WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural production energeticky

  1. Agricultural Productivity and Farm Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F. Vernon

    1975-01-01

    The author, president of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of New Orleans, in remarks to the first general session of the Agricultural Education Division of the American Vocational Association, paints a bright picture of agricultural productivity, financial challenge, and agricultural commitment in the mid-South. (Author/EA)

  2. Energy production from agriculture: an economic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.J.

    1986-05-01

    The crisis in sales on the world market of the European Economic Community's traditional agricultural products as well as Europe's concern for its energy independence, have led to the elaboration of agricultural diversification strategies and more specifically of agricultural projects which produce energy. This article evaluates the interest of such schemes in relation to the criterion of collective profitability.

  3. A chaotic agricultural machines production growth model

    OpenAIRE

    Jablanović, Vesna D.

    2011-01-01

    Chaos theory, as a set of ideas, explains the structure in aperiodic, unpredictable dynamic systems. The basic aim of this paper is to provide a relatively simple agricultural machines production growth model that is capable of generating stable equilibrium, cycles, or chaos. A key hypothesis of this work is based on the idea that the coefficient π = 1 + α plays a crucial role in explaining local stability of the agricultural machines production, where α is an autonomous growth rate of the ag...

  4. Options for enhancing agricultural productivity in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Pender, John L., ed.; Kato, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, economic growth in Nigeria has been strong. Annual GDP grew by 9.1 percent per annum between 2003 and 2005 and by 6 .1 percent per annum between 2006 and 2008. Much of this growth can be attributed to the non-oil economy which has grown rapidly. This is due primarily to agriculture, which contributes approximately 35 percent to total GDP and supports 70 percent of the population. Agricultural research has been shown to be crucial in increasing agricultural productivity and reducin...

  5. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practice...

  6. Education and agricultural productivity: evidence from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Existing evidence on the impact of education on agricultural productivity in Africa is mixed, with estimates usually insignificant although sometimes large. Analysis of the first nationally representative household survey of Uganda gives an estimate of the impact of household primary schooling on crop production comparable to the developing country average. In addition, the primary schooling of neighbouring farm workers appears to raise crop production and these external returns exceed the in...

  7. Agricultural production contract in American law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Lipińska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays agricultural production is more and more based on the production contracts. There are many types of them that can be conducted by a farmer and processing plants, brokers, etc. Signing the contract a farmer reduces the production risk and stabilizes his revenue. Because the legal system varies from state to state there are some regularities and models that can be followed. Unfortunately the differences do not allow to define one common pattern of contact.

  8. Agriculture familiale et production avicole au Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This research was carried out at Chương Mỹ and Phú Xuyên Districts for two years of 2009 – 2010 by production record keeping system according to a production cycle of 270 poultry flocks at 210 farms and smallholders to aim at better understanding the diversification, technical productivity in this region through an approach of animal production systems and the supply chains with their various constraints. Agricultural by-products are taken full advantage maximum but the daily diet is not bala...

  9. Remotely Sensed Mapping of Agricultural Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiros, E.; Domenikiotis, C.; Dalezios, N. R.; Danalatos, N. G.

    2009-04-01

    Identifying vulnerable agricultural production areas is essential for any sustainable development/farming plan. Climate is among the most important factors that determine the agricultural potential of a region and the suitability of an area for a specific crop or land management, followed by soil characteristics and geomorphology. Temperature and rainfall in terms of quantity and spatiotemporal variability are the two climatic variables that determine the agricultural potential of an area and the risk involved in any new agronomical use. Also, extreme weather events, such as droughts, have to be taken into account. In this paper, two satellite derived indices are combined in GIS environment with soil maps and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in order to identify the agricultural potential of areas. Namely, these indices are the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) and the Degree Days (DD) (also known as Heat Units). VHI represents overall vegetation health and is used for agricultural drought monitoring and mapping. DD units (oC d) are often used in agriculture in order to estimate or predict the lengths of the different phases of the development in crop plants, since temperature has a primary role in the growth of many organisms (plants and insects). The two indices are computed for 20 hydrological years, from October 1981 to September 2001, from NOAA/AVHRR ten -day composite images with 8x8 Km spatial resolution. DD is examined for crops of great commercial importance. The soil maps are digitized according to fertility (appropriate or not for agricultural use) and desertification vulnerability, whereas altitude based limitations are provided by the DEM. The study area is the water district of Thessaly, the largest lowland formation of Greece and the country's largest agricultural centre, located in Central Greece. The superposition of the two indices along with the soil and elevation data had led to the identification of vulnerable agricultural production areas. The

  10. The Change Path of Agricultural Production Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The system of agricultural production outsourcing is a breakpoint for the development of agriculture and immigration worker’s urbanization. The analysis based on framework of the Institutional Change reveals that as a whole,the outsourcing system of agricultural production improves the welfare of society effectively. To some extents,it also can solve the problem of food security. The rural transferring labor-forces who realize the institutional change in the initial stage are is the first Action Group to gain the potential benefits. Local governments are a breakpoint of induced institutional change, which find potential benefits and then change the role of system changes. The central government is in dominant statue during the whole change. The outsourcing is a kind of improvement to the Family Contracted System, also an adaption to an imperfect Chinese rural social security. So the outsourcing has a positive meaning in the rural area.

  11. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrefaction of biomass involves heating at 200°C-300°C under inert atmosphere to remove volatiles and produce materials with higher energy values and low moisture. Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at differ...

  12. Crop succession requirements in agricultural production planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Stegeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is proposed to write crop succession requirements as linear constraints in an LP-based model for agricultural production planning. Crop succession information is given in the form of a set of inadmissible successions of crops. The decision variables represent the areas where a certain admis

  13. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size.

  14. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Classified Marketing of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengying; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Classified marketing of agricultural products was analyzed using the Logistic Regression Model. This method can take full advantage of information in agricultural product database,to find factors influencing best selling degree of agricultural products,and make quantitative analysis accordingly. Using this model,it is also able to predict sales of agricultural products,and provide reference for mapping out individualized sales strategy for popularizing agricultural products.

  15. Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the agricultural production efficiency of all cities and areas in Shaanxi Province in the period 2006-2009 using data envelopment analysis method,and compares the agricultural production efficiency between all cities and areas.The results show that the agricultural production efficiency and scale efficiency of agriculture of Shaanxi Province are high on the whole,but the efficiency of agricultural technology is very low,agricultural development still relies on factor inputs,and the driving role of technological progress is not conspicuous.Finally the following countermeasures are put forward to promote agricultural productivity in Shaanxi Province:improve the construction of agricultural infrastructure,and increase agricultural input;accelerate the project of extending agricultural technology into households,and promote the conversion and use rate of agricultural scientific and technological achievements;establish and improve industrial system of agriculture,and speed up the building of various agricultural cooperative economic organizations.

  16. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-10-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

  17. Research on Development Status and Countermeasures of Agricultural Cleaner Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the study,the connotation and objectives of agricultural cleaner production were introduced firstly,and then the development status of agricultural cleaner production in China was analyzed,and the problems existing in the development of agricultural cleaner production were pointed out.From the strategy of agricultural sustainable development,the necessity and feasibility of implementing agricultural cleaner production in China were discussed.Finally,some related countermeasures were put forward according...

  18. Factors Influencing Price of Agricultural Products and Stability Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Factors leading to rise of prices of agricultural products mainly include tension of supply-demand relationship,promotion of production cost and circulation cost,and speculation of Refugee Capital(Hot Money).Factors leading to low price and difficult sales of agricultural products mainly include asymmetry of supply-demand information,lack of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products and decentralized and small-scaled operation of farmers.On the basis of these factors,this paper presents following countermeasures and suggestions for stabilizing prices of agricultural products:firstly,building long-effect mechanism for production and sales of agricultural products;secondly,expand the production and increase supply of agricultural products;thirdly,control the rising range of production cost for agricultural products;fourthly,enhance organization level of farmers;fifthly,promote innovation and development of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products.

  19. Agricultural R&D, technology and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesse, J; Thirtle, C

    2010-09-27

    The relationships between basic and applied agricultural R&D, developed and developing country R&D and between R&D, extension, technology and productivity growth are outlined. The declining growth rates of public R&D expenditures are related to output growth and crop yields, where growth rates have also fallen, especially in the developed countries. However, growth in output value per hectare has not declined in the developing countries and labour productivity growth has increased except in the EU. Total factor productivity has generally increased, however it is measured. The public sector share of R&D expenditures has fallen and there has been rapid concentration in the private sector, where six multinationals now dominate. These companies are accumulating intellectual property to an extent that the public and international institutions are disadvantaged. This represents a threat to the global commons in agricultural technology on which the green revolution has depended. Estimates of the increased R&D expenditures needed to feed 9 billion people by 2050 and how these should be targeted, especially by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), show that the amounts are feasible and that targeting sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia can best increase output growth and reduce poverty. Lack of income growth in SSA is seen as the most insoluble problem.

  20. Research on Logistics Mode of Fresh Agricultural Products in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has a research on logistics mode of fresh agricultural products in china. Logistics costs are an important part of the price of fresh agricultural products. By researching the characteristics of fresh agricultural products, this study get the main reasons for the high price of fresh agricultural products in China, there are the high logistics cost, large loss and poor preservation in logistics process. Then some measures are proposed to reduce fresh agricultural products logistics costs in China. The measures are the advanced direct sales model, advanced cold chain technology and advanced networks of cold chain logistics and building fast fresh agricultural products information platform.

  1. Bottleneck on Supply Chain of Organic Agricultural Products and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-min

    2012-01-01

    Organic agriculture is one of successful models of low-carbon agriculture, and plays an important role in alleviating and adapting to climate change. However, the development of supply chain of organic agricultural products lags behind, which seriously restricts development of organic agricultural product market. In this paper, major models and bottleneck of supply chain of organic agricultural products are analyzed, and finally countermeasures are put forward.

  2. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  3. Minilivestock in Argentina. Integration with Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biasatti, NR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative agricultural production can take different forms. In Argentina there is an important diversity of species available to be incorporated into production systems, giving support for the use of natural resources based on taking advantage of the regional fauna. Moreover the use of different animal species can be incorporated under the concept of the optimization of flows of energy and materials, tending to minimize the environmental impact of livestock production, and also to make more efficient use of the ingredients required for developing the activity. The integration of non-traditional species (minilivestock within the context of sustainable agricultural development was the motivation for the present study A module for raising Myocastor coypus (coypu or false nutha was developed, to which was linked a module for raising Eisenia foetida (the socalled red worm, in both cases with a dual purpose. Preliminary estimates were made of the productive aspects of both species, as well as an analysis of their integration, to understand the extent to which diversification linked with complementation tends to optimize the system.

  4. Economic Analysis on Protection of Farmers’ Benefits Based on Market of Agricultural Means of Production and Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De; CHEN; Dongmei; XIANG; Shengping; SHI

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by many factors,farmers remain very unfavorable position in market transaction and thus fail to ensure their reasonable benefits.In accordance with basic theory of microeconomics,this paper analyzes mutual relation between market of agricultural means of production and agricultural product market,compares economic decisions of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural product circulation service providers in monopoly condition and perfect competitive market,expounds influence of monopoly position of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural products service providers on economic benefits of farmers,and elaborates weak position and economic damage of farmers in transaction with various economic entities.Through analysis,it further recognizes necessity for protection of farmers’benefits and puts forward corresponding countermeasures:(1)regulating providers of agricultural means of production;(2)strengthening construction of agricultural product market circulation system;(3)improving organization of farmers;(4)setting up and improving production subsidy system of farmers.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    at critical issues towards reducing our climate footprints. A logical next step for developing the concept of identities regarding food production could be to integrate this production-based framework with identities on consumption and economic development. It must be a scientific goal to illustrate how we...... unit. This dissertation presents results and comprehensions from my PhD study on the basis of three papers. The overall aim has been to develop a new identity-based framework, the KPI, to estimate and analyse GHG emissions from agriculture and LUC and apply this on national, regional and global level....... The KPI enables combined analyses of changes in total emissions, emissions per area and emissions per product. Also, the KPI can be used to assess how a change in each GHG emission category affects the change in total emissions; thus pointing to where things are going well and where things are going less...

  6. PARITY PRICE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, ENERGY AND MATERIAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alpatov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main approaches to parity of agricultural products to energy and material resources, are the price indices for certain types of energy resources, and presents data on the availability of agricultural machinery in agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of growth in energy prices in relation to the specific energy consumption per 1 ha of sown area in the agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation, the consumption of resources such as petroleum products, electricity and fuel. In addition, the article shows the average sales price for agricultural products and logistical resources. Shown the equivalence of the exchange of products between agriculture and industry.

  7. Research on Agricultural Products Traceability Mechanism Based on RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuguang Bao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aim is to provide a feasible and effective way for the government supervision, agricultural enterprises and consumers to obtain traceability information. This study researches traceability of agricultural products. Through the analysis of the participators, the influence of the agricultural products circulation pattern of supply chain, traceability security system and tracing process, it constructs a pattern of the agricultural products traceability and puts forward a method to realize agricultural products traceability model. The method uses RFID to collect related information of agricultural products and realize the agricultural products traceability process based on the traceability chain construction of the agricultural products and redesigned trace code. Finally, this study analyzes the concrete application of the proposed method in beef traceability to prove the feasibility of our circulation and method.

  8. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  9. Research and innovation in agriculture: beyond productivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Viaggi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the effects of research and innovation in agriculture have been largely characterised by efforts to make a connection between expenditure and productivity. A number of issues have challenged the ability of productivity to measure the effects of research, namely, in recent years, increasing efforts towards improving the environmental performance of the farming sector. Besides environmental concerns, however, a number of recent concepts have emerged that are shaping the current research and policy agenda and which could result in a revision of the productivity concepts used to evaluate research impacts. The objective of this paper is to discuss these issues and their implications for studies on the impact of research and innovation. We address, in particular, the following issues: a the development of the of bioeconomy and related concepts such as the circular economy, resource efficiency and bio-refinery; b the connection with entrepreneurship and eco-innovation; c changing tools in research assessment, in particular the widespread use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA; and d the evolving concepts of sustainability and ecosystem services. We argue that while the traditional notion of productivity, intended as output/input ratio, maintains (and may be strengthens its role on the aggregate, a more analytical interpretation of the pathways towards research impacts is needed, as well as a broadened view of productivity and its determinants.

  10. The Network Marketing of Fresh Agricultural Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the connotation of network marketing of fresh agricultural products and analyzed the fundaments of launching the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products in China.The fundaments mainly cover the development of e-commerce,the transformation of consumption concept,the change of life style and the features of Chinese agricultural production.The developmental status of the C2C marketing of Chinese fresh vegetables and fresh fruits is introduced and the plights,including imperfect rural network infrastructure,inadequate talents specialized in network marketing of fresh agricultural products,uneven quality of agricultural products,immature logistics system,uncertainty existed in faced by the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products and imperfect governmental protection system,are pointed out.In the end,the developmental trend of Chinese network marketing of fresh agricultural products on the basis of C2C mode is described.

  11. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  12. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel pr

  13. Bio agricultural product market in Romania and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objectives of this paper are to obtain an overview of the present market for organic agricultural products in Europe in general, and in Romania in particular. Organic agricultural production represents a small part of Romanian agricultural production and the development potential of organic agricultural production Romania is infinitely greater than what is done today. European consumers know little about the Romanian bio agriculture and even less about the huge potential of this sector. Organic food market is growing both in Europe and in Romania due to the increased interest of consumers to live healthier and improve the quality of life.

  14. A Study of Green Logistics for Chinese Agriculture Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although agriculture plays an important role in China, the country is still suffering much from the weakness of the logistics system of its agriculture products, such as outdated facilities, lacking of logistics experts, weak information technology, etc. The weak logistics system causes the loss of many agricultural products in daily delivery and storing. This study addresses the problem by taking a study of green logistics for Chinese agriculture products. We take an SWOT method to analyze the different respects of logistics for Chinese agriculture products and then design several strategies for deploying and promoting green logistics in Chinese agriculture. We believe that green logistics is feasible in Chinese agriculture and these strategies can be effective in helping adapt green logistics to Chinese agriculture.

  15. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  16. Evaluation of the Trading Website for Agricultural Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingran; MENG; Jun; WU

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural product trading website is not only an important way to realize the agriculture informatization,but also the main manifestation of the agricultural informatization. Based on the preliminary understanding of the content and characteristics of China’s agricultural product trading website,the paper builds a scientific evaluation indicator system and evaluates 50 typical agricultural product trading websites objectively by using classification and grading method. The results show that the overall construction level of China’s agricultural product trading websites is general,and there are obvious differences between regions; the lack of website commercial function and the lag of informatization are the main factors restricting the development of agricultural product trading websites.

  17. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  18. Agricultural productivity and supply responses in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The importance of Agricultural Supply Response (ASR) modelling cannot be over emphasised. Knowledge of its size provides a roadmap for designing a tailored agricultural policy based on suppliers’ responses to price and non-price incentives. In spite of its policy importance, limited amount of studies exist for Ghana. This study seeks to fill the gap and also sheds some light on how future agricultural policies in Ghana should be formulated. This study is conducted on a regional (ecologic...

  19. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  20. Production Structure of Agriculture in Huai’an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the data in 1990-2009 Huai’an Statistical Yearbook and Jiangsu Statistical Yearbook,production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is analyzed.Result shows that economic efficiency of planting industry is significantly lower than that of other industry types of agriculture;and the production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is unbalanced and needs further optimization.The reasons for the imbalance in industrial structure are various,such as the relatively low quality of agricultural employees,the backward marketing of planting,and the lack of standardization management.Finally,corresponding suggestions are put forward,including developing education,conducting vocational training,improving the human capital stock of Huai’an City,cultivating the leading enterprises for agricultural product processing,and realizing the scale agglomeration effect of agricultural production in planting industry.

  1. Evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiti, K.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960 with the help of variable quantifies of products, the cultured area and the exported quantifies of products. A comparative analysis of quantifies of studied products shows that after 1960, the agricultural production of basis foodstuffs of the Zairian population has fallen of the order of 91 % in comparison with the first period. This study shows that the system of peasantry introduced in 1936 by the INEAC, the rationalization of cultural methods connected to the governmental explain the agricultural expansion of Zaire before 1960.

  2. Improving agricultural production under water scarcity in Fars province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, M.R.; Haile, A.M.; McClain, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water scarcity is one of the major limiting factor for improving agricultural production in the world, which significantly affects agricultural production and livelihood of millions of people who live in arid and semi-arid regions. This case study presents the analysis of the effectiveness

  3. Status of Agricultural Production and Crop Variety Improvement in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Chun-hai; GUO Ying; YAO Ming-hua; WAN Zheng-huang

    2012-01-01

    We introduced basic conditions of agricultural production in Thailand, and variety improvement of major crops, including rice, cassava, rubber, and vegetable, in the hope of providing reference for agricultural production and crop variety improvement in Hubei Province and even in the whole country.

  4. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  5. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  6. Multiple Encryption-based Algorithm of Agricultural Product Trace Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To establish a sound traceability system of agricultural products and guarantee security of agricultural products,an algorithm is proposed to encrypt trace code of agricultural products.Original trace code consists of 34 digits indicating such information as place of origin,name of product,date of production and authentication.Area code is used to indicate enterprise information,the encrypted algorithm is designed because of the increasing code length,such coding algorithms as system conversion and section division are applied for the encrypted conversion of code of origin place and production date code,moreover,section identification code and authentication code are permutated and combined to produce check code.Through the multiple encryption and code length compression,34 digits are compressed to 20 on the basis of ensuring complete coding information,shorter code length and better encryption enable the public to know information about agricultural products without consulting professional database.

  7. Marketing Agricultural Products. Curriculum Guide Developed for Secondary and Post Secondary Agriculture Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    This curriculum guide can be used by secondary and postsecondary agriculture instructors for a semester course in marketing agricultural products or individual units can be incorporated in other courses. The curriculum guide consists of six units of study made up of two to eight lessons each. The units cover the following topics: (1) marketing…

  8. Agricultural Production Efficiency of Chongqing Based on DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Literatures about agricultural production efficiency are reviewed.Concept of DEA Method,as well as the definition methods of effective DEA and scale efficiency increase are introduced.According to the relevant statistical data in the years 1997-2007 in Chongqing Municipality,efficiency of agricultural economy is calculated from the year 1997 to 2007 by DEA method and the scale efficiency is also analyzed by taking the total output of agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery industry as the output index.And the input index includes total workforce in agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery,the total sown area of crops,the total power of agricultural machinery,chemical fertilizer application,the draft animal,and the effective irrigation area.Result shows that Chongqing City became a municipality directly under the central government;its agricultural production efficiency is still low.And the sustainable development capacity of agricultural is weak in Chongqing,and the agricultural resources are not fully used.Based on this,related suggestions are put forward to improve the agricultural production efficiency of Chongqing,such as implementing an appropriate management scale of land,improving the organization degree of peasant households and the rate of industrialization management,enhancing the quality of the rural labor force,strengthening the agricultural science and technology input and extension,perfecting the construction of rural infrastructure,and improving the rate of resource utilization.

  9. On the New Mode of Production of Agricultural Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwu Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Facing the “new four modernizations” requirements, the efficiency of current rural production organization and the supply of agricultural labor is facing a huge challenge. Innovating the pattern of rural production organization has become the only one way to realize agricultural modernization. Based on the analysis of the fatal defects in the current agricultural production organization, we put forward a new mode of modernized agricultural production that can reduce the defects, namely the idea and operation mechanism of Tongpian Society or Datong Society. And also conclude the main breakthrough point of Datong Society and the environment for its full implementation. Finally we put forward some operational countermeasures and suggestions on how to start and develop Datong Society, also mention the problems and things we need in-depth study and need to be done. Hoping our viewpoint can contribute to the development of agricultural modernization.

  10. Rural Women Participate in Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE rural market economy is becoming feminized because many male laborers are transferring to nonagricultural work. Women are now making a show of their decisive force in utilizing agricultural resources. As a result, agriculture’s sustainable development will more and more depend on women’s qualifications, including how well they will manage agricultural resources and how well they will master science and technology. In fact, rural women don’t yet have full economic independence. Although they have involved themselves in economic activities and have played a

  11. Pour une agriculture mondiale, productive et durable

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Ancien directeur du département Agriculture et développement durable de la Banque mondiale, Michel Petit nous livre un essai directement inspiré de son expérience au service des agricultures du monde. La critique du productivisme, en particulier de son impact sur les ressources naturelles, peut-elle faire l’impasse sur le rôle déterminant de la productivité agricole dans les processus de développement économique ? Dans la lignée des travaux de Théodore Schultz, prix Nobel d’économie en 1979 p...

  12. Analysing agricultural productivity growth in a framework of institutional quality

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether the institutional environment of transition countries in Eastern Europe affects productivity growth in the agricultural sector. Situated in a neoclassical growth framework, a dynamic panel model for the period 1996-2005 provides evidence that poor institutional quality leads to a slowdown in agricultural productivity growth. Productivity growth is limited by a high degree of corruption, which is of particular importance given that corruption has been ...

  13. Energy production and use in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.A.; Lange, J.M.; Wit, de C.T.

    1974-01-01

    Energy relationschips in the agriculture of one of the most densely populated areas of the world, the Nether lands, are described. The Netherlands appear selfsupporting in food energy. However, if one takes account of energy consumption in horticulture, the direct and indirect fossil energy cost exc

  14. Energy of the wood – to quality of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rijov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The group of authors is engaged in development and deployment in production of products of biomass of the wood in agriculture. Lately we introduced in production more than five domestic import-substituting products, more than 20 applications for inventions are submitted, 4 patents are taken out, more than 30 articles on this subject are published.

  15. Lemon Effect of Green Agricultural Products and Its Marketing Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the lemon effect of green agricultural products,analyzes the formation reasons of the lemon effect of green agricul-tural products and summarizes problems brought by the effect,such as malicious deception and high price.The paper proposes countermeasures toavoid the lemon effect of green agricultural products from a perspective of marketing.The first is to strengthen the quality supervision of green agri-cultural products,upgrade the quality of products,and build up branded products.The government should foster the main body of the products andguide the main body to realize the importance of brand construction and management.The second is to construct a sales channel system of greenagricultural products,making use of the trading center of modern green agricultural products to sell products,developing a long term partnershipwith processing industries,big supermarket and restaurants,making use of internet and selling products online and offline.The third is to propagatethe products.Make a good use of advertisement,personal sales,propagation and public relations to accelerate the healthy development of greenagricultural market.

  16. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future.

  17. Agricultural Production Experiences at School for the Urban Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Allen J.

    1980-01-01

    In vocational agriculture at Sycamore High School in Illinois, urban students start their vocational education with a basic understanding of production, which is the foundation for all agricultural industry. Future Farmers of America chapter-operated and school-owned facilities provide the resources to make these experiential programs possible.…

  18. The Origins of Agriculture Production in the Area of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Food production, that is to say agricultural production begins independently in three different geographical areas: the Near East, the Far East and Central America. From the Near East agriculture spread to the entire Europe. Locations of domestication and spreading routes of Triticum dicoccum, Triticum monococcum, sheep and cattle enable us to establish directions of the spread of agriculture. Growing precision of 14C method by which date of biological material is determined makes it possible to determine the beginnings of agricultural production in specific areas and the rapidity of its spreading. Food production created the conditions for significant population growth and rapid social development. Discovery of human genome and development of a new interdisciplinary science of arhaeogenetics led to knowledge about dates of appearance of certain human haplotypes, from which the spread of agriculture by demographic diffusion or by acquiring food production know-how can be inferred. In the period between 7000 and 5000 BC developing pottery cultures were spreading simultaneously with agriculture. For the understanding of spread of agriculture to Croatia and its further advance, archaeological data on the Impresso, Starèevo, Korenovo (as a part of Linear Pottery complex, Danilo and Lengyel - Sopot cultures are of great importance.

  19. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  20. Globalization and internationalization of world food and agricultural product markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhyt, Arnabol; Nurgazina, Gulmira

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of globalization and internalization influence on the world food and agricultural product markets is examined in the article. Moreover, the global problem of food safety is also examined.

  1. Vertical Coordination Development Mode and Influential Factors of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuzhan WANG

    2016-01-01

    In China,the vertical coordination development mode of agricultural products can be divided into traditional market-oriented transaction mode with fluctuation according to market conditions,made-to-order on the basis of farmer organization,company leading cooperative mode,share or shareholding cooperative mode,and vertical integration mode. There are differences in coordination characteristics,advantages and disadvantages,and adaptability between different modes. Traditional vertical coordination mode is transforming and upgrading to close and high-efficient mode. In this process,it is influenced by factors such as cost-benefit balance between farmers and agricultural product processing enterprises,special use of agricultural product processing,structure of agricultural product industry chain,and action of local government.

  2. [A virtual water analysis for agricultural production and food security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Bing; Liu, Wen-hua; Duan, Guang-ming; Yan, Yan; Deng, Hong-bing; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-03-01

    Water resource demand is increasing with the population growth and economic development. Water resource problem for agriculture and food security have become one of the global focal points because of water resource scarcity. The concept of virtual water is useful to analyze and impair this problem. In this paper, virtual water implication was described, and international study progress about it was briefly reviewed. Furthermore, China's agricultural water scarcity and food security were analyzed. According to the grain import prediction and agricultural production conditions of China, the virtual water equivalents of China in 2010 and 2020 were evaluated, which were 88 x 10(9) m3 in 2010 and 95 x 10(9) m3 in 2020. With the function of virtual water to agricultural water stress, virtual water strategy was suggested to relieve agricultural production pressure from water resource and meet growing food demand as well as to promote water resource sustainability in China.

  3. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    , environmental pressures from intensive agriculture and policy developments. Use of conservation buffers by farmers outside of designated schemes is limited to date, but the increasing demand for bioenergy and the combination of agricultural production with conservation calls for a much wider implementation...... effective for pesticide removal and farmland biodiversity conservation with a high potential for low-input fuel, feed, or fibre production. Landscape amenities, sporting opportunities, and a display of land stewardship are additional benefits....

  4. A THEORETICAL SPOTLIGHT OVER THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at identifying and classifying new types of agricultural products, especially in Romania, but not only. As we well know, all the countries all over the world have their own history, traditions, economic structure, and a certain type of agriculture, adapted to their soil, climate, and nevertheless to theirs people needs. So, we know that certain countries used to cultivate certain agricultural products, while others are wellknown for others. Usually, we associate Spain with great wines, Belgium with delicious chocolate, Turkey with coffee, India with rice, Romania with grain, Russia with cereals, SUA – tobacco, etc.\\r\

  5. Research on Supply Chain Coordination of Fresh Agricultural Products under Agricultural Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the fact that the current fresh agricultural products are susceptible to natural risks and the coordination of supply chain is poor, This paper constructs the supply chain profit model under the two models of natural risk and agricultural insurance, Firstly, studying the coordination function of the supply chain system under Two-part Tariff; Then discussing the setting and claiming mechanism of agricultural insurance, compares the influence of agricultural insurance on supply chain profit and supply chain coordination; Finally, giving an example to validate the model results and give decision - making opinions. Research shows that the supply chain of fresh agricultural products can coordinated under Two-part Tariff, but the supply chain cooperation is poor in the natural risk , need to further stabilize and optimize the supply chain; When the risk factor is less than the non-participation insurance coefficient, not to participate in agricultural insurance is conducive to maintaining the coordination of the supply chain system; When the risk coefficient exceeds the non-participation insurance coefficient, the introduction of agricultural insurance can not only effectively manage the natural risks, but also help to improve the coordination of the supply chain system.

  6. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural......-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many...

  7. Advanced Manufacturing and Value-added Products from US Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, Ruxton H.; Child, Dennis R.; Acock, Basil

    1992-01-01

    An objective of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is to develop technology leading to a broad portfolio of value-added marketable products. Modern scientific disciplines such as chemical engineering are brought into play to develop processes for converting bulk commodities into high-margin products. To accomplish this, the extremely sophisticated processing devices which form the basis of modern biotechnology, namely, genes and enzymes, can be tailored to perform the required functions. The USDA/ARS is a leader in the development of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) for agriculture in the broadest sense. Applications of IPE are found in the production, processing, grading, and marketing aspects of agriculture. Various biotechnology applications of IPE are discussed.

  8. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  9. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood (Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase (Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem (Musa paradisiaca. They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: 70.00, 39.59, 55.40, 86.00, 84.60, 80.00, 40.84, 81.67, 35.70, 69.11, 4.54, 47.19, 31.70 and 52.44% respectively. The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives (Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were 41.20, 17.85, 23.13, 20.80, 20.23, 20.00, 39.00, 44.00, 18.80, 20.75, 20.03, 41.20, 44.00, and 39.00% respectively while the results obtained as average of four determinations for cellulose triacetate yields were: 52.00, 51.00, 43.10, 46.60, 49.00, 35.00, 40.60, 54.00, 57.50, 62.52, 35.70. 52.00, 53.00 and 38.70% respectively for all the agricultural wastes utilized. The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

  10. [Agricultural products handling: methods of feasibility evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, G J; Herrera, J E

    1993-06-01

    Post-harvest problems are important constraints to the expansion of production of food in many Latin American countries. Besides problems of bulkiness, perishability and seasonal production patterns, the necessity of reducing transportation costs, increasing rural employment, and finding new markets for processed products, requires the development of processing technologies. Possible processed products include a vast range of alternatives. Given limited time and resources, it is not always feasible to carry out detailed studies. Hence a practical, low-cost methodology is needed to evaluate the available options. This paper presents a series of methods to evaluate different processing possibilities. It describes in detail each method including a rapid initial assessment, market and consumer research, farm-oriented research, costs and returns analysis and finally, some marketing and promotion strategies.

  11. Outsourcing Agricultural Production: Evidence from Rice Farmers in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chen; Guo, Hongdong; Jin, Songqing; Yang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    China has recorded positive growth rates of grain production for the past eleven consecutive years. This is a remarkable accomplishment given that China’s rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to a vast reduction of arable land and agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors. While there are many factors contributing to this happy outcome, one potential contributing factor that has received increasing attention is the emergence of agricultural production outsourcing, a new rural institution that has emerged in recent years. This study aims to contribute to the limited but growing literature on agricultural production outsourcing in China. Specifically, this study analyzes factors affecting farmers’ decisions to outsource any or some production tasks using data from rice farmers in Zhejiang province. Results from a logistic model show that farm size and government subsidy encourages farmers to outsource while ownership of agricultural machines and land fragmentation have negative effects on farmers’ decisions to outsource production tasks. Results also showed that determinants of outsourcing decisions vary with the production tasks that farmers outsourced. PMID:28129362

  12. Public Investment and Environrnental Sustainability of Agricultural Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jing; Li Yousheng

    2004-01-01

    The excessive application of fertilizer and pesticides in grain production in China has posed a threat to the environrnental sustainability of agricultural production. One of the major reasons of the increasing usage of chemical inputs by farmers is their trying to reach higher yields, especially in absence of adequate public inputs, such as development and extension of appropriate technology and necessary production infrastructure, etc. Based on the cropspecific data of the past 20 years, this paper examines how the public investments in agricultural researches could impact on the reduction of farmers' private material inputs of major grain crops in China. It manifests that the increased investments in public sector, especially in agricultural researches, is a favorable and effective way to reduce farmers' private material inputs and should be given a priority consideration in the policy emendation to increase yields and improve production sustainability.

  13. Seasonality in birth defects, agricultural production and urban location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Rees, Daniel I; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    This paper tests whether the strength of the "spring spike" in birth defects is related to agricultural production and urban location using Texas Birth Defects Registry data for the period 1996-2007. We find evidence of a spike in birth defects among children conceived in the spring and summer, but it is more pronounced in urban non-agricultural counties than in other types of counties. Furthermore, the spike lasts longer in urban non-agricultural counties as compared to other types of counties.

  14. Estimation of pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Inventory data for the use of pesticides in agricultural or forestry product systems are typically based on the applied dose and the contents of different ingredients in the commercial pesticide product. Normally in LCA, the field is considered as part of the technosphere, and then the emissions...

  15. Co-existence of agricultural production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Bernhard; Rath, Johannes; Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2006-05-01

    Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of 'subsidiarity', decisions should be made by the lowest authority possible. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for marketing regional products and services, such as tourism.

  16. Ratite production as an agricultural enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J M; Schupp, A R

    1998-11-01

    The ratite industry remains in the market introduction stage of evolution; basic information on markets and production is limited. It is uncertain when, or perhaps whether, either the ostrich or emu industries will progress to the market growth stage. Until significant expansion occurs, ratite operations are likely to be faced with low or even nonexistant profits. It is the authors' observation that the ostrich industry is making slow but significant progress toward introducing products into potential growth markets. The fact that ostrich products were in demand prior to the ostrich being introduced into North America has helped the industry. The future of the emu industry appears to be much less certain. In the authors' opinion, in order for the emu industry to become profitable and grow, significant promotion of emu meat and immediate resolution of the value of the oil must be achieved. Meat sales alone will not carry emu production as a profitable commercial enterprise. Veterinarians can derive significant conclusions from this information. Currently, ratite production is composed of firms generating losses or minimal profits. South African producers are receiving approximately the same amount for a slaughter ostrich as North American producers. It is unlikely that North American ostrich prices will increase significantly. Prices of ostrich breeders of $2,000 to $4,000 per pair and $400 to $450 for slaughter birds are likely to remain the same for some time. Given that world demand has increased at a slower rate than supply, prices may decrease further. Breeder and slaughter birds will continue to require significant veterinary care; however, the producer will be forced to perform more farm treatments, given the negligible margins. Based on the differences in efficiency of existing operations, there are ample opportunities for veterinarians and extension services to assist producers. Vertical coordination in the ratite industry may evolve slowly in the future

  17. Determining climate effects on US total agricultural productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wu, You; Chambers, Robert G; Schmoldt, Daniel L; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yan-An; Sun, Chao; Kennedy, Jennifer A

    2017-03-06

    The sensitivity of agricultural productivity to climate has not been sufficiently quantified. The total factor productivity (TFP) of the US agricultural economy has grown continuously for over half a century, with most of the growth typically attributed to technical change. Many studies have examined the effects of local climate on partial productivity measures such as crop yields and economic returns, but these measures cannot account for national-level impacts. Quantifying the relationships between TFP and climate is critical to understanding whether current US agricultural productivity growth will continue into the future. We analyze correlations between regional climate variations and national TFP changes, identify key climate indices, and build a multivariate regression model predicting the growth of agricultural TFP based on a physical understanding of its historical relationship with climate. We show that temperature and precipitation in distinct agricultural regions and seasons explain ∼70% of variations in TFP growth during 1981-2010. To date, the aggregate effects of these regional climate trends on TFP have been outweighed by improvements in technology. Should these relationships continue, however, the projected climate changes could cause TFP to drop by an average 2.84 to 4.34% per year under medium to high emissions scenarios. As a result, TFP could fall to pre-1980 levels by 2050 even when accounting for present rates of innovation. Our analysis provides an empirical foundation for integrated assessment by linking regional climate effects to national economic outcomes, offering a more objective resource for policy making.

  18. Determining climate effects on US total agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Chambers, Robert G.; Schmoldt, Daniel L.; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yan-An; Sun, Chao; Kennedy, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural productivity to climate has not been sufficiently quantified. The total factor productivity (TFP) of the US agricultural economy has grown continuously for over half a century, with most of the growth typically attributed to technical change. Many studies have examined the effects of local climate on partial productivity measures such as crop yields and economic returns, but these measures cannot account for national-level impacts. Quantifying the relationships between TFP and climate is critical to understanding whether current US agricultural productivity growth will continue into the future. We analyze correlations between regional climate variations and national TFP changes, identify key climate indices, and build a multivariate regression model predicting the growth of agricultural TFP based on a physical understanding of its historical relationship with climate. We show that temperature and precipitation in distinct agricultural regions and seasons explain ∼70% of variations in TFP growth during 1981–2010. To date, the aggregate effects of these regional climate trends on TFP have been outweighed by improvements in technology. Should these relationships continue, however, the projected climate changes could cause TFP to drop by an average 2.84 to 4.34% per year under medium to high emissions scenarios. As a result, TFP could fall to pre-1980 levels by 2050 even when accounting for present rates of innovation. Our analysis provides an empirical foundation for integrated assessment by linking regional climate effects to national economic outcomes, offering a more objective resource for policy making. PMID:28265075

  19. Multiple Knowledges for Agricultural Production: Implications for the Development of Conservation Agriculture in Kenya and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Keith M.; Lamb, Jennifer N.; Sikuku, Dominic Ngosia; Ashilenje, Dennis S.; Laker-Ojok, Rita; Norton, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates the extent of multiple knowledges among smallholders and connected non-farm agents around Mount Elgon in Kenya and Uganda in order to build the communicative competence needed to scale up conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS). Design/methodology/approach: Our methodological approach examines local…

  20. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  1. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according...... to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling...

  2. Quality Management System of Agricultural Products Based on Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of important property of the integrated management of agricultural product quality safety system,analyzes the lightweight characteristics of Spring technical system,hierarchical organization of MVC,and the technology SSH+Ajax associated with the Spring framework system.On the basis of this technical system,we design the quality management system of agricultural products under B/S model.This article points out that this system is realized mainly through consumers’information feedback and order management;then discusses operation environment,expandability,portability and security of the system.

  3. Detecting Chaos from Agricultural Product Price Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the characteristics of agricultural product price volatility and trend forecasting are necessary to formulate and implement agricultural price control policies. Taking wholesale cabbage prices as an example, a multiple test methodology has been adopted to identify the nonlinearity, fractality, and chaos of the data. The approaches used include the R/S analysis, the BDS test, the power spectra, the recurrence plot, the largest Lyapunov exponent, the Kolmogorov entropy, and the correlation dimension. The results show that there is chaos in agricultural wholesale price data, which provides a good theoretical basis for selecting reasonable forecasting models as prediction techniques based on chaos theory can be applied to forecasting agricultural prices.

