated 16.2-hectare field. Simulations were made to represent two common agricultural climate regimes: arid with sprinkler irrigation and humid. These climate regimes were constructed with actual climate and irrigation data. The results of these simulations demonstrate the magnitudes of potential changes in water budgets and sediment yields from lands as a result of landscape characteristics and agricultural practices adopted on them. These simulations showed that variations in landscape characteristics, such as slope and soil type, had appreciable effects on water budgets and sediment yields. As slopes increased, sediment yields increased in both the arid and

  3. Conservation of Pollinators in Traditional Agricultural Landscapes – New Challenges in Transylvania (Romania) Posed by EU Accession and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Földesi, Rita; Mózes, Edina; Szirák, Ádám; Fischer, Joern; Hanspach, Jan; Báldi, András

    2016-01-01

    Farmland biodiversity is strongly declining in most of Western Europe, but still survives in traditional low intensity agricultural landscapes in Central and Eastern Europe. Accession to the EU however intensifies agriculture, which leads to the vanishing of traditional farming. Our aim was to describe the pollinator assemblages of the last remnants of these landscapes, thus set the baseline of sustainable farming for pollination, and to highlight potential measures of conservation. In these traditional farmlands in the Transylvanian Basin, Romania (EU accession in 2007), we studied the major pollinator groups—wild bees, hoverflies and butterflies. Landscape scale effects of semi-natural habitats, land cover diversity, the effects of heterogeneity and woody vegetation cover and on-site flower resources were tested on pollinator communities in traditionally managed arable fields and grasslands. Our results showed: (i) semi-natural habitats at the landscape scale have a positive effect on most pollinators, especially in the case of low heterogeneity of the direct vicinity of the studied sites; (ii) both arable fields and grasslands hold abundant flower resources, thus both land use types are important in sustaining pollinator communities; (iii) thus, pollinator conservation can rely even on arable fields under traditional management regime. This has an indirect message that the tiny flower margins around large intensive fields in west Europe can be insufficient conservation measures to restore pollinator communities at the landscape scale, as this is still far the baseline of necessary flower resources. This hypothesis needs further study, which includes more traditional landscapes providing baseline, and exploration of other factors behind the lower than baseline level biodiversity values of fields under agri-environmental schemes (AES). PMID:27285118

  4. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  5. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chun-mei

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows, first, the cost is high; second, the t...

  6. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products, by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain, this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation. The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows: the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly; the circulation cost hovers at high level; the ...

  7. The Relationship between Customer Knowledge Management and Performance of Agricultural Product Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-Jia

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes an overview of the CKM and the performance of agricultural product innovation from contents of agricultural product innovation and customer knowledge management (CKM), the relation between CKM and agricultural product innovation. On the basis of the overview, it builds the theoretical framework of CKM and agricultural product innovation. It points out that enterprises can satisfy demands of customers through acquisition, share, utilization and innovation of customer knowledge...

  8. Research on the Performance Evaluation and Advancing Path of Henan Agricultural Products E-marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jingqiang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the traditional marketing management of agricultural products has been unable to meet the diversified demands of market, and the network has been applied to the marketing field of agricultural products, the research on the performance evaluation and advancing path of Henan agricultural products E-marketing is more important than before. Based on current problems of Henan agricultural products E-marketing, a system of performance evaluation is established, which covers website build...

  9. The application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqin; Luo, Ying

    The quality and security of agricultural products is the hot issue with public attention in China and also one of the issues that Chinese government attaches great importance to. This paper describes the principle of data mining technology and based on the environmental information data of agricultural production and the quality-security testing data of agricultural products, analyses the application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products.

  10. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG, Wuya; Yan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics (4PL), this paper elaborates the concept, background and development plight of agricultural products logistics, advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics, etc. and explores issues of information, efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics, draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost, and ...