  4. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  5. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  6. PRODUCTION OF BIOFUELS AND ITS IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Krička

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a large potential for the production of energy crops on agricultural land. Global demand for food is expected to double within the coming 50 years, and demand for transportation fuels is expected to increase even more rapidly. There is a great need for renewable energy supplies for biofuel production that do not cause significant environmental harm and do not compete with food supply. In addition, biofuel by-products can be utilized as livestock feed with a substantial revenue source and significantly increases the profitability of the production process. Food-based biofuels can meet but a small portion of energy needs despite recent advances in crop yields and increased biofuel production efficiency. Therefore, biofuels that are non food-based are likely to be of far greater importance over the longer term. Reasonable values on the external effects are in most cases not enough to make agriculture-based biomass energy competitive so that considerable government subsidies are needed. Biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol that can be produced on agriculturally marginal lands with minimum fertilizer, pesticide, and fossil energy inputs, or produced with agricultural residues have potential to provide fuel supplies with greater environmental benefits that either petroleum or current food-based biofuels.

  7. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  8. Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming In Agricultural Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M.I.U. Herath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Modern agriculture is characterized by a series of conflicting optimization criteria that obstruct the decision-making process in the planning of agricultural production. Such criteria are usually net profit total cost total production etc. At the same time the decision making process in the agricultural production planning is often conducted with data that accidentally occur in nature or that are fuzzy not deterministic. Such data are the yields of various crops the prices of products and raw materials demand for the product the available quantities of production factors such as water labor etc. In this paper a fuzzy multi-criteria mathematical programming model is presented. This model is applied in a region of 10 districts in Sri Lanka where paddy is cultivated under irrigated and rain fed water in the two main seasons called Yala and Maha and the optimal production plan is achieved. This study was undertaken to find out the optimal allocation of land for paddy to get a better yield while satisfying the two conflicting objectives profit maximizing and cost minimizing subjected to the utilizing of water constraint and the demand constraint. Only the availability of land constraint is considered as a crisp in nature while objectives and other constraints are treated as fuzzy. It is observed that the MOFLP is an effective method to handle more than a single objective occurs in an uncertain vague environment.

  9. Nanomaterials for products and application in agriculture, feed and food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Gottardo, Stefania; Amenta, Valeria; Arena, Maria; Brandhoff, Puck; Marvin, Hans J.P.; Mech, Agnieszka; Moniz, Filipa Botelho; Pesudo, Laia Quiros; Rauscher, Hubert; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Undas, Anna K.; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Weigel, Stefan; Aschberger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nanotechnology applications can be found in agricultural production, animal feed, food processing, food additives and food contact materials (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). A great diversity of nanomaterials is reported to be currently used in various applications, while

  10. Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2000-01-01

    Emission data for pesticides from agricultural product systems may be based on national and international pesticide usage statistics, but these only provide information on the applied dose. When the field is considered as part of the technosphere, the emissions from the system are those quantitie...

  11. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  12. Microwave sensing of quality attributes of agricultural and food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave sensors for real-time characterization of agricultural and food products have become viable solutions with recent advances in the development of calibration methods and the availability of inexpensive microwave components. The examples shown here for grain, seed, and in-shell peanuts indic...

  13. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  14. INDIRECT COSTS ALLOCATION AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a research on the changes occurred inside the accounting system of agricultural organisations in the transitional period. Changes of structure and accounting information system being results of privatisation processes were analysed. The introduction of modern methods in the preparation of relevant management information represents one of the preconditions for development of the privatised agricultural organisation during the transition period. Information prepared by the accounting, especially adapted to management requirements, is essential for rational decision making. Modern management system of reporting is fundamental task of management and a precondition for securing competitive production in agricultural industry. For this reason, it is necessary to define areas of responsibility and to enable application of a modern techniques for calculating expenses. The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the specialised use of accounting information by managers and to develop methods of management reporting in agricultural organisations. We propose an emphasis upon the application of modern management accounting techniques rather than financial accounting reporting approach. We support the contention that the need for high-quality management accounting is not debatable and tend to explain how and why accounting information is developed for the individual parts of a business entity, that is for each department or enterprise of an agricultural organisation. The responsibility accounting system should be introduced in agricultural business entities within our conditions, especially in larger organisations, as a measure of securing competitive production. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between direct and indirect expenses and of using appropriate methods to allocate expenses among departments or enterprises. The research is based on information directly received from the largest agricultural companies in the area of

  15. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  16. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  17. Promotion of Agricultural Products Competitive Power in Heilongjiang Province with Modern Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper studied the competitive power of agricultural products in Heilongjiang Province by analyzing the revealed comparative advantage,and drew the conclution that agricultural products' competitive power was decreasing in Heilongjiang Province.There were three main reasons for this status: firstly,the cost of circulation of agricultural products was increasing;secondly,the commodity rate of agricultural products was low;thirdly,the marketing power of agricultural product was weak because of lacking the ...

  18. Cost Accounting Methods and Calculation Agricultural Products` Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule B. Spatayeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the condition of the current market the effective manage of expenses and calculation accountancy of cost production in agriculture must be aimed to control for resources usage at any level of technology process and getting the accountancy database needed for gaining the management targets.The improving the technologies and set up aspects of business entity activity, taken place for the last decades, which caused a significant influence on condition and structure expenses but could not provide the increase of economic effectiveness in agriculture.

  19. Total Factor Productivity in the Peruvian Agriculture: Estimation and Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco B. Galarza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose an estimation of the agriculture productivity using micro data forPeru. The method used builds on recent production function’s estimation techniques developed for panel data (e.g., Gandhi et al., 2013 but using cross-section data. Data constraints urge us to impose functional forms for the estimation. In particular, we choose the constant elasticity of substitution function, which is more flexible that other functions used by prior literature in Peru (such as the Cobb-Douglas. We find no evidence of the existence of increasing returns to scale in the Peruvian agriculture, and that the productivity is positively correlated with age, sex, andeducation, and negatively correlated with the farming unit’s acreage and market power.

  20. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971,in the Meadows report (1972 and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987. The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In such conditions we are obliged to follow a twin-track strategy: (1livestock systems with high productivity potentials; (2traditional pastoral systems and organic agriculture, on marginal lands, which allow the utilisation of extensive grazing lands, the conservation of environment, genetic resources, landscape, the minimisation of the use of non-renewable resources and the production of "natural foods".

  1. Impacts of ecological restoration projects on agricultural productivity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yuanwei; YAN Huimin; LIU Jiyuan; DONG Jinwei; CHEN Jingqing; XIAO Xiangming

    2013-01-01

    The changes in cropland quantity and quality due to land use are critical concerns to national food security,particularly for China.Despite the significant ecological effects,the ecological restoration program (ERP),started from 1999,has evidently altered the spatial patterns of China's cropland and agricultural productivity.Based on cropland dynamic data from 2000 to 2008 primarily derived from satellite images with a 30-m resolution and satellite-based net primary productivity models,we identified the impacts on agricultural productivity caused by ERP,including "Grain for Green" Program (GFGP) and "Reclaimed Cropland to Lake" (RCTL) Program.Our results indicated that the agricultural productivity lost with a rate of 132.67×104 t/a due to ERP,which accounted for 44.01% of the total loss rate caused by land use changes during 2000-2005.During 2005-2008,the loss rate due to ERP decreased to 77.18×104 t/a,which was equivalent to 58.17% of that in the first five years and 30.22% of the total loss rate caused by land use changes.The agricultural productivity loss from 2000-2008 caused by ERP was more attributed to GFGP (about 70%) than RCTL.Al-though ERP had a certain influence on cropland productivity during 2000-2008,its effect was still much less than that of urbanization; moreover,ERP was already converted from the project implementation phase to the consolidation phase.

  2. Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Liang, Xinqiang; Linquist, Bruce A; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Lee, Juhwan; Lundy, Mark E; van Gestel, Natasja; Six, Johan; Venterea, Rodney T; van Kessel, Chris

    2015-01-15

    One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions in the future. Conservation agriculture represents a set of three crop management principles that has received strong international support to help address this challenge, with recent conservation agriculture efforts focusing on smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, conservation agriculture is highly debated, with respect to both its effects on crop yields and its applicability in different farming contexts. Here we conduct a global meta-analysis using 5,463 paired yield observations from 610 studies to compare no-till, the original and central concept of conservation agriculture, with conventional tillage practices across 48 crops and 63 countries. Overall, our results show that no-till reduces yields, yet this response is variable and under certain conditions no-till can produce equivalent or greater yields than conventional tillage. Importantly, when no-till is combined with the other two conservation agriculture principles of residue retention and crop rotation, its negative impacts are minimized. Moreover, no-till in combination with the other two principles significantly increases rainfed crop productivity in dry climates, suggesting that it may become an important climate-change adaptation strategy for ever-drier regions of the world. However, any expansion of conservation agriculture should be done with caution in these areas, as implementation of the other two principles is often challenging in resource-poor and vulnerable smallholder farming systems, thereby increasing the likelihood of yield losses rather than gains. Although farming systems are multifunctional, and environmental and socio-economic factors need to be considered, our analysis indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the

  3. The Supply and Demand of Agricultural Products in China Based on Balanced Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Promoting agricultural production and ensuring the supply of agricultural products has always been the main task of agricultural development in China,but the agricultural production in China has not yet been combined with the Chinese residents’ dietary needs to formulate reasonable development goals,with a certain blindness in production. According to the dietary standards in The Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents developed by the Chinese Nutrition Society,we calculate the demand of various types of agricultural products in China under the conditions of balanced diet. In comparison with the output of various types of agricultural products in China at present,we find that the output of most of agricultural products in China has exceeded the reasonable demand of the Chinese residents under the conditions of balanced diet. Therefore,adjusting the agricultural production structure in China and advocating balanced diet has become an important way to solve the problem of balance between supply and demand of agricultural products.

  4. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  5. Performance Appraisal Method of Logistic Distribution for Fresh Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through the initial selection,screening and simplification,a set of performance appraisal system of logistic distribution suited to fresh agricultural products is established.In the process of establishing the appraisal indicator,the representative appraisal indicator of logistic distribution of fresh agricultural products is further obtained by delivering experts’ survey and applying the ABC screening system.The distribution costs,transportation and service level belong to the first level indicator;packing fees,distribution processing fees,full-load ratio,haulage capacity,customer satisfaction and the strain capability of delivery personnel belong to second level indicator.At the same time,the weighing of each indicator is determined.The quantification is conducted on indicators.The qualitative indicators applies ten-point system and then coverts these indicators into percentage,that is the number between [0,1];as for the quantitative indicators,they are concluded to the interval [0,1] according to the actual value range of the indicators and by applying the grade of membership in the vague mathematics.Through the analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of the frequently used performance evaluation method and its applicable conditions,the comprehensive evaluation of logistic distribution of agricultural products obtained by using the method of fuzzy comprehensive appraisal.The results show that,in terms of reducing distribution costs,the packaging and distribution processing technology of fresh agricultural products should be improved,so as to reduce distribution costs.In the process of introducing the application of advanced technology,the high automatic logistic equipments should be introduced.

  6. Pretreaments of Chinese Agricultural residues to increase biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Development of biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas is one approach to utilize straw comprehensively. However, high lignin contents of lignocellulosic materials results in low degradation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate pre-treatment to increase biogas production from Chinese agricultural residues. In this study, Chinese corn stalk, rice plant and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates by applying three different pre-treatments. The inves...

  7. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  8. Ordering Strategy for Fresh Agricultural Products in External Financing Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyi; DU

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the two stage supply chain consisting of single agricultural product producer and fund restraint retailer.Then,it analyzed the influence of bank interest rate on order quantity,wholesale price and expected profit of retailer and producer on the condition of retailer taking external loan strategy.Studies have shown that when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.9),the order quantity of agricultural products is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),wholesale price of agricultural products decreases with increase in the bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.6),the expected profit of retailer is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),the expected profit of producer decreases with increase in the bank interest rate.Finally,through simulation calculation examples,it verified suitability of the conclusion,in the hope of providing reference and application value for management of supply chain.

  9. The Relationship between Customer Knowledge Management and Performance of Agricultural Product Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes an overview of the CKM and the performance of agricultural product innovation from contents of agricultural product innovation and customer knowledge management (CKM) ,the relation between CKM and agricultural product innovation. On the basis of the overview, it builds the theoretical framework of CKM and agricultural product innovation. It points out that enterprises can satisfy demands of customers through acquisition,share,utilization and innovation of customer knowledge,and improve performance of agricultural product innovation through speeding up agricultural product innovation.

  10. ASSESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available First stage for attaining sustainability in a system is the measurement of current state of sustainability. Indicators are widely used as tools for measurement of sustainability. In this study, a comprehensive index was proposed to measure sustainability in agricultural production systems. This index takes advantage of fuzzy logic to combine all six indexes which were selected as the representative of three dimensions of sustainability. A set of models and sub-models based on the fuzzy inference system were employed to define the index. A case study conducted in two large production farms of maize and wheat, in Iran, proved the feasibility and usability of the model.

  11. Making More Food Available: Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rudy Rabbinge; Prem S Bindraban

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During the 20th century food availability worldwide has increased considerably.The increase in population was outnumbered by the productivity increase in agriculture mainly by higher yields per ha.Globally there is more food available per person than ever before.In the coming decades the world population will further increase and diets will change requiring a doubling of plant production worldwide by 2050.Especially the increase in demand will be substantial in Asia and sub-Saharan Afi-ica.

  12. The Cold Chain Logistics for Perishable Agricultural Products in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Yanfang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces concepts of the agricultural product cold chain logistics and domestic and international researches. Also, the study discusses issues of Chinese agricultural cold chain logistics in the development process as the following aspects: the dividing of cold chain logistics market, refrigeration hardware facilities, third-party cold chain logistics development, the level of cold chain technologies, cold chain logistics professionals and the legal system and the standard system. Next, this study focuses on the countermeasures to solve problems of the agricultural cold chain logistics development by some ways as followings: increasing investments in technology, accelerating the improvement of the cold chain logistics facilities, strengthening the cultivation of third-party cold chain logistics enterprise, encouraging the training of personnel, promoting the cold chain logistics informatization and improving relevant laws, regulations and standards. Combining with the cold chain logistics of Mengniu Dairy, this study analyzes and proposes countermeasures. Finally, this study summarizes the developments in Chinese agricultural chain logistics, which needs to be strengthened in many aspects for suiting Chinese situation.

  13. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION (POTATO EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byshоv N. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world, much attention is paid to the issues of ensuring of rational use of energy resources, due to a number of objective factors, chief among which are: the lack of own energy resources to meet domestic energy needs; the sharp increase in the cost of production and the production of energy resources; further growth in energy needs; the presence of large potential opportunities to reduce unproductive losses of fuel and energy. In the world, the challenge now is to ensure a gradual but steady transfer of the economy on energy saving way of development. To achieve the goal of reducing energy costs we might use two ways: firstly, the widespread introduction of energy saving technologies, and secondly, the reduction of material production, improving its quality and service. In agriculture, the improvement of the technological process can be carried out using new tillage methods, improving the organization of production and tools. Further development of mechanization in agriculture will contribute to further growth of electrification in the agricultural sector, which will significantly reduce the use of the most expensive and limited energy resources. The article offers a technique of the estimation of the efficiency of consumption of energy in agricultural production. In order to compare the efficiency of machines in the cultivation and harvesting of potatoes, there was conducted an energy assessment of the operations of modern technology. As variables, there were investigated different operation modes of the machine: working speed and working width, depth of stroke of the working bodies. In the process of evaluating energy operations, modern technology to prepare the soil for planting potatoes was determined humidity, mechanical composition and soil type. As a main factor in the analysis of technological methods, we have taken the overall specific energy consumption and specific energy consumption for

  14. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows: first, the cost is high; second, the technological content is low; third, the upstream main body lacks competitiveness; fourth, the structure of investment is irrational. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward to develop marketing channels of agricultural products as follows: perfect the service function of wholesale market of agricultural products; propel the construction of integration and expansion of wholesale market; develop the circulation cooperatives of agricultural products; develop the integrated organization of production and sales of agricultural products.

  15. Biogas production from energy crops and agriculture residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential in term of ml CH4 produced per g of VS-added and (b) the amount of methane produced per m3 of reactor volume. (Author)

  16. Rational allocation of agricultural production in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii Mikhailovich Semyashkin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an original approach to determining the optimal allocation of agricultural production in the region; the approach includes the methodological substantiation of the necessity to differentiate consumers when addressing food security issues in the region. It was proposed to allocate three levels: level 1 – the provision of food to socially vulnerable layers, level 2 – the provision with food at the subsistence level, and level 3 – the provision of the total population of the region with food. A preliminary forecast was made for each municipality; it analyzed possible changes in the number of the socially vulnerable up to 2020; in accordance with medical standards and norms of the subsistence level the volumes of food were calculated, which in turn were compared with the actual production output. The difference between the actual volume and the volume of evidence-based requirements represented the very increase in the volume of production, the achievement of which requires certain investments on the basis of capital-output ratio. After that the regional market was divided into three sub-regional markets depending on distance, number of consumers and suppliers. This allowed us to calculate the amount of transport costs based on the type and lot size of the transported product, taking into account the distance to each sub-market. As a criterion of transportation expediency we took into account the share of transport costs in the price of the product not exceeding 30%. Otherwise, it is required to concentrate the production in order to increase the lot transported or to carry out a deeper processing of the product. The proposed methodology served as the basis for choosing the most effective option of spatial location of agricultural production

  17. New Paths to Capitalist Agricultural Production in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    With the global restructuring of agri-food markets since the 1980s, an impressive amount of scholarship has examined its impacts in African countries. However, little has been written on the emergence of local medium and large-scale commercial farmers selling to export companies or controlling...... their own export marketing arrangements. This article examines Ghanaian commercial farmers producing and exporting fresh pineapples to European markets. This group of pineapple producer–exporters represents a path to capitalist agricultural production that can be conceptualized as capitalism from outside......: where capital flows into the countryside, rather than accumulation occurring from above or below within the agrarian economy. The emergence of this form of agrarian capitalism is stimulated by opportunities in new high-value agricultural export markets, but its stabilization depends on country...

  18. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A....... flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different...... occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A...

  19. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  20. Mapping Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Guzman, A.; Johnson, L.; Rosevelt, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Dwyer, J. L.; Mueller, R.; Zakzeski, A.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Wallace, C.; Jones, J.; Windell, S.; Urness, J.; Teaby, A.; Hamblin, D.; Post, K. M.; Nemani, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California has substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to requests for local water transfers, county drought disaster designations, and allocation of emergency funds to mitigate drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in idle acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to timeseries of data from Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI, and MODIS. Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March - August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 640 fields from March - September, 2014. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and discuss potential applications to other regions.

  1. [Discussion on agricultural product quality and safety problem from ecological view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Dong, Nan; Lyu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    There are many different perspectives about the sustainable agriculture, which had been proposed since the last three decades in the world. While China's ecologists and agronomists proposed a similar concept named 'ecological agriculture'. Although ecological agriculture in China has achieved substantial progress, including theory, models and supporting technologies nearly several decades of practice and development, its application guidance still is not yet clear. The organic agriculture model proposed by European Union is popular, but it is limited in the beneficiary groups and the social and ecological responsibility. In this context, the article based on an ecological point of view, analyzed the shortcomings of ecological imbalance caused by a single mode of agricultural production and the negative impact on the quality of agricultural products, and discussed the core values of ecological agriculture. On this basis, we put forward the concept of sustainable security of agricultural products. Based on this concept, an agricultural platform was established under the healthy ecosysphere environment, and from this agricultural platform, agricultural products could be safely and sustainably obtained. Around the central value of the concept, we designed the agricultural sustainable and security production model. Finally, we compared the responsibility, benefiting groups, agronomic practices selection and other aspects of sustainable agriculture with organic agriculture, and proved the advancement of sustainable agricultural model in agricultural production quality and safety.

  2. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chun-mei

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows, first, the cost is high; second, the t...

  3. The Relationship between Customer Knowledge Management and Performance of Agricultural Product Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-jia

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes an overview of the CKM and the performance of agricultural product innovation from contents of agricultural product innovation and customer knowledge management (CKM), the relation between CKM and agricultural product innovation. On the basis of the overview, it builds the theoretical framework of CKM and agricultural product innovation. It points out that enterprises can satisfy demands of customers through acquisition, share, utilization and innovation of customer knowledge...

  4. Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, I address three topics relevant to the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. First, I describe the fundamental ecological factors that influence the environmental performance of these systems and address how precision agriculture practices can or cannot interact with these factors. Second, I review the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture relative to agricultural inputs to determine whether managing these processes can significantly affect system environmental performance. Finally, I address scale incongruencies between ecological processes and precision agriculture techniques that could limit the ability of these techniques to manage variability in these processes. The analysis suggests that there are significant ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture techniques to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. The primary constraint is that these techniques do not address many of the key factors that cause poor environmental performance in these systems. Further, the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture are quite small relative to agricultural inputs and, finally, these processes vary on scales that are incongruent with precision management techniques.

  5. Monopolistic Competition in the International Trade of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soukup

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to describe the behavior of international firms using model of monopolistic competition, which is using optimizations of the number of firms in the sector and its characteristics, best corresponding to the needs of international trade. The assumption for application of the monopolistic competition model in the international trade area of agro production is the idea that trade increases the market size. In the sectors where increasing returns to scale apply it is valid that both heterogeneity of the goods the country produces and the extent of their production are influenced by the market size. The analysis has shown the validity of the model for the production of agricultural commodities; the expansion of the market or the increase of subsidies and thus decrease of the cost of farmers caused by an increase of the number of firms in the sector.

  6. Innovation of Supervision System for Quality and Safety of Edible Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxing; MEI; Zhongchao; FENG

    2014-01-01

    This paper elaborated multidimensional characteristics of quality and safety of agricultural products,introduced current situation of quality and safety supervision of edible agricultural products in China,analyzed existing problems of quality and safety supervision system and corresponding reasons,and finally came up with recommendations for innovation of supervision system for quality and safety of agricultural products.

  7. A Bayesian Based Search and Classification System for Product Information of Agricultural Logistics Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Decision Support Systems, Intelligent Systems and Artificial Intelligence Applications; International audience; In order to meet the needs of users who search agricultural products logistics information technology, this paper introduces a search and classification system of agricultural products logistics information technology search and classification. Firstly, the dictionary of field concept word was built based on analyzing the characteristics of agricultural products logistics in...

  8. International Trade of Agricultural Products in the Context of "B&R" Initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing WU; Shuhua XIE

    2016-01-01

    At present,China’s agricultural product trade is facing the development dilemma. The trade deficit is expanding,market and product structure is irrational,and the Chinese agriculture products often encounter trade barriers. " B&R" initiative provides a rare opportunity for the development of agricultural products in China. It is necessary to seize this opportunity to change idea and innovate upon mechanism so as to increase the added value of exported agricultural products through various channels. There is also a need to develop electronic commerce,and make full use of interconnectivity and trade facilitation in " B&R" initiative to develop the international trade of agricultural products.

  9. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy {gamma}-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy {gamma}-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  10. The Leading Role of Governments in Promoting Chinese Agricultural Clean Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing agricultural clean production,the theoretical basis of the leading role displayed by the government in promoting agricultural clean production is expounded.The characteristics of agricultural products,such as the hidden environment quality of agricultural production,spillover of profits and the benefits,make governments to display the leading role in promoting agricultural clean production at the primary stage in particular.The restrictive factors in promoting Chinese agricultural clean production are put forward,which include idea restriction,technology restriction,talent restriction,economic restriction and policy restriction.Countermeasures which should be adopted by governments on promoting Chinese agricultural clean production are put forward.Firstly,the laws and regulations for promoting agricultural clean production should be established and perfected gradually;secondly,the evaluation system for agricultural clean production should be established;thirdly,the promotion on agricultural clean production should be intensified;fourthly,the practical technologies and applications of agricultural clean production should be guided;fifthly,the industrialized operation of ecological agriculture should be vigorously promoted.

  11. An Analysis of Current Energy Consumption in China’s Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; ZHANG; Zongshou; CAI; Lihong; CHEN; Dezheng; ZHANG; Zhe; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is one of the important symbols of modern agriculture,and it is also an important input in modern agricultural production. The study on the agricultural energy consumption not only has a positive significance to agricultural energy saving,emission reduction and ecological environment protection,but also can greatly reduce the cost of agricultural production and improve the economic benefit of farmers. Through the analysis of the national statistical data about energy consumption for agriculture production from 2005 to 2012 year,the results show that the amount of energy consumption for agricultural production in China has increased year by year since 2005. Because of the continued growth of the total energy consumption in China,the proportion of energy consumption for agricultural production to the total energy consumption of China has declined slightly since 2005. At present,the energy consumption structure for agricultural production in China is diesel fuel,coal,electric power,gasoline,and indirect energy consumption. With the rapid development of the agricultural technology in recent years,the total agricultural output value in China has increased greatly,the direct and indirect agricultural energy consumption per unit of agricultural output value in China has decreased year by year,and the efficiency of energy consumption for agricultural production has increased consequently.

  12. The Estimation Methods for Agricultural Surplus Labor Based on Stochastic Frontier Production Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaozhou; LU; Yanfen; LUO

    2014-01-01

    The existing calculation methods for the number of agricultural surplus labor have a common flaw,that is,they can not reflect the impact of technical efficiency changes in agricultural production on the surplus labor. Based on the basic principle of stochastic frontier production function,this paper calculates the agricultural production technical efficiency of various provinces,and selects the province with the highest technical efficiency to assume that its agricultural labor is fully utilized,and there is no agricultural surplus labor. With the ratio of agricultural labor number to agricultural output value in this province as a reference,this paper calculates the number of agricultural surplus labor in other provinces. This calculation method makes up for the shortcomings of the existing calculation methods; it reflects the relationship between the number of agricultural surplus labor and production technical efficiency.

  13. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  14. Theoretical Application of Supervision over Quality and Safety of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; CHENG; Ying; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products has received high attention of management department.Competent authorities have formulated and issued many measures to strengthen supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products and improve China’s agricultural product quality and safety level.From the perspective of management science,this paper elaborates basic contents of two basic management theories,Broken Windows Effect and Effect of Heat Furnace.Then,it analyzes influence of Broken Windows Effect and Effect of Heat Furnace on supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products.Finally,it comes up with recommendations for supervision over quality and safety of agricultural products.

  15. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex; Wuya; ZHONG; Wei; YAN

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics(4PL),this paper elaborates the concept,background and development plight of agricultural products logistics,advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics,etc.and explores issues of information,efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics,draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost,and speed the efficiency of China’s agricultural products logistics.

  16. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products,by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain,this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation.The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows:the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly;the circulation cost hovers at high level;the factor inputs of agricultural products are short;inflation pressure is incessantly mounting;the profit distribution of supply chain is irrational.Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  17. Extended time weather forecasts contributes to agricultural productivity estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Cardoso, Andrea; Pinto, Hilton Silveira; de Ávila, Ana Maria Heuminski; da Silva Dias, Pedro Leite; Marin, Fabio Ricardo; Pilau, Felipe

    2010-11-01

    Weather conditions in critical periods of the vegetative crop development influence crop productivity, thus being a basic parameter for crop forecast. Reliable extended period weather forecasts may contribute to improve the estimation of agricultural productivity. The production of soybean plays an important role in the Brazilian economy, because this country is ranked among the largest producers of soybeans in the world. This culture can be significantly affected by water conditions, depending on the intensity of water deficit. This work explores the role of extended period weather forecasts for estimating soybean productivity in the southern part of Brazil, Passo Fundo, and Londrina (State of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná, respectively) in the 2005/2006 harvest. The goal was to investigate the possible contribution of precipitation forecasts as a substitute for the use of climatological data on crop forecasts. The results suggest that the use of meteorological forecasts generate more reliable productivity estimates during the growth period than those generated only through climatological information.

  18. Consumer Behavior Analysis under the "Lemon Dilemma" in the Market of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the connotation of "lemon market" and the phenomenon of "lemon" in the market of agricultural products,the consumers’ behaviors in the "lemon market" of agricultural products are analyzed.Firstly,consumers feel unfair in their minds in the process of negotiation;secondly,the purchase decision rule tends to be simplified in the "lemon market" of agricultural products;thirdly,the consumers tend to follow the masses in the "lemon market" of agricultural products.The economics significance of the impact of "lemon dilemma" of agricultural products on consumers is analyzed.The causes of the impact are analyzed from two aspects the uncertainty of collecting the information of agricultural information and the uncertainty of using the agricultural information.The suggestions and countermeasures are put forward in order to solve the "lemon" problems in agricultural market.In the first place,the excellent mechanism for producing the information of agricultural products should be constructed;in the second place,the government should encourage the multi-channel,multi-form and multi-level operation mode of agricultural products,to promote the optimization of market functions;in the third place,the government should widen the channel of information dissemination for agricultural products and establish the high efficiency feedback path;in the fourth place,the traditional thought pattern of consumers should be changed,so as to promote the healthy,orderly and benign development of agricultural products market.

  19. SWOT Analysis of Agricultural Producers in the Supply Chain of Chinese Agro-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining the producers in the supply chain of agricultural products,the SWOT analysis is adopted to analyze the advantages,disadvantages,opportunities and threats of producers in the supply chain of Chinese agricultural products.The paper analyzes the advantages of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products from three aspects including land resources,technology level of producers and input costs.The disadvantages of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from three aspects including scale level,mechanization and technology level and profit level.The opportunities of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from the aspects of laws,policies,capitals and technologies.The threats confronted by the producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from foreign producers,negotiation control of supply chain of agricultural chain,environment protection and quality safety standard.On the basis of the analysis,the relevant suggestions on facilitating the interests of producers in the supply chain of Chinese agricultural products are put forward,including fully displaying the advantages of land resources;improving the knowledge and technology level of supply chain of agricultural production;establishing the alliances of producers of agricultural products to expand production scale;improving the quality of agricultural products to satisfy the relevant safety quality standard and environmental protection standard.

  20. Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Product Export to the United States of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    Taking major agricultural product importers at the American market as reference object and using market share and growth rate,this paper analyzed current situation of the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to the United States of America. It used the Exports Similarity Index to evaluate the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and it analyzed the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA by the shift share method. Research results indicate that China’s agricultural products occupy small portion of American market and are faced with intense competition of many developing countries,especially the Thailand. However,China still has strong export competitiveness and ranks the second place only second to India. Finally,it came up with recommendations for raising the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and promoting China’s agricultural product export to USA.

  1. Productivity growth and technological progress in the Brazilian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Farid Pereira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting in the 1970's, the Brazilian agricultural sector has experienced an important process of modernization, whose principal effects include advances in technological progress and gains in productivity. The primary objective of this paper is to analyze technological progress and total productivity growth in the Brazilian agricultural sector during the period from 1970 to 1996. The methodology used here is based on the Malmquist productivity index and techniques in mathematical programming called Data Envelopment Analysis. The results show that significant progress was made in this sector of the economy but concentrated in only some regions of the country.O setor agropecuário brasileiro passou por um processo de modernização a partir dos anos 70, conseqüentemente, espera-se que exista uma contrapartida de progresso tecnológico e de ganhos de produtividade para o setor. Diante de tal fato tem-se como objetivo, neste estudo, avaliar o progresso tecnológico e o crescimento da produtividade total dos fatores (PTF do setor agropecuário brasileiro ao longo do período de 1970 a 1996. A metodologia utilizada foi baseada no índice Malmquist de produtividade e nas técnicas de programação matemática denominadas de Análise de Envoltória de Dados (DEA. Os resultados alcançados foram condizentes com estudos prévios e apontam para progresso técnico e ganhos de produtividade para o setor, porém concentrados em algumas regiões.

  2. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  3. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  4. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  5. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  6. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  7. A Competitive Analysis on the Agricultural Products of China and Thailand in the U. S. Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects China and Thailand as a reference object. Based on the U. S. market,it analyzes the export competitiveness of the agricultural products of China and Thailand by market share and growth rate,measures the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competition degree by export product similarity index and estimates the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competitiveness strength by shift share method. The results show that: At present,in the U. S. market,the competition of the agricultural products of China and Thailand is fierce,but export growth of China’s agricultural products is faster and more competitive. Finally on how to further improve China’s agricultural exports competitiveness in the U. S. market and promote China’s agricultural export trade to the U. S. it puts forward the related countermeasures and suggestions.

  8. Agricultural production systems modelling and software: Current status and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzworth, D.P.; Snow, V.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Donatelli, M.; Hoogenboom, G.; White, J.W.; Thorburn, P.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, the application of agricultural production systems modelling has rapidly expanded while there has been less emphasis on model improvement. Cropping systems modelling has become agricultural modelling, incorporating new capabilities enabling analyses in the domains of greenhou

  9. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... excluded operation as a certified organic operation, or (2) Be represented as a certified organic...

  10. Professional applied physical training of future specialists of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabanov Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and experimentally prove the contents, methods and forms of physical training of future specialists of agricultural production. This takes into account advanced course of professional applied physical preparation means kettlebell sport. Material : The study involved 141 students. Duration of study is 5 years. Results : It was found that a significant increase in indicators of flexibility, strength, coordination abilities of students promoted the use of exercises using weights of different weights. Confirmed the legitimacy of the use of such means of physical education for the development of muscle strength of the upper body, back, legs, abdominals. These muscles are the most loaded in the performance of professional activities of mechanical engineers. Conclusions : The program meets the basic criteria for the formation of curriculum for physical education. The program promotes the development of professional applications of physical qualities, motor skills and improve physical performance of students.

  11. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  12. Construction of Network Management Information System of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Based on 3PLs

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shujin; Yang, Qiangxian

    2010-01-01

    The necessity to construct the network management information system of 3PLs agricultural supply chain is analyzed, showing that 3PLs can improve the overall competitive advantage of agricultural supply chain. 3PLs changes the homogeneity management into specialized management of logistics service and achieves the alliance of the subjects at different nodes of agricultural products supply chain. Network management information system structure of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PL...

  13. The potential of transgenic animals for improved agricultural productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K A; Nancarrow, C D; Byrne, C R; Shanahan, C M; Murray, J D; Leish, Z; Townrow, C; Rigby, N W; Wilson, B W; Hunt, C L

    1990-09-01

    The techniques involved in the transfer of foreign DNA to domestic animals have advanced to the stage where transgenic animals that express foreign genes can be reliably produced, albeit still at low efficiency. This paper reviews the current status of some of the more important areas in agriculture where this technology is being applied. Numerous attempts have been made to modify the growth performance characteristics of domestic animals by the introduction of metallothionein/growth hormone fusion genes. A summary of our work with transgenic sheep is presented. The results demonstrate that the unregulated production of growth hormone in transgenic sheep reduces carcass fat, elevates metabolic rate and heat production, causes skeletal abnormalities and impairs survival. The introduction of new metabolic pathways to domestic animals offers an attractive approach to improved animal productivity. This paper summarises recent results of research directed towards the introduction of a cysteine biosynthetic pathway and the glyoxylate cycle to transgenic sheep. So far, the genes encoding the enzymes have been isolated and expressed both in cells in culture and in transgenic mice. The results of work currently in progress demonstrate that some modification of the fusion genes is required to enhance their expression in transgenic animals.

  14. Status and Countermeasures for the Green Marketing of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises in Yinchuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Ling-xiang

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview and characteristics of agricultural products processing enterprises in Yinchuan City, green marketing status of agricultural products processing enterprises in Yinchuan City is introduced from the aspects of product strategy, pricing strategy, distribution strategy and promotion strategy. Problems in the green marketing of agricultural products processing enterprises are analyzed, such as the obvious contradiction between the processing demand and the raw materials, low ...

  15. Research on the Legal Regulation of Market Access for Agricultural Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining the concept of market access for agricultural products,this paper analyzes the necessity of establishing market access system of agricultural products,proposes the conception of establishing market access system of agricultural products in China;sets up the frame of market access system of agricultural products;analyzes the rationality of the frame of market access system of agricultural products;poses the consideration of economic law regarding setup of market access system of agricultural products.This paper also puts forward the legislative suggestions for establishing market access system of agricultural products as follows:establish the frame of market access system of agricultural products taking quality access as core;establish and perfect the compensation and relief system of guaranteeing benefit of manager and producers;establish the market access system of agricultural products with hierarchical structure;sort out existing laws and form the sound the legal frame of market access system of agricultural products.

  16. China's Potential of Grain Production Due to Changes in Agricultural Land Utilization in Recent Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Liaugjie; LI Xiubin; ZHU Huiyi; TAN Minghong

    2009-01-01

    The changes in utilization of agricultural land have gradually grown into one of the major factors impacting grain output in China. This study explores the various components of agricultural production in China from the land utilization perspective, involving changes in grain production per unit area, multi-cropping index, and adjustment of agricultural structure. Compared with the record values, different research methodologies are used to analyze the potential of above three components. The results indicate that grain production potential of 65.68×109kg was unexploited in 2006, in which 45.8×109kg came from the restructuring in agriculture. So we can infer that the reduction of grain production in China could be primarily attributed to agricultural restructuring in recent years. So the productive potential can be fully restored by increasing agricultural investment, or recovering agricultural structure in favorable conditions. So we can say that China's current condition of food security is good.

  17. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products,we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent.We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy,introduce the thirdparty logistics companies,establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products,and strengthen information sharing,to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural products in China.The results show that applying low-carbon economy to process reengineering of cold chain logistics of agricultural products,has advantages of increasing added value of products,promoting scale merit and abating lag,plays a role in promoting emission reduction,high efficiency and environmental protection in the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural products in China.

  18. Productivity developments in European agriculture: relations to and opportunities for biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Londo, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses if, how fast and to what maximum yield improvements can be realized in Europe in the coming decades and what the opportunities and relations are to biomass production. The starting point for the analysis is the historic context of developments in European agriculture over the pa

  19. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-07-19

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs.

  20. Advances in Research on Modern Agricultural Development in Grain Production Core Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LIU

    2015-01-01

    Grain production core area is key region of modern agricultural development in China. Through summarizing related literature about grain production area and modern agricultural development researches both at home and abroad,it obtained characteristics and existing problems in the modern agricultural development of the grain production core area. It is found that there are many research perspectives in modern agricultural development of the grain production core area. On the basis of analyzing the grain production core area and connotation,mode and evaluation of the modern agricultural development,it is concluded that further study should be carried out for adopting which development mode and how to make evaluation,so as to provide theoretical guidance for balanced development of modern agriculture in grain production core area of different regions.

  1. Thinking on Promoting International Trade Competitive Advantage of Agricultural Products in Guangxi Based on CAFTA Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the status quo and the existing problems of international trade development of agricultural products in Guangxi based on CAFTA framework as follows: the international trade of agricultural products in Guangxi shows a trend of rapid growth, but the structure of export products is simple; the distribution of export market is irrational; the export goods are mainly the resources-intensive goods and labor-intensive goods, with low added value of goods; the brand of agricultural products lacks strong overall international competitiveness. In the context of CAFTA framework, in order to foster the international trade competitive advantage of agricultural products in Guangxi, corresponding suggestions are put forward as follows: the structure of export market should change from the current simple status to diversified trend; the structure of export goods should gradually change from the current factor endowment to the orientation of international market demand; the agricultural production should change from the traditional agricultural products to advantageous complementary characteristic agricultural products; the trade structure should change from the land-intensive agricultural products to labor-intensive and technology-intensive agricultural products; the structure of merchandise trade should change from low-price vicious competition to high added-value competition; the governmental function should change from traditional one-way-direction-oriented function to modern integrated-service-and-supervision-oriented function that meets the requirements of export.

  2. How to Optimize the Structure of Agricultural Products in the Context of Reform of the Supply Front?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan YE; Han LIU; Dong LIANG

    2016-01-01

    Based on reform of the supply front,this paper analyzes the main constraints on China’s current structure of agricultural products,including irrational allocation of resources between agricultural products,prominent problems concerning agricultural product quality and safety,disconnection between market demand and agricultural product R&D,and low processing capacity of agricultural products. Based on summing up the experience of the countries with developed agriculture,this paper proposes the path and mechanism for the optimization of structure of agricultural products in China: optimizing resource allocation of agricultural products; improving the quality of agricultural products; enhancing the R&D capacity of agricultural enterprises; promoting the processing and conversion capacity of agricultural products; perfecting the policy support and subsidy mode.

  3. Incentives for the Quality and Safety Traceability System of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhen; BAI; Meng; LI

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety traceability system of agricultural products is an important measure to protect the quality and safety of agricultural products. Farmers and food enterprises are main operators of the traceability system. If they are effectively encouraged to practice traceability system,food safety can be guaranteed from the source. This paper studies the incentive problem of agricultural product traceability system from two aspects- vertical contract coordination and government external incentive.

  4. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  5. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  6. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  7. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  8. Regional diversity of agricultural labor productivity and its driving force in east China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ziqiang; Li Jing; Lu Qi

    2009-01-01

    China's eastern area is at middle and later stage of industrialization during which the relation between ur ban and rural areas,industry and agriculture appears maladjusted The main problems are shrinkage in agricultural somparative earning and lack of driving force of agricultural development.Based on calculating agricultural labor productivity in east China from 1996 to 2005,this paper analyzes contributing degree of motive forces of agriculture develop in ten provinces and cities of east China applying GCA (Grey correlative analysis).The results show that there is no absolute correspondence between the level of industrialization and agricultural labor productivity in Chi,na's cotstern area.There is no synchronous development between industry and agricultural labor productivity in some areas.Fertilizer and agricultural machinery input had high contributing degree for ten years; however,contributing degree in land and irrigation work input was low.Non-materialization inputs became the leading role in most provinc,es and cities' increase of agricultural labor productivity.Modern agricultural development need non-materializationinputs as primary motive.force,at the same time,direct material input and facility input as guaranteed function.Forsome reasons,agricultural development is characterized by "more direct material input,less facility input" in east China now.Optimal driving force model of future agricultural development in east China is that non-materializatior inputs are dominant that perfected facilitv input are guarantee,and that certain substance inputs are necessary.

  9. The Growth Path of Agricultural Labor Productivity in Major Grain Producing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning; ZHOU; Qifeng; CUI

    2014-01-01

    The growth of agricultural labor productivity in major grain producing areas arises from the increase in production factors or improvement of efficiency,and is related to the sustainability of agricultural economic growth and national food security. We study the growth path of agricultural labor productivity in 13 major grain producing areas of China,and the analysis results show that from the relative endowments of land and labor in major grain producing areas,the growth rate of the output value per unit of labor is higher than that of the productivity per unit of land; in essence,this growth path of increasing the output value relying on increasing the production factor inputs is the reduction of labor,and the reduction of agricultural labor has a great elasticity of impact on the total value of agricultural production. In the case of stable future number of agricultural labor in China,the growth of agricultural labor productivity will be impossible to rely more on the increase in agricultural production factor inputs,and the growth path of agricultural economy still has to rely on the improvement of land productivity and take the efficiency-based path.

  10. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; HUO; Xin; SHEN; Zhipeng; Huang

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics,this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products,and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results,it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products has smaller fluctuation than that of wholesaler-oriented agricultural products. Besides,both the inventory level and bullwhip effect of above chain are lowered.

  11. Application of GARCH Model in Research on Price of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the price of grain in Guizhou Province as an example, by establishing GARCH model, I calculate VAR of logarithm return of grain price index, in order to conduct research on the variation law of price of the agricultural products. The results show that VAR of grain in Guizhou has variation. After the year 2010, VAR value is gradually increasing, and the price variation risk of grain market tends to increase progressively. Based on the characteristics of grain price variation, a series of corresponding proposals are put forward to stabilize the grain price as follows: strengthen the agricultural infrastructure construction, and promote the agricultural overall production capacity; reinforce the market supervision on the circulation field of agricultural products, and maintain market order; improve regulation system of agricultural products, and stabilize the price of agricultural products; strengthen mobility regulation, and prevent a flood of speculative cash.

  12. Risk Evaluation on Logistics Finance of Agricultural Products Based on Fuzzy-AHP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; PANG; Yangkun; XIA

    2015-01-01

    The development of logistics finance business for agricultural products is the best way to realize the common interests of logistics enterprises,small and medium-sized agricultural product enterprises and financial institutions,which will contribute to the development of China’s new socialist rural economy and the construction of " two-oriented society". As the agricultural products have some special attributes,it’s easy to create the risk in carrying out the logistics finance business. The paper constructs a risk evaluation indicator system for logistics finance of agricultural product,and uses the Fuzzy-AHP model to evaluate. The results show that the comprehensive risk level is normal risk,which shows that third-party logistics enterprises can carry out the logistics financial business of agricultural products,but the risks from logistics enterprises and agricultural collateral need to be prevented.

  13. Biofuel Production by Fermentation of Water Plants and Agricultural Lignocellulosic by-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anker Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While at present most energy crops are depriving human feedstock, fermentation of agricultural residues and fast growing water plants possesses a good prospect to become a significant source for bio-fuel; as both substrates are widely available and do not require agricultural areas. Water hyacinth for instance can be cultivated in fresh, brackish or wastewater and owing to its rapid growth and availability. Since owing to its natural abundance it is considered to be an invasive plant in most continents, its utilization and use as a renewable energy source may also contribute for its dilution and control. Agricultural lignocellulosic surplus by-products are also a promising fermentable substrate for bioethanol production, as it decreases both disposal expenses and greenhouse gases emissions. This paper describes a scheme and methodology for transformation of any lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel by simple cost effective operation scheme, integrating an innovative process of mechanochemical activation pre-treatment followed by fermentation of the herbal digest and ethanol production through differential distillation. Under this approach several complex and costly staged of conventional ethanol production scheme may be replaced and by genetic engineering of custom fermenting microorganisms the fermentation process becomes a fully continuous industrial process.

  14. Empirical Research on Influencing Factors of Trade Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the indices of RCA and TSC of agricultural products in China,according to China Statistical Yearbook,China Rural Statistical Yearbook and data from database of The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations from 1996 to 2009,We select direct influencing factors and indirect influencing factors as reference as series of numbers,regard indices of RCA and TSC as index series of numbers of evaluation,and use grey correlation analysis method to conduct analysis and evaluation on influencing factors of trade competitiveness of China’s agricultural products.The results show that due to different index calculation methods,the sequencing results of all factors are not wholly the same.But on the whole,in terms of transformation from cost advantage and price advantage into competition advantage,the ability of direct factors is strong,impacting significantly trade competitiveness of China’s agricultural products,while the influencing effect of indirect factors is relatively weak.On the basis of this,we put forward the suggestions in order to improve trade competitiveness of China’s agricultural products as follows:firstly,we should strengthen and perfect agricultural agriculture-support policy;secondly,we should promote foreign merchants’ direct investment level in agriculture;thirdly,we should deepen the processing ability of agricultural products and promote quality of agricultural products;fourthly,we should create good trade environment.

  15. Agricultural Waste Management Extension Education (AWMEE The Ultimate Need for Intellectual Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj M.  Mohammadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Extension education is significant range of fields like Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environmental and Bio Diversity Conservation, Rural Development, Home Management Skill Development, Disaster Management, Waste Management, Value Adding Management. Among them, waste management extension is highly significant because of the millions of tons of annual waste in vegetal, animal, environmental and natural resources products as well as millions of hectors of land degradation. Waste management extension deals with raising the efficiency and productivity of the agricultural industry, intellectually and/ or economically. Both producers and consumers should be fully aware of the mechanism by which waste in agricultural commodities diminishes to a considerable level. In agriculture, knowledge and decision-making capacity determine how production factor (i.e. oil, water, capital, chemicals, etc are utilized. Agricultural extension is a focal issue in formulating and disseminating knowledge and helping farmers to be competent decision makers. This article is designed to provide a theoretical and conceptual framework for “agricultural” extension (i.e. mutual agreement between producers and consumers in comprising agricultural waste management to respond to the world-wide expectations for extension to raise agricultural productivity, food production, bio- safety as well as environmental and bio-diversity conservation. Literature review, content analysis and modeling through utilizing contingency tables were employed to conduct the study. Different experiences in this regard have been collected and results show that the greater the use of AWMEE, the less agricultural waste, the higher the agricultural productivity and lower the land degradatioN.

  16. The Subtropical Grasslands LTAR: balancing agricultural production and conservation goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Boughton, E.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.; Sparks, J. P.; Silveira, M.; Boughton, R. K.; Swain, H.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical grazing lands of peninsular Florida have been shaped by a long evolutionary history of lightning ignited fire followed by flooding resulting in a vast treeless prairie region in south-central Florida. In these grassland ecosystems fire return intervals are between 1-3 years. Beginning in the 1500's, Andalusian cattle began grazing in this region and the cattle industry began in earnest in the late 1800s/early 1900s. Today, Florida's prairie region is largely occupied by cow/calf ranch operations and also occupies the Northern Everglades watershed where water quality/quantity issues are at the forefront of environmental concerns. Florida ranches are characterized by a gradient of management intensities, ranging from sown pastures (most intensively managed) to semi-native pastures with a mix of introduced and native grasses, and rangeland (least managed ecosystem). Located at Archbold Biological Station, MacArthur Agro-ecology Research Center, and University of Florida Range Cattle Research Center (www.maerc.org; www.rcrec-ona.ifas.ufl.edu), a primary goal of the Subtropical Grasslands US Department of Agriculture Long-term Agro-Ecosystem Research LTAR is to balance intensification of sown pastures while enhancing management of native systems in a way that maximizes other ecosystem services (regulating, supporting, cultural, biodiversity). Here, we describe our proposed experimental design to compare ecosystem delivery from conventional and aspirational management regimes in sown pastures and native systems. Aspirational management goals are to (i) maximize productivity in sown pastures with a neutral effect on other ecosystem services, and (ii) manage native systems in a way that maximizes regulating, supporting, and biodiversity ecosystem services by utilizing patch burn grazing. Ultimately, we will determine if enhanced production in sown pasture under the aspirational management system can offset any reduction in productivity in semi

  17. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  18. THE CONSUMPTION OF BASIC PRODUCTION MEANS IN POLISH AGRICULTURE IN RESPECT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Jarecki

    2014-10-01

    The plant protection by pesticides is increasing in Poland and the established trend rate took into account years 2005-2011. In the period 2002-2004 statistics did not present the full range of crop protection measures authorized for sale and consumption. In contrast the consumption of qualified seeds of basic grains and seed potatoes considerably decreased in Polish agriculture. Only for triticale it was noticed that the trend rate of qualified seeds was increasing. So the farmers should be more widely informed about the advantages of the exchange of seed grain for qualified grains. It will facilitate the quicker implementation of variety progress to agricultural production and adverse changes slowdown agricultural production.

  19. Design and Realization of Distribution Management System of Fruit and Vegetable Agricultural Products in Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingwang; WANG

    2013-01-01

    The fruit and vegetable agricultural products are related to the livelihood of people. With the advance of agricultural informatization, using software to carry out operation, sale, and inventory management on fruit and vegetable agricultural products is imperative. Through a lot of market surveys and researches combined with data collection and sorting, I develop the distribution management system of fruit and vegetable agricultural products. The system uses the development tools of C++6.0 and SQL Server 2005, to realize system maintenance, data maintenance, purchase control, sales management, inventory management, expense management, container management, statistical reports and other functional modules. The system can meet informatization management of fruit and vegetable agricultural products in Shanghai farmers’ market, improve work efficiency, and accelerate the process of agricultural informatization.

  20. Development of agricultural production in Croatia: tendencies, present condition and fundamental issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stipetić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper point out the fact that Croatia agriculture, during the 20th century, underwent three wartime periods with profound consequences on the production volume. It investigates the critical areas in agriculture that is indentified in the production of main cultures and products of this activity. Further, it investigates and determines the long-term causes of agricultural stagnation. Finally, it proposes solutions for the problems in the future development of Croatian agriculture. In conclusion, it states the main points of our research.

  1. Impact of Agricultural Modernization,Economic Growth and Industrialization on the International Competitiveness of Agricultural Products:Based on the Empirical Analysis of Cointegration and VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YAO

    2015-01-01

    The expanded agricultural trade deficit in recent years has caused widespread concern about the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.In this paper,guided by Michael Porter’s diamond model theory,based on agricultural production and trade data in China and the world from 1986 to 2011,we use principal component analysis,cointegration and vector error correction model,to perform an empirical analysis of the impact of agricultural modernization,economic growth and industrialization on the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.The results show that China’s agricultural modernization is slow,the demand for agricultural products caused by economic growth is increased,and excessive rural labor transfer due to industrialization leads to decline in the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.China should increase its efforts to promote the modernization of agriculture and level of industry nurturing agriculture;use WTO rules to create a good international and domestic environment for the development of China’s agriculture and improvement of the international competitiveness of agricultural products;give full play to the role of demand in boosting the industrial upgrading of domestic agriculture.

  2. Estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....

  3. SWOT Analysis of Agricultural Product Logistics Development——A Case Study of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    SWOT method is used to analyze strengths and weaknesses in internal environment and opportunities and threats in external environment of development of agricultural product logistics in Shaanxi Province. The research indicates that the logistic development strategy of agricultural products in Shaanxi Province should bring into full play strengths in traffic, production, labor force, and science and technology. Besides, it is required to overcome weaknesses in information mechanism and management mode. Furthermore, we should take full advantage of domestic and international resources to develop famous, excellent and special products, to achieve high-efficient, rapid, and convenient development of logistics for agricultural products.

  4. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... processed agricultural products that are stored in climate controlled, cooler, and freezer warehouses....

  5. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172 Section 615....5172 Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers'...

  6. Evaluation on Core Competitiveness of Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products Based on CWAA Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.

  7. Will family farms continue to dominate agricultural production in the future? Implications for data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahearn, M.; Poppe, K.J.; Salvioni, C.; Boone, J.A.; Henke, K.; Roest, A.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural production is dominated by family farms, although other types of farming exist. In some sectors of agriculture (e.g. pigs and poultry, horticulture, wine) the increase in scale leads to a concentration of the production on very large holdings. At the same time we see farmers exploring d

  8. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Wijk, van M.S.; Cheung, X.; Hu, Y.; Diepen, van C.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Lu, C.H.; Roeter, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid urbaniza

  9. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  10. Exploring agricultural production systems and their fundamental components with system dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the United States is undergoing marked changes due to rapid shifts in consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and environmental impact. Agricultural production systems are comprised of multidimensional components and drivers that interact in complex wa...

  11. Modeling Agricultural Production Considering Water Quality and Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Apland, Jeffrey; Grainger, Corbett; Strock, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Environmental goals often conflict with the economic goals of agricultural producers. The Cottonwood River in Minnesota is heavily polluted with nitrogen, phosphate and sediment from agricultural sources in the watershed. Goals of profit maximization for producers conflict with those of effluent alleviation. We incorporate water quality goals and risk into a mathematical programming framework to examine economically efficient means of pollution abatement while considering a wide range of alte...

  12. Research on the Cost Allocation of Joint Distribution of Agricultural Products based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Joint distribution in the process of circulation of agricultural products can reduce the cost of agricultural products circulation, improves the efficiency of logistics distribution, but for how to solve the problem of cost allocation has always been the major obstacle to the development of this model. The joint distribution model of agricultural products is presented in this study and then considers the problem of cost reduction in joint distribution of two agricultural products retailers. The amount of cost reduction is regarded as the income of distribution, which is distributed effectively by using game theory and resolve the problem of Cost allocation in joint distribution. Through the analysis of an example the joint distribution model can largely reduce the cost of distribution for agricultural products. Finally, through the distribution cost allocation verified the effectiveness and feasibility of this method of cost allocation.

  13. Research on the Performance Evaluation and Advancing Path of Henan Agricultural Products E-marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingqiang; PAN

    2013-01-01

    Given that the traditional marketing management of agricultural products has been unable to meet the diversified demands of market, and the network has been applied to the marketing field of agricultural products,the research on the performance evaluation and advancing path of Henan agricultural products E-marketing is more important than before. Based on current problems of Henan agricultural products E-marketing,a system of performance evaluation is established,which covers website building and maintenance and other four first-class indexes as well as profit ratio of sales and other thirteen second-class indexes,and then the system is evaluated by comprehensive evaluation method. Meanwhile,it is explored to discuss how to further advance Henan agricultural products E-marketing.

  14. Application of Mixed Group Decision Making to Safety Evaluation of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In view of the gravity of issues concerning safety of agricultural products and urgency of resolving these issues,after analyzing the problems existing in safety of agricultural products,this article offers a method for evaluating safety of agricultural products on the basis of mixed group decision making.First of all,it introduces the factors influencing safety evaluation of agricultural products;subsequently,given that the judgment matrices offered by the group of experts contain both reciprocal and complementary judgment matrices in the process of jointly participating in evaluation arising from personal preference,it proposes to assemble expert information in order to obtain indicator weight using the OWA operator;finally,the process of evaluating safety of agricultural products is given.

  15. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  16. Why Nicaraguan Peasants Stay in Agricultural Production Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruerd Ruben

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the official support for parcellation of  agricultural production cooperatives created under  the Sandinista land reform in Nicaragua, a substantial number of peasants have decided to continue membership. Although theory suggests that  individual farms are more productive and more  efficient, Nicaraguan cooperatives did not fully  split up. We aim to identify the factors that govern  the choice of Nicaraguan peasants between staying in a cooperative and exiting to start a privately  owned farm. We used sample data from 475 landed households in four agroecological macroregions to compare resources, incomes and productivity of peasants continuing in production  cooperatives, former members of cooperatives  who became independent farmers, and peasants who had always been engaged in independent  farming. Low capital endowments of the new  independent farmers adversely affect their standard of living. Better access to non-farm income encourages peasants to remain in the cooperative  where they are less exposed to risk. Uncertainty associated with land ownership and difficulties  with resolution of cooperative debt play a dominant role in keeping Nicaraguan peasants in cooperatives. Cooperative members still maintain a  high degree of coordination of activities in order  to capture the benefits of rural development programmes.   Resumen:  Porqué los campesinos nicaragüenses permanecen en las cooperativas agrícolas  de producción A pesar del apoyo oficial para la parcelación de  las cooperativas agrícolas de producción creadas  durante la reforma agraria Sandinista en Nicaragua, un número significativo de campesinos decidieron continuar con su membresía. Mientras la  teoría sugiere que fincas individuales son más  productivas y más eficientes, las cooperativas nicaragüenses no fueron completamente seccionadas en fincas individuales. Nuestro objetivo es  identificar los factores que rigen la decisión de

  17. Geographical view on agricultural land and structural changes plant production Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper analyzes agricultural land and structural changes in plant production Montenegro. The Montenegro represents a significant potential for agricultural development, but plant production insufficiently developed in relation to natural resources and the demands of intensive agricultural production. Average possession by agricultural holdings in 1960 amounts is 5.34 ha with only 2.05 ha arable area per agricultural holdings. Yet more unfavorable is the situation with arable surfaces. Namely, agricultural holdings in the Montenegro in 1960 are on average dispose with maximum of 0.74 ha of arable land. Judging by the size of the cultivated area, production volume, as well as according other parameters, plant production in the Montenegro in 2007, mainly used for meeting need households. A smaller area for is market. The role of the Montenegrin village and agriculture must be first-rate, as are its potentials, the main power future development of Montenegro. This requires radically new relationship between society and science to agriculture and the countryside. Instead of the existing approach in which they observed the preventive as producers of cheap food has to be developed a new concept, a comprehensive agricultural and rural development, which will be based on demographic, natural, economic and socio-cultural potential of Montenegro. 

  18. Operating Analysis of the Closed Supply Chain of Green Agricultural Products Based on Logistics Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This thesis gives the overview of concept and constitution of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products based on logistics center,and the necessity of regarding logistics center as core enterprise.Meanwhile,it analyzes the function of logistics center of agricultural products,namely functions of exchange,collection,distribution,storage and transportation.It also poses the prerequisites of logistics center.The logistics center of agricultural products must have stable profit expectancy,prominent scale,strong appealing power,capacity of bearing market risk and basic thoughts of supply chain management.The functional design of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products has been discussed in 5 aspects,namely logistics center,production base,providers of means of production,retailer and consumer.The operating thoughts of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products based on logistics center are put forward on the basis of the research of operating objective and service target of supply chain as follows:first,based on local principal agricultural products,the logistics center mainly distributes the massed agricultural products;second,it is necessary to choose appropriate strategic cooperative partners to sign contract;third,the operating procedure of supply chain entails bringing in professional managerial talents of supply chain;finally,the relationships of supply chain should be maintained.

  19. Research on the Development of E-commerce Model of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic commerce of agricultural products has developed rapidly. In the development process of electronic commerce of agricultural products,many classic cases and business models have emerged. Such as tootoo industrial commune model (product drive type, Original life model (marketing driven type, Suichang model (service platform type. The author analyzes and compares each model from 7 aspects, and summarizes their differences and links. Finally, The author puts forward suggestions on the development of electronic commerce of agricultural products in china.

  20. Actuality research on base of non-pollution agricultural products in Yilan county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jun; LIU Jianping; BAI Xin; ZHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The base of non-pollution agricultural products is a prerequisite for the non-pollution agricultural production. Based on two factors, i.e., irrigation water and soil, the environmental quality of Yilan county's base of non-pollution agricultural products was evaluated by single pollution index. The main monitoring items included the content of Hg, Se, Cr, Pb, fluoride, and so on, and the evaluating results showed Pi<1 which indicated that this area was fit for developing not only non-pollution products but also greenfood of A level.

  1. Research on Protection of the Agricultural Products Quality Safety based on Evolution Game from the Perspective of the Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study firstly introduces the research status quo to protect the agricultural products quality safety. Secondly, the game model is established to ensure the agricultural products quality safety, respectively, analyzed from the horizontal relations and the vertical relationships in the supply chain of agricultural products. Finally, on the basis of the analysis model, measures to protect the agricultural products quality safety are proposed, the study shows that increasing government regulations of enterprises in the supply chain of agricultural products and giving full play to the supervision and guidance role of the media and consumers will help to ensure the agricultural products quality safety.

  2. Analysis of Factors Influencing Comprehensive Productivity of Agriculture in Henan Province on the Basis of Grey Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data from Henan Statistical Yearbook from 2002 to 2008, from production capital, production conditions, labour inputs and financial support, this paper selects 11 variables influencing comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province. Through calculation and analysis of grey correlation of variables and comprehensive productivity of agriculture, this paper determines the impact of different variables on comprehensive productivity of agriculture. The results show that the agricultural capital has become the most important factor influencing comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province, while the impact of production conditions, labour inputs and financial support on comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province diminishes in turn. Corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to promote the sustainable development of comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province as follows: strengthen agricultural financial system building, and ensure agricultural production expenditure; scientifically arrange allocation of agricultural resources, and improve agricultural production conditions; carry out training of agricultural skills, and elevate the quality of agricultural labour forces; increase financial expenditure for agricultural production, and optimize financial expenditure structure.

  3. The Impact of the Processing and Foreign Trade of Agricultural Products on Agricultural Modernization: An Empirical Analysis Based on Cointegration and VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data related to the Chinese and world agricultural production and trade from 1986 to 2011,this paper uses the principal component analysis,cointegration and vector error correction model to perform the empirical analysis of the impact of processing,import and export of agricultural products on the agricultural modernization in China. The results show that the processing and export of agricultural products play a role in promoting the agricultural modernization in China,while the import of agricultural products has some negative effects on the agricultural modernization in China. The negative effects of the import of agricultural products are from the limitations of farmers’ small-scale operation and foreign trading partners’ protectionism. China should further develop the processing industry of agricultural products,and strengthen the role of downstream industries in promoting the agricultural modernization; improve the level of large-scale and intensive operation,and make good use of WTO rules,in order to provide the necessary market conditions for the agricultural modernization.

  4. Strengthening Brand Construction and Improving the Competitiveness of Tropical Distinctive Agricultural Products in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihuan; QIU; Xiaodong; ZHANG; Minxia; LIN; Hongyi; ZHANG; Zhunian; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Brand construction plays an increasingly important role in marketing and competition in modern agricultural industry. There are problems in brand construction of tropical distinctive agricultural products in Hainan,including less famous brand products,weak core competence,strengthening declaration and ignoring management as well as imperfect marketing system,therefore resource integration should be stressed to develop famous brand products and technological innovation should be strengthened to promote core competence of enterprise.

  5. Preliminary Study on the Standard of Selenium Content in Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-yuan; YOU Yong; GUO Qing-quan; WANG Yong-hong; DENG Shi-lin

    2012-01-01

    With the improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to the agricultural products with health protection function, and the selenium-rich agricultural products attract more and more consumers. The main biological role of selenium is to resist oxidation and inflammatory response, mainly focusing on resisting aging, preventing cardiovascular disease, protecting eyesight, counteracting or destroying the toxic properties, preventing cancer and thyroid disease. In most areas of China, there is a widespread shortage of selenium, thus producing selenium-rich agricultural products to provide natural selenium-rich health food to the areas in need of selenium, has gradually become a new hot spot of China’s health food industry, but high content of selenium in food is detrimental to human body, even leads to selenium intoxication, and artificially adding inorganic selenium is difficult to guarantee that the selenium content of agricultural products is not exceeded. According to human body’s daily demand for selenium in dietetics and the content of selenium in agricultural products in the Chinese food composition table, we put forward the recommendations on the standard of selenium in agricultural products, in order to provide the basis for China to formulate the health standard of selenium content in selenium-rich agricultural products.

  6. Capability Coordination in Agricultural Products Logistics Service Supply Chain with Revenue-sharing Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To solve the capability coordination in logistics service based on the agricultural products industry, a two-stage agricultural products Logistics Service Supply Chain (LSSC was established with one agricultural products logistics service integrator and one functional logistics service provider. Based on the non-storage property of logistics service capability, the revenue-sharing contract model was built under the uncertain demand. The optimal logistics capability order quantity and the revenue-sharing coefficient were calculated when the agricultural products LSSC achieved coordination. Revenue-sharing contract can coordinate the agricultural products LSSC effectively compared with no contract. A numerical simulation was taken by MATLAB 7.0. The change of purchase price has no influence on the optimal logistics capability order quantity and the expected profit of agricultural products LSSC. It achieves a redistribution of members’ profits. With the increases of penalty cost, the optimal logistics capability order quantity and the expected profit of provider increase, while the expected profit of integrator and agricultural products LSSC decrease.

  7. Achieving production and conservation simultaneously in tropical agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renwick, Anna R.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population size and demand for food in the developing world is driving the intensification of agriculture, often threatening the biodiversity within the farmland itself and in the surrounding landscape. This paper quantifies bird and tree species richness, tree carbon and farmer's gros...

  8. Dutch (organic) agriculture, carbon sequestration and energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Staps, S.; Timmermans, B.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in soils is often mentioned in the discussions about climate changes. In this paper the opportunities for carbon sequestration in Dutch agriculture are discussed at farm and national level. Farm internal carbon sources are already completely used in livestock farming. The effect

  9. Technological Innovation of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises from the Perspective of Modern Marketing——A Case of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises in Hubei Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The science and technology development of agricultural products processing enterprises in Hubei Province is analyzed.From the perspective of modern marketing,problems in the research and development work of agricultural products processing enterprises are analyzed from the aspects of market,personal training and technology radiation,which are mainly the lack of close connection with market.Countermeasures for the technological innovation of agricultural products processing enterprises are put forward,such as establishing modern enterprise culture with innovative features,strengthening the market benefits of brand,constructing a comprehensive customer orientation information platform,scientifically predicting and developing the market,doing well in market positioning of enterprise,selecting corresponding technology innovation strategy,taking technological innovation strategy as the basis,realizing the transformation from "4P" marketing combination to "4C",cultivating technical personnel,and realizing the integration of professional skill and marketing ability.

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of agricultural by-products with manure, for enhanced biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie M.; Fotidis, Ioannis; Kovalovszki, Adam;

    2015-01-01

    potential (BMP) of six agricultural organic byproducts were tested. Consecutively, the byproduct with the highest BMP was used as a co-digestion substrate with manure, in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Meadow grass had the highest BMP value [388 ± 30 NmL of CH4 g–1 of volatile solids (VS)] among......-digestion of 34 g L–1 raw meadow grass with manure increased the methane production rate of the CSTR reactor by 114% compared to the manure alone....

  11. Construction of Network Management Information System of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Based on 3PLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The necessity to construct the network management information system of 3PLs agricultural supply chain is analyzed,showing that 3PLs can improve the overall competitive advantage of agricultural supply chain.3PLs changes the homogeneity management into specialized management of logistics service and achieves the alliance of the subjects at different nodes of agricultural products supply chain.Network management information system structure of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is constructed,including the four layers (the network communication layer,the hardware and software environment layer,the database layer,and the application layer) and 7 function modules (centralized control,transportation process management,material and vehicle scheduling,customer relationship,storage management,customer inquiry,and financial management).Framework for the network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is put forward.The management of 3PLs mainly includes purchasing management,supplier relationship management,planning management,customer relationship management,storage management and distribution management.Thus,a management system of internal and external integrated agricultural enterprises is obtained.The network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs has realized the effective sharing of enterprise information of agricultural products supply chain at different nodes,establishing a long-term partnership revolving around the 3PLs core enterprise,as well as a supply chain with stable relationship based on the supply chain network system,so as to improve the circulation efficiency of agricultural products,and to explore the sales market for agricultural products.

  12. CHALLENGES OF AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY AND FUNDING ACCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Livia TRASCA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture was a priority for the member states of the European Union since its foundation, the Common Agricultural Policy being one of the most ancient politics at the European level. Agriculture is a sector which has a special economic and social importance for Romania. The paper aimed to identify the challenges of the agricultural companies from the perspective of labour productivity and funding access. In this respect, a series of economic indicators as the contribution of agriculture to GDP, the value of agricultural production, the evolution of reference interest rate, the evolution of credits for agriculture, were studied. the conclusion was that in order to improve labour productivity, it is needed a higher qualification of the occupied population in agriculture and the significant improvement of technological endowment of this sector and, from the point of view of funding access, it is necessary the continuous support of the companies which carry out their activity in agriculture, but not only by the diminution of difference interest rate.

  13. Analysis of the Contribution of Total Factor Productivity to Agricultural Yield in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing data concerning agricultural development from 1981 to 2010 in Anhui Province,the total factor productivity and growth rate of agriculture from 1981 to 2010 are estimated empirically.By dividing years from 1981 to 2010 into several subintervals,this paper evaluates and analyzes initial stage of reform and opening up,soft landing stage,the stage of financial crisis,the stage of subprime mortgage crisis and the impact of all factors on total factor growth rate of agriculture.Then it analyzes the contribution of growth of total factor productivity to total yield of agricultural economy.The research finds that the growth of total factor productivity in Anhui Province is significant to agricultural development.

  14. DID THE 2004 CAP REFORM AFFECT PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CEREALS? INSIGHTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  15. Long-term impact of a precision agriculture system on grain crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is lacking on the long-term impacts of field-scale precision agriculture practices on grain production. Following more than a decade (1993-2003) of yield and soil mapping and water quality assessment, a multi-faceted, ‘precision agriculture system’ (PAS) was implemented from 2004 to 2014 on...

  16. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY ON CASSAVA PRODUCTIVITY IN KOGI STATE OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilemona Adofu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed the economic impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity in Kogi State, Nigeria. The results are drawn from a household survey covering the agricultural season of 2009/2010. The data obtained from interview schedule was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics for this study include frequency, percentages and means. The hypothesis was tested using chisquare. The result shows that 79.33% of the respondents adopt the use of improved variety within the period under study. The analysis done on the revenue of the respondents before and after the adoption of the improved agricultural technology shows that revenue of farmers after the adoption of innovations are better off than revenue generated before adoption by N27,750 on the average per farmer. This result shows that the impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity is positive. Additionally, the results attest to the importance of increasing agricultural productivity in tandem with improvements on the adoption and use of improved agricultural technologies and its availability to the reach of farmers with the farmers’ ability to store food. This findings is consistence with Idachaba and Ayoola, (1995 who observed that improved agricultural helped in increasing agricultural productivity.

  17. Activated Carbon Derived from Fast Pyrolysis Liquids Production of Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast pyrolysis is a thermochemical method that can be used for processing energy crops such as switchgrass, alfalfa, soybean straw, corn stover as well as agricultural residuals (broiler litter) for bio-oil production. Researchers with the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) of the USDA developed a 2...

  18. Sustainable land use in Tikopia: Food production and consumption in an isolated agricultural system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Fog, Bjarne;

    2010-01-01

    increasingly unreliable. Local agricultural production and exploitation of marine resources are essential to sustain the population, and with few exceptions farming and fishing techniques remain unchanged. Most of the island is still farmed permanently and the intensive agricultural system has not suffered...... not be able to support their subsistence in the future, provided there is no substantial increase in the resident (de facto) population....

  19. Study on the Factors Effect of Adopting Application in Agricultural Products Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the intense impact of global competition, the agriculture of our country appeared the characteristics of low level of industrialization, the low level of management, the value chain of low level, low degree of information technology, organizational dispersed and in recent years the continuous emergence of food quality and safety problems, such as China's agricultural development has sounded the alarm. In order to improve the agricultural supply chain operation efficiency and competitiveness is the key to the problem of solving. Application of Internet of things in the agricultural supply chain helps to improve the agricultural supply chain information technology level, so that the operating efficiency of the supply chain of agricultural products to enhance the whole supply chain integration, the. This study establishes a can optimize the facilities fruit and vegetable cultivation resources, reduce production cost and improve the facility cultivation of a set of decision system of cultivation technology level, reduce the facilities fruit and vegetable production cost, improves the product yield, quality and market competitiveness, not only the follow-up research and popularization of agricultural technology of the Internet of things to lay the foundation, but also can effectively to enhance agriculture IOT application level and has practical application value and practical significance.

  20. Grassland-cropping rotations: An avenue for agricultural diversification to reconcile high production with environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity...

  1. Poultry Production for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 19, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Joseph J.; Stewart, Bob R.

    This unit is designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. Intended to be taught to ninth-grade students of vocational agriculture, the unit contains six lessons for developing competencies needed in poultry production. The lessons are as follows: (1) the importance of the poultry…

  2. Assessing Change in Agricultural Productivity Caused by Drought and Conflict in Northern Syria using Landsat Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, T.; Ozdogan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, agricultural production in Syria has been an important source of revenue and food security for the country. At its peak, agriculture in Syria accounted for 25 percent of the country's GDP. In 2014, Syrian agriculture accounted for less than 5 percent of the GDP. This decline in agricultural productivity is the cause of a 3-year long drought that started in 2007, followed by a still-ongoing conflict that started in mid-2011. Using remote sensing tools, this paper focuses on the impact that the 2007-2010 drought had on agricultural production, as well as the impact that the ongoing conflict had on the agricultural production in northern Syria. Remote sensing is a powerful and great solution to study regions of the world that are hard-to-reach due to conflict and/or other limitations. It is particularly useful when studying a region that inaccessible due to an ongoing conflict, such as in northern Syria. Using multi-temporal Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images from August 2006, 2010 and 2014 and utilizing the neural networks algorithm, we assessed for agricultural output change in northern Syria. We conclude that the ongoing Syrian conflict has had a bigger impact on the agricultural output in northern Syria than the 3-year long drought.

  3. Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers Regarding Education about Biomass Production in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Martin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    With the growth of biorenewable energy, biomass production has become an important segment in the agriculture industry (Iowa Energy Center, 2013). A great workforce will be needed for this burgeoning biomass energy industry (Iowa Workforce Development, n. d.). Instructional topics in agricultural education should take the form of problems and…

  4. Assessment of Climate for Agricultural Suitability and Optimal Allocation of Agricultural Production in the Guanzhong Region, Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on spatial climatic data of agriculture and the experiment data, the models of agro-ecological assessment of climate for agricultural suitability in this study were developed using the fuzzy mathematical method. Three coefficients, in- cluding the resource coefficient (Cr), the efficiency coefficient (Ce), and the utility co- efficient (K), were used in the models, which were calculated based on temperature, moisture, and sunshine duration data of Guanzhong region, Shaanxi Province. The results indicated that resource coefficient was higher in west of the region than that in east, and higher in south (especially in the Central Shaanxi Plain) than that in the Weibei plateau. The value of Cr changed from 6.5 to 9.2 from north to plain area. Spatial change of efficiency coefficient was obvious, lower in the northeast than in the central plain, and the value of Ce changed from 2.3 to 6.5 from the northeast to the central plain. As for utility coefficient, it was lower in northeastern part of the Weibei plateau and in southern mountain areas than that in the central plain, showing significant latitudinal zonality. Furthermore, the value of K increased from 0.35 to 0.78 from northeast to the central plain, and decreased from 0.78 to 0.53 from the central plain to southern mountain areas. These indicated that climate resource in the central plain region was more abundant and potential, compared with other regions. GuanZhong region was classified into three larger agricultural zones and three small independent zones, according to agro-ecological assessment. Light, heat and water resources should be made use of in an efficient way in spatial allo- cation of agricultural production. For example, water facilities should also be im- proved in Weibei plateau region where highly-qualified fruit should be enhanced and fruit processing industrial chain should be shaped. Large-scale production area of wheat should be increased in central irrigation region and more vegetable

  5. Analysis the Impact of Technology Spillovers on Total Factor Productivity of Agricultural Sector in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Baniasadi; Seyed Abd-Almajid Jala’ee Esfandabadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The growth of agricultural production and natural resources are from primary objectives of any political system, because this section has a vital role in providing food security. According to the production theories, production growth will come from two sources; more use of production factors within the framework of existing technologies and second, with using more advanced and more efficient production methods and effective use of production factors. In fact, the second one is ...

  6. Advances in research on structural characterisation of agricultural products using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongli; Cheng, Fang

    2011-03-30

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has many unique features compared with other conventional microscopies, such as high magnification with high resolution, minimal sample preparation, acquiring 2D and 3D images at the same time, observing ongoing processes directly, the possibility of manipulating macromolecules, etc. As a nanotechnology tool, AFM has been used to investigate the nanostructure of materials in many fields. This mini-review focuses mainly on its latest application to characterise the macromolecular nanostructure and surface topography of agricultural products. First the fundamentals of AFM are briefly explained. Then the macromolecular nanostructure information on agricultural products from AFM images is introduced by exploring the structure-function relationship in three aspects: agricultural product processing, agricultural product ripening and storage, and genetic and environmental factors. The surface topography characterisation of agricultural products using AFM is also discussed. The results reveal that AFM could be a powerful nanotechnology tool to acquire a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of structure and quality variations of agricultural products, which could be instructive in improving processing and storage technologies, and AFM is also helpful to reveal the essential nature of a product at nanoscale.

  7. 7 CFR 735.202 - Standards of grades for other agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WAREHOUSE ACT Inspectors, Samplers, Classifiers, and Weighers § 735.202 Standards of grades for other... and grade of the agricultural product must be stated, subject to the approval of DACO. If...

  8. Biogas production in agricultural distilleries. Gewinnung von Biogas in landwirtschaftlichen Brennereien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-02-01

    The malt residuum obtained during alcoholic fermentation in agricultural distilleries can be used for biogas production. The process of anaerobic fermentation is described, and its application in distilleries and environmental aspects are discussed. (SR)

  9. O2O - Based Agricultural Products Supply Chain Process Integration Optimization Based on Internet +

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wholesale and retail, electricity supplier of agricultural products supply chain have many difficulties. The O2O supply chain of agricultural products of “Internet+”, committed to the integration of online and offline advantage process, has become the main direction of the agricultural products supply chain transformation. Practice operation results show that O2O supply chain can effectively play the advantages of online and offline process integration, but its further development is still subject to the logistics, information flow of the dispersion, fracture and high cost. The integrated optimization of various regions and various enterprises and all sectors of the supply chain process is the key to optimize the process Internet plus era of agricultural products supply chain.