  11. Application of Mixed Group Decision Making to Safety Evaluation of Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiao-hong

    2012-01-01

    In view of the gravity of issues concerning safety of agricultural products and urgency of resolving these issues, after analyzing the problems existing in safety of agricultural products, this article offers a method for evaluating safety of agricultural products on the basis of mixed group decision making. First of all, it introduces the factors influencing safety evaluation of agricultural products; subsequently, given that the judgment matrices offered by the group of experts contain both...

  12. Agent-Based Modeling of Human-Induced Spread of Invasive Species in Agricultural Landscapes: Insights from the Potato Moth in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    François Rebaudo; Verónica Crespo-Pérez; Jean-François Silvain; Olivier Dangles

    2011-01-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) are ideal tools to deal with the complexity of pest invasion throughout agricultural socio-ecological systems, yet very few studies have applied them in such context. In this work we developed an ABM that simulates interactions between farmers and an invasive insect pest in an agricultural landscape of the tropical Andes. Our specific aims were to use the model 1) to assess the importance of farmers' mobility and pest control knowledge on pest expansion and 2) to use ...

  13. Exposures from consumption of agricultural and semi-natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of food from different production systems to the internal dose from radiocesium, was investigated in selected study sites in Ukraine and Russia. Food products from semi-natural ecosystems are major contributors to the individual internal dose to rural population in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. At the selected study sites it is estimated in 1995 that foods from private farms and forests contribute on average 35% to 60%, to the individual internal dose, variation relating to soil types and implemented countermeasures. The importance of food products from private farms and particularly forest products increases with time since Cs concentration in some of the natural food products have longer ecological half life than food products from agricultural systems. A significant relationship was observed between consumption of mushrooms and whole body content of radiocesium in rural people. The contribution to the collective dose of food products produced in the semi-natural ecosystems is less than the contribution to the individual internal dose for the local rural population

  14. Survival of a native mammalian carnivore, the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis Kerr, 1792 (Carnivora: Felidae), in an agricultural landscape on an oceanic Philippine island

    OpenAIRE

    M.R.P. Lorica; Heaney, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about vulnerability of mammalian carnivores to extinction, especially on small islands, appear to conflict with prior reports of endemic populations of leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792) surviving in agricultural landscapes on oceanic islands. We investigated the persistence of the Visayan leopard cat (P. b. rabori) in the sugarcane fields on Negros, an oceanic island in central Philippines. A population remained throughout the year at our study site on a sugarcane f...

  15. Integrated assessment of silvoarable agroforestry at landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.

    2006-01-01

    InEurope, agroforestry systems have been used mainly in traditional agriculture toprovide a variety of agricultural and tree products. However, during the last three centuries, the agricultural landscape in

  16. Innovation of Supervision System for Quality and Safety of Edible Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxing; MEI; Zhongchao; FENG

    2014-01-01

    This paper elaborated multidimensional characteristics of quality and safety of agricultural products,introduced current situation of quality and safety supervision of edible agricultural products in China,analyzed existing problems of quality and safety supervision system and corresponding reasons,and finally came up with recommendations for innovation of supervision system for quality and safety of agricultural products.

  17. Landscape and Local Controls of Insect Biodiversity in Conservation Grasslands: Implications for the Conservation of Ecosystem Service Providers in Agricultural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas O. Crist

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of biodiversity in intensively managed agricultural landscapes depends on the amount and spatial arrangement of cultivated and natural lands. Conservation incentives that create semi-natural grasslands may increase the biodiversity of beneficial insects and their associated ecosystem services, such as pollination and the regulation of insect pests, but the effectiveness of these incentives for insect conservation are poorly known, especially in North America. We studied the variation in species richness, composition, and functional-group abundances of bees and predatory beetles in conservation grasslands surrounded by intensively managed agriculture in Southwest Ohio, USA. Characteristics of grassland patches and surrounding land-cover types were used to predict insect species richness, composition, and functional-group abundance using linear models and multivariate ordinations. Bee species richness was positively influenced by forb cover and beetle richness was positively related to grass cover; both taxa had greater richness in grasslands surrounded by larger amounts of semi-natural land cover. Functional groups of bees and predatory beetles defined by body size and sociality varied in their abundance according to differences in plant composition of grassland patches, as well as the surrounding land-cover diversity. Intensive agriculture in the surrounding landscape acted as a filter to both bee and beetle species composition in conservation grasslands. Our results support the need for management incentives to consider landscape-level processes in the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  18. Integrated assessment of silvoarable agroforestry at landscape scale

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, J.H.N.