  10. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products;we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism,bearing education and training functions,forming low-carbon value,building low-carbon identification system,as well as realizing low-carbon value.According to these situations,we systematically analyze operation mechanism of farmers’ professional cooperatives suitable for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.To promote cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products,we put forward following suggestions,including government guidance and encouragement,social acceptance and active cooperation,and integration into global low-carbon development system to share benefit of low-carbon development.

  11. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjun; DENG; Yan; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,this paper analyzed content of heavy metals,including arsenic(As),mercury(Hg),lead(Pb),cadmium(Cd),and chromium(Cr) in soil.After Pb,Cd,Cr,Hg and As content in soil is determined,it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard for soil pollution.Analysis results indicate that As,Hg,Pb,Cd,Cr content is different in pollution-free agricultural product bases,but all conform to related standards and there is no standard exceeding problem.It is concluded that the quality of soil in pollution-free agricultural product bases is excellent,not polluted and completely meet requirements of evaluation standards,and suitable for developing pollution-free agricultural products.

  12. Problems in Construction of Subsidy System for Agricultural Product Identification and Countermeasures——A Case Study of Xingjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yan

    2012-01-01

    In line with current situations of extension of Xinjiang’s agricultural products,the paper put forward and analyzed existing problems in extension works of agricultural product identification.The problems mainly include:(i) general identification of agricultural products is basically blank and both producers and consumers lack awareness of identification;(ii) creating(famous) brand is a weak point of agriculture in Xinjiang;(iii) certification of non-hazard,green and organic agricultural products lags behind;(iv) it neglects problem of agricultural product packaging.On the basis of these problems,the paper present our recommendations:(i) government provides financial subsidy to actively guide certification of agricultural products;(ii) it should increase financial fund input in brand construction and support(famous) brand construction of agricultural products;(iii) it should provide subsidy for those enterprises creating famous brand,to encourage agricultural producing and processing enterprises to strive for famous brands;(vi) it should stress agricultural product packaging from the source and provide subsidy for agricultural producers who have affixed the identification;(v) it should gradually promote agricultural product identification,to constantly improve the farmers’ awareness of agricultural product identification.

  13. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2006-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water product

  14. Increasing Labour Productivity in Agriculture and its Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den A.W.

    2011-01-01

    In order to profit from the economic growth in their society farmers can (1) increase the yields of their crops and animals, (2) switch to the production of high value products for which there is an increasing demand in the market, (3) increase the labour productivity on their farm, (4) find non-far

  15. Interactions of U.S. Agricultural Production with Climatic Stresses and Reactive Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehl, R. J.; Robertson, G. P.; Bruulsema, T. W.; Kanter, D.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rotz, C. A.; Williams, C. O.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production both contributes to and responds to climatic variations across spatial and temporal continuums. The agriculture sector is responsible for over 6% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, primarily as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases emitted by agricultural activities. Agriculture activities specifically account for about 69% of U.S. N2O emissions, largely as a result of production practices including fertilizer management, cropping systems, and manure management. Fertilizers, together with manure and legume fixation, are the three main inputs of N to US agricultural soils. All three sources have been increasing over the past two decades, while the rate at which they are removed in the form of harvested crops has been increasing at a slightly slower rate. The outlook for continued large areas of cultivation in the U.S., specifically for corn production and supported by biofuel production goals, is a major factor in sustaining demand for N fertilizer. However, rising fertilizer prices and environmental pressures on producers are encouraging increased adoption of emerging technologies such as precision agriculture, cultivars with higher N use efficiency, and enhanced-efficiency N sources such as controlled-release forms or forms with urease or nitrification inhibitors. Crop productivity also responds to climatic changes, as crop growth is affected by variables including heat, drought, ozone (O3), and increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). We summarize sources and fates of N for cropping systems and intensive animal systems and assess how climate change will affect crop response to and recovery of N and subsequent cascading effects on Nr. The complex interactions between agricultural Nr and climate present opportunities for mitigation/adaption relative to N use. N fertilizer and manure management, tillage, technology, and decision support models provide significant opportunities for climate mitigation and adaption in U.S. agriculture

  16. Nitrogen Exchanges: Testing the Hypothesis of a Country without Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-F. Slak

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, finding data on agricultural nitrogen balances is quite easy. Calculations of such balances are carried out by most of the European countries as an indicator of environmental pollution attributable to the agricultural sector. In France, average values of agricultural nitrogen balances show an excess of 1.5 to 2 million tons of nitrogen. This excess is enormous. What would the balance of a country be if agricultural activity were stopped? In the following article, a country (France is used as an example without agriculture is studied in order to assess its nitrogen balance. Using a previously published model describing nitrogen input and output of a given country, nitrogen flows are identified. Inputs include deposition, fixation, and products not intended for agricultural use. Outputs are reduced to zero if agriculture disappears (in France, agriculture is the only sector exporting products containing nitrogen. All flows are calculated considering the hypothesis of disappearance of agriculture. Nitrogen requirements to feed people and pets in France are estimated based on medical and veterinary data (recommended daily amounts for proteins and/or usual average consumption. Indeed, most of the food that nourishes the French population is produced nationally. If agriculture stops, it will be necessary to import food from foreign countries. Results show an unexpectedly high excess (for a country without agriculture having a structure similar to France: number of human beings and pets of 1.5 million tons of nitrogen. An attempt to calculate an agricultural balance with the same data gives a result close to 3 million tons. Differences in French agricultural balances found in the literature can mainly be explained by values taken into account for deposition and fixation (values used here are at least 300,000 tons higher than values used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. In conclusion, nitrogen excess in agriculture

  17. Preliminary Study on the Standard of Selenium Content in Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; You, Yong; Guo, Qing-quan; Wang, Yong-hong; Deng, Shi-lin

    2012-01-01

    With the improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to the agricultural products with health protection function, and the selenium-rich agricultural products attract more and more consumers. The main biological role of selenium is to resist oxidation and inflammatory response, mainly focusing on resisting aging, preventing cardiovascular disease, protecting eyesight, counteracting or destroying the toxic properties, preventing cancer and thyroid disease. In most areas of China...

  18. TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS OF HERBICIDE WITHDRAWALS ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiping; Carlson, Gerald A.; Hoag, Dana L.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the trade-off between agricultural production and groundwater contamination potential for ten potential herbicide cancellations. Theoretical and empirical models are developed for estimating losses in consumer and producer benefits in the agricultural commodity market and changes in groundwater quality. Using corn and soybean production in the southeastern Coastal Plain as a study area, the analysis concludes that (1) effects of herbicide cancellations on groundwater quali...

  19. Forecasting of Fresh Agricultural Products Demand Based on the ARIMA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiong Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The price of fresh agricultural products changes up and down recently. In order to accurately forecast the agricultural precuts demand, a forecasting model based on ARIMA is provided in this study. It can be found that asymmetric information and unbalance about supply and demand exist in the market through analyzing the reasons. The ARIMA model for fresh agricultural products can forecast the demand in order to providing some guides for farmers. The results show that the predictive value are in good condition when compare with the actual data. Then this model is available.

  20. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward; Faaij, Andre [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation - Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Tabeau, Andrzej [Landbouw Economisch Instituut - Wageningen University and Research Centre, Burgermeester Partijnlaan 19, 2585 BE Den Haag (Netherlands); Hilbert, Jorge [Instituto Ingenieria Rural - Instituto Nacional de la Tecnologia Agropecuario, C.C. 25, 1712 Castelar (Buenos Aires) (Argentina)

    2009-12-15

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  1. Non-professional Agricultural Production Villages Establishing a New Rural Cooperative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes problems in the agricultural development of non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City.Firstly,low technical and scientific content of production and low standardization level.Secondly,scattered sales and non-fixed marketing channels.Thirdly,difficulties in group cooperation of farm crops with special benefits.Fourthly,imperfect service of rural committees of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City.A new rural cooperative is to be founded to help villagers in non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City to be engaged in agricultural production and management activities,and to improve their overall incomes.On the one hand,a perfect and scientific cooperative operating system is to be built specifically including three functions.Firstly,fully playing the leading and bridging role of rural primary organizations.Secondly,fully carrying out the pushing role of capable persons in the administrative village.Lastly,fully playing the role of active participation and cooperation of villagers.On the other hand,constructions of normalization,standardization and brand orientation with special emphasis should be achieved under the guidance of local governments.The key of building a cooperative of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City is discussed.One is that rural cadres should have strong awareness of serving the people.The other is that governments at all levels should energetically support the establishment and management of rural cooperatives.

  2. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  3. Biogas in organic agriculture-effects on productivity, energy self-sufficiency and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and crops provides the possibility of a combined production of renewable energy and organic fertilizer on organic farms and has been suggested as an option to improve sustainability of organic agriculture. In the present study, the consequences of implementation...... of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were analyzed on a 1000 ha model farm with combined dairy and cash crop production, representing organic agriculture in Denmark. The effects on crop rotation, nitrogen flows and losses, yield, energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for four......, reduced number of livestock and import of biomass from cuttings made in ungrazed meadows. These four scenarios were compared with the current situation in organic agriculture in Denmark and to a situation where slurry from conventional agriculture is no longer imported. Implementation of anaerobic...

  4. Current Situations and Problems of Logistics for Guangxi Fresh Agricultural Products in the New Period and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,Guangxi realized consecutive bumper harvests in fresh agricultural products,leading increase of logistics demand;logistics infrastructure begins to take shape,and logistics of fresh agricultural products takes on diversified development form with wholesale market as main form. However,traditional fresh agricultural products are not selling well and it lacks construction of supply chain; the construction of logistics information system for fresh agricultural products lags behind; organizational level of production and operation of fresh agricultural products is low. Through analyzing current situations and existing problems of logistics of Guangxi fresh agricultural products in the new period( 21 st century),this paper came up with recommendations for developing logistics of fresh agricultural products of Guangxi. Government should increase policy and financial support,build and manage supply chain of fresh agricultural products,accelerate construction of logistics information system for agricultural products,and improve organizational level of logistics of fresh agricultural products,to ensure healthy development of logistics of fresh agricultural products in Guangxi.

  5. IMPROVEMENT ACCOUNTING OF SALES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS ON FARM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashmuratovich Eshmuradov ULUGBEK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the selling process of farm enterprises,particularly, we will investigate the approach of improving the accounting of sales.The study also examines the factors associated with recognition of revenue in the phase of sale of goods and services of farm enterprises. The findings show that there are numerous mistakes in accounting of sales and financial statements. In addition, we conclude that the main contribution of IAS 41 is to provide a strong conceptual framework in agricultural accounting practice. However, this standard is mainly used in EU. In the study we try to find the ways of applying of IAS 41 in accounting system of farms of the region Samarkand.

  6. Designing and Realization of Database Platform of County Agricultural Production Technology in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the objective reality in Yunnan Province,such as great difference of weather,a great proportion of minorities,technological backwardness of agricultural production,low conversion rate of research accomplishments,and a limited number of agricultural technical personnel,ASP.NET technique and SQL Server 2005 database technique are adopted.Database platform of county agricultural production technology in Yunnan Province is established by using B/S structure.This platform includes presentation layer,application layer,and data layer,involving regional information,technology column information,technology classification information,technology content and other databases.It has six functional modules,namely information browse,system management,regional maintenance,technical section maintenance,category maintenance and technical information release,integrating crop cultivation,livestock breeding,economic forest management,plant protection,agricultural products processing,agricultural machinery use and other agricultural technical information.This platform can exchange information dynamically with the client,perform the query request from users,and send the result to users.This database platform has friendly interface,profuse information,high pertinency and so on,which offers rich and reliable information resources to farmers,agricultural technical personnel,and government.At present,this platform has been popularized in some areas of Yunnan Province and has obtained good results.

  7. EVALUATION OF MANUFACTURING AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION BY THE END OF THE FINANCIAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincho Minev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated on the matter of evaluation of manufacturing and agricultural production after the initial appraisal. Accounting standards and regulations, concerning the reappraisal of production, are discussed with emphasis on the key and most disputable requirements. The most commonly met difficulties in the process of reappraisal of production are pointed out. A research is done over the leading manufacturing and agricultural entities in Bulgaria. The point of the research is to study the degree on witch entities met the requirements and regulations of accounting standards when they reevaluate their production by the end of the year. The results of the research are shown and analyzed. Conclusions are made along with some recommendations in order to improve the quality of reappraisal of manufacturing and agricultural production.

  8. An Empirical Analysis on Agricultural Materials Logistics Control and Agricultural Products Safety: A Case Study of Bi-chains Management Model for Veterinary Drugs in Pinggu District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianqi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Through an empirical analysis of the agricultural logistics model and agricultural products quality control system in Pinggu district of Beijing, a model was studied to control the agricultural quality by agricultural logistics. The model adopts modern logistics supply chain, which firstly, establishes a modern logistics distribution system for veterinary drugs by the means of suppliers control, chain management and cold chain distribution; secondly, organizes the veterinary experts and doctors to provide real-time technical services so as to control the abuse of drugs; thirdly, realizes the supervision of local veterinary drugs and diseases. Thus the quality of animal products is guaranteed, and the model is worthy to be popularized.

  9. Particulars of Demand for Agricultural Products in the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina TIMIRAS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the latest official statistics on food and beverage purchases, overall and by product category, the article captures quantitative and qualitative changes in recent years on the Romanian market for this category of goods. It has been also highlighted the gaps observed in the different categories of households by: living environment, presence and number of children, employment status and age of household head, all from the perspective of the demand for those products.

  10. Parallel Factor Analysis in Dual-class Tax Impacts of Agricultural Products: An Economic Research from Macro Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishen Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products using the parallel factor analysis. Along with the rapid economic development of China, the growing purchasing power of Chinese residents has been accelerated; particularly in the expensive agricultural products market. China has adjusted taxable items of consumption tax to narrow the gap between rich and poor and to promote social equity. The atrophy of the expensive agricultural products market brought by the tax may curb the growth and development of domestic agricultural products industry. In this study, the parallel factor analysis is employed to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products. The results indicate that the taxation system should be taken from a forward-looking aspect. The market supply and demand for expensive agricultural products and consumer behaviors should be combined with an overall consideration. Hence, specific adjustments China expensive agricultural products market have been eventually put forward.

  11. Agricultural production and water use scenarios in Cyprus under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Zoumides, Christos; Camera, Corrado; Pashiardis, Stelios; Zomeni, Zomenia

    2014-05-01

    In many countries of the world, food demand exceeds the total agricultural production. In semi-arid countries, agricultural water demand often also exceeds the sustainable supply of water resources. These water-stressed countries are expected to become even drier, as a result of global climate change. This will have a significant impact on the future of the agricultural sector and on food security. The aim of the AGWATER project consortium is to provide recommendations for climate change adaptation for the agricultural sector in Cyprus and the wider Mediterranean region. Gridded climate data sets, with 1-km horizontal resolution were prepared for Cyprus for 1980-2010. Regional Climate Model results were statistically downscaled, with the help of spatial weather generators. A new soil map was prepared using a predictive modelling and mapping technique and a large spatial database with soil and environmental parameters. Stakeholder meetings with agriculture and water stakeholders were held to develop future water prices, based on energy scenarios and to identify climate resilient production systems. Green houses, including also hydroponic systems, grapes, potatoes, cactus pears and carob trees were the more frequently identified production systems. The green-blue-water model, based on the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach, has been set up to compute agricultural water demand and yields for all crop fields in Cyprus under selected future scenarios. A set of agricultural production and water use performance indicators are computed by the model, including green and blue water use, crop yield, crop water productivity, net value of crop production and economic water productivity. This work is part of the AGWATER project - AEIFORIA/GEOGRO/0311(BIE)/06 - co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation.

  12. The Concept of Agricultural Productivity on Ecosystem Scale and Its Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wan-bin; QIU Hua-jiao; CHANG Xin; CHENG Xu

    2006-01-01

    What is the connotation and the extension of the productivity concept and how to calculate it are the core problems in evaluating an agricultural-production process. The attributes of agricultural production processes have changed greatly in the last 100 years, and the methods to describe and measure the productivity failed to keep in pace with the production processes, resulting in a totally vague, incomplete evaluation of the production processes. Sometimes the serious problem of pollution is ignored in the race to shortdated money making, thus leading to a blooming and flooding pollution;sometimes the great ecological benefits are ignored and the corresponding production processes suffer drastically from "economic deficit". With the old agricultural productivity indices, no prediction can be made of the ultimate effects of agroecosytem on mankind-pollution or welfare. A new concept, agricultural productivity on ecosystem scale (APES) and the related indices are defined here to solve these problems. Emergy and exergy are introduced to help the measurement of the indices. Emergy is the memory of energy, which can be used to measure the total cost, including natural capital and social capital. APES of the agroecosystem is the aggregated contributions of all components to mankind and its habitat in uniformed dimensions, it may be expressed in material, energy, information, organization, pollution and damage, etc., positive or negative, and are calculated based on exergy methods. And a related index agroecological coupling degree (ACD) shows sustainability.

  13. Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Baum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the production capacity of Polish agriculture with respect to biomass used for energy production. The forecast production potential of agricultural biomass in Poland in 2020 includes three key areas: the expected consumption of renewable energy according to energy type, the energy potential of agriculture and barriers to the use of biomass. Studies have shown that in Poland, total energy consumption will significantly increase (over 10% by 2020. Growth of demand for renewable energy will primarily result from strong growth of demand for transport biofuels and electricity. In 2020, approximately 80% of final energy from renewable sources will come from biomass. More than three-quarters of the biomass will be generated from agriculture. In Poland, crops from 1.0 to 4.3 million ha can be used for energy production. The study shows changes in the structure of biomass use, and the analysis confirms the declining share of biomass for heat production and the increasing share of biomass for electricity and biofuels. The main obstacles to the continued use of agricultural biomass are a lack of local markets for biomass energy and poor financial support for energy crop production.

  14. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  15. Biogas production and digestate utilisation from agricultural residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The HYSOL project aims at hybridisation of concentrated solar power with a gas turbine in order to guarantee a stable and reliable electricity supply, based on renewable energy. The production of fully renewable electricity in a Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) plant includes the use of renewa

  16. Agricultural water requirements for commercial production of cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundant water resources are essential for the commercial production of cranberries, which use irrigated water for frost protection, soil moisture management, and harvest and winter floods. Given water resource demands in southeastern Massachusetts, we sought to quantify the annual water requirement...

  17. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and fa

  18. Production and Modification of Sophorolipids from Agricultural Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    As petroleum prices and environmental concerns continue to raise, interest in bio-based materials, that may act as substitutes for or additives to currently used products, is becoming increasingly popular. Biosurfactants, particularly glycolipids, are one class of molecule that is receiving added a...

  19. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt: Assessing dynamic environmental performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in re...

  20. Evaluation on the Influencing Factors of Agricultural Land Productivity in Huang-Huai Plain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Huang-Huai Plain as an example,evaluation index system is established from four aspects,including the resources condition,the social and economic condition,the agricultural science and technology condition,and the disaster resistant and sustainable production condition.Correlation coefficient method and expert consultation method are used to determine the weight of evaluation index.After the standardization of extreme value,weighted sum method and multiple regression method are adopted to evaluate the influencing factors of agricultural land productivity in Huang-Huai Plain,China.Evaluation result shows that agricultural science and technology condition has a lower contribution rate to the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain than that to Henan Province.Resources condition has a higher contribution rate to the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain than that to Henan Province.Both the social and economic condition and the disaster control and sustainable production condition show relatively small contribution rate to the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain.It can be concluded that the main factors affecting the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain are the backward agricultural science and technology level,the poor farmland quality and the farmland infrastructure.Based on this,relevant suggestions are put forward to improve the farmland productivity of Huang-Huai Plain.

  1. Greenhouse gas mitigation effects of integrating biomass production into European agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.P.; Lesschen, J.P.; Londo, M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    As energy crop production on European croplands expands, driven by accelerating consumption of bioenergy, there is a pressing need to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with this production. The present study considers on-going yield increases as a means of boosting agricultural output wh

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO2eq kg(-1) rice, 45.54 kg CO2eq kg(-1) mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO2eq kg(-1) milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with <1 kg CO2eq kg(-1) product. These findings suggest that a shift towards dietary patterns with greater consumption of animal source foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann schemes for convection-diffusion phenomena : application to packages of agricultural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Packaging is crucial for the control of quality of fresh agricultural products. How to optimise the packaging design for a particular product and distribution chain, is still not fully understood. Various empirical studies have shown that existing packaging designs can still be improved significantl

  4. Agriculture wastes conversion for biofertilizer production using beneficial microorganisms for sustainable agriculture applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, S. I. S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The emphasis of this study is to generate new valuable bioproducts from non-toxic cleaning waste for environmental healing technology. Methodology and Results: Comparisons between different types of biofertilizer formulations and the field trial effectiveness were done. Results indicated that biofertilizer C contained the highest N value (1.8% when compared with biofertilizers B and A, which only contained 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively. Biofertilizer A showed significant difference in the total count of yeast, mould, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrate oxidizing bacteria compared to biofertilizer B and C. Meanwhile, biofertilizer C was found to be significantly different from others in Lactobacillus sp. and nitrogen-fixing bacteria count. Photosynthetic total count and Actinomycetes sp. were not noticed in all formulations tested.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The findings of this study suggest that biofertilizer A is suitable to be used as a promotional biofertilizer in flower and fruit production, biofertilizer B can be used for a leafy crop, while biofertilizer C is good for the growth of roots and stem of plants.

  5. Why is Agricultural Labor Productivity so Low in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Schoellman; Berthold Herrendorf

    2011-01-01

    A big question in development economics is why developing countries are so unproductive in agriculture. This question is hard to answer because of limited data. In this project, we explore what we can learn from agriculture in US states where we have rich data. Focusing on US states has the advantage that there are no major barriers or institutional differences. We provide evidence that there are large labor productivity gaps between nonagriculture and nonagriculture; in some US states the di...

  6. Virtual water and water self-sufficiency in agricultural and livestock products in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R; de Oliveira, Sonaly D; Braga, Célia C; Brito, José Ivaldo B; de Sousa, Francisco de Assis S; de Holanda, Romildo M; Campos, João Hugo B C; de Souza, Enio P; Braga, Armando César R; Rodrigues Almeida, Rafaela S; de Araújo, Lincoln E

    2016-12-15

    Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products. The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. The objective of this study is to determine the volume of virtual water contained in agricultural and livestock products imported/exported by Brazil from 1997 to 2012, and to define the water self-sufficiency index of agricultural and livestock products in Brazil. The indexes of water scarcity (WSI), water dependency (WDI) and water self-sufficiency (WSSI) were calculated for each Brazilian state. These indexes and the virtual water balance were calculated following the methodology developed by Chapagain and Hoekstra (2008) and Hoekstra and Hung (2005). The total water exports and imports embedded in agricultural and livestock products were 5.28 × 10(10) and 1.22 × 10(10) Gm(3) yr(-1), respectively, which results in positive virtual water balance of 4.05 × 10(10) Gm(3) yr(-1). Brazil is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of agricultural and livestock products among the Mercosur countries. Brazil has a positive virtual water balance of 1.85 × 10(10) Gm(3) yr(-1). The indexes used in this study reveal that Brazil is self-sufficient in food production, except for a few products such as wheat and rice. Horticultural products (tomato, onion, potato, cassava and garlic) make up a unique product group with negative virtual water balance in Brazil.

  7. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis.

  8. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  9. Research on Site Selection Model of Distribution Center of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the practical situation of logistics distribution of agricultural products,we primarily select transportation factor,economic factor,environment factor,and other factors,to establish evaluation index system of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.And then we adopt the analytic hierarchy process method to calculate weight of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.Under the circumstance that the evaluation information is interval number,we use uncertain and multiple attribute decision making method to establish site selection model of distribution center of agricultural products.Finally,taking one city as an example,we discuss the application of this model in site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.The results of empirical analysis show that the model we established fully considers the randomness and uncertainty in the process of evaluation,so as to make the results of evaluation more objective,in line with reality.So the effect of evaluation is better as against the former real number evaluation calibration.

  10. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  11. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions.

  12. Research on Supply Chain Performance Evaluation of Fresh Agriculture Products Based on BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankun Ye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating supply chain performance of fresh agricultural products is one of the key techniques and a research hotspot in supply chain management and in fields related. The paper designs a new evaluation indicator system and presents a new model for evaluating supply chain performance of fresh agriculture product companies. First, based on analyzing the specific characteristics of the supply chain performance evaluation of fresh agriculture products, the paper designs a new evaluation indicator system including external and internal performance. Second, some improvements, such as adjusting dynamic strategy and the value of momentum factor, are taken to speed up calculation convergence and simplify the structure and to improve evaluating accuracy of the original BP evaluation model. Finally the model is realized with the data from certain supply chains of three fresh agriculture product companies and the experimental results show that the algorithm can improve calculation efficiency and evaluation accuracy when used for supply chain performance evaluation of fresh agriculture product companies practically.

  13. Agricultural Production Structure Optimization:A Case Study of Major Grain Producing Areas, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sha-sha; LIU Yan-sui; LONG Hua-lou; GUAN Xing-liang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of mathematical models were developed for supporting agricultural production structure optimization decisions; however, few of them can address various uncertainties existing in many factors (e.g., eco-social benefit maximization, food security, employment stability and ecosystem balance). In this study, an interval-probabilistic agricultural production structure optimization model (IPAPSOM) is formulated for tackling uncertainty presented as discrete intervals and/or probability distribution. The developed model improves upon the existing probabilistic programming and inexact optimization approaches. The IPAPSOM considers not only food security policy constraints, but also involves rural households’ income increase and eco-environmental conversation, which can effectively reflect various interrelations among different aspects in an agricultural production structure optimization system. Moreover, it can also help examine the reliability of satisfying (or risk of violating) system constraints under uncertainty. The model is applied to a real case of long-term agricultural production structure optimization in Dancheng County, which is located in Henan Province of Central China as one of the major grain producing areas. Interval solutions associated with different risk levels of constraint violation are obtained. The results are useful for generating a range of decision alternatives under various system benefit conditions, and thus helping decision makers to identify the desired agricultural production structure optimization strategy under uncertainty.

  14. Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Running, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by global population and standard of living increases, humanity co-opts a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. In this study, we explored the impact of agriculture on a resource fundamental to life on Earth: terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). We demonstrate that agricultural conversion has reduced terrestrial NPP by ~7.0%. Increases in NPP due to agricultural conversion were observed only in areas receiving external inputs (i.e., irrigation and/or fertilization). NPP reductions were found for ~88% of agricultural lands, with the largest reductions observed in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (~71% and ~66% reductions, respectively). Without policies that explicitly consider the impact of agricultural conversion on primary production, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output will likely continue to drive net declines in global terrestrial productivity, with potential detrimental consequences for net ecosystem carbon storage and subsequent climate warming.

  15. Analysis of Changes in Energy Consumption and Demand Trend in China’s Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s energy consumption for agricultural production has relied on petroleum and coal with relatively low input from power and other types of energy for a long time.Projections indicate that as China’s existing development trend leads to substantial growth of energy demand for agricultural production,such a long term irrational energy consumption pattern would unlikely be able to meet the needs of the country’s developing agricultural sector.As such,it is recommended that China’s agricultural sector should follow the national energy development strategy guideline by gradually increasing the use of wind power,solar energy,biomass and other new energy sources while advancing technological innovations on traditional energy sources.Meanwhile,as the consumption structure of three major energy sources(i.e.petroleum,coal,and power)is optimized,development and application of biomass from agriculture as raw materials for alternative energy should be enhanced.Lastly,the development and application of wind power,solar energy,and hydropower in agricultural production should be increased in areas where appropriate.

  16. Optimizing cultivation of agricultural products using socio-economic and environmental scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaheliNamin, Behnaz; Mortazavi, Samar; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-11-01

    The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment. Improving the production efficiency of agriculture, efficient use of water resources, decreasing the use of pesticides and fertilizers, improving farmer revenue, and conservation of natural resources are the main objectives of the allocation, ranking, and optimization of agricultural products. The goal of this paper is to use an optimization procedure to lower the negative effects of agriculture while maintaining a high production rate, which is currently a gap in the study area. We collected information about fertilizer and pesticide consumption and other data in croplands of eastern Golestan Province through face-to-face interviews with farmers to optimize cultivation of the agricultural products. The toxicity of pesticides according to LD50 was also included in the optimization model. A decision-support software system called multiple criteria analysis tool was used to simultaneously minimize consumption of water, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides and maximize socio-economic returns. Three scenarios for optimization of agricultural products were generated that alternatively emphasized on environmental and socio-economic goals. Comparing socio-economic and environmental performance of the optimized agricultural products under the three scenarios illustrated the conflict between social, economic, and environmental objectives. Of the six crops studied (wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, oilseed rape

  17. Bacterial indicator of agricultural management for soil under no-till crop production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L M Figuerola

    Full Text Available The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between

  18. Bacterial indicator of agricultural management for soil under no-till crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, Eva L M; Guerrero, Leandro D; Rosa, Silvina M; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E; Galantini, Juan A; Bedano, José C; Wall, Luis G; Erijman, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non

  19. Spatial Mapping of Agricultural Water Productivity Using the SWAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokal, Rajesh Tulshiram; Gorantiwar, S. D.; Kothari, Mahesh; Bhakar, S. R.; Nandwana, B. P.

    2015-03-01

    The Sina river basin is facing both episodic and chronic water shortages due to intensive irrigation development. The main objective of this study was to characterize the hydrologic processes of the Sina river basin and assess crop water productivity using the distributed hydrologic model, SWAT. In the simulation year (1998-1999), the inflow to reservoir from upstream side was the major contributor to the reservoir accounting for 92 % of the total required water release for irrigation purpose (119.5 Mm3), while precipitation accounted for 4.1 Mm3. Annual release of water for irrigation was 119.5 Mm3 out of which 54 % water was diverted for irrigation purpose, 26 % was wasted as conveyance loss, average discharge at the command outlet was estimated as 4 % and annual average ground-water recharge coefficient was in the range of 13-17 %. Various scenarios involving water allocation rule were tested with the goal of increasing economic water productivity values in the Sina Irrigation Scheme. Out of those, only most benefited allocation rule is analyzed in this paper. Crop yield varied from 1.98 to 25.9 t/ha, with the majority of the area between 2.14 and 2.78 t/ha. Yield and WP declined significantly in loamy soils of the irrigation command. Crop productivity in the basin was found in the lower range when compared with potential and global values. The findings suggested that there was a potential to improve further. Spatial variations in yield and WP were found to be very high for the crops grown during rabi season, while those were low for the crops grown during kharif season. The crop yields and WP during kharif season were more in the lower reach of the irrigation commands, where loamy soil is more concentrated. Sorghum in both seasons was most profitable. Sorghum fetched net income fivefold that of sunflower, two and half fold of pearl millet and one and half fold of mung beans as far as crop during kharif season were concerned and it fetched fourfold that of

  20. Upgrading protein products using bioprocessing on agricultural crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    Due to increasing world population, higher average income, and changes in food preferences, there is a growing demand for proteins, especially novel plant-based protein sources, that can substitute animal proteins and supplement currently used soya proteins. Increased customer awareness to sustai......Due to increasing world population, higher average income, and changes in food preferences, there is a growing demand for proteins, especially novel plant-based protein sources, that can substitute animal proteins and supplement currently used soya proteins. Increased customer awareness......, environmentally-friendly, water-based biofractionation method. The process was optimized to yield products with protein content comparable to existing commercial products. Raw materials used for processing included soya white flakes, wind-sifted pea, lupine seeds and rapeseed pressed cake. For each of these raw...... materials the process needed to be optimized separately, as they present different challenges for the biofractionation. For example, soya contains proteinase inhibitors, which, if not removed, can decrease digestibility of protein. Likewise, glucosinolates present in rapeseed should be removed from...

  1. Upgrading protein products using bioprocessing on agricultural crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup;

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing world population, higher average income, and changes in food preferences, there is a growing demand for proteins, especially novel plant-based protein sources, that can substitute animal proteins and supplement currently used soya proteins. Increased customer awareness to sustai......Due to increasing world population, higher average income, and changes in food preferences, there is a growing demand for proteins, especially novel plant-based protein sources, that can substitute animal proteins and supplement currently used soya proteins. Increased customer awareness......, environmentally-friendly, water-based biofractionation method. The process was optimized to yield products with protein content comparable to existing commercial products. Raw materials used for processing included soya white flakes, wind-sifted pea, lupine seeds and rapeseed pressed cake. For each of these raw...... materials the process needed to be optimized separately, as they present different challenges for the biofractionation. For example, soya contains proteinase inhibitors, which, if not removed, can decrease digestibility of protein. Likewise, glucosinolates present in rapeseed should be removed from...

  2. Environmental impacts and production performances of organic agriculture in China: A monetary valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanqiao; Qiao, Yuhui; Wu, Wenliang; Smith, Pete; Scott, Steffanie

    2017-03-01

    Organic agriculture has developed rapidly in China since the 1990s, driven by the increasing domestic and international demand for organic products. Quantification of the environmental benefits and production performances of organic agriculture on a national scale helps to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimum impacts on the environment. Data of organic production for 2013 were obtained from a national survey organized by the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China. Farming performance and environmental impact indicators were screened and indicator values were defined based on an intensive literature review and were validated by national statistics. The economic (monetary) values of farming inputs, crop production and individual environmental benefits were then quantified and integrated to compare the overall performances of organic vs. conventional agriculture. In 2013, organically managed farmland accounted for approximately 0.97% of national arable land, covering 1.158 million ha. If organic crop yields were assumed to be 10%-15% lower than conventional yields, the environmental benefits of organic agriculture (i.e., a decrease in nitrate leaching, an increase in farmland biodiversity, an increase in carbon sequestration and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions) were valued at 1921 million RMB (320.2 million USD), or 1659 RMB (276.5 USD) per ha. By reducing the farming inputs, the costs saved was 3110 million RMB (518.3 million USD), or 2686 RMB (447.7 USD) per ha. The economic loss associated with the decrease in crop yields from organic agriculture was valued at 6115 million RMB (1019.2 million USD), or 5280 RMB (880 USD) per ha. Although they were likely underestimated because of the complex relationships among farming operations, ecosystems and humans, the production costs saved and environmental benefits of organic agriculture that were quantified in our study compensated substantially for the

  3. Forecasting and Analysis of Agricultural Product Logistics Demand in Tibet Based on Combination Forecasting Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfeng; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Over the years,the logistics development in Tibet has fallen behind the transport. Since the opening of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in2006,the opportunity for development of modern logistics has been brought to Tibet. The logistics demand analysis and forecasting is a prerequisite for regional logistics planning. By establishing indicator system for logistics demand of agricultural products,agricultural product logistics principal component regression model,gray forecasting model,BP neural network forecasting model are built. Because of the single model’s limitations,quadratic-linear programming model is used to build combination forecasting model to predict the logistics demand scale of agricultural products in Tibet over the next five years. The empirical analysis results show that combination forecasting model is superior to single forecasting model,and it has higher precision,so combination forecasting model will have much wider application foreground and development potential in the field of logistics.

  4. Study on the Dynamic Pricing Revenue Distribution Model of Fresh Agricultural Products Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Shi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study divides the sales cycle of fresh agricultural products into two stages according to the features of fresh agricultural products, establishes two pricing strategies according to its sales and through constructing an centralized-control model of supply chain under the constraints of revenue sharing contract and through analyzing different prices in the two stages, it summarizes the sales strategies of retailers and supplier and the anticipated sales, proposes to coordinate the operation of fresh agricultural products supply chain by adjusting the revenue coefficient in the revenue sharing contract. After comparing the revenue of decentralized-control supply chain model and centralized-control supply chain model, this study concludes that centralized-control supply chain model will have higher revenue.

  5. COCOA PRODUCTION - AGRICULTURAL CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEME FUND NEXUS IN NIGERIA: A COINTEGRATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyakhilomen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund using time series data on cocoa production in Nigeria, value of loans guaranteed and number of loans guaranteed spanning over the period of 1981 to 2011. The Johansen cointegration test was employed in this study and the result indicated that there was no cointegrating relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and Agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund over the period under study. This could be attributed to the guaranteeing of few number as well as limited value of credit to the farmers by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund and the high incidence of loan diversion by the cocoa farmers who had access to the loans guaranteed by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund. It is recommended that the number as well as the value of credit guaranteed to cocoa farmers should be significantly increased so as to enable the farmers expand their production and thereby, reposition the cocoa to assume a critical role as a major non-oil foreign exchange earner in the Agricultural transformation plan of Nigeria.

  6. The Effect of No Agricultural Productivity Growth on Future Land Use and Climate through Biogeophysical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is

  7. Agricultural Production and Trade Structure Profile in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.- P. E. Lubanda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The African region represents the weak point of the world economy. Many African countries have still not finished the process of transforming their economy. Agriculture represents only a minor portion of their economies’ performance – however it is still a key sector of the economy (especially considering the number of people working in agriculture or people representing the agricultural population. The agricultural sector in many sub-Saharan countries is extremely sensitive and its stability affects the stability of the whole region. A very good example representing sub-Saharan Africa is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. It is a country with a lot of potential, but it is classified among the poorest countries in the world. Its economy is extremely weak (despite its significant share in total GDP formation value, and underdeveloped. The share of agriculture in total GDP formation is over 42.5%. The number of people living in rural areas represents over 45 million out of a total of 75 million. The number of people working in agriculture is over 60% of the total economically active population. The economy of the country is extremely poor and fragile, mainly because of political instability. The aim of this paper is firstly to specify the position of agriculture in the DRC economy, and also to specify the production and trade commodity structure in relation to other African countries. The paper’s ambition is to identify the most perspective commodities (groups of commodities, both for production and also for trade, and to recommend such a production and trade profile which would allow the DRC the possibility of improving its competitiveness - not only in relation to other African countries, but also in relation to the global market. The production and trade commodity structures are analysed through the application of the BCG method and competitiveness analysis. In relation to these objectives, the paper provides the following conclusions

  8. Amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae grown on agricultural commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, R C; Hang, Y D

    1990-03-01

    The amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 grown on different agricultural commodities was datermined. The mould produced much higher enzyme activity from barley, corn, bats, and rice than from cassava. The optimal temperature for enzyme production was 30°C. Neutralization with CaCO3 greatly enhanced the rate of enzyme production. Nitrogen supplementation of cassava resulted in higher enzyme yields.

  9. Poverty, Income distribution and the analysis of agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, G J

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the World Bank's well intentioned objective of eliminating rural povery, an application of the most recent social cost-benefit methodology explained in a World Bank research publication will not weed out projects that lead to an increased poverty problem. The project that is examined is the introduction of tractors into Pakistan in the late 1960s. The project appeared to be successful on economic efficiency grounds, increased aggregate output and productivity, but had negative side effects on employment and the incomes of the poorer sections of the population. Projects that are economically efficient, increase the incomes of the poor, and do not significantly increase the incomes of the richer groups are ideal but difficult to achieve. The implication of those projects is a redistribution of internal wealth.

  10. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for forage and rangeland production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Morgan, Jack; Fay, Philip; Polley, Wayne; Hatfield, Jerry L.

    2011-04-19

    Projections of temperature and precipitation patterns across the United States during the next 50 years anticipate a 1.5 to 2°C warming and a slight increase in precipitation as a result of global climate change. There have been relatively few studies of climate change impacts on pasture and rangeland (grazingland) species compared to those on crop species, despite the economic and ecological importance of the former. Here we review the literature on pastureland and rangeland species to rising CO2 and climate change (temperature, and precipitation) and discuss plant and management factors likely to influence pastureland and rangeland responses to change (e.g., community composition, plant competition, perennial growth habit, seasonal productivity, and management methods). Overall, the response of pasture species to increased [CO2] is consistent with the general response of C3 and C4 type vegetation, although significant exceptions exist. Both pastureland and rangeland species should exhibit an acceleration of metabolism and development due to earlier onset of spring green-up and longer growing seasons. However, in the studies reviewed here, C3 pasture species increased their photosynthetic rates by up to 40% while C4 species exhibited no increase in photosynthesis. In general, it is expected that increases in [CO2] and precipitation would enhance rangeland net primary production (NPP) while increased air temperatures would either increase or decrease NPP. Much of this uncertainty in response is due to uncertain future projections of precipitation, both globally and regionally. For example, if annual precipitation changes little or declines, rangeland plant response to warming temperatures and rising [CO2] may be neutral or may decline due to increased water stress. This review reveals the need for comprehensive studies of climate change impacts on the pasture ecosystem including grazing regimes, mutualistic relationships (e.g., plant roots-nematodes; N

  11. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  12. Design and Construction Multi Output Power Transmition with Single Prime Mover on Agricultural Products Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koten, V. K.; Tanamal, C. E.