    2006-01-01

    InEurope, agroforestry systems have been used mainly in traditional agriculture toprovide a variety of agricultural and tree products. However, during the last three centuries, the agricultural landscape inEuropehas seen a steady reduction of agroforestry. The reduction has been greatest since 1950, as the introduction of land consolidation programmes and agricultural mechanisation encouraged the removal of hedges and isolated trees from agricultural land. However, as the environmental costs ...

  19. The mechanics of race : the discursive production of Detroit's landscape of difference

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Positioning Detroit's "post-industrial" landscape as anything but "natural", this work seeks to understand and engage the racialized production of Detroit in the urban spatial imaginary through public policy and popular culture. A review of the literature on Detroit either naturalizes Detroit's late twentieth century production as a "chocolate city" and its population decline as functions of "white flight" and de-industrialization. I argue that the narrative of the post-industrial city is lin...

  20. A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Blasi, C.; Tanzi, V.; Lanzetta, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dip di Ingegneria Chimica, Napoli (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    The Italian production of agricultural residues has been evaluated with a view to energy recovery through gasification. Two main categories of residues have been identified: the first, (A) is associated with the growing and collection of products with a nutritional value, whereas the second (B) includes the residues associated with the subsequent processing in order to obtain final products for commercialization. Category A, which comprises three further sub-categories: straw (A1); woody residues (A2); and stems and leaves (residues from vegetables, tobacco, sugar beet, (A3)), results in about 16.5 mt yr. The average amount of straw (A1) is 11 mt/yr, of which about 60% is waste to be eliminated. Woody residues (A2) (mainly pruning off-cuts from vineyards and olive groves) are about 3.5 mt/yr (85% unused). Category A3 amounts to about 2 mt/yr (90% unused). Straw is available mainly in the northern part of the country, whereas the other two sub-categories are widely distributed in central and southern regions. The yields of category B are estimated at 4 mt/yr, of which more than 3 mt/yr are waste products from grape and olive processing. Other residues, such as rice, sunflower and soya-bean husks (about 0.65 mt/yr), almond and nut shells and fruit stones (about 0.2 mt/yr), although not widely available on a national scale, can be significant on a local basis. The total amount of unused agricultural residues is about 14.5 mt/yr, which, if completely exploited through gasification, can contribute as much as 7-10% to the current national electricity needs. The regions of Veneto, Puglia, Friuli, Lombardia and Emilia Romagna appear to be good candidates for electricity production, given the significant surface concentration of unused residues (105-55 t km{sup 2}). (author)

  1. The Leading Role of Governments in Promoting Chinese Agricultural Clean Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing agricultural clean production,the theoretical basis of the leading role displayed by the government in promoting agricultural clean production is expounded.The characteristics of agricultural products,such as the hidden environment quality of agricultural production,spillover of profits and the benefits,make governments to display the leading role in promoting agricultural clean production at the primary stage in particular.The restrictive factors in promoting Chinese agricultural clean production are put forward,which include idea restriction,technology restriction,talent restriction,economic restriction and policy restriction.Countermeasures which should be adopted by governments on promoting Chinese agricultural clean production are put forward.Firstly,the laws and regulations for promoting agricultural clean production should be established and perfected gradually;secondly,the evaluation system for agricultural clean production should be established;thirdly,the promotion on agricultural clean production should be intensified;fourthly,the practical technologies and applications of agricultural clean production should be guided;fifthly,the industrialized operation of ecological agriculture should be vigorously promoted.