    2017-03-01

    Manufacturing agricultural products by the farmers, people or person who involve in medium industry, small industry, and households industry still be done in separately. Although the power on primemover is enough, in operations, primemover was only to move one of several agricultural products machine. This study attempts to design and construct power transmition multi output with single primemover; a single construction that allows primemover move some agricultur products machine in the same or not. This study begins with the determination of production capacity and the power to destroy products, the determination of resources and rotation, normalization of resources and rotation, the determination of the type material used, the size determination of each machine elements, construction machine elements, and assemble machine elements into a construction multi output power transmition with single primemover on agricultural products machine. The results show that with a input normalization 4 PK (2984 Watt), rotation 2000 rpm, the strength of material 60 kg/mm2, and several operating consideration, thus obtained size of machine elements through calculation. Based on the size, the machine elements is made through the use of some machine tools and assembled to form a multi output power transmition with single primemover.

  13. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  14. Design and Realization of E-Marketing System for Fresh Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunmao; TAN; Haishan; WANG; Xiudong; SUN; Yannan; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the PHP + Oracle database development technology. Based on B / S structure,using MVC( Model View Controller) framework development mode,and in line with actual demands of fresh agricultural products for e-marketing in Shanghai,it designed and expected to realize e-marketing system for fresh agricultural products in B2B2 C mode. It made an in-depth analysis from system demands,design of functional modules,design of database,and relevant technologies for system realization.

  15. THE DESIGN OF AN INFORMATIC MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL VEGETAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela VLAD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present exists a concern over the inability of the small and medium farms managers to accurately estimate and evaluate production systems efficiency in Romanian agriculture. This general concern has become even more pressing as market prices associated with agricultural activities continue to increase. As a result, considerable research attention is now orientated to the development of economical models integrated in software interfaces that can improve the technical and financial management. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an estimation and evaluation model designed to increase the farmer’s ability to measure production activities costs by utilizing informatic systems.

  16. Survey among agricultural workers about interpretation of plant protection product labels and safety data sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella Rubbiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effectiveness of risk communication in agriculture through examination and interpretation of safety data sheets and product labels for agriculture products classified as hazardous. Labels and safety data sheets were shown to the users inviting them to report their own interpretation of hazard, risk and the need of preventive measures. One area sample was identified in a cluster of wine companies, chosen in a range of medium to large sizes throughout the country, where 100 subjects were interviewed by telephone or direct interview. Participants were surveyed through questions relating to demographic information, education and perception of risk.

  17. Agriculture in the climate change negotiations; ensuring that food production is not threatened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldowney, J; Mounsey, J; Kinsella, L

    2013-06-01

    With the human population predicted to reach nine billion by 2050, demand for food is predicted to more than double over this time period, a trend which will lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. Furthermore, expansion in food production is predicted to occur primarily in the developing world, where adaptation to climate change may be more difficult and opportunities to mitigate emissions limited. In the establishment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 'ensuring that food production is not threatened' is explicitly mentioned in the objective of the Convention. However, the focus of negotiations under the Convention has largely been on reducing GHG emissions from energy, and industrial activities and realizing the potential of forestry as a carbon sink. There has been little attention by the UNFCCC to address the challenges and opportunities for the agriculture sector. Since 2006, concerted efforts have been made to raise the prominence of agriculture within the negotiations. The most recent The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report and 'The Emissions Gap Report' by the UNEP highlighted the significant mitigation potential of agriculture, which can help contribute towards keeping global temperature rises below the 2°C limit agreed in Cancun. Agriculture has to be a part of the solution to address climate change, but this will also require a focus on how agriculture systems can adapt to climate change in order to continue to increase food output. However, to effectively realize this potential, systematic and dedicated discussion and decisions within the UNFCCC are needed. UNFCCC discussions on a specific agriculture agenda item started in 2012, but are currently inconclusive. However, Parties are generally in agreement on the importance of agriculture in contributing to food security and employment as well as the need to improve understanding of agriculture and how it can contribute to

  18. Production of fructosyl transferase by Aspergillus oryzae CFR 202 in solid-state fermentation using agricultural by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, P T; Ramesh, M N; Prapulla, S G

    2004-10-01

    Fructosyl transferase (FTase) production by Aspergillus oryzae CFR 202 was carried out by solid-state fermentation (SSF), using various agricultural by-products like cereal bran, corn products, sugarcane bagasse,cassava bagasse (tippi) and by-products of coffee and tea processing. The FTase produced was used for the production of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), using 60% sucrose as substrate. Among the cereal bran used, rice bran and wheat bran were good substrates for FTase production by A. oryzae CFR 202. Among the various corn products used, corn germ supported maximum FTase production, whereas among the by-products of coffee and tea processing used, spent coffee and spent tea were good substrates, with supplementation of yeast extract and complete synthetic media. FTase had maximum activity at 60 degrees C and pH 6.0. FTase was stable up to 40 degrees C and in the pH range 5.0-7.0. Maximum FOS production was obtained with FTase after 8 h of reaction with 60% sucrose. FTase produced by SSF using wheat bran was purified 107-fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation (30-80%), DEAE cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified FTase was 116.3 kDa by SDS-PAGE. This study indicates the potential for the use of agricultural by-products for the efficient production of FTase enzyme by A. oryzae CFR 202 in SSF, thereby resulting in value addition of those by-products.

  19. Ethanol production from agricultural wastes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratualain

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm) and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64%) followed by rice straw (40%) and wheat straw (34%). Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L) produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L) and wheat straw (44 g/L) using medium composition of (%) 0.25 (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.

  20. Ethanol production from agricultural wastes using Sacchromyces cervisae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64% followed by rice straw (40% and wheat straw (34%. Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L and wheat straw (44 g/L using medium composition of (% 0.25 (NH42SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.

  1. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM TOFU LIQUID WASTE ON TREATED AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tofu Liquid Waste (TLW as a pollution might be processed into biogas which was environmentally friendly and had potential to replace burning wood or oil. However, the waste could not directly be employed as the biogas substrate due to the high nitrogen content which was not suitable to the methanogen microorganism on the biogas digester and did not produce biogas. It was therefore necessary to adapt the carbon-nitrogen ratio in TLW with the addition of other organic materials that had a lower nitrogen content so it would be a suitable substrate for generating biogas. The research was aimed to evaluate the addition of the other organic material on the TLW to increase the biogas production. The results showed that TLW combined with sheep dung, cabbage waste, bamboo leaves and paddy straw respectively produced biogas as much as 14,183, 7,250, 2,400, 895 cm3 in 20 days. The 4 treatments gave the same quality of biogas, which was determined using the water boiling test. The pH fluctuation during the process was in the right pH for anaerobic digestion, thus it was not the limiting factor.

  2. Production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture; Produktionsfoerutsaettningar foer biobraenslen inom svenskt jordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture and how these conditions can vary due to different factors. The conclusion is that the potential for producing bioenergy in Swedish agriculture will vary significantly depending on which energy crops are cultivated, which type of agricultural land is utilised and the geographical location of the production. Furthermore, different crop residues and other by-products from agriculture, utilised for energy purposes, will affect the bioenergy potential. To which extent this physical/biological potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. The report starts with a description of current crop production in Sweden, expressed in energy terms, the energy needed for this production and the regional variation in crop yields. The local variations in cultivation conditions are also analysed, as well as variations over the area of a single farm. Another aspect discussed is the production conditions of energy crops on previous farm land not currently utilised. The report includes an analysis of the potential supply of crop residues and other by-products for energy purposes, such as straw, tops and leaves of sugar beets, manure etc, as well as the regional variation of these residues and by-products. A similar analysis is made of the regional production conditions and potential biomass yields of traditional crops and new energy crops. These analyses also include energy balance calculations showing the energy input needed for different production systems in relation to the harvested biomass yield, and the potential for increased biomass yields in the future. Based on the findings of these various analyses, calculations are made showing some examples of how much bioenergy Swedish agriculture can deliver, depending on how much agricultural land is utilised for

  3. The Construction of Cold-Chain Logistics Park of Agricultural Products in Sanshui from Two-stage Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui; HUANG; Wei; WANG; Quan; LI

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzed the operation model,market positioning,market demand forecast as well as market competition and challenges,park site selection,and transportation conditions for construction of the Cold-Chain Logistics Park of Agricultural Products in Sanshui.Then,it presented the overall planning scheme for construction of the Cold-Chain Logistics Park of Agricultural Products from a progressive two-stage perspective of overall planning and stage-by-stage implementation.The first stage mainly performs the function as a transaction platform of agricultural products and meanwhile provides customers with agricultural products storage and inspection services.The second stage adds value-added services such as distribution processing,modified atmosphere storage,freezing and refrigeration,market price information distribution,E-commerce of agricultural products and personalized services.It is expected to provide references and suggestions for the construction of the Cold-Chain Logistics Park of Agricultural Products.

  4. The Impact of Quality of Labor on Farmers’ Agricultural Production Benefits:A Case Study of Anyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anran; WANG

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,the Central Document No.1 has been all about the issues concerning agriculture,countryside and farmers,and especially the Central Document No.1 in 2013 highlighted the improvement of quality of the rural labor force to develop modern agriculture.The quality of labor is related to the improvement of production efficiency,and farmers’ agricultural production benefits are related to the issues concerning agriculture,countryside and farmers,ultimately affecting the development process of modern agriculture.On the theoretical basis of human capital,this article carries out empirical analysis,calculates the farmers’ agricultural production benefits,and analyzes the specific impact of quality of labor on farmers’ agricultural production benefits.Finally,some recommendations are put forth to increase farmers’ income.

  5. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  7. An Empirical Analysis of the Export Competitiveness of Agricultural Products in Hubei Province Based on Inter-provincial Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling WANG

    2016-01-01

    With the six provinces of Central China and China’s six major provinces of exporting agricultural products as the reference objects,this paper uses revealed comparative advantage index and export growth advantage index to perform the empirical analysis and comparison on the export competitiveness of agricultural products in Hubei Province,and finally makes the corresponding policy recommendations in order to enhance the export competitiveness of agricultural products in Hubei Province.

  8. Analysis of Supply Chain Model of Agricultural Products and Quality Safety——A Case Study of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the supply chain models of four types of agricultural products,namely fruits and vegetables,poultry,aquatic products and dairy,and the food safety problems arising from the links of supply chain.In view of different models,corresponding suggestions are put forward to ensure the quality safety of agricultural products in Heilongjiang Province.

  9. Link-up between Farmers and Supermarket based on China’s Fresh Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ying; TANG Bu-long

    2012-01-01

    Link-up between farmers and supermarket is a new move adopted actively by the current government, conducive to consumers, farmers and circulation enterprises. At present, link-up between farmers and supermarket is launched in China’s 15 provinces and cities, which will set off the revolution in the field of agricultural circulation. Based on the current situation of link-up between farmers and supermarket and the existing problems, we put forth the following recommendations: promoting the quality of farmers’ cooperative organizations; establishing the logistics center of fresh agricultural products; using economies of scale to reduce the fresh logistics costs; improving the operation and management level of fresh agricultural products in supermarket.

  10. Estimation Of Demand System In An Aids Model:The Opportunity For Exporting Thai Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the estimation of Almost Ideal Demand System(AIDS model is developed to estimate quantity respond based on price. Five major export agricultural products data from the office of Agricultural Economics, Thailand and Biofuel policy from the office of the National Economic and Social Development Broad were used. The AIDS model estimatesdemand of palm, cassava, and sugar are highly response to changed price. Rubber and rice has less response to the changed price. All of major agricultural products are affect expenditure of Thailand export. This result suggest that the opportunity for increasing supply of energy plants, which benefits to Thai farmer communities for expanding market share in energy plants in domestic and global market.

  11. Off-farm income, risk, and agricultural production: a case study of smallholders in India's semi-arid tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine to what extent development of the nonfarm sector stimulates crop production and agricultural employment in India's semi-arid tropics (SAT). Two characteristics of India's SAT agriculture formed the basis for the study: i) that the major agricultural

  12. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  13. Construction of the All-region Linkage System for Emergency Management of Agricultural Product Quality and Safety in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; YU; Yanbin; QI; Yubao; YAN

    2013-01-01

    Quality and safety of agricultural products are significant for national socioeconomic development,sustainable development,and vital interests of people.To safeguard quality and safety of agricultural products in west China is to safeguard economic safety and ecological safety of the country,public health and social stability,of which an important task is to properly handle emergencies concerning quality and safety of agricultural products.Considering actual conditions of west China,suggestions are given to construct the all-region linkage system for emergency management of agricultural product quality and safety in the local area,enhance the all-region linkage,and improve the linkage efficiency.

  14. ENHANCING THE ROLE OF THE STATE REGULATION IN MANAGING DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papahchyan I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic and foreign experience of operation of the segment of "small" rural economy shows that its capabilities are still being used not completely out of the difficulties and risks of development. The main reason for the slow dynamics of the modern development of subjects of small farming (SAF, according to the authors, is the inaccessibility of the credit market in this sphere since the key rate of the Central Bank at 10.5%, which is too high and, therefore, significantly reduces the efficiency of the investments in this risky industrial sector. In addition, the most narrow «neck bottle» is remaining a unit of realization of products of small businesses. The authors propose a refined definition of "small agricultural businesses" that differs from the previous definitions by its conciseness and by including small enterprises of not only 1-st production, but also the 2-nd processing of agricultural sector. The study revealed that the most distinctive features of small agricultural forms are: high autonomy, independence, and self-protection from adverse environmental factors. The authors propose to adjust the long-term regional development program, and suggest the method of determining the capacity of the market for products of small agricultural farms with possibilities of a differentiated accounting of consumers by their income, residency, and consumption of domestic and other animals. They believe that the problem of affordability of lending and perfecting of system of marketing of small agricultural farming today is largely able to solve with the multi-level agricultural credit and sales-living cooperatives. The authors believe that the government should create a high-in-demand SAF productive assets and then transfer them to the operational management of cooperatives, with subsequent transformation of them into equity of the small participants of cooperatives

  15. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiche, Jody L [Department of Agricultural Economics, 528 Ag Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Bryant, Henry L; Richardson, James W [Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Food Policy Center, Texas A and M University, 2124 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2124 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. In the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  16. Emergy assessment of three home courtyard agriculture production systems in Tibet Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fa-Chun; Sha, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Wang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Home courtyard agriculture is an important model of agricultural production on the Tibetan plateau. Because of the sensitive and fragile plateau environment, it needs to have optimal performance characteristics, including high sustainability, low environmental pressure, and high economic benefit. Emergy analysis is a promising tool for evaluation of the environmental-economic performance of these production systems. In this study, emergy analysis was used to evaluate three courtyard agricultural production models: Raising Geese in Corn Fields (RGICF), Conventional Corn Planting (CCP), and Pea-Wheat Rotation (PWR). The results showed that the RGICF model produced greater economic benefits, and had higher sustainability, lower environmental pressure, and higher product safety than the CCP and PWR models. The emergy yield ratio (EYR) and emergy self-support ratio (ESR) of RGICF were 0.66 and 0.11, respectively, lower than those of the CCP production model, and 0.99 and 0.08, respectively, lower than those of the PWR production model. The impact of RGICF (1.45) on the environment was lower than that of CCP (2.26) and PWR (2.46). The emergy sustainable indices (ESIs) of RGICF were 1.07 and 1.02 times higher than those of CCP and PWR, respectively. With regard to the emergy index of product safety (EIPS), RGICF had a higher safety index than those of CCP and PWR. Overall, our results suggest that the RGICF model is advantageous and provides higher environmental benefits than the CCP and PWR systems.

  17. Emergy assessment of three home courtyard agriculture production systems in Tibet Autonomous Region, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fa-chun; Sha, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Yu-yang; Wang, Jun-feng; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Home courtyard agriculture is an important model of agricultural production on the Tibetan plateau. Because of the sensitive and fragile plateau environment, it needs to have optimal performance characteristics, including high sustainability, low environmental pressure, and high economic benefit. Emergy analysis is a promising tool for evaluation of the environmental-economic performance of these production systems. In this study, emergy analysis was used to evaluate three courtyard agricultural production models: Raising Geese in Corn Fields (RGICF), Conventional Corn Planting (CCP), and Pea-Wheat Rotation (PWR). The results showed that the RGICF model produced greater economic benefits, and had higher sustainability, lower environmental pressure, and higher product safety than the CCP and PWR models. The emergy yield ratio (EYR) and emergy self-support ratio (ESR) of RGICF were 0.66 and 0.11, respectively, lower than those of the CCP production model, and 0.99 and 0.08, respectively, lower than those of the PWR production model. The impact of RGICF (1.45) on the environment was lower than that of CCP (2.26) and PWR (2.46). The emergy sustainable indices (ESIs) of RGICF were 1.07 and 1.02 times higher than those of CCP and PWR, respectively. With regard to the emergy index of product safety (EIPS), RGICF had a higher safety index than those of CCP and PWR. Overall, our results suggest that the RGICF model is advantageous and provides higher environmental benefits than the CCP and PWR systems. PMID:27487808

  18. Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production and Response Strategies in China%Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production and Response Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yansui; Liu Yu; Guo Liying

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies indicate that global climate warming has been increasing, especially in recent decades. Climate warming greatly affects global agro-production and food security-- becoming a hotspot of global environmental change. This paper proposes a structural and orientational framework for scientifically addressing climatic change impact on agroroduction. Through literature reviews and comparative studies, the paper systematically summarizes influencing mechanisms and impact of climate warming on such agro-production factors as light, temperature, soil quality and water environment. The impact of climate warm- ing on cultivation regions, cropping systems, crop pests, agro- production capacity, agro-economy and farm management is analyzed. Then, suitable climate-adapting agro-development strategies are put forward for different regions in China. The strategies are carefully selected from a repository of international tested climatic change countermeasures in agriculture at national or district level.

  19. Urbanization and the Change of Fertilizer Use Intensity for Agricultural Production in Henan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available China’s urbanization has resulted in significant changes in agricultural land use. However, understanding of the linkages between urbanization and fertilizer use intensity is limited. Using county-level panel data for Henan Province, 1995–2008 and panel econometric models, we investigate the impact of urbanization and other socioeconomic factors on fertilizer use intensity, with a focus on the two key processes related to urbanization—shrinking agricultural land area and increasing urban wages. Our results show that declining agricultural land per capita is associated with greater fertilizer use intensity. Urban wages is positively correlated with fertilizer use intensity. We also find that GDP per capita and per capita expenditure of government for agriculture both positively contribute to the increase of fertilizer use intensity, which is consistent with expectations. Our results imply that other than land conversion, urbanization contains some positive influences on land use sustainability. However, on the other hand, urbanization contributes to agriculture-based environmental pollution by increasing the level of fertilizer use in agricultural production.

  20. Near- and Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for the Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Agricultural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several decades near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to determine the composition of a variety of agricultural products. More recently, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) has similarly been shown to be able to determine the co...

  1. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  2. Agricultural and food processing byproducts from the Balearic Islands: key and traditional production processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-07-01

    The amounts of residues and byproducts, obtained from agricultural processes, in the Balearic Islands has undergone a marked increase during the last years. for economics as well as environmental reasons, there is a continuous pressure to exploit such residues and to identify products with attractive properties and with potential markets. (Author)

  3. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products: Effects of temperature and time on energy yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at different temperatures and times. Torrefaction of biomass involves heating in an inert atmosphere to remove volatile components for improved grindability and increased ene...

  4. Teaching Diversified Organic Crop Production Using the Community Supported Agriculture Farming System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Constance L.; Pao, Pauline; Cramer, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An organic garden operated as a community supported agriculture (CSA) venture on the New Mexico State University (NMSU) main campus was begun in January 2002. Students enroll in an organic vegetable production class during spring and fall semesters to help manage and work on the project. The CSA model of farming involves the sale of shares to…

  5. Pricing Power of Agricultural Products under the Background of Small Peasant Management and Information Asymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexuan LI

    2016-01-01

    From the background of small peasant management and information asymmetry,this paper introduced the middle profit sharing model and discussed influence factors and ownership of pricing power of agricultural products. It obtained following results:( i) the transaction scale has positive effect on farmer’s pricing power of agricultural products,while the competitor’s transaction scale has negative effect on it,so does the cost for information search;( ii) under the condition of small peasant management system,farmer is in a relatively weak position in the distribution of pricing power of agricultural products,due to factors such as small transaction scale,information asymmetry and farmer’s weak negotiation ability;( iii) through cooperative game,farmer and buyers can share cooperative surplus at the agreed ratio;( iv) the introduction of self-organizing specialized farmers cooperatives is favorable for solving the problem of pricing power of agricultural products,and possible problems,such as " collective action dilemma" and " fake cooperatives" in the cooperative development process can be solved by internal and external division of labor and specialization of cooperatives.

  6. Development and prospect of unmanned aerial vehicles for agricultural production management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied to support agricultural production management. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can focus on small crop fields in lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management with high precisi...

  7. A multidisciplinary analysis of groundwater declines and agricultural production in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, David R.; Bruss, Paul J.; Yang, Xiaoying; Staggenborg, Scott A.; Welch, Stephen M.; Apley, Michael D.

    2014-05-01

    The High Plains Aquifer provides groundwater for 30% of the irrigated agriculture in the USA. Within Kansas, groundwater supports the congressional district with highest market value of agriculture. And yet, over-pumping and associated groundwater declines threaten the long-term prospects. The groundwater portion of this study quantifies the availability of groundwater stores over the next 100 years. A water-use function is developed to quantify the historical and future impacts of irrigation on corn production. A relationship between corn consumption per head of cattle quantifies the herd size that can be supported by irrigated corn. Together, we project the impacts of changes in groundwater stores on corn and cattle production for the next century. Scenarios analyze the impacts of water savings today on current and future agriculture production. Reference: Steward, D. R., Bruss, P. J., Yang, X., Staggenborg, S. A., Welch, S. M. and M. D. Apley, Tapping unsustainable groundwater stores for agricultural production in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas, projections to 2110, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(37) E3477-E3486, September 10, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1220351110

  8. Description of the production process - agricultural phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the state-of-art of the production process of sugar cane bio ethanol in Brazil also denominated of first generation, involving the improvements in the agricultural phase and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies. The different aspects related do the use of sugar cane bagasse and straw cape.

  9. Definition of zones with different levels of productivity within an agricultural field using fuzzy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for the definition of zones with different levels of productivity is based on fuzzy indicator model. Fuzzy indicator model for identification of zones with different levels of productivit...

  10. Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations in Fertilizer-Related Agricultural Production Technology in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Kerry J.

    This monograph reviews a wide range of research literature on the diffusion and adoption of innovations in agricultural production technology in the developing countries, with particular emphasis on the practice of using commercially purchased, inorganic fertilizer as a source of plant nutrients. It is intended that the report's documentation of…

  11. Comparison of biochar formation from various agricultural by-products using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is charred material produced by the pyrolysis of organic biomass. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of different agricultural by-products feedstock and their derived biochars were collected to explore the potential of FTIR technique as a simple and rapid method for char...

  12. What does Life-Cycle Assessment of agricultural products need for more meaningful inclusion of biodiversity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teillard, Félix; Maia de Souza, Danielle; Thoma, Greg; Gerber, Pierre J.; Finn, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Decision-makers increasingly use life-cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool to measure the environmental sustainability of products. LCA is of particular importance in globalized agricultural supply chains, which have environmental effects in multiple and spatially dispersed locations. Incorporation o

  13. On Construction of Supply Chain System for China’s Modern Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    In view of drawbacks in supply chain of China’s traditional agricultural products,this paper proposed building supply chain system for modern agricultural products: taking informationization as basis,channel system as core,organization system as support,and service system and safety system as guarantee,to promote high efficient operation of the supply chain system. The channel system stresses alliance and integration of channel system,informationization of channel management,and terminalization of channel operation; the organization system stresses organization,large scale,group,and brand of participant entities; service system stresses construction of service means,service platform,and operation mechanism; safety system stresses building quality safety based agricultural product supply chain management mode. In order to ensure high efficient operation of supply chain for modern agricultural products,it is required to straighten out supply chain management system,actively cultivate core enterprises of supply chain,strengthen information construction of supply chain,select suitable supply chain mode,and improve benefit allocation mechanism.

  14. The effect of climate change and adaptation policy on agricultural production in Eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the production function for agricultural output in Eastern Africa incorporating climate variables disaggregated into growing and non-growing seasons. We find a substantial negative effect of within growing season variance of precipitation. We simulate predicted climate change for the ...

  15. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in China's agriculture: from farm production to food consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qian; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing

    2016-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture could be mitigated from both supple side and demand side. Assessing carbon footprint (CF) of agricultural production and food consumption could provide insights into the contribution of agriculture to climate change and help to identify possible GHG mitigation options. In the present study, CF of China's agricultural production was firstly assessed from site scale to national scale, and from crop production to livestock production. Data for the crop and livestock production were collected from field survey and national statistical archive, and both life cycle assessment and input-output method were employed in the estimations. In general, CF of crop production was lower than that of livestock production on average. Rice production ranked the highest CF in crop production, and the highest CFs of livestock production were observed in mutton and beef production. Methane emissions from rice paddy, emissions from fertilizer application and water irrigation exerted the largest contribution of more than 50% for CF of crop production; however, emissions from forage feeding, enteric fermentation and manure treatment made the most proportion of more than 90 % for CF of livestock production. In China, carbon efficiency was shown in a decreasing trend in recent years. According to the present study, overuse of nitrogen fertilizer caused no yield effect but significant emissions in some sites and regions of China, and aggregated farms lowered the CFs of crop production and livestock production by 3% to 25% and 6% to 60% respectively compared to household farms. Given these, improving farming management efficiency and farm intensive development is the key strategy to mitigate climate change from supply side. However, changes in food consumption may reduce GHG emissions in the production chain through a switch to the consumption of food with higher GHG emissions in the production process to food with lower GHG emissions. Thus, CFs

  16. Vegetable Consumption, Dietary Guidelines and Agricultural Production in New York State—Implications for Local Food Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Christian; Bills, Nelson L.; Wilkins, Jennifer; Smith, R. David

    2002-01-01

    ocal food economies where local producers respond to regional consumers’ needs are gaining attention as a means for boosting agriculture and food production in New York State. Concurrent with this interest in local agriculture is a national concern over the health effects of American food consumption patterns and the capacity of agriculture to support nutritious diets. This study merges these areas of inquiry in the context of a nutritionally and economically important agricultural sector, na...

  17. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

  18. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

  19. Regional Agricultural Input-Output Model and Countermeasure for Production and Income Increase of Farmers in Southern Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural input and output status in southern Xinjiang,China is introduced,such as lack of agricultural input,low level of agricultural modernization,excessive fertilizer use,serious damage of environment,shortage of water resources,tremendous pressure on ecological balance,insignificant economic and social benefits of agricultural production in southern Xinjiang,agriculture remaining a weak industry,agricultural economy as the economic subject of southern Xinjiang,and backward economic development of southern Xinjiang.Taking the Aksu area as an example,according to the input and output data in the years 2002-2007,input-output model about regional agriculture of the southern Xinjiang is established by principal component analysis.DPS software is used in the process of solving the model.Then,Eviews software is adopted to revise and test the model in order to analyze and evaluate the economic significance of the results obtained,and to make additional explanations of the relevant model.Since the agricultural economic output is seriously restricted in southern Xinjiang at present,the following countermeasures are put forward,such as adjusting the structure of agricultural land,improving the utilization ratio of land,increasing agricultural input,realizing agricultural modernization,rationally utilizing water resources,maintaining eco-environmental balance,enhancing the awareness of agricultural insurance,minimizing the risk and loss,taking the road of industrialization of characteristic agricultural products,and realizing the transfer of surplus labor force.

  20. Plant science and agricultural productivity: why are we hitting the yield ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bossoreille de Ribou, Stève; Douam, Florian; Hamant, Olivier; Frohlich, Michael W; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2013-09-01

    Trends in conventional plant breeding and in biotechnology research are analyzed with a focus on production and productivity of individual organisms. Our growing understanding of the productive/adaptive potential of (crop) plants is a prerequisite to increasing this potential and also its expression under environmental constraints. This review concentrates on growth rate, ribosome activity, and photosynthetic rate to link these key cellular processes to plant productivity. Examples of how they may be integrated in heterosis, organ growth control, and responses to abiotic stresses are presented. The yield components in rice are presented as a model. The ultimate goal of research programs, that concentrate on yield and productivity and integrating the panoply of systems biology tools, is to achieve "low input, high output" agriculture, i.e. shifting from a conventional "productivist" agriculture to an efficient sustainable agriculture. This is of critical, strategic importance, because the extent to which we, both locally and globally, secure and manage the long-term productive potential of plant resources will determine the future of humanity.

  1. Analysis the Impact of Technology Spillovers on Total Factor Productivity of Agricultural Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Baniasadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growth of agricultural production and natural resources are from primary objectives of any political system, because this section has a vital role in providing food security. According to the production theories, production growth will come from two sources; more use of production factors within the framework of existing technologies and second, with using more advanced and more efficient production methods and effective use of production factors. In fact, the second one is tied to the concept of productivity. New and efficient technologies are the most important factor for productivity growth. Technology was enhanced through internal and external sources. External sources include spillover technology from developed countries into another country. Empirical evidence on the impact of spillover technology on productivity growth of indigenous producer is vague. One perspective proposes that FDI, technology transferred from developed countries has positive effects on developing countries and another perspective is against it. This paper explores the role of technological spillover on total factor productivity (TFP growth in agricultural sectors of Iran uses time series data during 1971-2011. Materials and Methods: In this study, Kendrick model was used to calculate total factor productivity. After calculating productivity, affective factors on it, were examined through ARDL model. The aim of this study is examination of technology spillover on the productivity of agricultural sectors. The degree of technology diffusion grows with increase in technology distance between the hosts and the foreign countries. The greater the technology distance, the more difficult it becomes for developing countries to boost independent innovation. To calculate the index of technology spillover, commercial partners should be considered that are more advanced in science and technology than Iran. For this purpose, commercial partners in this study are

  2. Study on the Personal Submission of Agricultural Product Samples for Quality and Safety Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan; ZHAO; Yan; WANG; Yongzhi; ZHANG; Yehan; CUI; Pengcheng; LIU; Yunlong; ZHOU; Yueru; LI

    2015-01-01

    This paper carries out a questionnaire survey on 30 quality inspection institutions at the level of the Ministry of Agriculture,and based on systematic analysis,analyzes the causes of difficulties in personal submission of samples for inspection from six aspects in order to meet the real needs of personal submission of agricultural product samples for inspection under the new situation. In accordance with the actual situation of China’s current regulatory system and quality control system,this paper sets forth the relevant recommendations to correctly guide the personal submission of samples for inspection and promote the development of quality inspection system.

  3. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system.

  4. Installation for Treatment of Agricultural Products Using High-Voltage Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the study on the determination and optimization of construction and technology parameters of an electro hydraulic installation developed for research in view of its use in primary processing of agricultural products. Unlike other processing technologies, the proposed technology using electro hydraulic effect requires the application of an installation, which is simple in terms of construction, has low cost, is reliable, easy to use and can be widely applied in various branches of agriculture including primary processing of agricultural products and for sterilizing liquids. The problem of using electro hydraulic effect consists in the correct dimensioning of the installation parameters to obtain high voltage pulses, in comparison with the dimensions of the chamber with electrodes, wherein the liquid processing is carried out. For dimensioning and development of the proposed installation, the necessary parameters were determined by calculation and were confirmed by conducting operational tests. The performed calculation and tests on the operation of the installation under laboratory conditions gave the possibility of dimensioning and optimization of the construction and technological parameters of electro-hydraulic installation, i.e. voltage level, the distance between the electrodes, the volume of the treated liquid, the treatment pulse number and the energy pulsed discharge. The values of the design parameters have allowed to develop and commission the installation, which will allow further tests on use of the electro-hydraulic effect in the processing the agricultural products in the Republic of Moldova.

  5. Rural Dwellers’ Perception of Human Trafficking and its Implication for Agricultural Production in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. U.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of rural dwellers on human trafficking in relation to its effect on agricultural production in the three Senatorial Districts of Edo State, Nigeria. A sample size of 120 household heads was used for the study. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data for the study. The data were analyzed using frequency counts, means and percentage while Chi-Square statistical model and Tobit regression analytical model were used to test the hypotheses. It was discovered that the household members were trafficked as a result of push and pull factors. The trafficked members of household were actively involved in farming practices before being trafficked. There is significant relationship between human trafficking and agriculture production. Shortage of farm labor, decreased farm size, reduced farm income, reduced farm output, extra expenditure on hired labor and storage of food supply by the community were perceived as effect of human trafficking on agriculture. Age of the household head and the household size had significant effect on the number of household member trafficked. Human trafficking has an adverse effect on agricultural production. Extension department should therefore integrate anti-human trafficking campaigns with their services to the farming population.

  6. Trade Barriers and Countermeasures for Export of China’s Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing; WU

    2013-01-01

    At present,export of China’s agricultural products is faced with many trade barriers,especially technological barriers.Trade barriers include(1)technological barriers(such as quarantine and inspection barrier,identity certification/authentication barrier and labeling rules barrier);(2)trade remedy barrier;(3)other non-tariff barriers(NTB).Through positioning and analysis of trade barriers of China’s agricultural products,it is known that technological barriers should not be deemed unreasonable totally.Some barriers also have certain positive significance.To respond to trade barriers,it comes up with countermeasures and recommendations from the perspective of agricultural producers and government.Agricultural producers should actively improve product quality,abide by requirement of importers,and treat quarantine and inspection in a rational manner;government should supply information and issue early warning,assist domestic producers in responding to lawsuits,and take advantage of WTO platform to solve trade disputes.

  7. Study on Supply-chain of Modern Agricultural Products Based on IOT in Order to Guarantee the Quality and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Lianguang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture features industrialization, marketized industrial structure, intensive production pattern and high digitization; farm produce logistics are characterized by wide range, large quantity, relative independence, consumable as well as value-added processing. In this study, in view of the features of modern agriculture and farm produce logistics, a SCOR model (Supply-Chain Operations Reference-model of agricultural products based on the Internet of things has been put forward through the improvement of the logistics model of traditional agricultural products. The advantages of this model have also been analyzed.

  8. Fuzzy Multi-fractional Programming for Land Use Planning in Agricultural Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Mishra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP approach for multi-objective linear fuzzy goal programming (MOLFGP problem. Here, we consider a problem in which a set of pair of goals are optimized in ratio rather than optimizing them individually. In particular, we consider the optimization of profit to cash expenditure and crop production in various seasons to land utilization as a fractional objectives and used remaining goals in its original form. Further, the goals set in agricultural production planning are conflicting in nature; thus we use the concept of conflict and nonconflict between goals for computation of appropriate aspiration level. The method is illustrated on a problem of agricultural production system for comparison with Biswas and Pal [1] method to show its suitability.

  9. How Could Agricultural Land Systems Contribute to Raise Food Production Under Global Change?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-bin; YU Qiang-yi; Verburg H Peter; YOU Liang-zhi; YANG Peng; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    To feed the increasing world population, more food needs to be produced from agricultural land systems. Solutions to produce more food with fewer resources while minimizing adverse environmental and ecological consequences require sustainable agricultural land use practices as supplementary to advanced biotechnology and agronomy. This review paper, from a land system perspective, systematically proposed and analyzed three interactive strategies that could possibly raise future food production under global change. By reviewing the current literatures, we suggest that cropland expansion is less possible amid iferce land competition, and it is likely to do less in increasing food production. Moreover, properly allocating crops in space and time is a practical way to ensure food production. Climate change, dietary shifts, and other socio-economic drivers, which would shape the demand and supply side of food systems, should be taken into consideration during the decision-making on rational land management in respect of sustainable crop choice and allocation. And ifnally, crop-speciifc agricultural intensiifcation would play a bigger role in raising future food production either by increasing the yield per unit area of individual crops or by increasing the number of crops sown on a particular area of land. Yet, only when it is done sustainably is this a much more effective strategy to maximize food production by closing yield and harvest gaps.

  10. Food productivity trend analysis of Raichur district for the management of agricultural drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathandran, Sruthi; Aslam, M A Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Drought is an extreme climatic situation where there is a water shortage arising due to sub-normal rainfall, erratic distribution of precipitation, increased water supply demand, etc. India faced several years of drought in last six decades. As Indian agriculture is largely dependent on the monsoon, a slight change affects production as well as crop yield drastically. Statistical analysis is important for mapping the drought prone areas. Raichur district of the northern interior state of Karnataka is a drought-prone region where the economy is mainly based on agriculture. So, the uneven distribution of rainfall as well as the delay in the arrival of the southwest monsoon adversely affects the growth stage of crops which result in a decline in crop production. The effect of drought on the agriculture for the past decade has been analyzed using crop productivity data. When the production rate of Raichur district was studied for the years 1998 to 2009, it was seen that major crops like rice and jowar faced a decline in its production during the years 2002 and 2003, whereas bajra, maize, etc. mostly decreased in the year 2004.

  11. The commercial use of gamma facilities in North and South America for agriculture product processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterweck, Joseph S.

    1993-07-01

    The treatment of agriculture and food products with ionizing radiation has been proven to be safe, effective, economical, and according to consumer surveys, the end product is better. However, commercial implementation of food irradiation has been slow because the following: 1. The lack of profit incentives 2. The failure of the political system to deal with antinuclear groups 3. The failure of public health authorities to actively support this technologyFood irradiation cannot be considered successfully implemented until the commercial industry is making a profit by the use of this technology. Use of this technology will: (1) reduce food borne infections (FBI); (2) decrease the hazards of the use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry production; (3) reduce the need for agriculture quarantine procedures; and (4) increase shelf-life of perishable foods. However, only (1) and (3) are being considered as economic alternative by the present day's food industry. Previously, agriculture has focused on technology that would increase production and reduce costs. Today this is rapidly changing to implementing technology that markets a product the consumer wants and is perceived as being safer and environmental responsible.

  12. Solar energy drying for agricultural products. Nosanbutsu kanso ni okeru taiyonetsu riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Jun' ichi (National Grassland Research Inst., Tochigi, (Japan))

    1989-09-30

    Natural drying was previously used to dry agricultral products but artificial drying is widely used today with the diffusion of agricultural machines. Therefore, solar energy utilization to dry agricultural products depends on how effective solar energy is utilized in addition to the mechanized artificial drying. Further, drying of agricaltural products varies in respective countries and local areas because water content in products varies on weather conditions. Wheats harvested in U.S. contain fewer water content and can be dried for 3 months in a large storing bin by natural ventilation and cn be shortened to 1 month by placing a solar collector before the blower. Many Japanese farmers utilize vinyl houses and drying is made by combining vinyl house, and flat floor type dryer, circulating dryer or rotary stirring dryer. Moreover, 100% utilization of solar enegy results higher cost, so that in many cases, combined utilization with oil firing is made. Moderate heat such as solar energy is suitable for drying of agricultural products to maintain the quality and it is desirable to develop any reasonal technique. 14 refs., 12 fig.

  13. Typologies and Spatialization of Agricultural Production Systems in Rondônia, Brazil: Linking Land Use, Socioeconomics and Territorial Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current Amazon landscape consists of heterogeneous mosaics formed by interactions between the original forest and productive activities. Recognizing and quantifying the characteristics of these landscapes is essential for understanding agricultural production chains, assessing the impact of policies, and in planning future actions. Our main objective was to construct the regionalization of agricultural production for Rondônia State (Brazilian Amazon at the municipal level. We adopted a decision tree approach, using land use maps derived from remote sensing data (PRODES and TerraClass combined with socioeconomic data. The decision trees allowed us to allocate municipalities to one of five agricultural production systems: (i coexistence of livestock production and intensive agriculture; (ii semi-intensive beef and milk production; (iii semi-intensive beef production; (iv intensive beef and milk production, and; (v intensive beef production. These production systems are, respectively, linked to mechanized agriculture (i, traditional cattle farming with low management, with (ii or without (iii a significant presence of dairy farming, and to more intensive livestock farming with (iv or without (v a significant presence of dairy farming. The municipalities and associated production systems were then characterized using a wide variety of quantitative metrics grouped into four dimensions: (i agricultural production; (ii economics; (iii territorial configuration, and; (iv social characteristics. We found that production systems linked to mechanized agriculture predominate in the south of the state, while intensive farming is mainly found in the center of the state. Semi-intensive livestock farming is mainly located close to the southwest frontier and in the north of the state, where human occupation of the territory is not fully consolidated. This distributional pattern reflects the origins of the agricultural production system of Rond

  14. An Analysis of the Cold Chain Logistics concerning Agricultural Products in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo CHEN; Ao ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is the foundation of the national economy. On the one hand,there is increasing demand for fresh and safe refrigerated agricultural products; on the other hand,the current cold chain logistics is relatively underdeveloped and has many problems. This paper does a research on the major large-scale agricultural cold-chain logistics companies in Chongqing,and finds that cold-chain logistics in Chongqing has some problems such as incomplete industrial chain,relatively backward infrastructure,lack of talents,and high logistics costs. Some solutions to these problems are put forward: improving chain logistics infrastructure; strengthening personnel training; building information platform to create a new model of the cold-chain logistics in the Internet era; seeking government’s policy and financial support.

  15. Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment Scheme Evaluation and Selection Based on DEA Model for Punjab (Pakistan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun

    2015-01-01

    DEA is a nonparametric method used in operation researches and economics fields for the evaluation of the production frontier. It has distinct intrinsic which is worth coping with assessment problems with multiple inputs in particular with multiple outputs. This paper usedDεC2R model of DEA to assess the comparative efficiency of the multiple schemes of agricultural industrial structure, at the end we chose the most favorable also known as "OPTIMAL" scheme. In addition to this, using some functional insights from DEA model non optimal schemes or less optimal schemes had also been improved to some extent. Assessment and selection of optimal schemes of agricultural industrial structure using DEA model gave a greater and better insight of agricultural industrial structure and was the first of such researches in Pakistan.

  16. Agricultural Production and Externalities Simulator (APES) prototype to be used in Prototype 1 of SEAMLESS-IF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donatelli, M.; Evert, van F.K.; Rutgers, B.; Trevisan, M.; Ewert, F.; Sorce, A.; Balderacchi, M.; Guardo, Di A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Meuter, E.C.; Adam, M.Y.O.; Smith, J.; Gottschalk, P.; Acutis, M.; Trevisiol, P.; Gentile, A.; Bellocchi, G.; Carlini, L.; Duru, M.; Cruz, P.; Gary, C.; Kansou, K.; Wery, J.; Dupraz, C.; Braudeau, E.; Martin, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Agricultural Production and Externalities Simulator is a modular simulation system targeted at estimating the biophysical behaviour of agricultural production systems in response to the interaction of soil-weather and different options of agro-technical management. APES is currently meant to be

  17. Benchmarking water productivity in agriculture and the scope for improvement - remote sensing modelling from field to global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest consumer and water. In the context of an increasing population and less water available for the agricultural sector, the water productivity needs to be sustained or increased to secure food security. This study provides benchmark values for water productivity for the major

  18. Evaluation of Comprehensive Agricultural Production Capacity Based on Factor Analysis:A Case Study of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenzhu; RAO

    2013-01-01

    Based on the basic connotation of comprehensive agricultural production capacity,this article establishes the comprehensive agricultural production capacity indicator system on the basis of statistics. This indicator system consists of 5 parts ( input scale of factors,output scale of factors,output rate of factors,ability to resist disaster and ensure production,and modern operation level) and 14 specific indicators. Based on factor analysis method,we use this indicator system to conduct systematic empirical analysis of the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in 14 cities and prefectures of Hunan Province. The results show that although the overall level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in Hunan Province tends to grow continuously and steadily,there are significant inter-regional differences in the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity; in terms of the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity,there is great room for improvement. Finally the following policy recommendations are put forward: strengthening balanced regional development and improving the overall level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity; strengthening the building of land carrying capacity; strengthening the building of agricultural ecological balance; strengthening the building of the scientific and technological support capacity.

  19. Study on the Agricultural Biotechnology Innovation Based on the Product Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang; WU; Yong; DU

    2014-01-01

    Based on product differentiation,this paper researches the innovation of agricultural biotechnology. In the duopoly structure,the company’s investment in innovation is affected by the product differentiation,and the greater the difference,the greater the willingness to increase investment and improve quality; at the same time,low innovative cost companies will choose a higher level of investment in innovation and quality. If there is no difference between the products,the companies with high cost of innovation abandon quality competition,and the companies with low cost of innovation " monopolize" the market.

  20. An integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.; Yokozawa, M.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural production utilizes regional resources (e.g. river water and ground water) as well as local resources (e.g. temperature, rainfall, solar energy). Future climate changes and increasing demand due to population increases and economic developments would intensively affect the availability of water resources for agricultural production. While many studies assessed the impacts of climate change on agriculture, there are few studies that dynamically account for changes in water resources and crop production. This study proposes an integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale. Also, the irrigation management to subseasonal variability in weather and crop response varies for each region and each crop. To deal with such variations, we used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to quantify regional-specific parameters associated with crop growth and irrigation water estimations. We coupled a large-scale crop model (Sakurai et al. 2012), with a global water resources model, H08 (Hanasaki et al. 2008). The integrated model was consisting of five sub-models for the following processes: land surface, crop growth, river routing, reservoir operation, and anthropogenic water withdrawal. The land surface sub-model was based on a watershed hydrology model, SWAT (Neitsch et al. 2009). Surface and subsurface runoffs simulated by the land surface sub-model were input to the river routing sub-model of the H08 model. A part of regional water resources available for agriculture, simulated by the H08 model, was input as irrigation water to the land surface sub-model. The timing and amount of irrigation water was simulated at a daily step. The integrated model reproduced the observed streamflow in an individual watershed. Additionally, the model accurately reproduced the trends and interannual variations of crop yields. To demonstrate the usefulness of the integrated model, we compared two types of impact assessment of

  1. Nitrous oxide production and consumption potential in an agricultural and a forest soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kewei; Struwe, Sten; Kjøller, Annelise;

    2008-01-01

    Both a laboratory incubation experiment using soils from an agricultural field and a forest and field measurements at the same locations were conducted to determine nitrous oxide (N2O) production and consumption (reduction) potentials using the acetylene (C2H2) inhibition technique. Results from...... the laboratory experiment show that the agricultural soil had a stronger N2O reduction potential than the forest soil, as indicated by the N2O/N2 ratio in denitrification products. Without C2H2 inhibition, N2O could reach a maximum concentration of 51 and 296 ppmv in headspace of the agricultural and forest soil...... slurries, respectively. Addition of glucose decreased the maximum N2O concentration to 22 ppmv in headspace of the agricultural soil slurries, but increased to 520 ppmv in the forest soil slurries. Addition of exogenous N2O did not change such N2O accumulation maxima during the incubations. The field...

  2. Scientometric analysis of Colombian research on bio-inoculants for agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Corina Zambrano-Moreno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of synthetic chemical inputs in agricultural production has led to the disruption of biogeochemical cycles. One of the alternatives that arose within the systems of sustainable agriculture was the partial or total replacement of chemicals by biological substances. The analysis of relevant scientific literature has become a tool for assessing the quality of knowledge generation and its impact on the environment. A scientometric analysis was conducted of Colombian research on bio-inoculants from 2009 through 2014 in journals added to the Web of SciencesTM in order to identify the characteristics of the main target crops, the microorganisms used, and the beneficial effects on agriculture. In this work, 34 articles were identified: 24 (71 % were research on bio-fertilizer development and 10 (29 % on bio-pesticides. Articles mainly focused on the study of Gram-negative bacilli affecting the area (77 %, while others focused on issues and topics surrounding vegetables (30 %.The analysis of co-occurrence of keywords identified: i several genera of microorganisms (e.g. Azotobacter sp., Bradyrhizobium sp. and sustainable agriculture as issues that have a leading role in this scientific field, ii plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR as an emerging issue, iii biological nitrogen fixation (BNF as a subject which has risen in a complementary manner and iv endophytic bacteria and biodiversity as issues in growth. This study showed that research in Colombia could be targeted on issues such as endophytic bacteria, diversity and productivity.

  3. Rethinking the history of modern agriculture: British pig production, c.1910-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a study of pig production in Britain, c.1910-65, to rethink the history of modern agriculture and its implications for human-animal relationships. Drawing on literature written by and for pig producers and experts, it challenges existing portrayals of a unidirectional, post-Second World War shift from traditional small-scale mixed farming to large, specialized, intensive systems. Rather, 'factory-style' pig production was already established in Britain by the 1930s, and its fortunes waxed and waned over time in relation to different kinds of outdoor production, which was still prominent in the mid-1960s. In revealing that the progressive proponents of both indoor and outdoor methods regarded them as modern and efficient, but defined and pursued these values in quite different ways, the article argues for a more historically situated understanding of agricultural modernity. Analysis reveals that regardless of their preferred production system, leading experts and producers were keen to develop what they considered to be natural methods that reflected the pig's natural needs and desires. They perceived pigs as active, sentient individuals, and believed that working in harmony with their natures was essential, even if this was, ultimately, for commercial ends. Such views contradict received accounts of modern farming as a utilitarian enterprise, concerned only with dominating and manipulating nature. They are used to argue that a romantic, moral view of the pig did not simply pre-date or emerge in opposition to modern agriculture, but, rather, was integral to it.

  4. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  5. Water and Land Limitations to Future Agricultural Production in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A. M.; Wimmer, F.; Schaldach, R.

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Middle East use a large fraction of their scarce water resources to produce cash crops, such as fruit and vegetables, for international markets. At the same time, these countries import large amounts of staple crops, such as cereals, required to meet the nutritional demand of their populations. This makes food security in the Middle East heavily dependent on world market prices for staple crops. Under these preconditions, increasing food demand due to population growth, urban expansion on fertile farmlands, and detrimental effects of a changing climate on the production of agricultural commodities present major challenges to countries in the Middle East that try to improve food security by increasing their self-sufficiency rate of staple crops.We applied the spatio-temporal land-use change model LandSHIFT.JR to simulate how an expansion of urban areas may affect the production of agricultural commodities in Jordan. We furthermore evaluated how climate change and changes in socio-economic conditions may influence crop production. The focus of our analysis was on potential future irrigated and rainfed production (crop yield and area demand) of fruit, vegetables, and cereals. Our simulation results show that the expansion of urban areas and the resulting displacement of agricultural areas does result in a slight decrease in crop yields. This leads to almost no additional irrigation water requirements due to the relocation of agricultural areas, i.e. there is the same amount of "crop per drop". However, taking into account projected changes in socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a large volume of water would be required for cereal production in order to safeguard current self-sufficiency rates for staple crops. Irrigation water requirements are expected to double until 2025 and to triple until 2050. Irrigated crop yields are projected to decrease by about 25%, whereas there is no decrease in rainfed crop yields to be expected.

  6. EVALUATION OF NUTRITIVE VALUE AND IN VITRO METHANE PRODUCTION OF FEEDSTUFFS FROM AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the nutrient degradability, in vitro methane (CH4 production ofseveral agricultural and food industry by-products in relation to their chemical composition. Twenty-onesamples of 7 feedstuffs from agricultural and food industry by-products consisted of corn straw, potatostraw, rice straw, cocoa pod, sago waste, rice bran, soybean curd residue were evaluated by an in vitro gasproduction and nutrient degradability. The feedstuffs varied greatly in their crude protein (CP, neutraldetergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC contents. Crude protein ranged from 1.5 to 21.8%,NDF from 31.6 to 71.1% and NFC from 1.5 to 50.8%. Among the seven feedstuffs, soybean curd residuehad the highest CP content, on the other hand it had the lowest NDF content. Dry matter (DM and organicmatter (OM degradability were highest (P<0.01 in soybean curd residue among the feedstuffs. The CH4production was significantly higher (P<0.01 in rice straw, cocoa pod and corn straw as compared to sagowaste. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.60; P<0.01 between NDF concentration and CH4production. However, the total gas productions was negatively correlated (r = -0.75; P<0.01 with NDFcontent. The CH4 production of feedstuff is influenced by NDF content.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Influence Factors on Distribution Efficiency of Agricultural Products: A Case Study using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeping Chu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the influence factors on the distribution efficiency of agricultural products. Distribution efficiency of agricultural product directly reflects the efficiency of agricultural distribution system. The output and cost in the process of agricultural distribution can be accessed by distribution efficiency. Much work has been done to measured distribution efficiency by single indicator but little work has been done to investigate the multiply indicators and their impacts on the distribution efficiency of agricultural products. Hence, for the first time, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA has been used to assess the influence of multiply indicators on the distribution efficiency of agricultural products. A case study using the historical data has been carried out. The empirical analysis results show that the level of informatization and logistics infrastructure greatly influence the distribution efficiency of agricultural products while the Logistics transportation and the professional level of labors do not promote the efficiency of agricultural distribution system. Hence, useful suggestions could be proposed to provide theoretical reference for the construction of robust and efficient agricultural distribution system.

  8. Optimal Scheme Selection of Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment - Based on DEA Model; Punjab (Pakistan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun; Muhammad Abdullah; Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq; Majid Lateef; Imran Khan

    2015-01-01

    This paper used the modern evaluation method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to assess the comparative efficiency and then on the basis of this among multiple schemes chose the optimal scheme of agricultural production structure adjustment. Based on the results of DEA model, we dissected scale advantages of each discretionary scheme or plan. We examined scale advantages of each discretionary scheme, tested profoundly a definitive purpose behind not-DEA efficient, which elucidated the system and methodology to enhance these discretionary plans. At the end, another method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research was important to guide the practice if the modification of agricultural production industrial structure was carried on.

  9. [Probabilistic assessment of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2013-01-01

    A number of models have been developed to assess the risks of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and to determine the permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination. The proposed approach takes into account uncertainties of some parameters that describe the radionuclide content in different links of food chains. The models are implemented in the form of software for on-line computations. The validity of applying the probabilistic methods for assessing the impacts of radioactive fallout as compared with the deterministic ones is demonstrated on some specific examples. A universal nature of the dependence between the risks of radionuclide content in products and the density of soil contamination is shown. Contamination limits of the agricultural land are found to vary significantly as a function of the risk size. Directions for further research are defined within the framework of this research.

  10. [Determination of diphenyl and o-phenylphenol in agricultural products by GC/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kunihiko; Horie, Masakazu; Hirose, Yoshihumi

    2008-01-01

    A simple determination method of diphenyl (DP) and o-phenylphenol (OPP) in agricultural products by GC/MS was examined. DP and OPP were extracted with ethyl acetate in the presence of anh. sodium sulfate. After addition of n-butanol, the extract solution was concentrated. Clean-up was achieved by shaking with graphitized bulk carbon (Supelclean ENVI-Carb). Addition of polyethylene glycol sharpened the OPP peak on GC/MS analysis. The recoveries from 9 kinds of agricultural products spiked at 0.01 and 0.5 microg/g each were mostly in the range of 70 to 120%, except for 50% recovery of OPP from barley spiked at 0.01 microg/g. The quantification limits (S/N > or =10) of DP and OPP were 0.0013 and 0.005 microg/g (0.0025 and 0.01 microg/g in barley and soybean), respectively.

  11. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  12. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  13. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Glenn, Gregory; Pan, Zhongli; Orts, William; McHugh, Tara

    2010-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be safe, high quality and maintain all or most of the nutritional value of the original whole foods. Minimally processed foods, is the phrase used to characterize these "new" foods. New techniques are needed which take advantage of minimal processing or processing which enhances the fresh properties and characteristics of whole foods while spending less time on food preparation. The added benefit coupled to less cooking time in an individual kitchen translates to an overall energy savings and reduces the carbon emissions to the environment. Food processing changes the microstructure, and therefore, the quality, texture and flavor, of the resulting food product. Additionally, there is the need to reduce waste, transportation costs and product loss during transportation and storage. Unlike food processing, structural changes are desirable in co-products as function follows form for food packaging films and boxes as well as for building materials and other industrial products. Thus, the standard materials testing procedures are coupled with SEM to provide direction in the development of products from agricultural residues or what would otherwise be considered waste materials. The use of agricultural residues reduces waste and adds value to a currently underutilized or unutilized product. The product might be biodegradable or compostable, thus reducing landfill requirements. Manufacturing industrial and packaging products from biological materials also reduces the amount of petroleum products currently standard in the industry.

  14. Studies of Nondestructive Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Products : Surface Color and Sugar Component

    OpenAIRE

    岩尾, 俊男; 竹山, 光一

    1989-01-01

    Many reports which studied on optical methods of nondestructive quality evaluation of agricultural products were reported recently. and in these reports, optical evaluation of maturity, external damage and quality attributes was dealt with.13; By the way, the method to detect inner sugar components in a fruit by the optical methods was not yet experimentally estabilshed. Accordingly, this study was concerned with the relationship between indexes of color and the sugar com ponents of mini toma...

  15. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This study contributed to this subject by providing alternative perspectives in addressing these missing links. A method was developed to allocate historical CSC-LUC to agricultural expansions by land classes (products), trade, and end use. The analysis for 1995-2010 leads to three key trends: (i) agricultural land degradation and abandonment is found to be a major (albeit indirect) driver for CSC-LUC, (ii) CSC-LUC is spurred by the growth of cross-border trade, (iii) non-food use (excluding liquid biofuels) has emerged as a significant contributor of CSC-LUC in the 2000's. In addition, the study demonstrated that exact values of CSC-LUC at a single spatio-temporal point may change significantly with different methodological settings. For example, CSC-LUC allocated to 'permanent oil crops' changed from 0.53 Pg C (billion tonne C) of carbon stock gain to 0.11 Pg C of carbon stock loss when spatial boundaries were changed from global to regional. Instead of comparing exact values for accounting purpose, key messages for policymaking were drawn from the main trends. Firstly, climate change mitigation efforts pursued through a territorial perspective may ignore indirect effects elsewhere triggered through trade linkages. Policies targeting specific commodities or types of consumption are also unable to quantitatively address indirect CSC-LUC effects because the quantification changes with different arbitrary methodological settings. Instead, it is recommended that mobilising non-productive or under-utilised lands for productive use should be targeted as a key solution to avoid direct and indirect CSC-LUC.

  16. Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Civil Conflict: Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Crost, Benjamin; Duquennois, Claire; Felter, Joseph; Rees, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to affect global rainfall patterns, but there is mixed evidence with regard to the effect of rainfall on civil conflict. Even among researchers who argue that rainfall reduces civil conflict, there is disagreement as to the underlying mechanism. Using data from the Philippines for the period 2001-2009, we exploit seasonal variation in the relationship between rainfall and agricultural production to explore the connection between rainfall and civil conflict. In the ...

  17. Error Analysis on Determination of Specific Heat of Agricultural Products Using Mixture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropiudin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reporting method of error analysis in determination of specific heat of agricultural product using mixture method. There are six Variables evaluated on error measurement, those are: mass of water, mass of simple, equilibrium temparature, water temparature, sample temparature and calorimeter temperature. As the results of experiment on potatoes and carrot, calorimeter temperature gave biggest error contribution based on simulation conducted using Visual Basic Application (VBA at Microsoft Word.

  18. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service.

  19. AGRIBALYSE®, the French LCI Database for agricultural products: high quality data for producers and environmental labelling⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colomb Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AGRIBALYSE is a French research program dedicated to producing Life cycle inventories (LCI of agricultural products, based on a strong partnership of 14 research and technical institutes. It provides a homogenous and consensual LCI database to support environmental labelling policies and to help the agricultural sector to improve its practices. The public LCI database of more than 100 products and its detailed methodology report were published in 2014. The database mainly contains LCIs for average French products, the functional unit is the product mass (kg and the perimeter cradle-to–farm-gate. The datasets go along with a detailed methodology report and a project report, both available at: www.ademe.fr/agribalyse. Several key objectives for a follow-up project have already been identified: better estimate of uncertainties, accounting for soil carbon dynamics, impacts on biodiversity and impacts of water consumption. Enlargement of the database with additional products and products from innovative systems is also demanded, as well as stronger connections with international programs. These issues should be addressed in a future AGRIBALYSE 2 program.

  20. Biohydrogen production from forest and agricultural residues for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, forest residues (limbs, tops, and branches) and straw (from wheat and barley) are considered for producing biohydrogen in Western Canada for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands. Two types of gasifiers, namely, the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier are considered for biohydrogen production. Production costs of biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues from a BCL gasification plant with a capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day are 1.17 and 1.29/kg of H{sub 2}, respectively. For large-scale biohydrogen plant, GTI gasification is the optimum technology. The delivered-biohydrogen costs are 2.19 and 2.31/kg of H{sub 2} at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. Optimum capacity for biohydrogen plant is 3000 dry tonnes/day for both residues in a BCL gasifier. In a GTI gasifier, although the theoretical optimum sizes are higher than 3000 dry tonnes/day for both feedstocks, the cost of production of biohydrogen is flat above a plant size of 3000 dry tonnes/day. Hence, a plant at the size of 3000 dry tonnes/day could be built to minimize risk. Carbon credits of 119 and 124/tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent are required for biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. (author)

  1. Supporting food security in the 21st century through resource-conserving increases in agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uphoff Norman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Green Revolution was accomplished under a set of demographic, economic, climatic and other conditions in the 20th century that have been changing and will surely be different and more difficult in the decades ahead. The suitability and sustainability of any given agricultural technology depends on factors like resource availability and productivity, energy costs, and environmental constraints. The achievements of Green Revolution technologies in the 1960s and 1970s came at a critical time of impending food shortages, and the world’s people would be worse off without them. However, the rate of yield improvement for cereal production has been slowing since the mid-1980s. Looking ahead at the foreseeable circumstances under which 21st century agricultural producers must try to assure food security, there will be need for technologies that are less dependent on resources that are becoming relatively scarcer, like arable land and water, or becoming relatively more costly, like energy and petrochemical-based inputs. This paper considers agroecologically-based innovations that reduce farmers’ dependence on external inputs, relying more on endogenous processes and existing potentials in plants and soil systems. Such resource-conserving production represents a different approach to meeting food security goals. While these innovations are not yet fully understood and are still being researched, there are good agronomic reasons to account for their effectiveness, and scientific validations are accumulating. Enough successes have been recorded from making changes in the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients that more attention from researchers, policy-makers and practitioners is warranted, especially given the need to adapt to, and to mitigate the effects of, climate change. The same agroecological concepts and management methods that are enhancing factor productivity in rice production are giving similar results with other crops

  2. Econometric Analysis of the Nexus of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Agricultural Share of Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyinbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between exchange rate deregulation and the agricultural share of gross domestic product in Nigeria from an econometric perspective using time series data. The data were analysed using augmented dickey fuller unit root test, unrestricted vector autoregression and pairwise granger causality. The results of the data analysis revealed the existence of unidirectional causality from exchange rate to agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria and this implies that market driven exchange rate policy has been significant in influencing the trend in agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria. However, it is recommended that the monetary authority of Nigeria should closely monitor the movement of the market driven exchange rate so that exchange rate deregulation does not become counterproductive through unhealthy price distortions on agricultural production, international trade and foreign direct investment in the agricultural sector of Nigeria’s economy.

  3. Influence of UV light exposure on mineral composition and biomass production of mycomeat produced from different agricultural substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adejumo Isaac Oluseun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wild and mutant strain of Pleurotus sajor caju was cultured on different agricultural substrates. Treatment 1 contained agricultural substrates alone. Treatment 2 contained the mutant strain of the mushroom plus agricultural waste. Treatment 3 contained the wild strain of the mushroom plus agricultural waste. The mutant strain of Pleurotus sajor caju cultured on groundnut shell had the highest iron content while the mutant strain cultured on palm kernel meal had the highest biomass production, 10.5 g/L and 17.20 g/L after 7 and 14 days respectively. The proximate analyses of the feed variety (mycomeat revealed the rich nutritional content which may be explored for feed ingredients in livestock production. The findings do not only support the bioremediation of agricultural waste to produce high-value bio-products, but also provide evidence that improvement of microorganism strains represents a viable way to enhance the nutritional value of fermented products.

  4. Production and characterization of rhamnolipid using palm oil agricultural refinery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzuan, Mohd Nazren; Banat, Ibrahim M; Winterburn, James

    2017-02-01

    In this research we assess the feasibility of using palm oil agricultural refinery waste as a carbon source for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant through fermentation. The production and characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown on palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) under batch fermentation were investigated. Results show that P. aeruginosa PAO1 can grow and produce 0.43gL(-1) of rhamnolipid using PFAD as the sole carbon source. Identification of the biosurfactant product using mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid produced from PFAD were able to reduce surface tension to 29mNm(-1) with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) 420mgL(-1) and emulsify kerosene and sunflower oil, with an emulsion index up to 30%. Results demonstrate that PFAD could be used as a low-cost substrate for rhamnolipid production, utilizing and transforming it into a value added biosurfactant product.

  5. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  6. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  7. Standardization of the Industrial Chain of Distinctive Agricultural Products Based on Network Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the paper,the concept of circulation industrial chain of distinctive agricultural products is introduced.By using the e-commerce platform,the new industrial chain for the circulation of distinctive agricultural products on the basis of online transaction is established.In view of the standardization problems in the production and processing section,online exhibition and trade section,after sale section,the related solutions are put forward.In the production and processing sections,the fruit farmers should implement scale cultivation;pick and store fruits according to the local situation;pack fruits by using green package which can represent the features of the brand;establish the agricultural products association.In the section of online exhibition and trade,the identity of network platform should be normalized and the authentication technique and system should be perfected;the unification of product exhibition should be paid attention to;the specialization of negotiation should be intensified and the differences in communication should be represented;the price should be made comprehensively and the reference factors should be diversified;the entrance situation should be legalized and the account should be managed differently.In the after sale section,the business scope of logistics should be expanded and technology should be input;taking the customers as the center,the subsystem of distinctive service standard should be stipulated;the credit evaluation standard and punishment mechanism should be clarified;the customer-related management system should be implemented as well as the supervision mechanism.

  8. Toward a New Generation of Agricultural System Data, Models, and Knowledge Products: State of Agricultural Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W.; Antle, John M.; Basso, Bruno; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conant, Richard T.; Foster, Ian; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E.; Janssen, Sander; Keating, Brian A.; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Porter, Cheryl H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Wheeler, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    We review the current state of agricultural systems science, focusing in particular on the capabilities and limitations of agricultural systems models. We discuss the state of models relative to five different Use Cases spanning field, farm, landscape, regional, and global spatial scales and engaging questions in past, current, and future time periods. Contributions from multiple disciplines have made major advances relevant to a wide range of agricultural system model applications at various spatial and temporal scales. Although current agricultural systems models have features that are needed for the Use Cases, we found that all of them have limitations and need to be improved. We identified common limitations across all Use Cases, namely 1) a scarcity of data for developing, evaluating, and applying agricultural system models and 2) inadequate knowledge systems that effectively communicate model results to society. We argue that these limitations are greater obstacles to progress than gaps in conceptual theory or available methods for using system models. New initiatives on open data show promise for addressing the data problem, but there also needs to be a cultural change among agricultural researchers to ensure that data for addressing the range of Use Cases are available for future model improvements and applications. We conclude that multiple platforms and multiple models are needed for model applications for different purposes. The Use Cases provide a useful framework for considering capabilities and limitations of existing models and data.

  9. Landsat and agriculture—Case studies on the uses and benefits of Landsat imagery in agricultural monitoring and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Colin R.; Serbina, Larisa O.; Miller, Holly M.

    2017-03-29

    Executive SummaryThe use of Landsat satellite imagery for global agricultural monitoring began almost immediately after the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972, making agricultural monitoring one of the longest-standing operational applications for the Landsat program. More recently, Landsat imagery has been used in domestic agricultural applications as an input for field-level production management. The enactment of the U.S. Geological Survey’s free and open data policy in 2008 and the launch of Landsat 8 in 2013 have both influenced agricultural applications. This report presents two primary sets of case studies on the applications and benefits of Landsat imagery use in agriculture. The first set examines several operational applications within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the second focuses on private sector applications for agronomic management.  Information on the USDA applications is provided in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Uses of Landsat Imagery for Global and Domestic Agricultural Monitoring section of the report in the following subsections:Estimating Crop Production.—Provides an overview of how Landsat satellite imagery is used to estimate crop production, including the spectral bands most frequently utilized in this application.Monitoring Consumptive Water Use.—Highlights the role of Landsat imagery in monitoring consumptive water use for agricultural production. Globally, a significant amount of agricultural production relies on irrigation, so monitoring water resources is a critical component of agricultural monitoring. National Agricultural Statistics Service—Cropland Data Layer.—Highlights the use of Landsat imagery in developing the annual Cropland Data Layer, a crop-specific land cover classification product that provides information on more than 100 crop categories grown in the United States. Foreign Agricultural Service—Global Agricultural Monitoring.—Highlights Landsat’s role in monitoring global agricultural

  10. The Optimization of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Management in USA-From the Perspective of Agricultural Products Quality%美国农产品供应链管理优化--基于农产品质量视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林景良

    2016-01-01

    以华盛顿州天使港市当地农产品供应链为例,分析供应链和产品质量的关系,提出充分利用当地农业资源,大规模和中小规模农产品供应链应该互补以提高农产品质量,发展当地经济,提高就业率。%Taking the local agricultural products supply chain in Port Angeles, Washington State as an example, this paper analyzes the relation-ship between supply chain and product quality , then suggests to make full use of local agricultural resources , combine the large-scale agricultural supply chain and small-scale agricultural supply chain together to improve the agricultural product quality , to develop the local economy and in-crease the employment rate.

  11. Sustainability of ancestral methods of agricultural production in Perú: ¿keep or replace?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Eduardo Vargas Huanca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the success of some Andean products such as quinoa, potatoes or maca in international food trade and the growing environmental degradation facing developing countries, resulting from intensive exploitation activities; Our research seeks to show the trend that is assumed from the academic / scientific community and public officials in the food sector in Peru, against the need to maintain sustainable various ancestral modes of agricultural production (case quinoa, for it analyze quantitative and qualitative obtained from public institutions and Peruvian universities.

  12. Hemp fines - an agricultural by-product for biocomposites? A holistic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spierling, Sebastian; Koplin, Tobias; Endres, Hans-Josef

    2014-01-01

    The technical, environmental and economic potential of hemp fines as a natural filler in bioplastics to produce biocomposites is the subject of this study – giving a holistic overview. Hemp fines are an agricultural by-product of the hemp fibres and shives production. Shives and fibres are for example used in the paper, animal bedding or composite area. About 15 to 20 wt.-% per kg hemp straw results in hemp fines after processing. In 2010 about 11,439 metric tons of hemp fines were produced i...

  13. The impact of climate extremes on US agricultural production and the buffering impacts of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Tara J.; Kipgen, Chinpihoi; Pal, Indrani

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, droughts and floods have occurred over many of the major growing regions of the world, resulting in decreased agricultural production and increased global food prices. Many climate projections call for more frequent extreme events, which could have significant impacts on agricultural yields and water resources in irrigated agricultural regions. In order to better understand the potential impact of climate extremes and the spatial heterogeneity of those impacts, we examine the associations between climate and irrigated and rain fed crop yields, focusing on four main staple crops: wheat, rice, soy, and maize. Because the United States has high spatial resolution data for both yields and weather variables, the analysis focuses on the impact of multiple extremes over these four crops in the US using statistical methods that do not require any assumptions of functional relationships between yields and weather variables. Irrigated and rain fed agricultural yields are analyzed separately to understand the role irrigation plays either as a buffering against climate variability and extremes such as drought, heat waves, and extended dry spells or a mechanism that leads to varied relationships between extremes of climate and yield fluctuations. These results demonstrate that irrigation has varying effects depending on the region, growing season timing, crop type, and type of climate extreme. This work has important implications for future planning of the coupled water-food system and its vulnerabilities to climate.

  14. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B. Ella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture involves minimum soil disturbance, continuous ground cover, and diversified crop rotations or mixtures. Conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS have the potential to improve soil quality if appropriate cropping systems are developed. In this study, five CAPS including different cropping patterns and cover crops under two fertility levels, and a plow-based system as control, were studied in a typical upland agricultural area in northern Mindanao in the Philippines. Results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC at 0- 5-cm depth for all CAPS treatments generally increased with time while SOC under the plow-based system tended to decline over time for both the high (120, 60 and 60 kg N P K ha-1 and moderate (60-30-30 kg N P K ha-1 fertility levels. The cropping system with maize + Stylosanthes guianensis in the first year followed by Stylosanthes guianensis and fallow in the second year, and the cassava + Stylosanthes guianensis exhibited the highest rate of SOC increase for high and moderate fertility levels, respectively. After one, two, and three cropping seasons, plots under CAPS had significantly higher soil residual water content (RWC than under plow-based systems. Results of this study suggest that conservation agriculture has a positive impact on soil quality, while till systems negatively impact soil characteristics.

  15. Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhoff, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major

  16. Greater soil carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Creamer, Courtney; Baisden, W. Troy; Farrell, Mark; Fallon, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Devising agricultural management schemes that enhance food security and soil carbon levels is a high priority for many nations. However, the coupling between agricultural productivity, soil carbon stocks and organic matter turnover rates is still unclear. Archived soil samples from four decades of a long-term crop rotation trial were analyzed for soil organic matter (SOM) cycling-relevant properties: C and N content, bulk composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, amino sugar content, short-term C bioavailability assays, and long-term C turnover rates by modeling the incorporation of the bomb spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil. After > 40 years under consistent management, topsoil carbon stocks ranged from 14 to 33 Mg C ha-1 and were linearly related to the mean productivity of each treatment. Measurements of SOM composition demonstrated increasing amounts of plant- and microbially derived SOM along the productivity gradient. Under two modeling scenarios, radiocarbon data indicated overall SOM turnover time decreased from 40 to 13 years with increasing productivity - twice the rate of decline predicted from simple steady-state models or static three-pool decay rates of measured C pool distributions. Similarly, the half-life of synthetic root exudates decreased from 30.4 to 21.5 h with increasing productivity, indicating accelerated microbial activity. These findings suggest that there is a direct feedback between accelerated biological activity, carbon cycling rates and rates of carbon stabilization with important implications for how SOM dynamics are represented in models.

  17. Multi-Factor Impact Analysis of Agricultural Production in Bangladesh with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Major, David C.; Yu, Winston H.; Alam, Mozaharul; Hussain, Sk. Ghulam; Khan, Abu Saleh; Hassan, Ahmadul; Al Hossain, Bhuiya Md. Tamim; Goldberg, Richard; Horton, Radley M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario.

  18. An integrated assessment of the potential of agricultural and forestry residues for energy production in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ji [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 China; Zhang, Aiping [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 China; Lam, Shu Kee [Crop and Soil Sciences Section, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, the University of Melbourne, Melbourne Vic. 3010 Australia; Zhang, Xuesong [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 USA; Thomson, Allison M. [Field to Market, The Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture, 777 N Capitol St. NE Suite 803 Washington DC 20002 USA; Lin, Erda [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 China; Jiang, Kejun [Energy Research Institute (ERI), Beijing 100038 China; Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Kyle, Page G. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Yu, Sha [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Zhou, Yuyu [Department of Geological & Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Zhou, Sheng [Institutes of Energy, Environment and Economy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China

    2016-01-05

    Biomass has been widely recognized as an important energy source with high potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while minimizing environmental pollution. In this study, we employ the Global Change Assessment Model to estimate the potential of agricultural and forestry residue biomass for energy production in China. Potential availability of residue biomass as an energy source was analyzed for the 21st century under different climate policy scenarios. Currently, the amount of total annual residue biomass, averaged over 2003-2007, is around 15519PJ in China, consisting of 10818PJ from agriculture residues (70%) and 4701PJ forestry residues (30%). We estimate that 12693PJ of the total biomass is available for energy production, with 66% derived from agricultural residue and 34% from forestry residue. Most of the available residue is from south central China (3347PJ), east China (2862PJ) and south-west China (2229PJ), which combined exceeds 66% of the total national biomass. Under the reference scenario without carbon tax, the potential availability of residue biomass for energy production is projected to be 3380PJ by 2050 and 4108PJ by 2095, respectively. When carbon tax is imposed, biomass availability increases substantially. For the CCS 450ppm scenario, availability of biomass increases to 9002PJ (2050) and 11524PJ (2095), respectively. For the 450ppm scenario without CCS, 9183 (2050) and 11150PJ (2095) residue biomass, respectively, is projected to be available. Moreover, the implementation of CCS will have a little impact on the supply of residue biomass after 2035. Our results suggest that residue biomass has the potential to be an important component in China's sustainable energy production portfolio. As a low carbon emission energy source, climate change policies that involve carbon tariff and CCS technology promote the use of residue biomass for energy production in a low carbon-constrained world.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BOILER FOR COMBUSTION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS BY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Turanjanin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Serbia consumes about 15 million tons of equivalent oil per year (Mtoe. At the same time potential of the renewable energy sources is about 3,5 Mtoe/year. Main renewable source is biomass, with its potential of about 2,6 Mtoe/year, and 60% of the total biomass source is of agricultural origin. Mainly, that type of biomass is collected, transported and stored in form of bales. At the same time in one of the largest agricultural companies in Serbia (PKB there are over 2000 ha of soya plantations, and also 4000 t/year of baled soya straw available, none of which being used for energy purposes. Therefore, efforts have been made in the Laboratory for Thermal Engineering and Energy of the "Vinča" Institute to develop a technology for utilizing bales of various sizes and shapes for energy production. Satisfactory test results of the 1 MW experimental facility - low CO levels and stable thermal output - led to the building-up of a 1.5 MW soya straw bales-fired hot water boiler, with cigarette type of combustion, for the purposes of greenhouse and office heating in the PKB. Further more, achieving good results in exploitation of that hot water boiler, the next step is building up the first combined heat and power (electricity production facility (CHP, which will use agricultural biomass as a fuel, in Serbia.

  20. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  1. Potential To Increase Productivity And Sustainability In Argentinean Agriculture With Controlled Traffic Farming: A Short Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antille Diogenes L.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drivers for and potential barriers against adoption of controlled traffic farming (CTF systems in Argentina are reviewed. Traffic compaction is one of the main factors affecting crop productivity within Argentinean agriculture, and has significant although less quantified impacts on the whole-of-farm system. This suggests that the benefits of no-tillage (NT, which represents the dominant form of cropping in Argentina, are not fully realised. Conservative estimates indicate that crop yields could be improved by at least 15% if NT is used in conjunction with CTF. Cost-benefit analyses of available options for compaction management are required. Despite this, and based on reported evidence internationally, a shift toward increased uptake of CTF within Argentinean agriculture is likely to: (1 improve productivity and farm profitability, (2 enhance environmental performance, and (3 maintain competitiveness of the agricultural sector. Appropriate technical advice and support is a key requirement to drive adoption of CTF. Therefore, the adoption process will benefit from collaboration developed with well-established research and extension organisations in Australia and the United Kingdom, and active engagement of machinery manufacturers.