  2. An Unified Framework to Integrate Biotic, Abiotic Processes and Human Activities in Spatially Explicit Models of Agricultural Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Vinatier, Fabrice; Lagacherie, Philippe; Voltz, Marc; Petit, Sandrine; Lavigne, Claire; Brunet, Yves; Lescourret, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Recent concern over possible ways to sustain ecosystem services has triggered important research worldwide on ecosystem processes at the landscape scale. Understanding this complexity of landscape functioning calls for coupled and spatially-explicit modeling approaches. However, disciplinary boundaries have limited the number of multi-process studies at the landscape scale, and current progress in coupling processes at this scale often reveals strong imbalance between biotic and abiotic proce...

  3. An Analysis of Current Energy Consumption in China’s Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; ZHANG; Zongshou; CAI; Lihong; CHEN; Dezheng; ZHANG; Zhe; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is one of the important symbols of modern agriculture,and it is also an important input in modern agricultural production. The study on the agricultural energy consumption not only has a positive significance to agricultural energy saving,emission reduction and ecological environment protection,but also can greatly reduce the cost of agricultural production and improve the economic benefit of farmers. Through the analysis of the national statistical data about energy consumption for agriculture production from 2005 to 2012 year,the results show that the amount of energy consumption for agricultural production in China has increased year by year since 2005. Because of the continued growth of the total energy consumption in China,the proportion of energy consumption for agricultural production to the total energy consumption of China has declined slightly since 2005. At present,the energy consumption structure for agricultural production in China is diesel fuel,coal,electric power,gasoline,and indirect energy consumption. With the rapid development of the agricultural technology in recent years,the total agricultural output value in China has increased greatly,the direct and indirect agricultural energy consumption per unit of agricultural output value in China has decreased year by year,and the efficiency of energy consumption for agricultural production has increased consequently.

  4. Enhancement of Agricultural Production Through Sustainable Agriculture and Poverty Allevition in Kot, Manazary Baba (Malakand Agency Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar Khan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable agriculture can bring both environmental and economic benefits for farmers, communities and nations. Sustainable agriculture plays a vital role for poverty alleviation through enhancement of crops and vegetable production. The present study was conducted to compare the production of traditional agriculture (existent with sustainable agriculture and to demonstrate its economic role. The project are (12500 acres consists on both irrigated and non-irrigated land. Keeping in mind the climatic condition, the wheat, maize and different vegetable was cultivated in ways of sustainable agriculture. The wheat production increased from 40-50% on irrigated land but 20-30% on rain-fed land, the maize production enhanced from 20-25% on irrigated land and 10-15% on rain-fed land. Similarly, the vegetable like okra, onion, garlic and tomato production were increased from 30-32% on irrigated land while 28-30% on rain-fed land. If the sustainable agriculture practices are carried out on the whole agriculture land of the project area properly then it is possible that the inhabitants will not only meet the food requirements from their local fields but they will also be able to export to the market of other areas. From experimental result, it is concluded that this practice will reduce the consumption of food requirements and can be used for poverty alleviation.

  5. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from an agriculture-dominated landscape using multiple planetary boundary layer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of regional greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes is essential for establishing mitigation strategies and evaluating their effectiveness. Here, we used multiple top-down approaches and multiple trace gas observations at a tall tower to estimate GHG regional fluxes and evaluate the GHG fluxes derived from bottom-up approaches. We first applied the eddy covariance, equilibrium, inverse modeling (CarbonTracker, and flux aggregation methods using three years of carbon dioxide (CO2 measurements on a 244 m tall tower in the Upper Midwest, USA. We then applied the equilibrium method for estimating methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes with one-month high-frequency CH4 and N2O gradient measurements on the tall tower and one-year concentration measurements on a nearby tall tower, and evaluated the uncertainties of this application. The results indicate that: (1 the flux aggregation, eddy covariance, the equilibrium method, and the CarbonTracker product all gave similar seasonal patterns of the regional CO2 flux (105–106 km2, but that the equilibrium method underestimated the July CO2 flux by 52–69%. (2 The annual budget varied among these methods from 74 to −131 g C-CO2 m−2 yr−1, indicating a large uncertainty in the annual CO2 flux estimation. (3 The regional CH4 and N2O emissions according to a top-down method were at least six and two times higher than the emissions from a bottom-up inventory (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research, respectively. (4 The global warming potentials of the CH4 and N2O emissions were equal in magnitude to the cooling benefit of the regional CO2 uptake. The regional GHG budget, including both biological and anthropogenic origins, is estimated at 7 ± 160 g CO2 eq m−2 yr−1.