  2. International Comparison,Regional Characteristics and Regulatory Management of Structural Rise in the Prices of Chinese Industrial and Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; ZHANG; Hong; TAN; Ran; AN; Zhibo; ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    China’s price fluctuations increasingly exhibit significant structural characteristics,and since 2003,there have been several rounds of significant structural price rise.The degree of structural rise in the prices of industrial and agricultural products in China is not only higher than in the general developed countries and developing countries,but also more prominent than in other transition economies.And the structural rise in the prices of Chinese industrial and agricultural products exhibits significant economic zone differences:the structural fluctuations are the greatest in the central and western regions,significantly higher than in the eastern regions as well as the national average.From the perspective of causes of structural rise in the prices of Chinese industrial and agricultural products,the government must aim to coordinate the industrial and agricultural investments and bridge the gap in the industrial and agricultural technologies and supply capacity.

  3. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  4. Drought assessment using MODIS products in an agricultural setting of Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2012-12-01

    Early 21st century climate has become erratic in nature and droughts which cause severe damages especially in the agricultural area tends to be a recurrent phenomenon throughout the world. The alluvial plain of Mississippi Delta is well suited for agriculture and a quick drought monitoring technique is needed for better management of resources. Due to the logistical sampling difficulties, it is impractical to conduct field monitoring of droughts. Remote sensing is an attractive alternate method since it is fast and cost effective. It is therefore our purpose in this pilot study to investigate the possibility of using information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products which are free and readily available to monitor seasonal drought in agricultural settings in Mississippi Delta. The objective of this study is to explore and investigate the feasibility of readily available satellite derived data for measuring and monitoring drought in the agricultural area of Mississippi delta. The specific objectives are- 1) to create a MODIS derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) time series database, 2) evaluation of the relationship between NDVI, NDWI, and other relevant indices and 3) the generation of a new vegetation drought index, the normalized difference drought index (NDDI) for the study area to compare with the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) maps. Interactions among all these parameters which are actually the derivatives of MODIS 8-day 500 meter surface reflectance data (MOD09A1) are being investigated for the purpose of drought assessment. MODIS time series data will be collected, stored, analyzed and the relationships between various drought indices over an agricultural setting in Mississippi delta will be presented.

  5. Assessment of agricultural drought in rainfed cereal production areas of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru

    2017-02-01

    Agricultural drought assessment is an important tool for water management in water-scarce regions such as Inner Mongolia and northeastern China. Conventional methods have difficulty of clarifying long-term influences of drought on regional agricultural production. To accurately evaluate regional agricultural drought, we assessed the performance of drought indices by constructing a new assessment framework with three components: crop model calibration and validation, drought index calculation, and index assessment (standard period setting, mean value and agreement assessments). The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model simulated well of county-level wheat and maize yields in the nine investigated counties. We calculated a major crop-specific index yield reduction caused by water stress (WSYR) in the EPIC crop model, by relating potential and rainfed yields. Using 26 agricultural drought cases, we compared WSYR with two meteorological drought indices: precipitation (P) and aridity index (AI). The results showed that WSYR had greater agreement (85 %) than either the precipitation (65 %) or aridity index (68 %). The temporal trend of the indices over the period 1962-2010 was tested using three approaches. The result via WSYR revealed a significant increase in the trend of agricultural drought in drought-prone counties, which could not be shown by the precipitation and aridity indices. Total number of dry year via WSYR from 1990s to 2000s increases more sharply than via P or AI. As shown by WSYR, the number of dry years in northeastern China and Inner Mongolia is generally increasing, particularly after the 2000s, in the western part of the study area. The study reveals the usefulness of the framework for drought index assessment and indicates the potential of WSYR and possible drought cases for drought classification.

  6. Assessment of agricultural drought in rainfed cereal production areas of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    Agricultural drought assessment is an important tool for water management in water-scarce regions such as Inner Mongolia and northeastern China. Conventional methods have difficulty of clarifying long-term influences of drought on regional agricultural production. To accurately evaluate regional agricultural drought, we assessed the performance of drought indices by constructing a new assessment framework with three components: crop model calibration and validation, drought index calculation, and index assessment (standard period setting, mean value and agreement assessments). The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model simulated well of county-level wheat and maize yields in the nine investigated counties. We calculated a major crop-specific index yield reduction caused by water stress (WSYR) in the EPIC crop model, by relating potential and rainfed yields. Using 26 agricultural drought cases, we compared WSYR with two meteorological drought indices: precipitation (P) and aridity index (AI). The results showed that WSYR had greater agreement (85 %) than either the precipitation (65 %) or aridity index (68 %). The temporal trend of the indices over the period 1962-2010 was tested using three approaches. The result via WSYR revealed a significant increase in the trend of agricultural drought in drought-prone counties, which could not be shown by the precipitation and aridity indices. Total number of dry year via WSYR from 1990s to 2000s increases more sharply than via P or AI. As shown by WSYR, the number of dry years in northeastern China and Inner Mongolia is generally increasing, particularly after the 2000s, in the western part of the study area. The study reveals the usefulness of the framework for drought index assessment and indicates the potential of WSYR and possible drought cases for drought classification.

  7. Evaluation of several microcrystalline celluloses obtained from agricultural by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, John; Lopez, Alvin; Guisao, Santiago; Ortiz, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCCI) has been widely used as an excipient for direct compression due to its good flowability, compressibility, and compactibility. In this study, MCCI was obtained from agricultural by-products, such as corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, rice husk, and cotton by pursuing acid hydrolysis, neutralization, clarification, and drying steps. Further, infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, degree of polymerization (DP), and powder and tableting properties were evaluated and compared to those of Avicel PH101, Avicel PH102, and Avicel PH200. Except for the commercial products, all materials showed a DP from 55 to 97. Particles of commercial products and corn cob had an irregular shape, whereas bagasse particles were elongated and thick. Rice and cotton particles exhibited a flake-like and fiber-like shape, respectively. MCCI as obtained from rice husk and cotton was the most densified material, while that produced from corn cob and bagasse was bulky, porous, and more compressible. All products had a moisture content of less than 10% and yields from 7.4% to 60.4%. MCCI as obtained from bagasse was the most porous and compressible material among all materials. This product also showed the best tableting properties along with Avicel products. Likewise, all MCCI products obtained from the above-mentioned sources showed a more rapid disintegration time than that of Avicel products. These materials can be used as a potential source of MCCI in the production of solid dosage forms.

  8. Evaluation of several microcrystalline celluloses obtained from agricultural by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rojas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcrystalline cellulose (MCCI has been widely used as an excipient for direct compression due to its good flowability, compressibility, and compactibility. In this study, MCCI was obtained from agricultural by-products, such as corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, rice husk, and cotton by pursuing acid hydrolysis, neutralization, clarification, and drying steps. Further, infrared spectroscopy (IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy, degree of polymerization (DP, and powder and tableting properties were evaluated and compared to those of Avicel PH101, Avicel PH102, and Avicel PH200. Except for the commercial products, all materials showed a DP from 55 to 97. Particles of commercial products and corn cob had an irregular shape, whereas bagasse particles were elongated and thick. Rice and cotton particles exhibited a flake-like and fiber-like shape, respectively. MCCI as obtained from rice husk and cotton was the most densified material, while that produced from corn cob and bagasse was bulky, porous, and more compressible. All products had a moisture content of less than 10% and yields from 7.4% to 60.4%. MCCI as obtained from bagasse was the most porous and compressible material among all materials. This product also showed the best tableting properties along with Avicel products. Likewise, all MCCI products obtained from the above-mentioned sources showed a more rapid disintegration time than that of Avicel products. These materials can be used as a potential source of MCCI in the production of solid dosage forms.

  9. Next-Generation Bio-Products Sowing the Seeds of Success for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Müller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have recently been recognized as meta-organisms due to a close symbiotic relationship with their microbiome. Comparable to humans and other eukaryotic hosts, plants also harbor a “second genome” that fulfills important host functions. These advances were driven by both “omics”-technologies guided by next-generation sequencing and microscopic insights. Additionally, these new results influence applied fields such as biocontrol and stress protection in agriculture, and new tools may impact (i the detection of new bio-resources for biocontrol and plant growth promotion, (ii the optimization of fermentation and formulation processes for biologicals, (iii stabilization of the biocontrol effect under field conditions, and (iv risk assessment studies for biotechnological applications. Examples are presented and discussed for the fields mentioned above, and next-generation bio-products were found as a sustainable alternative for agriculture.

  10. Monitoring changes in soil carbon resulting from intensive production, a non-traditional agricultural methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P.

    2013-03-01

    New Mexico State University and a group of New Mexico farmers are evaluating an innovative agricultural technique they call Intensive Production (IP). In contrast to conventional agricultural practice, IP uses intercropping, green fallowing, application of soil amendments and soil microbial inocula to sequester carbon as plant biomass, resulting in improved soil quality. Sandia National Laboratories role was to identify a non-invasive, cost effective technology to monitor soil carbon changes. A technological review indicated that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) best met the farmers objectives. Sandia partnered with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to analyze farmers test plots using a portable LIBS developed at LANL. Real-time LIBS field sample analysis was conducted and grab samples were collected for laboratory comparison. The field and laboratory results correlated well implying the strong potential for LIBS as an economical field scale analytical tool for analysis of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

  11. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  12. Comparing compensation mussel production costs and traditional agricultural farmers willingness to pay to reduce nutrient loads in the Limfjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Hasler, Berit; Hoff, Ayoe;

    Nitrogen non-point pollution from agriculture is the dominating source of eutrophication of Danish fjords. Long-line mussel production is an alternative measure to costly agricultural measures to achieve good ecological status of fjords. This paper investigates farmers’ economic incentives to buy...

  13. Conversion to drip irrigated agriculture may offset historic anthropogenic and wildfire contributions to sediment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A B; Pasternack, G B; Watson, E B; Goñi, M A; Hatten, J A; Warrick, J A

    2016-06-15

    This study is an investigation into the roles of wildfire and changing agricultural practices in controlling the inter-decadal scale trends of suspended sediment production from semi-arid mountainous rivers. In the test case, a decreasing trend in suspended sediment concentrations was found in the lower Salinas River, California between 1967 and 2011. Event to decadal scale patterns in sediment production in the Salinas River have been found to be largely controlled by antecedent hydrologic conditions. Decreasing suspended sediment concentrations over the last 15years of the record departed from those expected from climatic/hydrologic forcing. Sediment production from the mountainous headwaters of the central California Coast Ranges is known to be dominated by the interaction of wildfire and large rainfall/runoff events, including the Arroyo Seco, an ~700km(2) subbasin of the Salinas River. However, the decreasing trend in Salinas River suspended sediment concentrations run contrary to increases in the watershed's effective burn area over time. The sediment source area of the Salinas River is an order of magnitude larger than that of the Arroyo Seco, and includes a more complicated mosaic of land cover and land use. The departure from hydrologic forcings on suspended sediment concentration patterns was found to coincide with a rapid conversion of irrigation practices from sprinkler and furrow to subsurface drip irrigation. Changes in agricultural operations appear to have decreased sediment supply to the Salinas River over the late 20th to early 21st centuries, obscuring the influence of wildfire on suspended sediment production.

  14. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  15. Assessing future risks to agricultural productivity, water resources and food security: How can remote sensing help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Knox, Jerry W.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Congalton, Russell G.; Wu, Zhuoting; Milesi, Cristina; Finkral, Alex; Marshall, Mike; Mariotto, Isabella; You, Songcai; Giri, Chandra; Nagler, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Although global food production has been rising, the world sti ll faces a major food security challenge. Over one billion people are currently undernourished (Wheeler and Kay, 2010). By the 2050s, the human population is projected to grow to 9.1 billion. Over three-quarters of these people will be living in developing countries, in regions that already lack the capacity to feed their populations . Under current agricultural practices, the increased demand for food would require in excess of one billion hectares of new cropland, nearly equivalent to the land area of the United States, and would lead to significant increases in greenhouse gases (Tillman et al., 2011). Since climate is the primary determinant of agricultural productivity, changes to it will influence not only crop yields, but also hydrologic balances and supplies of inputs to managed farming systems, and may lead to a shift in the geographic location of some crops . Therefore, not only must crop productivity (yield per unit of land; kg/m2) increase, but water productivity (yield per unit of water or "crop per drop"; kg/m3) must increase as well in order to feed a burgeoning population against a backdrop

  16. Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production and Land Fallowing in California's Central Valley in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevelt, Carolyn; Melton, Forrest S.; Johnson, Lee; Guzman, Alberto; Verdin, James P.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mueller, Rick; Jones, Jeanine; Willis, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing drought in California substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to mitigation of drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in fallow acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to time-series data from Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper), ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), OLI (Operational Land Imager), and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March-August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 650 fields from March-September in 2014 and 2015. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and data and maps of land fallowing in the Central Valley in 2015.

  17. Recent trends in agricultural production of Africa based on AVHRR NDVI time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Brown, Molly E.

    2008-10-01

    African agriculture is expected to be hard-hit by ongoing climate change. Effects are heterogeneous within the continent, but in some regions resulting production declines have already impacted food security. Time series of remote sensing data allow us to examine where persistent changes occur. In this study, we propose to examine recent trends in agricultural production using 26 years of NDVI data. We use the 8-km resolution AVHRR NDVI 15-day composites of the GIMMS group (1981-2006). Temporal data-filtering is applied using an iterative Savitzky-Golay algorithm to remove noise in the time series. Except for some regions with persistent cloud cover, this filter produced smooth profiles. Subsequently two methods were used to extract phenology indicators from the profiles for each raster cell. These indicators include start of season, length of season, time of maximum NDVI, maximum NDVI, and cumulated NDVI over the season. Having extracted the indicators for every year, we aggregate them for agricultural areas at sub-national level using a crop mask. The aggregation was done to focus the analysis on agriculture, and allow future comparison with yield statistics. Trend analysis was performed for yearly aggregated indicators to assess where persistent change occurred during the 26-year period. Results show that the phenology extraction method chosen has an important influence on trend outcomes. Consistent trends suggest a rising yield trend for 500-1100 mm rainfall zones ranging from Senegal to Sudan. Negative yield trends are expected for the southern Atlantic coast of West Africa, and for western Tanzania.

  18. Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production and Land Fallowing in California's Central Valley in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevelt, C.; Melton, F. S.; Johnson, L.; Guzman, A.; Verdin, J. P.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Mueller, R.; Jones, J.; Willis, P.

    2015-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to mitigation of drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in fallow acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to timeseries of data from Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI, and MODIS. Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March - August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 650 fields from March - September in 2014 and 2015. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and data and maps of land fallowing in the Central Valley in 2015.

  19. Farmer, extension and research in Sri Lanka: an empirical study of the agricultural knowledge system with special ref. to rice production in Hatara District.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijeratne, M.

    1988-01-01

    PurposeThe efficiency of agricultural production increases continuously through the application of scientific knowledge. Agricultural development programmes often aim to improve the generation, transfer and utilization of knowledge. Increase in total production and average yield are

  20. 关于“两区”实施农业标准化的思考%Thought on the Implementation of Agricultural Standardization in the Grain Production and Modern Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁清; 覃雅芳; 章强华

    2014-01-01

    The construction of Grain Production Functional Zone and Modern Agricultural Zone (Two Zones for short) plays a key role in the development of modern agriculture and solving the quantity and quality problems of agricultural products. The Two Zones serves as the important form and carrier of agricultural standardization and the agricultural standardization provides means and ways for it. The paper puts forward the suggestions and solutions for agricultural standardization in Two Zones in the aspects of boosting standards innovation projects, management and so forth.

  1. Aspergillus species as mycotoxin producers in agricultural products in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kočube Šandor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus species are able to produce a range of mycotoxins, includ­ing e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins and patulin. Aflatoxins are mainly produced by members of Aspergillus section Flavi, and they contaminate various agricultural products in several parts of the world. Several recent reports have indicated that aflatoxin-producing fungi and consequently aflatoxin contamination occur in agricultural commodities in a number of European countries which have not been faced with this problem before. Indeed, recent surveys have clarified that concentrations of aflatoxins in maize products and milk has been exceeding the EU limit in several regions of Central Europe including Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Northern Italy and Romania. However, aflatoxin contamination and aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species have not been identified yet in maize in Hungary. We examined the presence of potential aflatoxin-producing Aspergilli in maize samples collected in southern parts of Hungary. Several A. flavus isolates were identified, and pre­liminary results indicated that some of the isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Con­tamination of other agricultural products with aflatoxins can also pose problems in Central Europe due to global warming. Ochratoxin contamination of grapes and grape-derived products is usually caused by black Aspergilli, especially by A. carbonarius and A. niger, although these species have been rare in Central European vineyards due to climatic fac­tors. Ochratoxin contamination of other agricultural products including spices and cereals was also observed in the region. Besides, ochratoxin producing Aspergilli are frequently isolated from imported products including coffee beans, dried fruits and spices, and ochra­toxin contamination of these samples was also observed. Fumonisins are produced mainly by Fusarium species, and by the recently identified producers Aspergillus niger and A. awamori. We examined fumonisin

  2. Biochemical production of bioenergy from agricultural crops and residue in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Alavijeh, Masih; Yaghmaei, Soheila

    2016-06-01

    The present study assessed the potential for biochemical conversion of energy stored in agricultural waste and residue in Iran. The current status of agricultural residue as a source of bioenergy globally and in Iran was investigated. The total number of publications in this field from 2000 to 2014 was about 4294. Iran ranked 21st with approximately 54 published studies. A total of 87 projects have been devised globally to produce second-generation biofuel through biochemical pathways. There are currently no second-generation biorefineries in Iran and agricultural residue has no significant application. The present study determined the amount and types of sustainable agricultural residue and oil-rich crops and their provincial distribution. Wheat, barley, rice, corn, potatoes, alfalfa, sugarcane, sugar beets, apples, grapes, dates, cotton, soybeans, rapeseed, sesame seeds, olives, sunflowers, safflowers, almonds, walnuts and hazelnuts have the greatest potential as agronomic and horticultural crops to produce bioenergy in Iran. A total of 11.33million tonnes (Mt) of agricultural biomass could be collected for production of bioethanol (3.84gigaliters (Gl)), biobutanol (1.07Gl), biogas (3.15billion cubic meters (BCM)), and biohydrogen (0.90BCM). Additionally, about 0.35Gl of biodiesel could be obtained using only 35% of total Iranian oilseed. The potential production capacity of conventional biofuel blends in Iran, environmental and socio-economic impacts including well-to-wheel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the social cost of carbon dioxide reduction are discussed. The cost of emissions could decrease up to 55.83% by utilizing E85 instead of gasoline. The possible application of gaseous biofuel in Iran to produce valuable chemicals and provide required energy for crop cultivation is also studied. The energy recovered from biogas produced by wheat residue could provide energy input for 115.62 and 393.12 thousand hectares of irrigated and rain-fed wheat

  3. ELIGIBLE PRODUCTS AND FUNDS ALLOTED TO ENTERPRISES IN ORDER TO INFORM AND PROMOTE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN ROMANIA AND IN THE THIRD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian ALECU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the promotion and information actions on the agricultural products in the context of the EU and Romanian regulations and the public budget allotted by products and actions. Also, there were pointed out the main aspects regarding the role of agricultural products marketing and the major factors which could influence market price and producers profit. Finally, there were presented the information and promotion actions suitable to the obtaining of the funds.

  4. The Effects of the Price Change, on the Demand of Agricultural Products During Summer Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudi SULI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A fall in the price of a good has two effects. First, consumers enjoy an increase in realpurchasing power, they are better of because can buy the same amount of the good forless money, and thus have money left overfor additional purchases. The will tend toconsume more of the good that has became cheaper and less of those goods that are nowrelatively more expensive. Both effects happen simultaneously, but it will be useful todistinguish between them in our analysis. The Demand Functionand Slutsky Equationduring the summer time in our products,tomato and cucumber confirms the economictheory of chain effect in the agricultural products. Our research is based to the face-to-face questions about the prices that consumersreceive, and to the theoretical approach toidentify these effects. The demand function for this product gives us the solution of howindividual’s utility-maximizing choices respondto changes in income and in the prices oftomatoes and cucumbers.

  5. Decline in the share of the agricultural product: measurements and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ERCOLANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of agriculture’s share of product constitutes the most important change in the structure of supply associated with income growth. This is so constant that it can be considered one of the “laws” of economics, however, in order to understand such a complex phenomenon in terms of economic development, the search for uniformity should represent only the beginning, not the conclusion of the analysis. This work focuses on the pattern of agriculture’s share, both among countries and over time, and considers the factors which determine the relative decline of the agricultural product. The author singles out the factors other than income that have contributed to the determination of systemic differences among countries in agriculture’s share in product. Then, a quantitative assessment of the factors which have caused the decline is presented.

  6. Interactive Design of Farm Conversion : linking Agricultural Research and Farmer Learning for Sustainable Small Scale Horticulture Production in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: interactive conversion design / vegetable production / small farms / sustainable farming / Colombia / learning processes / facilitation / agricultural research methods

  7. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  8. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  9. Foreign trade trends in the Hungarian-Romanian turnover of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós VÁSÁRY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The accession to the European Union (EU has brought a lot of advantages for all the new member states (NMS. The general and wide range implementation of economic integration gave the hope of economic prosperity and macroeconomic stability for all the new member states. In the case of foreign trade of agricultural products the possibility of expansion has opened after EU integration. The chance to build and stabilize new trading relations was especially important for the small countries with an open economy. In general, it can be concluded from the analysis of EU membership that the trade among new member countries has substantially expanded as a result of increasing trading activities in relation to member states which integrated into the EU in 2004 and also due to the elimination of former trading barriers and a growing common internal market. Starting from this, the examination of trading of goods between particular countries is also justified. The important aspects in considering the possible solutions for the consequences of the economic crisis in 2008 are: the strengthening of regional markets, the utilization of geographical conditions and the increasing role of comparative advantages. The present study details how the Hungarian-Romanian agricultural trade has changed in the frames of bilateral trading activities due to the second wave of Eastern expansion and what tendencies can be observed. In regards to trading of goods, it is reviewed which products show concentration and which products can be characterized with comparative advantages.

  10. Productivity ranges of sustainable biomass potentials from non-agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Vivian; Fuss, Sabine; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Weddige, Ulf; Beringer, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Land is under pressure from a number of demands, including the need for increased supplies of bioenergy. While bioenergy is an important ingredient in many pathways compatible with reaching the 2 °C target, areas where cultivation of the biomass feedstock would be most productive appear to co-host other important ecosystems services. We categorize global geo-data on land availability into productivity deciles, and provide a geographically explicit assessment of potentials that are concurrent with EU sustainability criteria. The deciles unambiguously classify the global productivity range of potential land currently not in agricultural production for biomass cultivation. Results show that 53 exajoule (EJ) sustainable biomass potential are available from 167 million hectares (Mha) with a productivity above 10 tons of dry matter per hectare and year (tD Mha-1 a-1), while additional 33 EJ are available on 264 Mha with yields between 4 and 10 tD M ha-1 a-1: some regions lose less of their highly productive potentials to sustainability concerns than others and regional contributions to bioenergy potentials shift when less productive land is considered. Challenges to limit developments to the exploitation of sustainable potentials arise in Latin America, Africa and Developing Asia, while new opportunities emerge for Transition Economies and OECD countries to cultivate marginal land.

  11. Rights to Designaton Focusing on Protected Designations and Geographical Indications of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilková Zuzana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue covered by the field of industrial property, it deals with the right to designation, especially with characteristics of legal regulation of labeling of products with regard to their geographical origin at the Slovak, communitarian and international levels. Individual objects of the industrial property may be the result of intellectual creative activity of its creator/creators (e.g. inventions, utility models, designs or they are not the result of creative activity of a particular natural person and are considered as industrial property rights to designation. The group of rights to designation includes: business names, trademarks, designation of origin for products and geographical indications for products. The rights to designation, inter alia, shall ensure uniqueness and competitive advantage for entrepreneurs and easy identification on the market of goods and services for the consumers. The paper closely analyzes the harmonized legal regulation of designations of origin and geographical indications of agricultural products, foodstuffs, spirit drinks, and wines. At the example of Tokaj wine region, it demonstrates the importance of protected designations at the EU level, in case of which demonstrable geographical origin of the product with controlled product specification by authorized national bodies brings a guarantee of quality of this product for consumers and the competitive advantage during their commercial implementation for the entrepreneurs.

  12. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  13. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  14. HUMAN RESOURCES – A BASE FOR GROWING WORK PRODUCTIVITY IN AGRICULTURAL EXPLOITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSMINA – SIMONA TOADER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural exploitations are often characterized by major changes, by priorities which many times are conflicting, by pressures for obtaining results. The manager has to reduce the costs, has to be all the time informed about the technological progresses and to understand the dynamic of the fast changes of the market and of the clients demand. The success or failure of an agricultural exploitation is related to the way of acting of its employees. The managers can hide in the apparent security of their “bunker” from where they can give orders. In the present time they have to be conscious that they con no longer use the authority and the coercion as it happened once. This is the reason why the word implication characterizes the solution applied in this context. The managers must motivate the employees, inspiring the commitment and the desire for action and encouraging the creativity, they have to exploit the experience, the energy and the skills of different employee groups and to build first class teams for solving the problems, for identifying the opportunities and for give sense to the huge volume of information which is available today. The role of the manager of an agricultural exploitation is not that to make the employees work but to make them work well, to determine them to use all their intellectual and physical resources. Where there is motivation, there is also productivity and performance and the employees are happy.

  15. The effect of climate change and adaptation policy on agricultural production in eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    We estimate the production function for agricultural output in Eastern Africa incorporating climate variables disaggregated into growing and non-growing seasons. We find a substantial negative effect of within growing season variance of precipitation. We simulate predicted climate change...... for the region and find a resulting output reduction of between 1.2% and 4.5%. We also find substantial potential for mitigating the effects of within growing season precipitation variability through conventional technologies such as flexible planting and rainwater harvesting that substantially exceeds...... the potential loss from predicted climate change....

  16. Auctioning off Prizes for Agricultural Product Flow under a Policy of Minimum Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Cruz Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the use of descending clock auctions in the implementation of a minimum pricing policy. This type of auction has been used by the Brazilian government policy of support for agricultural prices. We propose a clock auction model along the lines used by the Brazilian government and derive its main implications. Based on data from auctions already held and implications of the theoretical model, we conclude that the following factors are crucial to minimize the costs of implementing a minimum price policy via auctions: the choice of product to be auctioned, amount auctioned, reserve price (maximum prize, and auction rules.

  17. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products. In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products; we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism, bearing education and training functions, forming low-carbon value, building low-carbon identification system, as well as realizing low-carbon value. According to these situati...

  18. Land tenure and child health in Rio Grande do Sul: the relationship between agricultural production, malnutrition and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, C G; Vaughan, J P

    1997-01-01

    "Four different approaches were applied to test the hypothesis that patterns of land tenure and agricultural production in Rio Grande do Sul [Brazil] are important infant mortality determinants. These studies have employed various data sources on distinct analytical levels.... The results...provide reliable evidence of there being a strong relationship between the degree of concentration of land tenure and agricultural production on the one hand, and malnutrition and infant mortality on the other."

  19. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, P O Box 321 Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedeadman59@gmail.com [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. - Highlights: • Recent

  20. Application of RFID in the area of agricultural products quality traceability and tracking and the anti-collision algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zu-liang; Zhang, Ting; Xie, Shi-yang

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the agricultural tracing efficiency and reduce tracking and monitoring cost, agricultural products quality tracking and tracing based on Radio-Frequency Identification(RFID) technology is studied, then tracing and tracking model is set up. Three-layer structure model is established to realize the high quality of agricultural products traceability and tracking. To solve the collision problems between multiple RFID tags and improve the identification efficiency a new reservation slot allocation mechanism is proposed. And then we analyze and optimize the parameter by numerical simulation method.

  1. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized.

  2. Maize production and land degradation: a Portuguese agriculture field case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Pato, João V.; Moreira, Pedro M.; Valério, Luís M.; Guilherme, Rosa; Casau, Fernando J.; Santos, Daniela; Keizer, Jacob J.; Ferreira, António J. D.

    2016-04-01

    While food security is a main challenge faced by human kind, intensive agriculture often leads to soil degradation which then can threaten productivity. Maize is one of the most important crops across the world, with 869 million tons produced worldwide in 2012/2013 (IGC 2015), of which 929.5 thousand tons in Portugal (INE 2014). In Portugal, maize is sown in April/May and harvest occurs generally in October. Conventional maize production requires high inputs of water and fertilizers to achieve higher yields. As Portuguese farmers are typically rather old (on average, 63 years) and typically have a low education level (INE 2014), sustainability of their land management practises is often not a principal concern. This could explain why, in 2009, only 4% of the Portuguese temporary crops were under no-tillage, why only 8% of the farmers performed soil analyses in the previous three years, and why many soils have a low organic matter content (INE 2014). Nonetheless, sustainable land management practices are generally accepted to be the key to reducing agricultural soil degradation, preventing water pollution, and assuring long-term crop production objectives and food security. Sustainable land management should therefore not only be a concern for policy makers but also for farmers, since land degradation will have negative repercussions on the productivity, thus, on their economical income. This paper aims to assess the impact of maize production on soil properties. The study focusses on an 8 ha maize field located in central Portugal, with a Mediterranean climate on a gently sloping terrain (content, available phosphorous and potassium, exchangeable sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium, as well as copper, zinc, iron and manganese).

  3. The Determinants of Agricultural Production and Profitability in Akoko Land, Ondo-State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasoranti O. Olujenyo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study considered the determinants of agricultural production and profitability with special reference to maize production in Akoko North East and South West Local Government Areas of Ondo-State. Data collection was through well structured questionnaire administered on 100 respondents selected through random sampling technique. The methods of analysis used were descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis and production function analysis using the Ordinary Least Square (OLS criterion to estimate the parameters of the production function. Results showed that majority of the farmers were ageing and quite experienced in maize farming. Also there was high level of illiteracy as about 65% of total respondents had no formal education while 25, 6 and 4% had primary, secondary and technical education respectively. Farming was majorly on subsistence level as the mean farm size was 0.39 hectares. Maize farming was profitable in the study area with gross margin and net returns of N2,637.80 and N2,141.00 respectively. Results showed that farm operation was in stage II of the production function with RTS estimated as 0.62 and factors of production were efficiently allocated with elasticities that were positive but less than one. Results further showed that age, education, labour and cost of non-labour inputs were positively related to output while farm size and years of experience carried negative signs. However, only labour input has significant influence on output.

  4. Market access and agricultural production : the case of banana production in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,Uganda.This study investigates the effects of factor and commodity markets on the d

  5. Utilization of agricultural by-products to supplement gelatin in preparation of products for leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    When polyphenolic-modified gelatin-products were used as fillers, improvements were seen in the subjective properties of the leather. When the treated samples were compared to control samples, there were no significant changes in mechanical properties. Gelatin is in high demand and short supply, a...

  6. Utilization of agricultural by-products to partially replace gelatin in preparation of products for leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    When polyphenolic-modified gelatin-products were used as fillers, improvements were seen in the subjective properties of the leather. When the treated samples were compared to control samples, there were no significant changes in mechanical properties. At the present time, gelatin is in short supp...

  7. Determination of Physical, Chemical and Digestibility of some Agricultural by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majed dehgan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, physical and chemical characteristics and estimation of effective fiber and digestibility of some agricultural by-products such as lerd, pulp and date kernel, grape pomace, pistachio hulls, lime and rice straw were determined by using in vitro technique. Experimental data were analyzed as a complete randomized design, with three replicates. Physical and chemical characteristics and digestibility parameters among samples were significantly different. Rice straw due to high water holding capacity and low-density mass were floating on the liquid phase of reticulo-rumen and stimulates rumination but palm seed with high bulk density tends to deposit in the rumen. Chemical characteristics such as non-fibrous carbohydrates of lemon pulp and pistachio hull and crude protein of grape pomace, lerd and pulp of date were significantly different between samples. Results of physical characteristics, particle size separation and physical effective cell wall showed that rice straw provides adequate fiber in diet. Also, to some extent physical effective cell wall can be provided by grape pomace, kernel and lerd of date. The predictions of particle size separation and physical effective cell wall were found to compare reasonably well when new Pennsylvania sieves, compare to old ones, were used. By considering physical and chemical characteristics of above mentioned agricultural by-products date pulp with non-fibrous carbohydrate and high protein content and digestibility can be used in higher amounts in ruminant diets.

  8. Production and characterization of violacein by locally isolated Chromobacterium violaceum grown in agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Wan Azlina; Yusof, Nur Zulaikha; Nordin, Nordiana; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Rezali, Mohd Fazlin

    2012-07-01

    The present work highlighted the production of violacein by the locally isolated Chromobacterium violaceum (GenBank accession no. HM132057) in various agricultural waste materials (sugarcane bagasse, solid pineapple waste, molasses, brown sugar), as an alternative to the conventional rich medium. The highest yield for pigment production (0.82 g L⁻¹) was obtained using free cells when grown in 3 g of sugarcane bagasse supplemented with 10% (v/v) of L-tryptophan. A much lower yield (0.15 g L⁻¹) was obtained when the cells were grown either in rich medium (nutrient broth) or immobilized onto sugarcane bagasse. Violacein showed similar chemical properties as other natural pigments based on the UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry analysis. The pigment is highly soluble in acetone and methanol, insoluble in water or non-polar organic solvents, and showed good stability between pH 5-9, 25-100 °C, in the presence of light metal ions and oxidant such as H₂O₂. However, violacein would be slowly degraded upon exposure to light. This is the first report on the use of cheap and easily available agricultural wastes as growth medium for violacein-producing C. violaceum.

  9. Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products Between Poland and EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapinska Justyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the country-specific determinants of intra-industry trade between Poland and its European Union trading partners in agricultural and food products during the time period 2002-2011. An econometric model for panel data is applied for the analysis of the factors determining Polish bilateral intra-industry trade with European Union countries. The research leads to the formulation of a statement that the intensity of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products is positively influenced by the intensity of trade with EU countries and the level of economic development of the member countries (as measured by the size of their GDP per capita. Increase in intra-trade turnover is also facilitated by EU membership and by the fact that Poland’s trade partners use similar Slavic-based languages. Relative differences in the size of the economies and relative differences in Poland’s and its trading partners’ levels of economic development have a negative impact. The degree of the imbalance of trade turnover between trading partners also negatively influences the intensity of intra-trade exchange. The research confirms that the impact of all of the identified factors determining intra-industry trade is consistent with the predictions of the theory.

  10. Development of an agricultural biotechnology crop product: testing from discovery to commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalle, Laura S; Chen, Jingwen; Clapper, Gina; Hunst, Penny; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Zhong, Cathy X

    2012-10-17

    "Genetically modified" (GM) or "biotech" crops have been the most rapidly adopted agricultural technology in recent years. The development of a GM crop encompasses trait identification, gene isolation, plant cell transformation, plant regeneration, efficacy evaluation, commercial event identification, safety evaluation, and finally commercial authorization. This is a lengthy, complex, and resource-intensive process. Crops produced through biotechnology are the most highly studied food or food component consumed. Before commercialization, these products are shown to be as safe as conventional crops with respect to feed, food, and the environment. This paper describes this global process and the various analytical tests that must accompany the product during the course of development, throughout its market life, and beyond.

  11. Production of xylanase and protease by Penicillium janthinellum CRC 87M-115 from different agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana A; Porto, Ana L F; Tambourgi, Elias B

    2006-04-01

    Five agricultural wastes were evaluated in submerged fermentation for xylanolytic enzymes production by Penicillium janthinellum. The wastes were hydrolyzed in acid medium and the liquid fraction was used for cultivation. Corn cob (55.3 U/mL) and oat husk (54.8 U/mL) were the best inducers of xylanase. Sugar cane bagasse (23.0 U/mL) and corn husk (23.8 U/mL) were moderately good, while cassava peel was negligible. Protease production was very low in all agro-industrial residues. The maximum biomass yields were 1.30 and 1.17 g/L for cassava peel and corn husk after 180 h, respectively. Xylanolytic activity showed a cell growth associated profile.

  12. Veterinarians’ and agricultural advisors’ perception of calf health and welfare in organic dairy production in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, C. M.; Hansen, B.

    2012-01-01

    indicated concern for inadequate disease treatment while advisors pointed to poor hygiene. Results from the questionnaire indicated that the participants’ familiarity with organic standards was relatively poor, especially among the less-experienced professionals. In conclusion, the view that veterinarians......Veterinarians, as opposed to other professionals, have been accused of being unduly critical to animal welfare in organic farming. A nationwide questionnaire (QuestBack™) was distributed to 400 Norwegian production animal veterinarians and 400 agricultural dairy advisors to compare attitudes...... are more sceptical towards animal health and welfare in organic production compared with other professionals is not supported. The few differences found between the two groups may reflect different emphases due to their education and focus, e.g. treatment of disease versus advice on feeding, rather than...

  13. Towards a New Generation of Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Design and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Basso, Bruno; Conant, Richard T.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Jones, James W.; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E.; Keating, Brian A.; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ideas for a new generation of agricultural system models that could meet the needs of a growing community of end-users exemplified by a set of Use Cases. We envision new data, models and knowledge products that could accelerate the innovation process that is needed to achieve the goal of achieving sustainable local, regional and global food security. We identify desirable features for models, and describe some of the potential advances that we envisage for model components and their integration. We propose an implementation strategy that would link a "pre-competitive" space for model development to a "competitive space" for knowledge product development and through private-public partnerships for new data infrastructure. Specific model improvements would be based on further testing and evaluation of existing models, the development and testing of modular model components and integration, and linkages of model integration platforms to new data management and visualization tools.

  14. Learning processes and productive modernization of learning in agriculture from northwestern Mexico: Cases of commercial agriculture of the coast of Hermosillo, Sonora and organic agriculture of the southern zone of Baja California Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel O. Villa Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of open markets has created import changes in the Mexican agriculture sector, very much noted in the so called crop pattern, the institutional frame that guides the agro–productive commercial relationships and trade organization. The agriculture in the Northwest region, particularly La Costa de Hermosillo in the State of Sonora and southern Baja in Baja Peninsula, shows a big transformation. This corresponds to Global Production Networks (gpn, a vertical integration with intensive extraterritorial interaction resulting in a process of productive escalation that favors; learning and the creation of new competitive capabilities indispensable to comply with high standards in international markets. These capabilities are reflected in improvements in product quality, productive efficiency and the development of new functions for the players involved in the production and trade of produce. It also reflects the transition to more sophisticated productive units where players are located in other territories. This study focuses on analyzing the roll of gpn in the transformation of the agricultural sector in the northwest region of Mexico, particularly the process that took place in modernizing both places.

  15. Greater carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, J.; Fallon, S.; Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    H.H. Janzen (2006) eloquently argued that from an agricultural perspective there is a tradeoff between storing carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) and the soil nutrient and energy benefit provided during SOM mineralization. Here we report on results from the Permanent Rotation Trial at the Waite Agricultural Institute, South Australia, indicating that shifting to an agricultural management strategy which returns more carbon to the soil, not only leads to greater carbon stocks but also increases the rate of carbon cycling through the soil. The Permanent Rotation Trial was established on a red Chromosol in 1925 with upgrades made to several treatments in 1948. Decadal soil samples were collected starting in 1963 at two depths, 0-10 and 10-22.5 cm, by compositing 20 soil cores taken along the length of each plot. We have chosen to analyze five trials representing a gradient in productivity: permanent pasture (Pa), wheat-pasture rotation (2W4Pa), continuous wheat (WW), wheat-oats-fallow rotation (WOF) and wheat-fallow (WF). For each of the soil samples (40 in total), the radiocarbon activity in the bulk soil as well as size-fractionated samples was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at ANU's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory (Fallon et al. 2010). After nearly 70 years under each rotation, SOC stocks increased linearly with productivity data across the trials from 24 to 58 tC ha-1. Importantly, these differences were due to greater losses over time in the low productivity trials rather than gains in SOC in any of the trials. Uptake of the bomb-spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil was greatest in the trials with the greatest productivity. The coarse size fraction always had greater Δ14C values than the bulk soil samples. Several different multi-pool steady state and non-steady state models were used to interpret the Δ14C data in terms of SOC turnover rates. Regardless of model choice, either the decay rates of all pools needed to increase or the allocation of C to

  16. Integrated Development of China’s Agricultural Labor Market from the Perspective of Convergence of Planting Industry Marginal Labor Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longhua; YUE; Shiyuan; YANG; Rongtai; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Using Compilation of National Cost Benefit Data of Agricultural Products in 1990-2009 and based on the convergence of planting industry marginal labor productivity,this paper studies the integration of agricultural labor market in China. Firstly,it calculates labor output elasticity of each province for wheat,japonica rice and corn. Secondly,it builds indicators reflecting change level of marginal labor productivity. Researches show that in 1990-2000,the difference level of marginal labor productivity expands. From 2000,it starts to fall and becomes more and more stable. However,due to difference of crops and farming custom,the turning point of marginal labor productivity is not consistent with each other. Even so,it is still possible to reach the conclusion that agricultural labor market is gradually integrated from 2000.