  6. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  7. Landscape factors influencing the spatial distribution and abundance of mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mixed residential-agricultural community in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito-borne avian diseases, principally avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.) have been implicated as the key limiting factor associated with recent declines of endemic avifauna in the Hawaiian Island archipelago. We present data on the relative abundance, infection status, and spatial distribution of the primary mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) across a mixed, residential-agricultural community adjacent to Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on Hawai'i Island. We modeled the effect of agriculture and forest fragmentation in determining relative abundance of adult Cx. quinquefasciatus in Volcano Village, and we implement our statistical model in a geographic information system to generate a probability of mosquito capture prediction surface for the study area. Our model was based on biweekly captures of adult mosquitoes from 20 locations within Volcano Village from October 2001 to April 2003. We used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of capturing a mosquito, and we developed a set of 17 competing models a priori to specifically evaluate the effect of agriculture and fragmentation (i.e., residential landscapes) at two spatial scales. In total, 2,126 mosquitoes were captured in CO 2-baited traps with an average probability of 0.27 (SE = 0.10) of capturing one or more mosquitoes per trap night. Twelve percent of mosquitoes captured were infected with P. relictum. Our data indicate that agricultural lands and forest fragmentation significantly increase the probability of mosquito capture. The prediction surface identified areas along the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary that may have high relative abundance of the vector. Our data document the potential of avian malaria transmission in residential-agricultural landscapes and support the need for vector management that extends beyond reserve boundaries and considers a reserve's spatial position in a highly

  8. The Estimation Methods for Agricultural Surplus Labor Based on Stochastic Frontier Production Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaozhou; LU; Yanfen; LUO

    2014-01-01

    The existing calculation methods for the number of agricultural surplus labor have a common flaw,that is,they can not reflect the impact of technical efficiency changes in agricultural production on the surplus labor. Based on the basic principle of stochastic frontier production function,this paper calculates the agricultural production technical efficiency of various provinces,and selects the province with the highest technical efficiency to assume that its agricultural labor is fully utilized,and there is no agricultural surplus labor. With the ratio of agricultural labor number to agricultural output value in this province as a reference,this paper calculates the number of agricultural surplus labor in other provinces. This calculation method makes up for the shortcomings of the existing calculation methods; it reflects the relationship between the number of agricultural surplus labor and production technical efficiency.