  17. Investigation the Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on the Export of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamalipour

    2016-10-01

    coefficients. Results and Discussion: Main results showed that real exchange rate volatility and export value of selected commodities are Co-integrated. The coefficient estimation of FMOLS and DOLS methods are equal and statically significant; so, these methods aren’t statically different and they showed that real exchange rate volatility has a negative impact on exported value for whole panel. However, the specific coefficient for each commodity showed contradictory behavior in short run and long run; for example real exchange rate fluctuation has a negative and significant impact on all the commodities; but, in short run this variable has a positive and significant impact on exported value. Moreover, based on estimated results it seems that fluctuation in exchange market has a greater impact on more valuable commodities like date. Conclusion: Considering the importance of agricultural product trade and in order to overcome mono-product economy, this study investigated long term and short term relation between export of grape, orange, date and exchange rate volatilities. To this aim, first the index of exchange volatility using generated autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH was calculated. In order to investigate the relation between exchange rate volatilities and export value of agricultural product, unit root test and cointegration test related to panel data were used during years 1971-2013. The results of model estimation showed that exchange rate volatilities in short term and long term have respectively positive and negative effects on the export value of orange, grape and date. In long term, the negative effects of Exchange rate volatilities on high-export-value products are more than its effects on low-export-value products. Based on the estimation results we can conclude that, in short run, exporters are willing to increase their interchange and gain profits of the volatility in exchange market; however, in long run exchange rate fluctuation has

  18. [Brazil: agricultural modernisation and food production restructuring in the international crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, J P

    1985-01-01

    development in the mid-1960s which required insertion into the world economy, notably through a search for new export sectors. The agricultural sector was assigned 3 functions: producing food as cheaply as possible, increasing the proportion of exportable crops, and substituting some of the foods imported. Brazil evolved in 2 decades from a classic agroexporter to a more complex structure reflecting the semiindustrialized state of the economy. The share of processed agricultural goods increased accordingly. The foods produced for the internal market have been changing at the same time that a new hierarchy of exportable products has evolved. Agricultural policy involved recourse to market mechanisms and cheap credit focused on the south and southeastern regions, large and medium sized producers, and a few products including soy, coffee, sugar cane, and cotton. Just 3% of credits went to the traditional foodstuffs beans and manioc. The most serious consequence of the internationalization of the agricultural economy has been a dangerous increase in the vulnerability of low income groups to world food price fluctuations.

  19. Bacterial Cellulose Production by Acetobacter xylinum Strains from Agricultural Waste Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongruang, Sasithorn

    Bacterial cellulose is a biopolysaccharide produced from the bacteria, Acetobacter xylinum. Static batch fermentations for bacterial cellulose production were studied in coconut and pineapple juices under 30 °C in 5-1 fermenters by using three Acetobacter strains: A. xylinum TISTR 998, A. xylinum TISTR 975, and A. xylinum TISTR 893. Experiments were carried out to compare bacterial cellulose yields along with growth kinetic analysis. Results showed that A. xylinum TISTR 998 produced a bacterial cellulose yield of 553.33 g/l, while A. xylinum TISTR 893 produced 453.33 g/l and A. xylinum TISTR 975 produced 243.33 g/l. In pineapple juice, the yields for A. xylinum TISTR 893, 975, and 998 were 576.66, 546.66, and 520 g/l, respectively. The strain TISTR 998 showed the highest productivity when using coconut juice. Morphological properties of cellulose pellicles, in terms of texture and color, were also measured, and the textures were not significantly different among treatments.

  20. Agricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of EthiopiaAgricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yihun, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    Title of the PhD Thesis: ‘Agricultural Water Productivity Optimization for Irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water Scarce Semi-Arid region of Ethiopia’ Yenesew Mengiste Yihun In water stressed regions such as the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, increasing Crop Water Productivity (CWP)

  1. The effect of El-Niño on South Asian Monsoon and agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mukherjee A, Wang S.Y.Abstract:The South Asian Monsoon has a prominent and significant impact on South Asian countries like India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and it is one of the most studied phenomena in the world. The monsoon is historically known to be influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of seasonal precipitation over India strongly depends upon the ENSO phasing. The average southwest monsoon rainfall received during the years with El Niño was found to be less compared to normal years and the average rainfall during the northeast monsoon is higher in coastal Andhra Pradesh. ENSO is anti-correlated with Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The last prominent effect of ENSO on India's monsoon occurred in 2009 with 23% reduction in annual rainfall, reducing summer sown crops such as rice, sugar cane etc. and pushing up food prices. Climatic resources endowment plays a major role in planning agricultural production in tropical and sub-tropical environment especially under rain-fed agriculture, and so contingent crop planning drawn on this relationship would help to mitigate the effects of ENSO episodes in the region. The unexplored area in this domain of research is the changes in the frequency and intensity of ENSO due to global warming and its impact on ENSO prediction and agricultural management practices. We analyze the last 30 years datasets of Pacific SST, and precipitation and air temperature over Southeast Asia to examine the evolution of ENSO teleconnections with ISM, as well as making estimates of drought indices such as Palmer Drought Severity Index. This research can lead toward better crop management strategies in the South Asian monsoon region.

  2. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products in...

  3. Enhancement of methane production from co-digestion of chicken manure with agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kosseva, Maria R; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The potential for methane production from semi-solid chicken manure (CM) and mixture of agricultural wastes (AWS) in a co-digestion process has been experimentally evaluated at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures. To the best of author(')s knowledge, it is the first time that CM is co-digested with mixture of AWS consisting of coconut waste, cassava waste, and coffee grounds. Two types of anaerobic digestion processes (AD process) were used, process 1 (P1) using fresh CM (FCM) and process 2 (P2) using treated CM (TCM), ammonia stripped CM, were conducted. Methane production in P1 was increased by 93% and 50% compared to control (no AWS added) with maximum methane production of 502 and 506 mL g(-1)VS obtained at 55°C and 35°C, respectively. Additionally, 42% increase in methane production was observed with maximum volume of 695 mL g(-1)VS comparing P2 test with P2 control under 55°C. Ammonia accumulation was reduced by 39% and 32% in P1 and P2 tests.

  4. Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes.

  5. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Swiss agriculture is legally committed to fulfill several, partially conflicting goals such as agricultural production on the one hand and the conservation of natural resources on the other hand. In the context of the research project AProWa ("Agricultural Production and Water"), the relationships between the production aspect and the conservation of aquatic ecosystems is analyzed with a holistic approach. Agricultural production and the protection of water resources have high potential for conflicts: Farmers use ground and surface water to irrigate their fields. On the other hand, drainage systems enable the production on otherwise unfavorably wet soils. These in turn often affect ground water recharge and divert precipitation directly into surface waters, which changes their hydrological regime. Typically, drainage systems also elevate the input of nutrients and pesticides into the water bodies. In general, applied fertilizers, plant protection products, veterinary drugs and phytohormones of cultivated plants are introduced into the ground and surface waters through different processes such as drift, leaching, runoff, preferential flow or erosion. They influence the nutrient cycles and ecological health of aquatic systems. The nutrient and pesticide loss processes themselves can be altered by tillage operations and other agricultural practices. Furthermore, the competition for space can lead to additional conflicts between agriculture and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. For example, channelized or otherwise morphologically changed rivers do not have a natural discharge pattern and are often not suitable for the local flora and fauna; but naturally meandering rivers need space that cannot be used for agriculture. In a highly industrialized and densely populated country like Switzerland, all these potential conflicts are of importance. Although it is typically seen as a water-rich country, local and seasonal overexploitation of rivers through water extraction

  6. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Lignite-derived products (LDPs), including humic acids and organo-mineral soil conditioners, are being marketed in many parts of the world. They are promoted as plant growth stimulants, additives that improve plant nutrient uptake as well as providing humic materials to improve soil structure and combat soil degradation. There are mixed views regarding the efficacy of these products and there is a lack of scientific studies that verify the efficacy of these products in the field. Anecdotally, agricultural producers become repeat users of the products when they see economic benefits, such as increases in crop yields, while others abandon repeat use when no benefits were seen. In this paper, we present results from a literature meta-analysis1 and a number of field studies that examine the potential for LDPs to improve soil fertility and plant growth. Our findings suggest that complex interactions between LDPs, soil types, environmental conditions and plant species mean that a 'one-size fits all' product or solution is unlikely; and that changes to soil characteristics brought about by LDPs are more apparent over longer time periods than a single cropping season. Most of these studies have not been undertaken in full field trial conditions, where the crop has been grown to harvest. Limited studies in small plots or glass-house conditions often report early benefits. It is not known if these benefits persist. Moreover, the actual composition of these additives may vary significantly and is rarely specified in full. In a study of our own, a small plot experiment evaluated the effect of a single application of a commercial potassium humate product from Victorian lignite on ryegrass and lucerne grown in a sandy, nutrient deficient, low organic matter soil. Treatment resulted in increased shoot growth (up to 33%) of ryegrass during the pasture establishment phase. Root growth was also improved with a 47% increase at 0-10 cm depth and 122% increase at 10-30 cm depth

  7. 25 Years of Natural Product R&D with New South Wales Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Southwell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Following recent NSW Government restructuring, the Department of Agriculture now exists in a composite form along with Forestry, Fisheries and Minerals in the new NSW Department of Primary Industries. This paper outlines some of the highlights of secondary metabolite R&D accomplished in the 25 years since the essential oil research unit was transferred from the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Sydney to NSW Agriculture’s Wollongbar Agricultural Institute on the NSW north coast. The essential oil survey was continued, typing the Australian flora as a suitable source of isolates such as myrtenal (Astartea, myrtenol (Agonis, methyl chavicol (Ochrosperma, α-phellandren-8-ol (Prostanthera, methyl myrtenate (Darwinia, methyl geranate (Darwinia, kessane (Acacia, cis-dihydroagarofuran (Prosthanthera, protoanemonin (Clematis, isoamyl isovalerate (Micromyrtus, methyl cinnamate (Eucalyptus and bornyl acetate (Boronia. Many of these components are used, or have potential use in the fragrance, flavour, medicinal plant or insect attraction fields. Two weeds toxic to livestock in the Central West of the State are also harvested commercially as medicinal plants. Measurement of hypericin concentrations in the various plant parts of St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum over two seasons has shown that the weed can be effectively managed by grazing sheep during the winter months when toxin levels are low. Syntheses of β-carbolines tribulusterine and perlolyrine have shown that the former alkaloid was misidentified in the literature and hence not the toxic principle responsible for Tribulus staggers in sheep. Poor quality (high 1,8-cineole – low terpinen-4-ol oil bearing tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia plantations have been established to the detriment of many a tea tree farmer. Analytical methods developed to check leaf quality at an early age indicated precursor sabinene constituents that convert to the

  8. Labour productivity of agricultural business companies and cooperatives in the Czech Republic: A micro-regional level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ženka Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on empirical evidence from the Czech Republic, differences in agricultural labour productivity at the micro-regional level are examined. The role of geographical factors: natural conditions, landscape fragmentation, localisation and urbanization economies, are discussed. In addition, we also test the effects of farm size structure to capture the results of internal scale economies. The key importance of natural conditions is confirmed: they were significantly more important than farm characteristics such as size structure, ownership status and mode of production. Regional agricultural labour productivity was positively influenced by the nominal price of agricultural land and population density. Surprisingly, micro-regions dominated by large farms performed at lower productivity levels than micro-regions with fragmented farm size structure in the Czech Republic.

  9. Agricultural production and stability of settlement systems in Upper Mesopotamia during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Tuna

    This study investigates the relationship between rainfall variation and rain-fed agricultural production in Upper Mesopotamia with a specific focus on Early Bronze Age urban settlements. In return, the variation in production is used to explore stability of urban settlement systems. The organization of the flow of agricultural goods is the key to sustaining the total settlement system. The vulnerability of a settlement system increases due to the increased demand for more output from agricultural lands. This demand is the key for the success of urbanization project. However, without estimating how many foodstuffs were available at the end of a production cycle, further discussions on the forces that shaped and sustained urban settlement systems will be lacking. While large scale fluctuations in the flow of agricultural products between settlements are not the only determinants of hierarchical structures, the total available agricultural yield for each urban settlement in a hierarchy must have influenced settlement relations. As for the methodology, first, Early Bronze Age precipitation levels are estimated by using modern day associations between the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas and the inner regions of Upper Mesopotamia. Next, these levels are integrated into a remote-sensing based biological growth model. Also, a CORONA satellite imagery based archaeological survey is conducted in order to map the Early Bronze Age settlement system in its entirety as well as the ancient markers of agricultural intensification. Finally, ancient agricultural production landscapes are modeled in a GIS. The study takes a critical position towards the traditionally held assumption that large urban settlements (cities) in Upper Mesopotamia were in a state of constant demand for food. The results from this study also suggest that when variations in ancient precipitation levels are translated into the variations in production levels, the impact of climatic aridification on ancient

  10. Use of composts to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Zombré, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and

  11. SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS OF FLOW DIAGRAMS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a software complex which allows carrying out computer experiments in the study of economic efficiency of integrated production structures in agriculture and their stream of interaction. The article provides software used in complex mathematical ratios and their machine algorithms implementation. The authors have given a detailed description of the user interface with graphic examples. The application is written in programming language C#. This language was chosen for several reasons. The first reason is of course that C# is cross-platform that gives you the opportunity to use this app on any platform, and plays an important role in research activities. The final decision was influenced by the fact that in C# is implemented for working with charts, using standard library chart that provides a significant advantage compared to other programming languages during the development of the software complex

  12. Biomass pyrolysis: use of some agricultural wastes for alternative fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Lygia Maestri; Santos, Larissa Cardoso; Vieira, Paula Fraga; Parreira, Priciane Martins; Henrique, Humberto Molinar, E-mail: lygiamk@gmail.com, E-mail: larinha_cardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: paulavieira88@gmail.com, E-mail: priciane.mp@bol.com.br, E-mail: humberto@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The use of biomass for energy generation has aroused great attention and interest because of the global climate changes, environmental pollution and reduction of availability of fossil energy. This study deals with pyrolysis of four agricultural wastes (sawdust, sugarcane straw, chicken litter and cashew nut shell) in a fixed bed pyrolytic reactor. The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 deg C and the temperature and pressure effects were investigated. Pyrolytic liquids produced were separated into aqueous and oil phases. XRF spectroscopy was used for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the liquids and solids produced at whole temperature range. Calorific value analysis of liquids and solids were also performed for energy content evaluation. Experimental results showed sawdust, sugarcane straw and cashew nut waste have very good potential for using in pyrolysis process for alternative fuel production. (author)

  13. Voluntary Certification of Agricultural Products in Competitive Markets: The Consideration of Boundedly Rational Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujin Pu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market competition creates strategic incentives for firms to communicate private information about their own product quality through certification. Although voluntary certification has recently gained importance in the agricultural industry, information asymmetry is not always completely addressed. This study analyzes how the relative proportion of boundedly rational consumers in the market influences the effectiveness of voluntary certification mechanisms by using a duopoly game model of high- and low-quality firms. The presented results show that a change in the proportion of boundedly rational consumers leads to different certification behaviors and a different market equilibrium. We also find that the existence of boundedly rational consumers is an important factor in the failure of voluntary certification. Indeed, when the relative proportion of such consumers is very high, voluntary certification is ineffective at improving market efficiency.

  14. [Possibilities for improved production of meat and milk in state agricultural plants in Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    One of the possible ways of overcoming the deficit of animal protein in human nutrition is that of increasing the livestock and increasing the performance of the animals. Egypt wants to follow this way, especially utilizing the possibilities offered by the newly reclaimed land. For this purpose efficient herds must be developed in the newly reclaimed areas in large-scale production units and under optimum farming conditions. This includes above all a continuous supply of feedstuff by means of intensive field forage cultivation. Starting in August 1973, the test station for agricultural machinery of the GDR VVB Land-und Nahrungsgütertechnik at El Ghasair has investigated the problems connected with a continuous daily supply of fresh feed-stuff to large livestock (cattle) and with preservation methods suited to this aim. First results are reported of applying an advanced technology - and partly GDR farm machinery - in cultivating and harvesting green fodder and hay, using Alexandrian clover and lucern.

  15. Properties of gamma and ultraviolet sterilization in fungi, Aspergillus and Penicillium, infecting agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Etsuji; Miyazato, Mitsuru (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture); Murata, Satoshi

    1993-01-01

    It is expected that gamma and ultraviolet rays are applicable to sterilize agricultural products for reducing storage losses. Although many investigations have been reported, these sterilized indices were represented by D[sub 10]-value and D[sub 99.9]-value in [gamma] and UV irradiations. However, our preliminary results have indicated that these survival curves had a shoulder at a beginning. Moreover, UV-survival curves are shown with a tail which occurred at lower survival levels, too. This study was conducted to investigate the reasons why the shoulder occurred in gamma and UV survival curves and why tails occurred in UV survival curves. Aspergillus and Penicillium which are infecting agricultural products were irradiated with [gamma]-rays and UV-rays. Simulated survival curves based on the hit theory in molecular radiation biology were fitted to the [gamma]-irradiated data. On the other hand, such simulated curves were only fitted to lower sterilized levels in the UV-irradiated curves, and were not fitted to tails. Then, it was shown that these survival curves irradiated with both rays should be drawn with an exponential curve having a shoulder. From these results, it is concluded that if D[sub 10]-value and L-value, which is a quasithreshold dose obtained from a part of shoulder, are used together for a practical sterilization, an estimated sterilization level will become more accurate than that determined conventionally. This effectiveness was confirmed with the result of [gamma]-irradiated rice cakes which were spread with Penicillium expansum. (author).

  16. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread

  17. Responsiveness of Food Security Reporting to Environmental Variability and Agricultural Production Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickley, E. B.; Brown, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    This paper uses 1342 food security update reports from the US Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) in an analysis that focuses on the environmental, market, and livelihood influences on the food security in 17 countries in Africa from 2000-2009. A textual analysis was conducted using the reports as a primary data source to evaluate the responsiveness of food security analysis to environmental variability and food production deficits. The research shows that FEWS NET analysts demonstrate a consistent approach across all 17 countries as to the discussion and use of rainfall information, agricultural production, food prices and food access parameters. There are significant differences in the use of remote sensing and other technical information between East, West and Southern African country analysts, with satellite remote sensing of vegetation being used 28% of the time, rainfall imagery 84% and gridded crop models only 10% of the time. Significantly more discussion of biophysical information was seen during the rainy season than during the dry season, and different satellite products were used during periods of drought than periods of adequate moisture. As the demand for early warning information grows to more countries in different ecosystems, there is likely to be an increased need for the effective utilization of remote sensing, market, and livelihood data, and it is also probable that this information will be critical for improved policy-making regarding climate extremes in the future.

  18. Microbiological features and bioactivity of a fermented manure product (preparation 500) used in biodynamic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannattasio, Matteo; Vendramin, Elena; Fornasier, Flavio; Alberghini, Sara; Zanardo, Marina; Stellin, Fabio; Concheri, Giuseppe; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Ertani, Andrea; Nardi, Serenella; Rizzi, Valeria; Piffanelli, Pietro; Spaccini, Riccardo; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Squartini, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    The fermented manure derivative known as Preparation 500 is traditionally used as a field spray in biodynamic agriculture for maintaining and increasing soil fertility. This work aimed at characterizing the product from a microbiological standpoint and at assaying its bioactive properties. The approach involved molecular taxonomical characterization of the culturable microbial community; ARISA fingerprints of the total bacteria and fungal communities; chemical elemental macronutrient analysis via a combustion analyzer; activity assays for six key enzymes; bioassays for bacterial quorum sensing and chitolipooligosaccharide production; and plant hormonelike activity. The material was found to harbor a bacterial community of 2.38 × 10(8) CFU/g dw dominated by Grampositives with minor instances of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. ARISA showed a coherence of bacterial assemblages in different preparation lots of the same year in spite of geographic origin. Enzymatic activities showed elevated values of beta-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, chitinase, and esterase. The preparation had no quorum sensing-detectable signal, and no rhizobial nod gene-inducing properties, but displayed a strong auxin-like effect on plants. Enzymatic analyses indicated a bioactive potential in the fertility and nutrient cycling contexts. The IAA activity and microbial degradation products qualify for a possible activity as soil biostimulants. Quantitative details and possible modes of action are discussed.

  19. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  20. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holvoet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7% versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%. The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  1. Status and Countermeasures for the Green Marketing of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises in Yinchuan City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview and characteristics of agricultural products processing enterprise in Yinchuan City,green marketing status of agricultural products processing enterprise in Yinchuan City is introduced from the aspects of product strategy,pricing strategy,distribution strategy and promotion strategy.Problems in the green marketing of agricultural products processing enterprise are analyzed,such as the obvious contradiction between the processing demand and the raw materials,low level of comprehensive utilization of resources,no common demand for green consumption in Yinchuan City,weak strength of enterprise and no concept of green marketing,poor macro-control and insufficient input,neglecting the environmental production of materials during marketing,and insufficient input of enterprises in professional marketing personnel.In order to improve the green marketing ability of enterprises and the development of agricultural products processing enterprise in Yinchuan City,the following countermeasures are put forward:green marketing strategy(mainly including cultivating the green marketing strategy for enterprises,gathering of green information,and strengthening the marketing strategy of target market)and green marketing policy(mainly including green products policy,green price policy,green channel policy and green promotion policy).

  2. Hot Spots and Hot Moments of Methylmercury Production Associated With Agricultural and Non-agricultural Wetlands of the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin-Dipasquale, M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Agee, J. L.; Kakouros, E.; Cox, M. H.; Fleck, J.; Alpers, C. N.; Stephenson, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) is part of the larger Yolo Bypass floodwater protection zone associated with the Sacramento River and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, in California. While mercury contamination is widespread throughout the region due to historic mining practices, the Yolo Bypass is responsible for a high proportion of the aqueous methylmercury (MeHg) entering the Delta, and biota from the Yolo Bypass are particularly elevated in toxic MeHg. Land use in the YBWA includes seasonally flooded agricultural fields (white rice, wild rice, fallow fields), and permanently and seasonally flooded non-agricultural wetlands used for resident and migratory waterfowl. Mercury biogeochemistry was examined in 0-2 cm surface sediment, as a function of habitat type, wetland management, and agricultural practices during the 2007-08 crop year. In permanently flooded wetlands, MeHg concentrations varied within a narrow range (ca. 0.5-1.5 ng/g dry wt) throughout the study period. In contrast, the three types of agricultural fields had higher MeHg concentrations throughout the rice-growing season (June-Sept; ca. 1.5-3.5 ng/g), and exhibited the highest levels (ca. 3.3-6.3 ng/g) in the post-harvest winter period (Dec-Feb). Further, naturally dried sediment, sampled during July '08 from post-harvest drained fallow agricultural fields (prior to reflooding) had MeHg concentrations that were also quite elevated (3.1 +/- 1.5 ng/g). This suggests that the initial elevated concentrations of overlying water MeHg, sometimes measured soon after flooding previously dried fields, may be related to the release of MeHg formed during the previous wet season and trapped in dried sediment, as opposed to being MeHg newly produced by bacteria upon soil rewetting. These results indicate that the 'hot spots and hot moments' associated with MeHg production in this system are linked to hydrologic manipulations (wetting and drying) in the agricultural fields, and that the practice of post

  3. Optimization of low-cost biosurfactant production from agricultural residues through response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadipour, N; Lotfabad, T Bagheri; Yaghmaei, S; RoostaAzad, R

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface tension and interfacial tension. Biosurfactants are produced by various microorganisms. They are promising replacements for chemical surfactants because of biodegradability, nontoxicity, and their ability to be produced from renewable sources. However, a major obstacle in producing biosurfactants at the industrial level is the lack of cost-effectiveness. In the present study, by using corn steep liquor (CSL) as a low-cost agricultural waste, not only is the production cost reduced but a higher production yield is also achieved. Moreover, a response surface methodology (RSM) approach through the Box-Behnken method was applied to optimize the biosurfactant production level. The results found that biosurfactant production was improved around 2.3 times at optimum condition when the CSL was at a concentration of 1.88 mL/L and yeast extract was reduced to 25 times less than what was used in a basic soybean oil medium (SOM). The predicted and experimental values of responses were in reasonable agreement with each other (Pred-R(2) = 0.86 and adj-R(2) = 0.94). Optimization led to a drop in raw material price per unit of biosurfactant from $47 to $12/kg. Moreover, the biosurfactant product at a concentration of 84 mg/L could lower the surface tension of twice-distilled water from 72 mN/m to less than 28 mN/m and emulsify an equal volume of kerosene by an emulsification index of (E24) 68% in a two-phase mixture. These capabilities made these biosurfactants applicable in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), hydrocarbon remediation, and all other petroleum industry surfactant applications.

  4. Use of clean coal technology by-products as agricultural liming techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.C.; Sutton, P.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1995-03-01

    Dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are mixtures of coal fly-ash, anhydrite (CaCO{sub 4}), and unspent lime- or limestone-based sorbent. Dry FGD by-products frequently have neutralizing values greater than 50% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency and thus have potential for neutralizing acidic soils. Owing to the presence of soluble salts and various trace elements, however, soil application of dry FGD by-products may have adverse effects on plant growth and soil quality. The use of a dry FGD by-product as a limestone substitute was investigated in a field study on three acidic agricultural soils (pH 4.6, 4.8, and 5.8) in eastern Ohio. The by-product (60% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency) was applied in September, 1992, at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soils, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were planted. Soils were sampled immediately after FGD application and three more times every six months thereafter. Samples were analyzed for pH and water soluble concentrations of 28 elements. Soil pH was increased by all FGD rates in the zone of incorporation (0--10 cm), with the highest rates giving a pH slightly above 7. Within one year pH increases could be detected at depths up to 30 cm. Calcium, Mg, and S increased, and Al, Mn, and Fe decreased with increasing dry FGD application rates. No trace element concentrations were changed by dry FGD application except B which was increased in the zone of incorporation. Dry FGD increased alfalfa yield on all three soils, and had no effect on corn yield. No detrimental effects on soil quality were observed.

  5. NON-GRAIN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION OF STAVROPOL PROVINCE IN THE PERIOD OF RUSSIAN CAPITALISTIC MODERNIZATION (1861‒1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. SINCHINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this article due to the importance of studying the history of the agrarian sector of Russia's regions, which today plays a significant role in the economy. Before the revolution the Russian empire was an agrarian-industrial state, a huge part of the population was engaged in agriculture, and the leading role in the trade, both domestic and international, took the grain. However, it began to gain momentum in the market and agricultural crops, nongrain. The presented article is devoted to the production of non-grain agricultural Stavropol, which has increased significantly in the post-reform period (1861‒1917. The author considers the main nongrain production industry Stavropol province, characterized by varying degrees of marketability, but showing the strengthening of agricultural specialization, which in this period was typical for many regions of the Russian Empire. Information on the development of tobacco, wine, flax growing, horticulture, and gardening illustrate the increase in specialization of agriculture Stavropol province. Presents statistical data, many of which are based on previously attracted by archival documents that characterize degree of development of non-grain agricultural production of this region. The importance of non-grain specialization for agricultural technology, but it is as certain cultures impacted the crop rotation, which in the period of study required innovations in the power of soil depletion due to neglect them human. The author also touched upon aspect of the formation of a local processing industry (for example, wine, distilling, vegetable oil, etc.. In addition, for the Stavropol region was characterized by a special agricultural and fishery ‒ sericulture, are profitable and promising business.

  6. Modification of the potential production capabilities of agricultural terrace soils due to historical cultivation in the Budina cadastral area, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slámová Martina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil production attributes of historical agrarian terraced fields were examined in the Budina cadastral area of the Ostrozky Mountains. This landscape represents a unique sub-mountainous Carpathian landscape with farms that use a historically preserved triple-field agricultural system. We determined the geo-spatial parameters of different types of land cover and terraces using geographic information systems. The soil depth was measured in the field, and the skeleton content was determined in the laboratory. We compared data regarding the potential production capabilities of the soil with data from the national classification of agricultural soils. Our results indicated that the soil productivity attributes improved because the naturally less fertile cambisols were positively affected by terracing and long-term cultivation. We recommend the preservation of traditional agricultural activities in historical terraced fields because these terraces represent valuable features that improve the quality of the landscape.

  7. Organic Agriculture in Development - The need for integrated production for food security. Proceedings and report of international workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2007-01-01

    . There is increasing evidence that yield similar to that of conventional agriculture is possible by using biological approaches of crop production that will not need expensive inputs, and may be more sustainable in development aid strategies Experience from research and development programmes in organic....../integrated crop production will be the focus of the workshop, leading to discussion on future strategies. Among them the perspective for organic agriculture as a rural development strategy or pathway for smallholders in developing countries would appear to be a valid starting point for subsequent discussion....

  8. Organic Agriculture in Development - The need for integrated production for food security. Proceedings and report of international workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2007-01-01

    /integrated crop production will be the focus of the workshop, leading to discussion on future strategies. Among them the perspective for organic agriculture as a rural development strategy or pathway for smallholders in developing countries would appear to be a valid starting point for subsequent discussion........ There is increasing evidence that yield similar to that of conventional agriculture is possible by using biological approaches of crop production that will not need expensive inputs, and may be more sustainable in development aid strategies Experience from research and development programmes in organic...

  9. Productivity Growth in China’s Agriculture During 1985-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhou; ZHANG Hai-peng

    2013-01-01

    This paper made an empirical analysis of China’s agricultural growth path and inlfuential factors using the province-level panel data of agricultural inputs and outputs during 1985-2010. The ifndings indicate that the increase in agricultural inputs and TFP contributed 40.6 and 55.2% to the agricultural output growth, respectively; China’s agriculture had jumped out of the pattern which output growth was mainly driven by increasing input. Of the total inputs, chemical fertilizer had the most important contribution to the output growth, followed by mechanical inputs. The contribution of land and labor was negative. China’s agricultural output growth belonged to the type of induced technology innovation. China’s agricultural TFP growth had characteristics of lfuctuations over time and unbalanced between regions, but the gap between the eastern, the middle, and the western regions has been narrowed.

  10. 农产品电子商务系统%Agricultural Products E-commerce System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜治广

    2015-01-01

    随着Internet的迅速崛起,互联网已日益成为收集提供信息的最佳最快渠道,并快速进入传统的流通领域.互联网具有跨地域、可交互、全天候性,在与传统媒体行业和传统贸易行业的竞争中具备不可抗拒的优势.随着网上购物这种形式被越来越多的人们选择,电子商务运营模式发展的十分迅速,但在农产品领域还没有被广泛应用.做好农产品电子商务体系,一方面客户可以实时监控农产品的质量安全,同时购买的价格又比商店里低;另一方面农户将商品直接销售给客户,能实现利益最大化.本系统基于.Net平台下CSS、FLASH、SQL Server等技术来实现.系统的开发分为视图界面的开发和后台数据库的设计和维护,并把系统划分成两个部分:前台用户和后台管理中心.系统实现了用户注册、登录及管理、顾客购物车管理、顾客定单管理、电脑的浏览和查找等功能.%In recent years, the rapid rise of Internet has made it become the best and fastest channel to collect information and expand into the traditional circulation field quickly. The Internet is cross regional, interactive and all-weather, and has advantages when facing the competition of traditional media and trade industry. As online shopping has become more and more people's choice, the development of E-commerce is very rapid, but still weak in the field of agricultural products. Agricultural product E-commerce system can realize the real-time monitoring of agricultural products'quality safety and give customers lower price, at the same time, farmers can achieve maximum benefits by selling the products directly to customers. This system was realized by using CSS、FLASH、Javascript technology and SQL Server database technology based on the .Net platform. The development of this system was divided into view interface development and backend database design and maintenance. The whole system consisted of two basic

  11. Radiation method for hygienization food and agriculture products; Radiacyjna metoda higienizacji artykulow rolno-spozywczych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The irradiation of food and agriculture products have been used for several goals. That are: disinsectization, disinfection, sprout inhibition and retardation of mattering. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology). The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and and industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author).

  12. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of bacteria ranged from 3.0 × 105 to 5.0 × 105 cfu/g in uncontaminated soils and 1.0 × 105 to 3.0 × 105 cfu/g in contaminated soils. The isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium variabilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. The contamination had no significant effect on pH, potassium, sodium, organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soils, while the moisture, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the contaminated soils were significantly different (P < 0.05 compared with the uncontaminated soils. The ability of Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to utilize the refined petroleum products suggest that these bacteria had potential to bioremediate petroleum contaminated soils.

  13. Risk assessment of consuming agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater: An exposure model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Meike; Oron, Gideon

    2000-09-01

    This study assesses health risks to consumers due to the use of agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater. The analysis is based on a definition of an exposure model which takes into account several parameters: (1) the quality of the applied wastewater, (2) the irrigation method, (3) the elapsed times between irrigation, harvest, and product consumption, and (4) the consumers' habits. The exposure model is used for numerical simulation of human consumers' risks using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The results of the numerical simulation show large deviations, probably caused by uncertainty (impreciseness in quality of input data) and variability due to diversity among populations. There is a 10-orders of magnitude difference in the risk of infection between the different exposure scenarios with the same water quality. This variation indicates the need for setting risk-based criteria for wastewater reclamation rather than single water quality guidelines. Extra data are required to decrease uncertainty in the risk assessment. Future research needs to include definition of acceptable risk criteria, more accurate dose-response modeling, information regarding pathogen survival in treated wastewater, additional data related to the passage of pathogens into and in the plants during irrigation, and information regarding the behavior patterns of the community of human consumers.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and its association with tolerance to heavy metals in agriculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongyi; Gunn, Lynda; Wall, Patrick; Fanning, Séamus

    2017-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a recognized public health challenge that since its emergence limits the therapeutic options available to veterinarians and clinicians alike, when treatment is warranted. This development is further compounded by the paucity of new antibiotics. The agri-food industry benefits from the availability of antimicrobial compounds for food-animal production and crop protection. Nonetheless, their improper use can result in the selection for bacteria that are phenotypically resistant to these compounds. Another class of agents used in agriculture includes various cationic metals that can be included in animal diets as nutritional supplements or spread on pastures to support crop growth and protection. Heavy metals, in particular, are giving rise to concerns among public health professionals, as they can persist in the environment remaining stable for prolonged periods. Moreover, bacteria can also exhibit resistance to these chemical elements and the genes encoding this phenotype can be physically localized to plasmids that may also contain one or more antimicrobial resistance-encoding gene(s). This paper reviews our current understanding of the role that bacteria play in expressing resistance to heavy metals. It will describe how heavy metals are used in agri-food production, and explore evidence available to link resistance to heavy metals and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, possible solutions to reduce the impact of heavy metal resistance are also discussed, including using organic minerals and reducing the level of trace minerals in animal feed rations.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on Water and Agricultural Production in Ten Large River Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin-xia; HUANG Ji-kun; YAN Ting-ting

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of this paper is to examine impacts of climate change on water supply and demand balance and their consequences on agricultural production in ten river basins in China. To realize this goal, China Water Simulation Model (CWSM) is used to analyze three alternative climate scenarios (A1B, A2 and B2). The results show that the impacts of climate change on water supply and demand balance differ largely among alternative scenarios. While significant impacts of climate change on water balance will occur under the A1B scenario, the impacts of climate change under the A2 and B2 scenarios will be marginal. Under the A1B scenario, the water shortage in the river basins located in the northern China will become more serious, particularly in Liaohe and Haihe river basins, but the other river basins in the southern China will improve their water balance situations. Despite larger impacts of climate change on water balance in the northern China, its impacts on total crops’ production will be moderate if farmers would be able to reallocate water among crops and adjust irrigated and rainfed land. The paper concludes with some policy implications.

  16. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND ACCESS TO CREDIT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA: A STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Laha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit significantly influences land leasing decisions, and thus ultimately has a significant implication on ensuring efficiency in agricultural production. This paper attempts to examine the instrumental role of credit in ensuring efficiency in the context of West Bengal agriculture by disaggregating the analysis for two mutually exclusive groups: bank customers and non-bank customers. Empirical analysis based on Stochastic Frontier Analysis confirms that farming households having access to formal credit are, in general, practicing cultivation more efficiently by channelizing credit in the utilization of agricultural inputs. In addition, contractual arrangements and operated farm size are found to be significant determinants of observed variation of technical efficiency estimates in case of bank customers. In the context of higher probability of access to credit in case of fixed rent tenants and large farmers, it can be argued that farmers having access to credit achieved a higher efficiency level by adopting the improved technology in agricultural production. Thus an access to institutional credit would provide an incentive to the farmers to adjust the operational land by the mechanism of tenurial contract so as to bring about efficiency in agricultural production.

  17. Impact of Agricultural Credit on Production of Wheat Crop: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Asghar , Muhammad Waqas Chughtai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Wheat is an important and most cultivated crop because it is an essential ingredient of food commodities. Credit plays a vital role in agricultural farming by indirectly participating in purchasing of agricultural inputs i.e. seed, fertilizer, irrigation, machinery and labor etc. Majority of the farmers are poor and they are not able to fulfill the cash requirement of farming, therefore credit has become their dire need. Due to credit farmers can timely purchase the agricultural inputs which resulting a bumper crop. The objective of this study is to depict the impact of credit on the production of wheat crop. Survey was conducted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample borrowers. The collected data was interpreted through “Cobb Douglas Production Function” by using statistical software (SPSS 16.0. The results showed that credit has positive and significant impact on wheat production. The values of R2 and F-statistics are found significant which represented that all selected variables are highly significant. The study not only shares the importance of credit to perform any agriculture activity but also helpful for economists and policy makers for designing agri financing policies.

  18. Vulnerabilities to agricultural production shocks: An extreme, plausible scenario for assessment of risk for the insurance sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Lunt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate risks pose a threat to the function of the global food system and therefore also a hazard to the global financial sector, the stability of governments, and the food security and health of the world’s population. This paper presents a method to assess plausible impacts of an agricultural production shock and potential materiality for global insurers. A hypothetical, near-term, plausible, extreme scenario was developed based upon modules of historical agricultural production shocks, linked under a warm phase El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO meteorological framework. The scenario included teleconnected floods and droughts in disparate agricultural production regions around the world, as well as plausible, extreme biotic shocks. In this scenario, global crop yield declines of 10% for maize, 11% for soy, 7% for wheat and 7% for rice result in quadrupled commodity prices and commodity stock fluctuations, civil unrest, significant negative humanitarian consequences and major financial losses worldwide. This work illustrates a need for the scientific community to partner across sectors and industries towards better-integrated global data, modeling and analytical capacities, to better respond to and prepare for concurrent agricultural failure. Governments, humanitarian organizations and the private sector collectively may recognize significant benefits from more systematic assessment of exposure to agricultural climate risk.

  19. An Analysis of Trade Structure,Comparative Advantage and Complementarity of Agricultural Products between China and the Main East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling; WANG

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of describing trade value and trade structure of agricultural products between China and main countries in East Asia,this paper uses revealed comparative advantage index and trade complementarity index to calculate the comparative advantage and complementarity between China and Japan,Korea and ASEAN countries. The research shows that the trade complementarity of agricultural products between China and Japan & Korea is weak,but the complementarity of some agricultural products between China and Japan is very strong. The trade competitiveness and complementarity of agricultural products between China and ASEAN coexist,and there is strong cooperative potential between China and ASEAN.

  20. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…