  9. Dynamics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Riparian Buffer Zones and Wetlands as Hot Spots in Agricultural Landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study considers various aspects of riparian buffer zones and wetlands for greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural landscapes of northern and north-eastern Europe. In particular, the impact of pulsing water regime, continuous loading and several alterations of environmental conditions on greenhouse gas emissions are taken into the consideration. In two case studies the isotopologue technique was used to distinguish between N2O sources in both riparian zones and constructed wetlands. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen (N2) emissions, isotopic signatures of N2O and nitrate (NO3-) in groundwater of two differently loaded riparian grey alder stands in southern Estonia were investigated over a period of nine months. One area was a 38-year-old stand in Porijõgi (PJ), where uphill agricultural activities had been abandoned since the middle of 1990s, and the second area was a 55-year-old alder stand in Viiratsi (Vi), which still receives polluted lateral flow from uphill fields applied with pig slurry. Gas fluxes were measured in six sampling sessions, and water samples were analysed for NO3-, N2, N2O, and isotopic signatures of oxygen-18 (delta 18O, δ18O) and nitrogen-15 (delta 15N, δ15N) in N2O and NO3- in four of the six sessions. The N2O and N2 fluxes from both riparian zones did not differ significantly, being 9.6 ± 4.7 and 14.5 ± 3.9 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1, and 2 466 ± 275 and 3 083 ± 371 μg N2–N m−2 h−1 in PJ and Vi sites respectively, suggesting that gaseous N2 is the dominant gas emission from these alder stands. The isotopic signatures of N2O and NO3- were not significantly different between PJ and Vi study sites suggesting possible conversion of NO3- to N2O in both areas. The greater prevalence of N2 emissions over N2O in both areas, and the strong relationship between NO3- and N2O concentrations (r2 = 0.846, with p < 0.01) further suggested that denitrification is the main source of N2O and N2 fluxes in these grey alder stands. The dominant

  10. Modern parameters of caesium-137 root uptake in natural and agricultural grass ecosystems of contaminated post-Chernobyl landscape, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paramonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of modern parameters of 137Cs root uptake was conducted in natural meadow and agricultural ecosystems of post-Chernobyl landscapes of Tula region. The agrosystems with main crops of field rotation (barley, potatoes, rape, maize occupying watersheds and slopes with arable chernozems are contaminated at a level 460-670 Bq/kg (4.7-6.0 Ci/km2; natural meadow ecosystems occupying lower parts of slopes and floodplains are contaminated at a level 620-710 Bq/kg (5.8-7.6 Ci/km2. In the arable soils 137Cs uniformly distributed to a depth of Ap horizon (20-30 cm of thickness, while in meadow soils 70-80% of the radionuclide is concentrated within the top Ad horizon (9-13 cm of thickness. These topsoil layer accords with rhizosphere zone, where >80-90% of plant roots are concentrated, and from which 137Cs is mostly consumed by vegetation. Total amount of 137Cs root uptake depends on the level of soil radioactive contamination (correlation coefficient 0.61. So 137Cs activity in meadow vegetation (103-160 Bq/kg is generally more than one in agricultural vegetation (9-92 Bq/kg. The values of 137Cs transfer factor in the studied ecosystems vary from 0.01 (rape to 0.20 (wet meadow, that confirms the discrimination of the radionuclide’s root uptake. The larger are the volume of roots and their absorbing surface, the higher are the values of transfer factor from soil to plant (correlation coefficients 0.71 and 0.64 respectively. 137Cs translocation from roots to shoots is also determined by biological features of plants. At the same level of soil contamination above-ground parts of meadow herbs accumulate more 137Cs than Gramineae species, and in agrosystems above-ground parts of weeds concentrate more 137Cs than cultivated cereals. Thus, the level of soil radioactive pollution and biological features of plants are determinants in the process of 137Cs root uptake and translocation and should be considered in land use policy.

  11. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-xia; Shao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent. We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy, introduce the third-party logistics companies, establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, and strengthen information sharing, to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural produc...

  12. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex; Wuya; ZHONG; Wei; YAN

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics(4PL),this paper elaborates the concept,background and development plight of agricultural products logistics,advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics,etc.and explores issues of information,efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics,draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost,and speed the efficiency of China’s agricultural products logistics.

  13. Theoretical Application of Supervision over Quality and Safety of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; CHENG; Ying; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products has received high attention of management department.Competent authorities have formulated and issued many measures to strengthen supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products and improve China’s agricultural product quality and safety level.From the perspective of management science,this paper elaborates basic contents of two basic management theories,Broken Windows Effect and Effect of Heat Furnace.Then,it analyzes influence of Broken Windows Effect and Effect of Heat Furnace on supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products.Finally,it comes up with recommendations for supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products.

  14. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products,by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain,this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation.The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows:the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly;the circulation cost hovers at high level;the factor inputs of agricultural products are short;inflation pressure is incessantly mounting;the profit distribution of supply chain is irrational.Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  15. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  16. Southern European grazing lands: Production, environmental and landscape management aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjigeorgiou, I.; Osoro, O.; Fragoso, J.P. (J.); Molle, G

    2012-01-01

    Grazing lands and their management in livestock systems are a matter of special importance in the search for sustainability. Socio-economic and ecological objectives should be considered jointly in considering livestock production. In addition to the general issues of biodiversity and habitat preservation, the challenges for their management vary according to the regional conditions. In Southern European environments, where the past changes in livestock farming have led to a general decrease ...

  17. Landscape epidemiology of plant diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Plantegenest, Manuel; Le May, Christophe; Fabre, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Many agricultural landscapes are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity and fragmentation. Landscape ecology focuses on the influence of habitat heterogeneity in space and time on ecological processes. Landscape epidemiology aims at applying concepts and approaches originating from landscape ecology to the study of pathogen dynamics at the landscape scale. However, despite the strong influence that the landscape properties may have on the spread of plant diseases, landscape epidemiol...

  18. Consumer Behavior Analysis under the "Lemon Dilemma" in the Market of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the connotation of "lemon market" and the phenomenon of "lemon" in the market of agricultural products,the consumers’ behaviors in the "lemon market" of agricultural products are analyzed.Firstly,consumers feel unfair in their minds in the process of negotiation;secondly,the purchase decision rule tends to be simplified in the "lemon market" of agricultural products;thirdly,the consumers tend to follow the masses in the "lemon market" of agricultural products.The economics significance of the impact of "lemon dilemma" of agricultural products on consumers is analyzed.The causes of the impact are analyzed from two aspects the uncertainty of collecting the information of agricultural information and the uncertainty of using the agricultural information.The suggestions and countermeasures are put forward in order to solve the "lemon" problems in agricultural market.In the first place,the excellent mechanism for producing the information of agricultural products should be constructed;in the second place,the government should encourage the multi-channel,multi-form and multi-level operation mode of agricultural products,to promote the optimization of market functions;in the third place,the government should widen the channel of information dissemination for agricultural products and establish the high efficiency feedback path;in the fourth place,the traditional thought pattern of consumers should be changed,so as to promote the healthy,orderly and benign development of agricultural products market.

  19. SWOT Analysis of Agricultural Producers in the Supply Chain of Chinese Agro-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining the producers in the supply chain of agricultural products,the SWOT analysis is adopted to analyze the advantages,disadvantages,opportunities and threats of producers in the supply chain of Chinese agricultural products.The paper analyzes the advantages of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products from three aspects including land resources,technology level of producers and input costs.The disadvantages of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from three aspects including scale level,mechanization and technology level and profit level.The opportunities of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from the aspects of laws,policies,capitals and technologies.The threats confronted by the producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from foreign producers,negotiation control of supply chain of agricultural chain,environment protection and quality safety standard.On the basis of the analysis,the relevant suggestions on facilitating the interests of producers in the supply chain of Chinese agricultural products are put forward,including fully displaying the advantages of land resources;improving the knowledge and technology level of supply chain of agricultural production;establishing the alliances of producers of agricultural products to expand production scale;improving the quality of agricultural products to satisfy the relevant safety quality standard and environmental protection standard.

  20. Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Product Export to the United States of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    Taking major agricultural product importers at the American market as reference object and using market share and growth rate,this paper analyzed current situation of the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to the United States of America. It used the Exports Similarity Index to evaluate the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and it analyzed the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA by the shift share method. Research results indicate that China’s agricultural products occupy small portion of American market and are faced with intense competition of many developing countries,especially the Thailand. However,China still has strong export competitiveness and ranks the second place only second to India. Finally,it came up with recommendations for raising the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and promoting China’s agricultural product export to USA.